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Sample records for environments consolidated fuel

  1. Fuel consolidation and compaction and storage of NFBC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuierer, T.

    1992-01-01

    Rochester Gas and Electric Corporation (RG ampersand E) has been involved in two separate fuel consolidation demonstration programs. One of those programs resulted in identifying some problems that may be resolved in consolidation hardware compaction and storage in order for consolidation to be attractive. In conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), a study was recently performed on hardware compaction and storage. Consolidation is probably not a commercial alternative at this point in time because there are still several problems that must be resolved. There are some potential advantages of fuel consolidation. Consolidation has attractive economics and can minimize the institutional impacts of expanding spent fuel storage by internalizing spent fuel storage operations. The licensing effort is fairly simple. Consolidation may be less likely to have public intervention since the storage expansion will occur inside the plant. Consolidation can be subcontracted and the equipment is temporary. It can be used in conjunction with other storage expansion technologies such as dry storage. Fewer dry storage casks would be needed to store consolidated fuel than would be necessary for intact spent fuel

  2. A cold demonstration of fuel consolidation. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheson, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Spent fuel consolidation is an option for increasing spent fuel storage capacities being considered by many utilities. The process of consolidating fuel involves separating the fuel rods from the structural frame which holds them in a square array. The rods are then repackaged into a tightly packed bundle which occupies about half the cross-sectional area of fuel assembly. Thus approximately twice as much fuel can be stored in the underwater racks at a spent fuel storage pool. There have been several demonstrations of fuel consolidation to date. The focus of this paper is the development and subsequent demonstration program of a shear/compactor

  3. Consolidation equipment for irradiated nuclear fuel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Ose, T.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have developed and put into use a new type of mechanical consolidation equipment for irradiated nuclear fuel channels. This includes round-slice cutting of the top 100mm of the fuel channel with a guillotine cutter, and press cutting of the two corners of the remaining length of the fuel channel. Four guillotine blades work in combination with receiving blades arranged inside the fuel channel to cut the top 100mm, including the clips and spacers, of the fuel channel into a round slice. A press assembled in the consolidation equipment then presses the slice to achieve volume reduction. The press cutting operation uses two press cutting blades arranged inside the fuel channel and the receiving blades outside the fuel channel. The remaining length of fuel channel is cut off into L-shaped pieces by press cutting. This consolidation equipment is highly efficient because the round-slice cutting, pressing, and press cutting are all achieved by one unit

  4. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    A survey of electrochemical methods applications in fuel reprocessing was completed. A dummy fuel assembly shroud was cut using the remotely operated laser disassembly equipment. Operations and engineering efforts have continued to correct equipment operating, software, and procedural problems experienced during the previous uranium compaigns. Fuel cycle options were examined for the liquid metal reactor fuel cycle. In high temperature gas cooled reactor spent fuel studies, preconceptual designs were completed for the concrete storage cask and open field drywell storage concept. These and other tasks operating under the consolidated fuel reprocessing program are examined.

  5. Cost targets for at-reactor spent fuel rod consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macnabb, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    The high-level nuclear waste management system in the US currently envisions the disposal of spent fuel rods that have been removed from their assemblies and reconfigured into closely packed arrays. The process of fuel rod removal and packaging, referred to as rod consolidation, can occur either at reactors or at an integrated packaging facility, monitored retrievable storage (MRS). Rod consolidation at reactors results in cost savings down stream of reactors by reducing needs for additional storage, reducing the number of shipments, and reducing (eliminating, in the extreme) the amount of fuel handling and consolidation at the MRS. These savings accrue to the nuclear waste fund. Although private industry is expected to pay for at-reactor activities, including rod consolidation, it is of interest to estimate cost savings to the waste system if all fuel were consolidated at reactors. If there are savings, the US Department of Energy (DOE) may find it advantageous to pay for at-reactor rod consolidation from the nuclear waste fund. This paper assesses and compares the costs of rod consolidation at reactors and at the MRS in order to determine at what levels the former could be cost competitive with the latter

  6. Prototypical consolidation demonstration project - Final fuel recommendation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piscitella, R.R.; Paskey, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration (PCD) Project will, in its final phase, conduct a demonstration of the equipment's ability to consolidate actual spent commercial fuel. Since budget and schedule limitations do not allow this demonstration to include all types of fuel assemblies, a selection process was utilized to identify the fuel types that would represent predominate fuel inventories and that would demonstrate the equipment's abilities. The Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies that were suggested for use in the PCD Project Hot Demonstration were Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) 15 x 15's, and Westinghouse (WE) 15 x 15's. The Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel suggested was the General Electric (GE) 8 x 8

  7. Preliminary design report: Prototypical Spent Fuel Consolidation Equipment Demonstration Project: Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blissell, W.H.; Ciez, A.P.; Mitchell, J.L.; Winkler, C.J.

    1986-12-01

    This document describes the Westinghouse Preliminary Design for the Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Project per Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC07-86ID12649 and under direction of the DOE Idaho Operations Office. The preliminary design is the first step to providing the Department of Energy with a fully qualified, licensable, cost-effective spent fuel rod consolidation system. The design was developed using proven technologies and equipment to create an innovative approach to previous rod consolidation concepts. These innovations will better enable the Westinghouse system to: consolidate fuel rods in a precise, fully-controlled, accountable manner; package all rods from two PWR fuel assemblies or from four BWR fuel assemblies in one 8.5 inch square consolidated rods canister; meet all functional requirements; operate with all fuel types common to the US commercial nuclear industry with minimal tooling changeouts; and meet consolidation production process rates, while maintaining operator and public health and safety. This Preliminary Design Report provides both detailed descriptions of the equipment required to perform the rod consolidation process and the supporting analyses to validate the design

  8. System and method for consolidating spent fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudro, T.O.

    1987-01-01

    A system is described for consolidating spent fuel rods from spent fuel assemblies, comprising: a consolidation container in which the fuel rods may be packed; a frame capable of holding a fuel assembly and the container during consolidation, the frame permitting each of the fuel assembly and the container to be removed; tool means with gripper means for gripping and releasing a rod, the tool means including means for moving the gripper means upwardly and downwardly; a first indexing head having first guide means for guiding the gripper means while the gripper means moves downwardly; a first rail, the first indexing head being slidably mounted on the first rail; a second indexing head having second guide means for guiding the gripper means while the gripper means moves downwardly; a second rail, the second indexing head being slidably mounted on the second rail; and a third rail, the first rail and the second rail being slidably mounted on the third rail; wherein the first indexing head is slidable on the first and third rails to a first position that is above a preselected rod in the fuel assembly; and wherein the second indexing head is slidable on the second and third rails to a second position that is above a preselected location in the container

  9. Fuel Rod Consolidation Project: Phase 2, Final report: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This design report describes the NUS final design of the Prototype Spent Nuclear Fuel Rod Consolidation System. This summary presents the approach and the subsequent sections describe, in detail, the final design. Detailed data, drawings, and the design Basis Accident Report are provided in Volumes II thru V. The design as presented, represents one cell of a multicell facility for the dry consolidation of any type of PWR and BWR fuel used in the United States LWR industry that will exceed 1% of the fuel inventory at the year 2000. The system contains the automatically-controlled equipment required to consolidate 750MT (heavy metal)/year, at 75% availability. The equipment is designed as replaceable components using state-of-the-art tchnology. The control system utilizes the most advanced commercially available equipment on the market today. Two state-of-the-art advanced servo manipulators are provided for system maintenance. In general the equipment is designed utilizing fabricated and commercial components. For example, the main drive systems use commercially available roller screws. These rollers screws have 60,000 hours of operation in nuclear power plants and have been used extensively in other applications. The motors selected represent the most advanced designed servo motors on the market today for the precision control of machinery. In areas where precise positioning was not required, less expensive TRW Globe motors were selected. These are small compact motors with a long history of operations in radiation environments. The Robotic Bridge Transporters are modified versions of existing bridge cranes for remote automatic operations. Other equipment such as the welder for fuel canister closure operations is a commercially available product with an operating history applicable to this process. In general, this approach was followed throughout the design of all the equipment and will enable the system to be developed without costly development programs

  10. Spent fuel consolidation in the 105KW Building fuel storage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    This study is one element of a larger engineering study effort by WHC to examine the feasibility of irradiated fuel and sludge consolidation in the KW Basin in response to TPA Milestone (target date) M-34-00-T03. The study concludes that up to 11,500 fuel storage canisters could be accommodated in the KW Basin with modifications. These modifications would include provisions for multi-tiered canister storage involving the fabrication and installation of new storage racks and installation of additional decay heat removal systems for control of basin water temperature. The ability of existing systems to control radionuclide concentrations in the basin water is examined. The study discusses requirements for spent nuclear fuel inventory given the proposed multi-tiered storage arrangement, the impact of the consolidated mass on the KW Basin structure, and criticality issues associated with multi-tiered storage

  11. 105KE and 105KW Basins fuel and sludge consolidation study, summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gant, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    This study is a summary report that examines and evaluates the feasibility of consolidating irradiated fuel and sludge currently in KE Basin with that in the KW Basin. This study was conducted in support of TPA Milestone (target date) M-34-00-T03. The report summarizes three supporting engineering studies involving: (1) spent fuel consolidation into the single basin, (2) transport of the encapsulated fuel between KE and KW Basins, and (3) dispositioning contaminated water remaining in KE Basin. From the three reports, and preferred storage method, transfer method and water disposition method were defined. These consolidation methods were then evaluated against the no action alternative of continued storage using both KE and KW Basins. The report concluded that the fuel and sludge currently stored in KE Basin not be consolidated in the KW Basin, primarily due to increased cost and radiation exposure required to consolidate the fuel and sludge. Consolidation is more attractive for storage periods beyond the year 2002, which is the study period of the report

  12. Nonlinear analyses of spent-fuel racks for consolidated fuel loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, A.F.; Godha, P.C.; Malik, L.E.; Bolourchi, S.

    1987-01-01

    Storage racks for spent-fuel assemblies in nuclear power plants are designed to withstand various combinations of loads generated by gravity, seismic, thermal, and accidental fuel drops. Due to the need for storing increased amounts of spent fuel in the existing fuel pools, many nuclear power utilities are evaluating existing fuel racks to safely carry the additional loads. The current study presents the seismic analyses of existing fuel racks of Northeast Utility Company's Millstone Unit Number 1 (BWR Mark I) nuclear plant to accommodate a 2:1 fuel consolidation. This objective requires rigorous nonlinear analyses to establish the full available capacities of the racks and thereby avoid expensive modifications or minimize any needed upgrades

  13. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Noakes, M.W.; Bradley, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) System consists of three major components: the ASM slave, the dual arm master controller or master, and the control system. The ASM is a remotely maintainable force-reflecting servomanipulator developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program of (CFRP). This new manipulator addresses requirements of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing with emphasis on force reflection, remote maintainability, and reliability. It uses an all-gear force transmission system. The master arms were designed as a kinematic replica of ASM and use cable force transmission. Special digital control algorithms were developed to improve the system performance. The system is presently operational and undergoing evaluation. Preliminary testing has been completed and is reported. The system is now undergoing commercialization by transferring the technology to the private sector

  14. Licensing of spent fuel dry storage and consolidated rod storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-02-01

    The results of this study, performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), respond to the nuclear industry's recommendation that a report be prepared that collects and describes the licensing issues (and their resolutions) that confront a new applicant requesting approval from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for dry storage of spent fuel or for large-scale storage of consolidated spent fuel rods in pools. The issues are identified in comments, questions, and requests from the NRC during its review of applicants' submittals. Included in the report are discussions of (1) the 18 topical reports on cask and module designs for dry storage fuel that have been submitted to the NRC, (2) the three license applications for dry storage of spent fuel at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) that have been submitted to the NRC, and (3) the three applications (one of which was later withdrawn) for large-scale storage of consolidated fuel rods in existing spent fuel storage pools at reactors that were submitted tot he NRC. For each of the applications submitted, examples of some of the issues (and suggestions for their resolutions) are described. The issues and their resolutions are also covered in detail in an example in each of the three subject areas: (1) the application for the CASTOR V/21 dry spent fuel storage cask, (2) the application for the ISFSI for dry storage of spent fuel at Surry, and (3) the application for full-scale wet storage of consolidated spent fuel at Millstone-2. The conclusions in the report include examples of major issues that applicants have encountered. Recommendations for future applicants to follow are listed. 401 refs., 26 tabs

  15. Prototypical spent fuel rod consolidation equipment preliminary design report: Volume 1, Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This design report describes the NUS Preliminary Design of the Prototype Spent Nuclear Fuel Rod Consolidation Equipment for the Department of Energy. The sections of the report elaborate on each facet of the preliminary design. A concept summary is provided to assist the reader in rapidly understanding the complete design. The NUS Prototype Spent Fuel Rod Consolidation System is an automatically controlled system to consolidate a minimum of 750 MT (heavy metal)/year of US commercial nuclear reactor fuel, at 75% availability. The system is designed with replaceable components utilizing the latest state-of-the-art technology. This approach gives the system the flexibility to be developed without costly development programs, yet accept new technology as it evolves over the next ten years. Capability is also provided in the system design to accommodate a wide variety of fuel conditions and to recover from any situation which may arise

  16. Prototypical spent nuclear fuel rod consolidation equipment: Phase 2, Final design report: Volume 4, Appendices: Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciez, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide assembly, installation, operation, maintenance, and off-normal recovery procedures for the Consolidation Equipment. The Consolidation System is a horizontal, dry system capable of processing one Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assembly or one Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel assembly at a time. The system will process all spent PWR and BWR fuels from the commercial US nuclear power reactor industry. Component changeouts for various fuel types have been minimized to reduce costs, required in-cell module storage space, and to increase efficiency by decreasing set-up time between fuel consolidation campaigns. The most important feature of the Westinghouse system is the ability to control the fuel rods at all times during the consolidation process from rod extraction, through canister loading. This features assures that the rods from two PWR fuel assemblies or four BWR fuel assemblies (minimum) can be loaded into one consolidated rods canister

  17. Preliminary design report for the prototypical fuel rod consolidation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    This report documents NUTECH's preliminary design of a dry, spent fuel rod consolidation system. This preliminary design is the result of Phase I of a planned four phase project. The present report on this project provides a considerable amount of detail for a preliminary design effort. The design and all of its details are described in this Preliminary Design Report (PDR). The NUTECH dry rod consolidation system described herein is remotely operated. It provides for automatic operation, but with operator hold points between key steps in the process. The operator has the ability to switch to a manual operation mode at any point in the process. The system is directed by the operator using an executive computer which controls and coordinates the operation of the in-cell equipment. The operator monitors the process using an in-cell closed circuit television (CCTV) system with audio output and equipment status displays on the computer monitor. The in-cell mechanical equipment consists of the following: (1) two overhead cranes with manipulators; (2) a multi-degree of freedom fuel handling table and its clamping equipment; (3) a fuel assembly end fitting removal station and its tools; (4) a consolidator (which pulls rods, assembles the consolidated bundle and loads the canister); (5) a canister end cap welder and weld inspection system; (6) decontamination systems; and (7) the CCTV and microphone systems

  18. Preliminary design report for prototypical spent nuclear fuel rod consolidation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judson, B.F.; Maillet, J.; O'Neill, G.L.; Tsitsichvili, J.; Tucoulat, D.

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of the Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Project (PCDP) is to develop and demonstrate the equipment system that will be used to consolidate the bulk of the spent nuclear fuel generated in the United States prior to its placement in a geological repository. The equipment must thus be capable of operating on a routine production basis over a long period of time with stringent requirements for safety, reliability, productivity and cost-effectiveness. Four phases are planned for the PCDP. Phase 1 is the Preliminary Design of generic consolidation equipment that could be installed at a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility or in the Receiving ampersand Handling Facility at a geologic repository site. Phase 2 will be the Final Design and preparation of procurement packages for the equipment in a configuration capable of being installed and tested in a special enclosure within the TAN Hot Shop at DOE's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In Phase 3 the equipment will be fabricated and then tested with mock fuel elements in a contractor's facility. Finally, in Phase 4 the equipment will be moved to the TAN facility for demonstration operation with irradiated spent fuel elements. 55 figs., 15 tabs

  19. Statement on the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has chosen the following objectives for future reprocessing plant design: reduced radiation exposure to workers; minimal environmental impact; improved plant operation and maintenance; improved accountability; no plutonium diversion; and reduced overall capital and operating cost. These objectives lead to a plant with totally remote operation. The Breeder Reactor Engineering Test (BRET) has been designed to perform a key role in demonstrating advanced reprocessing technology. It has been scheduled to be available to reprocess spent fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility. The principal features of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program and of the BRET facility are appropriate for all reactor types

  20. INEL integrated spent nuclear fuel consolidation task team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.N.; Clark, J.H.; Chipman, N.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes a draft plan and schedule to consolidate spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and special nuclear material (SNW) from aging storage facilities throughout the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in a safe, cost-effective, and expedient manner. A fully integrated and resource-loaded schedule was developed to achieve consolidation as soon as possible. All of the INEL SNF and SNM management task, projects, and related activities from fiscal year 1994 to the end of the consolidation period are logic-tied and integrated with each other. The schedule and plan are presented to initiate discussion of their implementation, which is expected to generate alternate concepts that can be evaluated using the methodology described in this report. Three perturbations to consolidating SNF as soon as possible are also explored. If the schedule is executed as proposed, the new and on-going consolidation activities will require about 6 years to complete and about $25.3M of additional funding. Reduced annual operating costs are expected to recover the additional investment in about 6.4 years. The total consolidation program as proposed will cost about $66.8M and require about 6 years to recover via reduced operating costs from retired SNF/SNM storage facilities. Detailed schedules and cost estimates for the Test Reactor Area Materials Test Reactor canal transfers are included as an example of the level of detail that is typical of the entire schedule (see Appendix D). The remaining work packages for each of the INEL SNF consolidation transfers are summarized in this document. Detailed cost and resource information is available upon request for any of the SNF consolidation transfers

  1. THE FORMATION OF INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND CONSOLIDATION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Popov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Every theory requires an application tool. Land consolidation is the multidisciplinary tool for sustainable rural development with its dynamic structure that gives possibilities getting the best solutions for land management decision. That is why the main purpose of the article is a theoretical study and development of scientific and practical recommendations concerning the formation of institutional environment of agricultural land consolidation in Ukraine. The subject of study is the formation of agricultural land consolidation. Methodology. The study used the following methods: dialectical, logical and abstract, system analysis (theoretical and methodological generalizations, defining the essence of the content of institutional environment of agricultural land consolidation. This paper identifies the role of the institutions in economic development and characterised the regulatory, procedural, distributive, informational, development and accumulation functions of agricultural land consolidation institution. As a novelty items offered and provided the detailed description of the main components of the institutional environment of agricultural land consolidation such as: traditional and mental, legal, causal, organizational and structural, and procedural. The essence of institutions of each of these components and their meaning and relationships are presented. Theoretically investigated that the formation of institutional mechanism of consolidation should be a symbiosis of both traditional and market institutions based on democratic principles under community participation. The article focuses on the feasibility of the formation of mechanism for monitoring the effectiveness of institutions. As the result of the study the author proposed to consider the institutional environment of agricultural land consolidation as a regulatory system harmonizing relations of the agricultural production, social and natural resources, designed to optimize the

  2. PCDP [Prototypical Spent Fuel Consolidation Equipment Demonstration Project] design basis accident report 9315-P-103, Rev. A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has identified a requirement to integrate the spent fuel rod consolidation design activities of each of several proposed geological repository facilities and the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility, and to develop efficient and cost-effective equipment for the consolidation process. The equipment to be developed for the rod consolidation system will be required to operate in a dry environment at rates which can be appropriately scaled to approximate the waste management system acceptance rates, irrespective of repository geologic characteristics or the existence of an MRS facility in the waste management system. The purpose of this report is to identify and analyze the range of facility credible events and accident occurrences (from minor to the design basis accidents) and their causes and consequences. For each situation, the considerations to prevent or mitigate the event or accident is addressed

  3. Fuel Rod Consolidation Project: Phase 2, Final report: Volume 2, Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This document, Volume 2, provides the appendices to Volume 1 of the Fuel Rod Consolidation Project. It provides information on the following: References; Trade-off Studies; Instrument List; RAM Data; Fabrication Specifications; Software Specifications; and Design Requirements

  4. Dry Rod Consolidation Technology Project results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, C.K.; Feldman, E.M; Vinjamuri, K.; Griebenow, B.L.; Lynch, R.J.; Arave, A.E.; Hill, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Dry Rod Consolidation Technology (DRCT) Project conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), in 1987 demonstrated the technical feasibility of a dry horizontal fuel rod consolidation process. Fuel rods from Westinghouse 15 /times/ 15 pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel assemblies were consolidated into canisters to achieve a 2:1 volume reduction ratio. The consolidation equipment was operated at an existing hot cell complex at the INEL. The equipment was specifically designed to interface with the existing facility fuel handling and operational capabilities and was instrumented to provide data collection for process technology research. During the operational phase, data were collected from observation of the consolidation process, fuel assembly handling, and fuel rod behavior and characteristics. Equipment performance was recorded and data measurements were compiled on crud and contamination generated and spread. Fuel assembly skeletons [non-fuel bearing components (NFBC)] were gamma scanned and analyzed for isotopic content and profile. The above data collection was enhanced by extensive photograph and video documentation. The loaded consolidation fuel canisters were utilized for a test of the Transnuclear, Inc. TN-24P dry storage cask with consolidated fuel. The NFBC material was stored for a future volume reduction demonstration project. 14 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Seismic and structural analysis of high density/consolidated spent fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.J.; Biddle, J.R.; Bennett, S.M.; Schechter, C.B.; Harstead, G.A.; Kopecky, B.

    1995-01-01

    In many nuclear power plants, existing storage racks are being replaced with high-density racks to accommodate the increasing inventory of spent fuel. In the hypothetical design considered here, the high-density arrangement of fuel assemblies, or consolidated fuel canisters, is accomplished through the use of borated stainless steel (BSS) plates acting as neutron absorbers. The high-density fuel racks are simply supported by the pool floor with no structural connections to adjacent racks or to the pool walls or floor. Therefore, the racks are free standing and may slide and tip. Several time history, nonlinear, seismic analyses are required to account for variations in the coefficient of friction, rack loading configuration, ad the type of the seismic event. This paper presents several of the mathematical models usually used. The models include features to allow sliding and tipping of the racks and to represent the hydrodynamic coupling which can occur between fuel assemblies and rack cells, between adjacent racks, and between the racks and the reinforced concrete walls. A detailed model representing a single rack is used to evaluate the 3-D loading effects. This model is a controlling case for the stress analysis. A 2-D multi-rack model representing a row of racks between the spent fuel pool walls is used to evaluate the change in gaps between racks. The racks are analyzed for the fuel loading conditions of consolidated, full, empty, and half-loaded with fuel assemblies

  6. Status of rod consolidation, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that the spent fuel storage pools at some domestic light-water reactors will run out of space before 2003, the year that the US Department of Energy currently predicts it will have a repository available. Of the methods being studied to alleviate the problem, rod consolidation is one of the leading candidates for achieving more efficient use of existing space in spent fuel storage pools. Rod consolidation involves mechanically removing all the fuel rods from the fuel assembly hardware (i.e., the structural components) and placing the fuel rods in a close-packed array in a canister without space grids. A typical goal of rod consolidation systems is to insert the fuel rods from two fuel assemblies into a canister that has the same exterior dimensions as one standard fuel assembly (i.e., to achieve a consolidation or compaction ratio of 2:1) and to compact the nonfuel-bearing structural components from those two fuel assemblies by a factor of 10 to 20. This report provides an overview of the current status of rod consolidation in the United States and a small amount of information on related activities in other countries. 85 refs., 36 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Consolidation of cladding hulls from the electrometallurgical treatment of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiser, D.D. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    To consolidate metallic waste that is residual from Argonne National Laboratory's electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel, waste ingots are currently being cast using an induction furnace located in a hot cell. These ingots, which have been developed to serve as final waste forms destined for repository disposal, are stainless steel (SS)-Zr alloys (the Zr is very near 15 wt.%). The charge for the alloys consists of stainless steel cladding hulls, Zr from the fuel being treated, noble metal fission products, and minor amounts of actinides that are present with the cladding hulls. The actual in-dated cladding hulls have been characterized before they were melted into ingots, and the final as-cast ingots have been characterized to determine the degree of consolidation of the charge material. It has been found that ingots can be effectively cast from irradiated cladding hulls residual from the electrometallurgical treatment process by employing an induction furnace located in a hot cell

  8. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program. Operating experience with pulsed-column holdup estimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    Methods for estimating pulsed-column holdup are being investigated as part of the Safeguards Assessment task of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The CFRP was a major sponsor of test runs at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel plant (BNFP) in 1980 and 1981. During these tests, considerable measurement data were collected for pulsed columns in the plutonium purification portion of the plant. These data have been used to evaluate and compare three available methods of holdup estimation

  9. Rod consolidation of RG and E's [Rochester Gas and Electric Corporation] spent PWR [pressurized water reactor] fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1987-05-01

    The rod consolidation demonstration involved pulling the fuel rods from five fuel assemblies from Unit 1 of RG and E's R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant. Slow and careful rod pulling efforts were used for the first and second fuel assemblies. Rod pulling then proceeded smoothly and rapidly after some minor modifications were made to the UST and D consolidation equipment. The compaction ratios attained ranged from 1.85 to 2.00 (rods with collapsed cladding were replaced by dummy rods in one fuel assembly to demonstrate the 2:1 compaction ratio capability). This demonstration involved 895 PWR fuel rods, among which there were some known defective rods (over 50 had collapsed cladding); no rods were broken or dropped during the demonstration. However, one of the rods with collapsed cladding unexplainably broke during handling operations (i.e., reconfiguration in the failed fuel canister), subsequent to the rod consolidation demonstration. The broken rod created no facility problems; the pieces were encapsulated for subsequent storage. Another broken rod was found during postdemonstration cutting operations on the nonfuel-bearing structural components from the five assemblies; evidence indicates it was broken prior to any rod consolidation operations. During the demonstration, burnish-type lines or scratches were visible on the rods that were pulled; however, experience indicates that such lines are generally produced when rods are pulled (or pushed) through the spacer grids. Rods with collapsed cladding would not enter the funnel (the transition device between the fuel assembly and the canister that aids in obtaining high compaction ratios). Reforming of the flattened areas of the cladding on those rods was attempted to make the rod cross sections more nearly circular; some of the reformed rods passed through the funnel and into the canister

  10. Prototypical spent fuel rod consolidation equipment preliminary design report: Volume 2, Drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume consists of 65 E size drawings and 4 sketches of the NUS spent fuel rod consolidation equipment. The drawings have been grouped into categories; a detailed list of the drawings is included. The sketches prepared during the preliminary design process have been included

  11. Prototypical spent nuclear nuclear fuel rod consolidation equipment, Phase 2: Final design report: Volume 2, Appendices: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciez, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this specification is to establish functional and design requirements for the Prototypical Spent Nuclear Fuel Rod Consolidation System. The Department of Energy-Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is responsible for the implementation of the Prototypic Dry Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project. This program is to develop and demonstrate a fully qualified, licensable, cost-effective, dry spent fuel rod consolidation system by July 1989. The work is divided into four phases as follows: Phase I--Preliminary Design, Phase II--Final Design Option, Phase III--Fabrication and System Checkout Option, and Phase IV--Installation and Hot Demonstration Option. This specification is part of the Phase II effort. The objectives of this specification are to provide functional and design requirements for the Prototypical Spent Nuclear Fuel Rod Consolidation equipment; establish specific tool and subsystem requirements such that the integrated and overall system requirements are satisfied; and establish positioning, envelope and size interface control requirements for each tool or subsystem such that the individual components will interface properly with the overall system design

  12. Licensing of spent fuel dry storage and consolidated rod storage: A Review of Issues and Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-02-01

    The results of this study, performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), respond to the nuclear industry's recommendation that a report be prepared that collects and describes the licensing issues (and their resolutions) that confront a new applicant requesting approval from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for dry storage of spent fuel or for large-scale storage of consolidated spent fuel rods in pools. The issues are identified in comments, questions, and requests from the NRC during its review of applicants' submittals. Included in the report are discussions of (1) the 18 topical reports on cask and module designs for dry storage fuel that have been submitted to the NRC, (2) the three license applications for dry storage of spent fuel at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) that have been submitted to the NRC, and (3) the three applications (one of which was later withdrawn) for large-scale storage of consolidated fuel rods in existing spent fuel storage pools at reactors that were submitted tot he NRC. For each of the applications submitted, examples of some of the issues (and suggestions for their resolutions) are described. The issues and their resolutions are also covered in detail in an example in each of the three subject areas: (1) the application for the CASTOR V/21 dry spent fuel storage cask, (2) the application for the ISFSI for dry storage of spent fuel at Surry, and (3) the application for full-scale wet storage of consolidated spent fuel at Millstone-2. The conclusions in the report include examples of major issues that applicants have encountered. Recommendations for future applicants to follow are listed. 401 refs., 26 tabs.

  13. Dry rod consolidation technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.L.; Schoonen, D.H.; Feldman, E.M.; Fisher, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is funding a program to consolidate commercial spent fuel for testing in dry storage casks and to develop technology that will be fed into other OCRWM programs, e.g., Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Program (PCDP). The program is being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by the INEL Operating Contractor EG and G Idaho, Inc. Hardware and software have been designed and fabricated for installation in a hot cell adjacent to the Test Area North (TAN) Hot Shop Facility. This equipment is used to perform dry consolidation of commercial spent fuel from the Virginia Power (VP) Cooperative Agreement Spent Fuel Storage Cask (SFSC) Demonstration Program and assemblies that had previously been stored at the Engine Maintenance and Disassembly (EMAD) facility in Nevada. Consolidation is accomplished by individual, horizontal rod pulling. A computerized semiautomatic control system with operator involvement is utilized to conduct consolidation operations. During consolidation operations, data is taken to characterize this technology. Still photo, video tape, and other documentation will be generated to make developed information available to interested parties. Cold checkout of the hardware and software was completed in September of 1986. Following installation in the hot cell, consolidation operations begins in May 1987. Resulting consolidated fuel will be utilized in the VP Cooperative Agreement SFSC Program

  14. Dry rod consolidation technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.L.; Schoonen, D.H.; Fisher, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is funding a Program to consolidate commercial spent fuel for testing in dry storage casks and to develop technology that will be fed into other OCRWM Programs, e.g., Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Program. The Program is being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by the Operating Contractor, EGandG Idaho, Inc. Hardware and software have been designed and fabricated for installation in a hot cell adjacent to the Test Area North (TAN) Hot Shop Facility. This equipment will be used to perform dry consolidation of commercial spent fuel from the Virginia Power (VP) Cooperative Agreement Spent Fuel Storage Cask (SPSC) Demonstration Program and assemblies that had previously been stored at the Engine Maintenance and Disassembly (EMAD) facility in Nevada. Consolidation will be accomplished by individual, horizontal rod pulling. A computerized semi-automatic control system with operator involvement will be utilized to conduct consolidation operations. Special features have been incorporated in the design to allow crud collection and measurement of rod pulling forces. During consolidation operations, data will be taken to characterize this technology. Still photo, video tape, and other documentation will be generated to make developed information available to interested parties. Cold checkout of the hardware and software will complete in September of 1986. Following installation in the hot cell, consolidation operations will begin in January 1987. Resulting consolidated fuel will be utilized in the VP Cooperative Agreement SFSC Program

  15. Critical experiment needs and plans of the consolidated fuel reprocessing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primm, R.T.

    1984-01-01

    An integral part of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) plan for the development of breeder reactors is the development of the capability for fuel reprocessing. The Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) was established by the DOE to identify and conduct research and development activities in this area. The DOE is currently proposing that a capability to reprocess fast reactor fuel be established in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory. This capability would include conversion of plutonium nitrate to plutonium oxide. The reprocessing line is designated the Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test (BRET). Criticality safety remains an important critetion in the design of the BRET. The different steps in the reprocessing are reviewed and areas where additional critical experiments are needed have been indentified as also areas where revision or clarification of existing criticality safety standards are desirable

  16. Treatment of wastes from a central spent-fuel rod consolidation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The consolidation of commercial spent-fuel rods at a central treatment facility (such as the proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility) will generate several types of waste, which may require treatment and disposal. Eight alternatives for the treatment of the wastes have been evaluated as part of DOE's Nuclear Waste Treatment Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The evaluation considered the system costs, potential waste form requirements, and processing characteristics

  17. Consolidating indigenous capability for PHWR fuel manufacturing in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaraj, R.N., E-mail: cenfc@nfc.gov.in [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Dept. of Atomic Energy, Government of India, Hyderabad (India)

    2010-07-01

    summarises various actions taken that resulted in successfully consolidating indigenous capability for PHWR fuel manufacturing in India. (author)

  18. Consolidating indigenous capability for PHWR fuel manufacturing in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraj, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    various actions taken that resulted in successfully consolidating indigenous capability for PHWR fuel manufacturing in India. (author)

  19. EDF - 2005 Consolidated Annual Results - Analysts' Presentation. Consolidated financial statements at December 31, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    As the world's biggest electricity generator, the EDF Group covers every sector of expertise, from generation to trading and transmission grids. EDF builds on the expertise of its people, its R and D and engineering skills, its experience as a leading industry operator and the attentive support of its customers to deliver competitive solutions that successfully reconcile economic growth with climate protection. This document presents the 2005 annual results and Consolidated financial statements of the Group at 31 December 2005: Consolidated income statements, consolidated balance sheets, consolidated cash flow statements, variation in consolidated equity, notes (group accounting policies, impact of first-time application of IFRs, transition to standards IAS 32 and 39 concerning financial instruments, summary of accounting and valuation methods, public distribution concessions in France, significant events and transactions of 2005, impact of the law of august 9, 2004 on comparability, changes in the scope of consolidation, segment reporting, sales, fuel and energy purchases, other external expenses, contractual obligations and commitments entered into in the course of business, personnel expenses, other operating income and expenses, other income and expenses, financial result, income taxes, basic earnings per share and diluted earnings per share, goodwill, other intangible assets, property, plant and equipment, investments in companies accounted for under the equity method, financial assets, inventories, including work-in-process, trade receivables, other receivables, cash and cash equivalents, available-for-sale assets and liabilities, equity, provisions, special concession liabilities, current and non-current financial liabilities, derivatives, other liabilities, related parties, greenhouse gas emission quotas, environment, subsequent events, scope of consolidation

  20. Status of rod consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1985-04-01

    Two of the factors that need to be taken into account with rod consolidation are (1) the effects on rods from their removal from the fuel assembly and (2) the effects on rods as a result of the consolidation process. Potential components of both factors are described in the report. Discussed under (1) are scratches on the fuel rod surfaces, rod breakage, crud, extended burnup, and possible cladding embrittlement due to hydrogen injection at BWRs. Discussed under (2) are the increased water temperature (less than 10 0 C) because of closer packing of the rods, formation of crevices between rods in the close-packed mode, contact with dissimilar metals, and the potential for rapid heating of fuel rods following the loss of water from a spent fuel storage pool. Another factor that plays an important role in rod consolidation is the cost of disposal of the nonfuel-bearing components of the fuel assembly. Also, the dose rate from the components - especially Inconel spacer grids - can affect the handling procedures. Several licensing issues that exist are described. A list of recommendations is provided. 98 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  1. [Fuel Rod Consolidation Project]: The estimated total life cycle cost for the 30-year operation of prototypical consolidation demonstration equipment: Volume 4, Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Total Life Cycle Costs have been developed for the construction, operation and decommissioning of a single line of hot-cell-enclosed production consolidation equipment operating on spent fuel at the rate of 750 MTU/year for 30 years. The cost estimate is for a single production line that is part of an overall facility at either a Monitored Retrievable Storage or a Repository facility. This overall facility would include other capabilities and possibly other consolidation lines. However, no costs were included in the cost estimate for other portions of the plant, except that staff costs include an overhead charge that reflects the overhead support services in an overall facility

  2. Interim transfer canister for consolidating nuclear fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formanek, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a canister for receiving and consolidating a group of uniformly spaced apart nuclear fuel rods, comprising: a rectangular, vertically oriented straight back panel; a pair of oppositely disposed side panels connected perpendicularly to the back panel, having a vertical straight upper portion and an inwardly tapered lower portion; a front panel opposite the back panel and connected to the side panels, having a straight vertical upper portion and inwardly tapered lower portion; whereby the back, side and front panels define a rectangular upper opening at the upper end of the canister and a generally rectangular lower opening at the other end, the lower opening having a cross-sectional area less than one-half that of the upper opening; parallel plate members spanning the canister from the front panel to the back panel, each plate spaced from the other the same uniform distance, the plates extending downwardly into the tapered portion of the canister while remaining spaced above the tapered sidewalls; first base means at the lower end of the canister, removably mounted and having an oblique orientation generally downward from the front panel to the back panel, for guiding the fuel rods to be inserted preferentially toward the lower portion of the back panel; and second base means removably mounted within the canister below first base means and oriented transversely to the longitudinal extent of the canister, for supporting the fuel rods when the first base means is removed from the canister

  3. Wood fuel and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try and demonstrate the role that the use of Wood as a Fuel can play in our environment. The term ''Wood Fuel'', for the purposes of these proceedings, refers to the use of wood obtained from the forest or the farm. It does not refer to waste wood from for example buildings. The role of wood fuel in the environment can be assessed at many different levels. In this paper three different scales of ''Environment'' and the role of wood fuel in each, will be considered. These three scales are namely the global environment, the local environment, and the National (community) environment. (Author)

  4. Practical disarmament measures to consolidate peace in post-conflict environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, M.

    1998-01-01

    At the 51st Session of the United Nations General Assembly, one of the many resolutions passed was entitled 'Consolidation of peace through practical disarmament measures'. The resolution stresses the relevance of certain practical disarmament measures - such as the control of small arms and light weapons, confidence building measures and the demobilization and reintegration of former combatants - for the consolidation of peace in areas that have suffered conflict. With the intention of building on this promising beginning, the United Nations Disarmament Commission (UNDC), at its 1997 session, began the first of a three-year effort to formulate guidelines for a comprehensive approach to the development and implementation of such practical measures. As a co-sponsor of the General Assembly resolution and a strong supporter of the UNDC follow up activity, Canada made available a Background Paperi on the design and implementation of an effective disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programme in post-conflict environments, in an effort to facilitate discussions in the Disarmament Commission. Once completed and circulated, it led to the tabling of a formal Canadian Working Paper, containing the principle findings and recommendations from the Background Paper. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the subject of practical disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration measures to consolidate peace in post-conflict environments by (1) drawing from the Background Paper and updating where necessary; (2) reviewing other recent developments in the subject area and (3) identifying future policy action, especially relevant research needs. (author)

  5. Role of the consolidated fuel reprocessing program in the United States Breeder Reactor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, W.W.; Burch, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    While present US policy precludes the commercial reprocessing of LWR fuels and the recycle of plutonium, the policy does encompass the need to continue a program to develop the technology for reprocessing breeder fuels. Some questions have again risen this year as to the pace of the entire breeder program, including recycle, and the answers are evolving. This paper and the other companion papers which describe several aspects of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program take a longer-range perspective on the total program. Whether the program is implemented in the general time frame described is dependent on future government actions dedicated to carrying out a systematic program that would permit breeders to be commercialized early in the next century

  6. Prototypical spent nuclear fuel rod consolidation equipment: Phase 2, Final design report: Volume 1, Detailed design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blissell, W.H.; Ciez, A.P.; Goedicke, F.E.; Bessko, C.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes the Westinghouse Final Design for the Prototypical Spent Fuel Consolidation Equipment Demonstration Project. This design represents a fully qualified, licensable, cost effective spent fuel rod consolidation system. As a result of significant concerns raised by DOE and its Technical Review Committee during the 30% Design Review, significant changes were made to the original Preliminary Design resulting from Phase I activities. These changes focused on increased automation, end fitting removal, the rod pulling process and the need to maintain the consolidation canisters as clean as possible. As a result of these changes, the new system is greatly enhanced with a much greater probability of meeting or exceeding the project functional requirements. As a result of delays in resolving cost and contractual differences, additional bench testing was not conducted during Phase II. It is however our belief that the current design exceeds the 90% confidence level required by DOE because of the confidence gained from the Phase I tests, the additional engineering detail completed and the fact that our rod pulling tool has been demonstrated in a similar application at Oconee while our ID tube cutter is a modified (mounting method only) off-the-shelf design. 7 refs., 49 figs., 36 tabs

  7. Rod consolidation at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1986-12-01

    A rod consolidation demonstration with irradiated pressurized water reactor fuel was recently conducted by personnel from Nuclear Assurance Corporation and West Valley Nuclear Services Company at the West Valley Demonstration Project in West Valley, New York. The rod consolidation demonstration involved pulling all of the fuel rods from six fuel Assemblies. In general, the rod pulling proceeded smoothly. The highest compaction ratio attained was 1:8:1. Among the total of 1074 fuel rods were some known degraded rods (they had collapsed cladding, a result of in-reactor fuel densification), but no rods were broken or dropped during the demonstration. One aim was to gather information on the effect of rod consolidation operations on the integrity of the fuel rods during subsequent handling and storage. Another goal was to collect information on the condition and handling of intact, damaged, and failed fuel that has been in storage for an extended period. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  8. Agro-fuels and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Maho, Y.; Pappalardo, M.; Vindimian, E.; Salmon, J.M.

    2008-12-01

    The first contributions of this collective report are presenting the French first generation agro-fuel industry, its production, its usages, and its public incentives. Then, several authors comment the impacts of these first-generation agro-fuels on the environment: debate on the contribution of the nitrogen monoxide to the greenhouse gas emission assessment, question of the compatibility of the foreseen agro-fuel development with the French commitment of stopping the biodiversity erosion by 2010, contributions of engineering and chemical sciences to the assessment of agro-fuel environmental impact, methodology of assessment of energy, greenhouse emissions, and atmospheric pollutants related to first-generation agro-fuels. Land use by agro-fuels in France by 2015 is the next topic (impacts on agricultural land, relationship between breeding and agro-fuels). Some authors describe the global context: possible global interactions between agro-fuels and environment, sustainable certification of agro-fuels, analysis of the reasons for a world food crisis. The last contributions are dealing with second-generation agro-fuels: state of the art and perspectives, role in sustainable energy development

  9. Consolidated fuel reprocessing programme: Analysis of various options for the breeder fuel cycle in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradley, J.G.; Burch, W.D.; Yook, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has established a programme to develop innovative liquid metal reactor (LMR) designs to assist in developing future U.S. reactor strategy. The paper describes studies in progress to examine various fuel cycle strategies that relate to the reactor strategy. Three potential fuel cycle options that focus on supporting an initial 1300 MW(e) reactor station have been defined: (1) Completion and utilization of the Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test/Secure Automated Fabrication (BRET/SAF) in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) at Hanford, Washington; (2) a co-located fuel cycle facility; and (3) delayed closure of the fuel cycle for five to ten years. The BRET, designed as a development facility, has sufficient capacity to service the needs of an initial module at an LMR station. It appears feasible to increase this capacity and to utilize SAF in the FMEF to accommodate the projected output (up to 35 MtHM/year) from the 1300 MW(e) liquid-metal concepts under study. Plans developed within the United States Consolidated Management Office for an initial reactor project have envisioned that cost savings could be realized by delaying the closure of the fuel cycle as long as supplies of plutonium could be obtained relatively inexpensively. This might prove to be only five to ten years, but even that period might be long enough for the fuel cycle costs to be spread over more than one reactor rather than loaded on the initial project. This concept is being explored as is the question of the future coupling of a light water reactor reprocessing industry for plutonium supply to breeder recycle

  10. Thermal-hydraulic analyses of the TN-24P cask loaded with consolidated and unconsolidated spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michener, T.E.; McKinnon, M.A.; Rector, D.R.; Creer, J.M.

    1989-06-01

    This paper presents the results of comparisons of COBRA-SFS (spent fuel storage) temperature predictions with experimental data from the TN-24P (Transnuclear) spent fuel storage cask loaded with unconsolidated and consolidated spent PWR fuel. Peak cladding temperature predictions using the COBRA-SFS code are compared with test data and predicted axial and radial temperature distributions are compared with measured temperature profiles. The pre-test accuracy of the COBRA-SFS code in predicting temperature distributions is discussed, along with the effect of post-test model improvements on temperature predictions. This paper also briefly describes the COBRA-SFS code, which is designed to accurately predict flow and temperature distributions in spent nuclear fuel storage and transportation systems. 6 refs., 14 figs

  11. Provincial-level Land Consolidation and Ecological Environment Protection Based on the Perspective of Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chen; Liu, Xin-feng; Peng, Zhe; Si, Tao; Yang, Lin-li

    2012-01-01

    Based on the understanding of current land ecological environment in Anhui Province, we mainly analyze the relationship between land consolidation planning and ecological environment, and point out the problems concerning ecological environment, such as great soil erosion, serious soil pollution, frequent geological disasters in local areas, and forest vegetation destruction. We divide the key ecological function conservation areas into the following areas: River Source Area, River and Flood ...

  12. System Consolidation of Spatial Memories in Mice: Effects of Enriched Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Bonaccorsi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment (EE is known to enhance learning and memory. Declarative memories are thought to undergo a first rapid and local consolidation process, followed by a prolonged process of system consolidation, which consist in a time-dependent gradual reorganization of brain regions supporting remote memory storage and crucial for the formation of enduring memories. At present, it is not known whether EE can affect the process of declarative memory system consolidation. We characterized the time course of hippocampal and cortical activation following recall of progressively more remote spatial memories. Wild-type mice either exposed to EE for 40 days or left in standard environment were subjected to spatial learning in the Morris water maze and to the probe test 1, 10, 20, 30, and 50 days after learning. Following the probe test, regional expression of the inducible immediate early gene c-Fos was mapped by immunohistochemistry, as an indicator of neuronal activity. We found that activation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, suggested to have a privileged role in processing remote spatial memories, was evident at shorter time intervals after learning in EE mice; in addition, EE induced the progressive activation of a distributed cortical network not activated in non-EE mice. This suggests that EE not only accelerates the process of mPFC recruitment but also recruits additional cortical areas into the network supporting remote spatial memories.

  13. Nuclear-fuel-cycle costs. Consolidated Fuel-Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.; Haire, M.J.; Rainey, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The costs for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which were developed as part of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), are presented. Total fuel-cycle costs are given for the pressurized-water reactor once-through and fuel-recycle systems, and for the liquid-metal fast-breeder-reactor system. These calculations show that fuel-cycle costs are a small part of the total power costs. For breeder reactors, fuel-cycle costs are about half that of the present once-through system. The total power cost of the breeder-reactor system is greater than that of light-water reactor at today's prices for uranium and enrichment

  14. Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Project: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, J.A.; Poston, V.K.

    1993-11-01

    This is the final report of the Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Project, which was funded by the US Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The project had two objectives: (a) to develop and demonstrate a prototype of production-scale equipment for the dry, horizontal consolidation and packaging of spent nuclear fuel rods from commercial boiling water reactor and pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies, and (b) to report the development and demonstration results to the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. This report summarizes the activities and conclusions of the project management contractor, EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., and the fabrication and testing contractor, NUS Corporation (NUS). The report also presents EG ampersand G Idaho's assessments of the equipment and procedures developed by NUS

  15. The used nuclear fuel problem - can reprocessing and consolidated storage be complementary?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.; Thomas, I. [EnergySolutions Federal EPC., 2345 Stevens Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes our CISF (Consolidated Interim Storage Facilities) and Reprocessing Facility concepts and show how they can be combined with a geologic repository to provide a comprehensive system for dealing with spent fuels in the USA. The performance of the CISF was logistically analyzed under six operational scenarios. A 3-stage plan has been developed to establish the CISF. Stage 1: the construction at the CISF site of only a rail receipt interface and storage pad large enough for the number of casks that will be received. The construction of the CISF Canister Handling Facility, the Storage Cask Fabrication Facility, the Cask Maintenance Facility and supporting infrastructure are performed during stage 2. The construction and placement into operation of a water-filled pool repackaging facility is completed for Stage 3. By using this staged approach, the capital cost of the CISF is spread over a number of years. It also allows more time for a final decision on the geologic repository to be made. A recycling facility will be built, this facility will used the NUEX recycling process that is based on the aqueous-based PUREX solvent extraction process, using a solvent of tri-N-butyl phosphate in a kerosene diluent. It is capable of processing spent fuels at a rate of 5 MT per day, at burn-ups up to 50 GWD per ton of spent fuels and a minimum of 5 years out-of-reactor cooling.

  16. Evaluation of treatment alternatives for wastes from both spent fuel rod consolidation and miscellaneous commercial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Oma, K.H.; Smith, R.I.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1986-07-01

    Alternative treatments were considered for both existing commercial transuranic wastes and future wastes from spent fuel rod consolidation. Waste treatment was assumed to occur at a hypothetical central treatment facility (a Monitored Retrieval Storage [MRS] facility was used as a reference). Disposal of the waste in a geologic repository was also assumed. The waste form charcteristics, process characteristics, and costs were evaluated for each waste treatment alternative. The evaluation indicated that selection of a high volume reduction alternative can save almost $1 billion in life-cycle costs for the management of transuranic and high-activity wastes from 70,000 MTU of spent fuel compared to the reference MRS waste treatment processes. The supercompaction, arc pyrolysis and melting, and maximum volume reduction alternatives are recommended for further consideration; the latter two are recommended for further testing and demonstration

  17. Green energy. Biomass fuels and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme has been concerned with energy/environment issues since it was first set up after the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment held in Stockholm in 1972. In the late 1970s, UNEP compiled three comprehensive reports on the the environmental impacts of the production and use of fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewable energy sources. In 1987 it was decided to update the volume on renewable energy since knowledge of biofuels and their effects on the environment had greatly improved. Among many innovations, Brazil's decision to embark on a major, and now successful, programme to produce ethanol from sugarcane as a substitute vehicle fuel is one of the most significant. At the same time, energy tree crops, agroforestry systems and the use of plantations for environmental improvement have become issues of key importance to sustainable development in developing countries. Biomass fuels, of course, have always been important in terms of the numbers of people who use them; the significant change during the 1980s was that the potential advantages of these fuels took on a new significance in the light of environmental degradation and related issues such as greenhouse warming. The biomass fuels began to be considered as attractive energy sources in their own right - not simply as 'last resort' fuels for developing countries with only limited energy options. While this development may solve some environmental problems, it certainly raises others - the improper utilization of biomass fuels in the past has been responsible for deforestation, desertification and the ill health of many millions of the women in developing countries who use biomass fuels in unventilated huts. These issues currently affect about half of the world population. The new UNEP study was intended to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental issues raised by the use of biomass fuels, and hence to reduce or eliminate their adverse impacts while

  18. Fuel Rod Consolidation Project: Phase 2, Final report: Volume 5, Operations and maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to describe the function, installation, operation and maintenance of the Fuel Rod Consolidation System. This Document is preliminary and must be updated to incorporate any modifications to the mechanical and electrical systems that are performed during construction. Any changes and specific references related to the software requirements will be provided as the software is developed in Phase III. Setpoints related to equipment positions as a function of resolver and position transducer readings will also be provided in Phase III. References such as vendor supplied Operating and Maintenance Manuals for vendor components and assemblies are not available until a receipt of a purchase order. These references will become an integral part of this manual during the construction phase

  19. Is autism partly a consolidation disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femia, Lisa A; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2002-12-01

    Computational modeling has been useful for understanding processes of encoding and consolidation in cortical structures. In particular, this work suggests a role of neuromodulators in setting dynamics for consolidation processes during different stages of waking and sleep. Because autistic individuals show symptoms of a cognitive nature coupled with a high prevalence of comorbid conditions such as epileptiform discharge during sleep and sleep disorders, it is possible that autism could involve a breakdown in consolidation processes, which are essential to build effective cognitive representations of the environment on the basis of individual experiences. In this article, theories of consolidation during different stages of waking and sleep and the role of different neuromodulators in these consolidation processes are reviewed in conjunction with different features of autism, which may be understood in the context of these theories.

  20. COST IMPACT OF ROD CONSOLIDATION ON THE VIABILITY ASSESSMENT DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Lancaster

    1999-01-01

    The cost impact to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System of using rod consolidation is evaluated. Previous work has demonstrated that the fuel rods of two assemblies can be packed into a canister that can fit into the same size space as that used to store a single assembly. The remaining fuel assembly hardware can be compacted into the same size canisters with a ratio of 1 hardware canister per each 6 to 12 assemblies. Transportation casks of the same size as currently available can load twice the number of assemblies by placing the compacted assemblies in the slots currently designed for a single assembly. Waste packages similarly could contain twice the number of assemblies; however, thermal constraints would require considering either a low burnup or cooling. The analysis evaluates the impact of rod consolidation on CRWMS costs for consolidation at prior to transportation and for consolidation at the Monitored Geological Repository surface facility. For this study, no design changes were made to either the transport casks or waste packages. Waste package designs used for the Viability Assessment design were employed but derated to make the thermal limits. A logistics analysis of the waste was performed to determine the number of each waste package with each loading. A review of past rod consolidation experience found cost estimates which range from $10/kgU to $32/kgU. $30/kgU was assumed for rod consolidation costs prior to transportation. Transportation cost savings are about $17/kgU and waste package cost savings are about $21/kgU. The net saving to the system is approximately $500 million if the consolidation is performed prior to transportation. If consolidation were performed at the repository surface facilities, it would cost approximately $15/kgU. No transportation savings would be realized. The net savings for consolidation at the repository site would be about $400 million dollars

  1. Synthesis, Consolidation and Characterization of Sol-gel Derived Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, O [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Energetic composite powders consisting of sol-gel (SG) derived nanostructured tungsten oxide were produced with various amounts of micrometer-scale tantalum fuel metal. Such energetic composite powders were ignition-tested and results show that the powders are not sensitive to friction, spark and/or impact ignition. Initial consolidation experiments, using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique, on the SG derived nanostructured tungsten oxide produced samples with higher relative density than can be achieved with commercially available tungsten oxide. The SG derived nanostructured tungsten oxide with immobilized tantalum fuel metal (Ta - WO3) energetic composite was consolidated to a density of 9.17 g·cm-3 or 93% relative density. In addition, those samples were consolidated without significant pre-reaction of the constituents, thus retaining their stored chemical energy.

  2. Effects of environments on spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, C.W.; Jacobson, L.D.; Menon, M.N.

    1979-07-01

    This report describes the influence of water storage environment and transportation on spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies. It also estimates the storage duration and capacity requirements for several assumed scenarios

  3. Business environment in the wood fuels field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitinen, H.; Ranta, T.

    1995-01-01

    In this publication the business environment in the wood fuels sector and the internal and external factors affecting it are studied. It has been considered important to describe both the present situation and future possibilities of the business in order to develop it so that the planned increase in the use of wood fuels can be achieved

  4. Spent nuclear fuel integrity during dry storage - performance tests and demonstrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinnon, M.A.; Doherty, A.L.

    1997-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of fuel integrity surveillance determined from gas sampling during and after performance tests and demonstrations conducted from 1983 through 1996 by or in cooperation with the US DOE Office of Commercial Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The cask performance tests were conducted at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) between 1984 and 1991 and included visual observation and ultrasonic examination of the condition of the cladding, fuel rods, and fuel assembly hardware before dry storage and consolidation of fuel, and a qualitative determination of the effects of dry storage and fuel consolidation on fission gas release from the spent fuel rods. The performance tests consisted of 6 to 14 runs involving one or two loading, usually three backfill environments (helium, nitrogen, and vacuum backfills), and one or two storage system orientations. The nitrogen and helium backfills were sampled and analyzed to detect leaking spent fuel rods. At the end of each performance test, periodic gas sampling was conducted on each cask. A spent fuel behavior project (i.e., enhanced surveillance, monitoring, and gas sampling activities) was initiated by DOE in 1994 for intact fuel in a CASTOR V/21 cask and for consolidated fuel in a VSC-17 cask. The results of the gas sampling activities are included in this report. Information on spent fuel integrity is of interest in evaluating the impact of long-term dry storage on the behavior of spent fuel rods. Spent fuel used during cask performance tests at INEL offers significant opportunities for confirmation of the benign nature of long-term dry storage. Supporting cask demonstration included licensing and operation of an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) at the Virginia Power (VP) Surry reactor site. A CASTOR V/21, an MC-10, and a Nuclear Assurance NAC-I28 have been loaded and placed at the VP ISFSI as part of the demonstration program. 13 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs

  5. Gas fuels and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Environment protection is one of the major concerns for public and local authorities worldwide. Automotive transports are in a large part responsible of the daily pollution of urban areas. Gaseous fuels can notably contribute to a reduction of this pollution. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part analyses the reasons and components of pollution in the transport sector: increasing use of private cars with respect to public transport systems for short distance travels, preponderance of road transport for long distance goods delivery, increase of air traffic for passengers and freight transports. For the air pollution itself, three levels are considered: the local CO, VOC (volatile organic compounds), SO 2 , NOx and particulates concentration, the regional pollution which corresponds to spatially diluted pollutants over a wider zone (acid rain and photochemical pollution), and the worldwide pollution with the greenhouse effect and the high altitude ozone problem. The vehicles noise in another important source of urban pollution. The second part of the paper analyses the environmental advantages of gaseous fuels and compares the combustion properties and the pollutants and noise emissions from natural gas for vehicles and LPG with respect to the classical liquid fuels used for private cars and trucks. The third part of the paper is devoted to the US Clean Air Act which regroups the actions developed since 1970 to fight against the photochemical pollution and the 'smog' phenomena. Its historical evolution is summarized: the creation of the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), the norms for air quality (NAAQS) and the 1990's eleven amendments about the classification of States pollution, the pollutants emission norms and the development of clean vehicles. (J.S.)

  6. Development of Self-Consolidating High Strength Concrete Incorporating Treated Palm Oil Fuel Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Alsubari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil fuel ash (POFA has previously been used as a partial cement replacement in concrete. However, limited research has been undertaken to utilize POFA in high volume in concrete. This paper presents a study on the treatment and utilization of POFA in high volume of up to 50% by weight of cement in self-consolidating high strength concrete (SCHSC. POFA was treated via heat treatment to reduce the content of unburned carbon. Ordinary Portland cement was substituted with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50% treated POFA in SCHSC. Tests have been conducted on the fresh properties, such as filling ability, passing ability and segregation resistance, as well as compressive strength, drying shrinkage and acid attack resistance to check the effect of high volume treated POFA on SCHSC. The results revealed that compared to the control concrete mix, the fresh properties, compressive strength, drying shrinkage, and resistance against acid attack have been significantly improved. Conclusively, treated POFA can be used in high volume as a cement replacement to produce SCHSC with an improvement in its properties.

  7. Development of Self-Consolidating High Strength Concrete Incorporating Treated Palm Oil Fuel Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubari, Belal; Shafigh, Payam; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil fuel ash (POFA) has previously been used as a partial cement replacement in concrete. However, limited research has been undertaken to utilize POFA in high volume in concrete. This paper presents a study on the treatment and utilization of POFA in high volume of up to 50% by weight of cement in self-consolidating high strength concrete (SCHSC). POFA was treated via heat treatment to reduce the content of unburned carbon. Ordinary Portland cement was substituted with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50% treated POFA in SCHSC. Tests have been conducted on the fresh properties, such as filling ability, passing ability and segregation resistance, as well as compressive strength, drying shrinkage and acid attack resistance to check the effect of high volume treated POFA on SCHSC. The results revealed that compared to the control concrete mix, the fresh properties, compressive strength, drying shrinkage, and resistance against acid attack have been significantly improved. Conclusively, treated POFA can be used in high volume as a cement replacement to produce SCHSC with an improvement in its properties.

  8. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''

  9. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 2 discusses the following topics: Fuel Rod Extraction System Test Results and Analysis Reports and Clamping Table Test Results and Analysis Reports

  10. Criticality safety evaluation report for MKIA fuel pertaining to consolidating fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, K.N.

    1994-10-01

    Irradiated fuel criticality calculations are performed for MKIA fuel, 1.25 wt% 235 U, and 1.15 wt% 235 U fuel pieces and solutions. Comparisons are made between WIMS and MCNP. WIMS and MCNP calculations are documented

  11. [Impacts of farmland consolidation on farmland landscape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Li, Jun; Xu, Junfeng; Shen, Zhangquan; Gao, Yurong

    2006-01-01

    Farmland consolidation is the act of regulating, improving, and comprehensively renovating the structure, quality, and layout of field, water, road, forestry, and village in the countryside in a certain area by means of administration, economy, law, and engineering techniques according to the goal and usage defined by land use planning, so as to improve farmland use rate and its output rate, to increase farmland area, and to achieve better productive, living, and ecological environment. Recently, farmland consolidation has been carried out all over the country, especially in its economy-developed regions. But, unscientific planning and unsuitable farmland consolidation engineering have negative effects on field ecological system. In this paper, based on the technology of GIS and RS, the basic theories and methods of landscape ecology and a compositive grading method were applied to analysis the dynamics of farmland landscape fragmentation in Tongxiang county. The results showed that the farmland landscape fragmentation in this county was strongly affected by consolidation. More attention should be paid to the protection of farmland landscape during consolidation, and to avoid or decrease the negative effects resulted from unscientific planning and unsuitable farmland consolidation engineering.

  12. Evaluation of effects of different fuel cycles in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    The paper discusses the risks for personnel and environment caused by different steps of FBR-Fuel cycle. For FBRS the most important factor of exposure is the fabrication of fuel elements but technical development is capable to reduce this factor

  13. Effects of Consolidation Stress State on Normally Consolidated Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lade, Poul V.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of consolidation stress state on the stress-strain and strength characteristics has been studied from experiments on undisturbed block samples of a natural, normally consolidated clay known as San Francisco Bay Mud. The results of experiments on K0-consolidated, hollow cylinder specimens...... and on isotropically consolidated, cubical specimens, both tested in triaxial compression and extension, clearly showed the influence of the undisturbed fabric as well as the effect of the initial consolidation stress states. While the K0-consolidated specimens appeared to retain their original fabric and exhibit...

  14. Characteristics of fuel crud and its impact on storage, handling, and shipment of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelton, R.F.

    1987-09-01

    Corrosion products, called ''crud,'' form on out-of-reactor surfaces of nuclear reactor systems and are transported by reactor coolant to the core, where they deposit on external fuel-rod cladding surfaces and are activated by nuclear reactions. After discharge of spent fuel from a reactor, spallation of radioactive crud from the fuel rods could impact wet or dry storage operations, handling (including rod consolidation), and shipping. It is the purpose of this report to review earlier (1970s) and more recent (1980s) literature relating to crud, its characteristics, and any impact it has had on actual operations. Crud characteristics vary from reactor type to reactor type, reactor to reactor, fuel assembly to fuel assembly in a reactor, circumferentially and axially in an assembly, and from cycle to cycle for a specific facility. To characterize crud of pressurized-water (PWRs) and boiling-water reactors (BWRs), published information was reviewed on appearance, chemical composition, areal density and thickness, structure, adhesive strength, particle size, and radioactivity. Information was also collected on experience with crud during spent fuel wet storage, rod consolidation, transportation, and dry storage. From experience with wet storage, rod consolidation, transportation, and dry storage, it appears crud spallation can be managed effectively, posing no significant radiological problems. 44 refs., 11 figs

  15. Dry spent-fuel consolidation demonstration at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townes, G.A.

    1982-08-01

    Equipment for disassembling and canning (or encapsulating) spent fuel to allow more efficient storage is being developed and demonstrated at the BNFP. The program is aimed at dry disassembly of fuel to allow storage and shipment of fuel pins rather than full fuel assemblies. Results indicate that doubling the existing storage capacity or tripling the carrying capacity of existing transportation equipment is achievable. Disassembly has been demonstrated in the BNFP hot cells at rates of approx. 10 to 12 assemblies per day. 3 figures

  16. Consolidity: Mystery of inner property of systems uncovered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uncovers the mystery of consolidity, an inner property of systems that was amazingly hidden. Consolidity also reveals the secrecy of why strong stable and highly controllable systems are not invulnerable of falling and collapsing. Consolidity is measured by its Consolidity Index, defined as the ratio of overall changes of output parameters over combined changes of input and system parameters, all operating in fully fuzzy environment. Under this notion, systems are classified into consolidated, quasi-consolidated, neutrally consolidated, unconsolidated, quasi-unconsolidated and mixed types. The strategy for the implementation of consolidity is elaborated for both natural and man-made existing systems as well as the new developed ones. An important critique arises that the by-product consolidity of natural or built-as-usual system could lead to trapping such systems into a completely undesired unconsolidity. This suggests that the ample number of conventional techniques that do not take system consolidity into account should gradually be changed, and adjusted with improved consolidity-based techniques. Four Golden Rules are highlighted for handling system consolidity, and applied to several illustrative case studies. These case studies cover the consolidity analysis of the Drug Concentration problem, Predator-Prey Population problem, Spread of Infectious Disease problem, AIDS Epidemic problem and Arm Race model. It is demonstrated that consolidity changes are contrary (opposite in sign to changes of both stability and controllability. This is a very significant result showing that our present practice of stressing on building strong stable and highly controllable systems could have already jeopardized the consolidity behavior of an ample family of existing real life systems. It is strongly recommended that the four Golden Rules of consolidity should be enforced as future strict regulations of systems modeling, analysis, design and

  17. Siting and Transportation for Consolidated Used Nuclear Fuel Management Facilities: A Proposed Approach for a Regional Initiative to Begin the Dialogue - 13562

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrower, Alex W.; Janairo, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC) was formed in January 2010 to conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle, and to develop a new national strategy. Over two years, the BRC held dozens of meetings and heard from hundreds of Federal, State, Tribal, and local officials, as well as representatives of trade and labor organizations, technical groups, non-governmental organizations, and other stakeholders. The Commission's final report (issued January 26, 2012) offers a strategy to resolve longstanding challenges to responsible management of the United States' nuclear waste legacy. The Commission recommended Congressional action to rewrite parts of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA); however, a comprehensive legislative overhaul will likely take years to fully implement. The nature and characteristics of nuclear waste, the activities that generated it, and the past history of federal efforts to manage the waste make it virtually certain that finding workable solutions will be controversial and difficult. As the BRC report suggests, this difficulty can be made insurmountable if top-down, federally-mandated efforts are forced upon unwilling States, Tribes, and local communities. Decades of effort and billions of ratepayer and taxpayer dollars have been spent attempting to site and operate spent fuel storage and disposal facilities in this manner. The experience thus far indicates that voluntary consent and active partnership of States, Tribes, and local governments in siting, designing, and operating such facilities are critical. Some States, Tribes, and local communities have indicated that, given adequate scientific and technical information, along with appropriate incentives, assurances, and authority, they might be willing to consider hosting facilities for consolidated storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The authors propose a new regional approach to identifying and resolving issues

  18. [Theories and methodologies of engineering designs on sustainable agricultural land consolidation project--a case study of Xuemeiyang land consolidation project in Changtai County, Fujian Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yanmei; Wu, Cifang; Cheng, Chengbiao; Qiu, Lingzhang; Huang, Shengyu; Zheng, Ruihui

    2002-09-01

    The concept and characteristics of engineering designs on sustainable agricultural land consolidation project were discussed in this paper. Principles, basic methods and procedures of engineering designs on agricultural land consolidation project were put forward, which were successfully adopted for designing agricultural land consolidation in Xuemeiyang region of Changtai County, including diversity designs of sustainable land use, engineering designs of soil improvement, roads, ditches, and drains for protecting existent animal environments, and design of ecological shelter-forests in farmland. Moreover, from sustainable economic, ecological and social points, the results of these engineering designs were evaluated based on fouteen important indexes. After carrying out these engineeringdesigns, the eco-environments and agricultural production conditions were significantly improved, and the farm income was increased in planned regions.

  19. Microbially influenced corrosion communities associated with fuel-grade ethanol environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Charles H D; Jain, Luke A; Mishra, Brajendra; Olson, David L; Spear, John R

    2015-08-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) is a costly problem that impacts hydrocarbon production and processing equipment, water distribution systems, ships, railcars, and other types of metallic infrastructure. In particular, MIC is known to cause considerable damage to hydrocarbon fuel infrastructure including production, transportation, and storage systems, often times with catastrophic environmental contamination results. As the production and use of alternative fuels such as fuel-grade ethanol (FGE) increase, it is important to consider MIC of engineered materials exposed to these "newer fuels" as they enter existing infrastructure. Reports of suspected MIC in systems handling FGE and water prompted an investigation of the microbial diversity associated with these environments. Small subunit ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing surveys indicate that acetic-acid-producing bacteria (Acetobacter spp. and Gluconacetobacter spp.) are prevalent in environments exposed to FGE and water. Other microbes previously implicated in corrosion, such as sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogens, were also identified. In addition, acetic-acid-producing microbes and sulfate-reducing microbes were cultivated from sampled environments containing FGE and water. Results indicate that complex microbial communities form in these FGE environments and could cause significant MIC-related damage that may be difficult to control. How to better manage these microbial communities will be a defining aspect of improving mitigation of global infrastructure corrosion.

  20. Nonlinear Finite Strain Consolidation Analysis with Secondary Consolidation Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqing Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze nonlinear finite strain consolidation with secondary consolidation behavior. On the basis of some assumptions about the secondary consolidation behavior, the continuity equation of pore water in Gibson’s consolidation theory is modified. Taking the nonlinear compressibility and nonlinear permeability of soils into consideration, the governing equation for finite strain consolidation analysis is derived. Based on the experimental data of Hangzhou soft clay samples, the new governing equation is solved with the finite element method. Afterwards, the calculation results of this new method and other two methods are compared. It can be found that Gibson’s method may underestimate the excess pore water pressure during primary consolidation. The new method which takes the secondary consolidation behavior, the nonlinear compressibility, and nonlinear permeability of soils into consideration can precisely estimate the settlement rate and the final settlement of Hangzhou soft clay sample.

  1. EDF - Annual results 2015. Consolidated financial statements at 31 December 2015. 2015 Management report - Group results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Jean-Bernard

    2016-01-01

    As the world's biggest electricity generator, the EDF Group covers every sector of expertise, from generation to trading and transmission grids. EDF builds on the expertise of its people, its R and D and engineering skills, its experience as a leading industry operator and the attentive support of its customers to deliver competitive solutions that successfully reconcile economic growth with climate protection. This document presents the 2015 annual results, management report and Consolidated financial statements of the Group at 31 December 2015, as well as the 2015 activity report: Group results: Key figures; economic environment; significant events of 2015; subsequent events; analysis of the business and the consolidated income statements for 2014 and 2015; net indebtedness, cash flows and investments; management and control of market risks; transactions with related parties; scope of consolidation; principal risks and uncertainties; financial outlook. consolidated financial statements: group accounting standards; comparability; significant events and transactions; regulatory events in France; changes in the scope of consolidation; segment reporting; sales; fuel and energy purchases; other external expenses; personnel expenses; taxes other than income taxes; other operating income and expenses; impairment/reversals; other income and expenses; financial result; income taxes; basic earnings per share and diluted earnings per share; operating assets and liabilities, equity; goodwill; other intangible assets; property, plant and equipment operated under French public electricity distribution concessions; property, plant and equipment operated under concessions for other activities; property, plant and equipment used in generation and other tangible assets owned by the group; investments in associates and joint ventures; inventories; trade receivables; other receivables; equity; provisions; provisions related to nuclear generation - back-end of the nuclear cycle

  2. Non-fuel bearing hardware melting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Battelle has developed a portable hardware melter concept that would allow spent fuel rod consolidation operations at commercial nuclear power plants to provide significantly more storage space for other spent fuel assemblies in existing pool racks at lower cost. Using low pressure compaction, the non-fuel bearing hardware (NFBH) left over from the removal of spent fuel rods from the stainless steel end fittings and the Zircaloy guide tubes and grid spacers still occupies 1/3 to 2/5 of the volume of the consolidated fuel rod assemblies. Melting the non-fuel bearing hardware reduces its volume by a factor 4 from that achievable with low-pressure compaction. This paper describes: (1) the configuration and design features of Battelle's hardware melter system that permit its portability, (2) the system's throughput capacity, (3) the bases for capital and operating estimates, and (4) the status of NFBH melter demonstration to reduce technical risks for implementation of the concept. Since all NFBH handling and processing operations would be conducted at the reactor site, costs for shipping radioactive hardware to and from a stationary processing facility for volume reduction are avoided. Initial licensing, testing, and installation in the field would follow the successful pattern achieved with rod consolidation technology

  3. Consolidated financial statements

    OpenAIRE

    Blaha, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    This work provides basic information about consolidation and consolidated financial statements. In the beginning there are definisions of the members of the group under discussion and their relationship. Hereafter concepts of consolidation, accounting methods and methods of consolidation are discussed. It also compares approach of different accounting systems to consolidation.

  4. Regulation on control of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kaname

    1976-01-01

    Some comment is made on the present laws and the future course of consolidating the regulation of nuclear fuel materials. The first part gives the definitions of the nuclear fuel materials in the laws. The second part deals with the classification and regulation in material handling. Refinement undertaking, fabrication undertaking, reprocessing undertaking, the permission of the government to use the materials, the permission of the government to use the materials under international control, the restriction of transfer and receipt, the reporting, and the safeguard measures are commented. The third part deals with the strengthening of regulation. The nuclear fuel safety deliberation special committee will be established at some opportunity of revising the ordinance. The nuclear material safeguard special committee has been established in the Atomic Energy Commission. The last part deals with the future course of legal consolidation. The safety control will be strengthened. The early investigation of waste handling is necessary, because low level solid wastes are accumulating at each establishment. The law for transporting nuclear materials must be consolidated as early as possible to correspond to foreign transportation laws. Physical protection is awaiting the conclusions of the nuclear fuel safeguard special committee. The control and information systems for the safeguard measures must be consolidated in the laws. (Iwakiri, K.)

  5. Spent fuel performance in geologic repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    The performance assessment of the waste package is a current area of study in the United States program to develop a geologic repository for nuclear waste isolation. The waste package is presently envisioned as the waste form and its surrounding containers and possibly a packing material composed of crushed host rock or mixtures of that rock with clays. This waste package is tied to performance criteria set forth in recent legislation. It is the goal of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to obtain the necessary information on the waste package, in several geologic environments, to show that the waste package provides reasonable assurance of meeting established performance criteria. This paper discusses the United States program directed toward managing high-level radioactive waste, with emphasis on the current effort to define the behavior of irradiated spent fuel in repository groundwaters. Current studies are directed toward understanding the rate and nature (such as valence state, colloid form if any, solid phase controlling solubility) of radionuclide release from the spent fuel. Due to the strong interactive effect of radiation, thermal fields, and waste package components on this release, current spent fuel studies are being conducted primarily in the presence of waste package components over a wide range of potential environments

  6. Review and evaluation of metallic TRU nuclear waste consolidation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.R.; Nesbitt, J.F.

    1983-08-01

    The US Department of Energy established the Commercial Waste Treatment Program to develop, demonstrate, and deploy waste treatment technology. In this report, viable methods are identified that could consolidate the volume of metallic wastes generated in a fuel reprocessing facility. The purpose of this study is to identify, evaluate, and rate processes that have been or could be used to reduce the volume of contaminated/irradiated metallic waste streams and to produce an acceptable waste form in a safe and cost-effective process. A technical comparative evaluation of various consolidation processes was conducted, and these processes were rated as to the feasibility and cost of producing a viable product from a remotely operated radioactive process facility. Out of the wide variety of melting concepts and consolidation systems that might be applicable for consolidating metallic nuclear wastes, the following processes were selected for evaluation: inductoslay melting, rotating nonconsumable electrode melting, plasma arc melting, electroslag melting with two nonconsumable electrodes, vacuum coreless induction melting, and cold compaction. Each process was evaluated and rated on the criteria of complexity of process, state and type of development required, safety, process requirements, and facility requirements. It was concluded that the vacuum coreless induction melting process is the most viable process to consolidate nuclear metallic wastes. 11 references

  7. Siting and Transportation for Consolidated Used Nuclear Fuel Management Facilities: A Proposed Approach for a Regional Initiative to Begin the Dialogue - 13562

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrower, Alex W. [The Thrower Group LLC, Richmond, VA (United States); Janairo, Lisa [Council of State Governments-Midwestern Office, Sheboygan, WI (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC) was formed in January 2010 to conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle, and to develop a new national strategy. Over two years, the BRC held dozens of meetings and heard from hundreds of Federal, State, Tribal, and local officials, as well as representatives of trade and labor organizations, technical groups, non-governmental organizations, and other stakeholders. The Commission's final report (issued January 26, 2012) offers a strategy to resolve longstanding challenges to responsible management of the United States' nuclear waste legacy. The Commission recommended Congressional action to rewrite parts of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA); however, a comprehensive legislative overhaul will likely take years to fully implement. The nature and characteristics of nuclear waste, the activities that generated it, and the past history of federal efforts to manage the waste make it virtually certain that finding workable solutions will be controversial and difficult. As the BRC report suggests, this difficulty can be made insurmountable if top-down, federally-mandated efforts are forced upon unwilling States, Tribes, and local communities. Decades of effort and billions of ratepayer and taxpayer dollars have been spent attempting to site and operate spent fuel storage and disposal facilities in this manner. The experience thus far indicates that voluntary consent and active partnership of States, Tribes, and local governments in siting, designing, and operating such facilities are critical. Some States, Tribes, and local communities have indicated that, given adequate scientific and technical information, along with appropriate incentives, assurances, and authority, they might be willing to consider hosting facilities for consolidated storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The authors propose a new regional approach to identifying and

  8. Demonstration of Subscale Cermet Fuel Specimen Fabrication Approach Using Spark Plasma Sintering and Diffusion Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Marvin W.; Tucker, Dennis S.; Benensky, Kelsa M.

    2018-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) has the potential to expand the limits of human space exploration by enabling crewed missions to Mars and beyond. The viability of NTP hinges on the development of a robust nuclear fuel material that can perform in the harsh operating environment (> or = 2500K, reactive hydrogen) of a nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine. Efforts are ongoing to develop fuel material and to assemble fuel elements that will be stable during the service life of an NTR. Ceramic-metal (cermet) fuels are being actively pursued by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) due to their demonstrated high-temperature stability and hydrogen compatibility. Building on past cermet fuel development research, experiments were conducted to investigate a modern fabrication approach for cermet fuel elements. The experiments used consolidated tungsten (W)-60vol%zirconia (ZrO2) compacts that were formed via spark plasma sintering (SPS). The consolidated compacts were stacked and diffusion bonded to assess the integrity of the bond lines and internal cooling channel cladding. The assessment included hot hydrogen testing of the manufactured surrogate fuel and pure W for 45 minutes at 2500 K in the compact fuel element environmental test (CFEET) system. Performance of bonded W-ZrO2 rods was compared to bonded pure W rods to access bond line integrity and composite stability. Bonded surrogate fuels retained structural integrity throughout testing and incurred minimal mass loss.

  9. IFR fuel cycle process equipment design environment and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigg, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Argonne National laboratory (ANL) is refurbishing the hot cell facility originally constructed with the EBR-II reactor. When refurbishment is complete, the facility win demonstrate the complete fuel cycle for current generation high burnup metallic fuel elements. These are sodium bonded, stainless steel clad fuel pins of U-Zr or U-Pu-Zr composition typical of the fuel type proposed for a future Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design. To the extent possible, the process equipment is being built at full commercial scale, and the facility is being modified to incorporate current DOE facility design requirements and modem remote maintenance principles. The current regulatory and safety environment has affected the design of the fuel fabrication equipment, most of which will be described in greater detail in subsequent papers in this session

  10. The geochemical environment of nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, M.

    1995-01-01

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste in a geologic environment on the Canadian Shield has recently been presented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to governments, scientists, and the public, for review. An important part of this concept concerns the geochemical environment of a disposal vault and includes consideration of rock and groundwater compositions, geochemical interactions between rocks, groundwaters, and emplaced vault materials, and the influences and significance of anthropogenic and microbiological effects following closure of the vault. This paper summarizes the disposal concept and examines aspects of the geochemical environment. The presence of saline groundwaters and reducing conditions at proposed vault depths (500-1000 m) in the Canadian Shield has an important bearing on the stability of the used nuclear fuel, its container, and buffer and backfill materials. The potential for introduction of anthropogenic contaminants and microbes during site investigations and vault excavation, operation, and sealing is described with examples from AECL's research areas on the Shield and in their underground research laboratory in southeastern Manitoba. (author)

  11. 20 CFR 702.345 - Formal hearings; consolidated issues; consolidated cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; consolidated cases. (a) When one or more additional issues are raised by the administrative law judge pursuant... Administrative Law Judge may consolidate such cases for hearing. ...; consolidated cases. 702.345 Section 702.345 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  12. "Pack[superscript2]": VM Resource Scheduling for Fine-Grained Application SLAs in Highly Consolidated Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukwong, Orathai

    2013-01-01

    Virtualization enables the ability to consolidate multiple servers on a single physical machine, increasing the infrastructure utilization. Maximizing the ratio of server virtual machines (VMs) to physical machines, namely the consolidation ratio, becomes an important goal toward infrastructure cost saving in a cloud. However, the consolidation…

  13. Materials in the environment of the fuel in dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issard, H [TN International (Cogema Logistics) (France)

    2012-07-01

    Spent nuclear fuel has been stored safely in pools or dry systems in over 30 countries. The majority of IAEA Member States have not yet decided upon the ultimate disposition of their spent nuclear fuel: reprocessing or direct disposal. Interim storage is the current solution for these countries. For developing the technological knowledge data base, a continuation of the IAEA's spent fuel storage performance assessment was achieved. The objectives are: Investigate the dry storage systems and gather basic fuel behaviour assessment; Gather data on dry storage environment and cask materials; Evaluate long term behaviour of cask materials.

  14. Development of compaction technique for spent fuel skeletons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Kim, Young Hwan; Jung, Jae Hoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    To increase the utilization of uranium resources contained in the spent fuel, the spent fuel is reused. For this, the spent fuel is dismantled or spent fuel rod is extracted from the spent fuel assembly. When the rod is extracted, the remaining components of spent fuel assembly, so called a NFBC(Non-Fuel Bearing Components), should be compacted for the final disposal. To this end, several companies developed the NFBC compactors. German company, named as GNS has developed the direct compression devices of the NFBCs for the rod consolidation and installed it at the PKA(2) of pilot conditioning plant. B and W (Babcock and Wilcox) in USA adopted cutting method rather than the compression method and developed the special cutting devices of NFBC which can be applied underwater environment. In this study the characteristics of these two methods was investigated, in terms of fabrication cost of devices, maintainability in a high radioactive environment, required power and work volume for operation. Also, the optimal power source is selected by comparing the maximum power versus the work volume for operation. In addition to these, the reduction ratio of the bulk volume is obtained while varying the cutting length of the NFBC through a series of experiments. Based on the results of analysis and experiments, the cutting method after compression is selected as an optimal volume reduction method and its design specification is obtained. 8 refs., 62 figs., 32 tabs. (Author)

  15. Consolidated Reprocessing Progam. Quarterly progress report ending February 28, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-03-01

    This publication continues the quarterly series presenting results of work performed under the Consolidated Reprocessing Program at General Atomic Company. Results of work on this program prior to June 1974 were included in a quarterly series on the HTGR Base Program. The work reported includes the development of unit processes and equipment for reprocessing of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) fuel, the design and development of an integrated pilot line to demonstrate the head end of HTGR reprocessing using unirradiated fuel materials, and design work in support of Hot Engineering Tests (HET). Work is also described on trade-off studies concerning the required design of facilities and equipment for the large-scale recycle of HTGR fuels in order to guide the development activities for HTGR fuel recycle

  16. Method for compacting spent nuclear reactor fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor system which requires periodic physical manipulation of spent fuel rods, the method of compacting fuel rods from a fuel rod assembly is described. The method consists of: (1) removing the top end from the fuel rod assembly; (2) passing each of multiple fuel rod pulling elements in sequence through a fuel rod container and thence through respective consolidating passages in a fuel rod directing chamber; (3) engaging one of the pulling elements to the top end of each of the fuel rods; (4) drawing each of the pulling elements axially to draw the respective engaged fuel rods in one axial direction through the respective the passages in the chamber to thereby consolidate the fuel rods into a compacted configuration of a cross-sectional area smaller than the cross-sectional area occupied thereby within the fuel rod assembly; and (5) drawing all of the engaged fuel rods concurrently and substantially parallel to one another in the one axial direction into the fuel rod container while maintaining the compacted configuration whereby the fuel rods are aligned within the container in a fuel rod density of the the fuel rod assembly

  17. EDF - 2011 full-year results: Solid results and commitments upheld amid a troubled environment. Excellent industrial performance. Annual results 2011, Consolidated financial statements at December 31, 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proglio, Henri

    2012-01-01

    As the world's biggest electricity generator, the EDF Group covers every sector of expertise, from generation to trading and transmission grids. EDF builds on the expertise of its people, its R and D and engineering skills, its experience as a leading industry operator and the attentive support of its customers to deliver competitive solutions that successfully reconcile economic growth with climate protection. This document presents the 2011 annual results and Consolidated financial statements of the Group at 31 December 2011: Group accounting standards; comparability; significant events and transactions; regulatory events in France; changes in the scope of consolidation; segment reporting; sales; fuel and energy purchases; other external expenses; personnel expenses; taxes other than income taxes; other operating income and expenses; prolongation of the transition tariff system (TaRTAM) - laws of June 7 and December 7, 2010; impairment / reversals; other income and expenses; financial result; income taxes; basic earnings per share and diluted earnings per share; operating assets and liabilities, equity; goodwill; other intangible assets; property, plant and equipment operated under French public electricity distribution concessions; property, plant and equipment operated under concessions for other activities; property, plant and equipment used in generation and other tangible assets owned by the group; investments in associates; inventories; trade receivables; other receivables; equity; provisions; provisions related to nuclear generation - back-end nuclear cycle, plant decommissioning and last cores; provisions for decommissioning of non-nuclear facilities; provisions for employee benefits; other provisions; special French public electricity distribution concession liabilities for existing assets and assets to be replaced; trade payable; other liabilities; current and non-current financial assets; cash and cash equivalents; current and non-current financial

  18. Resting state EEG correlates of memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, Kate; Tishler, Ward; Manceor, Stephanie; Hamilton, Kelly; Gaulden, Andrew; Parr, Elaine; Wamsley, Erin J

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that post-training sleep benefits human memory. At the same time, emerging data suggest that other resting states may similarly facilitate consolidation. In order to identify the conditions under which non-sleep resting states benefit memory, we conducted an EEG (electroencephalographic) study of verbal memory retention across 15min of eyes-closed rest. Participants (n=26) listened to a short story and then either rested with their eyes closed, or else completed a distractor task for 15min. A delayed recall test was administered immediately following the rest period. We found, first, that quiet rest enhanced memory for the short story. Improved memory was associated with a particular EEG signature of increased slow oscillatory activity (rest can facilitate memory, and that this may occur via an active process of consolidation supported by slow oscillatory EEG activity and characterized by decreased attention to the external environment. Slow oscillatory EEG rhythms are proposed to facilitate memory consolidation during sleep by promoting hippocampal-cortical communication. Our findings suggest that EEG slow oscillations could play a significant role in memory consolidation during other resting states as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. United States Department of Energy commercial reactor spent fuel programs being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piscitella, R.R.; Rasmussen, T.L.; Uhl, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory participation in OCRWM programs includes the Spent Fuel Storage Cask Testing Program, Dry Rod Consolidation Technology Program, Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Program, the Nuclear Fuel Services Project, and the Cask Systems Acquisition Program. The DOE has entered into a cooperative agreement with Virginia Power and the Electric Power Research Institute to demonstrate storage of commercial spent fuel in steel storage casks. The Program conducted heat transfer and shielding tests with three storage casks with intact spent fuel assemblies and two casks with consolidated spent fuel rods, one of which was previously tested with intact fuel, and provides test information in support of Virginia Power's at-reactor dry storage licensing effort. 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. Integrated System for Retrieval, Transportation and Consolidated Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel in the US - 13312

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracey, William; Bondre, Jayant; Shelton, Catherine; Edmonds, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The current inventory of used nuclear fuel assemblies (UNFAs) from commercial reactor operations in the United States totals approximately 65,000 metric tons or approximately 232,000 UNFAs primarily stored at the 104 operational reactors in the US and a small number of decommissioned reactors. This inventory is growing at a rate of roughly 2,000 to 2,400 metric tons each year, (Approx. 7,000 UNFAs) as a result of ongoing commercial reactor operations. Assuming an average of 10 metric tons per storage/transportation casks, this inventory of commercial UNFAs represents about 6,500 casks with an additional of about 220 casks every year. In January 2010, the Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) [1] was directed to conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and recommend a new plan. The BRC issued their final recommendations in January 2012. One of the main recommendations is for the United States to proceed promptly to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities (CSF) as part of an integrated, comprehensive plan for safely managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Based on its extensive experience in storage and transportation cask design, analysis, licensing, fabrication, and operations including transportation logistics, Transnuclear, Inc. (TN), an AREVA Subsidiary within the Logistics Business Unit, is engineering an integrated system that will address the complete process of commercial UNFA management. The system will deal with UNFAs in their current storage mode in various configurations, the preparation including handling and additional packaging where required and transportation of UNFAs to a CSF site, and subsequent storage, operation and maintenance at the CSF with eventual transportation to a future repository or recycling site. It is essential to proceed by steps to ensure that the system will be the most efficient and serve at best its purpose by defining: the problem to be resolved, the criteria to

  1. Integrated System for Retrieval, Transportation and Consolidated Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel in the US - 13312

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracey, William; Bondre, Jayant; Shelton, Catherine [Transnuclear, Inc., 7135 Minstrel Way Suite 300, Columbia MD 21045 (United States); Edmonds, Robert [AREVA Federal Services, 7207 IBM Drive, Charlotte NC 28262 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The current inventory of used nuclear fuel assemblies (UNFAs) from commercial reactor operations in the United States totals approximately 65,000 metric tons or approximately 232,000 UNFAs primarily stored at the 104 operational reactors in the US and a small number of decommissioned reactors. This inventory is growing at a rate of roughly 2,000 to 2,400 metric tons each year, (Approx. 7,000 UNFAs) as a result of ongoing commercial reactor operations. Assuming an average of 10 metric tons per storage/transportation casks, this inventory of commercial UNFAs represents about 6,500 casks with an additional of about 220 casks every year. In January 2010, the Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) [1] was directed to conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and recommend a new plan. The BRC issued their final recommendations in January 2012. One of the main recommendations is for the United States to proceed promptly to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities (CSF) as part of an integrated, comprehensive plan for safely managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Based on its extensive experience in storage and transportation cask design, analysis, licensing, fabrication, and operations including transportation logistics, Transnuclear, Inc. (TN), an AREVA Subsidiary within the Logistics Business Unit, is engineering an integrated system that will address the complete process of commercial UNFA management. The system will deal with UNFAs in their current storage mode in various configurations, the preparation including handling and additional packaging where required and transportation of UNFAs to a CSF site, and subsequent storage, operation and maintenance at the CSF with eventual transportation to a future repository or recycling site. It is essential to proceed by steps to ensure that the system will be the most efficient and serve at best its purpose by defining: the problem to be resolved, the criteria to

  2. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, C.E.; Waite, E.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element comprising a column of vibration compacted fuel which is retained in consolidated condition by a thimble shaped plug. The plug is wedged into gripping engagement with the wall of the sheath by a wedge. The wedge material has a lower coefficient of expansion than the sheath material so that at reactor operating temperature the retainer can relax sufficient to accommodate thermal expansion of the column of fuel. (author)

  3. How aging affects sleep-dependent memory consolidation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eHarand

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep plays multiple functions among which energy conservation or recuperative processes. Besides, growing evidence indicate that sleep plays also a major role in memory consolidation, a process by which recently acquired and labile memory traces are progressively strengthened into more permanent and/or enhanced forms. Indeed, memories are not stored as they were initially encoded but rather undergo a gradual reorganization process, which is favoured by the neurochemical environment and the electrophysiological activity observed during sleep. Two putative, probably not exclusive, models (hippocampo-neocortical dialogue and synaptic homeostasis hypothesis have been proposed to explain the beneficial effect of sleep on memory processes. It is worth noting that all data gathered until now emerged from studies conducted in young subjects. The investigation of the relationships between sleep and memory in older adults has sparked off little interest until recently. Though, aging is characterized by memory impairment, changes in sleep architecture, as well as brain and neurochemical alterations. All these elements suggest that sleep-dependent memory consolidation may be impaired or occurs differently in older adults.Here, we give an overview of the mechanisms governing sleep-dependent memory consolidation, and the crucial points of this complex process that may dysfunction and result in impaired memory consolidation in aging.

  4. An Efficient and Energy-Aware Cloud Consolidation Algorithm for Multimedia Big Data Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JongBeom Lim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that cloud computing has many potential advantages over traditional distributed systems. Many enterprises can build their own private cloud with open source infrastructure as a service (IaaS frameworks. Since enterprise applications and data are migrating to private cloud, the performance of cloud computing environments is of utmost importance for both cloud providers and users. To improve the performance, previous studies on cloud consolidation have been focused on live migration of virtual machines based on resource utilization. However, the approaches are not suitable for multimedia big data applications. In this paper, we reveal the performance bottleneck of multimedia big data applications in cloud computing environments and propose a cloud consolidation algorithm that considers application types. We show that our consolidation algorithm outperforms previous approaches.

  5. Operations monitoring concept. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    Operations monitoring is a safeguards concept which could be applied in future fuel cycle facilities to significantly enhance the effectiveness of an integrated safeguards system. In general, a variety of operations monitoring techniques could be developed for both international and domestic safeguards application. The goal of this presentation is to describe specific examples of operations monitoring techniques as may be applied in a fuel reprocessing facility. The operations monitoring concept involves monitoring certain in-plant equipment, personnel, and materials to detect conditions indicative of the diversion of nuclear material. An operations monitoring subsystem should be designed to monitor operations only to the extent necessary to achieve specified safeguards objectives; there is no intent to monitor all operations in the facility. The objectives of the operations monitoring subsystem include: verification of reported data; detection of undeclared uses of equipment; and alerting the inspector to potential diversion activities. 1 fig

  6. Testing and COBRA-SFS analysis of the VSC-17 ventilated concrete, spent fuel storage cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinnon, M.A.; Dodge, R.E.; Schmitt, R.C.

    1992-04-01

    A performance test of a Pacific Sierra Nuclear VSC-17 ventilated concrete storage cask loaded with 17 canisters of consolidated PWR spent fuel generating approximately 15 kW was conducted. The performance test included measuring the cask surface, concrete, air channel surface, and fuel temperatures, as well as cask surface gamma and neutron dose rates. Testing was performed using vacuum, nitrogen, and helium backfill environments. Pretest predictions of cask thermal performance were made using the COBRA-SFS computer code. Analysis results were within 15 degrees C of measured peak fuel temperature. Peak fuel temperature for normal operation was 321 degrees C. In general, the surface dose rates were less than 30 mrem/h on the side of the cask and 40 mrem/h on the top of the cask

  7. Safeguards approach for irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, N.L.; Roberts, F.P.

    1987-03-01

    IAEA verification of irradiated fuel has become more complicated because of the introduction of variations in what was once presumed to be a straightforward flow of fuel from reactors to reprocessing plants, with subsequent dissolution. These variations include fuel element disassembly and reassembly, rod consolidation, double-tiering of fuel assemblies in reactor pools, long term wet and dry storage, and use of fuel element containers. This paper reviews future patterns for the transfer and storage of irradiated LWR fuel and discusses appropriate safeguards approaches for at-reactor storage, reprocessing plant headend, independent wet storage, and independent dry storage facilities

  8. Standard casks for the transport of LWR spent fuel. Storage/transport casks for long cooled spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, P.; Sert, G.; Gagnon, R.

    1983-01-01

    During the past decade, TRANSNUCLEAIRE has developed, licensed and marketed a family of standard casks for the transport of spent fuel from LWR reactors to reprocessing plants and the ancillary equipments necessary for their operation and transport. A large number of these casks are presently used for European and intercontinental transports and manufactured under TRANSNUCLEAIRE supervision in different countries. The main advantages of these casks are: - large payload for considered modes of transport, - moderate cost, - reliability due to the large experience gained by TRANSNUCLEAIRE as concerns fabrication and operation problems, - standardization faciliting fabrication, operation and spare part supply. Recently, TRANSNUCLEAIRE also developed a new generation of casks for the dry storage and occasional transport of LWR spent fuel which has been cooled for 5 years or 7 years in case of consolidated fuel rods. These casks have an optimum payload which takes into account the shielding requirements and the weight limitations at most sites. This paper deals more particularly with the TN 24 model which exists in 4 versions among which one for 24 PWR 900 fuel assemblies and another one for the consolidated fuel rods from 48 of same fuel assemblies

  9. Criticality impacts on LWR fuel storage efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napolitano, D.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation discusses the criticality impacts throughout storage of fuel onsite including new fuel storage, spent fuel storage, consolidation, and dry storage. The general principles for criticality safety are also be discussed. There is first an introduction which explains today's situation for criticality safety concerns. This is followed by a discussion of criticality safety Regulatory Guides, safety limits and fundamental principles. Design objectives for criticality safety in the 1990's include higher burnups, longer cycles, and higher enrichments which impact the criticality safety design. Criticality safety for new fuel storage, spent fuel storage, fuel consolidation, and dry storage are followed by conclusions. Today's situation is one in which the US does not reprocess, and does not have an operating MRS facility or repository. High density fuel storage rack designs of the 1980s, are filling up. Dry cask storage systems for spent fuel storage are being utilized. Enrichments continue to increase PWR fuel assemblies with enrichments of 4.5 to 5.0 weight percent U-235 and BWR fuel assemblies with enrichments of 3.25 to 3.5 weight percent U-235 are common. Criticality concerns affect the capacity and the economics of light water reactor (LWR) fuel storage arrays by dictating the spacing of fuel assemblies in a storage system, or the use of poisons or exotic materials in the storage system design

  10. SPECIFIC OPERATIONS FOR ACCOUNTS’ HOMOGENIZATION WITH A VIEW TO CONSOLIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Deju

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of annual consolidated financial statements by group companies represents a relatively new problematic issue for regulating bodies, the world of the academia, as well as for accounting practitioners. The current national and international accounting standards undergo a continuous change and updating to the economic and judicial reality of the business environment which, in turn, goes through a permanent transformation as a result of the globalization of national economies. These novelties raise the necessity of debates organised by accounting specialists with the aim of finding solutions that respect legal regulations related to the preparation of financial statements for consolidation. The present article approaches accounting aspects related to the operation of adjusting individual financial statements that are the object of consolidation.

  11. Third international spent fuel storage technology symposium/workshop: proceedings. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The scope of this meeting comprised dry storage and rod consolidation, emphasizing programs on water reactor fuel with zirconium alloy cladding. Volume 2 contains the papers from the poster session and workshops that were conducted during the meeting. There were 18 poster presentations. Four workshops were held: Fuel Integrity; Storage System Modeling and Analysis; Rod Consolidation Technology; and System Integration and Optimization. Individual papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  12. Method and apparatus for compacting spent nuclear reactor fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor system requiring periodic physical manipulation of spent fuel rods, the method of compacting fuel rods from a fuel rod assembly is described comprising the steps of: (1) removing the top end from pulling members having electrodes of weld elements in leading ends thereof in sequence through a fuel rod container and thence through respective consolidating passages in a fuel-rod directing chamber; (3) welding the weld elements of the pulling members to the top end of respective fuel rods corresponding to the respective pulling members; (4) drawing each of the pulling members axially to draw the respective engaged fuel rods in one axial direction through the respective passages in the chamber to thereby consolidate the fuel rods into a compacted configuration of a cross-sectional area smaller than the cross-sectional area occupied thereby within the fuel rod assembly; and (5) drawing all of the engaged fuel rods concurrently and substantially parallel to one another to the one axial direction into the fuel rod container while maintaining the compacting configuration in a fuel rod density which is greater than that of the fuel rod density of the fuel rod assembly

  13. EDF. Group dynamics and activities. Competitive environment and strategic perspectives. Release - October 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-10-01

    After a synthesis, this report proposes a presentation of the EDF Group (general overview, activities, human resources, share-holding structure, stock market data). It gives an overview of the EDF Group dynamics and of its activities: environment analysis (world electric power production, power consumption in France, regulated and spot prices, turnover in France and per area and market segment), performance analysis, and competitive analysis (comparison with the main European energy companies). It analyses the different development axes and discusses main events regarding the consolidation of nuclear activities, investments in renewable energies, withdrawal from coal and fuel, diversification in energy services, and financial consolidation. Financial data are presented along with the main economic and financial indicators. Important statistical data are provided

  14. Power plant fuel switching and air quality in a tropical, forested environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Adan S. S.; Calderaro, Gisele; Guimarães, Patricia C.; Magalhaes, Mateus R.; Morais, Marcos V. B.; Rafee, Sameh A. A.; Ribeiro, Igor O.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Martins, Jorge A.; Martins, Leila D.; Martin, Scot T.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.

    2017-07-01

    How a changing energy matrix for electricity production affects air quality is considered for an urban region in a tropical, forested environment. Manaus, the largest city in the central Amazon Basin of Brazil, is in the process of changing its energy matrix for electricity production from fuel oil and diesel to natural gas over an approximately 10-year period, with a minor contribution by hydropower. Three scenarios of urban air quality, specifically afternoon ozone concentrations, were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model. The first scenario used fuel oil and diesel for electricity production, which was the reality in 2008. The second scenario was based on the fuel mix from 2014, the most current year for which data were available. The third scenario considered nearly complete use of natural gas for electricity production, which is the anticipated future, possibly for 2018. For each case, inventories of anthropogenic emissions were based on electricity generation, refinery operations, and transportation. Transportation and refinery operations were held constant across the three scenarios to focus on effects of power plant fuel switching in a tropical context. The simulated NOx and CO emissions for the urban region decrease by 89 and 55 %, respectively, after the complete change in the energy matrix. The results of the simulations indicate that a change to natural gas significantly decreases maximum afternoon ozone concentrations over the population center, reducing ozone by > 70 % for the most polluted days. The sensitivity of ozone concentrations to the fuel switchover is consistent with a NOx-limited regime, as expected for a tropical forest having high emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, high water vapor concentrations, and abundant solar radiation. There are key differences in a shifting energy matrix in a tropical, forested environment compared to other world environments. Policies favoring the burning of

  15. Power plant fuel switching and air quality in a tropical, forested environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. S. Medeiros

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available How a changing energy matrix for electricity production affects air quality is considered for an urban region in a tropical, forested environment. Manaus, the largest city in the central Amazon Basin of Brazil, is in the process of changing its energy matrix for electricity production from fuel oil and diesel to natural gas over an approximately 10-year period, with a minor contribution by hydropower. Three scenarios of urban air quality, specifically afternoon ozone concentrations, were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem model. The first scenario used fuel oil and diesel for electricity production, which was the reality in 2008. The second scenario was based on the fuel mix from 2014, the most current year for which data were available. The third scenario considered nearly complete use of natural gas for electricity production, which is the anticipated future, possibly for 2018. For each case, inventories of anthropogenic emissions were based on electricity generation, refinery operations, and transportation. Transportation and refinery operations were held constant across the three scenarios to focus on effects of power plant fuel switching in a tropical context. The simulated NOx and CO emissions for the urban region decrease by 89 and 55 %, respectively, after the complete change in the energy matrix. The results of the simulations indicate that a change to natural gas significantly decreases maximum afternoon ozone concentrations over the population center, reducing ozone by > 70 % for the most polluted days. The sensitivity of ozone concentrations to the fuel switchover is consistent with a NOx-limited regime, as expected for a tropical forest having high emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, high water vapor concentrations, and abundant solar radiation. There are key differences in a shifting energy matrix in a tropical, forested environment compared to other world environments. Policies

  16. Seismic analysis of spent nuclear fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.J.; Biddle, J.R.; Bennett, S.M.; Schechter, C.B.; Harstead, G.A.; Marquet, F.

    1996-01-01

    In many nuclear power plants, existing storage racks are being replaced with high-density racks to accommodate the increasing inventory of spent fuel. In the hypothetical design considered here, the high-density arrangement of fuel assemblies, or consolidated fuel canisters, is accomplished through the use of borated stainless steel (BSS) plates acting as neutron absorbers. No structural benefit from the BSS is assumed. This paper describes the methods used to perform seismic analysis of high density spent fuel storage racks. The sensitivity of important parameters such as the effect of variation of coefficients of friction between the rack legs and the pool floor and fuel loading conditions (consolidated and unconsolidated) are also discussed in the paper. Results of this study are presented. The high-density fuel racks are simply supported by the pool floor with no structural connections to adjacent racks or to the pool walls or floor. Therefore, the racks are free standing and may slide and tip. Several time history, nonlinear, seismic analyses are required to account for variations in the coefficient of friction, rack loading configuration, and the type of the seismic event. This paper presents several of the mathematical models usually used. Friction cannot be precisely predicted, so a range of friction coefficients is assumed. The range assumed for the analysis is 0.2 to 0.8. A detailed model representing a single rack is used to evaluate the 3-D loading effects. This model is a controlling case for the stress analysis. A 2-D multi-rack model representing a row of racks between the spent fuel pool walls is used to evaluate the change in gaps between racks. The racks are normally analyzed for the fuel loading conditions of consolidated, full, empty, and half-loaded with fuel assemblies

  17. Severe fuel damage in steam and helium environments observed in in-reactor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, S.; Shiozawa, S.

    1984-01-01

    The bahavior of severe fuel damages has been studied in gaseous environments simulating core uncovery accidents in the in-reactor experiments utilizing the NSRR. Two types of cladding relocation modes, azimuthal flow and melt-down, were revealed through the parametric experiments. The azimuthal flow was evident in an oxidizing environment in case of no oxide film break. The melt-down can be categorized into flow-down and move-down, according to the velocity of the melt-down. Cinematographies showed that the flow-down was very fast as water flows down while the move-down appeared to be much slower. The flow-down was possible in an unoxidizing environment, whereas the move-down of molten cladding occured through a crack induced in an oxide film in an oxidizing environment. The criterion of the relocation modes was developed as a function of peak cladding temperature and oxidation condition. It was also found that neither immediate quench nor fuel fracture occurred upon flooding when cladding temperature was about 1800 0 C at water injection. The external mechanical force is needed for fuel fracture. (orig.)

  18. Fuel cycle centers revisited: Consolidation of fuel cycle activities in a few countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratzer, M.B.

    1996-01-01

    Despite varied expressions, the general impression remains that the international fuel cycle center concept, whatever its merits, is visionary. It also is quite possibly unattainable in light of strong national pressures toward independence and self-sufficiency in all things nuclear. Is the fuel cycle center an idea that has come and gone? Is it an idea whose time has not yet come? Or is it, as this paper suggests, an idea that has already arrived on the scene, attracting little attention or even acknowledgement of its presence? The difficult in answering this questions arises, in part, from the fact that despite its long and obvious appeal, there has been very little systematic analysis of the concept itself. Such obvious questions as how many and where fuel cycle centers should be located; what characteristics should the hot country or countries possess; and what are the institutional forms or features that endow the concept with enhanced proliferation protection have rarely been seriously and systematically addressed. The title of this paper focuses on limiting the geographic spread of fuel cycle facilities, and some may suggest that doing so does not necessarily call for any type of international or multinational arrangements applicable to those that exist. It is a premise of this paper, however, that a restriction on the number of countries possessing sensitive fuel cycle facilities necessarily involves some degree of multinationalization. This is not only because in every instance a nonproliferation pledge and international or multinational safeguards, or both, will be applied to the facility, but also because a restriction on the number of countries possessing these facilities implies that those in existence will serve a multinational market. This feature in itself is an important form of international auspices. Thus, the two concepts--limitation and multinationalization--if not necessarily one and the same, are at least de facto corollaries

  19. An investigation into the development of consolidation of distributed generation within the wholesale electricity trading arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    In this report the problems faced by distributed generators is explored under the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) in relation to the low price received for generation above contract requirement and the high price charged for under generation, and the lack of an alternative to the bilateral contract. The background to the study is traced, and the economics and history of consolidation, the NETA environment, development of imbalance prices, and the market for consolidation are outlined. An overview of consolidation in practice is presented, covering the generators and suppliers views, and specialist consolidators. The main options for development, and consolidation models are considered as well as net benefits, regulatory and commercial impediments to consolidation, and the potential impact of BETA.

  20. An investigation into the development of consolidation of distributed generation within the wholesale electricity trading arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In this report the problems faced by distributed generators is explored under the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) in relation to the low price received for generation above contract requirement and the high price charged for under generation, and the lack of an alternative to the bilateral contract. The background to the study is traced, and the economics and history of consolidation, the NETA environment, development of imbalance prices, and the market for consolidation are outlined. An overview of consolidation in practice is presented, covering the generators and suppliers views, and specialist consolidators. The main options for development, and consolidation models are considered as well as net benefits, regulatory and commercial impediments to consolidation, and the potential impact of BETA

  1. Nanorestore® for the consolidation of wall paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Di Gregorio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente les résultats d’un projet de recherches sur l’effet de l’application du produit Nanorestore®, dispersion de nanoparticules de chaux dans l’alcool isopropylique, pour la consolidation des peintures murales ; il évalue l’influence des conditions environnementales externes (UR et présence des sels en particulier sur le processus de carbonatation.This paper presents the results of an investigation project on the use of Nanorestore®, a dispersion of nanolime in isopropyl alcohol, used for the consolidation of wall paintings. The influence of environmental conditions outside the wall (high humidity environments and high presence of hygroscopic salts on carbonation process was considered.

  2. Pressurized Anneal of Consolidated Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemir, David Charles (Inventor); Rubio, Edward S. (Inventor); Beck, Jan Bastian (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods for producing a dense, well bonded solid material from a powder may include consolidating the powder utilizing any suitable consolidation method, such as explosive shockwave consolidation. The systems and methods may also include a post-processing thermal treatment that exploits a mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion between the consolidated material and the container. Due to the mismatch in the coefficients, internal pressure on the consolidated material during the heat treatment may be increased.

  3. Introduction-2nd Fire Behavior and Fuels Conference: The fire environment-innovations, management, and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Cook; Bret W. Butler

    2007-01-01

    The 2nd Fire Behavior and Fuels Conference: Fire Environment -- Innovations, Management and Policy was held in Destin, FL, March 26-30, 2007. Following on the success of the 1st Fire Behavior and Fuels Conference, this conference was initiated in response to the needs of the National Wildfire Coordinating Group -- Fire Environment Working Team.

  4. Fuel taxes, motor vehicle emission standards and patents related to the fuel-efficiency and emissions of motor vehicles. Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, H.

    2010-01-01

    Contribution to the project on Taxation, Innovation and the Environment of OECD's Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts. It studies the impacts of motor vehicle fuel taxes and mandatory fuel efficiency standards on relevant car-related innovation activity in selected car-producing countries.

  5. The Consolidation of the ESG Rating Industry as an Enactment of Institutional Retrogression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avetisyan, Emma; Hockerts, Kai

    2017-01-01

    on the social performance of firms. Since 2005, the ESG rating industry has witnessed a number of national and cross-border consolidations. Based on a set of 37 interviews and secondary data, the paper explores the driving forces behind this consolidation as well as its impact. Our focus is on four ESG rating...... change sought by the SRI movement. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment...

  6. Methodology of Prioritization of Land Consolidation and Land Exchange Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Len, Przemyslaw

    2017-12-01

    Land consolidation is one of the basic development activities in rural areas intended to comprehensively improve the organization of agricultural production space. Merging and exchange of parcels are aimed at transforming a fragmented and “checkerboarded” landscape containing excessively long fields into plots as large and regular as possible. Land consolidation decisions are based on detailed analyses of relevant parameters. Properly carried out land consolidation creates an opportunity to organize agricultural holdings in an appropriate way, and, at the same time, to preserve the natural environment. Consolidation provides appropriate conditions for sustainable and multi-functional rural development by limiting the harmful influence of intensive agriculture on the natural environment. It also leads to an improvement in living and working conditions for inhabitants of rural areas. The analysis conducted in this study was aimed at singling out villages in the commune of Paradyż in which consolidation of arable land was required most urgently. Factors describing the investigated villages were selected on the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the natural, social, economic and financial conditions found in those localities. The analysis was conducted using data obtained from the Land and Property Register of the District Office in Opoczno and data from the Office of the Commune of Paradyż. The study allowed us to determine which areas required land consolidation and exchange interventions, thus becoming a basis for applying for financial resources necessary to reach the aforementioned goal. A special role in empirical studies, especially comparative studies, of human activity is played by taxonomic methods, which involve linear ordering of items according to a synthetic indicator characterizing those items, which is calculated on the basis of a set of shared features. These methods are widely used in econometrics and socio-economic research to create all

  7. Consolidated fuel reprocessing. Program progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    This progress report is compiled from major contributions from three programs: (1) the Advanced Fuel Recycle Program at ORNL; (2) the Converter Fuel Reprocessing Program at Savannah River Laboratory; and (3) the reprocessing components of the HTGR Fuel Recycle Program, primarily at General Atomic and ORNL. The coverage is generally overview in nature; experimental details and data are limited.

  8. At-reactor storage of spent fuel for life-of-plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuierer, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The management of commercial spent fuel is a fairly broad topic beginning with the discharge from a reactor, its storage on-site, its transport from the reactor site to a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility, and its ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. This paper discusses spent-fuel management in the at-reactor phase. There are two basic methods for at-reactor storage of spent fuel. The first is wet storage in a pool, and the second is dry storage external to the plant in some form of cask or vault. Spent-fuel consolidation will impact the utility and the DOE waste system. Some of these impacts have a positive effect and some have a negative effect, and each will vary somewhat for each utility. Spent-fuel consolidation and life-of-plant storage will be an increased burden to utilities but will likely result in significant cost savings to the overall waste management system and by proper integration can result in significant institutional benefits

  9. 75 FR 32555 - Consolidated Audit Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Part II Securities and Exchange Commission 17 CFR Part 242 Consolidated Audit Trail; Proposed Rule... 3235-AK51 Consolidated Audit Trail AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... a consolidated order tracking system, or consolidated audit trail, with respect to the trading of...

  10. Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Projects at Brooklyn Tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, Alex; Farah, Shadia; Farley, Daithi; Ghani, Naureen; Kuo, Emmy; Aponte, Cecielo; Abrescia, Leo; Kwan, Laiyee; Khan, Ussamah; Khizner, Felix; Yam, Anthony; Sakeeb, Khan; Grey, Daniel; Anika, Zarin; Issa, Fouad; Boussayoud, Chayama; Abdeldayem, Mahmoud; Zhang, Alvin; Chen, Kelin; Chan, Kameron Chuen; Roytman, Viktor; Yee, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the projects on solar hydrogen powered vehicles using water as fuel conducted by teams at Brooklyn Technical High School. Their investigations into the pure and applied chemical thermodynamics of hydrogen fuel cells and bio-inspired devices have been consolidated in a new and emerging sub-discipline that they define as solar…

  11. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: report of consolidated thermal data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, W.L.

    1980-09-01

    Experiments indicate that PWR fuel with decay heat levels in excess of 2 kW could be stored in isolated drywells in Nevada Test Site soil without exceeding the current fuel clad temperature limit (715 0 F). The document also assesses the ability to thermally analyze near-surface drywells and above-ground storage casks and it identifies analysis development areas. It is concluded that the required analysis procedures, computer programs, etc., are already developed and available. Analysis uncertainties, however, still exist but they lie mainly in the numerical input area. Soil thermal conductivity, of primary importance in analysis, requires additional study to better understand the soil drying mechanism and effects of moisture. Work is also required to develop an internal canister subchannel model. In addition, the ability of the overall drywell thermal model to accommodate thermal interaction effects between adjacent drywells should be confirmed. In the experimental area, tests with two BWR spent fuel assemblies encapsulated in a single canister should be performed to establish the fuel clad and canister temperature relationship. This is needed to supplement similar experimental work which has already been completed with PWR fuel

  12. Refinements to temperature calculations of spent fuel assemblies when in a stagnant gas environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, C.A.; Haire, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Undesirably high temperatures are possible in irradiated fuel assemblies because of the radioactive decay of fission products formed while in the reactor. The COXPRO computer code has been used for some time to calculate temperatures in spent fuel when the fuel is suspended in a stagnant gas environment. This code assumed radiation to be the only mode of heat dissipation within the fuel pin bundle. Refinements have been made to include conduction as well as radiation heat transfer within this code. Comparison of calculated and measured temperatures in four separate and independent tests indicate that maximum fuel assembly temperatures can be predicted to within about 6%. 2 references, 5 figures

  13. 7 CFR 283.16 - Consolidation of issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consolidation of issues. 283.16 Section 283.16... Claims of $50,000 or More § 283.16 Consolidation of issues. Similar issues involved in appeals by two or...) Disposition of consolidated issues. If the ALJ orders consolidation, the issues consolidated will be...

  14. Osmotic consolidation of suspensions and gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.T.; Zukoski, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    An osmotic method for the consolidation of suspensions of ceramic particles is demonstrated. Concentrated solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) are separated from a suspension of ceramic particles by a semipermeable membrane, creating a gradient in solvent chemical potential. Solvent passes from the suspension into the polymer solution, lowering its free energy and consolidating the suspension. Dispersions of stable 8-nm hydrous zirconia particles were consolidated to over 47% by volume. Suspensions of α-alumina in three states of aggregation (dispersed, weakly flocculated, and strongly flocculated) were consolidated to densities greater than or equal to those produced in conventional pressure filtration. Moreover, the as-consolidated alumina bodies were partially drained of fluid during the osmotic consolidation process, producing cohesive partially dried bodies with improved handling characteristics

  15. Comparable Rest-related Promotion of Spatial Memory Consolidation in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael; Wolbers, Thomas; Harris, Mathew A.; Hauff, Patrick; Della Sala, Sergio; Dewar, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Flexible spatial navigation depends on cognitive mapping, a function that declines with increasing age. In young adults, a brief period of post-navigation rest promotes the consolidation/integration of spatial memories into accurate cognitive maps. We examined (1) whether rest promotes spatial memory consolidation/integration in older adults and (2) whether the magnitude of the rest benefit changes with increasing age. Young and older adults learned a route through a virtual environment, followed by a 10min delay comprising either wakeful rest or a perceptual task, and a subsequent cognitive mapping task, requiring the pointing to landmarks from different locations. Pointing accuracy was lower in the older than younger adults. However, there was a comparable rest-related enhancement in pointing accuracy in the two age groups. Together our findings suggest that (i) the age-related decline in cognitive mapping cannot be explained by increased consolidation interference in older adults, and (ii) as we grow older rest continues to support the consolidation/integration of spatial memories. PMID:27689512

  16. Consolidity analysis for fully fuzzy functions, matrices, probability and statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Ibrahim Gabr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comprehensive review of the know-how for developing the systems consolidity theory for modeling, analysis, optimization and design in fully fuzzy environment. The solving of systems consolidity theory included its development for handling new functions of different dimensionalities, fuzzy analytic geometry, fuzzy vector analysis, functions of fuzzy complex variables, ordinary differentiation of fuzzy functions and partial fraction of fuzzy polynomials. On the other hand, the handling of fuzzy matrices covered determinants of fuzzy matrices, the eigenvalues of fuzzy matrices, and solving least-squares fuzzy linear equations. The approach demonstrated to be also applicable in a systematic way in handling new fuzzy probabilistic and statistical problems. This included extending the conventional probabilistic and statistical analysis for handling fuzzy random data. Application also covered the consolidity of fuzzy optimization problems. Various numerical examples solved have demonstrated that the new consolidity concept is highly effective in solving in a compact form the propagation of fuzziness in linear, nonlinear, multivariable and dynamic problems with different types of complexities. Finally, it is demonstrated that the implementation of the suggested fuzzy mathematics can be easily embedded within normal mathematics through building special fuzzy functions library inside the computational Matlab Toolbox or using other similar software languages.

  17. Shipment Consolidation Policy under Uncertainty of Customer Order for Sustainable Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyunghoon Kang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concern over the environment, shipment consolidation has become one of a main initiative to reduce CO2 emissions and transportation cost among the logistics service providers. Increased delivery time caused by shipment consolidation may lead to customer’s order cancellation. Thus, order cancellation should be considered as a factor in order uncertainty to determine the optimal shipment consolidation policy. We develop mathematical models for quantity-based and time-based policies and obtain optimality properties for the models. Efficient algorithms using optimal properties are provided to compute the optimal parameters for ordering and shipment decisions. To compare the performances of the quantity-based policy with the time-based policy, extensive numerical experiments are conducted, and the total cost is compared.

  18. Consolidation of tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.D.; Wardwell, R.E.; Abt, S.R.; Staub, W.P.

    1983-09-01

    The integrity of cover systems placed on tailings impoundments will be affected by the potential for differential settlement of the tailings surface. Settlement of the sand fraction will occur relatively rapidly. The slimes will take longer time for consolidation and will produce greater settlement. This report reviews the phenomenon of consolidation for saturated and unsaturated tailings. The effect of load application by cover placement and the extent to which dewatering of tailings will cause consolidation are considered. In addition, the feasibility of inducing consolidation by alternative means and the potential applicability of these methods to tailings impoundments reclamation are discussed. Differential settlement of the tailings will cause tensile strain to be developed in covers. This strain could be large enough to cause cracking within a relatively brittle compacted clay. Dewatering of tailings by drainage can cause settlement even greater than that by placement of a cover material. Dewatering of the tailings would also increase the stability of the tailings surface, thereby enhancing reclamation operations. Consequently, in view of the enhanced surface stability and the fact that a portion of the differential settlement can be accomplished prior to cover placement, dewatering of tailings impoundments during operations may have benefical effects

  19. Sealed source and device removal and consolidation feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.E.; Carter, J.G.; Meyers, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the feasibility of removing Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) sealed sources from their containment device and consolidating them for transport to a storage or disposal facility. A sealed source is a sealed capsule containing a radioactive material that is placed in a device providing radioactive containment. It is used in the medical, industrial, research, and food-processing communities for calibrating, measuring, gauging, controlling processes, and testing. This feasibility study addresses the key operational, safety, regulatory, and financial requirements of the removal/consolidation process. This report discusses the process to receive, handle, repackage, and ship these sources to an interim or dedicated storage facility until a final disposal repository can be built and become operational (∼ c. 2010). The study identifies operational and facility requirements to perform this work. Hanford, other DOE facilities, and private hot-cell facilities were evaluated to determine which facilities could perform this work. The personnel needed, design and engineering, facility preparation, process waste disposal requirements, and regulatory compliance were evaluated to determine the cost to perform this work. Cost requirements for items that will have to meet future changing regulatory requirements for transportation, transportation container design and engineering, and disposal were not included in this study. The cost associated with in-process consolidation of the sealed sources reported in this study may have not been modified for inflation and were based on 1992 dollars. This study shows that sealed source consolidation is possible with minimal personnel exposure, and would reduce the risk of radioactive releases to the environment. An initial pilot-scale operation could evaluate the possible methods to reduce the cost and consolidate sources

  20. Consolidity: Moving opposite to built-as-usual systems practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Taher Dorrah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With the recent uncovering of the mystery of consolidity as an inner property of systems, it is demonstrated that this notion is an indispensable pillar of systems modeling, analysis, design and building. Based on the opposite mathematical relation between consolidity versus stability and controllability, a new conceptual life cycle (change pathway graph for natural and man-made built-as-usual systems is presented and thoroughly discussed. For the conceptual cycle development progress, it is logically conceived that system behavior changes rate has not accidentally happened, but is relatively influenced at the point of progress by the associated direct system consolidity index corresponding to the acting on-the-spot varying environments or effects. Such conceptual graph represents a real research advancement indicating that we have to move opposite to current systems building practices for solving many real life enigmatic problems. It is illustrated using stabilization of inverted pendulum problem that it is amenable by cleverly manipulating systems structure and parameters to attain new designed systems with aggregates of superiority of consolidity, stability and controllability principle. It is recommended that we have to seek new generation of innovative non-conventional systems structures moving opposite to conventional built-as-usual system practices that can enable providing directly such three aggregates of superiority requirements as their built-in self property. This will open the door towards solving many real life challenging dilemmas in various sciences and disciplines, such as engineering, space sciences, medicine, pharmacology, biology, ecology, life sciences, economy, operations research, humanities and social sciences that are believed to be attributed due to their systems inferior consolidity.

  1. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program. Developments for the future in reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    The future reprocessing developments focus on three major areas: (1) the retention of gaseous fission products to reduce off-site doses to very low values; (2) the initial steps of breakdown, shearing, and dissolution of breeder fuels; and (3) advanced facility and equipment concepts, which are expected to lead to a reliable, cost-effective, totally remotely operated and maintained plant. Work in the first area - removal of fission gases (the most important of which is 85 Kr) - is largely completed through tracer and bench-scale engineering equipment. Efforts are now mainly devoted to breeder fuels and advanced remote concepts. A facility, the Integrated Equipment Test Facility, which will be used to carry out much of this work, is nearing completion in Oak Ridge. In it a large, simulated, remote reprocessing cell will house a disassembly-shear machine for either breeder or LWR fuels, a rotary continuous dissolver, a solvent extraction cycle utilizing a new generation of centrifugal contactors, and related equipment

  2. The velocity dependent dissolution of spent nuclear fuel in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, W.M.

    1990-02-01

    A model describing the dissolution of fission products and transuranic isotopes from spent nuclear fuel into flowing ground water has been developed. This model is divided into two parts. The first part of the model calculates the temperature within a consolidated spent fuel waste form at a given time and ground water velocity. This model was used to investigate whether water flowing at rates representative of a geological repository located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, will cool a wasteform consisting of consolidated spent nuclear fuel pins. Time and velocity dependent temperature profiles were generated. These profiles were input into the second model, which calculates the dissolution rate of waste isotopes from a spent fuel pin. Two dissolution limiting processes were modeled; the processes are dissolution limited by the solubility limit of an isotopes in the ground water, and dissolution limited by the diffusion of waste isotopes from the interior of a spent fuel pin to the surface where dissolution can occur

  3. Vapor corrosion of aluminum cladding alloys and aluminum-uranium fuel materials in storage environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.; Sindelar, R.L.; Peacock, H.B. Jr.

    1997-04-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of vapor environments on the corrosion of aluminum spent nuclear fuel (A1 SNF) has been performed. Aluminum cladding alloys and aluminum-uranium fuel alloys have been exposed to environments of air/water vapor/ionizing radiation and characterized for applications to degradation mode analysis for interim dry and repository storage systems. Models have been developed to allow predictions of the corrosion response under conditions of unlimited corrodant species. Threshold levels of water vapor under which corrosion does not occur have been identified through tests under conditions of limited corrodant species. Coupons of aluminum 1100, 5052, and 6061, the US equivalent of cladding alloys used to manufacture foreign research reactor fuels, and several aluminum-uranium alloys (aluminum-10, 18, and 33 wt% uranium) were exposed to various controlled vapor environments in air within the following ranges of conditions: Temperature -- 80 to 200 C; Relative Humidity -- 0 to 100% using atmospheric condensate water and using added nitric acid to simulate radiolysis effects; and Gamma Radiation -- none and 1.8 x 10 6 R/hr. The results of this work are part of the body of information needed for understanding the degradation of the A1 SNF waste form in a direct disposal system in the federal repository. It will provide the basis for data input to the ongoing performance assessment and criticality safety analyses. Additional testing of uranium-aluminum fuel materials at uranium contents typical of high enriched and low enriched fuels is being initiated to provide the data needed for the development of empirical models

  4. Remote real time x-ray examination of fuel elements in a hot cell environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yapuncich, F.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses the Remote Real Time X-ray System which will allow for detailed examination of fuel elements. This task will be accomplished in a highly radioactive hot cell environment. Two remote handling systems win be utilized at the examination station. One handling system will transfer the fuel element to and from the shielded x-ray system. A second handling system will allow for vertical and rotational inspection of the fuel elements. The process win include removing a single nuclear fuel element from a element fabrication magazine(EFM), positioning the fuel element within the shielding envelope of the x-ray system and transferring the fuel element from the station manipulator to the x-ray system manipulator, performing the x-ray inspection, and then transferring the fuel element to either the element storage magazine(ESM) or a reject bin

  5. Simulation of pellet-cladding interaction with the Pleiades fuel performance software environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, B.; Nonon, C.; Sercombe, J.; Michel, F.; Marelle, V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the PLEIADES fuel performance software environment and its application to the modeling of pellet-cladding interaction (PCI). The PLEIADES platform has been under development for 10 yr; a unified software environment, including the multidimensional finite element solver CAST3M, has been used to develop eight computation schemes now under operation. Among the latter, the ALCYONE application is devoted to pressurized water reactor fuel rod behavior. This application provides a three-dimensional (3-D) model for a detailed analysis of fuel element behavior and enables validation through comparing simulation and post-irradiation examination results (cladding residual diameter and ridges, dishing filling, pellet cracking, etc.). These last years the 3-D computation scheme of the ALCYONE application has been enriched with a complete set of physical models to take into account thermomechanical and chemical-physical behavior of the fuel element under irradiation. These models have been validated through the ALCYONE application on a large experimental database composed of approximately 400 study cases. The strong point of the ALCYONE application concerns the local approach of stress-corrosion-cracking rupture under PCI, which can be computed with the 3-D finite element solver. Further developments for PCI modeling in the PLEIADES platform are devoted to a new mesh refinement method for assessing stress-and-strain concentration (multigrid technique) and a new component for assessing fission product chemical recombination. (authors)

  6. Overview of the US spent nuclear fuel program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurt, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    This report, Overview of the United States Spent Nuclear Fuel Program, December, 1997, summarizes the U.S. strategy for interim management and ultimate disposition of spent nuclear fuel from research and test reactors. The key elements of this strategy include consolidation of this spent nuclear fuel at three sites, preparation of the fuel for geologic disposal in road-ready packages, and low-cost dry interim storage until the planned geologic repository is opened. The U.S. has a number of research programs in place that are intended to Provide data and technologies to support both characterization and disposition of the fuel. (author)

  7. Investigation of fission products release and structural changes of WWER spent fuel in inert and oxidizing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kungurtsev, I.A.; Smirnov, V.P.; Kuzmin, I.V.; Lebeduk, I.V.; Pimonov, Y.I.; Sohcilin, G.I.; Stupina, L.N.; Chesanov, V.V.; Shtuckert, Y.A.; Zvir, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    At the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors in-cell experiments were carried out which were aimed at investigation of WWER spent fuel behaviour under accident conditions. Gaseous and volatile fission products release and the influence of gaseous swelling, fuel interaction with the cladding and oxidation on it have been investigated. At the present time, series of experiments in inert and air environments have been finished and the tests in steam environment have been carrying out. In all series the samples in the form of fuel pellets fragments and fuel elements pieces were used. This report presents some results of annealing tests and investigations of the sample microstructure after annealing. (author). 4 refs, 15 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Container materials in environments of corroded spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F. H.

    1996-07-01

    Efforts to remove corroded uranium metal fuel from the K Basins wet storage to long-term dry storage are underway. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) is used to load spent nuclear fuel for vacuum drying, staging, and hot conditioning; it will be used for interim dry storage until final disposition options are developed. Drying and conditioning of the corroded fuel will minimize the possibility of gas pressurization and runaway oxidation. During all phases of operations the MCO is subjected to radiation, temperature and pressure excursions, hydrogen, potential pyrophoric hazard, and corrosive environments. Material selection for the MCO applications is clearly vital for safe and efficient long-term interim storage. Austenitic stainless steels (SS) such as 304L SS or 316L SS appear to be suitable for the MCO. Of the two, Type 304L SS is recommended because it possesses good resistance to chemical corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, and radiation-induced corrosive species. In addition, the material has adequate strength and ductility to withstand pressure and impact loading so that the containment boundary of the container is maintained under accident conditions without releasing radioactive materials.

  9. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.; Patridge, M.D.

    1991-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECN/NEA activities reports; not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  10. Baseline concentrations of nuclear fuel waste nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.

    1992-04-01

    Protection of the environment is a key issue in the disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes. To assess the implications of undergound disposal, transport models are commonly used to predict radionuclide concentrations in soil and water. However, an appropriate framework needs to be established to ensure that the predicted concentrations do not impose unacceptable environmental impacts. Here, we suggest baseline environmental concentrations of the most important radionuclides in nuclear fuel waste. We summarize background concentrations of the nuclides in soil and surface water, and suggest Environmental Increments (EI) that could be added to soil and water without causing detectable effects. The EI values are based mostly on natural variability, but some alternative methods are used for radionuclides that are very rare in nature. The background concentrations and EI values are most useful as a screening tool to help identify potentially unacceptable concentrations arising from a disposal concept. When available, we also report data on concentrations that have been measured in the environment without causing an observable effect. This review focuses especially on concentrations applicable to the Canadian Precambrian Shield, as part of the Canadian concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal in a deep, stable geological formation

  11. Distribution center consolidation games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, F.; Slikker, M.

    2005-01-01

    We study a location-inventory model to analyze the impact of consolidation of distribution centers on facility and inventory costs. We introduce a cooperative game and show that when demand processes are i.i.d. the core is non-empty, i.e., consolidation allows for a stable division of the minimal

  12. 77 FR 45721 - Consolidated Audit Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... maintain a consolidated order tracking system, or consolidated audit trail, with respect to the trading of... With a Consolidated Audit Trail 3. Large Trader Reporting System Rule B. Summary of Proposed Rule 613 C... Authority (``FINRA'') and some of the exchanges currently maintain their own separate audit trail systems...

  13. Within the Walls: An Analysis of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Coercion at Naval Consolidated Brig Miramar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    most commonly cited are “ quid pro quo ” and “hostile environment.” Employers are charged with ensuring that the workplace is free from sexual ...ANALYSIS OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND SEXUAL COERCION AT NAVAL CONSOLIDATED BRIG MIRAMAR by Robert M. Collins September 2006 Suzanne M. Johnson...AND SUBTITLE: Within the Walls: An Analysis of Sexual Harassment and Sexual Coercion at Naval Consolidated Brig Miramar 6. AUTHORS Robert M. Collins

  14. 26 CFR 1.1502-3 - Consolidated tax credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consolidated tax credits. 1.1502-3 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Consolidated Tax Liability § 1.1502-3 Consolidated tax credits. (a) Determination of...) Consolidated limitation based on amount of tax. (i) Notwithstanding the amount of the consolidated credit...

  15. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  16. CONVERSION OF FOREIGN COMPANIES ACCOUNTS IN THE ACCOUNT CONSOLIDATION PROCESS IN ROMANIA UNDER THE CLOSING RATE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana BANUTA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches a topical theme of debate both in the professional academic environment and especially in the economic practice, i.e. the manner of converting the accounts of foreign companies in the account consolidation process, in Romania. We analyse the conditions of applying the accounting regulations related to the consolidation of accounts, in Romania, focusing on the manner of converting the accounts of the foreign companies according to Order no. 1802/2014 approving the accounting regulations on individual annual financial statements and consolidated annual financial statements and to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. We focused on the presentation of the practical method of applying the conversion of the accounts of the foreign companies according to the closing rate method, because irrespective of the accounting referential applied by the parent company for consolidation, this method occurs in the pre-consolidation stage, if the group leader has affiliates abroad, and the individual financial statements of the companies in the consolidation perimeter have different disclosure currencies.

  17. Pathway Distiller - multisource biological pathway consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doderer, Mark S; Anguiano, Zachry; Suresh, Uthra; Dashnamoorthy, Ravi; Bishop, Alexander J R; Chen, Yidong

    2012-01-01

    One method to understand and evaluate an experiment that produces a large set of genes, such as a gene expression microarray analysis, is to identify overrepresentation or enrichment for biological pathways. Because pathways are able to functionally describe the set of genes, much effort has been made to collect curated biological pathways into publicly accessible databases. When combining disparate databases, highly related or redundant pathways exist, making their consolidation into pathway concepts essential. This will facilitate unbiased, comprehensive yet streamlined analysis of experiments that result in large gene sets. After gene set enrichment finds representative pathways for large gene sets, pathways are consolidated into representative pathway concepts. Three complementary, but different methods of pathway consolidation are explored. Enrichment Consolidation combines the set of the pathways enriched for the signature gene list through iterative combining of enriched pathways with other pathways with similar signature gene sets; Weighted Consolidation utilizes a Protein-Protein Interaction network based gene-weighting approach that finds clusters of both enriched and non-enriched pathways limited to the experiments' resultant gene list; and finally the de novo Consolidation method uses several measurements of pathway similarity, that finds static pathway clusters independent of any given experiment. We demonstrate that the three consolidation methods provide unified yet different functional insights of a resultant gene set derived from a genome-wide profiling experiment. Results from the methods are presented, demonstrating their applications in biological studies and comparing with a pathway web-based framework that also combines several pathway databases. Additionally a web-based consolidation framework that encompasses all three methods discussed in this paper, Pathway Distiller (http://cbbiweb.uthscsa.edu/PathwayDistiller), is established to allow

  18. Consolidation and Disclosure of SPE

    OpenAIRE

    中野, 貴之

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss what kinds of information are demanded by the users of financial statements and what kinds of problems plague the companies using SPE (special purpose equity), while considering the actual situations of the consolidation and disclosure of SPE in Japan. At present, there is the trend of consolidating a broad range of SPE in Japan, etc., but some users of financial statements point out that it became difficult to understand consolidated financial stat...

  19. FEATURES OF CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS: FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. KUCHER

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the features of preparation and submission of the consolidated financial statements of the world countries of different systems of accounting standardization in order to identify the areas of accounting improvement for the process of consolidation of financial reporting indicators. The main problems of consolidated financial statements preparation by business entities in Ukraine are determined. The author determines the theoretical and practical problems of consolidation of financial statements of organizational and methodical character. The comparative analysis of the features of standardization process of financial statements consolidation in the world countries is carried out. The main differences in the requirements for the formation of consolidated financial statements indicators of such countries as the French Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of Belarus and the People’s Republic of China are outlined. The main directions of scientific researches on the improvement of accounting and analytical support for the preparation of consolidated financial statements are formed.

  20. Fuels, energy, and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Karim, Ghazi A

    2012-01-01

    All complicated materials of combustion science are presented in a very clear and precise manner … This is the book, in my opinion, that every combustion, fire safety, and fuel engineer should have. … equally useful to newcomers … [and] experienced professionals and researchers in the area.-S.O. Bade Shrestha, Western Michigan University The book covers all aspects of fuels, not just … chemistry or combustion. Of particular importance and actuality are those issues related to safety and environmental impact. Furthermore, the variety of fuels and processes discussed is very wide.-Giuseppe Spazz

  1. Common consolidated corporate tax base: grouping and consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After the ten years of work and discussion of the proposal the European Commission has published the proposal of CCCTB directive on 16th March, 2011. This proposal can be considered as unique, for the European Commission is suggesting totally new system of corporate taxation. The aim of the paper is to research the rules for consolidation and grouping suggested in the proposal of CCCTB directive, to identify the possible conflict situations and to suggest the possible solution. The focuses on the provisions regarding the conditions for consolidation and grouping, comprised in chapter IX, Art. 54–60. In that area has been identified, that even though the provisions seem to be clear, their practical application can in some situations lead to double interpretation, mainly with respect to the fact that individual member states are responsible for the implementation of the directive and also national tax administrators and national courts are going to interpret the provisions of the directive. Therefore even though the fact that suggested system is unique and addresses a lot of problems which are facing companies running business on the internal market, the provisions regarding the consolidation rules and rules for group formatting may still lead not to unified interpretation. In that respect, some of the rules should be more specific in order to ensure unified interpretation.

  2. Consolidation of long-term memory: evidence and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeter, Martijn; Murre, Jaap M J

    2004-11-01

    Memory loss in retrograde amnesia has long been held to be larger for recent periods than for remote periods, a pattern usually referred to as the Ribot gradient. One explanation for this gradient is consolidation of long-term memories. Several computational models of such a process have shown how consolidation can explain characteristics of amnesia, but they have not elucidated how consolidation must be envisaged. Here findings are reviewed that shed light on how consolidation may be implemented in the brain. Moreover, consolidation is contrasted with alternative theories of the Ribot gradient. Consolidation theory, multiple trace theory, and semantization can all handle some findings well but not others. Conclusive evidence for or against consolidation thus remains to be found.

  3. The Impact of Approved Accounting Standard AASB 1024 “Consolidated Accounts” on the Information Included in Consolidated Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Pramuka, Bambang Agus

    1995-01-01

    The intent of consolidated financial statements is to provide meaningful, relevant, useful, and reliable information about the operations of a group of companies. In compliance with AASB 1024 'Consolidated Accounts', and AAS 24 Consolidated Financial Reports', a parent entity now has to include in its consolidated financial statements all controlled entities, regardless of their legal form or the ownership interest held. The new Standard also pr...

  4. Cost Sensitivity Analysis for Consolidated Interim Storage of Spent Fuel: Evaluating the Effect of Economic Environment Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumberland, Riley M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Kent Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jarrell, Joshua J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joseph, III, Robert Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report evaluates how the economic environment (i.e., discount rate, inflation rate, escalation rate) can impact previously estimated differences in lifecycle costs between an integrated waste management system with an interim storage facility (ISF) and a similar system without an ISF.

  5. Schemas and memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Dorothy; Langston, Rosamund F; Kakeyama, Masaki; Bethus, Ingrid; Spooner, Patrick A; Wood, Emma R; Witter, Menno P; Morris, Richard G M

    2007-04-06

    Memory encoding occurs rapidly, but the consolidation of memory in the neocortex has long been held to be a more gradual process. We now report, however, that systems consolidation can occur extremely quickly if an associative "schema" into which new information is incorporated has previously been created. In experiments using a hippocampal-dependent paired-associate task for rats, the memory of flavor-place associations became persistent over time as a putative neocortical schema gradually developed. New traces, trained for only one trial, then became assimilated and rapidly hippocampal-independent. Schemas also played a causal role in the creation of lasting associative memory representations during one-trial learning. The concept of neocortical schemas may unite psychological accounts of knowledge structures with neurobiological theories of systems memory consolidation.

  6. Creep Analysis of Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel in Repository Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, C.; Lam, P.S.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1998-07-01

    Aluminum-clad, aluminum-based spent nuclear fuels (Al SNF) from foreign and domestic research reactors are being consolidated at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These fuels are planned to be put into dry storage followed by disposal in the federal repository. Temperature conditions in storage and disposal systems due to nuclear decay heat sources will promote creep information of the fuel elements. Excessive deformation of the Al SNF will cause gross distortion (slump) of the fuels and may cause gross cladding rupture

  7. Empirical Analysis of Server Consolidation and Desktop Virtualization in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Rong Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical server transited to virtual server infrastructure (VSI and desktop device to virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI have the crucial problems of server consolidation, virtualization performance, virtual machine density, total cost of ownership (TCO, and return on investments (ROI. Besides, how to appropriately choose hypervisor for the desired server/desktop virtualization is really challenging, because a trade-off between virtualization performance and cost is a hard decision to make in the cloud. This paper introduces five hypervisors to establish the virtual environment and then gives a careful assessment based on C/P ratio that is derived from composite index, consolidation ratio, virtual machine density, TCO, and ROI. As a result, even though ESX server obtains the highest ROI and lowest TCO in server virtualization and Hyper-V R2 gains the best performance of virtual machine management; both of them however cost too much. Instead the best choice is Proxmox Virtual Environment (Proxmox VE because it not only saves the initial investment a lot to own a virtual server/desktop infrastructure, but also obtains the lowest C/P ratio.

  8. Consolidation Processes: Raiders & Targets in Polish Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Poteraj, Jarosław

    2004-01-01

    The work consists of five chapters, an annex and an appendix. In the first chapter the author describes the point of consolidation processes, presents: the meaning of consolidation processes, active and institutional aspects of merger execution, gives a classification of the consolidation processes and considers conditions of execution of consolidations processes in the Polish law, The next chapter concerns reasons of consolidation processes. The author describes there in turn: motives of the...

  9. Assessment of Methods to Consolidate Iodine-Loaded Silver-Functionalized Silica Aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Josef; Engler, Robert K.

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is currently investigating alternative sorbents for the removal and immobilization of radioiodine from the gas streams in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. One of these new sorbents, Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels, shows great promise as a potential replacement for Ag-bearing mordenites because of its high selectivity and sorption capacity for iodine. Moreover, a feasible consolidation of iodine-loaded Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels to a durable SiO2-based waste form makes this aerogel an attractive choice for sequestering radioiodine. This report provides a preliminary assessment of the methods that can be used to consolidate iodine-loaded Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels into a final waste form. In particular, it focuses on experimental investigation of densification of as prepared Ag0-functionalized silica aerogels powders, with or without organic moiety and with or without sintering additive (colloidal silica), with three commercially available techniques: 1) hot uniaxial pressing (HUP), 2) hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and 3) spark plasma sintering (SPS). The densified products were evaluated with helium gas pycnometer for apparent density, with the Archimedes method for apparent density and open porosity, and with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) for the extent of densification and distribution of individual elements. The preliminary investigation of HUP, HIP, and SPS showed that these sintering methods can effectively consolidate powders of Ag0-functionalized silica aerogel into products of near-theoretical density. Also, removal of organic moiety and adding 5.6 mass% of colloidal silica to Ag0-functionalized silica aerogel powders before processing provided denser products. Furthermore, the ram travel data for SPS indicated that rapid consolidation of powders can be performed at temperatures below 950°C.

  10. Sand consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spain, H H

    1965-01-21

    In a sand consolidation method in which there is injected a mixture of resin-forming liquids comprising an aryl-hydroxy low molecular weight compound, a water- soluble aldehyde, and a catalyst, an improvement is claimed which comprises diluting the resin-forming liquids with a diluent and with water so that the yield of the resin is sufficient to consolidate the sand particles with the minimum desirable pressure. The diluent may be mutually soluble in water and in the resin-forming liquids, and does not affect the setting time of the polymer. The aldehyde and the aryl-hydroxy compound may be in ratio of 5:1, and the diluent, methyl alcohol, is present in a ratio of 2:1 with reference to the water.

  11. Remote maintenance in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    Remote maintenance techniques applied in large-scale nuclear fuel reprocessing plants are reviewed with particular attention to the three major maintenance philosophy groupings: contact, remote crane canyon, and remote/contact. Examples are given, and the relative success of each type is discussed. Probable future directions for large-scale reprocessing plant maintenance are described along with advanced manipulation systems for application in the plants. The remote maintenance development program within the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is also described. 19 refs., 19 figs

  12. Acoustic emission from fuel pellets in a simulated reactor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Kennedy, C.R.; Reimann, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal-shock damage of nuclear reactor fuel pellets in a simulated reactor environment has been correlated with acoustic-emission data obtained from sensors placed on extensions of the electrical feedthroughs. Ringdown counts, rms output data, and event-location data has been acquired for experiments carried out with single pellets as well as multiple pellet stacks. These tests have shown that acoustic-emission monitoring can provide information indicating the onset and the extent of cracking

  13. Fossil fuel usage and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Greenhouse Effect and global warming, ozone formation in the troposphere, ozone destruction in the stratosphere, and acid rain are important environmental issues. The relationship of fossil fuel usage to some of these issues is discussed. Data on fossil fuel consumption and the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, and ozone indicate that natural gas provides lower emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen and sulfur oxides than other fossil fuels. Global emissions of methane from the gas industry are significantly less than those from other anthropogenic activities and natural sources, and methane plays an important role along with carbon monoxide and nitric oxide in tropospheric ozone formation. Reductions in any or all of these air pollutants would reduce ozone in the lower atmosphere. Several remedial measures have been or are being implemented in certain countries to reduce fossil fuel emissions. These include removal of emissions from the atmosphere by new biomass growth, fuel substitution by use of cleaner burning fuels for stationary and mobile sources, and fossil fuel combustion at higher efficiencies. It is unlikely that concerted environmental action by all governments of the world will occur soon, but much progress has been made to achieve clean air

  14. Benchmarking multi-dimensional large strain consolidation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priestley, D.; Fredlund, M.D.; Van Zyl, D.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the consolidation of tailings slurries and dredged fills requires a more extensive formulation than is used for common (small strain) consolidation problems. Large strain consolidation theories have traditionally been limited to 1-D formulations. SoilVision Systems has developed the capacity to analyze large strain consolidation problems in 2 and 3-D. The benchmarking of such formulations is not a trivial task. This paper presents several examples of modeling large strain consolidation in the beta versions of the new software. These examples were taken from the literature and were used to benchmark the large strain formulation used by the new software. The benchmarks reported here are: a comparison to the consolidation software application CONDES0, Townsend's Scenario B and a multi-dimensional analysis of long-term column tests performed on oil sands tailings. All three of these benchmarks were attained using the SVOffice suite. (author)

  15. Water storage of liquid-metal fast-breeder-reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a general overview of a concept proposed for receiving and storing liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) spent fuel. This work was done as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The CFRP has as its major objective the development of technology for reprocessing advanced nuclear reactor fuels. The program plans that research and development will be carried through to a sufficient scale, using irradiated spent fuel under plant operating conditions, to establish a basis for confident projection of reprocessing capability to support a breeder industry

  16. Third international spent fuel stroage technology symposium/workshop: proceedings. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The scope of this meeting comprised dry storage and rod consolidation, emphasizing programs on water reactor fuel with zirconium alloy cladding. Volume 1 contains the symposium papers, together with the question/answer sessions that followed the presentations. Four sessions were held: Dry Storage System Tests, Demonstrations and Analyses; At-Reactor and Central Storage Facilities; Dry Storage Integrity; and Rod Consolidation Technology and Demonstrations. Individual papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  17. Workshop on an Assessment of Gas-Side Fouling in Fossil Fuel Exhaust Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marner, W. J. (Editor); Webb, R. L. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The state of the art of gas side fouling in fossil fuel exhaust environments was assessed. Heat recovery applications were emphasized. The deleterious effects of gas side fouling including increased energy consumption, increased material losses, and loss of production were identified.

  18. 24 CFR 401.401 - Consolidated Restructuring Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.401 Consolidated Restructuring Plans. A PAE may request HUD to approve a Consolidated Restructuring Plan that presents an overall strategy for more than one... resources, HUD will not approve any Consolidated Restructuring Plans that have a detrimental effect on...

  19. Basic tendencies of restructured UO2 nuclear fuels fabrication industry for water-moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhova, V.A.; Bokshitskij, V.I.; Blinova, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    Processes of reformation and consolidation of firms and frontier nuclear fuels fabrication industry associated with processes of globalization and deregulation of electric power market are analyzed. Current state of nuclear fuel market and basic factors influenced on the market are presented. The role of nuclear fuel in increasing competition of NPP and fundamental directions of innovation action on the creation of perspective kinds of fuel were considered [ru

  20. Convincing about the advanced use of nuclear energy closing the fuel cycle: from a burden to a solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neau, Henry Jacques

    2007-01-01

    France has associated a closed fuel cycle with its nuclear program, and developed the corresponding treatment recycling capabilities accordingly. This choice was recently consolidated by law. according to the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste act of June 2006, the volume and radio toxicity reduction of nuclear waste is an objective that can notably be reached with their treatment and conditioning. Presently, used fuel valuable components (U and Pu) are recycled into MOX fuel and RepU, when fission products are conditioned under an extremely solid and resistant form which cannot disperse and dissolve in the environment (High Level Vitrified Waste). Safety and waste minimisation remain the AREVA constant objective. Presently operated treatment and recycling AREVA NC facilities are using mature industrial technologies, which address environment preservation and non proliferation concerns. This french national choice requires a permanent global acceptance strategy towards politicians, media, associations and more generally public opinion: to. be accepted, in needs to be understood. Transparency, dialogue and information are keywords for AREVA NC to be sure that closing the fuel cycle is considered as the best option available now for responsibly managing the waste, respecting the environment, preserving the resource and securing the future. Partnering in this Global Acceptance policy with other countries and customers, who already rely- or plan to do so - on this recycling strategy is both a reality and a permanent axis of development for AREVA NC

  1. 7 CFR 1710.108 - Mergers and consolidations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... operating efficiency and financial soundness. (b) After a merger or consolidation, RUS will give priority... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mergers and consolidations. 1710.108 Section 1710.108... and Basic Policies § 1710.108 Mergers and consolidations. (a) RUS encourages its borrowers to consider...

  2. Control of Bank Consolidated Financial Statements Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita S. Ambarchyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The author presents the multiple linear regression model of bank consolidated financial statements quality. The article considers six characteristics that can be used to estimate the level of bank consolidated financial statements quality. The multiple linear regression model was developed, using the results of point-based system of consolidated financial statements of thirty European bank and financial groups on the basis of the developed characteristics. The author offers to use the characteristic significance factor in the process of consolidated financial statements appraisal by points. The constructed regression model is checked on accuracy and statistical significance. The model can be used by internal auditors and financial analytics as an instrument for bank and non-bank consolidated financial statements quality control

  3. The Financial Effects of Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streifel, James S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examination of 19 school district consolidations in 10 states, 1980-84, revealed that, of 6 expenditure categories, only administration showed significant savings 3 years after consolidation, when compared to changes in state average costs during that period. Changes in other expenditure categories varied widely among districts. Contains 22…

  4. Interpretation of Consolidation Test on Søvind Marl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, Gitte Lyng; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the interpretation of consolidation test in order to determine the preconsolidation stress; this is done by reviewing different methods. A main point in the article is the interaction between the consolidation and the secondary consolidation strains, and the methods used...... to separate the two strain types. This is in Denmark traditionally done by a √(t)-log(t) description, where the secondary consolidation first starts when the consolidation process is over. This assumption gives an uncertain description of the strain process, since the two processes in reality run...

  5. Guide to Direct Consolidation Loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Intended for financial aid counselors, this document provides guidelines to the Federal Direct Consolidation Loan Program for borrowers who are in school, as well as those in repayment, or in default. An introductory section explains the basics of the consolidated loan program, loan categories, and interest rates. Next, standards for borrower…

  6. Molybdenum-base cermet fuel development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurwell, W.E.; Moss, R.W.; Pilger, J.P.; White, G.D.

    1987-07-01

    Development of a multimegawatt (MMW) space nuclear power system requires identification and resolution of several technical feasibility issues before selecting one or more promising system concepts. Demonstration of reactor fuel fabrication technology is required for cermet-fueled reactor concepts. MMW reactor fuel development activity at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is focused on producing a molybdenum-matrix uranium-nitride (UN) fueled cermet. This cermet is to have a high matrix density (≥95%) for high strength and high thermal conductance coupled with a high particle (UN) porosity (∼25%) for retention of released fission gas at high burnup. Fabrication process development involves the use of porous TiN microspheres as surrogate fuel material until porous UN microspheres become available. Process development has been conducted in the areas of microsphere synthesis, particle sealing/coating, and high-energy-rate forming (HERF) and vacuum hot press consolidation techniques. This paper summarizes the status of these activities

  7. Synthetic Natural Gas/ Biogas (Bio-SNG) from Wood as Transportation Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biollaz, S.; Stucki, S.

    2004-03-01

    Biofuel production from wood is an interesting option for the energetic use of wood. Various bio fuels could be produced from woody biomass, such as methanol, Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels, methane or hydrogen. FT liquids and bio-SNG can be distributed and used via existing infrastructures and therefore fit best today's fossil infrastructure. On an assessment basis from primary to mechanical energy both fuels have pros and cons. For the consolidation of crucial information, i.e. production cost, demonstration plants of transportation fuels are needed. Based on such plants, a detailed evaluation of both fuel chains will be possible. (author)

  8. Development of remote disassembly technology for liquid-metal reactor (LMR) fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.C.; Evans, J.H.; Metz, C.F. III; Weil, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    A major objective of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) is to develop equipment and demonstrate technology to reprocess fast breeder reactor fuel. Experimental work on fuel disassembly cutting methods began in the 1970s. High-power laser cutting was selected as the preferred cutting method for fuel disassembly. Remotely operated development equipment was designed, fabricated, installed, and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Development testing included remote automatic operation, remote maintenance testing, and laser cutting process development. This paper summarizes the development work performed at ORNL on remote fuel disassembly. 2 refs., 1 fig

  9. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1992-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need exists costs for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book has been compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NMEA activities reports; and proceedings of conferences and workshops. The data listed typically do not reflect any single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information

  10. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, I.W.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops, etc. The data listed do not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information

  11. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I W; Mitchell, S J

    1990-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops, etc. The data listed do not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  12. In-pool damaged fuel bundle recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piascik, T.G.; Patenaude, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    While preparing to rerack the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, GPU Nuclear had need to move a damaged fuel bundle. This bundle had no upper tie plate and could not be moved in the normal manner. GPU Nuclear formed a small, dedicated project team to disassemble, package and move this damaged bundle. The team was composed of key personnel from GPU Nuclear Fuels Projects, OCNGS Operations and Proto-Power / Bisco, a specialty contractor who has fuel bundle reconstitution and rod consolidation experience, remote tooling, underwater video systems and experienced technicians. Proven tooling, clear procedures and a simple approach were important, but the key element was the spirit of teamwork and leadership exhibited by the people involved

  13. District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart, Dan

    2011-01-01

    District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

  14. Some factors to consider in handling and storing spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1985-11-01

    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Wet storage experience has been summarized earlier in several other reports. This report summarizes pertinent items noted during FY 1985 concerning recent developments in the handling and storage of spent fuel and associated considerations. The subjects discussed include recent publications, findings, and developments associated with: (1) storage of water reactor spent fuel in water pools, (2) extended-burnup fuel, (3) fuel assembly reconstitution and reinsertion, (4) rod consolidation, (5) variations in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's definition of failed fuel, (6) detection of failed fuel rods, and (7) extended integrity of spent fuel. A list of pertinent publications is included

  15. Thermal analysis of HNPF spent fuel shipping container in torch environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggers, P.E.; Crawford, H.L.; Trujillo, A.A.; Pope, R.B.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    A thermal analysis of a modified HNPF cask has been performed to predict cask temperatures in simulated torch fire environments. A portion of this analysis also provided a basis for the modifications leading to the design of external cooling fins, a pressure relief valve system, a spent fuel torch fire analyses will provide comparison with experimentally measured temperatures of the HNPF cask, in torch fire environments, which will be obtained in the future. Scope of this study was analytical in nature and involved the use of a computer-based heat transfer analysis methods. Product of this study is the prediction of cask temperatures and internal pressures under normal and torch-fire accident conditions. This study also involved an analysis of the torch fire literature in order to develop an empirically based thermal model for the torch environment. 8 figures, 3 tables

  16. Familiarity speeds up visual short-term memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2017-06-01

    Existing long-term memory (LTM) can boost the number of retained representations over a short delay in visual short-term memory (VSTM). However, it is unclear whether and how prior LTM affects the initial process of transforming fragile sensory inputs into durable VSTM representations (i.e., VSTM consolidation). The consolidation speed hypothesis predicts faster consolidation for familiar relative to unfamiliar stimuli. Alternatively, the perceptual boost hypothesis predicts that the advantage in perceptual processing of familiar stimuli should add a constant boost for familiar stimuli during VSTM consolidation. To test these competing hypotheses, the present study examined how the large variance in participants' prior multimedia experience with Pokémon affected VSTM for Pokémon. In Experiment 1, the amount of time allowed for VSTM consolidation was manipulated by presenting consolidation masks at different intervals after the onset of to-be-remembered Pokémon characters. First-generation Pokémon characters that participants were more familiar with were consolidated faster into VSTM as compared with recent-generation Pokémon characters that participants were less familiar with. These effects were absent in participants who were unfamiliar with both generations of Pokémon. Although familiarity also increased the number of retained Pokémon characters when consolidation was uninterrupted but still incomplete due to insufficient encoding time in Experiment 1, this capacity effect was absent in Experiment 2 when consolidation was allowed to complete with sufficient encoding time. Together, these results support the consolidation speed hypothesis over the perceptual boost hypothesis and highlight the importance of assessing experimental effects on both processing and representation aspects of VSTM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Teaching Consolidations Accounting: An Approach to Easing the Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; McCarthy, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching and learning accounting for consolidations is a challenging endeavor. Students not only need to understand the conceptual underpinnings of the accounting requirements for consolidations, but also must master the complex accounting needed to prepare consolidated financial statements. To add to the challenge, the consolidation process is…

  18. [Factors of work environment and employment of workers in production of fuels and solvents at the oil refinery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotarev, P A; Kharlashova, N V

    2012-01-01

    Factors of the industrial environment and labor activity of workers of manufacture propellants and solvents at the oil refining enterprise. Working conditions of workers at all installations of manufacture No 1 JSC "Naftan" of Novopolotsk of Byelorussia (production of fuels and solvents). Hygienic evaluation of working conditions of persons working in the production of fuels and solvents at the oil refinery. Sanitary description of the production with hygienic analysis of project design and technological documentation, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of conventional methods in the work environment and working process of employees in the workplace for the main modes of operation of the equipment. The working environment of refineries is influenced by a number of simultaneously acting factors, which have different material nature and characteristics of the action on the human body, the workers in production of fuels and solvents at the refinery, are exposed to a variety of hazardous and dangerous factors of production, a chemical factor is prevalent, of course.

  19. SOME APECTS REGARDING THE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szora Tamas Atila

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is divided into four parts: in the introduction are presented the theoretical aspects of the consolidated financial statements and the consolidation methods. During the second part are shown the structure rates calculated prior and after the consolidation, and in the third are calculated the financial rates of return and the effective tax rates of fixed assets. The conclusion of this study presents that although the consolidated entity is not a tax, it presents the group effort without the internal flows between entities within the group. In terms of the world scientific research typology used by the authors, it refers to descriptive research, explanatory research and applied research. In terms of the novelties, brought by this study, it is specifically determined, based on the actual database, the evolution of structure indicators, indicators of balance, the financial profitability indicators of corporate companies prior to and after consolidation.

  20. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program. Progress report, January 1-March 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    Progress and activities are reported on process development, laboratory R and D, engineering research, engineering systems, Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility operations, and HTGR fuel reprocessing

  1. Consolidation of long-term memory: Evidence and alternatives.

    OpenAIRE

    Meeter, M.; Murre, J.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Memory loss in retrograde amnesia has long been held to be larger for recent periods than for remote periods, a pattern usually referred to as the Ribot gradient. One explanation for this gradient is consolidation of long-term memories. Several computational models of such a process have shown how consolidation can explain characteristics of amnesia, but they have not elucidated how consolidation must be envisaged. Here findings are reviewed that shed light on how consolidation may be impleme...

  2. Microbially-accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. Pathway I: changes in porewater chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Tariq; Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Arkell, Nicholas; Young, Rozlyn; Li, Carmen; Guigard, Selma; Underwood, Eleisha; Foght, Julia M

    2014-01-01

    Dispersed clay particles in mine tailings and soft sediments remain suspended for decades, hindering consolidation and challenging effective management of these aqueous slurries. Current geotechnical engineering models of self-weight consolidation of tailings do not consider microbial contribution to sediment behavior, however, here we show that microorganisms indigenous to oil sands tailings change the porewater chemistry and accelerate consolidation of oil sands tailings. A companion paper describes the role of microbes in alteration of clay chemistry in tailings. Microbial metabolism in mature fine tailings (MFT) amended with an organic substrate (hydrolyzed canola meal) produced methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Dissolution of biogenic CO2 lowered the pH of amended MFT to pH 6.4 vs. unamended MFT (pH 7.7). About 12% more porewater was recovered from amended than unamended MFT during 2 months of active microbial metabolism, concomitant with consolidation of tailings. The lower pH in amended MFT dissolved carbonate minerals, thereby releasing divalent cations including calcium (Ca(2+)) and magnesium (Mg(2+)) and increasing bicarbonate (HCO(-) 3) in porewater. The higher concentrations increased the ionic strength of the porewater, in turn reducing the thickness of the diffuse double layer (DDL) of clay particles by reducing the surface charge potential (repulsive forces) of the clay particles. The combination of these processes accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. In addition, ebullition of biogenic gases created transient physical channels for release of porewater. In contrast, saturating the MFT with non-biogenic CO2 had little effect on consolidation. These results have significant implications for management and reclamation of oil sands tailings ponds and broad importance in anaerobic environments such as contaminated harbors and estuaries containing soft sediments rich in clays and organics.

  3. Consolidation of the formation sand by chemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Mihočová

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The sand control by consolidation involves the process of injecting chemicals into the naturally unconsolidated formation to provide an in situ grain-to-grain cementation. The sand consolidation chemicals are available for some 30 years. Several types of consolidating material were tried. Presently available systems utilize solidified plastics to provide the cementation. These systems include phenol resin, phenol-formaldehyde, epoxy, furan and phenolic-furfuryl.The sand consolidation with the steam injection is a novel technique. This process provides a highly alkaline liquid phase and temperatures to 300 °C to geochemically create cements by interacting with the dirty sand.While the formation consolidation has widely applied, our experience has proved a high level of success.

  4. Aspects of consolidation of engineering capability related to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.E.F.; Gasparian, A.E.; Calvet Filho, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    A major interest of countries launching nuclear program is to consolidate an engineering capability for Nuclear Power Plants design by performing part of the engineering services locally. A decade of nuclear power plant engineering and construction has exposed Brazilian architect-engineers to this new challenge. To cope with it, technology sources were identified, agreements were made and transfer is going on between foreign and local companies. Services performed by Brazilian architect-engineers are summarized. Foreign technology must be judiciously examined before implementation in a different environment. The receiver has to be prepared to develop his own capabilities and absorb the know-how being offered, taking into consideration the local engineering experience and construction practices. Some of the problems faced are outlined herein. The performed efforts brought Brazilian architect-engineers to a consolidated level of experience. (Author) [pt

  5. Distributed learning enhances relational memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Leib; Davachi, Lila

    2008-09-01

    It has long been known that distributed learning (DL) provides a mnemonic advantage over massed learning (ML). However, the underlying mechanisms that drive this robust mnemonic effect remain largely unknown. In two experiments, we show that DL across a 24 hr interval does not enhance immediate memory performance but instead slows the rate of forgetting relative to ML. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this savings in forgetting is specific to relational, but not item, memory. In the context of extant theories and knowledge of memory consolidation, these results suggest that an important mechanism underlying the mnemonic benefit of DL is enhanced memory consolidation. We speculate that synaptic strengthening mechanisms supporting long-term memory consolidation may be differentially mediated by the spacing of memory reactivation. These findings have broad implications for the scientific study of episodic memory consolidation and, more generally, for educational curriculum development and policy.

  6. Dysfunctional overnight memory consolidation in ecstasy users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithies, Vanessa; Broadbear, Jillian; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Conduit, Russell

    2014-08-01

    Sleep plays an important role in the consolidation and integration of memory in a process called overnight memory consolidation. Previous studies indicate that ecstasy users have marked and persistent neurocognitive and sleep-related impairments. We extend past research by examining overnight memory consolidation among regular ecstasy users (n=12) and drug naïve healthy controls (n=26). Memory recall of word pairs was evaluated before and after a period of sleep, with and without interference prior to testing. In addition, we assessed neurocognitive performances across tasks of learning, memory and executive functioning. Ecstasy users demonstrated impaired overnight memory consolidation, a finding that was more pronounced following associative interference. Additionally, ecstasy users demonstrated impairments on tasks recruiting frontostriatal and hippocampal neural circuitry, in the domains of proactive interference memory, long-term memory, encoding, working memory and complex planning. We suggest that ecstasy-associated dysfunction in fronto-temporal circuitry may underlie overnight consolidation memory impairments in regular ecstasy users. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. 77 FR 17091 - Trust Land Consolidation Draft Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary Trust Land Consolidation Draft Plan AGENCY... reopening the period for commenting on the Cobell Land Consolidation Program Draft Plan (also known as the Trust Land Consolidation Draft Plan), which is the draft plan for accomplishing these goals. DATES...

  8. Nonlinear analysis and evaluation of a reinforced concrete spent fuel storage pool for accidental thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, A.F.; Bolourchi, S.

    1991-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted for addition of consolidated fuel racks to an existing reinforced concrete spent fuel storage pool of a Mark I BWR plant. Nonlinear analysis of a detailed three-dimensional model of the fuel pool, considering cracking in concrete under gravity and thermal load conditions, showed that the pool has reserve capacities to carry the additional loads. (author)

  9. Changing the countryside by land consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benthem, Roelof Jan

    Land consolidation is a system of technical and legal measures for the improvement of farming conditions and land productivity. In western and central Europe, the execution of these land consolidation schemes causes great changes in the appearance of the countryside: existing landscape elements such

  10. Process for soil consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrick, F W; Brandstrom, R I

    1967-01-09

    In this process for the formation of a consolidated aggregate, a mass of solid particles is combined with an aqueous alkaline consolidating compound which forms a gel. This gel consists principally of a mixture of the following: a vegetable polyphenolic material; one of the group of catechins; condensed tannins and extract of the bark of coniferous trees; with 1-10% by weight of formaldehyde; and a catalyst of the group of water-soluble salts of chromium, iron, and aluminum. This catalyst serves to catalyze the reaction of formation of the gel.

  11. Consolidated fuel reprocessing program. Progress report, July 1-September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    Technical progress is reported in overview fashion in the following areas: process development, laboratory R and D, engineering research, engineering systems, integrated equipment test facility (IET) operations, and HTGR fuel reprocessing

  12. Apparatus for consolidation of earth formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, H

    1968-02-08

    Earth formations are consolidated by injecting into the formation a fluid medium through vertically spaced perforations; a device lowered into the borehole permits creating chambers isolated from each other and communicating with only one, or a group of perforations. These chambers are connected through valved conduits to a reservoir of the consolidating medium. Each chamber or each group of chambers has its own supply conduit, and flow-measuring means are provided in each conduit. The valves may be magnetic valves, controlled electrically from the surface; the reservoirs for the consolidating medium may be equipped with hydraulically actuated pistons. (8 claims)

  13. [The consolidation of memory, one century on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Alcala, R A; Quirarte, G L

    The theory of memory consolidation, based on the work published by Georg Elias Muller and Alfons Pilzecker over a century ago, continues to guide research into the neurobiology of memory, either directly or indirectly. In their classic monographic work, they concluded that fixing memory requires the passage of time (consolidation) and that memory is vulnerable during this period of consolidation, as symptoms of amnesia appear when brain functioning is interfered with before the consolidation process is completed. Most of the experimental data concerning this phenomenon strongly support the theory. In this article we present a review of experiments that have made it possible to put forward a model that explains the amnesia produced in conventional learning conditions, as well as another model related to the protection of memory when the same instances of learning are submitted to a situation involving intensive training. Findings from relatively recent studies have shown that treatments that typically produce amnesia when they are administered immediately after a learning experience (during the period in which the memory would be consolidating itself) no longer have any effect when the instances of learning involve a relatively large number of trials or training sessions, or relatively high intensity aversive events. These results are not congruent with the prevailing theories about consolidation.

  14. 29 CFR 4011.6 - Mergers, consolidations, and spinoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mergers, consolidations, and spinoffs. 4011.6 Section 4011... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS DISCLOSURE TO PARTICIPANTS § 4011.6 Mergers, consolidations, and spinoffs. In the case of a plan involved in a merger, consolidation, or spinoff transaction that becomes...

  15. Synaptic consolidation across multiple timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorric Ziegler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The brain is bombarded with a continuous stream of sensory events, but retains only a small subset in memory. The selectivity of memory formation prevents our memory from being overloaded with irrelevant items that would rapidly bring the brain to its storage limit; moreover, selectivity also prevents overwriting previously formed memories with new ones. Memory formation in the hippocampus, as well as in other brain regions, is thought to be linked to changes in the synaptic connections between neurons. In this view, sensory events imprint traces at the level of synapses that reflect potential memory items. The question of memory selectivity can therefore be reformulated as follows: what are the reasons and conditions that some synaptic traces fade away whereas others are consolidated and persist? Experimentally, changes in synaptic strength induced by 'Hebbian' protocols fade away over a few hours (early long-term potentiation or e-LTP, unless these changes are consolidated. The experiments and conceptual theory of synaptic tagging and capture (STC provide a mechanistic explanation for the processes involved in consolidation. This theory suggests that the initial trace of synaptic plasticity sets a tag at the synapse, which then serves as a marker for potential consolidation of the changes in synaptic efficacy. The actual consolidation processes, transforming e-LTP into late LTP (l-LTP, require the capture of plasticity-related proteins (PRP. We translate the above conceptual model into a compact computational model that accounts for a wealth of in vitro data including experiments on cross-tagging, tag-resetting and depotentiation. A central ingredient is that synaptic traces are described with several variables that evolve on different time scales. Consolidation requires the transmission of information from a 'fast' synaptic trace to a 'slow' one through a 'write' process, including the formation of tags and the production of PRP for the

  16. The nature of short-term consolidation in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Timothy J; Hardman, Kyle O

    2017-11-01

    Short-term consolidation is the process by which stable working memory representations are created. This process is fundamental to cognition yet poorly understood. The present work examines short-term consolidation using a Bayesian hierarchical model of visual working memory recall to determine the underlying processes at work. Our results show that consolidation functions largely through changing the proportion of memory items successfully maintained until test. Although there was some evidence that consolidation affects representational precision, this change was modest and could not account for the bulk of the consolidation effect on memory performance. The time course of the consolidation function and selective influence of consolidation on specific serial positions strongly indicates that short-term consolidation induces an attentional blink. The blink leads to deficits in memory for the immediately following item when time pressure is introduced. Temporal distinctiveness accounts of the consolidation process are tested and ruled out. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase III of the Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase II Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase III effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. Volume IV provides the Operating and Maintenance Manual for the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System that was installed at the Cold Test Facility. This document, Book 1 of Volume IV, discusses: Process overview functional descriptions; Control system descriptions; Support system descriptions; Maintenance system descriptions; and Process equipment descriptions

  18. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase III of the Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase II Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase III effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. Volume IV provides the Operating and Maintenance Manual for the Prototypical Rod Consolidation System that was installed at the Cold Test Facility. This document, Book 4 of Volume IV, discusses: Off-normal operating and recovery procedures; Emergency response procedures; Troubleshooting procedures; and Preventive maintenance procedures

  19. Analysis of near-term spent fuel transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.; Engel, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A computer model was developed to quantify the transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs associated with shipping spent fuel in the commercial nucler fuel cycle in the near future. Results from this study indicate that alternative spent fuel shipping systems (consolidated or disassembled fuel elements and new casks designed for older fuel) will significantly reduce the transportation hardware requirements and costs for shipping spent fuel in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle, if there is no significant change in their operating/handling characteristics. It was also found that a more modest cost reduction results from increasing the fraction of spent fuel shipped by truck from 25% to 50%. Larger transportation cost reductions could be realized with further increases in the truck shipping fraction. Using the given set of assumptions, it was found that the existing spent fuel cask fleet size is generally adequate to perform the needed transportation services until a fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) begins to receive fuel (assumed in 1987). Once the FRP opens, up to 7 additional truck systems and 16 additional rail systems are required at the reference truck shipping fraction of 25%. For the 50% truck shipping fraction, 17 additional truck systems and 9 additional rail systems are required. If consolidated fuel only is shipped (25% by truck), 5 additional rail casks are required and the current truck cask fleet is more than adequate until at least 1995. Changes in assumptions could affect the results. Transportation costs for a federal interim storage program could total about $25M if the FRP begins receiving fuel in 1987 or about $95M if the FRP is delayed until 1989. This is due to an increased utilization of federal interim storage facility from 350 MTU for the reference scenario to about 750 MTU if reprocessing is delayed by two years

  20. Genesis and Development of Consolidated Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Kostyantyn Bezverkhiy

    2015-01-01

    In the context of economy globalization it is the mission of consolidated financial statements to meet demands of users for financial information about activities of a company group as one company. The article is devoted to study of genesis and development of consolidated financial statements of companies. Historical prerequisites of genesis of consolidated financial statements are shown as well as factors which conduced to their spreading. The approaches are elucidated to preparation of cons...

  1. Control of Bank Consolidated Financial Statements Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita S. Ambarchyan

    2013-01-01

    The author presents the multiple linear regression model of bank consolidated financial statements quality. The article considers six characteristics that can be used to estimate the level of bank consolidated financial statements quality. The multiple linear regression model was developed, using the results of point-based system of consolidated financial statements of thirty European bank and financial groups on the basis of the developed characteristics. The author offers to use the charact...

  2. 24 CFR 92.608 - Consolidated plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consolidated plan. 92.608 Section 92.608 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.608 Consolidated...

  3. Consolidating NASA's Arc Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, John A.; Gokcen, Tahir; Hui, Frank C. L.; Graube, Peter; Morrissey, Patricia; Lewis, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the consolidation of NASA's high powered arc-jet testing at a single location. The existing plasma arc-jet wind tunnels located at the Johnson Space Center were relocated to Ames Research Center while maintaining NASA's technical capability to ground-test thermal protection system materials under simulated atmospheric entry convective heating. The testing conditions at JSC were reproduced and successfully demonstrated at ARC through close collaboration between the two centers. New equipment was installed at Ames to provide test gases of pure nitrogen mixed with pure oxygen, and for future nitrogen-carbon dioxide mixtures. A new control system was custom designed, installed and tested. Tests demonstrated the capability of the 10 MW constricted-segmented arc heater at Ames meets the requirements of the major customer, NASA's Orion program. Solutions from an advanced computational fluid dynamics code were used to aid in characterizing the properties of the plasma stream and the surface environment on the calorimeters in the supersonic flow stream produced by the arc heater.

  4. 10 CFR 1040.123 - Consolidated or joint hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ACTIVITIES Enforcement Opportunity for Hearing § 1040.123 Consolidated or joint hearings. In cases in which... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consolidated or joint hearings. 1040.123 Section 1040.123... departments or agencies, where applicable, provide for the conduct of consolidated or joint hearings and for...

  5. Reward value determines memory consolidation in parasitic wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruidhof, H Marjolein; Pashalidou, Foteini G; Fatouros, Nina E; Figueroa, Ilich A; Vet, Louise E M; Smid, Hans M; Huigens, Martinus E

    2012-01-01

    Animals can store learned information in their brains through a series of distinct memory forms. Short-lasting memory forms can be followed by longer-lasting, consolidated memory forms. However, the factors determining variation in memory consolidation encountered in nature have thus far not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that two parasitic wasp species belonging to different families, Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Trichogramma evanescens (Hymenoptera; Trichogrammatidae), similarly adjust the memory form they consolidate to a fitness-determining reward: egg-laying into a host-insect that serves as food for their offspring. Protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM) was consolidated after single-trial conditioning with a high-value host. However, single-trial conditioning with a low-value host induced consolidation of a shorter-lasting memory form. For Cotesia glomerata, we subsequently identified this shorter-lasting memory form as anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) because it was not sensitive to protein synthesis inhibitors or anesthesia. Associative conditioning using a single reward of different value thus induced a physiologically different mechanism of memory formation in this species. We conclude that the memory form that is consolidated does not only change in response to relatively large differences in conditioning, such as the number and type of conditioning trials, but is also sensitive to more subtle differences, such as reward value. Reward-dependent consolidation of exclusive ARM or LTM provides excellent opportunities for within-species comparison of mechanisms underlying memory consolidation.

  6. Consolidation treatments applied to ceramic tiles: are they homogeneous?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, D.; Leal, A.S.; Mimoso, J.M; Pereira, S.M.R.

    2017-01-01

    The mass consolidation treatment of azulejos is necessary when ceramic biscuits show signs of disaggregation. Such treatment is often used as a complementary conservation technique to the reestablishment of weakened glaze-ceramic bonds. In this research, two commonly used consolidants (ethyl silicate and acrylic resin) were tested on artisanal ceramic tiles via mass consolidation and the resulting impregnation profiles were evaluated. The results indicated that after consolidation, hard zones frequently formed due to localized consolidant concentration after the polymerization and curing processes. These inhomogeneous hard zones subsequently influenced the results obtained through conventional mechanical strength testing (i.e. flexural and compression), creating a false impression of success. This research demonstrated that by using the Drilling Resistance Measuring System, impregnation characteristics such as penetration depth and distribution of consolidant could be observed that otherwise could not be discerned through the more common testing methods. As such, a more extensive evaluation of consolidation effects was achieved. [es

  7. Consolidation treatments applied to ceramic tiles: are they homogeneous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Costa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mass consolidation treatment of azulejos is necessary when ceramic biscuits show signs of disaggregation. Such treatment is often used as a complementary conservation technique to the reestablishment of weakened glaze-ceramic bonds. In this research, two commonly used consolidants (ethyl silicate and acrylic resin were tested on artisanal ceramic tiles via mass consolidation and the resulting impregnation profiles were evaluated. The results indicated that after consolidation, hard zones frequently formed due to localized consolidant concentration after the polymerization and curing processes. These inhomogeneous hard zones subsequently influenced the results obtained through conventional mechanical strength testing (i.e. flexural and compression, creating a false impression of success. This research demonstrated that by using the Drilling Resistance Measuring System, impregnation characteristics such as penetration depth and distribution of consolidant could be observed that otherwise could not be discerned through the more common testing methods. As such, a more extensive evaluation of consolidation effects was achieved.

  8. CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS UNDER IFRS

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor; Calotă Traian-Ovidiu

    2013-01-01

    This article is focuses on accounting consolidation techniques and the preparation of consolidation worksheets for the components of financial statements (statement of comprehensive income, statement of changes in equity, and financial position). The presented group includes parent company, two subsidiaries (only one fully controlled by the parent company) and a jointly controlled entity. The financial statements are presented under the following standards IFRS 3 Business Combination, IAS 27 ...

  9. 10 CFR 4.64 - Consolidated or joint hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Consolidated or joint hearings. In cases in which the same or related facts are asserted to constitute... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consolidated or joint hearings. 4.64 Section 4.64 Energy... or agencies, where applicable, provide for the conduct of consolidated or joint hearings, and for the...

  10. International experience in conditioning spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, P.

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to compile and present in a clear form international experience (USA, Canada, Sweden, FRG, UK, Japan, Switzerland) gained to date in conditioning spent fuel elements. The term conditioning is here taken to mean the handling and packaging of spent fuel elements for short- or long-term storage or final disposal. Plants of a varying nature fall within this scope, both in terms of the type of fuel element treated and the plant purpose eg. experimental or production plant. Emphasis is given to plants which bear some similarity to the concept developed in Germany for direct disposal of spent fuel elements. Worldwide, however, relatively few conditioning plants are in existence or have been conceived. Hence additional plants have been included where aspects of the experience gained are also of relevance eg. plants developed for the consolidation of spent fuel elements. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Consolidated Lunar Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Consolidated Lunar Atlas is a collection of the best photographic images of the moon, including low-oblique photography, full-moon photography, and tabular and...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1502-21A - Consolidated net operating loss deduction generally applicable for consolidated return years...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... operating loss attributable to such member. (iii) Foreign expropriation losses. An election under section... expropriation loss) may be made for a consolidated return year only if the sum of the foreign expropriation... expropriation losses, or (b) the consolidated net operating loss. (3) Absorption rules. For purposes of...

  13. Data Center Consolidation: A Step towards Infrastructure Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Markus

    Application service providers face enormous challenges and rising costs in managing and operating a growing number of heterogeneous system and computing landscapes. Limitations of traditional computing environments force IT decision-makers to reorganize computing resources within the data center, as continuous growth leads to an inefficient utilization of the underlying hardware infrastructure. This paper discusses a way for infrastructure providers to improve data center operations based on the findings of a case study on resource utilization of very large business applications and presents an outlook beyond server consolidation endeavors, transforming corporate data centers into compute clouds.

  14. Sandia solidification process: consolidation and characterization. Part I. Consolidation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, J.K.

    1978-05-01

    The consolidation behavior of a complex polycrystalline ceramic nuclear waste form composed of titanates, zeolite, and metallic silicon was studied. Initial solidification takes place by an ion exchange process. The resulting powder exhibits a large surface area, approximately 350 m 2 /g, and several decomposition, crystallization and phase change reactions from room temperature to 1100 0 C. In spite of the large surface area, consolidation by cold pressing and atmospheric sintering to 1100 0 C was not satisfactory. Vacuum hot pressing was found to produce fully dense pellets (less than 1% residual porosity) under very mild conditions, 6.9 MPa (1100 psi) and 1100 0 C. The dominant densification mechanism was viscous flow. Under less than optimum hot pressing conditions, three stages of densification were observed. Initial densification took place by particle rearrangement which was described with a viscous flow model. Second stage densification occurred by a solution-precipitation process controlled by a phase boundary dissolution reaction. In several cases, a third, final densification stage was observed. Detailed studies describe the effects of heating rate, processing temperature, pressure, residence time, atmosphere, composition, heat treatment, and the addition of consolidation aids on the densification behavior. In addition, fully radioactive high level mixed fission product titanate/waste pellets (1.27 cm diameter) were hot pressed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to demonstrate the feasibility of such a process in a remotely operated hot cell. High density uniform pellets were obtained

  15. An offer they can't refuse. As mergers and acquisitions make a comeback, hospitals large and small are choosing consolidation over competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloro, Vince

    2004-07-12

    Hospital deals are heating up as summer settles in, fueled in part by Medicare reform and the "Tenet effect." One recent move by Christus Health made Alice, Texas, a one-hospital town again. Christus' Peter Maddox, left, denies that the consolidation means prices will rise. "It's not a retail world anymore," he says.

  16. The consolidation of annual accounts in the Swiss Federal Government

    OpenAIRE

    Vollenweider, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Financial reporting in the public sector is influenced by the private sector accounting standards. The Swiss Federal Government has recently started to prepare consolidated financial statements. The purpose of this study is to describe how the Swiss Federal Government is doing its consolidated financial statements. Theoretically there are different consolidation theories and methods. The choice of consolidation method can explain which consolidation theory is used when the financial statement...

  17. Volatile Fuel Hydrocarbons and MTBE in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, I. M.; Baehr, A. L.

    2003-12-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (hydrocarbons that result from petroleum products such as oil, gasoline, or diesel fuel) are among the most commonly occurring and widely distributed contaminants in the environment. Volatile hydrocarbons are the lighter fraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons and, together with fuel oxygenates, are most often released from crude oil and liquid petroleum products produced from crude oil. The demand for crude oil stems from the world's ever-growing energy need. From 1970 to 1999, primary energy production of the world grew by 76% (Energy Information Administration, 2001), with fossil fuels (crude oil, natural gas, and coal) accounting for ˜85% of all energy produced worldwide (Figure 1). World crude oil production reached a record 68 million barrels (bbl) per day (1.08×1010 L d-1) in 2000. The world's dependence on oil as an energy source clearly is identified as contributing to global warming and worsening air and water quality. (7K)Figure 1. World primary energy production by source from 1970 to 1999 (Energy Information Administration, 2001). Petroleum products are present in Earth's subsurface as solids, liquids, or gases. This chapter presents a summary of the environmental problems and issues related to the use of liquid petroleum, or oil. The focus is on the sources of volatile hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates and the geochemical behavior of these compounds when they are released into the environment. Although oxygenates currently in commercial use include compounds other than methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), such as ethanol (ETOH), most of the information presented here focuses on MTBE because of its widespread occurrence. The environmental impact of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons that also originate from petroleum products is described in (Chapter 9.13, Abrajano et al.).Crude oil occurs within the Earth and is a complex mixture of natural compounds composed largely of hydrocarbons containing only hydrogen and carbon atoms. The minor

  18. Operation and consolidation: lifetime of equipment and priorities TS

    CERN Document Server

    Béjar-Alonso, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    Since 1999 the TS department has benchmarked his services with the industry and other research laboratories and has prepared several consolidation plans. An evaluation of the results obtained from the different consolidation plans will be summarized. The difference between the projects achieved and those planned will be analyzed. The impact of the differed consolidation and of the maintenance backlog will be analyzed in order to present the future TS consolidation strategy

  19. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Michael F.; Law, Jack D.

    2010-01-01

    This is a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. Nuclear reprocessing is the chemical treatment of spent fuel involving separation of its various constituents. Principally, it is used to recover useful actinides from the spent fuel. Radioactive waste that cannot be re-used is separated into streams for consolidation into waste forms. The first known application of nuclear reprocessing was within the Manhattan Project to recover material for nuclear weapons. Currently, reprocessing has a peaceful application in the nuclear fuel cycle. A variety of chemical methods have been proposed and demonstrated for reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The two most widely investigated and implemented methods are generally referred to as aqueous reprocessing and pyroprocessing. Each of these technologies is described in detail in Section 3 with numerous references to published articles. Reprocessing of nuclear fuel as part of a fuel cycle can be used both to recover fissionable actinides and to stabilize radioactive fission products into durable waste forms. It can also be used as part of a breeder reactor fuel cycle that could result in a 14-fold or higher increase in energy utilization per unit of natural uranium. Reprocessing can also impact the need for geologic repositories for spent fuel. The volume of waste that needs to be sent to such a repository can be reduced by first subjecting the spent fuel to reprocessing. The extent to which volume reduction can occur is currently under study by the United States Department of Energy via research at various national laboratories and universities. Reprocessing can also separate fissile and non-fissile radioactive elements for transmutation.

  20. 20 CFR 410.646 - Consolidated issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consolidated issues. 410.646 Section 410.646..., Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.646 Consolidated issues. When one or more additional issues are raised by the Administrative Law Judge pursuant to § 410.637, such issues may, in the...

  1. Evaluation of materials for bipolar plates in simulated PEM fuel-cell cathodic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, S.V.; Belmonte, M.R.; Moron, L.E.; Torres, J.; Orozco, G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Technologico en Electroquimica S.C. Parcque Sanfandila, Queretaro (Mexico); Perez-Quiroz, J.T. [Mexican Transport Inst., Queretaro (Mexico); Cortes, M. A. [Mexican Petroleum Inst., Mexico City (Mexico)

    2008-04-15

    The bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are exposed to an oxidizing environment on the cathodic side, and therefore are susceptible to corrosion. Corrosion resistant materials are needed for the bipolar plates in order to improve the lifespan of fuel cells. This article described a study in which a molybdenum (Mo) coating was deposited over austenitic stainless steel 316 and carbon steel as substrates in order to evaluate the resulting surfaces with respect to their corrosion resistance in simulated anodic and cathodic PEMFC environments. The molybdenum oxide films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The article presented the experiment and discussed the results of the corrosion behaviour of coated stainless steel. In general, the electrochemical characterization of bare materials and coated steel consisted of slow potentiodynamic polarization curves followed by a constant potential polarization test. The test medium was 0.5M sulfuric acid with additional introduction of oxygen to simulate the cathodic environment. All tests were performed at ambient temperature and at 50 degrees Celsius. The potentiostat used was a Gamry instrument. It was concluded that it is possible to deposit Mo-oxides on steel without using another alloying metal. The preferred substrate for corrosion prevention was found to be an alloy with high chromium content. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  2. APPLICABILITY OF CONSOLIDATED TECHNIQUES IN THE VIEW OF ROMANIAN ACCOUNTING REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rosu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The accounting regulations are more and more interested in groups of companies. In some cases, these regulations require for preparing the consolidated financial statements. This is the task of the parent company who keeps the consolidated accounts. To accomplish its goals, the consolidated accounting uses a couple of, so-called, consolidation techniques. These are applied in the case of groups of companies with a complex structure. Their goal is to elaborate the consolidated financial statements using a set of methods and empirical skills. In this article we synthetize and apply the consolidation techniques in the view of Romanian accounting regulations. The Romanian practice has revealed, especially, two techniques: one based on direct consolidation and another one based on multiple levels (phased consolidation. Therefore, this work regards only the technical side of consolidated accounting, accounting records being evaded. Furthermore, we focus only on the preparation of the consolidated balance sheet in the case of some hypothetical groups of companies.

  3. Interaction of a 238Pu fueled-sphere assembly with a simulated terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkruger, F.J.; Patterson, J.H.; Herrera, B.; Nelson, G.B.; Matlack, G.M.; Waterbury, G.R.; Pavone, D.

    1981-02-01

    A 238 Pu fueled sphere assembly (FSA) was exposed to a simulated humid environment on sandy soil for 3 y. After a 70-week exposure, plutonium was first detected in measurable quantities in rain and condensate samples. A core sample taken in the ninety-third week contained 302 ng of plutonium. Examination of the FSA after exposure revealed a hole in the bottom of the graphite impact shell (GIS) and a leaking weld on the vent assembly of the postimpact containment shell (PICS). These two openings may be the pathways for plutonium entry into the environment from the FSA

  4. Large Strain Analysis of Electro-Osmosis Consolidation for Clays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Consolidation of soft clay creates a lot of problems in foundation engineering, because of the very low clay permeability and high compressibility. Primary consolidation takes a long time to complete if the material is left consolidating under atmospheric evaporation, and traditional dewatering

  5. An improved electrokinetic method to consolidate porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feijoo, Jorge; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Nóvoa, X. R.

    2017-01-01

    the consolidation using commercial products have some limitations, such as: (1) low penetrability; (2) no chemical and mineralogical affinity with the material to treat and (3) release of toxic compounds (VOCs), during the solvent evaporation. In the last years, a new consolidation method based on electrokinetic...... the pH of the solutions in contact with the porous material, which can damage it and (2) it is difficult to determine in which area the consolidation takes place. In this study an electrokinetic consolidation method, which has two steps between which the current is reversed, is proposed to solve all...... techniques was developed. This method allows filling some pores by the precipitation of an inorganic compound. As a result the method allows increasing the penetration depth of current consolidation treatments. However, this method needs to be improved since: (1) no special care is taking in controlling...

  6. Sleep-related memory consolidation in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Christoph; Kloepfer, Corinna; Feige, Bernd; Piosczyk, Hannah; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Voderholzer, Ulrich; Riemann, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    It has been suggested that healthy sleep facilitates the consolidation of newly acquired memories and underlying brain plasticity. The authors tested the hypothesis that patients with primary insomnia (PI) would show deficits in sleep-related memory consolidation compared to good sleeper controls (GSC). The study used a four-group parallel design (n=86) to investigate the effects of 12 h of night-time, including polysomnographically monitored sleep ('sleep condition' in PI and GSC), versus 12 h of daytime wakefulness ('wake condition' in PI and GSC) on procedural (mirror tracing task) and declarative memory consolidation (visual and verbal learning task). Demographic characteristics and memory encoding did not differ between the groups at baseline. Polysomnography revealed a significantly disturbed sleep profile in PI compared to GSC in the sleep condition. Night-time periods including sleep in GSC were associated with (i) a significantly enhanced procedural and declarative verbal memory consolidation compared to equal periods of daytime wakefulness in GSC and (ii) a significantly enhanced procedural memory consolidation compared to equal periods of daytime wakefulness and night-time sleep in PI. Across retention intervals of daytime wakefulness, no differences between the experimental groups were observed. This pattern of results suggests that healthy sleep fosters the consolidation of new memories, and that this process is impaired for procedural memories in patients with PI. Future work is needed to investigate the impact of treatment on improving sleep and memory. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Interim spent-fuel storage options at commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakkar, A.R.; Hylko, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Although spent fuel can be stored safely in waterfilled pools at reactor sites, some utilities may not possess sufficient space for life-of-plant storage capability. In-pool storage capability may be increased by reracking assemblies, rod consolidation, double tiering spent-fuel racks, and by shipping spent fuel to other utility-owned facilities. Long-term on-site storage capability for spent fuel may be provided by installing (dry-type) metal casks, storage and transportation casks, concrete casks, horizontal concrete modules, modular concrete vaults, or by constructing additional (pool-type) storage installations. Experience to date has provided valuable information regarding dry-type or pool-type installations, cask handling and staffing requirements, security features, decommissioning activities, and radiological issues

  8. Delayed working memory consolidation during the attentional blink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Edward K; Luck, Steven J

    2002-12-01

    After the detection of a target (T1) in a rapid stream of visual stimuli, there is a period of 400-600 msec during which a subsequent target (T2) is missed. This impairment in performance has been labeled the attentional blink. Recent theories propose that the attentional blink reflects a bottleneck in working memory consolidation such that T2 cannot be consolidated until after T1 is consolidated, and T2 is therefore masked by subsequent stimuli if it is presented while T1 is being consolidated. In support of this explanation, Giesbrecht & Di Lollo (1998) found that when T2 is the final item in the stimulus stream, no attentional blink is observed, because there are no subsequent stimuli that might mask T2. To provide a direct test of this explanation of the attentional blink, in the present study we used the P3 component of the event-related potential waveform to track the processing of T2. When T2 was followed by a masking item, we found that the P3 wave was completely suppressed during the attentional blink period, indicating that T2 was not consolidated in working memory. When T2 was the last item in the stimulus stream, however, we found that the P3 wave was delayed but not suppressed, indicating that T2 consolidation was not eliminated but simply delayed. These results are consistent with a fundamental limit on the consolidation of information in working memory.

  9. Implementation of a consolidated, standardized database of environmental measurements data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, T.L.

    1996-10-01

    This report discusses the benefits of a consolidated and standardized database; reasons for resistance to the consolidation of data; implementing a consolidated database, including attempts at standardization, deciding what to include in the consolidated database, establishing lists of valid values, and addressing quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) issues; and the evolution of a consolidated database, which includes developing and training a user community, resolving configuration control issues, incorporating historical data, identifying emerging standards, and developing pointers to other data. OREIS is used to illustrate these topics

  10. Usage of internal statements in making consolidated financial statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Herman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the consolidated financial statements is the result of integration processes in the businesses that lead to pooling of different companies. As consolidated financial statements present an aggregated look at the financial position of a parent and its subsidiaries, they let you gauge the overall health of an entire group of companies as opposed to one company’s standalone position. Consolidation of financial statements requires from the participants of joining elaborating their individual statements. The article describes the general scheme of consolidation process and defines the key trends of consolidation adjustments, in particular, financial investments, internal operations, goodwill and exchange rate differences. It is found out that to get information about internal operations and financial investments such data have to be synthesized from internal statements. This approach allows using the same accounting methods to parent and subsidiary entities. The objects, the users and the subject domain of internal statements are determined in order to make consolidation of financial statements of joining.

  11. Tomographic findings of lobar consolidation in primary pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Bruno Alberto Falcao; Macedo, Solange Goncalves David de; Penna, Claudia Renata Rezende

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe tomographic findings of lobar consolidation as early manifestation of primary pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and methods: The present study was developed at Hospital Municipal Jesus, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, in the period between 2002 and 2006, retrospectively evaluating tomographic findings in four children aged from 3 to 14 months with lobar consolidation as an early manifestation of primary pulmonary tuberculosis. Results: The most frequently found radiological pattern was lobar consolidation with calcifications, cavitation and intermingle necrotic areas, associated with bulging fissure. Signs of bronchogenic dissemination and lymph node enlargement were observed in all of the four children. Consolidation with a pseudotumor aspect and masslike effect was observed in one case. Conclusion: The cases included in the present study have demonstrated that primary pulmonary tuberculosis manifested as lobar consolidation presents typical tomographic images such as cavitation, hypodense areas and calcifications intermingled with consolidation. The association with lymph node enlargement with central necrosis and signs of bronchogenic dissemination reinforce the diagnosis of tuberculosis. (author)

  12. The integral fast reactor fuels reprocessing laboratory at Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolson, R.D.; Tomczuk, Z.; Fischer, D.F.; Slawecki, M.A.; Miller, W.E.

    1986-09-01

    The processing of Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) metal fuel utilizes pyrochemical fuel reprocessing steps. These steps include separation of the fission products from uranium and plutonium by electrorefining in a fused salt, subsequent concentration of uranium and plutonium for reuse, removal, concentration, and packaging of the waste material. Approximately two years ago a facility became operational at Argonne National Laboratory-Illinois to establish the chemical feasibility of proposed reprocessing and consolidation processes. Sensitivity of the pyroprocessing melts to air oxidation necessitated operation in atmosphere-controlled enclosures. The Integral Fast Reactor Fuels Reprocessing Laboratory is described

  13. Overview of chemical characterization of FBTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesan, V.; Nandi, C.; Patil, A.B.; Prakash, Amrit; Khan, K.B.; Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Uranium Plutonium mixed carbide fuel is the driver fuel for Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) at IGCAR. The fuel is being fabricated at Radiometallurgy Division, BARC by conventional powder metallurgy route. During the fabrication of fuel, chemical quality control of process intermediates is very important to reach stringent specification of the final fuel product. Different steps are involved in the fabrication of uranium-plutonium carbide (MC) for FBTR. The main steps in the fabrication of MC fuel pellets are carbothermic reduction (CR) of mixture of uranium oxide, plutonium oxide and graphite powder to prepare MC clinkers, crushing and milling of MC clinkers and consolidation of MC powders into fuel pellets and sintering. As a part of process control, analysis of uranium (U), plutonium (Pu), carbon in oxide graphite mixture and U, Pu, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, MC, M 2 C 3 contents in mixed carbide powder (MC clinkers) are carried out at our laboratory. Analysis of U, Pu, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, MC and M 2 C 3 contents in mixed carbide sintered pellets are carried out as a part of quality control. This paper describes an overview of analytical instruments used during chemical quality control of mixed carbide fuel

  14. Design and development of a cathode processor for electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunsvold, A. R.; Roach, P. D.; Westphal, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    The electrometallurgical processing of spent fuel developed at Argonne National Laboratory produces a cathode which contains dendrites of heavy metal (principally U), salts, and residual cadmium. The cathode requires further treatment which is accomplished by loading it into a cathode processor to first purify and then consolidate the heavy metal. The principal steps in cathode processing are: the cathode is loaded into a crucible and both loaded into the cathode processor; the crucible is heated under vacuum to an intermediate temperature to distill the salt and cadmium from the crucible; the crucible is heated further to melt and consolidate the heavy metal; the crucible and charge are then cooled forming a heavy metal ingot in the crucible mold. The cathode processor development program has progressed through the design, fabrication, qualification, and demonstration phases. Two identical units were built. One (a prototype unit) has been installed at Argonne's site in Illinois and the other (the production unit) has been installed in the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at Argonne's Idaho site. Both units are presently in operation. The most recent activities completed in the FCF fuel processing project were the EBR-II driver fuel and blanket fuel demonstration phases. All of the cathode processor success criteria were met during these demonstration phases. These included finalizing the operation conditions applicable to irradiated fuel and process throughput criteria

  15. Creep consolidation of nuclear depository backfill materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1980-10-01

    Evaluation of the effects of backfilling nuclear waste repository rooms is an important aspect of waste repository design. Consolidation of the porous backfill takes place as the room closes with time, causing the supporting stress exerted by the backfill against the intact rock to increase. Estimation of the rate of backfill consolidation is required for closure rate predictions and should be possible if the creep law for the solid constituent is known. A simple theory describing consolidation with a spherical void model is derived to illustrate this relationship. Although the present form of the theory assumes a homogeneous isotropic incompressible material atypical of most rocks, it may be applicable to rock salt, which exhibits considerable plasticity under confined pressure. Application of the theory is illustrated assuming a simple steady-state creep law, to show that the consolidation rate depends on the externally applied stress, temperature, and porosity

  16. Development of MOX facilities and the impact on the nuclear fuel markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.

    1990-01-01

    Mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel is nearing maturity as a fuel supply option. This paper briefly reviews the history and current status of the MOX fuel market, including the projected increase in demand for MOX fuel as more plutonium becomes available from the operation of commercial irradiated fuel reprocessing plants in Europe. The uncertainties of such projected demand are discussed, together with the anticipated requirements from the next generation of MOX fabrication plants. The impact of the growing demand for MOX fuel is assessed in the traditional sectors of the uranium fuel cycle. Finally, the author turns to a generalized treatment of the economic aspects of MOX fuel utilization, showing the financially attractive regimes of MOX use which will benefit nuclear power utilities and continue to ensure that MOX fuel can consolidate its position as a mature fuel supply option in those countries that have opted to recycle their spent fuel

  17. Memory processes during sleep: beyond the standard consolidation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmacher, Nikolai; Draguhn, Andreas; Elger, Christian E; Fell, Juergen

    2009-07-01

    Two-step theories of memory formation suggest that an initial encoding stage, during which transient neural assemblies are formed in the hippocampus, is followed by a second step called consolidation, which involves re-processing of activity patterns and is associated with an increasing involvement of the neocortex. Several studies in human subjects as well as in animals suggest that memory consolidation occurs predominantly during sleep (standard consolidation model). Alternatively, it has been suggested that consolidation may occur during waking state as well and that the role of sleep is rather to restore encoding capabilities of synaptic connections (synaptic downscaling theory). Here, we review the experimental evidence favoring and challenging these two views and suggest an integrative model of memory consolidation.

  18. 26 CFR 1.1502-4 - Consolidated foreign tax credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consolidated foreign tax credit. 1.1502-4... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Consolidated Tax Liability § 1.1502-4 Consolidated foreign tax credit. (a) In general. The credit under section 901 for taxes paid or accrued to any foreign country or...

  19. Factors affecting the consolidation of steam generator sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C. W.; Shamsuzzaman, K.; Tapping, R. L.

    1993-02-15

    It is hypothesized that sludge consolidation is promoted by chemical reactions involving the various sludge constituents, although the hardness of the final product will also depend on the total porosity. Oxidizing conditions and higher temperatures produce a harder sludge. The precipitation of Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, a potential binding agent, may also promote sludge consolidation. Several solutions to prevent sludge consolidation are suggested. (Author) 3 figs., 4 tabs., 3 refs.

  20. Issues for Conceptual Design of AFCF and CFTC LWR Spent Fuel Separations Influencing Next-Generation Aqueous Fuel Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Hebditch; R. Henry; M. Goff; K. Pasamehmetoglu; D. Ostby

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) strategic plan, which aims to meet US and international energy, safeguards, fuel supply and environmental needs by harnessing national laboratory R and D, deployment by industry and use of international partnerships. Initially, two industry-led commercial scale facilities, an advanced burner reactor (ABR) and a consolidated fuel treatment center (CFTC), and one developmental facility, an advanced fuel cycle facility (AFCF) are proposed. The national laboratories will lead the AFCF to provide an internationally recognized R and D center of excellence for developing transmutation fuels and targets and advancing fuel cycle reprocessing technology using aqueous and pyrochemical methods. The design drivers for AFCF and the CFTC LWR spent fuel separations are expected to impact on and partly reflect those for industry, which is engaging with DOE in studies for CFTC and ABR through the recent GNEP funding opportunity announcement (FOA). The paper summarizes the state-of-the-art of aqueous reprocessing, gives an assessment of engineering drivers for U.S. aqueous processing facilities, examines historic plant capital costs and provides conclusions with a view to influencing design of next-generation fuel reprocessing plants

  1. Sleep enhances memory consolidation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2014-06-01

    Sleep is an active state that plays an important role in the consolidation of memory. It has been found to enhance explicit memories in both adults and children. However, in contrast to adults, children do not always show a sleep-related improvement in implicit learning. The majority of research on sleep-dependent memory consolidation focuses on adults; hence, the current study examined sleep-related effects on two tasks in children. Thirty-three typically developing children aged 6-12 years took part in the study. Actigraphy was used to monitor sleep. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation was assessed using a novel non-word learning task and the Tower of Hanoi cognitive puzzle, which involves discovering an underlying rule to aid completion. Children were trained on the two tasks and retested following approximately equal retention intervals of both wake and sleep. After sleep, children showed significant improvements in performance of 14% on the non-word learning task and 25% on the Tower of Hanoi task, but no significant change in score following the wake retention interval. Improved performance on the Tower of Hanoi may have been due to children consolidating explicit aspects of the task, for example rule-learning or memory of previous sequences; thus, we propose that sleep is necessary for consolidation of explicit memory in children. Sleep quality and duration were not related to children's task performance. If such experimental sleep-related learning enhancement is generalizable to everyday life, then it is clear that sleep plays a vital role in children's educational attainment. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. FACSIM/MRS-1: Cask receiving and consolidation model documentation and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotz, T.L.; Shay, M.R.

    1987-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed a stochastic computer model, FACSIM/MRS, to assist in assessing the operational performance of the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) waste-handling facility. This report provides the documentation and user's guide for the component FACSIM/MRS-1, which is also referred to as the front-end model. The FACSIM/MRS-1 model simulates the MRS cask-receiving and spent-fuel consolidation activities. The results of the assessment of the operational performance of these activities are contained in a second report, FACSIM/MRS-1: Cask Receiving and Consolidation Performance Assessment (Lotz and Shay 1987). The model of MRS canister storage and shipping operations is presented in FACSIM/MRS-2: Storage and Shipping Model Documentation and User's Guide (Huber et al. 1987). The FACSIM/MRS model uses the commercially available FORTRAN-based SIMAN (SIMulation ANalysis language) simulation package (Pegden 1982). SIMAN provides a set of FORTRAN-coded commands, called block operations, which are used to build detailed models of continuous or discrete events that make up the operations of any process, such as the operation of an MRS facility. The FACSIM models were designed to run on either an IBM-PC or a VAX minicomputer. The FACSIM/MRS-1 model is flexible enough to collect statistics concerning almost any aspect of the cask receiving and consolidation operations of an MRS facility. The MRS model presently collects statistics on 51 quantities of interest during the simulation. SIMAN reports the statistics with two forms of output: a SIMAN simulation summary and an optional set of SIMAN output files containing data for use by more detailed post processors and report generators

  3. The new wave of hospital consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lisa

    2012-04-01

    Reimbursement challenges, spiraling healthcare costs, and a slow economic recovery are driving the latest wave of hospital consolidation. Health insurance companies and provider systems are forming partnerships in the consolidation field with the goal of reducing healthcare costs and improving quality. The "cost" of the acquisition may include debt and other obligations of the acquired hospital, such as pension liabilities, along with a multiyear capital commitment.

  4. Theoretical Consolidation of Acoustic Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiano, M. J.; Zoladz, T. F.

    2012-01-01

    In many engineering problems, the effects of dissipation can be extremely important. Dissipation can be represented by several parameters depending on the context and the models that are used. Some examples of dissipation-related parameters are damping ratio, viscosity, resistance, absorption coefficients, pressure drop, or damping rate. This Technical Memorandum (TM) describes the theoretical consolidation of the classic absorption coefficients with several other dissipation parameters including linearized resistance. The primary goal of this TM is to theoretically consolidate the linearized resistance with the absorption coefficient. As a secondary goal, other dissipation relationships are presented.

  5. 7 CFR 1782.15 - Mergers and consolidations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mergers and consolidations. 1782.15 Section 1782.15... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) SERVICING OF WATER AND WASTE PROGRAMS § 1782.15 Mergers and consolidations. Mergers... transaction under consideration and the unique facts involved in each transaction. Mergers occur when two or...

  6. 'Consolidation' of HVAC and cooling systems at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Inigo-Golfin, J; Pepinster, P; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A â€ワconsolidation” of installations after they have reached the end of their predetermined life-time is part of the life cycle of industrial installations, regardless how well maintained they are. The â€ワconsolidation” plan might cover the replacement of obsolete equipment, partial refurbishment, the work requested to comply with new standards and applicable rules (environmental aspects) until the complete replacement of the whole installation. This â€ワconsolidation” process is all the more critical since the installation dates of the existing cooling and HVAC equipment at CERN spans over a period of 50 years and â€ワconsolidation” in the past has been not been systematic, being most of the time associated with new projects. This paper describes the reasons behind the recent â€ワconsolidation” requests for cooling and HVAC equipment both for the accelerators backbone and in tertiary buildings. A criticality analysis is given, based on the criteria laid down in the p...

  7. Similarities and disparities between Romanian individual and consolidated financial group statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin Tanasa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify, analyse and assess the main connections and implications of consolidated accounts on enterprise economy. Appearance of consolidated financial statements is intrinsically linked to certain concepts, such as group, control, the perimeter of consolidation, percentages of interests, methods of consolidation, or restatements. For a more complete view regarding consolidated annual accounts, it is necessary to delimit and define these particular elements. This approach targets the presentation of our vision over positioning, place and function of financial consolidated statements in the process of the financial report. The study envisages a summary and comparison of ideas found on this subject in thespecialty literature, the regulations developed by various international bodies. Thus, we think it will facilitate the correct positioning of the consolidated financial statements and the consolidated accounts’ concepts. To achieve the proposed desiderates, we have used a constructive methodology for identifying disagreements, approvals and development of a speech to more efficient and effective management of the mentioned concepts.

  8. 7 CFR 15.86 - Consolidated or joint hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... responsibility within the Department for the administration of all the laws extending the Federal financial... agreement order consolidation for hearing. The Secretary may order proceedings in the Department... such consolidation. Hearing Officer ...

  9. Consolidation and permeability of salt in brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, A.J.; Baes, C.F. Jr.; Canonico, C.M.

    1981-07-01

    The consolidation and loss of permeability of salt crystal aggregates, important in assessing the effects of water in salt repositories, has been studied as a function of several variables. The kinetic behavior was similar to that often observed in sintering and suggested the following expression for the time dependence of the void fraction: phi(t) = phi(0) - (A/B)ln(1 + Bt/z(0) 3 ), where A and B are rate constants and z(0) is initial average particle size. With brine present, A and phi(0) varied linearly with stress. The initial void fraction was also dependent to some extent on the particle size distribution. The rate of consolidation was most rapid in brine and least rapid in the presence of only air as the fluid. A brine containing 5 m MgCl 2 showed an intermediate rate, presumably because of the greatly reduced solubility of NaCl. A substantial wall effect was indicated by an observed increase in the void fraction of consolidated columns with distance from the top where the stress was applied and by a dependence of consolidation rate on the column height and radius. The distance through which the stress fell by a factor of phi was estimated to change inversely as the fourth power of the column diameter. With increasing temperature (to 85 0 C), consolidation proceeded somewhat more rapidly and the wall effect was reduced. The permeability of the columns dropped rapidly with consolidation, decreasing with about the sixth power of the void fraction. In general, extrapolation of the results to repository conditions confirms the self-sealing properties of bedded salt as a storage medium for radioactive waste

  10. The neurobiology of consolidations, or, how stable is the engram?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudai, Yadin

    2004-01-01

    Consolidation is the progressive postacquisition stabilization of long-term memory. The term is commonly used to refer to two types of processes: synaptic consolidation, which is accomplished within the first minutes to hours after learning and occurs in all memory systems studied so far; and system consolidation, which takes much longer, and in which memories that are initially dependent upon the hippocampus undergo reorganization and may become hippocampal-independent. The textbook account of consolidation is that for any item in memory, consolidation starts and ends just once. Recently, a heated debate has been revitalized on whether this is indeed the case, or, alternatively, whether memories become labile and must undergo some form of renewed consolidation every time they are activated. This debate focuses attention on fundamental issues concerning the nature of the memory trace, its maturation, persistence, retrievability, and modifiability.

  11. Evaluation consolidated under Financial Group Banca Transilvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebac Neculina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the components of prudence measures adopted by the competentauthorities with the regulation and supervision of financial markets at national andEuropean level is mandatory consolidation of accounts. Romania as member of theEuropean Union it harmonized national regulations with the European consolidation ofaccounts of companies. For the banks have been issued by the appropriate rules by theregulators authority, concerned by National Bank of Romania. In accordance withnational regulations, companies are required to prepare annual consolidated financialstatements may make such situations according to the regulations or accounting inaccordance with Directive VII of the European Economic Community, underInternational Financial Reporting Standards.

  12. Physical and chemical factors affecting sludge consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, C.W.; Blimkie, M.E.; Lavoie, P.A

    1997-09-01

    Chemical reactions between sludge components and precipitation reactions within the pores of the existing sludge are shown to contribute to the consolidation of sludge under steam generator operating conditions. Simulations of sludge representative of plants with a mixed iron/copper feedtrain suggest that as the conditions in the feedtrain become more oxidizing the sludge will become harder with a higher nickel ferrite content. The precipitation of feedwater impurities introduced by condenser leaks and of zinc silicate, which is produced in plants with brass condenser tubes and silica in the makeup water, contribute significantly to sludge consolidation. Sodium phosphate is also shown to be an agent of sludge consolidation. (author)

  13. Mobile Melt-Dilute Treatment for Russian Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of spent Russian fuel using a Melt-Dilute (MD) process is proposed to consolidate fuel assemblies into a form that is proliferation resistant and provides critically safety under storage and disposal configurations. Russian fuel elements contain a variety of fuel meat and cladding materials. The Melt-Dilute treatment process was initially developed for aluminum-based fuels so additional development is needed for several cladding and fuel meat combinations in the Russian fuel inventory (e.g. zirconium-clad, uranium-zirconium alloy fuel). A Mobile Melt-Dilute facility (MMD) is being proposed for treatment of spent fuels at reactor site storage locations in Russia; thereby, avoiding the costs of building separate treatment facilities at each site and avoiding shipment of enriched fuel assemblies over the road. The MMD facility concept is based on laboratory tests conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), and modular pilot-scale facilities constructed at the Savannah River Site for treatment of US spent fuel. SRTC laboratory tests have shown the feasibility of operating a Melt-Dilute treatment process with either a closed system or a filtered off-gas system. The proposed Mobile Melt-Dilute process is presented in this paper

  14. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of spent fuel storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, D.R.; Wheeler, C.L.; Lombardo, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) computer code, which is designed to predict flow and temperature distributions in spent nuclear fuel storage and transportation systems. The decay heat generated by spent fuel in a dry storage cask is removed through a combination of conduction, natural convection, and thermal radiation. One major advantage of COBRA-SFS is that fluid recirculation within the cask is computed directly by solving the mass and momentum conservation equations. In addition, thermal radiation heat transfer is modeled using detailed radiation exchange factors based on quarter-rod segments. The equations governing mass, momentum, and energy conservation for incompressible flows are presented, and the semi-implicit solution method is described. COBRA-SFS predictions are compared to temperature data from a spent fuel storage cask test and the effect of different fill media on the cladding temperature distribution is discussed. The effect of spent fuel consolidation on cask thermal performance is also investigated. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Consolidating Financial Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Marcia R.

    This publication is designed to be a desktop reference and assist financial officers in both public and independent institutions of higher education in the preparation of consolidated financial statements. Chapter 1 covers generally accepted accounting principles and other accounting literature, and summarizes reporting rules of the Financial…

  16. 7 CFR 1717.615 - Consolidations and mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consolidations and mergers. 1717.615 Section 1717.615... Controls § 1717.615 Consolidations and mergers. A distribution or power supply borrower may without the..., merger, conveyance or transfer shall be on such terms as shall fully preserve the lien and security of...

  17. Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) Facility and its impact on spent fuel transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy has identified nine potential sites for a repository to permanently dispose of radioactive wastes. DOE has released several sets of maps and tables identifying expected transportation routes between nuclear reactors and repository sites. More recently, the DOE has announced three potential Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (MRS) sites in the state of Tennessee. Obviously, if a large portion of the spent fuel is routed to Tennessee for consolidation and repackaging, there will be significant changes in the estimated routes. For typical scenarios, the number of shipments in the vicinity of the repository will be reduced. For example, with direct reactor to repository shipments, 995 highway and 262 rail shipments are expected to arrive at the repository annually. With a MRS these numbers are reduced to 201 and 30, respectively. The remaining consolidated fuel would be transported from the MRS in 22 dedicated trains (each train transporting five casks). Conversely, the MRS would result in an increase in the number of spent fuel shipments traveling through the eastern part of Tennessee. However, the operation of a MRS would significantly reduce the number of shipments through the central and western parts of the state

  18. Storage for the Fast Flux Test Facility unirradiated fuel in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Complex, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment evaluates the proposed action to relocate and store unirradiated Fast Flux Test Facility fuel in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Complex on the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The US Department of Energy has decided to cease fuel fabrication activities in the 308 Building in the 300 Area. This decision was based on a safety concern over the ability of the fuel fabrication portion of the 308 Building to withstand a seismic event. The proposed action to relocate and store the fuel is based on the savings that could be realized by consolidating security costs associated with storage of the fuel. While the 308 Building belowgrade fuel storage areas are not at jeopardy by a seismic event, the US Department of Energy is proposing to cease storage operations along with the related fabrication operations. The US Department of Energy proposes to remove the unirradiated fuel pins and fuel assemblies from the 308 Building and store them in Room 192A, within the 234-5Z Building, a part of the Plutonium Finishing Plant Complex, located in the 200 West Area. Minor modifications to Room 192A would be required to accommodate placement of the fuel. The US Department of Energy estimates that removing all of the fuel from the 308 Building would save $6.5 million annually in security expenditures for the Fast Flux Test Facility. Environmental impacts of construction, relocation, and operation of the proposed action and alternatives were evaluated. This evaluation concluded that the proposed action would have no significant impacts on the human environment

  19. [Evaluation of ecosystem service value and strategies for ecological design in land consolidation: a case of land consolidation project in Da'an City, Jilin Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Yan, Shen-Chun; Yu, Li; Zhang, Ya-Nan

    2014-04-01

    Land consolidation, as one of the major driving forces for the changes of land use/cover, has significant impacts on landscape patterns, ecological functions, and ecosystem services. In this paper, a land consolidation project conducted in Da'an City, Jinlin Province, China, was selected to evaluate the ecosystem service values before and after land consolidation at three spatial scales, i. e., village, town, and county. The results indicated that the land consolidation with the goal to increase the area of cultivated land might cause the decrease of the saline and alkaline land, grassland, and wetland. In addition, land consolidation resulted in the reduction of the total ecosystem service values at varying degree at the three scales. Compared to the pre-consolidation status, the total post-consolidation ecosystem service values at the village, town and county scales were 7.96, 843.01 and 1205.86 million yuan, and reduced by 10.5%, 14.2% and 33.1%, respectively. Based on the evaluation of ecosystem service value, strategies of landscape ecological design were discussed to improve the ecological functions and to provide the guidance for the sustainable development of land consolidation.

  20. Fuel R and D to improve fuel reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Rosa; Cheng, Bo; Deshon, Jeff; Edsinger, Kurt; Ozer, Odelli

    2006-01-01

    Light water reactor fuel is operating in an increasingly challenging environment. Fuel burnup extension and cycle length increase both can increase the local duty. Reactor water chemistry modifications for the purpose of protection the plant system materials have the potential of increasing fuel surface deposition and cladding corrosion and hydriding. The status of fuel performance in US reactors is summarized and an update of the Fuel Reliability Program' established by the utility industry to ensure reliability is provided. (author)

  1. The Behavior and Durability of Self-Consolidating Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report focuses on the production of self-consolidating concrete using local materials from Las Vegas, Nevada. Tests were conducted on eight self-consolidating concrete mixtures having two different percentages of fly-ash replacement (25% and 35%...

  2. 100-N pilot project: Proposed consolidated groundwater monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghese, J.V.; Hartman, M.J.; Lutrell, S.P.; Perkins, C.J.; Zoric, J.P.; Tindall, S.C.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents a proposed consolidated groundwater monitoring program for the 100-N Pilot Project. This program is the result of a cooperative effort between the Hanford Site contractors who monitor the groundwater beneath the 100-N Area. The consolidation of the groundwater monitoring programs is being proposed to minimize the cost, time, and effort necessary for groundwater monitoring in the 100-N Area, and to coordinate regulatory compliance activities. The integrity of the subprograms requirements remained intact during the consolidation effort. The purpose of this report is to present the proposed consolidated groundwater monitoring program and to summarize the process by which it was determined

  3. Dreaming and offline memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Erin J

    2014-03-01

    Converging evidence suggests that dreaming is influenced by the consolidation of memory during sleep. Following encoding, recently formed memory traces are gradually stabilized and reorganized into a more permanent form of long-term storage. Sleep provides an optimal neurophysiological state to facilitate this process, allowing memory networks to be repeatedly reactivated in the absence of new sensory input. The process of memory reactivation and consolidation in the sleeping brain appears to influence conscious experience during sleep, contributing to dream content recalled on awakening. This article outlines several lines of evidence in support of this hypothesis, and responds to some common objections.

  4. The environment and the use of alternative fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okken, P.A.

    1992-05-01

    The contribution of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) to the ANWB symposium on alternative fuels and techniques concerns the necessity to use alternatives to reduce CO 2 emissions, the importance of system integration, and a discussion of the strong and weak points with regard to the introduction of the fuel alternatives in the Netherlands. First attention is paid to the greenhouse effect (CO 2 emissions) of the use of fuels. Options to reduce CO 2 emission from automobiles are mentioned. Than several alternative fuels and accompanying techniques, and their impact on the CO 2 emission, are discussed: diesel, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), methanol, ethanol, rapeseed, electricity, and hydrogen. The possibilities to reduce CO 2 emission in the Netherlands can be calculated by means of the Energy and Materials Scenarios (EMS). For several aspects assessments are given for the above-mentioned alternatives: availability of technology, ease of fuel storage, risk of use, impact on the city climate, full fuel cycle CO 2 emission, costs, and reserves. These aspects can be considered as valid for most of the industrialized countries. For the Netherlands two other aspects have been assessed: the interest of the oil industry in the introduction of alternative fuels, the availability of the alternatives in the Netherlands. 5 figs., 6 tabs., 10 refs

  5. In-pool damaged fuel bundle recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piascik, T.G.; Patenaude, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    While preparing to rerack the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, GPU Nuclear had need to move a damaged fuel bundle. This bundle had no upper tie plate and could not be moved in the normal manner. GPU Nuclear formed a small, dedicated project team to disassemble, package, and move this damaged bundle. The team was composed of key personnel from GPU Nuclear Fuels Projects, OCNGS Operations and Proto-Power/Bisco, a specialty contractor who has fuel bundle reconstitution and rod consolidation experience, remote tooling, underwater video systems and experienced technicians. Proven tooling, clear procedures and a simple approach were important, but the key element was the spirit of teamwork and leadership exhibited by the people involved. In spite of several emergent problems which a task of this nature presents, this small, close knit utility/vendor team completed the work on schedule and within the exposure and cost budgets

  6. Does abnormal sleep impair memory consolidation in schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara S Manoach

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although disturbed sleep is a prominent feature of schizophrenia, its relation to the pathophysiology, signs, and symptoms of schizophrenia remains poorly understood. Sleep disturbances are well known to impair cognition in healthy individuals. Yet, in spite of its ubiquity in schizophrenia, abnormal sleep has generally been overlooked as a potential contributor to cognitive deficits. Amelioration of cognitive deficits is a current priority of the schizophrenia research community, but most efforts to define, characterize, and quantify cognitive deficits focus on cross-sectional measures. While this approach provides a valid snapshot of function, there is now overwhelming evidence that critical aspects of learning and memory consolidation happen offline, both over time and with sleep. Initial memory encoding is followed by a prolonged period of consolidation, integration, and reorganization, that continues over days or even years. Much of this evolution of memories is mediated by sleep. This article briefly reviews (i abnormal sleep in schizophrenia, (ii sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy individuals, (iii recent findings of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia, and (iv implications of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia. This literature suggests that abnormal sleep in schizophrenia disrupts attention and impairs sleep-dependent memory consolidation and task automation. We conclude that these sleep-dependent impairments may contribute substantially to generalized cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Understanding this contribution may open new avenues to ameliorating cognitive dysfunction and thereby improve outcome in schizophrenia.

  7. Cooperation. An alternative to consolidation or bankruptcy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, G

    1994-04-01

    With all the recent consolidation and doomsaying within the EMS industry, the music from the movie "Jaws" is likely playing a constant refrain in the minds of many smaller EMS providers. The word from the consolidators--those large companies buying up small and midsized ambulance services--is that health maintenance organizations (HMOs) soon will be purchasing EMS and other "out-of-hospital" services and that since HMOs are for-profit institutions, they will be looking for the least expensive EMS delivery system. The consolidators and others with a stake in the new order assert that cost-effective services can only be produced by large national EMS companies; smaller companies will be left out in the cold. But will they?

  8. Lessons learned from the EG&G consolidated hazardous waste subcontract and ESH&Q liability assessment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N.J.

    1995-03-01

    Hazardous waste transportation, treatment, recycling, and disposal contracts were first consolidated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in 1992 by EG&G Idaho, Inc. At that time, disposition of Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous waste, Toxic Substance Control Act waste, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act hazardous substances and contaminated media, and recyclable hazardous materials was consolidated under five subcontracts. The wastes were generated by five different INEL M&O contractors, under the direction of three different Department of Energy field offices. The consolidated contract reduced the number of facilities handling INEL waste from 27 to 8 qualified treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, with brokers specifically prohibited. This reduced associated transportation costs, amount and cost of contractual paperwork, and environmental liability exposure. EG&G reviewed this approach and proposed a consolidated hazardous waste subcontract be formed for the major EG&G managed DOE sites: INEL, Mound, Rocky Flats, Nevada Test Site, and 10 satellite facilities. After obtaining concurrence from DOE Headquarters, this effort began in March 1992 and was completed with the award of two master task subcontracts in October and November 1993. In addition, the effort included a team to evaluate the apparent awardee`s facilities for environment, safety, health, and quality (ESH&Q) and financial liability status. This report documents the evaluation of the process used to prepare, bid, and award the EG&G consolidated hazardous waste transportation, treatment, recycling, and/or disposal subcontracts and associated ESH&Q and financial liability assessments; document the strengths and weaknesses of the process; and propose improvements that would expedite and enhance the process for other DOE installations that used the process and for the re-bid of the consolidated subcontract, scheduled for 1997.

  9. 17 CFR 240.16b-7 - Mergers, reclassifications, and consolidations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... financial statements for a 12 month period before the merger, reclassification or consolidation, or such..., and consolidations. 240.16b-7 Section 240.16b-7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...) § 240.16b-7 Mergers, reclassifications, and consolidations. (a) The following transactions shall be...

  10. Safeguards approach for conditioning facility for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younkin, J.M.; Barham, M.; Moran, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    A safeguards approach has been developed for conditioning facilities associated with the final disposal of spent fuel in geologic repositories. The proposed approach is based on a generic conditioning facility incorporating common features of conditioning facility designs currently proposed. The generic facility includes a hot cell for consolidation of spent fuel pins and repackaging of spent fuel items such as assemblies and cans of pins. The consolidation process introduces safeguards concerns which have not previously been addressed in traditional safeguards approaches. In developing the safeguards approach, diversion of spent fuel was assessed in terms of potential target items, operational activities performed on the items, containment of the items, and concealment activities performed on the items. The combination of these factors defines the potential diversion pathways. Diversion pathways were identified for spent fuel pellets, pins, assemblies, canisters, and casks. Diversion activities provide for opportunities of detection along the diversion paths. Potential detection methods were identified at several levels of diversion activities. Detection methods can be implemented through safeguards measures. Safeguards measures were proposed for each of the primary safeguards techniques of design information verification (DIV), containment and surveillance (C/S), and material accountancy. Potential safeguards approaches were developed by selection of appropriate combinations of safeguards measures. For all candidate safeguards approaches, DIV is a fundamental component. Variations in the approaches are mainly in the degree of C/S measures and in the types and numbers of material accountancy verification measures. The candidate safeguards approaches were evaluated toward the goal of determining a model safeguards approach. This model approach is based on the integrated application of selected safeguards measures to use International Atomic Energy Agency resources

  11. Role of adult neurogenesis in hippocampal-cortical memory consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Acquired memory is initially dependent on the hippocampus (HPC) for permanent memory formation. This hippocampal dependency of memory recall progressively decays with time, a process that is associated with a gradual increase in dependency upon cortical structures. This process is commonly referred to as systems consolidation theory. In this paper, we first review how memory becomes hippocampal dependent to cortical dependent with an emphasis on the interactions that occur between the HPC and cortex during systems consolidation. We also review the mechanisms underlying the gradual decay of HPC dependency during systems consolidation from the perspective of memory erasures by adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Finally, we discuss the relationship between systems consolidation and memory precision. PMID:24552281

  12. Consistency based correlations for tailings consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, S.; Paul, A.C. [Regina Univ., Regina, SK (Canada). Environmental Systems Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The extraction of oil, uranium, metals and mineral resources from the earth generates significant amounts of tailings slurry. The tailings are contained in a disposal area with perimeter dykes constructed from the coarser fraction of the slurry. There are many unique challenges pertaining to the management of the containment facilities for several decades beyond mine closure that are a result of the slow settling rates of the fines and the high standing toxic waters. Many tailings dam failures in different parts of the world have been reported to result in significant contaminant releases causing public concern over the conventional practice of tailings disposal. Therefore, in order to reduce and minimize the environmental footprint, the fluid tailings need to undergo efficient consolidation. This paper presented an investigation into the consolidation behaviour of tailings in conjunction with soil consistency that captured physicochemical interactions. The paper discussed the large strain consolidation behaviour (volume compressibility and hydraulic conductivity) of six fine-grained soil slurries based on published data. The paper provided background information on the study and presented the research methodology. The geotechnical index properties of the selected materials were also presented. The large strain consolidation, volume compressibility correlations, and hydraulic conductivity correlations were provided. It was concluded that the normalized void ratio best described volume compressibility whereas liquidity index best explained the hydraulic conductivity. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Advanced teleoperation in nuclear applications: consolidated fuel reprocessing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W.R.; Feldman, M.J.; Martin, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A new generation of integrated remote maintenance systems is being developed to meet the needs of future nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Development activities cover all aspects of an advanced teleoperated maintenance system with particular emphasis on a new force-reflecting servomanipulator concept. The new manipulator, called the advanced servomanipulator, is microprocessor controlled and is designed to achieve force-reflection performance near that of mechanical master/slave manipulators. The advanced servomanipulator uses a gear-drive transmission which permits modularization for remote maintainability (by other advanced servomanipulators) and increases reliability. Human factors analysis has been used to develop an improved man/machine interface concept based upon colographic displays and menu-driven touch screens. Initial test and evaluation of two advanced servomanipulator slave arms and several other development components have begun. 9 references, 5 figures

  14. Bank Consolidation, Internationalization, and Conglomeration; Trends and Implications for Financial Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gianni De Nicolo; Mary G Zephirin; Philip F. Bartholomew; Jahanara Zaman

    2003-01-01

    This paper documents global trends in bank activity, consolidation, internationalization, and financial firm conglomeration, and explores the extent to which financial firm risk and systemic risk potential in banking are related to consolidation and conglomeration. We find that while there is a substantial upward trend in conglomeration globally, consolidation and internationalization exhibit uneven patterns across world regions. Trends in consolidation and conglomeration indicate increased r...

  15. The CCCTB Concept of Consolidation and the Rules on Entering a Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Streek, J.

    2012-01-01

    The consolidation element is at the heart of the proposed Directive on a harmonized Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB). In this article, the author examines the scope of the consolidation concept. When a company enters a consolidated group, conflicts of interest arise between Member

  16. Post-study caffeine administration enhances memory consolidation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borota, Daniel; Murray, Elizabeth; Keceli, Gizem; Chang, Allen; Watabe, Joseph M; Ly, Maria; Toscano, John P; Yassa, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    It is currently not known whether caffeine has an enhancing effect on long-term memory in humans. We used post-study caffeine administration to test its effect on memory consolidation using a behavioral discrimination task. Caffeine enhanced performance 24 h after administration according to an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve; this effect was specific to consolidation and not retrieval. We conclude that caffeine enhanced consolidation of long-term memories in humans.

  17. A Study on Rack Thickness Effect for Spent Fuel Pool Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Hee-Jae; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    2015-01-01

    For the effective storage of used fuel, the development of high performance neutron absorbing materials is needed. One of the major concern for the used fuel storage is the assurance to keep subcriticality of the storage rack and the high performance neutron absorbing material is the vital part to assure this requirement. According to NRC guide line, the k-effective of the spent fuel storage racks must not exceed 0.95. To ensure its safety, subcriticality analysis is required. Subcriticality analysis of the used storage in spent fuel pool have been performed by different authors. Criticality calculations for light water reactor spent fuel storage rack were carried out by Jae et al. They used AMPX-KENO IV code and considered the effect of rack pitch and rack thickness for consolidated fuel. The criticality analysis has performed at Gd 0.2 and 1 wt% according to thickness change. As thickness increases, the volume of the spent fuel pool rack increases. Therefore, absorbing material also increases according to thickness

  18. A Study on Rack Thickness Effect for Spent Fuel Pool Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Hee-Jae; Sohn, Dong-Seong [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    For the effective storage of used fuel, the development of high performance neutron absorbing materials is needed. One of the major concern for the used fuel storage is the assurance to keep subcriticality of the storage rack and the high performance neutron absorbing material is the vital part to assure this requirement. According to NRC guide line, the k-effective of the spent fuel storage racks must not exceed 0.95. To ensure its safety, subcriticality analysis is required. Subcriticality analysis of the used storage in spent fuel pool have been performed by different authors. Criticality calculations for light water reactor spent fuel storage rack were carried out by Jae et al. They used AMPX-KENO IV code and considered the effect of rack pitch and rack thickness for consolidated fuel. The criticality analysis has performed at Gd 0.2 and 1 wt% according to thickness change. As thickness increases, the volume of the spent fuel pool rack increases. Therefore, absorbing material also increases according to thickness.

  19. Conceptual Design for Consolidation TCAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Two alternate Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) designs have been developed for the Tritium Facility Modernization and Consolidation (TFM and C) Project. The alternate designs were developed to improve upon the existing Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) TCAP design and to eliminate the use of building distributed hot and cold nitrogen system.A brief description of TCAP theory and modeling is presented, followed by an overview of the design criteria for the Isotope Separation System (ISS). Both designs are described in detail, along with a generic description of the complete TCAP system. A design is recommend for the Consolidation Project, and a development plan for both designs is proposed

  20. LMFBR fuel-design environment for endurance testing, primarily of oxide fuel elements with local faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warinner, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    The US Department of Energy LMFBR Lines-of-Assurance are briefly stated and local faults are given perspective with an historical review and definition to help define the constraints of LMFBR fuel-element designs. Local-fault-propagation (fuel-element failure-propagation and blockage propagation) perceptions are reviewed. Fuel pin designs and major LMFBR parameters affecting pin performance are summarized. The interpretation of failed-fuel data is aided by a discussion of the effects of nonprototypicalities. The fuel-pin endurance expected in the US, USSR, France, UK, Japan, and West Germany is outlined. Finally, fuel-failure detection and location by delayed-neutron and gaseous-fission-product monitors are briefly discussed to better realize the operational limits

  1. Reward Value Determines Memory Consolidation in Parasitic Wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.; Pashalidou, F.G.; Fatouros, N.E.; Figueroa, I.A.; Vet, L.E.M.; Smid, H.M.; Huigens, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Animals can store learned information in their brains through a series of distinct memory forms. Short-lasting memory forms can be followed by longer-lasting, consolidated memory forms. However, the factors determining variation in memory consolidation encountered in nature have thus far not been

  2. Task Classification Based Energy-Aware Consolidation in Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HeeSeok Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a cloud data center, in which the service provider supplies virtual machines (VMs on hosts or physical machines (PMs to its subscribers for computation in an on-demand fashion. For the cloud data center, we propose a task consolidation algorithm based on task classification (i.e., computation-intensive and data-intensive and resource utilization (e.g., CPU and RAM. Furthermore, we design a VM consolidation algorithm to balance task execution time and energy consumption without violating a predefined service level agreement (SLA. Unlike the existing research on VM consolidation or scheduling that applies none or single threshold schemes, we focus on a double threshold (upper and lower scheme, which is used for VM consolidation. More specifically, when a host operates with resource utilization below the lower threshold, all the VMs on the host will be scheduled to be migrated to other hosts and then the host will be powered down, while when a host operates with resource utilization above the upper threshold, a VM will be migrated to avoid using 100% of resource utilization. Based on experimental performance evaluations with real-world traces, we prove that our task classification based energy-aware consolidation algorithm (TCEA achieves a significant energy reduction without incurring predefined SLA violations.

  3. Nuclear fuel particles in the environment - characteristics, atmospheric transport and skin doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poellaenen, R.

    2002-05-01

    In the present thesis, nuclear fuel particles are studied from the perspective of their characteristics, atmospheric transport and possible skin doses. These particles, often referred to as 'hot' particles, can be released into the environment, as has happened in past years, through human activities, incidents and accidents, such as the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. Nuclear fuel particles with a diameter of tens of micrometers, referred to here as large particles, may be hundreds of kilobecquerels in activity and even an individual particle may present a quantifiable health hazard. The detection of individual nuclear fuel particles in the environment, their isolation for subsequent analysis and their characterisation are complicated and require well-designed sampling and tailored analytical methods. In the present study, the need to develop particle analysis methods is highlighted. It is shown that complementary analytical techniques are necessary for proper characterisation of the particles. Methods routinely used for homogeneous samples may produce erroneous results if they are carelessly applied to radioactive particles. Large nuclear fuel particles are transported differently in the atmosphere compared with small particles or gaseous species. Thus, the trajectories of gaseous species are not necessarily appropriate for calculating the areas that may receive large particle fallout. A simplified model and a more advanced model based on the data on real weather conditions were applied in the case of the Chernobyl accident to calculate the transport of the particles of different sizes. The models were appropriate in characterising general transport properties but were not able to properly predict the transport of the particles with an aerodynamic diameter of tens of micrometers, detected at distances of hundreds of kilometres from the source, using only the current knowledge of the source term. Either the effective release height has been higher

  4. Alternative concepts for spent fuel storage basin expansion at Morris Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, W.A. Jr.; King, C.E.; Miller, G.P.; Shadel, F.H.; Sloat, R.J.

    1980-08-01

    Alternative concepts for increasing basin capabilities for storage of spent fuel at the Morris Operation have been defined in a series of simplified flow diagrams and equipment schematics. Preliminary concepts have been outlined for (1) construction alternatives for an add-on basin, (2) high-density baskets for storage of fuel bundles or possible consolidated fuel rods in the existing or add-on basins, (3) modifications to the existing facility for increasing cask handling and fuel receiving capabilities and (4) accumulation, treatment and disposal of radwastes from storage operations. Preliminary capital and operating costs have been prepared and resource and schedule requirements for implementing the concepts have been estimated. The basin expansion alternatives would readily complement potential dry storage projects at the site in an integrated multi-stage program that could provide a total storage capacity of up to 7000 tonnes of spent fuel

  5. Used Fuel Cask Identification through Neutron Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-20

    Currently, most spent fuel is stored near reactors. An interim consolidated fuel storage facility would receive fuel from multiple sites and store it in casks on site for decades. For successful operation of such a facility there is need for a way to restore continuity of knowledge if lost as well as a method that will indicate state of fuel inside the cask. Used nuclear fuel is identifiable by its radiation emission, both gamma and neutron. Neutron emission from fission products, multiplication from remaining fissile material, and the unique distribution of both in each cask produce a unique neutron signature. If two signatures taken at different times do not match, either changes within the fuel content or misidentification of a cask occurred. It was found that identification of cask loadings works well through the profile of emitted neutrons in simulated real casks. Even casks with similar overall neutron emission or average counts around the circumference can be distinguished from each other by analyzing the profile. In conclusion, (1) identification of unaltered casks through neutron signature profile is viable; (2) collecting the profile provides insight to the condition and intactness of the fuel stored inside the cask; and (3) the signature profile is stable over time.

  6. SOME ASPECTS REGARDING THE THEORIES OF CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen NISTOR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although accounts consolidation was used in practice from the early 1900’s its theoretical basis were developed later in concordance with the rise of concepts like “entity” and “group”. The aim of this article is to examine the literature in the accounting field regarding the consolidation theories developed over the years. In order to discuss the different opinions regarding the consolidation theories we used the descriptive approach. As a result we tried to explain how these theories appeared and developed, respectively what consequences have their use in preparing consolidated financial statements. The results of the study suggest that every theory has certain aspects which differentiate it from the others in terms of recognition of subsidiary income and reporting net assets of the subsidiary. However, from all theories analyzed, the entity theory takes into account several guidelines of maximum importance when preparing consolidated financial statements: “You can’t own yourself!”, “You can’t owe yourself money!”, “You can’t make money selling to yourself.”

  7. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1988-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source or information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

  8. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, I.W.

    1988-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source or information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users

  9. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, I.W.; Lakey, L.T.; Schneider, K.J.; Silviera, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is a consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users

  10. In situ oil burning in the marshland environment : soil temperatures resulting from crude oil and diesel fuel burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryner, N.P.; Walton, W.D.; Twilley, W.H.; Roadarmel, G.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Lin, Q.; Mullin, J.V.

    2001-01-01

    The unique challenge associated with oil spill cleanups in sensitive marsh environments was discussed. Mechanical recovery of crude or refined hydrocarbons in wetlands may cause more damage to the marsh than the oil itself. This study evaluated whether in situ burning of oiled marshlands would provide a less damaging alternative than mechanical recovery. This was done through a series of 6 crude oil and 5 diesel fuel burns conducted in a test tank to examine the impact of intentional burning of oil spilled in a wetlands environment. There are several factors which may influence how well such an environment would recover from an in situ oil burn, such as plant species, fuel type and load, water level, soil type, and burn duration. This paper focused on soil, air and water temperatures, as well as total heat fluxes that resulted when 3 plant species were exposed to full-scale in situ burns that were created by burning diesel fuel and crude oil. The soil temperatures were monitored during the test burn at three different soil/water elevations for 700 second burn exposures. A total of 184 plant sods were harvested from marshlands in southern Louisiana and were subjected to the burning fuel. They were instrumental in characterizing the thermal and chemical stress that occur during an in-situ burn. The plants were inserted into the test tanks at various water and soil depths. The results indicated that diesel fuel and crude oil burns produced similar soil temperature profiles at each of three plant sod elevations. Although in-situ burning did not appear to remediate oil that had penetrated into the soil, it did effectively remove floating oil from the water surface, thereby preventing it from potentially contaminating adjacent habitats and penetrating the soil when the water recedes. The regrowth and recovery of the plants will be described in a separate report. 25 refs., 7 tabs., 15 figs

  11. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation in patients with sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolli, Carlo; Mazzetti, Michela; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    Sleep can improve the off-line memory consolidation of new items of declarative and non-declarative information in healthy subjects, whereas acute sleep loss, as well as sleep restriction and fragmentation, impair consolidation. This suggests that, by modifying the amount and/or architecture of sleep, chronic sleep disorders may also lead to a lower gain in off-line consolidation, which in turn may be responsible for the varying levels of impaired performance at memory tasks usually observed in sleep-disordered patients. The experimental studies conducted to date have shown specific impairments of sleep-dependent consolidation overall for verbal and visual declarative information in patients with primary insomnia, for verbal declarative information in patients with obstructive sleep apnoeas, and for visual procedural skills in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. These findings corroborate the hypothesis that impaired consolidation is a consequence of the chronically altered organization of sleep. Moreover, they raise several novel questions as to: a) the reversibility of consolidation impairment in the case of effective treatment, b) the possible negative influence of altered prior sleep also on the encoding of new information, and c) the relationships between altered sleep and memory impairment in patients with other (medical, psychiatric or neurological) diseases associated with quantitative and/or qualitative changes of sleep architecture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Memory Consolidation and Gene Expression in "Periplaneta Americana"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausfeld, Nicholas J.; Pinter, Marianna; Lent, David D.

    2005-01-01

    A unique behavioral paradigm has been developed for "Periplaneta americana" that assesses the timing and success of memory consolidation leading to long-term memory of visual-olfactory associations. The brains of trained and control animals, removed at the critical consolidation period, were screened by two-directional suppression subtractive…

  13. A unified theory for systems and cellular memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Pramod K; Hebert, April E; Runyan, Jason D

    2004-04-01

    The time-limited role of the hippocampus for explicit memory storage has been referred to as systems consolidation where learning-related changes occur first in the hippocampus followed by the gradual development of a more distributed memory trace in the neocortex. Recent experiments are beginning to show that learning induces plasticity-related molecular changes in the neocortex as well as in the hippocampus and with a similar time course. Present memory consolidation theories do not account for these findings. In this report, we present a theory (the C theory) that incorporates these new findings, provides an explanation for the length of time for hippocampal dependency, and that can account for the apparent longer consolidation periods in species with larger brains. This theory proposes that a process of cellular consolidation occurs in the hippocampus and in areas of the neocortex during and shortly after learning resulting in long-term memory storage in both areas. For a limited time, the hippocampus is necessary for memory retrieval, a process involving the coordinated reactivation of these areas. This reactivation is later mediated by longer extrahippocampal connectivity between areas. The delay in hippocampal-independent memory retrieval is the time it takes for gene products in these longer extrahippocampal projections to be transported from the soma to tagged synapses by slow axonal transport. This cellular transport event defines the period of hippocampal dependency and, thus, the duration of memory consolidation. The theoretical description for memory consolidation presented in this review provides alternative explanations for several experimental observations and presents a unification of the concepts of systems and cellular memory consolidation.

  14. SOME ASPECTS REGARDING THE THEORIES OF CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen NISTOR

    2015-01-01

    Although accounts consolidation was used in practice from the early 1900’s its theoretical basis were developed later in concordance with the rise of concepts like “entity” and “group”. The aim of this article is to examine the literature in the accounting field regarding the consolidation theories developed over the years. In order to discuss the different opinions regarding the consolidation theories we used the descriptive approach. As a result we tried to explain how these theories appear...

  15. Consolidation Theory for a Stone Column Composite Foundation under Multistage Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shenggen; Feng, Yingtao; Liu, Hao; Wu, Wenbing; Mei, Guoxiong

    2016-01-01

    The consolidation theories considering instant load cannot fully reveal the consolidation mechanism of a stone column composite foundation used in the expressway embankments due to the time effect of loading; that is, the expressway embankments are often constructed in several stages for a long time. Meanwhile, owing to the special property that the pile-soil stress ratio is larger than 1, the consolidation theory for sand drain well foundation cannot be used directly in the consolidation ana...

  16. Differential effects of non-REM and REM sleep on memory consolidation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Sandra; Rasch, Björn

    2014-02-01

    Sleep benefits memory consolidation. Previous theoretical accounts have proposed a differential role of slow-wave sleep (SWS), rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and stage N2 sleep for different types of memories. For example the dual process hypothesis proposes that SWS is beneficial for declarative memories, whereas REM sleep is important for consolidation of non-declarative, procedural and emotional memories. In fact, numerous recent studies do provide further support for the crucial role of SWS (or non-REM sleep) in declarative memory consolidation. However, recent evidence for the benefit of REM sleep for non-declarative memories is rather scarce. In contrast, several recent studies have related consolidation of procedural memories (and some also emotional memories) to SWS (or non-REM sleep)-dependent consolidation processes. We will review this recent evidence, and propose future research questions to advance our understanding of the role of different sleep stages for memory consolidation.

  17. Speeding the transition: Designing a fuel-cell hypercar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, B.D.; Moore, T.C.; Lovins, A.B. [Rocky Mountain Inst., Snowmass, CO (United States). Hypercar Center

    1997-12-31

    A rapid transformation now underway in automotive technology could accelerate the transition to transportation powered by fuel cells. Ultralight, advanced-composite, low-drag, hybrid-electric hypercars--using combustion engines--could be three- to fourfold more efficient and one or two orders of magnitude cleaner than today`s cars, yet equally safe, sporty, desirable, and (probably) affordable. Further, important manufacturing advantages--including low tooling and equipment costs, greater mechanical simplicity, autobody parts consolidation, shorter product cycles, and reduced assembly effort and space--permit a free-market commercialization strategy. This paper discusses a conceptual hypercar powered by a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). It outlines the implications of platform physics and component selection for the vehicle`s mass budget and performance. The high fuel-to-traction conversion efficiency of the hypercar platform could help automakers overcome the Achilles` heel of hydrogen-powered vehicles: onboard storage. Moreover, because hypercars would require significantly less tractive power, and even less fuel-cell power, they could adopt fuel cells earlier, before fuel cells` specific cost, mass, and volume have fully matured. In the meantime, commercialization in buildings can help prepare fuel cells for hypercars. The promising performance of hydrogen-fueled PEMFC hypercars suggests important opportunities in infrastructure development for direct-hydrogen vehicles.

  18. Method for consolidating incompetent formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlich, J.P.; Calvert, D.G.

    1965-02-23

    An incompetent formation is consolidated and left permeable by first injecting a solidifiable liquid resin, and following this by an organic liquid to set the resin. The liquid resin used may be 3 (glycidyloxy) propyl trimethoxysilane in sufficient concentration to considerably increase the compressive strength of the consolidated zone. The silane may be used in a ratio of between 0.5 and 5% of the total volume of the liquid resin. The liquid resin used may be a phenol-formaldehyde condensation product dispersed in an aliphatic alcohol with from 1 to 4 carbon atoms. The liquid resin used may be an epoxy containing a hardener. The resin may be displaced into the formation by a liquid hydrocarbon. (5 claims)

  19. To Replay, Perchance to Consolidate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Genzel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available After a memory is formed, it continues to be processed by the brain. These "off-line" processes consolidate the memory, leading to its enhancement and to changes in memory circuits. Potentially, these memory changes are driven by off-line replay of the pattern of neuronal activity present when the memory was being formed. A new study by Dhaksin Ramanathan and colleagues, published in PLOS Biology, demonstrates that replay occurs predominately after the acquisition of a new motor skill and that it is related to changes in memory performance and to the subsequent changes in memory circuits. Together, these observations reveal the importance of neuronal replay in the consolidation of novel motor skills.

  20. Accounting Treatment for Separate and Consolidated Financial Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Oana Mihai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The rules governing the financial statements consolidation have been subject for debates for many years. The financial crisis in 2008 accelerated changes toward new improved standards. The main objective of this article is to explain the key parts of the IASB standards for consolidation of financial statements.

  1. 12 CFR 931.5 - Liquidation, merger, or consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Liquidation, merger, or consolidation. 931.5 Section 931.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.5 Liquidation, merger, or consolidation. The...

  2. Healthcare mergers and acquisitions: strategies for consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Alan M

    2011-01-01

    The passage of federal healthcare reform legislation, in combination with other factors, makes it likely that the next few years will be a major period of consolidation for healthcare organizations. This article examines the seven key forces reshaping healthcare delivery--from insurance industry consolidation to cost inflation to the increasing gap between financially strong and struggling providers--and provides advice for organizations on both sides of an acquisition.

  3. SOME DISCLOSURE ASPECTS REGARDING CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Cirstea Andreea; Baltariu Carmen-Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the current state of consolidated reporting practice harmonization concerning the choice of presenting the income statement, the changes in equity, the methods used for presenting the cash flow statement, the extant methods for evaluating and reporting goodwill, the extant methods in which jointly controlled entities are accounted in the consolidated financial statements, or the choice for recognizing investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled en...

  4. Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raebiger, R.F.; King, R.D.; Friess, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in 1989 Consolidated Edison Company of New York which initiated a comprehensive tank cleaning and inspection program of their petroleum distillate storage facilities. The program was initiated by the issuance of new regulations of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. A total of 10 storage tanks were cleaned, inspected and detailed engineering reports prepared for each storage tank. A total of 28 distillate storage facilities will be inspected over a three year period of time. The tanks ranged in size from 18,000 to 2,701,00 gallons and contained either No. 2 Fuel Oil or Kerosene. The project included waste disposal, tank cleaning, inspection, engineering evaluations and the design of tank repairs. Of the 10 tanks inspected, three of the tanks required extensive repairs including the design and installation of a new bottom shell course and partial floor replacement for one of the tanks. The project was completed on schedule and within the budget allocated. The ten tank project was evaluated upon its completion and recommendations regarding tank operations and maintenance were provided to minimize maintenance problems for the future

  5. Consolidation Theory for a Stone Column Composite Foundation under Multistage Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenggen Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation theories considering instant load cannot fully reveal the consolidation mechanism of a stone column composite foundation used in the expressway embankments due to the time effect of loading; that is, the expressway embankments are often constructed in several stages for a long time. Meanwhile, owing to the special property that the pile-soil stress ratio is larger than 1, the consolidation theory for sand drain well foundation cannot be used directly in the consolidation analysis of stone column composite foundation. Based on the principle that the vertical load applied on the composite foundation is shared by the stone column and the surrounding soil, the governing solutions for the stone column composite foundation under a multistage load are established. By virtue of the separation of variables, the corresponding solutions of degree of consolidation for loading stage and maintaining load stage are derived separately. According to the Carrillo theorem, the solution for the average total degree of consolidation of entire composite foundation is also obtained. Finally, the reasonableness of the present solution has been verified by comparing the consolidation curve calculated by the present solution with that measured by site test.

  6. Technical strategy for the management of INEEL spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents evaluations, findings, and recommendations of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team. The technical strategy developed by the Task Team includes stabilization, near term storage, packaging, transport, and ultimate disposal. Key issues identified and discussed include waste characterization, criticality, packaging, waste form performance, and special fuels. Current plans focus on onsite needs, and include three central elements: (1) resolution of near-term vulnerabilities, (2) consolidation of storage locations, and (3) achieving dry storage in transportable packages. In addition to the Task Team report, appendices contain information on the INEEL spent fuel inventory; regulatory decisions and agreements; and analyses of criticality, packaging, storage, transportation, and system performance of a geological repository. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Technical strategy for the management of INEEL spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This report presents evaluations, findings, and recommendations of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team. The technical strategy developed by the Task Team includes stabilization, near term storage, packaging, transport, and ultimate disposal. Key issues identified and discussed include waste characterization, criticality, packaging, waste form performance, and special fuels. Current plans focus on onsite needs, and include three central elements: (1) resolution of near-term vulnerabilities, (2) consolidation of storage locations, and (3) achieving dry storage in transportable packages. In addition to the Task Team report, appendices contain information on the INEEL spent fuel inventory; regulatory decisions and agreements; and analyses of criticality, packaging, storage, transportation, and system performance of a geological repository. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Analysis of radiation doses from operation of postulated commercial spent fuel transportation systems: Analysis of a system containing a monitored retrievable storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.I.; Daling, P.M.; Faletti, D.W.

    1992-04-01

    This addendum report extends the original study of the estimated radiation doses to the public and to workers resulting from transporting spent nuclear fuel from commercial nuclear power reactor stations through the federal waste management system (FWMS), to a system that contains a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The system concepts and designs utilized herein are consistent with those used in the original study (circa 1985--1987). Because the FWMS design is still evolving, the results of these analyses may no longer apply to the design for casks and cask handling systems that are currently being considered. Four system scenarios are examined and compared with the reference No-MRS scenario (all spent fuel transported directly from the reactors to the western repository in standard-capacity truck and rail casks). In Scenarios 1 and 2, an MRS facility is located in eastern United States and ships either intact fuel assemblies or consolidated fuel rods and compacted assembly hardware in canisters. In Scenarios 3 and 4, an MRS facility is located in the western United States and ship either intact fuel assemblies or consolidated fuel rods and compacted assembly hardware in canisters

  9. Success Modulates Consolidation of a Visuomotor Adaptation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trempe, Maxime; Sabourin, Maxime; Proteau, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Consolidation is a time-dependent process that is responsible for the storage of information in long-term memory. As such, it plays a crucial role in motor learning. Prior research suggests that some consolidation processes are triggered only when the learner experiences some success during practice. In the present study, we tested whether…

  10. Consolidated Copayment Processing Center (CCPC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Consolidated Copayment Processing Center (CCPC) database contains Veteran patient contact and billing information in order to support the printing and mailing of...

  11. Consolidation and restoration of memory traces in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schrijver, Sébastien; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2017-10-01

    Consolidation is the process through which ephemeral sensory traces are transformed into more stable short-term memory traces. It has been shown that consolidation plays a crucial role in working memory (WM) performance, by strengthening memory traces that then better resist interference and decay. In a recent study, Bayliss, Bogdanovs, and Jarrold (Journal of Memory and Language, 81, 34-50, 2015) argued that this process is separate from the processes known to restore WM traces after degradation, such as attentional refreshing and verbal rehearsal. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the two types of processes in the context of WM span tasks. Participants were presented with series of letters for serial recall, each letter being followed by four digits for parity judgment. Consolidation opportunity was manipulated by varying the delay between each letter and the first digit to be processed, while opportunities for restoration were manipulated by varying the pace at which the parity task had to be performed (i.e., its cognitive load, or CL). Increasing the time available for either consolidation or restoration resulted in higher WM spans, with some substitutability between the two processes. Accordingly, when consolidation time was added to restoration time in the calculation of CL, the new resulting index, called extended CL, proved a very good predictor of recall performance, a finding also observed when verbal rehearsal was prevented by articulatory suppression. This substitutability between consolidation and restoration suggests that both processes may rely on the same mechanisms.

  12. A consolidated and standardized relational database for ER data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zygmunt, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    The three US Department of Energy (DOE) installations on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Y-12, and K-25) were established during World War II as part of the Manhattan Project that ''built the bomb.'' That research, and work in more recent years, has resulted in the generation of radioactive materials and other toxic wastes. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems manages the three Oak Ridge installations (as well as the Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at the DOE plants in Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky). DOE Oak Ridge Operations has been mandated by federal and state agreements to provide a consolidated repository of environmental data and is tasked to support environmental data management activities at all five installations. The Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS) was initiated to fulfill these requirements. The primary use of OREIS data is to provide access to project results by regulators. A secondary use is to serve as background data for other projects. This paper discusses the benefits of a consolidated and standardized database; reasons for resistance to the consolidation of data; implementing a consolidated database, including attempts at standardization, deciding what to include in the consolidated database, establishing lists of valid values, and addressing quality control (QC) issues; and the evolution of a consolidated database, which includes developing and training a user community, dealing with configuration control issues, and incorporating historical data. OREIS is used to illustrate these topics

  13. Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.

    1981-07-01

    The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10 -7 spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10 -9 /mile

  14. Consolidated results 2000. Forecasts 2001; Resultats consolides 2000. Perspectives 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document presents an economic analysis of the Group Gaz De France consolidated results for the year 2000. The main topics are the evolution of the energy market, the great economic growth for the five businesses of the Group (exploration-production, trade, transport, distribution and services), financial results affected by the supply costs increase, the position reinforcement among the gas leaders in Europe and the highlights of 2000. (A.L.B.)

  15. Relation Between Filtration and Soil Consolidation Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Strzelecki Tomasz; Strzelecki Michał

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a different, than commonly used, form of equations describing the filtration of a viscous compressible fluid through a porous medium in isothermal conditions. This mathematical model is compared with the liquid flow equations used in the theory of consolidation. It is shown that the current commonly used filtration model representation significantly differs from the filtration process representation in Biot’s and Terzaghi’s soil consolidation models, which has a bearing on...

  16. Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. consolidated financial statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The consolidated financial statements of Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. (formerly Saskatchewan Energy Corporation) as of December 31, 1990, and the consolidated statements of earnings and retained earnings and changes in cash position for the year are presented. Data include an inventory of supplies, natural gas in storage, property, plant and equipment. Financial statements are also presented for the year ending December 31, 1989, with comparative figures for the seven months ending December 31, 1988

  17. Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. consolidated financial statements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The consolidated financial statements of Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. (formerly Saskatchewan Energy Corporation) as of December 31, 1990, and the consolidated statements of earnings and retained earnings and changes in cash position for the year are presented. Data include an inventory of supplies, natural gas in storage, property, plant and equipment. Financial statements are also presented for the year ending December 31, 1989, with comparative figures for the seven months ending December 31, 1988.

  18. Mechanisms of Social Consolidation in the Network Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia A. Bobova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last five years the world has seen the emergence of mass global and regional social movements outside of institutional structures representing open systems with a spontaneous nature. These social movements do not have any tangible hierarchy and leaders; information within the movement activity is spread virally and mainly using new electronic communication tools - namely, mass self-communication constituting spaces of communication autonomy beyond the control of governments. A feature of the new type of social movements is their emergence in virtual space. Such mass movements manifest intensified consolidation processes in the modern society - due to fundamentally new factors. New practical mechanisms of consolidation amid an increase in the proportion of young people in countries are directly linked with technological developments that influenced in essence communication and changes in the established modern informational society. Virtual mass self-communication becomes the main practical mechanism for social consolidation in the modern informational society. The consolidation process intensifies due to government legitimacy crisis and loss of public trust in government and indicates an emergence of a new form of a civil society.

  19. Failure envelope approach for consolidated undrained capacity of shallow foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Vulpe, Cristina; Gourvenec, Susan; Leman, Billy; Fung, Kah Ngii

    2016-01-01

    A generalized framework is applied to predict consolidated undrained VHM failure envelopes for surface circular and strip foundations. The failure envelopes for consolidated undrained conditions are shown to be scaled from those for unconsolidated undrained conditions by the uniaxial consolidated undrained capacities, which are predicted through a theoretical framework based on fundamental critical state soil mechanics. The framework is applied to results from small-strain finite-element anal...

  20. The Consolidated Net Worth of Private Colleges. Recommendation of a Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Hans H.

    One of several essential tools for assessing how the financial health of educational institutions is evolving is the Consolidated Net Worth Statement. This essay explores various aspects of conventional "funds" balance sheets and compares them with the Consolidated Net Worth. Emphasis is placed on how the Consolidated Net Worth Statement…

  1. Environment and fuel choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellerman, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    The efficacy of environmental regulation as a determinant of fossil fuel choice is examined, with a focus on coal and natural gas in the United States market. It is thought that with the current concern over greenhouse gas emissions, gas would become the fuel of choice and would benefit from measures such as emission trading and carbon taxes. In the USA, in spite of environmental regulations set forth in the Clean Air Act, coal consumption has not decreased with respect to gas because coal is successfully competing on an economic and environmental level. Coal mine productivity has increased over the past 15 years and significant progress has been made in both reducing the emission forming materials in coal through better processing and reducing stack emissions via pollution control devices. An economic analysis of the premium that should attach to natural gas as compared to coal for power generation shows that an emissions trading premium on gas is not sufficient to compensate for the lower cost of coal. The advantages of natural gas for power generation lie in the lower capital and operating costs for combined cycle generation technology and the good prospects for a low, long-term equilibrium price for natural gas. Lower wellhead prices and combined cycle technology will cause gas to have a larger share of the electric utility market than coal in areas where transport economics are favorable. However, the economics of existing coal-fired plants favor continued use of coal, and the increase in gas use will depend on the rate at which new plants are built. 4 figs

  2. AREVA 10x10 BWR fuel experience feedback and on going upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippert, Hans Joachim; Rentmeister, Thomas; Garner, Norman; Tandy, Jay; Mollard, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Established with engineering and manufacturing operations in the US and Europe, AREVA NP has been and is supplying nuclear fuel assemblies and associated core components to boiling water reactors worldwide, representing today more than 63 000 fuel assemblies. The evolution of BWR fuel rod arrays from early 6x6 designs to the 10x10 designs first introduced in the mid 1990's yielded significant improvements in thermal mechanical operating limits, critical power level, cold shutdown margin, discharge burnup, as well as other key operational capabilities. Since first delivered in 1992, ATRIUM T M 1 0 fuel assemblies have now been supplied to a total of 32 BWR plants in the US, Europe, and Asia resulting in an operating experience over 20 000 fuel assemblies. This article presents in detail the operational experience consolidated by these more than 20 000 ATRIUM T M 1 0 BWR assemblies already supplied to utilities. Within the different 10x10 fuel assemblies available, the Fuel Assembly design is chosen and tailored to the operating strategies of each reactor. Among them, the latest versions of ATRIUM T M a re ATRIUM T M 1 0XP and ATRIUM T M 1 0XM fuel assemblies which have been delivered to several utilities worldwide. The article details key aspects of ATRIUM T M 1 0 fuel assemblies in terms of reliability and performance. Special attention is paid to key proven features, ULTRAFLOW T M s pacer grids, the use of part length fuel rods (PLFRs) and their geometrical optimization, water channel and load chain, upgraded features available for inclusion with most advanced designs. Regular upgrading of the product has been made possible thanks to a continuous improvement process with the aim of further upgrading BWR fuel assembly performance and reliability. Regarding thermal mechanical behavior of fuel rods, chromia (Cr2O3) doped fuel pellets, described in Reference 1, well illustrate this improvement strategy to reduce fission gas release, increase power thresholds for PCI

  3. Land consolidation in mountain areas. Case study from southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Jarosław; Łopacka, Magdalena; John, Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Land consolidation procedures are an attempt to comprehensively change the existing spatial structure of land in rural areas. This treatment also brings many other social and economic benefi ts, contributing to the development of consolidated areas. Land consolidation in mountain areas differs in many respects from those implemented in areas with more favorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture. The unfavorable values of land fragmentation indices, terrain conditions and lower than the average soil quality affect both the dominant forms of agricultural activity and the limited opportunities to improve the distribution of plots in space, parameters of shape, and the area as a result of land consolidation. For this reason, the effectiveness of land consolidation in mountain areas can be achieved by improving the quality of transportation network and the accessibility of the plots, arranging ownership issues and improving the quality of cadastral documentation. This article presents the evaluation of the measures of effectiveness of land consolidation realized in mountain areas on the example of Łetownia Village in the Małopolska Province, located in the southern part of Poland. Selected village is an area with unfavorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture and high values of land fragmentation indices.

  4. Land consolidation in mountain areas. Case study from southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Jarosław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Land consolidation procedures are an attempt to comprehensively change the existing spatial structure of land in rural areas. This treatment also brings many other social and economic benefi ts, contributing to the development of consolidated areas. Land consolidation in mountain areas differs in many respects from those implemented in areas with more favorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture. The unfavorable values of land fragmentation indices, terrain conditions and lower than the average soil quality affect both the dominant forms of agricultural activity and the limited opportunities to improve the distribution of plots in space, parameters of shape, and the area as a result of land consolidation. For this reason, the effectiveness of land consolidation in mountain areas can be achieved by improving the quality of transportation network and the accessibility of the plots, arranging ownership issues and improving the quality of cadastral documentation. This article presents the evaluation of the measures of effectiveness of land consolidation realized in mountain areas on the example of Łetownia Village in the Małopolska Province, located in the southern part of Poland. Selected village is an area with unfavorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture and high values of land fragmentation indices.

  5. How long can austerity persist? The factors that sustain fiscal consolidations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lodge

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To put public debt on a sustainable path, many governments face the task of enacting large fiscal consolidation followed by years of sustained primary surpluses. By estimating hazard functions for the duration of consolidations, we analyse the features of past consolidation efforts across a panel of advanced economies. Our contribution is to identify the factors that help to start and sustain consolidations, separately discussing governments’ “commitment” to the cause as well as their “capacity” for action. Our analysis suggests that longer consolidations are initiated when public debt is high, fiscal deficits are large, the interest burden heavy and long-term sovereign bond yields elevated. However, we also find that a countries’ “capacity” to change course is important. Higher initial private sector savings, a stronger external balance, a competitive position and stable financial conditions appear to provide more scope for governments to sustain longer-lasting consolidations. Once we have controlled for the initial macroeconomic conditions, there is a lesser role for governments’ commitment as reflected in factors such as the composition and the pace of the fiscal adjustment or the political cycle in explaining the duration of consolidation. However, commitment to permanent, rather than temporary, fiscal adjustment is key.

  6. Lessons learned from the EG ampersand G consolidated hazardous waste subcontract and ESH ampersand Q liability assessment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, N.J.

    1995-03-01

    Hazardous waste transportation, treatment, recycling, and disposal contracts were first consolidated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in 1992 by EG and G Idaho, Inc. At that time, disposition of Resource, Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous waste, Toxic Substance Control Act waste, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act hazardous substances and contaminated media, and recyclable hazardous materials was consolidated under five subcontracts. The wastes were generated by five different INEL M and O contractors, under the direction of three different Department of Energy field offices. The consolidated contract reduced the number of facilities handling INEL waste from 27 to 8 qualified treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, with brokers specifically prohibited. This reduced associated transportation costs, amount and cost of contractual paperwork, and environmental liability exposure. EG and G reviewed this approach and proposed a consolidated hazardous waste subcontract be formed for the major EG and G managed DOE sites: INEL, Mound, Rocky Flats, Nevada Test Site, and 10 satellite facilities. After obtaining concurrence from DOE Headquarters, this effort began in March 1992 and was completed with the award of two master task subcontracts in October and November 1993. In addition, the effort included a team to evaluate the apparent awardee's facilities for environment, safety, health, and quality (ESH and Q) and financial liability status. This report documents the evaluation of the process used to prepare, bid, and award the EG and G consolidated hazardous waste transportation, treatment, recycling, and/or disposal subcontracts and associated ESH and Q and financial liability assessments; document the strengths and weaknesses of the process; and propose improvements that would expedite and enhance the process for other DOE installations that used the process and for the re-bid of the consolidated subcontract

  7. Fuel manufacturing and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The efficient utilisation of nuclear fuel requires manufacturing facilities capable of making advanced fuel types, with appropriate quality control. Once made, the use of such fuels requires a proper understanding of their behaviour in the reactor environment, so that safe operation for the design life can be achieved. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports Member States to improve in-pile fuel performance and management of materials; and to develop advanced fuel technologies for ensuring reliability and economic efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides assistance to Member States to support fuel-manufacturing capability, including quality assurance techniques, optimization of manufacturing parameters and radiation protection. The IAEA supports the development fuel modelling expertise in Member States, covering both normal operation and postulated and severe accident conditions. It provides information and support for the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to ensure that the environment and water chemistry is appropriate for fuel operation. The IAEA supports fuel failure investigations, including equipment for failed fuel detection and for post-irradiation examination and inspection, as well as fuel repair, it provides information and support research into the basic properties of fuel materials, including UO 2 , MOX and zirconium alloys. It further offers guidance on the relationship with back-end requirement (interim storage, transport, reprocessing, disposal), fuel utilization and management, MOX fuels, alternative fuels and advanced fuel technology

  8. Impaired memory consolidation in children with obstructive sleep disordered breathing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Maski

    Full Text Available Memory consolidation is stabilized and even enhanced by sleep (and particularly by 12-15 Hz sleep spindles in NREM stage 2 sleep in healthy children but it is unclear what happens to these processes when sleep is disturbed by obstructive sleep disordered breathing. This cross-sectional study investigates differences in declarative memory consolidation among children with primary snoring (PS and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA compared to controls. We further investigate whether memory consolidation group differences are associated with NREM stage 2 (N2 sigma (12-15 Hz or NREM slow oscillation (0.5-1 Hz spectral power bands. In this study, we trained and tested participants on a spatial declarative memory task with cued recall. Retest occurred after a period of daytime wake (Wake or a night of sleep (Sleep with in-lab polysomnography. 36 participants ages 5-9 years completed the protocol: 14 with OSA as defined by respiratory disturbance index (RDI > 1/hour, 12 with primary snoring (PS and 10 controls. OSA participants had poorer overall memory consolidation than controls across Wake and Sleep conditions [OSA: mean = -18.7% (5.8, controls: mean = 1.9% (7.2, t = -2.20, P = 0.04]. In contrast, PS participants and controls had comparable memory consolidation across conditions (t = 0.41; P = 0.38. We did not detect a main effect for condition (Sleep, Wake or group x condition interaction on memory consolidation. OSA participants had lower N2 sigma power than PS (P = 0.03 and controls (P = 0.004 and N2 sigma power inversely correlated with percentage of time snoring on the study night (r = -0.33, P<0.05. Across all participants, N2 sigma power modestly correlated with memory consolidation in both Sleep (r = 0.37, P = 0.03 and Wake conditions (r = 0.44, P = 0.009. Further observed variable path analysis showed that N2 sigma power mediated the relationship between group and mean memory consolidation across Sleep and Wake states [Bindirect = 6.76(3.5, z = 2

  9. Impairment of fear memory consolidation in maternally stressed male mouse offspring: evidence for nongenomic glucocorticoid action on the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jeong; Son, Gi Hoon; Chung, Sooyoung; Lee, Sukwon; Kim, Jeongyeon; Choi, Sukwoo; Kim, Kyungjin

    2011-05-11

    The environment in early life elicits profound effects on fetal brain development that can extend into adulthood. However, the long-lasting impact of maternal stress on emotional learning remains largely unknown. Here, we focus on amygdala-related learning processes in maternally stressed mice. In these mice, fear memory consolidation and certain related signaling cascades were significantly impaired, though innate fear, fear memory acquisition, and synaptic NMDA receptor expression in the amygdala were unaltered. In accordance with these findings, maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) at amygdala synapses, but not its induction, was significantly impaired in the maternally stressed animals. Interestingly, amygdala glucocorticoid receptor expression was reduced in the maternally stressed mice, and administration of glucocorticoids (GCs) immediately after fear conditioning and LTP induction restored memory consolidation and LTP maintenance, respectively, suggesting that a weakening of GC signaling was responsible for the observed impairment. Furthermore, microinfusion of a membrane-impermeable form of GC (BSA-conjugated GC) into the amygdala mimicked the restorative effects of GC, indicating that a nongenomic activity of GC mediates the restorative effect. Together, these findings suggest that prenatal stress induces long-term dysregulation of nongenomic GC action in the amygdala of adult offspring, resulting in the impairment of fear memory consolidation. Since modulation of amygdala activity is known to alter the consolidation of emotionally influenced memories allocated in other brain regions, the nongenomic action of GC on the amygdala shown herein may also participate in the amygdala-dependent modulation of memory consolidation.

  10. Nicotine facilitates memory consolidation in perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Anton L; Vartak, Devavrat; Greenlee, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    Perceptual learning is a special type of non-declarative learning that involves experience-dependent plasticity in sensory cortices. The cholinergic system is known to modulate declarative learning. In particular, reduced levels or efficacy of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine were found to facilitate declarative memory consolidation. However, little is known about the role of the cholinergic system in memory consolidation of non-declarative learning. Here we compared two groups of non-smoking men who learned a visual texture discrimination task (TDT). One group received chewing tobacco containing nicotine for 1 h directly following the TDT training. The other group received a similar tasting control substance without nicotine. Electroencephalographic recordings during substance consumption showed reduced alpha activity and P300 latencies in the nicotine group compared to the control group. When re-tested on the TDT the following day, both groups responded more accurately and more rapidly than during training. These improvements were specific to the retinal location and orientation of the texture elements of the TDT suggesting that learning involved early visual cortex. A group comparison showed that learning effects were more pronounced in the nicotine group than in the control group. These findings suggest that oral consumption of nicotine enhances the efficacy of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Our findings further suggest that enhanced efficacy of the cholinergic system facilitates memory consolidation in perceptual learning (and possibly other types of non-declarative learning). In that regard acetylcholine seems to affect consolidation processes in perceptual learning in a different manner than in declarative learning. Alternatively, our findings might reflect dose-dependent cholinergic modulation of memory consolidation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermal Consolidation of Dredge Sand for Artificial Reef Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Alexandro

    Coral Reef ecosystems have degraded over years due to a variety of environmental issues such as ocean acidification. The continuous stress has detrimental effects on coral reef ecosystems that can possibly lead to the loss of the ecosystem. Our research aims to construct a prototype of an artificial reef by consolidating dredge sand from the ship channels of South Texas. Consolidation is achieved through an aluminum polytetrafluoroethylene self-propagating high temperature process that yields a solid formation to mimic the physical properties of coral reef structures. Using thermodynamic calculations, the variation of initial components was determined that reached an adiabatic temperature with a maximum peak of 2000 K. The self-sustaining reaction front was obtained to rigidly consolidate the dredge sand only at composition concentrations exceeding a critical value of 24 wt.% Al, and 3 wt.% PTFE. The combustion synthesis produced a consolidated formation with a hardened and porous structure.

  12. Contributions of fuel combustion to pollution by airborne particles in urban and non-urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The application of ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques to aerosol pollution problems has been used in a number of countries since the late 1970's and early 1980's. The technique, however, had not been tested in Australia. This document is the final report of a project which aimed to establish a fine particle monitoring network covering the greater Wollongong/Sydney/ Newcastle ares, investigate the relationships between fuel combustion and fine particle aerosols in urban and non urban environments, add to the limited database of baseline information on concentrations of fine particles resulting from such processes as fossil fuel burning and industrial manufacturing, identify and quantify sources of fine particles in New South Wales, and introduce into Australia accelerator based IBA techniques for the analysis of filter papers obtained from large scale monitoring networks. These objectives were addressed by the project which identified and quantified some sources of fine particles and established some relationships between fuel combustion and fine aerosols. More work is required to fully quantify relationships between natural and anthropogenic fine particle sources. 24 tabs., 44 figs., 83 refs

  13. Evidence for parallel consolidation of motion direction and orientation into visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideaux, Reuben; Apthorp, Deborah; Edwards, Mark

    2015-02-12

    Recent findings have indicated the capacity to consolidate multiple items into visual short-term memory in parallel varies as a function of the type of information. That is, while color can be consolidated in parallel, evidence suggests that orientation cannot. Here we investigated the capacity to consolidate multiple motion directions in parallel and reexamined this capacity using orientation. This was achieved by determining the shortest exposure duration necessary to consolidate a single item, then examining whether two items, presented simultaneously, could be consolidated in that time. The results show that parallel consolidation of direction and orientation information is possible, and that parallel consolidation of direction appears to be limited to two. Additionally, we demonstrate the importance of adequate separation between feature intervals used to define items when attempting to consolidate in parallel, suggesting that when multiple items are consolidated in parallel, as opposed to serially, the resolution of representations suffer. Finally, we used facilitation of spatial attention to show that the deterioration of item resolution occurs during parallel consolidation, as opposed to storage. © 2015 ARVO.

  14. Fission Product Release from Spent Nuclear Fuel During Melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.P.; Zino, J.F.

    1998-09-01

    The Melt-Dilute process consolidates aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel by melting the fuel assemblies and diluting the 235U content with depleted uranium to lower the enrichment. During the process, radioactive fission products whose boiling points are near the proposed 850 degrees C melting temperature can be released. This paper presents a review of fission product release data from uranium-aluminum alloy fuel developed from Severe Accident studies. In addition, scoping calculations using the ORIGEN-S computer code were made to estimate the radioactive inventories in typical research reactor fuel as a function of burnup, initial enrichment, and reactor operating history and shutdown time.Ten elements were identified from the inventory with boiling points below or near the 850 degrees C reference melting temperature. The isotopes 137Cs and 85Kr were considered most important. This review serves as basic data to the design and development of a furnace off-gas system for containment of the volatile species

  15. The Roles of Cortical Slow Waves in Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Daisuke; Hirai, Daichi; Murayama, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Sleep plays important roles in sensory and motor memory consolidation. Sleep oscillations, reflecting neural population activity, involve the reactivation of learning-related neurons and regulate synaptic strength and, thereby affect memory consolidation. Among sleep oscillations, slow waves (0.5-4 Hz) are closely associated with memory consolidation. For example, slow-wave power is regulated in an experience-dependent manner and correlates with acquired memory. Furthermore, manipulating slow waves can enhance or impair memory consolidation. During slow wave sleep, inter-areal interactions between the cortex and hippocampus (HC) have been proposed to consolidate declarative memory; however, interactions for non-declarative (HC-independent) memory remain largely uninvestigated. We recently showed that the directional influence in a slow-wave range through a top-down cortical long-range circuit is involved in the consolidation of non-declarative memory. At the synaptic level, the average cortical synaptic strength is known to be potentiated during wakefulness and depressed during sleep. Moreover, learning causes plasticity in a subset of synapses, allocating memory to them. Sleep may help to differentiate synaptic strength between allocated and non-allocated synapses (i.e., improving the signal-to-noise ratio, which may facilitate memory consolidation). Herein, we offer perspectives on inter-areal interactions and synaptic plasticity for memory consolidation during sleep.

  16. The Roles of Cortical Slow Waves in Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Miyamoto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sleep plays important roles in sensory and motor memory consolidation. Sleep oscillations, reflecting neural population activity, involve the reactivation of learning-related neurons and regulate synaptic strength and, thereby affect memory consolidation. Among sleep oscillations, slow waves (0.5–4 Hz are closely associated with memory consolidation. For example, slow-wave power is regulated in an experience-dependent manner and correlates with acquired memory. Furthermore, manipulating slow waves can enhance or impair memory consolidation. During slow wave sleep, inter-areal interactions between the cortex and hippocampus (HC have been proposed to consolidate declarative memory; however, interactions for non-declarative (HC-independent memory remain largely uninvestigated. We recently showed that the directional influence in a slow-wave range through a top-down cortical long-range circuit is involved in the consolidation of non-declarative memory. At the synaptic level, the average cortical synaptic strength is known to be potentiated during wakefulness and depressed during sleep. Moreover, learning causes plasticity in a subset of synapses, allocating memory to them. Sleep may help to differentiate synaptic strength between allocated and non-allocated synapses (i.e., improving the signal-to-noise ratio, which may facilitate memory consolidation. Herein, we offer perspectives on inter-areal interactions and synaptic plasticity for memory consolidation during sleep.

  17. Nuclear Industry Input to the Development of Concepts for the Consolidated Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel - 13411

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Chris; Thomas, Ivan; McNiven, Steven; Lanthrum, Gary

    2013-01-01

    EnergySolutions and its team partners, NAC International, Exelon Nuclear Partners, Talisman International, TerranearPMC, Booz Allen Hamilton and Sargent and Lundy, have carried out a study to develop concepts for a Consolidated Storage Facility (CSF) for the USA's stocks of commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF), and the packaging and transport provisions required to move the UNF to the CSF. The UNF is currently stored at all 65 operating nuclear reactor sites in the US, and at 10 shutdown sites. The study was funded by the US Department of Energy and followed the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC), one of which was that the US should make prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities for commercial UNF. The study showed that viable schemes can be devised to move all UNF and store it at a CSF, but that a range of schemes is required to accommodate the present widely varying UNF storage arrangements. Although most UNF that is currently stored at operating reactor sites is in water-filled pools, a significant amount is now dry stored in concrete casks. At the shutdown sites, the UNF is dry stored at all but two of the ten sites. Various types of UNF dry storage configurations are used at the operating sites and shutdown sites that include vertical storage casks that are also licensed for transportation, vertical casks that are licensed for storage only, and horizontally orientated storage modules. The shutdown sites have limited to nonexistent UNF handling infrastructure and several no longer have railroad connections, complicating UNF handling and transport off the site. However four methods were identified that will satisfactorily retrieve the UNF canisters within the storage casks and transport them to the CSF. The study showed that all of the issues associated with the transportation and storage of UNF from all sites in the US can be accommodated by adopting a staged approach to the construction of

  18. Nuclear Industry Input to the Development of Concepts for the Consolidated Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel - 13411

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Chris; Thomas, Ivan; McNiven, Steven [EnergySolutions Federal EPC., 2345 Stevens Drive, Richland, WA, 99354 (United States); Lanthrum, Gary [NAC International, 3930 East Jones Bridge Road, Norcross, GA, 30092 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    EnergySolutions and its team partners, NAC International, Exelon Nuclear Partners, Talisman International, TerranearPMC, Booz Allen Hamilton and Sargent and Lundy, have carried out a study to develop concepts for a Consolidated Storage Facility (CSF) for the USA's stocks of commercial Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF), and the packaging and transport provisions required to move the UNF to the CSF. The UNF is currently stored at all 65 operating nuclear reactor sites in the US, and at 10 shutdown sites. The study was funded by the US Department of Energy and followed the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC), one of which was that the US should make prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities for commercial UNF. The study showed that viable schemes can be devised to move all UNF and store it at a CSF, but that a range of schemes is required to accommodate the present widely varying UNF storage arrangements. Although most UNF that is currently stored at operating reactor sites is in water-filled pools, a significant amount is now dry stored in concrete casks. At the shutdown sites, the UNF is dry stored at all but two of the ten sites. Various types of UNF dry storage configurations are used at the operating sites and shutdown sites that include vertical storage casks that are also licensed for transportation, vertical casks that are licensed for storage only, and horizontally orientated storage modules. The shutdown sites have limited to nonexistent UNF handling infrastructure and several no longer have railroad connections, complicating UNF handling and transport off the site. However four methods were identified that will satisfactorily retrieve the UNF canisters within the storage casks and transport them to the CSF. The study showed that all of the issues associated with the transportation and storage of UNF from all sites in the US can be accommodated by adopting a staged approach to the

  19. Simulation and video software development for soil consolidation testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karim, Usama F.A.

    2003-01-01

    The development techniques and file structures of CTM, a novel multi-media (computer simulation and video) package on consolidation and laboratory consolidation testing, are presented in this paper. A courseware tool called Authorware proved to be versatile for building the package and the paper

  20. Consolidated Financial Statements – in IAS 27 perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Deju

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aspects concerning the preparation and publication of the consolidated financial statements have been the subject of the settlement by the Committee for International Accounting Standards (IAS even since 1976 with the publication of IAS 3 “Consolidated financial statements”. Subsequently, the standard has been amended and revised successively, on several occasions. The latest version issued in 2008 includes changes on the accounting of interests that do not control and the loss of control on a subsidiary. The actual version also includes the subsequent amendments resulting from IFRS issued until 31st of December 2010. This paper presents the essential aspects of IAS 27 (the actual version and a practical example of how to elaborate consolidated accounts in accordance with this standard.

  1. Consolidation properties of the mudstones from the Harwell boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, T.J.; Hobbs, P.; Horseman, S.T.

    1983-03-01

    Long term high stress consolidation tests have been performed on samples of Oxford Clay, Gault clay, Kimmeridge clay and Lower Lias clay from beneath the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Oxfordshire. In addition to calculating the modulus of volume change and the coefficient of consolidation for each sample, reconstruction of the true one-dimensional consolidation behaviour has been attempted. One dimensional vertical permeabilities have been calculated for samples of Oxford Clay and are compared with those measured by hydraulic testing. Tests were performed in a specially modified oedometer cell using an adapted Denison dead weight loading system in order to produce the required high consolidation stresses. Only one sample, that of Kimmeridge Clay, gave a classical and easily interpretable, consolidation curve, and because of this the OCR (Overconsolidation Ratio) values from other curves have been corrected with respect to this one. This discrepancy between laboratory derived OCRs (OCRLAB) and those calculated from geological information (OCRGEOL) is interesting and is ascribed in this report to apparent overconsolidation caused by secondary compression. Hydraulic conductivities calculated from the oedometer tests at the in situ stresses expected in the Oxford Clay at 273 m depth lie in the range from 4.6 to 5.4 x 10 -12 ms -1 . (author)

  2. Issues for Storing Plant-Based Alternative Fuels in Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-09

    of aerobic metabolites that exacerbated subsequent corrosion processes. 15. SUBJECT TERMS biodiesel , alternative fuel, seawater, corrosion, carbon...2013 Accepted 17 December 2013 Available online 24 December 2013 Keywords: Biodiesel Alternative fuel Seawater Corrosion Carbon steel...high energy density transportation fuels 13). The feasibility of producing large quantities of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and lipid-based fuels

  3. Acceptance of non-fuel assembly hardware by the Federal Waste Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This report is one of a series of eight prepared by E. R. Johnson Associates, Inc. (JAI) under ORNL's contract with DOE's OCRWM Systems Integration Program and in support of the Annual Capacity Report (ACR) Issue Resolution Process. The report topics relate specifically to the list of high-priority technical waste acceptance issues developed jointly by DOE and a utility-working group. JAI performed various analyses and studies on each topic to serve as starting points for further discussion and analysis leading eventually to finalizing the process by which DOE will accept spent fuel and waste into its waste management system. The eight reports are concerned with the conditions under which spent fuel and high-level waste will be accepted in the following categories: failed fuel; consolidated fuel and associated structural parts; non-fuel-assembly hardware; fuel in metal storage casks; fuel in multi-element sealed canisters; inspection and testing requirements for wastes; canister criteria; spent fuel selection for delivery; and defense and commercial high-level waste packages. 14 refs., 12 figs., 43 tabs

  4. The Versatility of an Online Database for Spent Nuclear Fuel Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canas, L.R.

    1997-12-01

    A vast and diverse database on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) supports the mission of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company's (WSRC) Spent Fuel Storage Division (SFSD) at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) chemical-nuclear complex. Prior to 1994, this documentation resided in multiple files maintained by various organizations across SRS. Since that time, in an attempt to improve the efficiency of SNF data retrieval upon demand, the files have been substantially rearranged and consolidated. Moreover, selected data have been captured electronically in a web-style, online Spent Nuclear Fuel Database (SNFD) for quick and easy access from any personal computer on the SRS intranet. Originally released in August 1996, the SNFD has continued to expand at regular intervals commensurate with the SFSD mission

  5. Land Mobility in a Central and Eastern European Land Consolidation Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    in a Central and Eastern European land consolidation context. The term land mobility is defined and the limited theory available is reviewed. Case studies of land mobility in land consolidation pilot projects in Moldova, Albania and Bosnia-Herzegovina show the correlation between land mobility and the success......In most of the Central and Eastern European countries, land reforms after 1989 have resulted in extensive land fragmentation. The majority of the countries have during the two recent decades introduced land consolidation instruments to address the structural problems with land fragmentation...... or failure of voluntary land consolidation projects. In situations with low land mobility, land consolidation instruments need in order to be successful to be supported by other land policy tools such as land banks. The use of existing state agricultural land is an obvious foundation for establishing a state...

  6. Pressurized water reactor fuel performance problems connected with fuel cladding corrosion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrevski, I.; Zaharieva, N.

    2008-01-01

    Generally, Pressurized Water Reactor (WWER, PWR) Fuel Element Performance is connected with fuel cladding corrosion and crud deposition processes. By transient to extended fuel cycles in nuclear power reactors, aiming to achieve higher burnup and better fuel utilization, the role of these processes increases significantly. This evolution modifies the chemical and electrochemical conditions in the reactor primary system, including change of fuel claddings' environment. The higher duty cores are always attended with increased boiling (sub-cooled nucleate boiling) mainly on the feed fuel assemblies. This boiling process on fuel cladding surfaces can cause different consequences on fuel element cladding's environment characteristics. In the case of boiling at the cladding surfaces without or with some cover of corrosion product deposition, the behavior of gases dissolved in water phase is strongly influenced by the vapor generation. The increase of vapor partial pressure will reduce the partial pressures of dissolved gases and will cause their stripping out. By these circumstances the concentrations of dissolved gases in cladding wall water layer can dramatically decrease, including also the case by which all dissolved gases to be stripped out. On the other hand it is known that the hydrogen is added to primary coolant in order to avoid the production of oxidants by radiolysis of water. It is clear that if boiling strips out dissolved hydrogen, the creation of oxidizing conditions at the cladding surfaces will be favored. In this case the local production of oxidants will be a result from local processes of water radiolysis, by which not only both oxygen (O 2 ) and hydrogen (H 2 ) but also hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) will be produced. While these hydrogen and oxygen will be stripped out preferentially by boiling, the bigger part of hydrogen peroxide will remain in wall water phase and will act as the most important factor for creation of oxidizing conditions in fuel

  7. Nuclear fuel particles in the environment - characteristics, atmospheric transport and skin doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellaenen, R

    2002-05-01

    In the present thesis, nuclear fuel particles are studied from the perspective of their characteristics, atmospheric transport and possible skin doses. These particles, often referred to as 'hot' particles, can be released into the environment, as has happened in past years, through human activities, incidents and accidents, such as the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. Nuclear fuel particles with a diameter of tens of micrometers, referred to here as large particles, may be hundreds of kilobecquerels in activity and even an individual particle may present a quantifiable health hazard. The detection of individual nuclear fuel particles in the environment, their isolation for subsequent analysis and their characterisation are complicated and require well-designed sampling and tailored analytical methods. In the present study, the need to develop particle analysis methods is highlighted. It is shown that complementary analytical techniques are necessary for proper characterisation of the particles. Methods routinely used for homogeneous samples may produce erroneous results if they are carelessly applied to radioactive particles. Large nuclear fuel particles are transported differently in the atmosphere compared with small particles or gaseous species. Thus, the trajectories of gaseous species are not necessarily appropriate for calculating the areas that may receive large particle fallout. A simplified model and a more advanced model based on the data on real weather conditions were applied in the case of the Chernobyl accident to calculate the transport of the particles of different sizes. The models were appropriate in characterising general transport properties but were not able to properly predict the transport of the particles with an aerodynamic diameter of tens of micrometers, detected at distances of hundreds of kilometres from the source, using only the current knowledge of the source term. Either the effective release height has

  8. Slow oscillations orchestrating fast oscillations and memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölle, Matthias; Born, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Slow-wave sleep (SWS) facilitates the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent declarative memory. Based on the standard two-stage memory model, we propose that memory consolidation during SWS represents a process of system consolidation which is orchestrated by the neocortical memory. The slow oscillations temporally group neuronal activity into up-states of strongly enhanced neuronal activity and down-states of neuronal silence. In a feed-forward efferent action, this grouping is induced not only in the neocortex but also in other structures relevant to consolidation, namely the thalamus generating 10-15Hz spindles, and the hippocampus generating sharp wave-ripples, with the latter well known to accompany a replay of newly encoded memories taking place in hippocampal circuitries. The feed-forward synchronizing effect of the slow oscillation enables the formation of spindle-ripple events where ripples and accompanying reactivated hippocampal memory information become nested into the single troughs of spindles. Spindle-ripple events thus enable reactivated memory-related hippocampal information to be fed back to neocortical networks in the excitable slow oscillation up-state where they can induce enduring plastic synaptic changes underlying the effective formation of long-term memories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Manufacture of W-UO2 Fuel Elements for NTP Using the Hot Isostatic Pressing Consolidation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, Jeramie; Hickman, Robert; Mireles, Omar

    2012-01-01

    NTP is attractive for space exploration because: (1) Higher Isp than traditional chemical rockets (2)Shorter trip times (3) Reduced propellant mass (4) Increased payload. Lack of qualified fuel material is a key risk (cost, schedule, and performance). Development of stable fuel form is a critical path, long lead activity. Goals of this project are: Mature CERMET and Graphite based fuel materials and Develop and demonstrate critical technologies and capabilities.

  10. Better than sleep: theta neurofeedback training accelerates memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Miriam; Rozengurt, Roman; Barnea, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Consistent empirical results showed that both night and day sleep enhanced memory consolidation. In this study we explore processes of consolidation of memory during awake hours. Since theta oscillations have been shown to play a central role in exchange of information, we hypothesized that elevated theta during awake hours will enhance memory consolidation. We used a neurofeedback protocol, to enhance the relative power of theta or beta oscillations. Participants trained on a tapping task, were divided into three groups: neurofeedback theta; neurofeedback beta; control. We found a significant improvement in performance in the theta group, relative to the beta and control groups, immediately after neurofeedback. Performance was further improved after night sleep in all groups, with a significant advantage favoring the theta group. Theta power during training was correlated with the level of improvement, indicating a clear relationship between memory consolidation, and theta neurofeedback. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Local communities’ consolidation process: political factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Fedorenko

    2017-04-01

    It has been underlined that the local communities’ consolidation process in the contemporary world is the problem which has both empirical and theoretical importance. Depending on the size of the local area, local polices are taking different forms. As usual, they provide an agreement and compromise solutions based on issues that are important to the local community. The experience of the developed democracies has shown that local assemblies ensure the establishment of coalitions based on short-termed procedures. The study has tested that an important aspect of the formation of local communities consolidated position is based on development issues and civil participation. It is especially visible in the United States and the EU countries. The municipality level determines the quality of local political bodies, which is formed on party basis. For contemporary Ukraine important tools for provision of political responsibility are forces, which take care about the local communities and determine their development for a long period. Overall, the consolidation of political forces in the local government system is an important task that determines the need for the adoption of regulatory instruments which would ensure the harmonious and constructive political cooperation regardless of their ideological positions.

  12. Tantalum powder consolidation, modeling and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingert, S.R.; Vargas, V.D.; Sheinberg, H.C.

    1996-01-01

    A systematic approach was taken to investigate the consolidation of tantalum powders. The effects of sinter time, temperature and ramp rate; hot isostatic pressing (HIP) temperature and time; and powder oxygen content on consolidation density, kinetics, microstructure, crystallographic texture, and mechanical properties have been evaluated. In general, higher temperatures and longer hold times resulted in higher density compacts with larger grain sizes for both sintering and HIP'ing. HIP'ed compacts were consistently higher in density than sintered products. The higher oxygen content powders resulted in finer grained, higher density HIP'ed products than the low oxygen powders. Texture analysis showed that the isostatically processed powder products demonstrated a near random texture. This resulted in isotropic properties in the final product. Mechanical testing results showed that the HIP'ed powder products had consistently higher flow stresses than conventionally produced plates, and the sintered compacts were comparable to the plate material. A micromechanics model (Ashby HIP model) has been employed to predict the mechanisms active in the consolidation processes of cold isostatic pressing (CIP), HIP and sintering. This model also predicts the density of the end product and whether grain growth should be expected under the applied processing conditions

  13. Analysis of fuel operational reliability and fuel failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiesko, I.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture the fuel failure (loss of fuel rod (cladding) integrity, corruption of second barrier for fission product release from duel and their consequences (increase of primary coolant activity; increase of fission product releases to environment; increase of rad-waste activities and potential increase of personnel exposure) are discussed

  14. Exhaust gas emissions from various automotive fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects on health, environment and energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlvik, P.; Brandberg, Aa.

    1999-12-01

    The main aim of the investigation has been to assess the effects on health and environment from various alternative fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects that can be identified and quantified, such as acidification, ozone formation, cancer risk and climate change, have been of primary interest but other effects, such as respiratory diseases, have also been investigated. Data have been collected through literature surveys for subsequent calculation of the mentioned effects in different time-frames. Corrections have been used to take into consideration the influence of climate, ageing and driving pattern. Emissions generated in fuel production have also been accounted for. The most significant and important differences between the fuels have been found for effects as ozone formation cancer risk and particulate emissions. Alternative fuels, such as methanol and methane (natural gas and biogas), significantly decrease the ozone formation in comparison to petrol, while ethanol, methanol and methane are advantageous concerning cancer risk. The particulate emissions are considerably higher for diesel engines fuelled by diesel oil and RME in comparison to the other fuels. In the future, the importance of acid emissions in the fuel production will increase since the NO x and SO x emissions will decrease from the vehicles. The emissions of climate gases could be significantly reduced by using non-fossil fuels but the efficiency of the drive train is also of importance. The technical development potential for further emission reductions is considerable for all fuels but the advantage for the best fuel options will remain in the future

  15. Retrieval as a Fast Route to Memory Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, James W; Ferreira, Catarina S; Norman, Kenneth A; Wimber, Maria

    2017-08-01

    Retrieval-mediated learning is a powerful way to make memories last, but its neurocognitive mechanisms remain unclear. We propose that retrieval acts as a rapid consolidation event, supporting the creation of adaptive hippocampal-neocortical representations via the 'online' reactivation of associative information. We describe parallels between online retrieval and offline consolidation and offer testable predictions for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How useful is consolidation of public sector entities' financial statements ?

    OpenAIRE

    Soguel, N.; Bucher, R.

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not to consolidate financial statements is dealt with in IPSAS#6. This standard is by and large based on IAS#27. It deals with the criterion according to which an entity's financial statements should be considered and which consolidation technique should be used. However, it remains silent when it comes to exposing the reason why a public sector entity should consolidate its financial statements. The literature is almost as silent as IPSAS on this issue. Which means that there is a...

  17. Ultrasonic assisted consolidation of commingled thermoplastic/glass fibers rovings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eLionetto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic matrix composites are finding new applications in different industrial area thanks to their intrinsic advantages related to environmental compatibility and processability. The approach presented in this work consists in the development of a technology for the simultaneous deposition and consolidation of commingled thermoplastic rovings through to the application of high energy ultrasound. An experimental equipment, integrating both fiber impregnation and ply consolidation in a single process, has been designed and tested. It is made of an ultrasonic welder, whose titanium sonotrode is integrated on a filament winding machine. During winding, the commingled roving is at the same time in contact with the mandrel and the horn. The intermolecular friction generated by ultrasound is able to melt the thermoplastic matrix and impregnate the reinforcement fibers. The heat transfer phenomena occurring during the in situ consolidation were simulated solving by finite element (FE analysis an energy balance accounting for the heat generated by ultrasonic waves and the melting characteristics of the matrix. To this aim, a calorimetric characterization of the thermoplastic matrix has been carried out to obtain the input parameters for the model. The FE analysis has enabled to predict the temperature distribution in the composite during heating and cooling The simulation results have been validated by the measurement of the temperature evolution during ultrasonic consolidation.The reliability of the developed consolidation equipment was proved by producing hoop wound cylinder prototypes using commingled continuous E-glass rovings and Polypropylene (PP filaments. The consolidated composite cylinders are characterized by high mechanical properties, with values comparable with the theoretical ones predicted by the micromechanical analysis.

  18. Review on the explosive consolidation methods to fabricate tungsten based PFMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuming, E-mail: wangshuming@ustb.edu.cn; Sun, Chongxiao; Guo, Wenhao; Yan, Qingzhi; Zhou, Zhangjian; Zhang, Yingchun; Shen, Weiping; Ge, Changchun

    2014-12-15

    Tungsten is one of the best candidates for plasma-facing materials in the fusion reactors, owing to its many unique properties. In the development of tungsten-based Plasma Facing Materials/Components (PFMs/PFCs), materials scientists have explored many different, innovative preparation and processing routes to meet the requirement of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Some explosive consolidation technology intrinsic characteristics, which make it suitable for powder metallurgy (powders consolidation) and PFMs production, are the high pressure processing, highly short heating time and can be considered as a highly competitive green technology. In this work, an overview of explosive consolidation techniques applied to fabricate tungsten-based PFMs is presented. Emphasis is given to describe the main characteristics and potentialities of the explosive sintering, explosive consolidation techniques. The aspects presented and discussed in this paper indicate the explosive consolidation processes as a promising and competitive technology for tungsten-based PFMs processing.

  19. Conceptual design of an interim dry storage system for the Atucha nuclear power plant spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassini, Horacio E.P.; Fuenzalida Troyano, C.S.; Bevilacqua, Arturo M.; Bergallo, Juan E.

    2005-01-01

    The Atucha I nuclear power station, after completing the rearrangement and consolidation of the spent fuels in the two existing interim wet storage pools, will have enough room for the storage of spent fuel from the operation of the reactor till December 2014. If the operation is extended beyond 2014, or if the reactor is decommissioned, it will be necessary to empty both pools and to transfer the spent fuels to a dry storage facility. This paper shows the progress achieved in the conceptual design of a dry storage system for Atucha I spent fuels, which also has to be adequate, without modifications, for the storage of fuels from the second unity of the nuclear power station, Atucha II, that is now under construction. (author) [es

  20. Explicit instructions and consolidation promote rewiring of automatic behaviors in the human mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szegedi-Hallgató, Emese; Janacsek, Karolina; Vékony, Teodóra; Tasi, Lia Andrea; Kerepes, Leila; Hompoth, Emőke Adrienn; Bálint, Anna; Németh, Dezső

    2017-06-29

    One major challenge in human behavior and brain sciences is to understand how we can rewire already existing perceptual, motor, cognitive, and social skills or habits. Here we aimed to characterize one aspect of rewiring, namely, how we can update our knowledge of sequential/statistical regularities when they change. The dynamics of rewiring was explored from learning to consolidation using a unique experimental design which is suitable to capture the effect of implicit and explicit processing and the proactive and retroactive interference. Our results indicate that humans can rewire their knowledge of such regularities incidentally, and consolidation has a critical role in this process. Moreover, old and new knowledge can coexist, leading to effective adaptivity of the human mind in the changing environment, although the execution of the recently acquired knowledge may be more fluent than the execution of the previously learned one. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of the cognitive processes underlying behavior change, and can provide insights into how we can boost behavior change in various contexts, such as sports, educational settings or psychotherapy.

  1. Report of short term research group on environment safety in nuclear fuel cycle, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The research group on environment safety in nuclear fuel cycle was organized in fiscal 1979 as the research group in the range of the common utilization of Yayoi, and this is the third year since it developed into the short term research group in the Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory. The results obtained so far were summarized in three reports, UTNL-R110, 134 and 147. In this fiscal year, ''The chemistry of reprocessing'' is the subtheme, and this short term research is to be carried out. The meeting is held on March 23 and 24, 1984, in this Laboratory, and the following reports are presented. The conference on institutional stability and the disposal of nuclear and chemically toxic wastes held at MIT, the social scientific analysis of nuclear power development, the present status of reprocessing research in foreign countries, the problems based on the operation experience of actual plants, the chemistry of fuel dissolution, the chemistry of solvent extraction, reprocessing offgas treatment and problems, the chemistry of fixing Kr and I in zeolite, waste treatment in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., the chemistry of actinoids, denitration process and the chemistry of MOX production, and future reprocessing research. (Kako, I.)

  2. Saltmarsh creek bank stability: Biostabilisation and consolidation with depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Thompson, C. E. L.; Collins, M. B.

    2012-03-01

    The stability of cohesive sediments of a saltmarsh in Southern England was measured in the field and the laboratory using a Cohesive Strength Meter (CSM) and a shear vane apparatus. Cores and sediment samples were collected from two tidal creek banks, covered by Atriplex portulacoides (Sea Purslane) and Juncus maritimus (Sea Rush), respectively. The objectives of the study were to examine the variation of sediment stability throughout banks with cantilevers present and investigate the influence of roots and downcore consolidation on bank stability. Data on erosion threshold and shear strength were interpreted with reference to bank depth, sediment properties and biological influences. The higher average erosion threshold was from the Sea Purslane bank whilst the Sea Rush bank showed higher average vane shear strength. The vertical variation in core sediment stability was mainly affected by roots and downcore consolidation with depth. The data obtained from the bank faces revealed that vertical variations in both erosion threshold and vane shear strength were affected primarily by roots and algae. A quantitative estimate of the relative contributions of roots and downcore consolidation to bank sediment stability was undertaken using the bank stability data and sediment density data. This showed that roots contributed more to the Sea Purslane bank stability than downcore consolidation, whilst downcore consolidation has more pronounced effects on the Sea Rush bank stability.

  3. Development of a real-time fuel cell stack modelling solution with integrated test rig interface for the generic fuel cell modelling environment (GenFC) software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, S.D.; Monsberger, M.; Hacker, V. [Graz Univ. of Technology, Graz (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Fuel Cell Systems; Gubner, A.; Reimer, U. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Since the late 1980s, numerous FC models have been developed by scientists and engineers worldwide to design, control and optimize fuel cells (FCs) and fuel cell (FC) power systems. However, state-of-the-art FC models have only a small range of applications within the versatile field of FC modelling. As fuel cell technology approaches commercialization, the scientific community is faced with the challenge of providing robust fuel cell models that are compatible with established processes in industrial product development. One such process, known as Hardware in the Loop (HiL), requires real-time modelling capability. HiL is used for developing and testing hardware components by adding the complexity of the related dynamic systems with mathematical representations. Sensors and actuators are used to interface simulated and actual hardware components. As such, real-time fuel cell models are among the key elements in the development of the Generic Fuel Cell Modelling Environment (GenFC) software. Six European partners are developing GenFC under the support of the Sixth European Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP6). GenFC is meant to increase the use of fuel cell modelling for systems design and to enable cost- and time-efficient virtual experiments for optimizing operating parameters. This paper presented an overview of the GenFC software and the GenFC HiL functionality. It was concluded that GenFC is going to be an extendable software tool providing FC modelling techniques and solutions to a wide range of different FC modelling applications. By combining the flexibility of the GenFC software with this HiL-specific functionality, GenFC is going to promote the use of FC model-based HiL technology in FC system development. 9 figs.

  4. Differential effect of an anticholinergic antidepressant on sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerke, Monique; Cohrs, Stefan; Rodenbeck, Andrea; Kunz, Dieter

    2014-05-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is considered critical to the consolidation of procedural memory - the memory of skills and habits. Many antidepressants strongly suppress REM sleep, however, and procedural memory consolidation has been shown to be impaired in depressed patients on antidepressant therapy. As a result, it is important to determine whether antidepressive therapy can lead to amnestic impairment. We thus investigated the effects of the anticholinergic antidepressant amitriptyline on sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel-group study. Sleep laboratory. Twenty-five healthy men (mean age: 26.8 ± 5.6 y). 75 mg amitriptyline versus placebo. To test memory consolidation, a visual discrimination task, a finger-tapping task, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test were performed. Sleep was measured using polysomnography. Our findings show that amitriptyline profoundly suppressed REM sleep and impaired perceptual skill learning, but not motor skill or declarative learning. Our study is the first to demonstrate that an antidepressant can affect procedural memory consolidation in healthy subjects. Moreover, considering the results of a recent study, in which selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors were shown not to impair procedural memory consolidation, our findings suggest that procedural memory consolidation is not facilitated by the characteristics of REM sleep captured by visual sleep scoring, but rather by the high cholinergic tone associated with REM sleep. Our study contributes to the understanding of potentially undesirable behavioral effects of amitriptyline.

  5. Hospital consolidation outlook: surviving in a tough economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Chris; Lineen, Jason

    2009-11-01

    The rapid hospital consolidation activity of the late 1990s has tapered off, but it's expected to pick up again. The reasons for hospital consolidation have shifted from gaining leverage with payers to achieving cost savings and operating efficiencies to survive in the market. The hospital industry can expect to undergo more profound structural and organizational changes in the decade ahead than it did in the past decade.

  6. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 8 discusses Control System SOT Tests Results and Analysis Report. This is a continuation of Book 7

  7. Centralized consolidation/recycling center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St. Georges, L.T.; Poor, A.D.

    1995-05-01

    There are approximately 175 separate locations on the Hanford Site where dangerous waste is accumulated in hundreds of containers according to compatibility. Materials that are designated as waste could be kept from entering the waste stream by establishing collection points for these materials and wastes and then transporting them to a centralized consolidation/recycling center (hereinafter referred to as the consolidation center). Once there the materials would be prepared for offsite recycling. This document discusses the removal of batteries, partially full aerosol cans, and DOP light ballasts from the traditional waste management approach, which eliminates 89 satellite accumulation areas from the Hanford Site (43 for batteries, 33 for aerosols, and 13 for DOP ballasts). Eliminating these 89 satellite accumulation areas would reduce by hundreds the total number of containers shipped offsite as hazardous waste (due to the increase in containers when the wastes that are accumulated are segregated according to compatibility for final shipment). This new approach is in line with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) draft Universal Waste Rules for these open-quotes nuisanceclose quotes and common waste streams. Additionally, future reviews of other types of wastes that can be handled in this less restrictive and more cost-effective manner will occur as part of daily operations at the consolidation center. The Hanford Site has been identified as a laboratory for reinventing government by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Hazel O'Leary, and as a demonstration zone where open-quotes innovative ideas, processes and technologies can be created, tested and demonstrated.close quotes Additionally, DOE, EPA, and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) have agreed to cut Hanford cleanup costs by $1 billion over a 5-year period

  8. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation--what can be learnt from children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, I; Prehn-Kristensen, A; Born, J

    2012-08-01

    Extensive research has been accumulated demonstrating that sleep is essential for processes of memory consolidation in adults. In children and infants, a great capacity to learn and to memorize coincides with longer and more intense sleep. Here, we review the available data on the influence of sleep on memory consolidation in healthy children and infants, as well as in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a model of prefrontal impairment, and consider possible mechanisms underlying age-dependent differences. Findings indicate a major role of slow wave sleep (SWS) for processes of memory consolidation during early development. Importantly, longer and deeper SWS during childhood appears to produce a distinctly superior strengthening of hippocampus-dependent declarative memories, but concurrently prevents an immediate benefit from sleep for procedural memories, as typically observed in adults. Studies of ADHD children point toward an essential contribution of prefrontal cortex to the preferential consolidation of declarative memory during SWS. Developmental studies of sleep represent a particularly promising approach for characterizing the supra-ordinate control of memory consolidation during sleep by prefrontal-hippocampal circuitry underlying the encoding of declarative memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Consolidation of nanometer-sized aluminum single crystals: Microstructure and defects evolutions

    KAUST Repository

    Afify, N. D.

    2014-04-01

    Deriving bulk materials with ultra-high mechanical strength from nanometer-sized single metalic crystals depends on the consolidation procedure. We present an accurate molecular dynamics study to quantify microstructure responses to consolidation. Aluminum single crystals with an average size up to 10.7 nm were hydrostatically compressed at temperatures up to 900 K and pressures up to 5 GPa. The consolidated material developed an average grain size that grew exponentially with the consolidation temperature, with a growth rate dependent on the starting average grain size and the consolidation pressure. The evolution of the microstructure was accompanied by a significant reduction in the concentration of defects. The ratio of vacancies to dislocation cores decreased with the average grain size and then increased after reaching a critical average grain size. The deformation mechanisms of poly-crystalline metals can be better understood in the light of the current findings. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Consolidation of nanometer-sized aluminum single crystals: Microstructure and defects evolutions

    KAUST Repository

    Afify, N. D.; Salem, H. G.; Yavari, A.; El Sayed, Tamer S.

    2014-01-01

    Deriving bulk materials with ultra-high mechanical strength from nanometer-sized single metalic crystals depends on the consolidation procedure. We present an accurate molecular dynamics study to quantify microstructure responses to consolidation. Aluminum single crystals with an average size up to 10.7 nm were hydrostatically compressed at temperatures up to 900 K and pressures up to 5 GPa. The consolidated material developed an average grain size that grew exponentially with the consolidation temperature, with a growth rate dependent on the starting average grain size and the consolidation pressure. The evolution of the microstructure was accompanied by a significant reduction in the concentration of defects. The ratio of vacancies to dislocation cores decreased with the average grain size and then increased after reaching a critical average grain size. The deformation mechanisms of poly-crystalline metals can be better understood in the light of the current findings. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mesopontine median raphe regulates hippocampal ripple oscillation and memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong V; Yau, Hau-Jie; Broker, Carl J; Tsou, Jen-Hui; Bonci, Antonello; Ikemoto, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    Sharp wave-associated field oscillations (∼200 Hz) of the hippocampus, referred to as ripples, are believed to be important for consolidation of explicit memory. Little is known about how ripples are regulated by other brain regions. We found that the median raphe region (MnR) is important for regulating hippocampal ripple activity and memory consolidation. We performed in vivo simultaneous recording in the MnR and hippocampus of mice and found that, when a group of MnR neurons was active, ripples were absent. Consistently, optogenetic stimulation of MnR neurons suppressed ripple activity and inhibition of these neurons increased ripple activity. Notably, using a fear conditioning procedure, we found that photostimulation of MnR neurons interfered with memory consolidation. Our results demonstrate a critical role of the MnR in regulating ripples and memory consolidation.

  12. Uraninite alteration in an oxidizing environment and its relevance to the disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, R.; Ewing, R.

    1990-12-01

    Uraninite is a natural analogue for spent nuclear fuel because of similarities in structure and chemistry. Effective assessment of the long-term behavior of spent fuel in a geologic repository requires a knowledge of the corrosion products produced in that environment. Several important natural analogue sites are reviewed, illustrating a wide variety of environments from oxidizing to reducing, including, among others: Cigar Lake, Canada, a uraninite-bearing ore body at depth within a strictly reducing environment; the ore body has 'seen' extensive groundwater interaction with virtually no significant oxidation or mobilization of U apperent. Koongara, Australia is a highly altered uraninite-bearing ore body partially exposed to meteoric water; alteration at depth has resulted from interaction with groundwater having a somewhat reduced Eh compared to the surface. Uraninite, Pb-uranyl oxide hydrates and uranyl silicates control U solubility at depth; uranyl phosphates and U adsorption onto clays and FeMn-oxides control U solubility near the surface. Pocos de Caldas, Brazil displays a redox from moving through uraninite-bearing rocks near the surface and shows local remobilization of U. Oklo, Gabon, a uraninite- and coffinite-bearing ore body, locally affected by intense hydrothermal alteration during fission reactions, demonstrates restricted radionuclide and fission product transport within a reducing environment. A current study being conducted by the authors at Shinkolbwe, Zaire, a uraninite-bearing ore body exposed to highly oxidizing conditions at the surface, provides over 50 species of uranyl phases for detailed study, and illustrates a complex uranyl phase paragenesis over several million years, from earliest-formed uranyl oxide hydrates and uranyl silicates to later-formed uranyl phosphate. (au) (268 refs.)

  13. Extended storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This document is the final report on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Spent Fuel and Storage Facility Components during Long Term Storage (BEFAST-II, 1986-1991). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 16 organizations representing 13 countries who participated in the co-ordinated research programme. Considerable quantities of spent fuel continue to arise and accumulate. Many countries are investigating the option of extended spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or fuel disposal. Wet storage continues to predominate as an established technology with the construction of additional away-from-reactor storage pools. However, dry storage is increasingly used with most participants considering dry storage concepts for the longer term. Depending on the cladding type options of dry storage in air or inert gas are proposed. Dry storage is becoming widely used as a supplement to wet storage for zirconium alloy clad oxide fuels. Storage periods as long as under wet conditions appear to be feasible. Dry storage will also continue to be used for Al clad and Magnox type fuel. Enhancement of wet storage capacity will remain an important activity. Rod consolidation to increase wet storage capacity will continue in the UK and is being evaluated for LWR fuel in the USA, and may start in some other countries. High density storage racks have been successfully introduced in many existing pools and are planned for future facilities. For extremely long wet storage (≥50 years), there is a need to continue work on fuel integrity investigations and LWR fuel performance modelling. it might be that pool component performance in some cases could be more limiting than the FA storage performance. It is desirable to make concerted efforts in the field of corrosion monitoring and prediction of fuel cladding and poll component behaviour in order to maintain good experience of wet storage. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Post-learning molecular reactivation underlies taste memory consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kioko eGuzman-Ramos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is considered that memory consolidation is a progressive process that requires post-trial stabilization of the information. In this regard, it has been speculated that waves of receptors activation, expression of immediate early genes and replenishment of receptor subunit pools occur to induce functional or morphological changes to maintain the information for longer periods. In this paper, we will review data related to neuronal changes in the post-acquisition stage of taste aversion learning that could be involved in further stabilization of the memory trace. In order to achieve such stabilization, evidence suggests that the functional integrity of the insular cortex (IC and the amygdala (AMY is required. Particularly the increase of extracellular levels of glutamate and activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors within the IC shows a main role in the consolidation process. Additionally the modulatory actions of the dopaminergic system in the IC appear to be involved in the mechanisms that lead to taste aversion memory consolidation through the activation of pathways related to enhancement of protein synthesis such as the Protein Kinase A pathway. In summary, we suggest that post-acquisition molecular and neuronal changes underlying memory consolidation are dependent on the interactions between the AMY and the IC.

  15. The Limited Capacity of Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon B Feld

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep supports memory consolidation. However, the conceptually important influence of the amount of items encoded in a memory test on this effect has not been investigated. In two experiments, participants (n=101 learned lists of word-pairs varying in length (40, 160, 320 word-pairs in the evening before a night of sleep (sleep group or of sleep deprivation (wake group. After 36 h (including a night allowing recovery sleep retrieval was tested. Compared with wakefulness, post-learning sleep enhanced retention for the 160 word-pair condition (p < 0.01, importantly, this effect completely vanished for the 320 word-pair condition. This result indicates a limited capacity for sleep-dependent memory consolidation, which is consistent with an active system consolidation view on sleep’s role for memory, if it is complemented by processes of active forgetting and/or gist abstraction. Whereas the absolute benefit from sleep should have increased with increasing amounts of successfully encoded items, if sleep only passively protected memory from interference. Moreover, the finding that retention performance was significantly diminished for the 320 word-pair condition compared to the 160 word-pair condition in the sleep group, makes it tempting to speculate that with increasing loads of information encoded during wakefulness, sleep might favour processes of forgetting over consolidation.

  16. A means to a cleaner environment: energy efficient platinum-containing fuel cells to be introduced commercially in the early 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1991-01-01

    The twelfth National Fuel Cell Seminar held in Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A. from 26th to 28th November 1990, was attended by 450 delegates from 17 countries, representing both developers and potential users worldwide. ''Fuel Cells - An Answer to a Cleaner Environment'' was the key theme running throughout the conference. This was strongly linked to the firm belief that fuel cells would make an important contribution to the world's energy needs over the next ten years as economically viable fuel cell power plants become commercialised. The conference heard that platinum containing phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) are soon to be produced on a commercial basis. Both Fuji and Toshiba announced that they had opened PAFC production facilities in Japan during 1990. The key progress regarding development of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) was the announcement of a U.S. Government sponsored programme, to be led to General Motors, to produce a PEMFC powered motor vehicle. The conference reflected the growing extent of the multi-national collaborations that are now underway to develop fuel cell technologies. (author).

  17. Consolidation by Prefabricated Vertical Drains with a Threshold Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the development of an approximate analytical solution of radial consolidation by prefabricated vertical drains with a threshold gradient. To understand the effect of the threshold gradient on consolidation, a parametric analysis was performed using the present solution. The applicability of the present solution was demonstrated in two cases, wherein the comparisons with Hansbo’s results and observed data were conducted. It was found that (1 the flow with the threshold gradient would not occur instantaneously throughout the whole unit cell. Rather, it gradually occurs from the vertical drain to the outside; (2 the moving boundary would never reach the outer radius of influence if R+1consolidation; (4 the larger the threshold gradient is, the greater the long-term excess pore pressure will be; and (5 the present solution could predict the consolidation behavior in soft clay better than previous methods.

  18. The role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in memory consolidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, I.L.C.; Takashima, A.

    2011-01-01

    System-level memory consolidation theory posits that the hippocampus initially links the neocortical representations, followed by a shift to a hippocampus-independent neocortical network. With consolidation, an increase in activity in the human subgenual ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has

  19. Bortezomib consolidation after autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Gimsing, Peter; Hjertner, Oyvind

    2013-01-01

    The Nordic Myeloma Study Group conducted an open randomized trial to compare bortezomib as consolidation therapy given after high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) with no consolidation in bortezomib-naive patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Overall, 370...

  20. Practice Consolidation: Forces Not of Nature, but of Government, Demographics, Economics, and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    The demand for healthcare services is increasing more rapidly than the supply of providers, while reimbursement levels ignore the free market law of supply and demand. The regulated healthcare environment in the United States fails to increase prices (i.e., reimbursement rates) as demand outstrips supply. Healthcare practitioners must find alternative methods in order to continue providing excellent patient care while at the same time maintaining an economically viable practice. Practice consolidation with the assistance of private equity healthcare investment is an extremely attractive solution to this imbalance.

  1. A thermomechanical crystal plasticity constitutive model for ultrasonic consolidation

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present a micromechanics-based thermomechanical constitutive model to simulate the ultrasonic consolidation process. Model parameters are calibrated using an inverse modeling approach. A comparison of the simulated response and experimental results for uniaxial tests validate and verify the appropriateness of the proposed model. Moreover, simulation results of polycrystalline aluminum using the identified crystal plasticity based material parameters are compared qualitatively with the electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) results reported in the literature. The validated constitutive model is then used to simulate the ultrasonic consolidation process at sub-micron scale where an effort is exerted to quantify the underlying micromechanisms involved during the ultrasonic consolidation process. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A consolidation process for spent burnable poison rod assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Harada, M.; Komatsu, Y.

    1985-01-01

    A new consolidation system for the spent burnable poison assembly utilizing a sequence control robot operated under water was proposed. A credible accident in the system was analyzed mainly from the viewpoint of tritium release, based on the diffusion analysis of tritium in borosilicate glass. It was found that the amount of tritium released would be small even after the rupture of burnable poison rods. An experiment on a new consolidation system was performed using spent burnable poison assemblies. The volume of burnable poison assemblies was reduced safely and securely by a factor of 7 to 14 for burnable poison rods and by 22 for hold-down portions. It was proved that the consolidation system is collectively feasible

  3. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, I.W.; Lakey, L.T.; Schneider, K.J.; Silviera, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is a consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

  4. Consolidation and shear failure leading to subsidence and settlement. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.; Nyhan, J.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Drennon, B.J.; Lopez, E.A.; Herrera, W.J.; Langhorst, G.J.; Martinez, J.L.; Trujillo, G.

    1986-02-01

    Subsidence and settlement are phenomena that are much more destructive than generally thought. In shallow land burials they may lead to cracking of the overburden and eventual exposure and escape of waste material. The primary causes are consolidation and cave-ins. Laboratory studies performed at Los Alamos permit us to predict settlement caused by consolidation or natural compaction of the crushed tuff overburden. We have also investigated the shear failure characteristics of crushed tuff that may lead to subsidence. Examples of expected settlement and subsidence are calculated based on the known geotechnical characteristics of crushed tuff. The same thing is done for bentonite/tuff mixes because some field experiments were performed using this additive (bentonite) to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the crushed tuff. Remedial actions, i.e., means to limit the amount of settlement, are discussed. We finally discuss our field experiment, which studies the influence of subsidence on layered systems in general and on biobarriers in particular. The share of the produced cavities is compared with cavities produced by idealized voids in an idealized environment. Study of root penetration at subsidence sites gives us an indication of the remaining degree of integrity. 30 refs., 24 figs., 19 tabs

  5. New methods for gathering the spatial data from land consolidation project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Leitmanová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Land consolidation projects in the Slovak Republic have reached the state where there is sufficient sample of valuable information (planimetric and hypsographic measurements, updated maps of estimated pedologic-ecological units, concepts of local territorial system of ecological stability, plans for the general principles of functional organization of the territory, etc. for society. The contribution points out need to create a uniform public or archiving information system (database, which is incurred in landscape planning activities in model areas. By now several information systems created in Slovakia are not connected one to another and thus cannot be further use. The article pointed out the procedures leading to the processing of a unified information system that collects and archives the outputs of landscaping activities in the area. This is dedicated to the administrators, system users and use cases of the unified system. Therefore we emphasized the importance of system deployment defined for different users. Next step is to describe the input to the elaboration of a comprehensive database. The system is demonstrated on the basis of data obtained from land consolidation projects. Subsequently, we present all computed graphical information by publishing on the local console of OpenGeoSuite environment.

  6. Consolidation in World Steel Industry - Implications for Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Ślusarczyk

    2009-01-01

    Consolidation of enterprises has intensified with the growth of global competition. In the nineties of the past century, these processes became a conventional way for market expansion, leading to establishment of huge international companies with biggest influence on world economy. In steel industry, processes of consolidation have also been the leading processes in management, particularly during a time of prosperity for steel products that have taken place in recent years. The global consol...

  7. Deconsolidation and combustion performance of thermally consolidated propellants deterred by multi-layers coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-gang Xiao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Both heating and solvent-spray methods are used to consolidate the standard grains of double-base oblate sphere propellants plasticized with triethyleneglycol dinitrate (TEGDN (TEGDN propellants to high density propellants. The obtained consolidated propellants are deterred and coated with the slow burning multi-layer coating. The maximum compaction density of deterred and coated consolidated propellants can reach up to 1.39 g/cm3. Their mechanic, deconsolidation and combustion performances are tested by the materials test machine, interrupted burning set-up and closed vessel, respectively. The static compression strength of consolidated propellants deterred by multi-layer coating increases significantly to 18 MPa, indicating that they can be applied in most circumstances of charge service. And the samples are easy to deconsolidate in the interrupted burning test. Furthermore, the closed bomb burning curves of the samples indicate a two-stage combustion phenomenon under the condition of certain thickness of coated multi-layers. After the outer deterred multi-layer coating of consolidated samples is finished burning, the inner consolidated propellants continue to burn and breakup into aggregates and grains. The high burning progressivity can be carefully obtained by the smart control of deconsolidation process and duration of consolidated propellants. The preliminary results of consolidated propellants show that a rapid deconsolidation process at higher deconsolidation pressure is presented in the dynamic vivacity curves of closed bomb test. Higher density and higher macro progressivity of consolidated propellants can be obtained by the techniques in this paper.

  8. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  9. Student Loans Driving You Crazy? A Borrower's Guide to Direct Consolidation Loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This booklet describes the Direct Consolidation Loan program students can use to combine one or more student loans into a new loan. Things to consider before seeking a consolidation loan are outlined. Direct consolidation loans offer a number of advantages; they are free, result in one lender and one monthly payment, and offer flexible repayment…

  10. Evaluation of the effects of land consolidation in the Latyczyn village in terms of land protection against erosion on the slope scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybicki Roman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion by water is an important economical issue strongly deteriorating environment and requiring remedial actions. The study was designed to evaluate antierosion effect of changes in the layout of plots from along to across slope as an effect of land consolidation. Moreover, rightness of leaving newly set out boundaries of plots without any protection (i.e. sodding was evaluated. For this purpose simulations of use of additional anti-erosive measures were done. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP model was used. Studies have shown that in addition to the design of transverse layout of parcels during consolidation, further antierosion measures may be necessary to reduce soil loss and sediment yield. In order to minimize soil losses outside the slope, boundaries between the newly designed fields should be sodded already in the post consolidation management. Limitation the amount of erosion over the entire slope requires use of additional protection measures in the upper part of slopes e.g. shelterbelts and antierosion crop rotations. WEPP model can be recommended for Provincial Bureaus of Surveying as a tool to support the development of assumptions for consolidation projects of lands threatened by erosion.

  11. Investigation on the corrosion resistance of PIM 316L stainless steel in PEM fuel cell simulated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mara Cristina Lopes de; Costa, Isolda; Antunes, Renato Altobelli

    2009-01-01

    Bipolar plates play main functions in PEM fuel cells, accounting for the most part of the weight and cost of these devices. Powder metallurgy may be an interesting manufacturing process of these components owing to the production of large scale, complex near-net shape parts. However, corrosion processes are a major concern due to the increase of the passive film thickness on the metal surface, lowering the power output of the fuel cell. In this work, the corrosion resistance of PIM AISI 316L stainless steel specimens was evaluated in 1M H 2 SO 4 + 2 ppm HF solution at room temperature during 30 days of immersion. The electrochemical measurements comprised potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The surface morphology of the specimens was observed before and after the corrosion tests through SEM images. The material presented low corrosion current density suggesting that it is suitable to operate in the PEM fuel cell environment. (author)

  12. 17 CFR 230.145 - Reclassification of securities, mergers, consolidations and acquisitions of assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., mergers, consolidations and acquisitions of assets. 230.145 Section 230.145 Commodity and Securities... § 230.145 Reclassification of securities, mergers, consolidations and acquisitions of assets.... A statutory merger or consolidation or similar plan or acquisition in which securities of such...

  13. CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS IN UKRAINE: NORMATIVE AND LEGAL REGULATION STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Kucher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of big business in Ukraine has led to the need to release a number of domestic companies and their groups and associations to the international financial market which was the prerequisite of the needs of users of financial statements to obtain reliable information about the activities of such companies. In accordance with the national legislation associations of enterprises and companies have to provide the consolidated financial statements which contain the pooled indices about the activities of these entities. The article analyzes the current state of normative and legal regulation of financial reporting consolidation process in Ukraine. In particular, the paper determines the basic legal acts of regulations of national and international governing process of preparation of consolidated financial statements; it also determines the circle of business entities required to draw up the consolidated financial statements solely in accordance with international financial reporting standards.

  14. Consolidation of W–Ta composites: Hot isostatic pressing and spark and pulse plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, M., E-mail: marta.dias@itn.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Guerreiro, F. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, J.B. [LNEG, Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Galatanu, A. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105 bis Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 Ilfov (Romania); Rosiński, M. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw (Poland); Monge, M.A.; Munoz, A. [Departamento de Física, Univerdidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avd. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Madrid (Spain); Alves, E. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, P.A. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); CeFEMA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Consolidation of W–Ta composites using three techniques: HIP, SPS and PPS. • Comparison of consolidation methods in terms of W–Ta interdiffusion and densification. • Microstructure analysis in terms of oxides formation. - Abstract: Composites consisting of tantalum fiber/powder dispersed in a nanostructured W matrix have been consolidated by spark and pulse plasma sintering as well as by hot isostatic pressing. The microstructural observations revealed that the tungsten–tantalum fiber composites consolidated by hot isostatic pressing and pulse plasma sintering presented a continuous layer of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase at the W/Ta interfaces, while the samples consolidated by spark plasma sintering evidenced a Ta + Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} eutectic mixture due to the higher temperature of this consolidation process. Similar results have been obtained for the tungsten–tantalum powder composites. A (W, Ta) solid solution was detected around the prior nanostructured W particles in tungsten–tantalum powder composites consolidated by spark and pulse plasma sintering. Higher densifications were obtained for composites consolidated by hot isostatic pressing and pulse plasma sintering.

  15. Post-Irradiation Examination of Fuel Pin R54-F20A, Irradiated in a NaK Environment. RCN Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwast, H.

    1972-12-01

    Fuel pin R54-F20A has been irradiated in a NaK-environment. Temperature measurements in the NaK were carried out at average linear fission powers of 552 and 825 W/cm respectively. A maximum average canning temperature of 920°C was reached. The fuel pin was irradiated for about 50 minutes at the maximum irradiation conditions, while the total irradiation time was two hours. The irradiation had to be broken off before the end condition was reached because of malfunctioning of the fuelfailure detection system. No power peaking did occur at the upper and lower interfaces between the 50%-enriched UO 2 - and the natural UO 2 + 8 w/o UB 4 pellet. About 35% of the fuel has molten, but the fuel pin did not fail. The irradiation has been carried out in the Poolside Facility (PSF) of the High Flux Reactor (HFR) at Petten. (author)

  16. The role of sleep in declarative memory consolidation--direct evidence by intracranial EEG.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Axmacher, N.; Haupt, S.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Elger, C.E.; Fell, J.

    2008-01-01

    Two step theories of memory formation assume that an initial learning phase is followed by a consolidation stage. Memory consolidation has been suggested to occur predominantly during sleep. Very recent findings, however, suggest that important steps in memory consolidation occur also during waking

  17. High-energy, high-rate consolidation of tungsten and tungsten-based composite powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunathan, S.K.; Persad, C.; Bourell, D.L.; Marcus, H.L. (Center for Materials Science and Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

    1991-01-20

    Tungsten and tungsten-based heavy alloys are well known for their superior mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. However, unalloyed tungsten is difficult to consolidate owing to its very high melting temperature (3683 K). The additions of small amounts of low-melting elements such as iron, nickel, cobalt and copper, facilitate the powder processing of dense heavy alloys at moderate temperatures. Energetic high-current pulses have been used recently for powder consolidation. In this paper, the use of a homopolar generator as a power source to consolidate selected tungsten and tungsten-based alloys is examined. Various materials were consolidated including unalloyed tungsten, W-Nb, W-Ni, and tungsten heavy alloy with boron carbide. The effect of process parameters such as pressure and specific energy input on the consolidation of different alloy systems is described in terms of microstructure and property relationships. (orig.).

  18. PROBLEM ASPECTS OF FORMATION OF THE LEGAL INSTITUTE OF CONSOLIDATED TAXPAYERS’ GROUPS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Glazunova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article is devoted to the prerequisites of the emergence and essential characteristics of the institution of consolidated taxpayers’ groups in Russia and abroad, revealing of advantages and disadvantages of the legal regulation of the creation and operation of consolidated groups of payers of corporate profits tax, analyzing results and directions of the development of tax consolidation in Russian Federation.The purpose of the article is to identify positive and negative aspects of the functioning of the institution of consolidated taxpayers’ groups in Russia with the establishment of prospects of tax consolidation and the likely directions of its development.The description of the problem field. The development of the world economic system stimulates the emergence of new forms of management, characterized by the enlargement of busi-ness, the pooling of resources of individual enterprises into a single system in order to optimize entrepreneurial activity. These trends are reflected in the development of tax systems of various countries, that is expressed in the formation of institutions of consolidated taxpayers’ groups. Tax consolidation in Russia is a relatively new phenomenon, and it seems necessary to examine this institution from the law enforcement point of view, to evaluate its effectiveness.Methods and methodology. The authors used methods of analysis, synthesis, as well as formal-legal, comparative-legal, historical methods of investigation.Results and the scope of its application. The authors note that the institution of tax consolidation today is presented in the tax systems of most modern countries.The practice of applying the institution of consolidated taxpayers’ groups testifies to the existence of a significant number of advantages and disadvantages of tax consolidation in Russia. The moratorium on the creation of consolidated taxpayers’ groups, due to the contradictory nature of their influence on the

  19. 75 FR 51158 - BDB Company-Acquisition Exemption-Consolidated Rail Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35398] BDB Company--Acquisition Exemption--Consolidated Rail Corporation BDB Company (BDB), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Consolidated Rail Corporation a parcel of land...

  20. Progress on matrix SiC processing and properties for fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrani, K.A.; Kiggans, J.O.; Silva, C.M.; Shih, C.; Katoh, Y.; Snead, L.L.

    2015-01-01

    The consolidation mechanism and resulting properties of the silicon carbide (SiC) matrix of fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) fuel form are discussed. The matrix is produced via the nano-infiltration transient eutectic-forming (NITE) process. Coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, and strength characteristics of this SiC matrix have been characterized in the unirradiated state. An ad hoc methodology for estimation of thermal conductivity of the neutron-irradiated NITE–SiC matrix is also provided to aid fuel performance modeling efforts specific to this concept. Finally, specific processing methods developed for production of an optimal and reliable fuel form using this process are summarized. These various sections collectively report the progress made to date on production of optimal FCM fuel form to enable its application in light water and advanced reactors

  1. Consolidation modelling for thermoplastic composites forming simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, H.; Rusanov, A.; Hamila, N.; Boisse, P.

    2016-10-01

    Pre-impregnated thermoplastic composites are widely used in the aerospace industry for their excellent mechanical properties, Thermoforming thermoplastic prepregs is a fast manufacturing process, the automotive industry has shown increasing interest in this manufacturing processes, in which the reconsolidation is an essential stage. The model of intimate contact is investigated as the consolidation model, compression experiments have been launched to identify the material parameters, several numerical tests show the influents of the temperature and pressure applied during processing. Finally, a new solid-shell prismatic element has been presented for the simulation of consolidation step in the thermoplastic composites forming process.

  2. Consolidated Audit And Compliance System (CACS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Consolidated Audit and Compliance System: is an audit findings management and reporting system. CACS is an implementation of the Agency Secure Image and Storage...

  3. Nuclear weapons complex. Weaknesses in DOE's nonnuclear consolidation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, James E. Jr.; Fenzel, William F.; Schulze, John R.; Gaffigan, Mark E.

    1992-11-01

    Nuclear weapons contain a wide variety of nonnuclear components - items that are not made from nuclear materials. These components comprise the majority of parts in nuclear weapons, including the ones needed to guide weapons to their targets, initiate the nuclear explosion, increase the weapons' explosive yield, and ensure the weapons' safety and security. DOE has three facilities, the Kansas City Plant in Missouri, the Mound Plant in Ohio, and the Pinellas Plant in Florida, that are dedicated primarily to nonnuclear activities and have unique manufacturing responsibilities. Some additional nonnuclear manufacturing activities are performed at the Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado, the Y-12 Plant in Tennessee, and the Pantex Plant in Texas. Descriptions of each plant and the activities they conduct are contained in appendix I of this report. In 1991, DOE began planning to reconfigure the nuclear weapons complex into one that is smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operate. More specifically, DOE issued a reconfiguration study in January 1991 that set forth a detailed framework for making the complex smaller and more efficient. The study will lead to a complex-wide Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) on how best to reconfigure the complex. This statement is planned to be completed in late 1993. As part of the effort to analyze the reconfiguration, DOE's Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs directed the Albuquerque Operations Office in April 1991 to develop a nonnuclear consolidation plan to serve as input to the PEIS. There are a number of weaknesses in DOE's NCP. First, because the NCP's scope was limited to examining single-site consolidation alternatives, the decision to select Kansas City as the preferred option was made without analyzing other nonnuclear options. These options included down sizing and modernizing all facilities in place or maximizing consolidation by eliminating all nonnuclear sites and relocating their functions to a

  4. Modifying the consolidation depth of nanolime on Maastricht limestone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedoba, Krzysztof; Slížková, Zuzana; Frankeová, Dita; Nunes, Cristiana Lara; Jandejsek, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 133, February (2017), s. 51-56 ISSN 0950-0618 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : stone consolidation * calcium hydroxide nanoparticles * CaLoSiL * X-ray radiography * drilling resistance * consolidant distribution Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 3.169, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0950061816317664

  5. CONSIDERAŢII PRIVIND GRUPURILE DE SOCIETĂŢI ŞI SITUAŢIILE FINANCIARE CONSOLIDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefea Petru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some general considerations concerning the groups of companies andannual consolidated financial statements. We tried to deal with the concept of group and theconcept of consolidated financial statements. We presented the consolidated financialsettlements at the international and national level, the utility and the objectives of theconsolidated financial statements and finally the advantages and disadvantages of creating agroup and of elaborating the consolidated financial statements. Creating groups is anecessity and also a reality of contemporary economic life. The consolidated financialstatements are useful to all users, from shareholders to employees.

  6. Globalization of the nuclear fuel cycle impact of developments on fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Den Durpel, L.; Bertel, E. [OCDE-NEA, Nuclear Development Div., 92 - Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    1999-07-01

    Nuclear energy will have to cope more and more with a rapid changing environment due to economic competitive pressure and the de-regulatory progress. In current economic environment, utilities will have to focus strongly on the reduction of their total generation costs, covering the fuel cycle costs, which are only partly under their control. Developments in the fuel cycle will be in the short-term rather evolutionary addressing the current needs of utilities. However, within the context of sustainable development and more and more inclusion of externalities in energy generation costs, more performing developments in the fuel cycle could become important and feasible. A life-cycle design approach of the fuel cycle will be requested in order to cover all factors in order to decrease significantly the nuclear energy generation cost to compete with other alternative fuels in the long-term. This paper will report on some of the trends one could distinguish in the fuel cycle with emphasis on cost reduction. OECD/NEA is currently conducting a study on the fuel cycle aiming to assess current and future nuclear fuel cycles according the potential for further improvement of the full added-value chain of these cycles from a mainly technological and economical perspective including environmental and social considerations. (authors)

  7. Globalisation of the nuclear fuel cycle - impact of developments on fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durpel, L. van den; Bertel, E.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear energy will have to cope more and more with a rapid changing environment due to economic competitive pressure and the deregulatory progress. In current economic environment, utilities will have to focus strongly on the reduction of their total generation costs, covering the fuel cycle costs, which are only partly under their control. Developments in the fuel cycle will be in the short-term rather evolutionary addressing the current needs of utilities. However, within the context of sustainable development and more and more inclusion of externalities in energy generation costs, more performing developments in the fuel cycle could become important and feasible. A life-cycle design approach of the fuel cycle will be requested in order to cover all factors in order to decrease significantly the nuclear energy generation cost to complete with other alternative fuels in the long-term. This paper will report on some of the trends one could distinguish in the fuel cycle with emphasis on cost reduction. OECD/NEA is currently conducting a study on the fuel cycle aiming to assess current and future nuclear fuel cycles according to the potential for further improvement of the full added-value chain of these cycles from a mainly technological and economic perspective including environmental and social considerations. (orig.) [de

  8. Consolidation Process for FY 1997 Financial Statements for Other Defense Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ... to prepare consolidated financial statements for FY 1996 and each succeeding year. The DoD Consolidated Financial Statements for FY 1997 include financial statements for a reporting entity entitled "Other Defense Organizations...

  9. Consolidating the effects of waking and sleep on motor-sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawn, Timothy P; Fenn, Kimberly M; Nusbaum, Howard C; Margoliash, Daniel

    2010-10-20

    Sleep is widely believed to play a critical role in memory consolidation. Sleep-dependent consolidation has been studied extensively in humans using an explicit motor-sequence learning paradigm. In this task, performance has been reported to remain stable across wakefulness and improve significantly after sleep, making motor-sequence learning the definitive example of sleep-dependent enhancement. Recent work, however, has shown that enhancement disappears when the task is modified to reduce task-related inhibition that develops over a training session, thus questioning whether sleep actively consolidates motor learning. Here we use the same motor-sequence task to demonstrate sleep-dependent consolidation for motor-sequence learning and explain the discrepancies in results across studies. We show that when training begins in the morning, motor-sequence performance deteriorates across wakefulness and recovers after sleep, whereas performance remains stable across both sleep and subsequent waking with evening training. This pattern of results challenges an influential model of memory consolidation defined by a time-dependent stabilization phase and a sleep-dependent enhancement phase. Moreover, the present results support a new account of the behavioral effects of waking and sleep on explicit motor-sequence learning that is consistent across a wide range of tasks. These observations indicate that current theories of memory consolidation that have been formulated to explain sleep-dependent performance enhancements are insufficient to explain the range of behavioral changes associated with sleep.

  10. 49 CFR 172.404 - Labels for mixed and consolidated packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labels for mixed and consolidated packaging. 172..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.404 Labels for mixed and consolidated packaging. (a) Mixed packaging. When hazardous materials having different hazard classes are packed within the...

  11. Alternate Energy Sources for Thermalplastic Binding Agent Consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate microwave and electron beam technologies as alternate energy sources to consolidate fiber coated with a thermoplastic binding agent into preforms for composite molding applications. Bench experiments showed that both microwave and electron beam energy can produce heat sufficient to melt and consolidate a thermoplastic binding agent applied to fiberglass mat, and several two- and three-dimensional fiberglass preforms were produced with each method. In both cases, it is postulated that the heating was accomplished by the effective interaction of the microwave or electron beam energy with the combination of the mat preform and the tooling used to shape the preform. Both methods contrast with conventional thermal energy applied via infrared heaters or from a heated tool in which the heat to melt the thermoplastic binding agent must diffuse over time from the outer surface of the preform toward its center under a thermal gradient. For these reasons, the microwave and electron beam energy techniques have the potential to rapidly consolidate thick fiber preforms more efficiently than the thermal process. With further development, both technologies have the potential to make preform production more cost effective by decreasing cycle time in the preform tool, reducing energy costs, and by enabling the use of less expensive tooling materials. Descriptions of the microwave and electron beam consolidation experiments and a summary of the results are presented in this report.

  12. Definition and Classification of the Stakeholders in Land Consolidation Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang-dong; GUO Bi-jun; GUO Mao-xuan

    2012-01-01

    Using the methods of questionnaire survey, statistical analysis and multidimensional rating, we define and classify the stakeholders in land consolidation project. 25 kinds of stakeholders are determined, divided into three categories: core stakeholders, including county-level government, county-level land departments, county-level land consolidation center, the rural collective economic organizations, farmers, township government, and the villagers’ committee; middle stakeholders, including central government, the Ministry of Land and Resources, the Ministry of Land and Resources Land Consolidation Center, the provincial land departments, the provincial land consolidation center, the county-level finance departments, the county-level water resources departments, the government supervisory departments, government audit departments, and the public; peripheral stakeholders, including the county-level environmental protection departments, the county-level agricultural departments, supervisory agencies, design agencies, project contractors, equipment suppliers, material suppliers, and the bidding agencies. The project managers should pay attention to the interest appeal of the stakeholders, and adopt different coping strategies.

  13. Fiscal Consolidation Start and its Determinants Analysis Within European Member Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Mihóková

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the research from the theoretical point of view is to define the "start of fiscal consolidation" and to clarify the effects of selected determinants on its initiation. The purpose of the paper, in an empirical context, is to empirically assess the impact of selected determinants on the start of consolidation in the EU member states in 1995-2015 using quantitative economics. The paper was developed within the project VEGA 1/0967/15. Methodology: The empirical assessment of the research objective is divided into four phases: (1 creation of research review using EBHC methodology, (2 identification of “start” of fiscal consolidation within selected period, (3 panel econometric analysis: model specification, quantification of model’s parameters and model verification and (4 research assessment and discussion. Within the analysis, the traditional, specific and general methods were used (systemic review according to EBHC methodology, content analysis, panel regression analysis, synthesis. Approach: Approach identifies “start” of consolidation episodes using selected identification rules. Using the panel regression analysis (OLS, FEM and REM models approach the statistically significant macroeconomic, fiscal, political and other determinants and quantification of the polarity of their impact on the fiscal consolidation start were analysed. Findings: Based on the performed econometric analysis can be stated that the start of consolidation is significantly determined by initial macroeconomic and fiscal situation in the country which are captured by the size of output gap and GDP growth as well as the size of CAPB, budget expenditure and the revenue side. Political and other determinants (such as crisis can also influence the start of consolidation episodes..

  14. Seeking lower prices where providers are consolidated: an examination of market and policy strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Paul B; Pawlson, L Gregory

    2014-06-01

    The ongoing consolidation between and among hospitals and physicians tends to raise prices for health care services, which poses increasing challenges for private purchasers and payers. This article examines strategies that these purchasers and payers can pursue to combat provider leverage to increase prices. It also examines opportunities for governments to either support or constrain these strategies. In response to higher prices, payers are developing new approaches to benefit and network design, some of which may be effective in moderating prices and, in some cases, volume. These approaches interact with public policy because regulation can either facilitate or constrain them. Federal and state governments also have opportunities to limit consolidation's effect on prices by developing antitrust policies that better address current market environments and by fostering the development of physician organizations that can increase competition and contract with payers under shared-savings approaches. The success of these private- and public-sector initiatives likely will determine whether governments shift from supporting competition to directly regulating payment rates. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Physical Matrix Characterisation: Studies of Crystalline Rocks and Consolidated Clays by PMMA Method and Electron Microscopy as Support of Diffusion Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Leskinen, A.; Kelokaski, A.; Togneri, L.; Alonso, U.; Missana, T.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Patelli, A.

    2007-07-01

    Crystalline rock and consolidated clay are both considered adequate host rocks for a high-level radioactive waste deep geological repository (HLWR). Over the extended periods of HLWR operation, long-lived radionuclides (RN) may be released from the fuel and migrate to the geo/biosphere. To predict the fate of contaminants and to assess the safety of the host rock, it is very important to determine transport parameters, as diffusion coefficients, and to relate them to the physical properties of the barriers, as connected porosity. In heterogeneous materials, it is also a major task to describe the transport at the mineral scale evaluating diffusion coefficients and mineral-specific porosities on single minerals. The main objective of this study was to determine within granite and consolidated clay, the connective porosity and mineral-specific porosities by poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) autoradiography method. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses (FESEM/EDS) were performed in order to study the pore apertures of porous regions in greater detail and to identify the corresponding minerals. By the novel application of the nuclear ion beam technique Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) apparent diffusion coefficients were determined at mineral scale. Finally, the porosity results were used to evaluate the effective diffusion coefficients and retention parameters of single minerals in different granite samples and consolidated clays. (Author) 42 refs.

  16. 17 CFR 210.3A-02 - Consolidated financial statements of the registrant and its subsidiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1975 Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements § 210.3A-02 Consolidated financial statements of... consolidated financial statements principles of inclusion or exclusion which will clearly exhibit the financial... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consolidated financial...

  17. 17 CFR 210.3A-03 - Statement as to principles of consolidation or combination followed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Consolidated and Combined Financial Statements § 210.3A-03 Statement as to principles of consolidation or... of (1) subsidiaries in consolidated or combined financial statements and (2) companies in consolidated or combined financial statements, shall be stated in the notes to the respective financial...

  18. NMR study of nanophase Al/Al-oxide powder and consolidated composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suits, B.H.; Apte, P.; Wilken, D.E.; Siegel, R.W.

    1994-10-01

    27 Al Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements from aluminum powders and consolidated nanophase aluminum made from those powders are presented. The signals from the metal and surface oxidation are easily separated and are compared before and after consolidation. The results presented indicate that the oxide coating becomes the interface region within the nanophase composite material and that during consolidation the metal has undergone a deformation equivalent to that seen for bulk material under a compressive strain of between 4% and 8%

  19. CONSOLIDATION POLICY: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE APPROACHES TO THE CONCEPT OF CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienciu Alin Ionel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Preparing consolidated financial statements has been a common practice for groups of companies around the world for a relatively long time, going back one century in the USA and tens of years in different European countries.A far-reaching issue regarding consolidation accounting policy is the concept of control, as it holds a crucial role in determining the basis of consolidation and the applicable method of consolidation and subsequently in influencing the content of the group financial statements. We focus in our article on the concept of exclusive control as it is approached by the relevant International, American and European standards, casting light also on possible future developments of this concept. The objective of our study is to acknowledge the differences and similarities between the approaches to the control concept, closing with the presentation of the influences of these approaches on the basis of consolidation.

  20. An Electronic Measurement Instrumentation of the Impedance of a Loaded Fuel Cell or Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglzim, El-Hassane; Rouane, Amar; El-Moznine, Reddad

    2007-10-17

    In this paper we present an inexpensive electronic measurement instrumentationdeveloped in our laboratory, to measure and plot the impedance of a loaded fuel cell orbattery. Impedance measurements were taken by using the load modulation method. Thisinstrumentation has been developed around a VXI system stand which controls electroniccards. Software under Hpvee ® was developed for automatic measurements and the layout ofthe impedance of the fuel cell on load. The measurement environment, like the ambienttemperature, the fuel cell temperature, the level of the hydrogen, etc..., were taken withseveral sensors that enable us to control the measurement. To filter the noise and theinfluence of the 50Hz, we have implemented a synchronous detection which filters in a verynarrow way around the useful signal. The theoretical result obtained by a simulation underPspice ® of the method used consolidates the choice of this method and the possibility ofobtaining correct and exploitable results. The experimental results are preliminary results ona 12V vehicle battery, having an inrush current of 330A and a capacity of 40Ah (impedancemeasurements on a fuel cell are in progress, and will be the subject of a forthcoming paper).The results were plotted at various nominal voltages of the battery (12.7V, 10V, 8V and 5V)and with two imposed currents (0.6A and 4A). The Nyquist diagram resulting from theexperimental data enable us to show an influence of the load of the battery on its internalimpedance. The similitude in the graph form and in order of magnitude of the valuesobtained (both theoretical and practical) enables us to validate our electronic measurementinstrumentation. One of the future uses for this instrumentation is to integrate it with several control sensors, on a vehicle as an embedded system to monitor the degradation of fuel cell membranes.

  1. An Electronic Measurement Instrumentation of the Impedance of a Loaded Fuel Cell or Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddad El-Moznine

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an inexpensive electronic measurement instrumentationdeveloped in our laboratory, to measure and plot the impedance of a loaded fuel cell orbattery. Impedance measurements were taken by using the load modulation method. Thisinstrumentation has been developed around a VXI system stand which controls electroniccards. Software under Hpvee® was developed for automatic measurements and the layout ofthe impedance of the fuel cell on load. The measurement environment, like the ambienttemperature, the fuel cell temperature, the level of the hydrogen, etc..., were taken withseveral sensors that enable us to control the measurement. To filter the noise and theinfluence of the 50Hz, we have implemented a synchronous detection which filters in a verynarrow way around the useful signal. The theoretical result obtained by a simulation underPspice® of the method used consolidates the choice of this method and the possibility ofobtaining correct and exploitable results. The experimental results are preliminary results ona 12V vehicle battery, having an inrush current of 330A and a capacity of 40Ah (impedancemeasurements on a fuel cell are in progress, and will be the subject of a forthcoming paper.The results were plotted at various nominal voltages of the battery (12.7V, 10V, 8V and 5Vand with two imposed currents (0.6A and 4A. The Nyquist diagram resulting from theexperimental data enable us to show an influence of the load of the battery on its internalimpedance. The similitude in the graph form and in order of magnitude of the valuesobtained (both theoretical and practical enables us to validate our electronic measurementinstrumentation. One of the future uses for this instrumentation is to integrate it with several control sensors, on a vehicle as an embedded system to monitor the degradation of fuel cell membranes.

  2. Memory consolidation in human sleep depends on inhibition of glucocorticoid release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plihal, W; Born, J

    1999-09-09

    Early sleep dominated by slow-wave sleep has been found to be particularly relevant for declarative memory formation via hippocampo-neocortical networks. Concurrently, early nocturnal sleep is characterized by an inhibition of glucocorticoid release from the adrenals. Here, we show in healthy humans that this inhibition serves to support declarative memory consolidation during sleep. Elevating plasma glucocorticoid concentration during early sleep by administration of cortisol impaired consolidation of paired associate words, but not of non-declarative memory of visuomotor skills. Since glucocorticoid concentration was enhanced only during retention sleep, but not during acquisition or retrieval, a specific effect on the consolidation process is indicated. Blocking mineralocorticoid receptors by canrenoate did not affect memory, suggesting inactivation of glucocorticoid receptors to be the essential prerequisite for memory consolidation during early sleep.

  3. 40 CFR 79.55 - Base fuel specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Base fuel specifications. 79.55... (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.55 Base fuel specifications. (a) General Characteristics. (1) The base fuel(s) in each fuel family shall serve as the group...

  4. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 9 discusses the following topics: Integrated System Normal Operations Test Results and Analysis Report; Integrated System Off-Normal Operations Test Results and Analysis Report; and Integrated System Maintenance Operations Test Results and Analysis Report

  5. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 1 discusses the following topics: the background of the project; test program description; summary of tests and test results; problem evaluation; functional requirements confirmation; recommendations; and completed test documentation for tests performed in Phase 3

  6. Susceptibility of memory consolidation during lapses in recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Vincenzo; O’Shea, Michael; Benjamin, Paul R.; Kemenes, Ildikó

    2013-01-01

    Memories that can be recalled several hours after learning may paradoxically become inaccessible for brief periods after their formation. This raises major questions about the function of these early memory lapses in the structure of memory consolidation. These questions are difficult to investigate because of the lack of information on the precise timing of lapses. However, the use of a single-trial conditioning paradigm in Lymnaea solves this problem. Here we use electrophysiological and behavioural experiments to reveal lapses in memory recall at 30 min and 2 h post conditioning. We show that only during these lapses is consolidation of long-term memory susceptible to interruption by external disturbance. These shared time points of memory lapse and susceptibility correspond to transitions between different phases of memory that have different molecular requirements. We propose that during periods of molecular transition memory recall is weakened, allowing novel sensory cues to block the consolidation of long-term memory. PMID:23481386

  7. Susceptibility of memory consolidation during lapses in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Vincenzo; O'Shea, Michael; Benjamin, Paul R; Kemenes, Ildikó

    2013-01-01

    Memories that can be recalled several hours after learning may paradoxically become inaccessible for brief periods after their formation. This raises major questions about the function of these early memory lapses in the structure of memory consolidation. These questions are difficult to investigate because of the lack of information on the precise timing of lapses. However, the use of a single-trial conditioning paradigm in Lymnaea solves this problem. Here we use electrophysiological and behavioural experiments to reveal lapses in memory recall at 30 min and 2 h post conditioning. We show that only during these lapses is consolidation of long-term memory susceptible to interruption by external disturbance. These shared time points of memory lapse and susceptibility correspond to transitions between different phases of memory that have different molecular requirements. We propose that during periods of molecular transition memory recall is weakened, allowing novel sensory cues to block the consolidation of long-term memory.

  8. Hydrogen as automotive fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, G.; Ciancia, A.; Pede, G.; Brighigna, M.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen fueled vehicles may just be the answer to the air pollution problem in highly polluted urban environments where the innovative vehicle's air pollution abatement characteristics would justify its high operating costs as compared with those of conventional automotive alternatives. This paper examines the feasibility of hydrogen as an automotive fuel by analyzing the following aspects: the chemical-physical properties of hydrogen in relation to its use in internal combustion engines; the modifications necessary to adapt internal combustion engines to hydrogen use; hydrogen fuel injection systems; current production technologies and commercialization status of hydrogen automotive fuels; energy efficiency ratings; environmental impacts; in-vehicle storage systems - involving the use of hydrides, high pressure systems and liquid hydrogen storage systems; performance in terms of pay-load ratio; autonomous operation; and operating costs. With reference to recent trial results being obtained in the USA, an assessment is also made of the feasibility of the use of methane-hydrogen mixtures as automotive fuels. The paper concludes with a review of progress being made by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) in the development of fuel storage and electronic fuel injection systems for hydrogen powered vehicles

  9. Autobiographical thinking interferes with episodic memory consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Craig

    Full Text Available New episodic memories are retained better if learning is followed by a few minutes of wakeful rest than by the encoding of novel external information. Novel encoding is said to interfere with the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories. Here we report four experiments in which we examined whether autobiographical thinking, i.e. an 'internal' memory activity, also interferes with episodic memory consolidation. Participants were presented with three wordlists consisting of common nouns; one list was followed by wakeful rest, one by novel picture encoding and one by autobiographical retrieval/future imagination, cued by concrete sounds. Both novel encoding and autobiographical retrieval/future imagination lowered wordlist retention significantly. Follow-up experiments demonstrated that the interference by our cued autobiographical retrieval/future imagination delay condition could not be accounted for by the sound cues alone or by executive retrieval processes. Moreover, our results demonstrated evidence of a temporal gradient of interference across experiments. Thus, we propose that rich autobiographical retrieval/future imagination hampers the consolidation of recently acquired episodic memories and that such interference is particularly likely in the presence of external concrete cues.

  10. Stages of Agricultural Land Consolidation in Ukraine with Consideration for International Best Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Andriy S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop recommendations on defining stages of consolidation of agricultural land in Ukraine on the basis of the best international practices. The analysis, systematization and generalization of scientific works of domestic and foreign scientists made it possible to determine a possible order of land consolidation in Ukraine and provide a detailed description of each stage. As a result of the research, the following main stages of land consolidation were proposed: the initiation, inventory, planning, implementation and final one. Each of these stages is considered consistently with justification of its expediency, the list of necessary measures and land management documentation, presentation of practical examples from different countries of the world. It is determined that each stage of the land consolidation procedure should be conducted in compliance with the principle of openness, which ensures the involvement of the maximum number of landowners/land users and protection of their interests, creates a positive attitude of the society towards land consolidation. A structural and logical model of the procedure for consolidating agricultural land, which clearly reflects the stages and activities of its implementation, is drawn up. There presented recommendations on the need to introduce new land management documentation for land consolidation with a detailed description of their essence. The relevance of further studies of the procedure for the agricultural land consolidation is in bringing a flexible, simple, cost-effective and short-term approach to its implementation.

  11. The changing face of hemostasis testing in modern laboratories: consolidation, automation, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Plebani, Mario; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2015-04-01

    The reality of laboratory diagnostics as a whole, and hemostasis testing in particular, is evolving under new paradigms of efficiency. The driving forces of health care and laboratory diagnostics in the third millennium are mainly represented by macro- and microeconomics. In a world with limited resources, shattered by an unprecedented economic crisis, laboratory diagnostics is undergoing a substantial reorganization, with emergence of new models under the imperative of terms, such as bedside testing, consolidation, and networking. The paradigms under which these changes are being developed include a variety of environment, preanalytical, technological, professional, and health-care aspects. The maintenance of continued quality is indeed the major challenge to be faced in the foreseeable future. In fact, some challenges prepotently emerge during a consolidation process, which basically involve delayed testing, centrifugation, transportation, and stability of the specimens, as well as the potential mismatch of sample matrix. This article is aimed to provide an overview of the current economic scenario of laboratory diagnostics and discuss the changing face of hemostasis testing in modern laboratories, providing a synthetic overview about potential drawbacks of actualized solutions. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Thermal and loading effects on soil parameters during consolidation - Vacherie salt dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysal, D.F.; Tumay, M.T.

    1983-07-01

    Tiltmeters were installed at Vacherie dome to record possible domal movement. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of four factors on the soil consolidation process: temperature, preconsolidation stress, stress increment ratio, and soil type. These, and related experiments, also provided data useful for any future finite element analyses of near-surface effects over Vacherie dome. The four soil factors were tested in a pattern pre-determined by the Graeco-Latin Square Model of data collection and analysis. Results of the statistical analyses showed that soil type was the most important factor in the consolidation process. Soil temperatures affected the duration of consolidation, but not the amount of consolidation. Preconsolidation and stress increment ratio had the opposite effect, the latter being the least important factor in the soil consolidation process. Results of this study imply that the soils around the tiltmeter sites genrally respond to effects that can be associated with natural phenomenon, e.g., rainfall

  13. Hydrostatic and shear consolidation tests with permeability measurements on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, N.S.

    1994-03-01

    Crushed natural rock salt is a primary candidate for use as backfill and barrier material at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and therefore Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been pursuing a laboratory program designed to quantify its consolidation properties and permeability. Variables that influence consolidation rate that have been examined include stress state and moisture content. The experimental results presented in this report complement existing studies and work in progress conducted by SNL. The experiments described in this report were designed to (1) measure permeabilities of consolidated specimens of crushed salt, (2) determine the influence of brine saturation on consolidation under hydrostatic loads, and 3) measure the effects of small applied shear stresses on consolidation properties. The laboratory effort consisted of 18 individual tests: three permeability tests conducted on specimens that had been consolidated at Sandia, six hydrostatic consolidation and permeability tests conducted on specimens of brine-saturated crushed WIPP salt, and nine shear consolidation and permeability tests performed on crushed WIPP salt specimens containing 3 percent brine by weight. For hydrostatic consolidation tests, pressures ranged from 1.72 MPa to 6.90 MPa. For the shear consolidation tests, confining pressures were between 3.45 MPa and 6.90 MPa and applied axial stress differences were between 0.69 and 4.14 MPa. All tests were run under drained conditions at 25 degrees C

  14. Environmental Restoration Operations: Consolidated Quarterly Report January -March 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) provides the status of ongoing corrective action activities being implemented at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) during the January, February, and March 2017 quarterly reporting period. Table I-1 lists the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs) identified for corrective action at SNL/NM. Sections I.2.1 and I.2.2 summarize the work completed during this quarter. Section I.2.1 summarizes the quarterly activities at sites undergoing corrective action field activities. Field activities are conducted at the three groundwater AOCs (Burn Site Groundwater [BSG AOC], Technical Area [TA]-V Groundwater [TAVG AOC], and Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater [TAG AOC]). Section I.2.2 summarizes quarterly activities at sites where the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Hazardous Waste Bureau (HWB) issued a certificate of completion and the sites are in the corrective action complete (CAC) regulatory process. Currently, SWMUs 8 and 58, 68, 149, 154, and 502 are in the CAC regulatory process. Corrective action activities are deferred at the Long Sled Track (SWMU 83), the Gun Facilities (SWMU 84), and the Short Sled Track (SWMU 240) because these three sites are active mission facilities. These three active mission sites are located in TA-III. This Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico Environmental Restoration Operations (ER) Consolidated Quarterly Report (ER Quarterly Report) fulfills all quarterly reporting requirements set forth in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Operating Permit and the Compliance Order on Consent.

  15. The Roles of Cortical Slow Waves in Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, Daisuke; Hirai, Daichi; Murayama, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Sleep plays important roles in sensory and motor memory consolidation. Sleep oscillations, reflecting neural population activity, involve the reactivation of learning-related neurons and regulate synaptic strength and, thereby affect memory consolidation. Among sleep oscillations, slow waves (0.5–4 Hz) are closely associated with memory consolidation. For example, slow-wave power is regulated in an experience-dependent manner and correlates with acquired memory. Furthermore, manipulating slow...

  16. The Roles of Protein Expression in Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali eRosenberg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The amount and availability of proteins are regulated by their synthesis, degradation, and transport. These processes can specifically, locally, and temporally regulate a protein or a population of proteins, thus affecting numerous biological processes in health and disease states. Accordingly, malfunction in the processes of protein turnover and localization underlies different neuronal diseases. However, as early as a century ago, it was recognized that there is a specific need for normal macromolecular synthesis in a specific fragment of the learning process, memory consolidation, which takes place minutes to hours following acquisition. Memory consolidation is the process by which fragile short-term memory is converted into stable long-term memory. It is accepted today that synaptic plasticity is a cellular mechanism of learning and memory processes. Interestingly, similar molecular mechanisms subserve both memory and synaptic plasticity consolidation. In this review, we survey the current view on the connection between memory consolidation processes and proteostasis, i.e., maintaining the protein contents at the neuron and the synapse. In addition, we describe the technical obstacles and possible new methods to determine neuronal proteostasis of synaptic function and better explain the process of memory and synaptic plasticity consolidation.

  17. Initial Assessment of the Consolidation of Chalcogels into a Viable Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Brian J.; Lepry, William C.

    2012-08-31

    This report provides some preliminary data for the consolidation of chalcogen-based aerogels. The chalcogels tested to date at PNNL show great promise as iodine sorbents and preliminary consolidation research shows that they can be melted into a phase-pure glass at moderate temperatures. The preliminary consolidation experiments show that these materials might attack fused quartz so an alternative crucible material will likely need to be used to prevent this. The next steps will be to • Consider melting other chalcogel chemistries, e.g., Sn-Sb-S, Ge-Sn-S chalcogels • Consider melting chalcogels with adsorbed iodine to monitor iodine loss during melting • Optimize the consolidation temperatures to minimize the iodine loss and volatilization

  18. West Valley facility spent fuel handling, storage, and shipping experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-11-01

    The result of a study on handling and shipping experience with spent fuel are described in this report. The study was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The purpose of the study was to document the experience with handling and shipping of relatively old light-water reactor (LWR) fuel that has been in pool storage at the West Valley facility, which is at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center at West Valley, New York and operated by DOE. A subject of particular interest in the study was the behavior of corrosion product deposits (i.e., crud) deposits on spent LWR fuel after long-term pool storage; some evidence of crud loosening has been observed with fuel that was stored for extended periods at the West Valley facility and at other sites. Conclusions associated with the experience to date with old spent fuel that has been stored at the West Valley facility are presented. The conclusions are drawn from these subject areas: a general overview of the West Valley experience, handling of spent fuel, storing of spent fuel, rod consolidation, shipping of spent fuel, crud loosening, and visual inspection. A list of recommendations is provided. 61 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Sleep modulates the neural substrates of both spatial and contextual memory consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Rauchs

    Full Text Available It is known that sleep reshapes the neural representations that subtend the memories acquired while navigating in a virtual environment. However, navigation is not process-pure, as manifold learning components contribute to performance, notably the spatial and contextual memory constituents. In this context, it remains unclear whether post-training sleep globally promotes consolidation of all of the memory components embedded in virtual navigation, or rather favors the development of specific representations. Here, we investigated the effect of post-training sleep on the neural substrates of the consolidation of spatial and contextual memories acquired while navigating in a complex 3D, naturalistic virtual town. Using fMRI, we mapped regional cerebral activity during various tasks designed to tap either the spatial or the contextual memory component, or both, 72 h after encoding with or without sleep deprivation during the first post-training night. Behavioral performance was not dependent upon post-training sleep deprivation, neither in a natural setting that engages both spatial and contextual memory processes nor when looking more specifically at each of these memory representations. At the neuronal level however, analyses that focused on contextual memory revealed distinct correlations between performance and neuronal activity in frontal areas associated with recollection processes after post-training sleep, and in the parahippocampal gyrus associated with familiarity processes in sleep-deprived participants. Likewise, efficient spatial memory was associated with posterior cortical activity after sleep whereas it correlated with parahippocampal/medial temporal activity after sleep deprivation. Finally, variations in place-finding efficiency in a natural setting encompassing spatial and contextual elements were associated with caudate activity after post-training sleep, suggesting the automation of navigation. These data indicate that post

  20. Fabrication of fuel elements on the basis of increased concentration fuel composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, A.B.; Afanasiev, V.L.; Enin, A.A.; Suprun, V.B.

    2004-01-01

    As a part of Russian Program RERTR Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors), at NCCP, Inc. jointly with the State Scientific Centre VNIINM the mastering in industrial environment of design and fabrication process of fuel elements (FE) with increased concentration fuel compositions is performed. Fuel elements with fuel composition on the basis of dioxide uranium with nearly 4 g/cm 3 fuel concentration have been produced thus confirming the principal possibility of fuel enrichment reduction down to 20% for research reactors which were built up according to the projects of the former USSR, by increasing the oxide fuel concentration in fuel assemblies (FAs). The form and geometrical dimensions of FEs and FAs shall remain unchanged, only uranium mass in FA shall be increased. (author)

  1. The role of sleep in human declarative memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Sara E; Chambers, Alexis M; Cunningham, Tony; Payne, Jessica D

    2015-01-01

    Through a variety of methods, researchers have begun unraveling the mystery of why humans spend one-third of their lives asleep. Though sleep likely serves multiple functions, it has become clear that the sleeping brain offers an ideal environment for solidifying newly learned information in the brain. Sleep , which comprises a complex collection of brain states, supports the consolidation of many different types of information. It not only promotes learning and memory stabilization, but also memory reorganization that can lead to various forms of insightful behavior. As this chapter will describe, research provides ample support for these crucial cognitive functions of sleep . Focusing on the declarative memory system in humans, we review the literature regarding the benefits of sleep for both neutral and emotionally salient declarative memory. Finally, we discuss the literature regarding the impact of sleep on emotion regulation.

  2. Proposal for Land Consolidation Project Solutions for Selected Problem Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik-Len, Justyna; Strek, Zanna

    2017-12-01

    One of the economic tools for supporting agricultural policy are the activities implemented under the Rural Development Program (RDP). By encouraging agricultural activities and creating equal opportunities for development of farms, among others in areas with unfavourable environmental conditions characterized by low productivity of soils exposed to degradation, decision makers can contribute to improving the spatial structure of rural areas. In Poland, one of the major concerns are agricultural problem areas (regions). In view of this situation, the aim of this article was to characterize the problem areas in question and propose land consolidation project solutions for selected fragments of those areas. This paper presents the results of a review of literature and an analysis of geodetic and cartographic data regarding the problem areas. The process of land consolidation, which is one of the technical and legal instruments supporting the development of rural areas, was characterized. The study allowed the present authors to establish criteria for selecting agricultural problem areas for land consolidation. To develop a proposal for rational management of the problem areas, key general criteria (location, topography, soil quality and usefulness) and specific criteria were defined and assigned weights. A conception of alternative development of the agricultural problem areas was created as part of a land consolidation project. The results were used to create a methodology for the development of agricultural problem areas to be employed during land consolidation in rural areas. Every agricultural space includes areas with unfavourable environmental and soil conditions determined by natural or anthropogenic factors. Development of agricultural problem areas through land consolidation should take into account the specific functions assigned to these areas in land use plans, as well as to comply with legal regulations.

  3. GENUSA Fuel Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choithramani, Sylvia; Malpica, Maria [ENUSA Industrias Avanzadas, GENUSA, Josefa Valcarcel, 26 28027 Madrid (Spain); Fawcett, Russel [Global Nuclear Fuel (United States)

    2009-06-15

    GNF ENUSA Nuclear Fuel S.A. (GENUSA) was formed in Madrid in May 1996. GENUSA is a corporation organized and existing under the laws of Spain, jointly owned by GNF-A and ENUSA. GENUSA consolidates all European BWR fuel marketing activities of GNF-A and ENUSA, primarily providing marketing and project management. In its standard way of operating, it will obtain engineering, components and conversion from GNF-A and engineering, fabrication and fuel related services from ENUSA. GENUSA's development philosophy over the past decades has been to introduce evolutionary designs, supported by our global experience base, that deliver the performance needed by our customers to meet their operating strategies. GENUSA considers, as one of our strengths, the ever-increasing experience base that provides the foundation for such evolutionary changes. This experience is supported and complemented with an even greater GNF experience. Over the last 40 years, GNF and ENUSA have designed, fabricated, and placed in operation over 144,000 BWR fuel bundles containing over 9.7 million fuel rods. This experience base represents the widest range of operating conditions of any BWR fuel vendor, reflecting varying reactor power densities, operating strategies, and water chemistry environments. It covers operating periods of up to {approx}10 years and bundle average exposures up to 68 MWd/kgU.. It provides the confirmation of our understanding and ability to model fuel performance behavior, and has been instrumental in the identification and characterization of each encountered failure mechanism. With the knowledge gained from this extensive experience base, mitigating actions have been developed and progressively implemented by GENUSA as part of a continuous program toward improved fuel reliability and performance. GENUSA's evolutionary product introduction strategy has been extremely successful. There has been a continuous stream of new products/processes that were developed to

  4. Bio fuels. Environment and Energy Aspects and Future Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonti, D.; Grassi, G.; Tondi, G.; Martelli, F.

    2000-01-01

    The present work aims at describing some of the most important bio fuels (bio diesel, bio methanol, bi oethanol, bio-crude-oil). Environmental effects are also presented, as well as some cost data. Europe and USA are compared, when appropriate. The motivations for a justified and beneficial market penetration of bio fuels in urban areas are reported [it

  5. Physical Matrix Characterisation: Studies of Crystalline Rocks and Consolidated Clays by PMMA Method and Electron Microscopy as a Support of Diffusion Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Leskinen, A.; Kelokaski, A.; Togneri, L.; Alonso, U.; Missana, T.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Patelli, A.

    2007-01-01

    Crystalline rock and consolidated clay are both considered adequate host rocks for a high-level radioactive waste deep geological repository (HLWR). Over the extended periods of HLWR operation, long-lived radionuclides (RN) may be released from the fuel and migrate to the geo/biosphere. To predict the fate of contaminants and to assess the safety of the host rock, it is very important to determine transport parameters, as diffusion coefficients, and to relate them to the physical properties of the barriers, as connected porosity. In heterogeneous materials, it is also a major task to describe the transport at the mineral scale evaluating diffusion coefficients and mineral-specific porosities on single minerals. The main objective of this study was to determine within granite and consolidated clay, the connective porosity and mineral-specific porosities by poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) autoradiography method. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses (FESEM/EDS) were performed in order to study the pore apertures of porous regions in greater detail and to identify the corresponding minerals. By the novel application of the nuclear ion beam technique Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) apparent diffusion coefficients were determined at mineral scale. Finally, the porosity results were used to evaluate the effective diffusion coefficients and retention parameters of single minerals in different granite samples and consolidated clays. (Author) 42 refs

  6. Strata consolidation (Report on ECSC contract 6220-AB/1/102)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The development of an injection agent based on Sorel cement with a magnesia binder is discussed. The properties of the binder are discussed including its adherence properties. The extraordinary fluidity of the magnesia binder permits a transport of the binder ready for application for a distance of 800 m, provided the pipelines used do not have a diameter below 25 mm. The magnesia binder still fills cracks and fissures with a width of 0.1 mm. The injection method was used in the mines of Saarbergwerke AG mainly for consolidation of running out coal faces. Normally, it was possible to consolidate the coal in thick seams by use of magnesia binder. Reasons for unsatisfactory consolidating results in some tests at the Ruhr are different structure and wettability of the Ruhr coal, presumably. Adjoining rock, especially shaly clay, could be consolidated so well with magnesia binder that the original rock context could be restored. Trials to seal permeable rock formations, led to the development of control methods enabling a quantitative assessment of injections underground. (In German)

  7. Proceedings of the 2006 International Meeting on LWR fuel performance 'Nuclear Fuel: Addressing the future' - TopFuel 2006 Transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    global nuclear revival gathering momentum, this event - which registered a record attendance for an ENS conference - provided a unique opportunity for professionals in the nuclear fuel industry to discuss the key issues of the day, to exchange experiences, to consolidate recent engineering and technological advances and to focus on the future. Commenting on the tangible sense of purpose and focus shown by delegates, Jose Gutierrez, Nuclear Fuel Director at ENUSA Industrias Avanzadas and Chairman of the TopFuel 2006 Conference, said: 'The ultimate goal for specialists involved in all phases and aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle is to develop the next generation of nuclear fuels that will help ensure security of energy supply and, help combat climate change combined with the highest standards of safety. The record attendance at TopFuel this year shows how the nuclear industry and research community is results-driven, single-mindedly focused on achieving its goals and on the right track to deliver'. After the conference, delegates visited the nuclear fuel manufactory facility of ENUSA Industrias Avanzadas, in Juzbado, close to Salamanca. TopFuel is a must for nuclear fuel and spent fuel managers, fuel manufacturers, engineers and designers, nuclear power plant operators, materials scientists and research experts from all sectors of the nuclear industry. Most of the world's major utilities were represented in Salamanca, as well as fuel manufacturers, several national nuclear organisations and research centres of excellence. (authors)

  8. Industrial tests of rock consolidation for fighting floor swelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirskii, A A; Stovpnik, S N [KPI (USSR)

    1990-04-01

    Reports on investigations into the mechanism of floor swelling in main roadways and into rock mass stabilization by consolidating fluid injection combined with blasting. The principal cause of deterioration in the stability of workings is considered to be the state of stress in the rock mass, rock destruction in side walls where rock blocks are being pressed into the floor while the floor rock is squeezed out into the working space. A case study of fluid injection combined with blasting applied in several mines in the Donbass is presented where holes were drilled 1.5-3 m deep and explosive charges of 0.07-0.1 kg/hole and injection of hardening solutions (0.56-0.83 m{sup 3}/m of workings) were applied. As a result floor swelling rates were reduced by up to about 5 times (e.g. from 2.5 mm/d to 0.5 mm/d.). The period of maintenence free upkeep of workings was extended to 6-8 years. The economic effect in maintenance of 1 m of workings was 11.7 rubles for floor consolidation without sidewall bolting and 51.4 rubles for floor consolidation combined with sidewall bolting. Recommendations that concern the technology of floor consolidation by fluid injection and blasting are made. 4 refs.

  9. Acceptance of failed SNF [spent nuclear fuel] assemblies by the Federal Waste Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This report is one of a series of eight prepared by E. R. Johnson Associates, Inc. (JAI) under ORNL's contract with DOE's OCRWM Systems Integration Program and in support of the Annual Capacity Report (ACR) Issue Resolution Process. The report topics relate specifically to the list of high priority technical waste acceptance issues developed jointly by DOE and a utility-working group. JAI performed various analyses and studies on each topic to serve as starting points for further discussion and analysis leading eventually to finalizing the process by which DOE will accept spent fuel and waste into its waste management system. The eight reports are concerned with the conditions under which spent fuel and high level waste will be accepted in the following categories: failed fuel; consolidated fuel and associated structural parts; non-fuel-assembly hardware; fuel in metal storage casks; fuel in multi-element sealed canisters; inspection and testing requirements for wastes; canister criteria; spent fuel selection for delivery; and defense and commercial high-level waste packages. This document discusses acceptance of failed spent fuel assemblies by the Federal Waste Management System. 18 refs., 7 figs., 25 tabs

  10. Multi-fuel driven Janus micromotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; D'Agostino, Mattia; Garcia-Gradilla, Victor; Orozco, Jahir; Wang, Joseph

    2013-02-11

    Here the first example of a chemically powered micromotor that harvests its energy from the reactions of three different fuels is presented. The new Al/Pd Janus microspheres-prepared by depositing a Pd layer on one side of Al microparticles-are propelled efficiently by the thrust of hydrogen bubbles generated from different reactions of Al in strong acidic and alkaline environments, and by an oxygen bubble thrust produced at their partial Pd coating in hydrogen peroxide media. High speeds and long lifetimes of 200 μm s(-1) and 8 min are achieved in strong alkaline media and acidic media, respectively. The ability to autonomously adapt to the presence of a new fuel (surrounding environment), without compromising the propulsion behavior is illustrated. These data also represent the first example of a chemically powered micromotor that propels autonomously and efficiently in alkaline environments (pH > 11) without additional fuels. The ability to use multiple fuel sources to power the same micromotor offers a broader scope of operation and considerable promise for diverse applications of micromotors in different chemical environments. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Metal waste forms from treatment of EBR-II spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, D. P.

    1998-01-01

    Demonstration of Argonne National Laboratory's electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel is currently being conducted on irradiated, metallic driver fuel and blanket fuel elements from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) in Idaho. The residual metallic material from the electrometallurgical treatment process is consolidated into an ingot, the metal waste form (MWF), by employing an induction furnace in a hot cell. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analyses have been performed on irradiated cladding hulls from the driver fuel, and on samples from the alloy ingots. This paper presents the microstructures of the radioactive ingots and compares them with observations on simulated waste forms prepared using non-irradiated material. These simulated waste forms have the baseline composition of stainless steel - 15 wt % zirconium (SS-15Zr). Additions of noble metal elements, which serve as surrogates for fission products, and actinides are made to that baseline composition. The partitioning of noble metal and actinide elements into alloy phases and the role of zirconium for incorporating these elements is discussed in this paper

  12. Intraperitoneal P-32 for adjuvant and consolidative therapy in ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condra, Kellie S.; Mendenhall, William M.; Morgan, Linda S.; Freeman, Debra E.; Marcus, Robert B.; Hagan, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To determine the role of intraperitoneal radioactive chromic phosphate (P-32) in the treatment of patients with ovarian carcinoma. Survival results, patterns of recurrence, and treatment morbidity are reported for patients treated adjuvantly after primary surgery and for patients treated with the intent of consolidation after second-look laparotomy. Materials and Methods: Between 1976 and 1993, 25 patients with ovarian carcinoma were treated with 15 mCi P-32 as adjuvant therapy and 43 patients received P-32 as consolidation after second-look laparotomy. The majority of patients (13 of 19) treated adjuvantly had high-risk early-stage disease (IAG 3, IBG 2-3, IC) or more advanced stages (6 patients). Thirty-nine patients received consolidative P-32 after negative second-look laparotomy (35 Stage II-IV and 4 Stage I) and 4 Stage III patients were treated after positive second-look laparotomy. All patients had 2-year minimum follow-up (median, 7.9 years). Results: Ten-year abdominal control and cause-specific survival rates for adjuvant P-32 were 83% and 82%, respectively. For patients treated with consolidative P-32, 5-year abdominal control and cause-specific survival rates were 65% and 78%, respectively. The 5-year cause-specific survival rate for 35 patients with Stage II-IV disease treated with consolidative P-32 after negative second-look laparotomy was 81%. A component of peritoneal failure was the primary mode of recurrence (15 of 22 failures). Four patients required surgical intervention for small-bowel obstruction. No patients died of treatment-related complications. Conclusion: P-32 is well tolerated with acceptable toxicity. In comparing our results to the literature, adjuvant P-32 appears to offer improved cause-specific survival compared with observation alone and equivalent cause-specific survival compared with adjuvant chemotherapy. Consolidative P-32 after negative second-look laparotomy resulted in improved 5-year cause

  13. Comparison of the Environment, Health, And Safety Characteristics of Advanced Thorium- Uranium and Uranium-Plutonium Fuel Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Timothy M.

    The environment, health, and safety properties of thorium-uranium-based (''thorium'') fuel cycles are estimated and compared to those of analogous uranium-plutonium-based (''uranium'') fuel cycle options. A structured assessment methodology for assessing and comparing fuel cycle is refined and applied to several reference fuel cycle options. Resource recovery as a measure of environmental sustainability for thorium is explored in depth in terms of resource availability, chemical processing requirements, and radiological impacts. A review of available experience and recent practices indicates that near-term thorium recovery will occur as a by-product of mining for other commodities, particularly titanium. The characterization of actively-mined global titanium, uranium, rare earth element, and iron deposits reveals that by-product thorium recovery would be sufficient to satisfy even the most intensive nuclear demand for thorium at least six times over. Chemical flowsheet analysis indicates that the consumption of strong acids and bases associated with thorium resource recovery is 3-4 times larger than for uranium recovery, with the comparison of other chemical types being less distinct. Radiologically, thorium recovery imparts about one order of magnitude larger of a collective occupational dose than uranium recovery. Moving to the entire fuel cycle, four fuel cycle options are compared: a limited-recycle (''modified-open'') uranium fuel cycle, a modified-open thorium fuel cycle, a full-recycle (''closed'') uranium fuel cycle, and a closed thorium fuel cycle. A combination of existing data and calculations using SCALE are used to develop material balances for the four fuel cycle options. The fuel cycle options are compared on the bases of resource sustainability, waste management (both low- and high-level waste, including used nuclear fuel), and occupational radiological impacts. At steady-state, occupational doses somewhat favor the closed thorium option while low

  14. Analysis and fabrication of tungsten CERMET materials for ultra-high temperature reactor applications via pulsed electric current sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jonathan A.

    The optimized development path for the fabrication of ultra-high temperature W-UO2 CERMET fuel elements were explored within this dissertation. A robust literature search was conducted, which concluded that a W-UO 2 fuel element must contain a fine tungsten microstructure and spherical UO2 kernels throughout the entire consolidation process. Combined Monte Carlo and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis were used to determine the effects of rhenium and gadolinia additions on the performance of W-UO 2 fuel elements at refractory temperatures and in dry and water submerged environments. The computational analysis also led to the design of quasi-optimized fuel elements that can meet thermal-hydraulic and neutronic requirements A rigorous set of experiments were conducted to determine if Pulsed Electric Current Sintering (PECS) can fabricate tungsten and W-Ce02 specimens to the required geometries, densities and microstructures required for high temperature fuel elements as well as determine the mechanisms involved within the PECS consolidation process. The CeO2 acts as a surrogate for UO 2 fuel kernels in these experiments. The experiments seemed to confirm that PECS consolidation takes place via diffusional mass transfer methods; however, the densification process is rapidly accelerated due to the effects of current densities within the consolidating specimen. Fortunately the grain growth proceeds at a traditional rate and the PECS process can yield near fully dense W and W-Ce02 specimens with a finer microstructure than other sintering techniques. PECS consolidation techniques were also shown to be capable of producing W-UO2 segments at near-prototypic geometries; however, great care must be taken to coat the fuel particles with tungsten prior to sintering. Also, great care must be taken to ensure that the particles remain spherical in geometry under the influence of a uniaxial stress as applied during PECS, which involves mixing different fuel kernel sizes in

  15. SOME DISCLOSURE ASPECTS REGARDING CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirstea Andreea

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the current state of consolidated reporting practice harmonization concerning the choice of presenting the income statement, the changes in equity, the methods used for presenting the cash flow statement, the extant methods for evaluating and reporting goodwill, the extant methods in which jointly controlled entities are accounted in the consolidated financial statements, or the choice for recognizing investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates in the separate statements of the parent company. In order to achieve our goal we selected the first 10 groups, in order of their capitalization value, that were listed on each of the following capital markets: London Stock Exchange, NYSE Euronext (Paris Stock Exchange and Deutsche Börse (Frankfurt Stock Exchange and we analyzed, in a qualitative and in a quantitative manner, for a period of six years starting with 2007, their consolidated financial statements with the design to establish exactly which of the aspects stated in the International Financial Reporting Standards were being used for the items presented above. In order to complete the empirical research part of the paper that addresses from a comparative perspective the evaluation of the degree of material harmony between the reporting practices of groups listed on the three stock exchanges above-mentioned, we used statistical and mathematical methods represented by the I Index first described by Van der Tas. Taking into account the fact that since 2005 all listed companies on the European stock exchanges were required to adopt the international accounting standards for their consolidated financial disclosures, the degree of material harmony was studied only in reference to those requirements that presented two methods or possibilities of disclosure.Our findings suggest that the groups analyzed present a high degree of material harmonization with respect to the reporting

  16. Consolidated techniques for groups of enterprises with complex structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ciuraru-Andrica

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and disclosure of the financial statements of a group of enterprises involves some consolidation techniques. The Literature presents many techniques, but in practice are used two of them. They will be described first of all in a particular manner and after that in a comparative one. The group of entities can choose one of these techniques, the final result (the consolidated financial statements being the same, whatever the option.

  17. Consolidation by Prefabricated Vertical Drains with a Threshold Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao Guo; Kang-He Xie; Yue-Bao Deng

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the development of an approximate analytical solution of radial consolidation by prefabricated vertical drains with a threshold gradient. To understand the effect of the threshold gradient on consolidation, a parametric analysis was performed using the present solution. The applicability of the present solution was demonstrated in two cases, wherein the comparisons with Hansbo’s results and observed data were conducted. It was found that (1) the flow with the threshold gradie...

  18. Magnetic properties of ultrafine-grained cobalt samples obtained from consolidated nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellah, F.; Cherif, S.M.; Schoenstein, F.; Jouini, N.; Dirras, G. [LSPM (CNRS-UPR 3407), Universite Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Bouziane, K. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123 (Oman)

    2011-08-15

    Co powders having nominal average particle size of 50 and 240 nm were synthesized using a polyol method and then consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) or the emerging spark plasma sintering (SPS) compaction processes. Bulk polycrystalline aggregates were obtained, having average grain sizes of about 200 and 300 nm, respectively. It is found that both nanoparticles and consolidated samples exhibit a soft ferromagnetic behavior. The magnetization reversal likely occurs by nucleation/propagation process. However, a curling process can be involved in the magnetization reversal for the smaller particles. The dynamic measurements provide for the consolidated samples magnetic parameters corresponding to bulk cobalt with vanishing anisotropy. The contribution of the intergranular region is found to be negligible. We can infer that the used consolidation routes insure a good magnetic interfacial contact between the particles. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHP-THERMAL SCHEMES IN CONTEXTS OF THE CONSOLIDATED ENERGY SYSTEM OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the structural specifics of the Belarus Consolidated Energy System capacities in view of their ongoing transfer to the combined-cycle technology, building the nuclear power plant and necessity for the generating capacity regulation in compliance with the load diagram. With the country’s economic complex energy utilization pattern being preserved, the generating capacities are subject to restructuring and the CHP characteristics undergo enhancement inter alia a well-known increase of the specific electricity production based on the heat consumption. Because of this the steam-turbine condensation units which are the traditional capacity regulators for the energy systems with heat power plants dominance are being pushed out of operation. In consequence of this complex of changes the issue of load diagram provision gains momentum which in evidence is relevant to the Consolidated Energy System of Belarus. One of the ways to alleviate acuteness of the problem could be the specific electric energy production cut on the CHP heat consumption with preserving the heat loads and without their handover to the heat generating capacities of direct combustion i.e. without fuel over-burning. The solution lies in integrating the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump units into the CHP thermal scheme. Through their agency low-temperature heat streams of the generator cooling, the lubrication and condensation heat-extraction of steam minimal passing to the condenser systems are utilized. As a case study the authors choose one of the CHPs in the conditions of which the corresponding employment of the said pumps leads to diminution of the fuel-equivalent specific flow-rate by 20−25 g for 1 kW⋅h production and conjoined electric energy generation capacity lowering. The latter will be handed over to other generating capacities, and the choice of them affects economic expediency of the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump-units installation

  20. Consolidation ou résistance à l'interférence ?Etude de la contribution des états de sommeil aux processus post-apprentissage de consolidation et de résistance à l'interférence lexicale et émotionnelle rétroactive./Consolidation or protection against interference? an investigation of sleep stages contribution in post-learning memory consolidation and protection against lexical and emotional retroactive interference processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Deliens, Gaétane

    2013-01-01

    Although a relative consensus exists about the contribution of post-learning sleep in the consolidation of novel information in long term memory, the definition of the respective contributions of sleep stages in memory consolidation processes remains a matter of debates. Scrima (1982) proposed the hypothesis that Slow Waves Sleep (SWS) contributes preventing retroactive interference on recently acquired information, whereas Rapid Eyes Movement sleep (REM) contributes consolidating this inform...

  1. 76 FR 6813 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Consolidated Consumers' Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Consolidated Consumers' Report (1 Form) AGENCY: U.S... Consolidated Consumers' Report. This collection consists of one form. This notice provides the public and other...: 9-4117-MA. Title: Consolidated Consumers' Report. Type of Request: Extension of a currently approved...

  2. WWER reactor pressure vessel embrittlement knowledge - a way forward for consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Estorff, U.; Brumovsky, M.

    2010-01-01

    Many stakeholders, such as Institutes, R and D Organisations, Regulators, Utilities, Governmental Organisations, have recognised the need for collecting, preserving, consolidating (validating), and disseminating nuclear knowledge (documents, competences and data), in order to make it easily accessible to future generations through modern informatics tools and training and education measures. A broad spectrum of components and technologies should be considered, i.e. reactor pressure vessel (RPV), piping, internals, steam generator, etc. regarding knowledge, material data and practices. In the long run, it will also support future decommissioning exercises of nuclear installations as a valuable knowledge source. In addition to the knowledge in each Member State, the IE produced a long standing record of results from its own institutional activities and even more through the participation to a large number of European Network partnership projects. It is important, besides preservation, to consolidate the enormous amount of scientific results produced since. Therefore, the IE has developed a method for consolidation of nuclear knowledge. The method relays on the mobilisation of all identified leading experts in the EU in re-evaluating old knowledge and consolidating what is necessary to create training materials for the new generations. This method was applied for a pilot study for consolidating and preserving WWER RPV safety related knowledge, which is scattered in many countries and in different languages, facing a serious issue in terms of getting lost. This initiative could be the start of a wider Nuclear Knowledge Preservation and Consolidation activity. Experience gained and lessons learnt from the first exercise will be presented in this paper. (authors)

  3. Preparation of an annual report for a consolidated radioisotope licence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A consolidated radioisotope licence is a single license issued by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) to an institution having many users of radioactive materials. The licence is issued when the institution has fulfilled the requirements set by the AECB and has implemented policies and procedures which will ensure the maintenance of an effective radiation safety program. The consolidated licence is retained only if the results of AECB inspections are satisfactory -- or remedial action is taken promptly -- and if the institution reports regularly about the status of its radiation safety program. One aspect of this reporting procedure is an annual report. This guide describes the information that the AECB requires in the annual report. The guide applies primarily to universities and research institutions where a wide variety of radioisotope uses take place. The guide does not affect most other institutions or facilities, either because the nature and extent of their operations with radioactive materials do not lend themselves to consolidated licensing or because they are not licensed by the Radioisotopes and Transportation Division. (For example, this guide does not apply to reactors, to accelerators, or to waste management or uranium mining or refining facilities.) The information in the annual report should be specific to the consolidated radioisotope licence. Incidents, staff exposures, and waste associated with accelerators, research reactors, and waste management facilities should be excluded from this report unless they affected activities under the consolidated licence

  4. Municipal Consolidation: Theoretical Inquiry and Case Study - City of Iron River, MI

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    The City of Iron River was created as a consolidated municipality in the upper peninsula of Michigan during the late 1990's. The consolidation consisted of two cities and one village with a combined 2000 census population of 3,391. Persistent population loss, combined with the decline of the economic base, reduced the viability of the individual municipal governments, placing consolidation at the forefront of options. The analysis of small, rural municipalities is outside the focus of most co...

  5. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Richard; Korsgaard Johnsen, Line; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2016-01-01

    where low to moderate intensities may be more suitable. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of intensity in mediating the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on motor skill learning. We investigated the effects of different exercise intensities on the retention (performance score...... an important role in modulating the effects that a single bout of cardiovascular exercise has on the consolidation phase following motor skill learning. There appears to be a dose-response relationship in favour of higher intensity exercise in order to augment off-line effects and strengthen procedural memory.......A single bout of high intensity aerobic exercise (~90% VO2peak) was previously demonstrated to amplify off-line gains in skill level during the consolidation phase of procedural memory. High intensity exercise is not always a viable option for many patient groups or in a rehabilitation setting...

  6. Leveraging Fuel Subsidy Reform for Transition in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Ecker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Yemen is currently undergoing a major political transition, yet many economic challenges—including fuel subsidy reform—remain highly relevant. To inform the transition process with respect to a potential subsidy reform, we use a dynamic computable general equilibrium and microsimulation model for Yemen; we show that overall growth effects of subsidy reduction are positive in general, but poverty can increase or decrease depending on reform design. A promising strategy for a successful reform combines fuel subsidy reduction with direct income transfers to the poorest one-third of households during reform, and productivity-enhancing investment in infrastructure, plus fiscal consolidation. Public investments should be used for integrating economic spaces and restructuring of agricultural, industrial and service value chains in order to create a framework that encourages private-sector-led and job-creating growth.

  7. 7 CFR 3015.311 - Simplification, consolidation, or substitution of State plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Simplification, consolidation, or substitution of... (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... Simplification, consolidation, or substitution of State plans. (a) As used in this section: (1) Simplify means...

  8. Chromatic reintegration of historical mortars with lime-based pozzolanic consolidant products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsoi, G.; Pascoal, P.; Pinto, J.P.; Veiga, R.; Faria, P.; Santos Silva, A.

    2013-01-01

    The consolidation process of old renders with loss of cohesion is nowadays performed usually with inorganic compatible products, such as calcium or barium hydroxide or ethyl silicate. The use of organic consolidants as acrylic or vinilic resins is discouraged due to its physico-chemical

  9. Consolidation of the LHC superconducting magnets and circuits during LS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tock, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    All the activities necessary to consolidate the LHC superconducting magnets and circuits are presented, especially the consolidation of the main splices, replacement of weak cryo-magnets, the consolidation of the DFBAs (electrical feed-boxes) and the special interventions. For each of them, the baseline strategy is presented, highlighting the reasons that led to these choices and the remaining risk level. In particular, the progress of the work of the LHC Splices Task Force, the recommendations of the second LHC Splices Review (November 2011) and their analysis are reported. Finally, the work planning, the organization chart and the associated resources are detailed. (author)

  10. Possibility of "superfast" consolidation of long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolski IYa

    1998-01-01

    Two new behavioural tests in rats are described which demonstrate the fast consolidation of the long-term memory (LTM) in a dangerous natural situation (water escape). It is shown that after one-trial learning of the motor skill (jumping out of the water), long-term memory traces are retained without forgetting and are resistant to the blockade of M-cholinoreceptors by scopolamine (2 mg/kg) and of D1/D2 dopamine receptors by haloperidol (10 mg/kg) as well as electroconvulsive shock applied tank wall, learning of necessary motor skills, automatization and minimization of the skilled movements in 1.5-3.0 min, after 5 to 7 trials at two-second intervals (superfast learning) is demonstrated. It is suggested that the superfast consolidation of LTM (several minutes) is possible in life-threatening situations, the necessary time being 1-2 orders of magnitude less than it is generally accepted in the modern theories of memory. The proposed behavioural models may be helpful in investigation of some fundamental physiological and molecular mechanisms of stable neuronal interactions, as a basis for LTM consolidation.

  11. Divulgación del Programa Consolider-GTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Zelmanovitch, N.; Mass Hesse, M.; Alfaro, E.

    2013-05-01

    The Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) is the biggest telescope of its class in the world. The CONSOLIDER INGENIO 2010-GTC project, First Science with the GTC: Spanish Astron- omy on the Forefront of the European Astronomy, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, MICINN (now the Ministry of Economy and competitiveness, MINECO) has used the GTC to: (i) obtain leading science with its data, (ii) increase the involvement of the Spanish astronomical community in developing astronomical instrumentation, (iii) get an important Spanish participation in the new extremely large telescopes generation (ELTs), and (iv) make outreach and communicating to the society the main results. The project CONSOLIDER INGENIO 2010-GTC is structured and defined by objectives: 1) GTC: To optimize the GTC and its instruments; 2) SCIENCE: To develop leading science with the GTC; 3) E-ELT: To take advantage of the technological experience obtained with the GTC for the new generation of giant telescopes; 4) INSTRUMENTATION: To promote the Spanish participation in the new instrument developments for the GTC, VLT and the future ELTs; 5) EDUCATION: International School for Advanced Instrumentation (IScAI); and 6) OUTREACH: Outreach and communication of the project scientific results. This poster resumes five years of science communication around the Consolider-GTC project.

  12. Influence of prepreg characteristics on stamp consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slange, T. K.; Warnet, L. L.; Grouve, W. J. B.; Akkerman, R.

    2017-10-01

    Stamp forming is a rapid manufacturing technology used to shape flat blanks of thermoplastic composite material into three-dimensional components. The development of automated lay-up technologies further extends the applicability of stamp forming by allowing rapid lay-up of tailored blanks and partial preconsolidation. This partial preconsolidation makes the influence of prepreg more critical compared to conventional preconsolidation methods which provide full preconsolidation. This paper aims to highlight consolidation challenges that can appear when stamp forming blanks manufactured by automated lay-up. Important prepreg characteristics were identified based on an experimental study where a comparison was made between various prepreg in their as-received, deconsolidated and stamp consolidated state. It was found that adding up small thickness variations across the width of a prepreg when stacking plies into a blank by automated lay-up can cause non-uniform consolidation. Additionally, deconsolidation of the prepreg does not seem to obstruct interlaminar bonding, while intralaminar voids initially present in a prepreg cannot be removed during stamp forming. An additional preconsolidation step after automated lay-up seems necessary to remove blank thickness variations and intralaminar voids for the current prepregs. Eliminating this process step and the successful combination of rapid automated lay-up and stamp forming requires prepregs which are void-free and have less thickness variation.

  13. National fuel cell bus program : proterra fuel cell hybrid bus report, Columbia demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by the Center for Transportation and the Environment an...

  14. 40 CFR 94.108 - Test fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test fuels. 94.108 Section 94.108... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 94.108 Test fuels. (a) Distillate diesel test fuel. (1) The diesel fuels for testing Category 1 and Category 2 marine engines designed to...

  15. Linking new information to a reactivated memory requires consolidation and not reconsolidation mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A new memory is initially labile and becomes stabilized through a process of consolidation, which depends on gene expression. Stable memories, however, can again become labile if reactivated by recall and require another phase of protein synthesis in order to be maintained. This process is known as reconsolidation. The functional significance of the labile phase of reconsolidation is unknown; one hypothesis proposes that it is required to link new information with reactivated memories. Reconsolidation is distinct from the initial consolidation, and one distinction is that the requirement for specific proteins or general protein synthesis during the two processes occurs in different brain areas. Here, we identified an anatomically distinctive molecular requirement that doubly dissociates consolidation from reconsolidation of an inhibitory avoidance memory. We then used this requirement to investigate whether reconsolidation and consolidation are involved in linking new information with reactivated memories. In contrast to what the hypothesis predicted, we found that reconsolidation does not contribute to the formation of an association between new and reactivated information. Instead, it recruits mechanisms similar to those underlying consolidation of a new memory. Thus, linking new information to a reactivated memory is mediated by consolidation and not reconsolidation mechanisms.

  16. Cyclic behavior of self-consolidated concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This reports highlights on the production of Self-Consolidating concrete using local materials from Las Vegas, Nevada. 4 SCC : mixtures were worked on with 2 different levels of FA replacement and the inclusion of superplasticizers, ADVA 195 and V-MA...

  17. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 4 discusses the following topics: Rod Compaction/Loading System Test Results and Analysis Report; Waste Collection System Test Results and Analysis Report; Waste Container Transfer Fixture Test Results and Analysis Report; Staging and Cutting Table Test Results and Analysis Report; and Upper Cutting System Test Results and Analysis Report

  18. Auto consolidated cohesive sediments erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternat, F.

    2007-02-01

    Pollutants and suspended matters of a river can accumulate into the sedimentary column. Once deposited, they are submitted to self-weight consolidation processes, ageing and burying, leading to an increase of their erosion resistance. Pollutant fluxes can be related to sedimentary fluxes, determined by threshold laws. In this work, an erosion threshold model is suggested by introducing a cohesion force into the usual force balance. A model of cohesion is developed on the basis of interactions between argillaceous cohesive particles (clays), particularly the Van der Waals force, whose parameterization is ensured by means of granulometry and porosity. Artificial erosion experiments were performed in a recirculating erosion flume with natural cored sediments where critical shear stress measurements were performed. Other analyses provided granulometry and porosity. The results obtained constitute a good database for the literature. The model is then applied to the experimental conditions and gives good agreement with measurements. An example of the accounting for self-weight consolidation processes is finally suggested, before finishing on a Mohr like diagram dedicated to soft cohesive sediment erosion. (author)

  19. Prototypical Rod Consolidation Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The objective of Phase 3 of the Prototypical Rod consolidation Demonstration Project (PRCDP) was to procure, fabricate, assemble, and test the Prototypical Rod consolidation System as described in the NUS Phase 2 Final Design Report. This effort required providing the materials, components, and fabricated parts which makes up all of the system equipment. In addition, it included the assembly, installation, and setup of this equipment at the Cold Test Facility. During the Phase 3 effort the system was tested on a component, subsystem, and system level. This volume 1, discusses the PRCDP Phase 3 Test Program that was conducted by the HALLIBURTON NUS Environmental Corporation under contract AC07-86ID12651 with the United States Department of Energy. This document, Volume 1, Book 5 discusses the following topics: Lower Cutting System Test Results and Analysis Report; NFBC Loading System Test Results and Analysis Report; Robotic Bridge Transporter Test Results and Analysis Report; RM-10A Remotec Manipulator Test Results and Analysis Report; and Manipulator Transporter Test Results and Analysis Report

  20. The delivery dispatching problem with time windows for urban consolidation centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heeswijk, W.J.A.; Mes, Martijn R.K.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the dispatch decision problem faced by an urban consolidation center. The center receives orders according to a stochastic arrival process, and dispatches them for the last-mile distribution in batches. The operator of the center aims to fi nd the cost-minimizing consolidation