WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmentally sound method

  1. Two Classification Methods for Grouping Common Environmental Sounds in Terms of Perceived Pleasantness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    NUMBER OF PAGES 24 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Kelly Dickerson a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c . THIS...ARL-TR-7960 ● FEB 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Two Classification Methods for Grouping Common Environmental Sounds in Terms...of Perceived Pleasantness by Kelly Dickerson, Brandon S Perelman, Laura Sherry, and Jeremy R Gaston Approved for public

  2. A method for recognition of coexisting environmental sound sources based on the Fisher’s linear discriminant classifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creixell Mediante, Ester; Haddad, Karim; Song, Wookeun

    2015-01-01

    A method for sound recognition of coexisting environmental noise sources by applying pattern recognition techniques is developed. The investigated technique could benefit several areas of application, such as noise impact assessment, acoustic pollution mitigation and soundscape characterization...

  3. Environmental Sound Training in Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Kuvadia, Sejal; Gygi, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the effect of a short computer-based environmental sound training regimen on the perception of environmental sounds and speech in experienced cochlear implant (CI) patients. Method: Fourteen CI patients with the average of 5 years of CI experience participated. The protocol consisted of 2 pretests, 1 week apart,…

  4. Analysis of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  5. Parameterizing Sound: Design Considerations for an Environmental Sound Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    associated with, or produced by, a physical event or human activity and 2) sound sources that are common in the environment. Reproductions or sound...Rogers S. Confrontation naming of environmental sounds. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology . 2000;22(6):830–864. 14 VanDerveer NJ

  6. A Lexical Analysis of Environmental Sound Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Lemaitre, Guillaume; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick; Urdapilleta, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    In this article we report on listener categorization of meaningful environmental sounds. A starting point for this study was the phenomenological taxonomy proposed by Gaver (1993b). In the first experimental study, 15 participants classified 60 environmental sounds and indicated the properties shared by the sounds in each class. In a second…

  7. Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol-Hee; Jeong, Mi-Kyung [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, Cheonan 331-717 (Korea, Republic of); Fatih Kilicaslan, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Kastamonu University, Kastamonu (Turkey); Lee, Jong-Hyeon [Graduate School of Green Energy Technology and Department of Nanomaterials Engineering, Chungnam National University, 79 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Dajeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Hyun-Seon [Advanced Materials and Processing Center, Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Yongin 449-863 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon-Jik, E-mail: hongsj@kongju.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, Cheonan 331-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► In this study, we recovered indium from a waste LCD panel. ► The ITO glass was milled to obtain micron size particles in a HEBM machine. ► Effect of particle size of ITO glass on the amount of dissolved In was investigated. ► In a very short time, a considerable amount of In was recovered. ► Amount of HCl in acid solution was decreased to 40 vol.%. - Abstract: In this study, a method which is environmentally sound, time and energy efficient has been used for recovery of indium from used liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. In this method, indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was crushed to micron size particles in seconds via high energy ball milling (HEBM). The parameters affecting the amount of dissolved indium such as milling time, particle size, effect time of acid solution, amount of HCl in the acid solution were tried to be optimized. The results show that by crushing ITO glass to micron size particles by HEBM, it is possible to extract higher amount of indium at room temperature than that by conventional methods using only conventional shredding machines. In this study, 86% of indium which exists in raw materials was recovered about in a very short time.

  8. Incineration: why this may be the most environmentally sound method of renal healthcare waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ray

    2010-09-01

    The environment and 'green' issues are currently being promoted in the healthcare sector through recently launched initiatives. This paper considers aspects of healthcare waste management, with particular reference to waste generated in dialysis units. With dialysis being dependent upon large amounts of disposables, it generates considerable volumes of waste. This paper focuses upon a typical haemodialysis unit, evaluating and quantifying the volumes and categories of waste generated. Each haemodialysis patient on thrice weekly dialysis generates some 323 kg per year of waste, of which 271 kg is classified as clinical. This equates to 1626 kg of (solid) clinical waste per dialysis bed, which is around three times the volume of clinical waste generated per general hospital bed. Waste disposal routes are considered and this suggests that present healthcare waste paradigms are outmoded. They do not allow for flexible approaches to solving what is a dynamic problem, and there is a need for new thinking models in terms of managing the unsustainable situation of disposal in constantly growing landfills. Healthcare waste management must be considered not only in terms of the environmental impact and potential long-term health effects, but also in terms of society's future energy requirements.

  9. Recognition and characterization of unstructured environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Selina

    2011-12-01

    exploit and label new unlabeled audio data. The final components of my thesis will involve investigating on learning sound structures for generalization and applying the proposed ideas to context aware applications. The inherent nature of environmental sound is noisy and contains relatively large amounts of overlapping events between different environments. Environmental sounds contain large variances even within a single environment type, and frequently, there are no divisible or clear boundaries between some types. Traditional methods of classification are generally not robust enough to handle classes with overlaps. This audio, hence, requires representation by complex models. Using deep learning architecture provides a way to obtain a generative model-based method for classification. Specifically, I considered the use of Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) to model environmental audio and investigate its applicability with noisy data to improve robustness and generalization. A framework was proposed using composite-DBNs to discover high-level representations and to learn a hierarchical structure for different acoustic environments in a data-driven fashion. Experimental results on real data sets demonstrate its effectiveness over traditional methods with over 90% accuracy on recognition for a high number of environmental sound types.

  10. The influence of environmental sound training on the perception of spectrally degraded speech and environmental sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Gygi, Brian; Ho, Kim Thien N

    2012-06-01

    Perceptual training with spectrally degraded environmental sounds results in improved environmental sound identification, with benefits shown to extend to untrained speech perception as well. The present study extended those findings to examine longer-term training effects as well as effects of mere repeated exposure to sounds over time. Participants received two pretests (1 week apart) prior to a week-long environmental sound training regimen, which was followed by two posttest sessions, separated by another week without training. Spectrally degraded stimuli, processed with a four-channel vocoder, consisted of a 160-item environmental sound test, word and sentence tests, and a battery of basic auditory abilities and cognitive tests. Results indicated significant improvements in all speech and environmental sound scores between the initial pretest and the last posttest with performance increments following both exposure and training. For environmental sounds (the stimulus class that was trained), the magnitude of positive change that accompanied training was much greater than that due to exposure alone, with improvement for untrained sounds roughly comparable to the speech benefit from exposure. Additional tests of auditory and cognitive abilities showed that speech and environmental sound performance were differentially correlated with tests of spectral and temporal-fine-structure processing, whereas working memory and executive function were correlated with speech, but not environmental sound perception. These findings indicate generalizability of environmental sound training and provide a basis for implementing environmental sound training programs for cochlear implant (CI) patients.

  11. Active sound reduction system and method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention refers to an active sound reduction system and method for attenuation of sound emitted by a primary sound source, especially for attenuation of snoring sounds emitted by a human being. This system comprises a primary sound source, at least one speaker as a secondary sound

  12. Robust segmentation and retrieval of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichern, Gordon

    The proliferation of mobile computing has provided much of the world with the ability to record any sound of interest, or possibly every sound heard in a lifetime. The technology to continuously record the auditory world has applications in surveillance, biological monitoring of non-human animal sounds, and urban planning. Unfortunately, the ability to record anything has led to an audio data deluge, where there are more recordings than time to listen. Thus, access to these archives depends on efficient techniques for segmentation (determining where sound events begin and end), indexing (storing sufficient information with each event to distinguish it from other events), and retrieval (searching for and finding desired events). While many such techniques have been developed for speech and music sounds, the environmental and natural sounds that compose the majority of our aural world are often overlooked. The process of analyzing audio signals typically begins with the process of acoustic feature extraction where a frame of raw audio (e.g., 50 milliseconds) is converted into a feature vector summarizing the audio content. In this dissertation, a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is used to monitor changes in acoustic features in order to determine the segmentation of continuously recorded audio signals. Experiments demonstrate effective segmentation performance on test sets of environmental sounds recorded in both indoor and outdoor environments. Once segmented, every sound event is indexed with a probabilistic model, summarizing the evolution of acoustic features over the course of the event. Indexed sound events are then retrieved from the database using different query modalities. Two important query types are sound queries (query-by-example) and semantic queries (query-by-text). By treating each sound event and semantic concept in the database as a node in an undirected graph, a hybrid (content/semantic) network structure is developed. This hybrid network can

  13. Environmental Sound Recognition Using Time-Frequency Intersection Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sound recognition is an important function of robots and intelligent computer systems. In this research, we use a multistage perceptron neural network system for environmental sound recognition. The input data is a combination of time-variance pattern of instantaneous powers and frequency-variance pattern with instantaneous spectrum at the power peak, referred to as a time-frequency intersection pattern. Spectra of many environmental sounds change more slowly than those of speech or voice, so the intersectional time-frequency pattern will preserve the major features of environmental sounds but with drastically reduced data requirements. Two experiments were conducted using an original database and an open database created by the RWCP project. The recognition rate for 20 kinds of environmental sounds was 92%. The recognition rate of the new method was about 12% higher than methods using only an instantaneous spectrum. The results are also comparable with HMM-based methods, although those methods need to treat the time variance of an input vector series with more complicated computations.

  14. Polluting Production - Environmentally Sound Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Kocsis

    2002-01-01

    With the determination of principal parameters of producing and pollution abatement technologies, this paper quantifies abatement and external costs at the social optimum and analyses the dynamic relationship between technological development and the above-mentioned costs. With the partial analysis of parameters, the paper presents the impacts on the level of pollution and external costs of extensive and intensive environmental protection, market demand change and product fees, and not enviro...

  15. Soft computing based feature selection for environmental sound classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakoor, A.; May, T.M.; Van Schijndel, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental sound classification has a wide range of applications,like hearing aids, mobile communication devices, portable media players, and auditory protection devices. Sound classification systemstypically extract features from the input sound. Using too many features increases complexity

  16. Determination of pharmaceuticals in environmental and biological matrices using pressurised liquid extraction--are we developing sound extraction methods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runnqvist, Hannah; Bak, Søren Alex; Hansen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) is now a well established and extensively applied extraction technique in environmental analysis for pollutants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). During the past decade, an emerging group of environmentally interesting analytes are pharmaceuticals...

  17. Perception of environmental sounds by experienced cochlear implant patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Gygi, Brian; Cheng, Min-Yu; Vachhani, Jay; Mulvey, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Environmental sound perception serves an important ecological function by providing listeners with information about objects and events in their immediate environment. Environmental sounds such as car horns, baby cries or chirping birds can alert listeners to imminent dangers as well as contribute to one's sense of awareness and well being. Perception of environmental sounds as acoustically and semantically complex stimuli, may also involve some factors common to the processing of speech. However, very limited research has investigated the abilities of cochlear implant (CI) patients to identify common environmental sounds, despite patients' general enthusiasm about them. This project (1) investigated the ability of patients with modern-day CIs to perceive environmental sounds, (2) explored associations among speech, environmental sounds and basic auditory abilities, and (3) examined acoustic factors that might be involved in environmental sound perception. Design Seventeen experienced postlingually-deafened CI patients participated in the study. Environmental sound perception was assessed with a large-item test composed of 40 sound sources, each represented by four different tokens. The relationship between speech and environmental sound perception, and the role of working memory and some basic auditory abilities were examined based on patient performance on a battery of speech tests (HINT, CNC, and individual consonant and vowel tests), tests of basic auditory abilities (audiometric thresholds, gap detection, temporal pattern and temporal order for tones tests) and a backward digit recall test. Results The results indicated substantially reduced ability to identify common environmental sounds in CI patients (45.3%). Except for vowels, all speech test scores significantly correlated with the environmental sound test scores: r = 0.73 for HINT in quiet, r = 0.69 for HINT in noise, r = 0.70 for CNC, r = 0.64 for consonants and r = 0.48 for vowels. HINT and

  18. Constraints on decay of environmental sound memory in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Masashi

    2006-11-27

    When adult rats are pretreated with a 48-h-long 'repetitive nonreinforced sound exposure', performance in two-sound discriminative operant conditioning transiently improves. We have already proven that this 'sound exposure-enhanced discrimination' is dependent upon enhancement of the perceptual capacity of the auditory cortex. This study investigated principles governing decay of sound exposure-enhanced discrimination decay. Sound exposure-enhanced discrimination disappeared within approximately 72 h if animals were deprived of environmental sounds after sound exposure, and that shortened to less than approximately 60 h if they were exposed to environmental sounds in the animal room. Sound-deprivation itself exerted no clear effects. These findings suggest that the memory of a passively exposed behaviorally irrelevant sound signal does not merely pass along the intrinsic lifetime but also gets deteriorated by other incoming signals.

  19. Sound synthesis and evaluation of interactive footsteps and environmental sounds rendering for virtual reality applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-09-01

    We propose a system that affords real-time sound synthesis of footsteps on different materials. The system is based on microphones, which detect real footstep sounds from subjects, from which the ground reaction force (GRF) is estimated. Such GRF is used to control a sound synthesis engine based on physical models. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, the ability of subjects to recognize the surface they were exposed to was assessed. In the second experiment, the sound synthesis engine was enhanced with environmental sounds. Results show that, in some conditions, adding a soundscape significantly improves the recognition of the simulated environment.

  20. Strategies for environmentally sound economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchin, F.; Lange, G.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that it has been estimated that the burning of fossil fuels and the clearing of forests account for 6-7 billion tons of carbon emissions each year. Combustion also results in significant emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides. While the growth in the use of fuels has slowed considerably in the developed regions of North America, western Europe, and Japan over the past decade, pressure for increased energy use and the clearing of forests can be expected with even moderate economic and population growth in the developing regions of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Researchers at the Institute for Economic Analysis have begun the formulation and analysis of alternative scenarios describing environmentally sound economic development over the next 50 years. These scenarios include activities aimed at improving the standards of living in developing countries while reducing emissions of the aforementioned gases or removing carbon from the atmosphere. Specific alternatives include tropical forestation; the adoption of relatively clean and efficient boilers, especially for the production of electricity in developing countries, as well as greater use of cogeneration systems and hydroelectricity; alternative transportation strategies; and conservation of energy in households of rich and middle-income countries (e.g., efficient lighting fixtures, appliances, and cooling equipment)

  1. Improving Robustness against Environmental Sounds for Directing Attention of Social Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nicolai Bæk; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-modal system for finding out where to direct the attention of a social robot in a dialog scenario, which is robust against environmental sounds (door slamming, phone ringing etc.) and short speech segments. The method is based on combining voice activity detection (VAD......) and sound source localization (SSL) and furthermore apply post-processing to SSL to filter out short sounds. The system is tested against a baseline system in four different real-world experiments, where different sounds are used as interfering sounds. The results are promising and show a clear improvement....

  2. Framing sound: Using expectations to reduce environmental noise annoyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Fiona; Dodd, George; Schmid, Gian; Petrie, Keith J

    2015-10-01

    Annoyance reactions to environmental noise, such as wind turbine sound, have public health implications given associations between annoyance and symptoms related to psychological distress. In the case of wind farms, factors contributing to noise annoyance have been theorised to include wind turbine sound characteristics, the noise sensitivity of residents, and contextual aspects, such as receiving information creating negative expectations about sound exposure. The experimental aim was to assess whether receiving positive or negative expectations about wind farm sound would differentially influence annoyance reactions during exposure to wind farm sound, and also influence associations between perceived noise sensitivity and noise annoyance. Sixty volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either negative or positive expectations about wind farm sound. Participants in the negative expectation group viewed a presentation which incorporated internet material indicating that exposure to wind turbine sound, particularly infrasound, might present a health risk. Positive expectation participants viewed a DVD which framed wind farm sound positively and included internet information about the health benefits of infrasound exposure. Participants were then simultaneously exposed to sub-audible infrasound and audible wind farm sound during two 7 min exposure sessions, during which they assessed their experience of annoyance. Positive expectation participants were significantly less annoyed than negative expectation participants, while noise sensitivity only predicted annoyance in the negative group. Findings suggest accessing negative information about sound is likely to trigger annoyance, particularly in noise sensitive people and, importantly, portraying sound positively may reduce annoyance reactions, even in noise sensitive individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Two-Level Sound Classification Platform for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios A. Mitilineos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available STORM is an ongoing European research project that aims at developing an integrated platform for monitoring, protecting, and managing cultural heritage sites through technical and organizational innovation. Part of the scheduled preventive actions for the protection of cultural heritage is the development of wireless acoustic sensor networks (WASNs that will be used for assessing the impact of human-generated activities as well as for monitoring potentially hazardous environmental phenomena. Collected sound samples will be forwarded to a central server where they will be automatically classified in a hierarchical manner; anthropogenic and environmental activity will be monitored, and stakeholders will be alarmed in the case of potential malevolent behavior or natural phenomena like excess rainfall, fire, gale, high tides, and waves. Herein, we present an integrated platform that includes sound sample denoising using wavelets, feature extraction from sound samples, Gaussian mixture modeling of these features, and a powerful two-layer neural network for automatic classification. We contribute to previous work by extending the proposed classification platform to perform low-level classification too, i.e., classify sounds to further subclasses that include airplane, car, and pistol sounds for the anthropogenic sound class; bird, dog, and snake sounds for the biophysical sound class; and fire, waterfall, and gale for the geophysical sound class. Classification results exhibit outstanding classification accuracy in both high-level and low-level classification thus demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  4. The Environmental Cost of Marine Sound Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ainslie, M.A.; Dekeling, R.P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cumulative acoustic exposure is used as an indicator for the risk of negative impact to animals as a consequence of exposure to underwater sound. The free-field energy of a single source, defined as the total acoustic energy that would exist in the source’s free field, is shown to be closely related

  5. Environmental Sciences Electrical resistivity soundings to determine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wood, leaves, newspaper, cloth, polythene bags, plastics, glass and metal refuse interspersed with soil exhibited resistivity of 11.6 ohm-m and layer thickness of 0.7 m as obtained from the inversion of the sounding. The unsaturated layer has a resistivity of 6.8 ohm-m and thickness of 0.6 m while leachate-saturated is ...

  6. Environmentally sound management of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, T.

    2002-01-01

    Environmentally sound management or ESM has been defined under the Basel Convention as 'taking all practicable steps to ensure that hazardous wastes and other wastes are managed in a manner which will protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects which may result from such wastes'. An initiative is underway to develop and implement a Canadian Environmentally Sound Management (ESM) regime for both hazardous wastes and hazardous recyclable materials. This ESM regime aims to assure equivalent minimum environmental protection across Canada while respecting regional differences. Cooperation and coordination between the federal government, provinces and territories is essential to the development and implementation of ESM systems since waste management is a shared jurisdiction in Canada. Federally, CEPA 1999 provides an opportunity to improve Environment Canada's ability to ensure that all exports and imports are managed in an environmentally sound manner. CEPA 1999 enabled Environment Canada to establish criteria for environmentally sound management (ESM) that can be applied by importers and exporters in seeking to ensure that wastes and recyclable materials they import or export will be treated in an environmentally sound manner. The ESM regime would include the development of ESM principles, criteria and guidelines relevant to Canada and a procedure for evaluating ESM. It would be developed in full consultation with stakeholders. The timeline for the development and implementation of the ESM regime is anticipated by about 2006. (author)

  7. Puget Sound area electric reliability plan. Draft environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) identifies the alternatives for solving a power system problem in the Puget Sound area. This Plan is undertaken by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Puget Sound Power & Light, Seattle City Light, Snohomish Public Utility District No. 1 (PUD), and Tacoma Public Utilities. The Plan consists of potential actions in Puget Sound and other areas in the State of Washington. A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, there is more demand for power than the electric system can supply in the Puget Sound area. This high demand, called peak demand, occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies, the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both. The plan to balance Puget Sound`s power demand and supply has these purposes: The plan should define a set of actions that would accommodate ten years of load growth (1994--2003). Federal and State environmental quality requirements should be met. The plan should be consistent with the plans of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The plan should serve as a consensus guideline for coordinated utility action. The plan should be flexible to accommodate uncertainties and differing utility needs. The plan should balance environmental impacts and economic costs. The plan should provide electric system reliability consistent with customer expectations. 29 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. Technology management for environmentally sound and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, S.M.J.

    1992-01-01

    With the evolutionary change in the production activities of human societies, the concept of development has also been changing. In the recent years the emphasis has been on the environmentally sound and sustainable development. The environmentally sound and sustainable development can be obtained through judicious use of technology. Technology as a resource transformer has emerged as the most important factor which can constitute to economic growth. But technology is not an independent and autonomous force, it is only an instrument which needs to be used carefully, properly and appropriately which necessitates technology management. (author)

  9. Sound radiation contrast in MR phase images. Method for the representation of elasticity, sound damping, and sound impedance changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicke, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    The method presented in this thesis combines ultrasound techniques with the magnetic-resonance tomography (MRT). An ultrasonic wave generates in absorbing media a static force in sound-propagation direction. The force leads at sound intensities of some W/cm 2 and a sound frequency in the lower MHz range to a tissue shift in the micrometer range. This tissue shift depends on the sound power, the sound frequency, the sound absorption, and the elastic properties of the tissue. A MRT sequence of the Siemens Healthcare AG was modified so that it measures (indirectly) the tissue shift, codes as grey values, and presents as 2D picture. By means of the grey values the sound-beam slope in the tissue can be visualized, and so additionally sound obstacles (changes of the sound impedance) can be detected. By the MRT images token up spatial changes of the tissue parameters sound absorption and elasticity can be detected. In this thesis measurements are presented, which show the feasibility and future chances of this method especially for the mammary-cancer diagnostics. [de

  10. The organization of words and environmental sounds in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Kristi; Walenski, Matthew; Friend, Margaret; Love, Tracy

    2015-03-01

    In the present study we used event-related potentials to compare the organization of linguistic and meaningful nonlinguistic sounds in memory. We examined N400 amplitudes as adults viewed pictures presented with words or environmental sounds that matched the picture (Match), that shared semantic features with the expected match (Near Violation), and that shared relatively few semantic features with the expected match (Far Violation). Words demonstrated incremental N400 amplitudes based on featural similarity from 300-700ms, such that both Near and Far Violations exhibited significant N400 effects, however Far Violations exhibited greater N400 effects than Near Violations. For environmental sounds, Far Violations but not Near Violations elicited significant N400 effects, in both early (300-400ms) and late (500-700ms) time windows, though a graded pattern similar to that of words was seen in the mid-latency time window (400-500ms). These results indicate that the organization of words and environmental sounds in memory is differentially influenced by featural similarity, with a consistently fine-grained graded structure for words but not sounds. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The organization of words and environmental sounds in memory☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Kristi; Walenski, Matthew; Friend, Margaret; Love, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we used event-related potentials to compare the organization of linguistic and meaningful nonlinguistic sounds in memory. We examined N400 amplitudes as adults viewed pictures presented with words or environmental sounds that matched the picture (Match), that shared semantic features with the expected match (Near Violation), and that shared relatively few semantic features with the expected match (Far Violation). Words demonstrated incremental N400 amplitudes based on featural similarity from 300–700 ms, such that both Near and Far Violations exhibited significant N400 effects, however Far Violations exhibited greater N400 effects than Near Violations. For environmental sounds, Far Violations but not Near Violations elicited significant N400 effects, in both early (300–400 ms) and late (500–700 ms) time windows, though a graded pattern similar to that of words was seen in the midlatency time window (400–500 ms). These results indicate that the organization of words and environmental sounds in memory is differentially influenced by featural similarity, with a consistently fine-grained graded structure for words but not sounds. PMID:25624059

  12. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Draft Environmental Impact State.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) identifies the alternatives for solving a power system problem in the Puget Sound area. This Plan is undertaken by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Puget Sound Power Light, Seattle City Light, Snohomish Public Utility District No. 1 (PUD), and Tacoma Public Utilities. The Plan consists of potential actions in Puget Sound and other areas in the State of Washington. A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, there is more demand for power than the electric system can supply in the Puget Sound area. This high demand, called peak demand, occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies, the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both. The plan to balance Puget Sound's power demand and supply has these purposes: The plan should define a set of actions that would accommodate ten years of load growth (1994--2003). Federal and State environmental quality requirements should be met. The plan should be consistent with the plans of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The plan should serve as a consensus guideline for coordinated utility action. The plan should be flexible to accommodate uncertainties and differing utility needs. The plan should balance environmental impacts and economic costs. The plan should provide electric system reliability consistent with customer expectations. 29 figs., 24 tabs.

  13. Improvement of methods for calculation of sound insulation in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Mašović, Draško B.

    2015-01-01

    The main object of this work are the methods for calculation of sound insulation based on the classical model of sound propagation in buildings and single-number rating of sound insulation. The aim of the work is inspection of the possibilities for improvement of standard methods for quantification and calculation of sound insulation, in order to achieve higher accuracy of the obtained numerical values and their correlation with subjective impression of the acoustic comfort in buildings. Proc...

  14. Climate Change and Requirement of Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mahatab

    that developed the technology, to another that adopts, adapts, and uses it. As different kinds of threats posed by climate change are continuously increasing all over the world the issue of “technology transfer” especially the transfer of environmentally sound technologies has become one of the key topics...

  15. A Relational Database Model and Tools for Environmental Sound Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel Arslan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sound recognition (ESR has become a hot topic in recent years. ESR is mainly based on machine learning (ML and ML algorithms require first a training database. This database must comprise the sounds to be recognized and other related sounds. An ESR system needs the database during training, testing and in the production stage. In this paper, we present the design and pilot establishment of a database which will assists all researchers who want to establish an ESR system. This database employs relational database model which is not used for this task before. We explain in this paper design and implementation details of the database, data collection and load process. Besides we explain the tools and developed graphical user interface for a desktop application and for the WEB.

  16. Environmental quality of Long Island Sound: Assessment and management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, D.A.; Farrow, D.R.G.; Robertson, A.; Monahan, R.; Stacey, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    Estimated pollutant loadings to Long Island Sound (LIS) are presented and discussed in the context of current information on population trends and land-use characteristics within the drainage basin of the sound. For the conventional pollutants (BOD, N, and P) and for most of the metals examined, the fluxes to LIS from wastewater treatment plants approach or exceed the fluxes from riverine sources. Urban runoff is a significant source for only a few contaminants, such as lead and petroleum hydrocarbons. Atmospheric flux estimates made for other areas are extrapolated to LIS, and this source appears to be significant for lead, zinc, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and chlorinated pesticides. Continued population growth is projected through 2010, both in the urban centers of the western sound and in the coastal counties surrounding the central and eastern portions of LIS. This growth will place increased pollution pressure on the sound and increased demands on already scarce coastal and estuarine land-use categories. Close interaction between environmental planners, managers, and scientists is required to identify effective control strategies for reducing existing pollutant stress to the sound and for minimizing the effects of future development

  17. Promoting environmentally sound management of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Zhao, Nana; Liu, Xue; Wu, Xiaoyang

    2014-06-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers with persistent organic pollutant properties are required to be controlled by the Stockholm Convention. Recently, polybrominated diphenyl ether contamination has become widespread in Asia, mainly because of the disposal and recycling processes of polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing wastes. The management status, production, usage, import/export, treatment, and disposal, as well as implementation deficiencies for the environmentally sound management of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing materials in ten Asian countries were investigated and assessed in this study. This information could help the participating countries implement the Stockholm Convention and could promote the regional environmentally sound management of polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing articles and products. The results obtained were as follows. (1) Most of the countries studied lacked environmental policies and regulations, or even standards of polybrominated diphenyl ether pollution management and emission control actions. Accurate data on the consumption and importation of polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing materials, however, were not available for all the participating countries. In addition, there were no special treatment or disposal systems for polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing materials, or emission-cutting measures for the treatment of waste in these countries, owing to the lack of sufficient funding or technologies. (2) The improper dismantling of e-waste is a major source of polybrominated diphenyl ether emissions in these countries. (3) Proper e-waste management could result in a breakthrough in the environmentally sound management of this major polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing material flow, and could significantly reduce polybrominated diphenyl ether emissions. Finally, based on the study results, this article puts forward some recommendations for improving the environmentally

  18. Environmentally sound development in the energy and mining industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The paper contains the proceedings of a seminar on Strategies for Environmentally Sound Development in the Energy and Mining Industries, Crete, 1984. The seminar was structured around the following themes: 1) oil and gas exploration and production, 2) water power generation and storage projects, 3) electricity generating facilities, 4) restoration and after-use of disturbed land, 5) mineral development, 6) mineral and energy resources in fragile and remote ecosystems, and 7) general environmental issues. Two papers from the seminar were chosen and indexed separately. (U.K.)

  19. Evaluating Environmental Sounds from a Presence Perspective for Virtual Reality Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    We propose a methodology to design and evaluate environmental sounds for virtual environments. We propose to combine physically modeled sound events with recorded soundscapes. Physical models are used to provide feedback to users’ actions, while soundscapes reproduce the characteristic soundmarks...... as well as self-induced interactive sounds simulated using physical models. Results show that subjects’ motion in the environment is significantly enhanced when dynamic sound sources and sound of egomotion are rendered in the environment....

  20. A Method for Extrapolation of Atmospheric Soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    case are not shown here. We also briefly examined data for the Anchorage, AK ( PANC ), radiosonde site for the case of the inversion height equal to...or greater than the extrapolation depth (i.e., hinv ≥ hext). PANC lies at the end of a broad inlet extending northward from the Gulf of Alaska at...type of terrain can affect the model and in turn affect the extrapolation. We examined a sounding from PANC (61.16 N and –150.01 W, elevation of 40

  1. Puget Sound area electric reliability plan: Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this appendix to the draft environmental impact statement (EIS) report is to provide an update of the latest study work done on transmission system options for the Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Also included in the attachments to the EIS are 2 reports analyzing the voltage stability of the Puget Sound transmission system and a review by Power Technologies, Inc. of the BPA voltage stability analysis and reactive options. Five transmission line options and several reactive options are presently being considered as possible solutions to the PSAFRP by the Transmission Team. The first two line options would be built on new rights-of way adjacent (as much as possible) to existing corridors. The reactive options would optimize the existing transmission system capability by adding new stations for series capacitors and/or switchgear. The other three line options are rebuilds or upgrades of existing cross mountain transmission lines. These options are listed below and include a preliminary assessment of the additional transmission system reinforcement required to integrate the new facilities into the existing transmission system. Plans were designed to provide at least 500 MVAR reactive margin

  2. Sound Synthesis and Evaluation of Interactive Footsteps and Environmental Sounds Rendering for Virtual Reality Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    We propose a system that affords real-time sound synthesis of footsteps on different materials. The system is based on microphones, which detect real footstep sounds from subjects, from which the ground reaction force (GRF) is estimated. Such GRF is used to control a sound synthesis engine based ...... a soundscape significantly improves the recognition of the simulated environment....

  3. The parabolic equation method for outdoor sound propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arranz, Marta Galindo

    The parabolic equation method is a versatile tool for outdoor sound propagation. The present study has focused on the Cranck-Nicolson type Parabolic Equation method (CNPE). Three different applications of the CNPE method have been investigated. The first two applications study variations of the g......The parabolic equation method is a versatile tool for outdoor sound propagation. The present study has focused on the Cranck-Nicolson type Parabolic Equation method (CNPE). Three different applications of the CNPE method have been investigated. The first two applications study variations...

  4. 78 FR 17224 - Environmental Impact Statement; Proposed South Puget Sound Prairie Habitat Conservation Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... sizable portion of South Puget Sound Prairie habitat is located in the urban-rural interface and in the...-FF01E00000] Environmental Impact Statement; Proposed South Puget Sound Prairie Habitat Conservation Plan... permit application would be associated the South Puget Sound Prairie Habitat Conservation Plan (Prairie...

  5. Numerical Analysis of Indoor Sound Quality Evaluation Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tuan Chou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoors sound field distribution is important to Room Acoustics, but the field suffers numerous problems, for example, multipath propagation and scattering owing to sound absorption by furniture and other aspects of décor. Generally, an ideal interior space must have a sound field with clear quality. This provides both the speaker and the listener with a pleasant conversational environment. This investigation uses the Finite Element Method to assess the acoustic distribution based on the indoor space and chamber volume. In this situation, a fixed sound source at different frequencies is used to simulate the acoustic characteristics of the indoor space. This method considers the furniture and decoration sound absorbing material and thus different sound absorption coefficients and configurations. The preliminary numerical simulation provides a method that can forecast the distribution of sound in an indoor room in complex situations. Consequently, it is possible to arrange interior furnishings and appliances to optimize acoustic distribution and environmental friendliness. Additionally, the analytical results can also be used to calculate the Reverberation Time and speech intelligibility for specified indoor space.

  6. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Muddled about what makes music? Stuck on the study of harmonics? Dumbfounded by how sound gets around? Now you no longer have to struggle to teach concepts you really don t grasp yourself. Sound takes an intentionally light touch to help out all those adults science teachers, parents wanting to help with homework, home-schoolers seeking necessary scientific background to teach middle school physics with confidence. The book introduces sound waves and uses that model to explain sound-related occurrences. Starting with the basics of what causes sound and how it travels, you'll learn how musical instruments work, how sound waves add and subtract, how the human ear works, and even why you can sound like a Munchkin when you inhale helium. Sound is the fourth book in the award-winning Stop Faking It! Series, published by NSTA Press. Like the other popular volumes, it is written by irreverent educator Bill Robertson, who offers this Sound recommendation: One of the coolest activities is whacking a spinning metal rod...

  7. Development of the Database for Environmental Sound Research and Application (DESRA: Design, Functionality, and Retrieval Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Gygi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and applied environmental sounds research is gaining prominence but progress has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive, high quality, accessible database of environmental sounds. An ongoing project to develop such a resource is described, which is based upon experimental evidence as to the way we listen to sounds in the world. The database will include a large number of sounds produced by different sound sources, with a thorough background for each sound file, including experimentally obtained perceptual data. In this way DESRA can contain a wide variety of acoustic, contextual, semantic, and behavioral information related to an individual sound. It will be accessible on the Internet and will be useful to researchers, engineers, sound designers, and musicians.

  8. Simulation of sound waves using the Lattice Boltzmann Method for fluid flow: Benchmark cases for outdoor sound propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.; Lohman, W.J.A.; Zhou, H.

    2016-01-01

    Propagation of sound waves in air can be considered as a special case of fluid dynamics. Consequently, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow can be used for simulating sound propagation. In this article application of the LBM to sound propagation is illustrated for various cases:

  9. Communicating Earth Science Through Music: The Use of Environmental Sound in Science Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, C.

    2017-12-01

    The need for increased public understanding and appreciation of Earth science has taken on growing importance over the last several decades. Human society faces critical environmental challenges, both near-term and future, in areas such as climate change, resource allocation, geohazard threat and the environmental degradation of ecosystems. Science outreach is an essential component to engaging both policymakers and the public in the importance of managing these challenges. However, despite considerable efforts on the part of scientists and outreach experts, many citizens feel that scientific research and methods are both difficult to understand and remote from their everyday experience. As perhaps the most accessible of all art forms, music can provide a pathway through which the public can connect to Earth processes. The Earth is not silent: environmental sound can be sampled and folded into musical compositions, either with or without the additional sounds of conventional or electronic instruments. These compositions can be used in conjunction with other forms of outreach (e.g., as soundtracks for documentary videos or museum installations), or simply stand alone as testament to the beauty of geology and nature. As proof of concept, this presentation will consist of a musical composition that includes sounds from various field recordings of wind, swamps, ice and water (including recordings from the inside of glaciers).

  10. Effect which environmental sound causes for memory retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    武良,徹文

    1999-01-01

    The research judges the relation and no relation between the stimulation at prime and the target stimulation with hearing of pleasantness and an unpleasant sound. It is a purpose what influence for you give to examine a reaction time and a miss-rate of responding as an index when the problem is accomplished. The subjects are 50 university students to the graduate school students from one year. The subject was distributed to 21 pleasant sound condition groups, 10 unpleasant sound condition gro...

  11. Hanford grout disposal program - an environmentally sound alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.; Allison, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Hanford Grout Disposal Program (HGDP) is a comprehensive, integrated program to develop technology and facilities for the disposal of ∼ 3.0 x 10 5 m 3 (80 million gal) of the low-level fraction of liquid radioactive tank wastes at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. Environmentally sound disposal via long-term protection of the public and the environment is the principal goal of the HGDP. To accomplish this goal, several criteria have been established that guide technology and facility development activities. The key criteria are discussed. To meet the challenges posed by disposal of these wastes, the HGDP is developing a waste form using grout-forming materials, such as blast furnace slag, fly ash, clays, and Portland cement for solidification and immobilization of both the radioactive and hazardous chemical constituents. In addition to development of a final waste form, the HGDP is also developing a unique disposal system to assure long-term protection of the public and the environment. Disposal of a low-level nonhazardous waste will be initiated, as a demonstration of the disposal system concept, in June 1988. Disposal of higher activity hazardous wastes is scheduled to begin in October 1989

  12. A particle velocity based method for separating all multi incoherent sound sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, J.C.; Yntema, Doekle Reinder; Druyvesteyn, W.F.; de Bree, H.E.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to separate the contributions of different uncorrelated sound sources to the total sound field. When the contribution of each sound source to the total sound field is known, techniques with array-applications like direct sound field measurements or inverse acoustics

  13. Simulation of Sound Waves Using the Lattice Boltzmann Method for Fluid Flow: Benchmark Cases for Outdoor Sound Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomons, Erik M; Lohman, Walter J A; Zhou, Han

    2016-01-01

    Propagation of sound waves in air can be considered as a special case of fluid dynamics. Consequently, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for fluid flow can be used for simulating sound propagation. In this article application of the LBM to sound propagation is illustrated for various cases: free-field propagation, propagation over porous and non-porous ground, propagation over a noise barrier, and propagation in an atmosphere with wind. LBM results are compared with solutions of the equations of acoustics. It is found that the LBM works well for sound waves, but dissipation of sound waves with the LBM is generally much larger than real dissipation of sound waves in air. To circumvent this problem it is proposed here to use the LBM for assessing the excess sound level, i.e. the difference between the sound level and the free-field sound level. The effect of dissipation on the excess sound level is much smaller than the effect on the sound level, so the LBM can be used to estimate the excess sound level for a non-dissipative atmosphere, which is a useful quantity in atmospheric acoustics. To reduce dissipation in an LBM simulation two approaches are considered: i) reduction of the kinematic viscosity and ii) reduction of the lattice spacing.

  14. Method for measuring violin sound radiation based on bowed glissandi and its application to sound synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Carrillo, Alfonso; Bonada, Jordi; Patynen, Jukka; Valimaki, Vesa

    2011-08-01

    This work presents a method for measuring and computing violin-body directional frequency responses, which are used for violin sound synthesis. The approach is based on a frame-weighted deconvolution of excitation and response signals. The excitation, consisting of bowed glissandi, is measured with piezoelectric transducers built into the bridge. Radiation responses are recorded in an anechoic chamber with multiple microphones placed at different angles around the violin. The proposed deconvolution algorithm computes impulse responses that, when convolved with any source signal (captured with the same transducer), produce a highly realistic violin sound very similar to that of a microphone recording. The use of motion sensors allows for tracking violin movements. Combining this information with the directional responses and using a dynamic convolution algorithm, helps to improve the listening experience by incorporating the violinist motion effect in stereo.

  15. A generalized sound extrapolation method for turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Siyang; Zhang, Xin

    2018-02-01

    Sound extrapolation methods are often used to compute acoustic far-field directivities using near-field flow data in aeroacoustics applications. The results may be erroneous if the volume integrals are neglected (to save computational cost), while non-acoustic fluctuations are collected on the integration surfaces. In this work, we develop a new sound extrapolation method based on an acoustic analogy using Taylor's hypothesis (Taylor 1938 Proc. R. Soc. Lon. A 164, 476-490. (doi:10.1098/rspa.1938.0032)). Typically, a convection operator is used to filter out the acoustically inefficient components in the turbulent flows, and an acoustics dominant indirect variable Dcp‧ is solved. The sound pressure p' at the far field is computed from Dcp‧ based on the asymptotic properties of the Green's function. Validations results for benchmark problems with well-defined sources match well with the exact solutions. For aeroacoustics applications: the sound predictions by the aerofoil-gust interaction are close to those by an earlier method specially developed to remove the effect of vortical fluctuations (Zhong & Zhang 2017 J. Fluid Mech. 820, 424-450. (doi:10.1017/jfm.2017.219)); for the case of vortex shedding noise from a cylinder, the off-body predictions by the proposed method match well with the on-body Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings result; different integration surfaces yield close predictions (of both spectra and far-field directivities) for a co-flowing jet case using an established direct numerical simulation database. The results suggest that the method may be a potential candidate for sound projection in aeroacoustics applications.

  16. Creating wavelet-based models for real-time synthesis of perceptually convincing environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Nadine Elizabeth

    1998-09-01

    This dissertation presents a new wavelet-based method for synthesizing perceptually convincing, dynamic sounds using parameterized sound models. The sound synthesis method is applicable to a variety of applications including Virtual Reality (VR), multi-media, entertainment, and the World Wide Web (WWW). A unique contribution of this research is the modeling of the stochastic, or non-pitched, sound components. This stochastic-based modeling approach leads to perceptually compelling sound synthesis. Two preliminary studies conducted provide data on multi-sensory interaction and audio-visual synchronization timing. These results contributed to the design of the new sound synthesis method. The method uses a four-phase development process, including analysis, parameterization, synthesis and validation, to create the wavelet-based sound models. A patent is pending for this dynamic sound synthesis method, which provides perceptually-realistic, real-time sound generation. This dissertation also presents a battery of perceptual experiments developed to verify the sound synthesis results. These experiments are applicable for validation of any sound synthesis technique.

  17. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: ESI (Environmental Sensitivity Index Shoreline Types)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  18. Behavioral response of manatees to variations in environmental sound levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Wagner, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) inhabit coastal regions because they feed on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters, which are the same areas where human activities are greatest. Noise produced from anthropogenic and natural sources has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. Sound levels were calculated from recordings made throughout behavioral observation periods. An information theoretic approach was used to investigate the relationship between behavior patterns and sound level. Results indicated that elevated sound levels affect manatee activity and are a function of behavioral state. The proportion of time manatees spent feeding and milling changed in response to sound level. When ambient sound levels were highest, more time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behavior of feeding, whereas less time was spent engaged in undirected behavior such as milling. This work illustrates how shifts in activity of individual manatees may be useful parameters for identifying impacts of noise on manatees and might inform population level effects.

  19. Sound Attenuation in Elliptic Mufflers Using a Regular Perturbation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Subhabrata; Jacobi, Anthony M.

    2012-01-01

    The study of sound attenuation in an elliptical chamber involves the solution of the Helmholtz equation in elliptic coordinate systems. The Eigen solutions for such problems involve the Mathieu and the modified Mathieu functions. The computation of such functions poses considerable challenge. An alternative method to solve such problems had been proposed in this paper. The elliptical cross-section of the muffler has been treated as a perturbed circle, enabling the use of a regular perturbatio...

  20. The block Gauss-Seidel method in sound transmission problems

    OpenAIRE

    Poblet-Puig, Jordi; Rodríguez Ferran, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Sound transmission through partitions can be modelled as an acoustic fluid-elastic structure interaction problem. The block Gauss-Seidel iterative method is used in order to solve the finite element linear system of equations. The blocks are defined in a natural way, respecting the fluid and structural domains. The convergence criterion (spectral radius of iteration matrix smaller than one) is analysed and interpreted in physical terms by means of simple one-dimensional problems. This anal...

  1. Environmental technology verification methods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) is a tool that has been developed in the United States of America, Europe and many other countries around the world to help innovative environmental technologies reach the market. Claims about...

  2. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, and during certain conditions, there is more demand for power in the Puget Sound area than the transmission system and existing generation can reliably supply. This high demand, called peak demand occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both.

  3. A recognition method research based on the heart sound texture map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huizhong Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the Heart Sound recognition rate and reduce the recognition time, in this paper, we introduces a new method for Heart Sound pattern recognition by using Heart Sound Texture Map. Based on the Heart Sound model, we give the Heart Sound time-frequency diagram and the Heart Sound Texture Map definition, we study the structure of the Heart Sound Window Function principle and realization method, and then discusses how to use the Heart Sound Window Function and the Short-time Fourier Transform to obtain two-dimensional Heart Sound time-frequency diagram, propose corner correlation recognition algorithm based on the Heart Sound Texture Map according to the characteristics of Heart Sound. The simulation results show that the Heart Sound Window Function compared with the traditional window function makes the first (S1 and the second (S2 Heart Sound texture clearer. And the corner correlation recognition algorithm based on the Heart Sound Texture Map can significantly improve the recognition rate and reduce the expense, which is an effective Heart Sound recognition method.

  4. Method of synthesizing silica nanofibers using sound waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jaswinder K.; Datskos, Panos G.

    2015-09-15

    A method for synthesizing silica nanofibers using sound waves is provided. The method includes providing a solution of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, adding sodium citrate and ammonium hydroxide to form a first mixture, adding a silica-based compound to the solution to form a second mixture, and sonicating the second mixture to synthesize a plurality of silica nanofibers having an average cross-sectional diameter of less than 70 nm and having a length on the order of at least several hundred microns. The method can be performed without heating or electrospinning, and instead includes less energy intensive strategies that can be scaled up to an industrial scale. The resulting nanofibers can achieve a decreased mean diameter over conventional fibers. The decreased diameter generally increases the tensile strength of the silica nanofibers, as defects and contaminations decrease with the decreasing diameter.

  5. Estimating the diffuseness of sound fields: A wavenumber analysis method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolan, Melanie; Davy, John L.; Brunskog, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    The concept of a diffuse sound field is widely used in the analysis of sound in enclosures. The diffuse sound field is generally described as composed of plane waves with random phases, which wave number vectors are uniformly distributed over all angles of incidence. In this study, an interpretat...

  6. Environmental Awareness and Public Support for Protecting and Restoring Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Thomas G.; Norman, Karma C.; Henly, Megan; Mills, Katherine E.; Levin, Phillip S.

    2014-04-01

    In an effort to garner consensus around environmental programs, practitioners have attempted to increase awareness about environmental threats and demonstrate the need for action. Nonetheless, how beliefs about the scope and severity of different types of environmental concerns shape support for management interventions are less clear. Using data from a telephone survey of residents of the Puget Sound region of Washington, we investigate how perceptions of the severity of different coastal environmental problems, along with other social factors, affect attitudes about policy options. We find that self-assessed environmental understanding and views about the seriousness of pollution, habitat loss, and salmon declines are only weakly related. Among survey respondents, women, young people, and those who believe pollution threatens Puget Sound are more likely to support policy measures such as increased enforcement and spending on restoration. Conversely, self-identified Republicans and individuals who view current regulations as ineffective tend to oppose governmental actions aimed at protecting and restoring Puget Sound. Support for one policy measure—tax credits for environmentally-friendly business practices—is not significantly affected by political party affiliation. These findings demonstrate that environmental awareness can influence public support for environmental policy tools. However, the nature of particular management interventions and other social forces can have important mitigating effects and need to be considered by practitioners attempting to develop environment-related social indicators and generate consensus around the need for action to address environmental problems.

  7. Evaluating Environmental Sounds from a Presence Perspective for Virtual Reality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordahl Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a methodology to design and evaluate environmental sounds for virtual environments. We propose to combine physically modeled sound events with recorded soundscapes. Physical models are used to provide feedback to users' actions, while soundscapes reproduce the characteristic soundmarks of an environment. In this particular case, physical models are used to simulate the act of walking in the botanical garden of the city of Prague, while soundscapes are used to reproduce the particular sound of the garden. The auditory feedback designed was combined with a photorealistic reproduction of the same garden. A between-subject experiment was conducted, where 126 subjects participated, involving six different experimental conditions, including both uni- and bimodal stimuli (auditory and visual. The auditory stimuli consisted of several combinations of auditory feedback, including static sound sources as well as self-induced interactive sounds simulated using physical models. Results show that subjects' motion in the environment is significantly enhanced when dynamic sound sources and sound of egomotion are rendered in the environment.

  8. Environmental Sound Perception: Metadescription and Modeling Based on Independent Primary Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen McAdams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to transpose and extend to a set of environmental sounds the notion of sound descriptors usually used for musical sounds. Four separate primary studies dealing with interior car sounds, air-conditioning units, car horns, and closing car doors are considered collectively. The corpus formed by these initial stimuli is submitted to new experimental studies and analyses, both for revealing metacategories and for defining more precisely the limits of each of the resulting categories. In a second step, the new structure is modeled: common and specific dimensions within each category are derived from the initial results and new investigations of audio features are performed. Furthermore, an automatic classifier based on two audio descriptors and a multinomial logistic regression procedure is implemented and validated with the corpus.

  9. Vibrotactile Identification of Signal-Processed Sounds from Environmental Events Presented by a Portable Vibrator: A Laboratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Ranjbar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate different signal-processing algorithms for tactile identification of environmental sounds in a monitoring aid for the deafblind. Two men and three women, sensorineurally deaf or profoundly hearing impaired with experience of vibratory experiments, age 22-36 years. Methods: A closed set of 45 representative environmental sounds were processed using two transposing (TRHA, TR1/3 and three modulating algorithms (AM, AMFM, AMMC and presented as tactile stimuli using a portable vibrator in three experiments. The algorithms TRHA, TR1/3, AMFM and AMMC had two alternatives (with and without adaption to vibratory thresholds. In Exp. 1, the sounds were preprocessed and directly fed to the vibrator. In Exp. 2 and 3, the sounds were presented in an acoustic test room, without or with background noise (SNR=+5 dB, and processed in real time. Results: In Exp. 1, Algorithm AMFM and AMFM(A consistently had the lowest identification scores, and were thus excluded in Exp. 2 and 3. TRHA, AM, AMMC, and AMMC(A showed comparable identification scores (30%-42% and the addition of noise did not deteriorate the performance. Discussion: Algorithm TRHA, AM, AMMC, and AMMC(A showed good performance in all three experiments and were robust in noise they can therefore be used in further testing in real environments.

  10. The importance of sound methodology in environmental DNA sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. M. Wilcox; K. J. Carim; M. K. Young; K. S. McKelvey; T. W. Franklin; M. K. Schwartz

    2018-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling - which enables inferences of species’ presence from genetic material in the environment - is a powerful tool for sampling rare fishes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that eDNA sampling generally provides greater probabilities of detection than traditional techniques (e.g., Thomsen et al. 2012; McKelvey et al. 2016; Valentini et al...

  11. Improved methods for nightside time domain Lunar Electromagnetic Sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuqua-Haviland, H.; Poppe, A. R.; Fatemi, S.; Delory, G. T.; De Pater, I.

    2017-12-01

    Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) Sounding isolates induced magnetic fields to remotely deduce material properties at depth. The first step of performing TDEM Sounding at the Moon is to fully characterize the dynamic plasma environment, and isolate geophysically induced currents from concurrently present plasma currents. The transfer function method requires a two-point measurement: an upstream reference measuring the pristine solar wind, and one downstream near the Moon. This method was last performed during Apollo assuming the induced fields on the nightside of the Moon expand as in an undisturbed vacuum within the wake cavity [1]. Here we present an approach to isolating induction and performing TDEM with any two point magnetometer measurement at or near the surface of the Moon. Our models include a plasma induction model capturing the kinetic plasma environment within the wake cavity around a conducting Moon, and a geophysical forward model capturing induction in a vacuum. The combination of these two models enable the analysis of magnetometer data within the wake cavity. Plasma hybrid models use the upstream plasma conditions and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) to capture the wake current systems formed around the Moon. The plasma kinetic equations are solved for ion particles with electrons as a charge-neutralizing fluid. These models accurately capture the large scale lunar wake dynamics for a variety of solar wind conditions: ion density, temperature, solar wind velocity, and IMF orientation [2]. Given the 3D orientation variability coupled with the large range of conditions seen within the lunar plasma environment, we characterize the environment one case at a time. The global electromagnetic induction response of the Moon in a vacuum has been solved numerically for a variety of electrical conductivity models using the finite-element method implemented within the COMSOL software. This model solves for the geophysically induced response in vacuum to

  12. Biomass power production in Amazonia: Environmentally sound, economically productive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddle, D.B. [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Washington, DC (United States); Hollomon, J.B. [Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    With the support of the US Agency for International Development, the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) is assisting their utility counterparts in Bolivia to improve electric service in the country`s rural population. In remote areas, the cost of extending transmission lines to small communities is prohibitive, and diesel generators represent an expensive alternative, especially for baseload power. This has led to serious consideration of electric generating systems using locally available renewable resources, including biomass, hydro, wind, and solar energy. A project has recently been initiated in Riberalta, in the Amazonian region of Bolivia, to convert waste Brazil nut shells and sawmill residues to electricity. Working in tandem with diesel generators, the biomass-fired plant will produce base-load power in an integrated system that will be able to provide reliable and affordable electricity to the city. The project will allow the local rural electric cooperative to lower the price of electricity by nearly forty percent, enable the local Brazil nut industry to increase its level of mechanization, and reduce the environmental impacts of dumping waste shells around the city and in an adjacent river. The project is representative of others that will be funded in the future by NRECA/AID.

  13. THE ROLE OF EUROPEAN BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT IN PROMOTING ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTIN BRĂGARU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important development banks which finances private initiatives in the Central and Eastern Europe countries is the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD. EBRD as international financial institution plays a very important role in the development of many sectors such as agribusiness, energy efficiency, financial institutions, manufacturing, municipal and environmental infrastructure, natural resources, power and energy, property and tourism, telecommunications, information technology and media, transport. Its objectives aim to promote transition to market economies by investing mainly in the private sector, to mobilize significant foreign direct investment, to support privatization, restructuring and better municipal services to improve people’s lives and to encourage environmentally sound and sustainable development. The present scientific article focuses on the last objective respectively the bank commitment to promote environmentally sound and sustainable development and shortly presents EBRD environmental policy because EBRD, unlike other development banks, has strong and imperative regulations regarding this issue. This is why all the EBRD potential beneficiaries must prove that their projects are environmentally sound.

  14. Echo-sounding method aids earthquake hazard studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    Dramatic examples of catastrophic damage from an earthquake occurred in 1989, when the M 7.1 Lorna Prieta rocked the San Francisco Bay area, and in 1994, when the M 6.6 Northridge earthquake jolted southern California. The surprising amount and distribution of damage to private property and infrastructure emphasizes the importance of seismic-hazard research in urbanized areas, where the potential for damage and loss of life is greatest. During April 1995, a group of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Tennessee, using an echo-sounding method described below, is collecting data in San Antonio Park, California, to examine the Monte Vista fault which runs through this park. The Monte Vista fault in this vicinity shows evidence of movement within the last 10,000 years or so. The data will give them a "picture" of the subsurface rock deformation near this fault. The data will also be used to help locate a trench that will be dug across the fault by scientists from William Lettis & Associates.

  15. Research on fiber Bragg grating heart sound sensing and wavelength demodulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Chang-Yun; Gao, Hua; Gan, Jing-Meng; Li, Hong-Qiang

    2010-11-01

    Heart sound includes a lot of physiological and pathological information of heart and blood vessel. Heart sound detecting is an important method to gain the heart status, and has important significance to early diagnoses of cardiopathy. In order to improve sensitivity and reduce noise, a heart sound measurement method based on fiber Bragg grating was researched. By the vibration principle of plane round diaphragm, a heart sound sensor structure of fiber Bragg grating was designed and a heart sound sensing mathematical model was established. A formula of heart sound sensitivity was deduced and the theoretical sensitivity of the designed sensor is 957.11pm/KPa. Based on matched grating method, the experiment system was built, by which the excursion of reflected wavelength of the sensing grating was detected and the information of heart sound was obtained. Experiments show that the designed sensor can detect the heart sound and the reflected wavelength variety range is about 70pm. When the sampling frequency is 1 KHz, the extracted heart sound waveform by using the db4 wavelet has the same characteristics with a standard heart sound sensor.

  16. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmentally Sound Technology in Endogenous Firm Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela C. Chao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have entered the “New Normal” economy, with more emphasis on economic growth driven by innovation than resource. This paper investigates the impacts of firms considering corporate social responsibility and environmentally sound technology by building a three-stage Cournot competition model with asymmetric cost. The sustainable development of economic and endogenous firm growth achieves the win–win result in the theoretical model. Using data from 31 firms in China, this paper empirically researches on the relationships among corporate social responsibility, environmentally sound technology and firm endogenous growth. The results show that: (1 Marginal cost decreased with the increase of innovation, as well as getting government research and development subsidy, which has a positive effect on firm growth. (2 Consumers respond positively to corporate social responsibility initiative, the reputation of the firm can be improved. At the same time, environmentally sound technology objectively reduces the marginal cost of competitors because of the technology spillover. (3 Profit of a firm undertaking corporate social responsibility partly decreases, which has a negative effect on firm growth. The contradiction between corporate social responsibility and profit of firm could be adjusted, such as socially responsible investment fund hosed by institutional investors.

  17. Sound radiation contrast in MR phase images. Method for the representation of elasticity, sound damping, and sound impedance changes; Schallstrahlungskontrast in MR-Phasenbildern. Methode zur Darstellung von Elastizitaets-, Schalldaempfungs- und Schallimpedanzaenderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radicke, Marcus

    2009-12-18

    The method presented in this thesis combines ultrasound techniques with the magnetic-resonance tomography (MRT). An ultrasonic wave generates in absorbing media a static force in sound-propagation direction. The force leads at sound intensities of some W/cm{sup 2} and a sound frequency in the lower MHz range to a tissue shift in the micrometer range. This tissue shift depends on the sound power, the sound frequency, the sound absorption, and the elastic properties of the tissue. A MRT sequence of the Siemens Healthcare AG was modified so that it measures (indirectly) the tissue shift, codes as grey values, and presents as 2D picture. By means of the grey values the sound-beam slope in the tissue can be visualized, and so additionally sound obstacles (changes of the sound impedance) can be detected. By the MRT images token up spatial changes of the tissue parameters sound absorption and elasticity can be detected. In this thesis measurements are presented, which show the feasibility and future chances of this method especially for the mammary-cancer diagnostics. [German] Die in dieser Arbeit praesentierte Methode kombiniert Ultraschalltechniken mit der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT). Eine Ultraschallwelle ruft in absorbierenden Medien eine statische Kraft in Schallausbreitungsrichtung hervor. Die Kraft fuehrt bei Schallintensitaeten von einigen W/cm{sup 2} und einer Schallfrequenz im niederen MHz-Bereich zu einer Gewebeverschiebung im Mikrometerbereich. Diese Gewebeverschiebung haengt ab von der Schallleistung, der Schallfrequenz, der Schallabsorption und den elastischen Eigenschaften des Gewebes. Es wurde eine MRT-Sequenz der Siemens Healthcare AG modifiziert, so dass sie (indirekt) die Gewebeverschiebung misst, als Grauwerte kodiert und als 2D-Bild darstellt. Anhand der Grauwerte kann der Schallstrahlverlauf in dem Gewebe visualisiert werden, und so koennen zusaetzlich Schallhindernisse (Aenderungen der Schallkennimpedanz) aufgespuert werden. Mit den

  18. Meaning From Environmental Sounds: Types of Signal-Referent Relations and Their Effect on Recognizing Auditory Icons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter; Stevens, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the learnability of auditory icons, that is, environmental sounds that refer either directly or indirectly to meaningful events. Direct relations use the sound made by the target event whereas indirect relations substitute a surrogate for the target. Across 3 experiments, different indirect relations (ecological, in which…

  19. A Generalized Model for Indoor Location Estimation Using Environmental Sound from Human Activity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Galván-Tejada

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The indoor location of individuals is a key contextual variable for commercial and assisted location-based services and applications. Commercial centers and medical buildings (e.g., hospitals require location information of their users/patients to offer the services that are needed at the correct moment. Several approaches have been proposed to tackle this problem. In this paper, we present the development of an indoor location system which relies on the human activity recognition approach, using sound as an information source to infer the indoor location based on the contextual information of the activity that is realized at the moment. In this work, we analyze the sound information to estimate the location using the contextual information of the activity. A feature extraction approach to the sound signal is performed to feed a random forest algorithm in order to generate a model to estimate the location of the user. We evaluate the quality of the resulting model in terms of sensitivity and specificity for each location, and we also perform out-of-bag error estimation. Our experiments were carried out in five representative residential homes. Each home had four individual indoor rooms. Eleven activities (brewing coffee, cooking, eggs, taking a shower, etc. were performed to provide the contextual information. Experimental results show that developing an indoor location system (ILS that uses contextual information from human activities (identified with data provided from the environmental sound can achieve an estimation that is 95% correct.

  20. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Prince William Sound, Alaska, Volumes 1 and 2, geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0019218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  1. Characterizing large river sounds: Providing context for understanding the environmental effects of noise produced by hydrokinetic turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelhimer, Mark S; Deng, Z Daniel; Scherelis, Constantin

    2016-01-01

    Underwater noise associated with the installation and operation of hydrokinetic turbines in rivers and tidal zones presents a potential environmental concern for fish and marine mammals. Comparing the spectral quality of sounds emitted by hydrokinetic turbines to natural and other anthropogenic sound sources is an initial step at understanding potential environmental impacts. Underwater recordings were obtained from passing vessels and natural underwater sound sources in static and flowing waters. Static water measurements were taken in a lake with minimal background noise. Flowing water measurements were taken at a previously proposed deployment site for hydrokinetic turbines on the Mississippi River, where sounds created by flowing water are part of all measurements, both natural ambient and anthropogenic sources. Vessel sizes ranged from a small fishing boat with 60 hp outboard motor to an 18-unit barge train being pushed upstream by tugboat. As expected, large vessels with large engines created the highest sound levels, which were, on average, 40 dB greater than the sound created by an operating hydrokinetic turbine. A comparison of sound levels from the same sources at different distances using both spherical and cylindrical sound attenuation functions suggests that spherical model results more closely approximate observed sound attenuation.

  2. Snapping shrimp sound production patterns on Caribbean coral reefs: relationships with celestial cycles and environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Ashlee; Mooney, T. Aran

    2018-06-01

    The rich acoustic environment of coral reefs, including the sounds of a variety of fish and invertebrates, is a reflection of the structural complexity and biological diversity of these habitats. Emerging interest in applying passive acoustic monitoring and soundscape analysis to measure coral reef habitat characteristics and track ecological patterns is hindered by a poor understanding of the most common and abundant sound producers on reefs—the snapping shrimp. Here, we sought to address several basic biophysical drivers of reef sound by investigating acoustic activity patterns of snapping shrimp populations on two adjacent coral reefs using a detailed snap detection analysis routine to a high-resolution 2.5-month acoustic dataset from the US Virgin Islands. The reefs exhibited strong diel and lunar periodicity in snap rates and clear spatial differences in snapping levels. Snap rates peaked at dawn and dusk and were higher overall during daytime versus nighttime, a seldom-reported pattern in earlier descriptions of diel snapping shrimp acoustic activity. Small differences between the sites in snap rate rhythms were detected and illustrate how analyses of specific soundscape elements might reveal subtle between-reef variation. Snap rates were highly correlated with environmental variables, including water temperature and light, and were found to be sensitive to changes in oceanographic forcing. This study further establishes snapping shrimp as key players in the coral reef chorus and provides evidence that their acoustic output reflects a combination of environmental conditions, celestial influences, and spatial habitat variation. Effective application of passive acoustic monitoring in coral reef habitats using snap rates or snapping-influenced acoustic metrics will require a mechanistic understanding of the underlying spatial and temporal variation in snapping shrimp sound production across multiple scales.

  3. Methods and techniques for prediction of environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is the procedure that helps decision makers understand the environmental implications of their decisions. The prediction of environmental effects or impact is an extremely important part of the EIA procedure and improvements in existing capabilities are needed. Considerable attention is paid within environmental impact assessment and in handbooks on EIA to methods for identifying and evaluating environmental impacts. However, little attention is given to the issue distribution of information on impact prediction methods. The quantitative or qualitative methods for the prediction of environmental impacts appear to be the two basic approaches for incorporating environmental concerns into the decision-making process. Depending on the nature of the proposed activity and the environment likely to be affected, a combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods is used. Within environmental impact assessment, the accuracy of methods for the prediction of environmental impacts is of major importance while it provides for sound and well-balanced decision making. Pertinent and effective action to deal with the problems of environmental protection and the rational use of natural resources and sustainable development is only possible given objective methods and techniques for the prediction of environmental impact. Therefore, the Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Environmental and Water Problems, decided to set up a task force, with the USSR as lead country, on methods and techniques for the prediction of environmental impacts in order to undertake a study to review and analyse existing methodological approaches and to elaborate recommendations to ECE Governments. The work of the task force was completed in 1990 and the resulting report, with all relevant background material, was approved by the Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Environmental and Water Problems in 1991. The present report reflects the situation, state of

  4. Eco-Balancing as a Guideline for Environmentally Sound Regional Planning Supported by GIS Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMAN J. M. LENZ

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last several years, environmental impact assessment, regional or spatial planning, and environmental balancing seem to develop similarities, e.g. joint basic methodological approaches such as the use of environmental indicators, the focus on same environmental goods such air, water, soil, flora/fauna, etc. (Lenz 1999. Especially GIS-based software systems show their multiple applications in these fields.After a short introduction about the central role of indicators in transdisciplinary problem solving processes, experiences from a set of regional environmental (or eco balances show a wide range of advantages as well as disadvantages in the context of the widespread use of GIS-based planning tools. Relying on concepts and examples for the spatial eco-balances in the district of Pfaffenhofen (Upper Bavaria, Germany; cf. Lenz 1997 and the municipality of Mulfingen (Hohenlohe, Germany - both of them related to the concept of environmental indicators of the Advisory Board of Environmental Affairs of the Federal Republic of Germany (SRU 1994 and the Federal Environmental Agency (UBA 1995 - we can show GIS-based information systems of a high practical relevancy. On the basis of the GIS software ArcView, the data base management system Access, and html scripts, we developed environmental information systems to balance environmental effects in a map scale of 1:5,000 - 1:50,000, in order to provide the administration with tools for an environmentally sound and sustainable development of their area (Lenz 1997, 1999, Beuttler et al. 1999. The spatial distribution of land use types, solar energy potential, area consumption and drinking water consumption for the municipality of Mulfingen are highlighted in this paper. Still, the practical use of the systems seems to be limited due to the lack of computer skills among the administrators – even after programming graphical user interfaces for the indicator “drinking water consumption”-, as well

  5. Underwater Sound Propagation Modeling Methods for Predicting Marine Animal Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Craig A; McCammon, Diana F; Taillefer, Martin L

    2016-01-01

    The offshore exploration and production (E&P) industry requires comprehensive and accurate ocean acoustic models for determining the exposure of marine life to the high levels of sound used in seismic surveys and other E&P activities. This paper reviews the types of acoustic models most useful for predicting the propagation of undersea noise sources and describes current exposure models. The severe problems caused by model sensitivity to the uncertainty in the environment are highlighted to support the conclusion that it is vital that risk assessments include transmission loss estimates with statistical measures of confidence.

  6. Improvements on the directional characteristics of a calibration sound source using the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriquez, Vicente Cutanda; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2008-01-01

    is of particular importance to achieve a sound field that reaches both microphones with the same level and that is sufficiently uniform at the microphone positions, in order to reduce the effect of misalignment. An existing sound source has been modeled using the Boundary Element Method, and the simulations have......The project Euromet-792 aims to investigate and improve methods for secondary free-field calibration of microphones. In this framework, the comparison method is being studied at DFM in relation to the more usual substitution method of microphone calibration. The design of the sound source...... been used to modify the source and make it suitable for this kind of calibration. It has been found that a central plug, already present in the device, can be re-shaped in such a way that makes the sound field on the microphone positions more uniform, even at rather high frequencies. Measurements have...

  7. A comparison of radiosity with current methods of sound level prediction in commercial spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, C. Walter, IV; Muehleisen, Ralph T.

    2002-11-01

    The ray tracing and image methods (and variations thereof) are widely used for the computation of sound fields in architectural spaces. The ray tracing and image methods are best suited for spaces with mostly specular reflecting surfaces. The radiosity method, a method based on solving a system of energy balance equations, is best applied to spaces with mainly diffusely reflective surfaces. Because very few spaces are either purely specular or purely diffuse, all methods must deal with both types of reflecting surfaces. A comparison of the radiosity method to other methods for the prediction of sound levels in commercial environments is presented. [Work supported by NSF.

  8. Potential use of feebate systems to foster environmentally sound urban waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2004-01-01

    Waste treatment facilities are often shared among different municipalities as a means of managing wastes more efficiently. Usually, management costs are assigned to each municipality depending on the size of the population or total amount of waste produced, regardless of important environmental aspects such as per capita waste generation or achievements in composting or recycling. This paper presents a feebate (fee+rebate) system aimed to foster urban waste reduction and recovery. The proposal suggests that municipalities achieving better results in their waste management performance (from an ecological viewpoint) be recompensated with a rebate obtained from a fee charged to those municipalities that are less environmentally sound. This is a dynamic and flexible instrument that would positively encourage municipalities to reduce waste whilst increasing the recycling

  9. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-01-01

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information

  10. Modulation of the sound press level by the treatment of polymer diaphragms through ion implantation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, Sunmog; Park, Jaewon; Lee, Hojae

    2010-01-01

    We present two different surface modification treatments, an ion implantation, and an ion beam mixing, and show that the surface modifications caused by these treatments are useful tools to modulate the sound press level. The ion implantations on various polymer diaphragms cause an increase in the resonant frequency so that the sound press level is lowered at low frequencies. On the contrary, a Cu or Fe 2 O 3 coating by using an ion beam mixing method causes a decrease in the resonant frequency, resulting in a high sound press level at low frequencies. We discuss the physical reasons for the change in the sound press level due to the ion-implantation methods.

  11. Alternative Silver Production by Environmental Sound Processing of a Sulfo Salt Silver Mineral Found in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Birich

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Very often, the production of silver causes devastating environmental issues, because of the use of toxic reagents like cyanide and mercury. Due to severe environmental damage caused by humans in the last decades, the social awareness regarding the sustainable production processes is on the rise. Terms like “sustainable” and “green” in product descriptions are becoming more and more popular and producers are forced to satisfy the rising environmental awareness of their customers. Within this work, an alternative environmental sound silver recovery process was developed for a vein type silver ore from Mina Porka, Bolivia. A foregoing characterization of the input material reveals its mineral composition. In the following mineral processing, around 92.9% silver was concentrated by separating 59.5 wt. % of non-silver minerals. Nitric acid leaching of the generated concentrate enabled a silver recovery of up to 98%. The dissolved silver was then separated via copper cementation to generate a metallic silver product of >99% purity. Summarizing all process steps, a silver yield of 87% was achieved in lab scale. A final upscaling trial was conducted to prove the process’ robustness. Within this trial, almost 4 kg of metallic silver with a purity of higher than 99.5 wt. % was produced.

  12. TESPI (Tool for Environmental Sound Product Innovation): a simplified software tool to support environmentally conscious design in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misceo, Monica; Buonamici, Roberto; Buttol, Patrizia; Naldesi, Luciano; Grimaldi, Filomena; Rinaldi, Caterina

    2004-12-01

    TESPI (Tool for Environmental Sound Product Innovation) is the prototype of a software tool developed within the framework of the "eLCA" project. The project, (www.elca.enea.it)financed by the European Commission, is realising "On line green tools and services for Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs)". The implementation by SMEs of environmental product innovation (as fostered by the European Integrated Product Policy, IPP) needs specific adaptation to their economic model, their knowledge of production and management processes and their relationships with innovation and the environment. In particular, quality and costs are the main driving forces of innovation in European SMEs, and well known barriers exist to the adoption of an environmental approach in the product design. Starting from these considerations, the TESPI tool has been developed to support the first steps of product design taking into account both the quality and the environment. Two main issues have been considered: (i) classic Quality Function Deployment (QFD) can hardly be proposed to SMEs; (ii) the environmental aspects of the product life cycle need to be integrated with the quality approach. TESPI is a user friendly web-based tool, has a training approach and applies to modular products. Users are guided through the investigation of the quality aspects of their product (customer"s needs and requirements fulfilment) and the identification of the key environmental aspects in the product"s life cycle. A simplified check list allows analyzing the environmental performance of the product. Help is available for a better understanding of the analysis criteria. As a result, the significant aspects for the redesign of the product are identified.

  13. PREFACE: Aerodynamic sound Aerodynamic sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishita, Sadao

    2010-02-01

    The modern theory of aerodynamic sound originates from Lighthill's two papers in 1952 and 1954, as is well known. I have heard that Lighthill was motivated in writing the papers by the jet-noise emitted by the newly commercialized jet-engined airplanes at that time. The technology of aerodynamic sound is destined for environmental problems. Therefore the theory should always be applied to newly emerged public nuisances. This issue of Fluid Dynamics Research (FDR) reflects problems of environmental sound in present Japanese technology. The Japanese community studying aerodynamic sound has held an annual symposium since 29 years ago when the late Professor S Kotake and Professor S Kaji of Teikyo University organized the symposium. Most of the Japanese authors in this issue are members of the annual symposium. I should note the contribution of the two professors cited above in establishing the Japanese community of aerodynamic sound research. It is my pleasure to present the publication in this issue of ten papers discussed at the annual symposium. I would like to express many thanks to the Editorial Board of FDR for giving us the chance to contribute these papers. We have a review paper by T Suzuki on the study of jet noise, which continues to be important nowadays, and is expected to reform the theoretical model of generating mechanisms. Professor M S Howe and R S McGowan contribute an analytical paper, a valuable study in today's fluid dynamics research. They apply hydrodynamics to solve the compressible flow generated in the vocal cords of the human body. Experimental study continues to be the main methodology in aerodynamic sound, and it is expected to explore new horizons. H Fujita's study on the Aeolian tone provides a new viewpoint on major, longstanding sound problems. The paper by M Nishimura and T Goto on textile fabrics describes new technology for the effective reduction of bluff-body noise. The paper by T Sueki et al also reports new technology for the

  14. Improvements on the directional characteristics of a calibration sound source using the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2008-01-01

    The project Euromet-792 aims to investigate and improve methods for secondary free-field calibration of microphones. In this framework, the comparison method is being studied at DFM in relation to the more usual substitution method of microphone calibration. The design of the sound source is of p...

  15. Sound recovery via intensity variations of speckle pattern pixels selected with variance-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ge; Yao, Xu-Ri; Qiu, Peng; Mahmood, Waqas; Yu, Wen-Kai; Sun, Zhi-Bin; Zhai, Guang-Jie; Zhao, Qing

    2018-02-01

    In general, the sound waves can cause the vibration of the objects that are encountered in the traveling path. If we make a laser beam illuminate the rough surface of an object, it will be scattered into a speckle pattern that vibrates with these sound waves. Here, an efficient variance-based method is proposed to recover the sound information from speckle patterns captured by a high-speed camera. This method allows us to select the proper pixels that have large variances of the gray-value variations over time, from a small region of the speckle patterns. The gray-value variations of these pixels are summed together according to a simple model to recover the sound with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Meanwhile, our method will significantly simplify the computation compared with the traditional digital-image-correlation technique. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified by applying a variety of objects. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed method is robust to the quality of the speckle patterns and costs more than one-order less time to perform the same number of the speckle patterns. In our experiment, a sound signal of time duration 1.876 s is recovered from various objects with time consumption of 5.38 s only.

  16. The Keyimage Method of Learning Sound-Symbol Correspondences: A Case Study of Learning Written Khmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lavolette

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available I documented my strategies for learning sound-symbol correspondences during a Khmer course. I used a mnemonic strategy that I call the keyimage method. In this method, a character evokes an image (the keyimage, which evokes the corresponding sound. For example, the keyimage for the character 2 could be a swan with its head tucked in. This evokes the sound "kaw" that a swan makes, which sounds similar to the Khmer sound corresponding to 2. The method has some similarities to the keyword method. Considering the results of keyword studies, I hypothesize that the keyimage method is more effective than rote learning and that peer-generated keyimages are more effective than researcher- or teacher-generated keyimages, which are more effective than learner-generated ones. In Dr. Andrew Cohen's plenary presentation at the Hawaii TESOL 2007 conference, he mentioned that more case studies are needed on learning strategies (LSs. One reason to study LSs is that what learners do with input to produce output is unclear, and knowing what strategies learners use may help us understand that process (Dornyei, 2005, p. 170. Hopefully, we can use that knowledge to improve language learning, perhaps by teaching learners to use the strategies that we find. With that in mind, I have examined the LSs that I used in studying Khmer as a foreign language, focusing on learning the syllabic alphabet.

  17. Financing investment in environmentally sound technologies: Foreign direct investment versus foreign debt finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anyangah, Joshua Okeyo

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a screening model to examine the relationship between alternative sources of private capital and investment in environmentally sound technologies (ESTs). In the model, a polluter (agent) must secure investment funds from the international financial markets in order to upgrade its production and abatement technology. The requisite capital can be obtained via either market loans (debt finance) or foreign direct investment (FDI). Under debt finance, the foreign financier supplies only capital and the relationship between the two parties is more 'arms-length'. By contrast, under FDI, the investor delivers both capital and managerial skills. We use the model to derive the implications of debt finance for optimal investment decisions and compare them to those obtained under FDI. Investment incentives are more pronounced under debt finance. (author)

  18. Vibrotactile Detection, Identification and Directional Perception of signal-Processed Sounds from Environmental Events: A Pilot Field Evaluation in Five Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Ranjbar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Conducting field tests of a vibrotactile aid for deaf/deafblind persons for detection, identification and directional perception of environmental sounds. Methods: Five deaf (3F/2M, 22–36 years individuals tested the aid separately in a home environment (kitchen and in a traffic environment. Their eyes were blindfolded and they wore a headband and holding a vibrator for sound identification. In the headband, three microphones were mounted and two vibrators for signalling direction of the sound source. The sounds originated from events typical for the home environment and traffic. The subjects were inexperienced (events unknown and experienced (events known. They identified the events in a home and traffic environment, but perceived sound source direction only in traffic. Results: The detection scores were higher than 98% both in the home and in the traffic environment. In the home environment, identification scores varied between 25%-58% when the subjects were inexperienced and between 33%-83% when they were experienced. In traffic, identification scores varied between 20%-40% when the subjects were inexperienced and between 22%-56% when they were experienced. The directional perception scores varied between 30%-60% when inexperienced and between 61%-83% when experienced. Discussion: The vibratory aid consistently improved all participants’ detection, identification and directional perception ability.

  19. Reflector construction by sound path curves - A method of manual reflector evaluation in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siciliano, F.; Heumuller, R.

    1985-01-01

    In order to describe the time-of-flight behavior of various reflectors we have set up models and derived from them analytical and graphic approaches to reflector reconstruction. In the course of this work, maximum achievable accuracy and possible simplifications were investigated. The aim of the time-of-flight reconstruction method is to determine the points of a reflector on the basis of a sound path function (sound path as the function of the probe index position). This method can only be used on materials which are isotropic in terms of sound velocity since the method relies on time of flight being converted into sound path. This paper deals only with two-dimensional reconstruction, in other words all statements relate to the plane of incidence. The method is based on the fact that the geometrical location of the points equidistant from a certain probe index position is a circle. If circles with radiuses equal to the associated sound path are drawn for various search unit positions the points of intersection of the circles are the desired reflector points

  20. The Development of a Finite Volume Method for Modeling Sound in Coastal Ocean Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Wen; Yang, Zhaoqing; Copping, Andrea E.; Jung, Ki Won; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-10-28

    : As the rapid growth of marine renewable energy and off-shore wind energy, there have been concerns that the noises generated from construction and operation of the devices may interfere marine animals’ communication. In this research, a underwater sound model is developed to simulate sound prorogation generated by marine-hydrokinetic energy (MHK) devices or offshore wind (OSW) energy platforms. Finite volume and finite difference methods are developed to solve the 3D Helmholtz equation of sound propagation in the coastal environment. For finite volume method, the grid system consists of triangular grids in horizontal plane and sigma-layers in vertical dimension. A 3D sparse matrix solver with complex coefficients is formed for solving the resulting acoustic pressure field. The Complex Shifted Laplacian Preconditioner (CSLP) method is applied to efficiently solve the matrix system iteratively with MPI parallelization using a high performance cluster. The sound model is then coupled with the Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) for simulating sound propagation generated by human activities in a range-dependent setting, such as offshore wind energy platform constructions and tidal stream turbines. As a proof of concept, initial validation of the finite difference solver is presented for two coastal wedge problems. Validation of finite volume method will be reported separately.

  1. Relationships between environmentally sound technologies and competitiveness of companies in the value chain of printed paper from forest to market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkioe, S.

    2007-07-01

    Technologies play a well-known role in creating competitive advantages for companies as well as in controlling environmental impacts. This study deals with the relationship between environmentally sound technologies and the competitiveness of companies in the value chain of printed paper from forest to market. These connections are important to understand, because the technology is an important solution in facing environmental requirements. This study answers the following five questions: Which environmentally sound technologies are the most important for environmental impacts in the value chain of printed paper? How do they impact on the competitiveness of companies? How do these technologies differ across the value chain. Do they impact on competitiveness of companies in the other part of the value chain? The fifth research question involves studying differences between function mechanisms of pollution-prevention technology and pollution-abatement technology in facing legal requirements. This is studied as a part of the so-called 'Porter Hypothesis'. A term, environmental value creation, has been defined as 'performing activities by managing environmental aspects so that the value of goods and services to consumers or to customers increases.' Data was collected from the value chain of printed paper and were divided into the following parts: forest harvesting, pulp mill, paper mill and printing house. Eight experts were interviewed resulting in 69 environmentally sound technologies during the time periods 1980-1999 and 2000-2019. The data was analysed by non-parametrical statistical tests. As a result of this study, automation, measurement and information technologies, closing-up technologies and energy technologies were found to be the most important for environmental impacts and frequently mentioned responses of environmentally sound technologies in the value chain of printed paper. The cost factors of raw material and staff and

  2. 75 FR 23798 - Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in Nantucket Sound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in Nantucket Sound, Offshore Massachusetts AGENCY: Minerals Management... Energy Project proposed for Nantucket Sound, offshore Massachusetts. On January 16, 2009, the MMS... construct a wind power facility on Horseshoe Shoal in Nantucket Sound, offshore Massachusetts. Following the...

  3. 75 FR 10500 - Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in Nantucket Sound, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in Nantucket Sound, MA AGENCY: Minerals Management Service (MMS... MMS for the Cape Wind Energy Project proposed for Nantucket Sound, Massachusetts. On January 16, 2009... facility on Horseshoe Shoal in Nantucket Sound, Massachusetts. Following the adoption of the Energy Policy...

  4. 76 FR 20715 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ...; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration... continuing sounding rocket operations at Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR), Alaska. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... information about NASA's Sounding Rocket Program (SRP) and the University of Alaska-Fairbanks' PFRR may be...

  5. Adaptive Wavelet Threshold Denoising Method for Machinery Sound Based on Improved Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As the sound signal of a machine contains abundant information and is easy to measure, acoustic-based monitoring or diagnosis systems exhibit obvious superiority, especially in some extreme conditions. However, the sound directly collected from industrial field is always polluted. In order to eliminate noise components from machinery sound, a wavelet threshold denoising method optimized by an improved fruit fly optimization algorithm (WTD-IFOA is proposed in this paper. The sound is firstly decomposed by wavelet transform (WT to obtain coefficients of each level. As the wavelet threshold functions proposed by Donoho were discontinuous, many modified functions with continuous first and second order derivative were presented to realize adaptively denoising. However, the function-based denoising process is time-consuming and it is difficult to find optimal thresholds. To overcome these problems, fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA was introduced to the process. Moreover, to avoid falling into local extremes, an improved fly distance range obeying normal distribution was proposed on the basis of original FOA. Then, sound signal of a motor was recorded in a soundproof laboratory, and Gauss white noise was added into the signal. The simulation results illustrated the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed approach by a comprehensive comparison among five typical methods. Finally, an industrial application on a shearer in coal mining working face was performed to demonstrate the practical effect.

  6. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with N as the first character.

  7. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with K as the first character.

  8. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with M as the first character.

  9. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with R as the first character.

  10. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with G as the first character.

  11. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with O as the first character.

  12. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with S as the first character.

  13. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with B as the first character.

  14. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with C as the first character.

  15. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with F as the first character.

  16. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with P as the first character.

  17. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with L as the first character.

  18. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with H as the first character.

  19. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with I as the first character.

  20. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with Z as the first character.

  1. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with A as the first character.

  2. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with E as the first character.

  3. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with T as the first character.

  4. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with D as the first character.

  5. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - Q

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with Q as the first character.

  6. Environmentally sound energy efficient strategies: A case study of the power section in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, J; Painuly, J P; Bhattacharya, K

    1997-02-01

    Coal is a major source of energy in India, providing more than 60% of the commercial energy requirements. Coal is also most polluting fuel in terms of GHG emissions. Considering India`s energy resources, coal may continue to provide a large part of energy requirements in the future too. Coal is mainly used for generating electricity. Therefore, efficient measures for generation, transmission and end use of electricity can help in reducing the environmental pollution, leading to environmentally sound development. The report highlights some such important measures; reduction in auxiliary consumption (i e. the electricity consumed by generating units in the process of generation), reduction in transmission and distribution losses, and application of demand side management (DSM) options for high tension (HT) industries. The study was conducted in two phases. Maharashtra State Electricity Board (MSEB), the largest utility in Maharashtra was chosen for the detailed study in the first phase. For the study of auxiliary consumption, two typical plants of the MSEB were selected. The transmission losses were studied for the MSEB system based on a snap-shot picture of the system. For the DSM part, energy saving potential in HT industries in Maharashtra was explored based on a survey of HT industries. In the second phase of the study, two more plants outside Maharashtra were also studied to get better insight into diverse causes for the different levels of auxiliary consumption and estimate potential savings. All India potential for savings through reduction in auxiliary consumption was also estimated in this phase. (EG) 10 refs.

  7. A comparative performance study of sound zoning methods in a reflective environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olik, Marek; Francombe, Jon; Coleman, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Whilst sound zoning methods have typically been studied under anechoic conditions, it is desirable to evaluate the performance of various methods in a real room. Three control methods were implemented (delay and sum, DS; acoustic contrast control, ACC; and pressure matching, PM) on two regular 24...... monophonic auralisations from measured system responses to collect ratings of perceived distraction due to the alternate audio programme. Distraction ratings were a ected by control method and programme material....

  8. Using therapeutic sound with progressive audiologic tinnitus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, James A; Zaugg, Tara L; Myers, Paula J; Schechter, Martin A

    2008-09-01

    Management of tinnitus generally involves educational counseling, stress reduction, and/or the use of therapeutic sound. This article focuses on therapeutic sound, which can involve three objectives: (a) producing a sense of relief from tinnitus-associated stress (using soothing sound); (b) passively diverting attention away from tinnitus by reducing contrast between tinnitus and the acoustic environment (using background sound); and (c) actively diverting attention away from tinnitus (using interesting sound). Each of these goals can be accomplished using three different types of sound-broadly categorized as environmental sound, music, and speech-resulting in nine combinations of uses of sound and types of sound to manage tinnitus. The authors explain the uses and types of sound, how they can be combined, and how the different combinations are used with Progressive Audiologic Tinnitus Management. They also describe how sound is used with other sound-based methods of tinnitus management (Tinnitus Masking, Tinnitus Retraining Therapy, and Neuromonics).

  9. Comparative study of environmental impact assessment methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to introduce and systematically investigate the environmental issues during important decision-making stages. Meanwhile, impacts of development on the environmental components will be also analyzed. This research studies various methods of predicting the environmental changes and determining the ...

  10. A Geometrical Method for Sound-Hole Size and Location Enhancement in Lute Family Musical Instruments: The Golden Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Jafari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new analytical approach, the Golden Method, to enhance sound-hole size and location in musical instruments of the lute family in order to obtain better sound damping characteristics based on the concept of the golden ratio and the instrument geometry. The main objective of the paper is to increase the capability of lute family musical instruments in keeping a note for a certain time at a certain level to enhance the instruments’ orchestral characteristics. For this purpose, a geometry-based analytical method, the Golden Method is first described in detail in an itemized feature. A new musical instrument is then developed and tested to confirm the ability of the Golden Method in optimizing the acoustical characteristics of musical instruments from a damping point of view by designing the modified sound-hole. Finally, the new-developed instrument is tested, and the obtained results are compared with those of two well-known instruments to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. The experimental results show that the suggested method is able to increase the sound damping time by at least 2.4% without affecting the frequency response function and other acoustic characteristics of the instrument. This methodology could be used as the first step in future studies on design, optimization and evaluation of musical instruments of the lute family (e.g., lute, oud, barbat, mandolin, setar, and etc..

  11. A NOTE ON METHODS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF THE AIRBORNE SOUND INSULATION OF TIMBER FRAME STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šlechta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic behavior of structures with wooden elements is nowadays of great interest. At the same time, the estimation of the airborne sound insulation of timber frame structures is a complex procedure which includes the prediction of several resonances and the analysis of a significant decrease of the transmission loss in the low frequency range. Three case studies are presented in the paper. The emphasis is put on the transmission loss in 1/3 octave frequency bands of double leaf structures with gypsum panels, wood studs and a well-damped cavity. Methods of Sharp and Davy are used for the transmission loss prediction. Particular issues are discussed for an asymmetrically sheathed timber frame structure, wood studs with resilient channels and staggered studs. The paper also presents that the weighted sound reduction index is not sufficient quantity for characterizing the airborne sound insulation of timber frame structures. Various methods are employed for the calculation of the transmission loss of a traditional structure on a silicate base. Characteristic differences between a silicate based structure and a timber frame structure are highlighted. The usage of the spectrum adaptation terms is encouraged. The paper intends to be helpful in the field of the transmission loss estimation of double leaf structures with wood studs. Since the acoustic behavior of double leaf structures with wood studs is certainly a complex phenomenon, there is a further need for an improvement of methods for the transmission loss estimation and single number quantities for the evaluation of the sound insulation.

  12. Experimental implementation of a low-frequency global sound equalization method based on free field propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Lydolf, Morten

    2007-01-01

    An experimental implementation of a global sound equalization method in a rectangular room using active control is described in this paper. The main purpose of the work has been to provide experimental evidence that sound can be equalized in a continuous three-dimensional region, the listening zone......, which occupies a considerable part of the complete volume of the room. The equalization method, based on the simulation of a progressive plane wave, was implemented in a room with inner dimensions of 2.70 m x 2.74 m x 2.40 m. With this method,the sound was reproduced by a matrix of 4 x 5 loudspeakers...... in one of the walls. After traveling through the room, the sound wave was absorbed on the opposite wall, which had a similar arrangement of loudspeakers, by means of active control. A set of 40 digital FIR filters was used to modify the original input signal before it was fed to the loudspeakers, one...

  13. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, J. R. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    The topics considered in the seven sessions were nuclear methods in atmospheric research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in tracer applications; energy exploration, production, and utilization; nuclear methods in environmental monitoring; nuclear methods in water research; and nuclear methods in biological research. Individual abstracts were prepared for each paper. (JSR)

  14. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research

  15. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, J R [ed.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research.

  16. The role of interdisciplinary collaboration for stated preference methods to value marine environmental goods and ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börger, Tobias; Bohnke-Henrichs, Anne; Hattam, Caroline; Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Schasfoort, Femke; Austen, Melanie C.

    2018-01-01

    With the increasing use of environmental valuation methods in coastal, marine and deep-sea settings, there is a growing need for the collaboration of natural scientists and environmental economists. Stated preference valuation methods in particular need to be based on sound natural science

  17. Sounding pollution and the refinery environmental risks; A poluicao sonora e os riscos ambientais das refinarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This chapter gives a general overview on the effects of the sound pollution, the principal pollutants emitted by the oil refineries, control actions for the sound waves emissions, the minimization actions, the risk concepts and evaluation, the risk perception and the accidents in refineries.

  18. 78 FR 40196 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ...; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration... Sounding Rockets Program (SRP) at Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR), Alaska. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... government agencies, and educational institutions have conducted suborbital rocket launches from the PFRR...

  19. 78 FR 2868 - Draft Environmental Assessment for Rulemaking To Establish Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... require hybrid and electric passenger cars, light trucks, medium and heavy duty trucks and buses, low... Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... minimum sound requirements for hybrid and electric vehicles. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  20. WODA Technical Guidance on Underwater Sound from Dredging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Frank; Borsani, Fabrizio; Clarke, Douglas; de Jong, Christ; de Wit, Pim; Goethals, Fredrik; Holtkamp, Martine; Martin, Elena San; Spadaro, Philip; van Raalte, Gerard; Victor, George Yesu Vedha; Jensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The World Organization of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) prepared a guidance paper in 2013 on dredging sound, including a summary of potential impacts on aquatic biota and advice on underwater sound monitoring procedures. The paper follows a risk-based approach and provides guidance for standardization of acoustic terminology and methods for data collection and analysis. Furthermore, the literature on dredging-related sounds and the effects of dredging sounds on marine life is surveyed and guidance on the management of dredging-related sound risks is provided.

  1. Simplified method to solve sound transmission through structures lined with elastic porous material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Kim, J

    2001-11-01

    An approximate analysis method is developed to calculate sound transmission through structures lined with porous material. Because the porous material has both the solid phase and fluid phase, three wave components exist in the material, which makes the related analysis very complicated. The main idea in developing the approximate method is very simple: modeling the porous material using only the strongest of the three waves, which in effect idealizes the material as an equivalent fluid. The analysis procedure has to be conducted in two steps. In the first step, sound transmission through a flat double panel with a porous liner of infinite extents, which has the same cross sectional construction as the actual structure, is solved based on the full theory and the strongest wave component is identified. In the second step sound transmission through the actual structure is solved modeling the porous material as an equivalent fluid while using the actual geometry of the structure. The development and validation of the method are discussed in detail. As an application example, the transmission loss through double walled cylindrical shells with a porous core is calculated utilizing the simplified method.

  2. [A Method of Synthesizing Tinnitus Rehabilitation Sound Based on Pentatonic Scale and Chaos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiemei; He, Peiyu; Pan, Fan

    2015-12-01

    Tinnitus is a common clinical symptom and its occurrence rate is high. It seriously affects life quality of the patients. Scientific researches show that listening some similar and none-repetitive music can relieve tinnitus to some extent. The overall music accorded with self-similarity character by the direct mapping method based on chaos. However, there were often the same tones continuous repeating a few times and tone mutations. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new method for tinnitus rehabilitation sound synthesis based on pentatonic scale, chaos and musical instrument digital interface (MIDI). Experimental results showed that the tinnitus rehabilitation sounds were not only self-similar and incompletely reduplicate, but also no sudden changes. Thus, it has a referential significance for tinnitus treatment.

  3. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Gerjo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how these are composed of methods for individual change (‘Bundling’ and how within one environmental level, organizations, methods differ when directed at the management (‘At’ or applied by the management (‘From’. Methods The first part of this online survey dealt with examining the ‘bundling’ of individual level methods to methods at the environmental level. The question asked was to what extent the use of an environmental level method would involve the use of certain individual level methods. In the second part of the survey the question was whether there are differences between applying methods directed ‘at’ an organization (for instance, by a health promoter versus ‘from’ within an organization itself. All of the 20 respondents are experts in the field of health promotion. Results Methods at the individual level are frequently bundled together as part of a method at a higher ecological level. A number of individual level methods are popular as part of most of the environmental level methods, while others are not chosen very often. Interventions directed at environmental agents often have a strong focus on the motivational part of behavior change. There are different approaches targeting a level or being targeted from a level. The health promoter will use combinations of motivation and facilitation. The manager will use individual level change methods focusing on self-efficacy and skills. Respondents think that any method may be used under the right circumstances, although few endorsed coercive methods. Conclusions Taxonomies of theoretical change methods for environmental change should include combinations of individual

  4. An integrative time-varying frequency detection and channel sounding method for dynamic plasma sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Yao, Bo; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Xiaotong; Yang, Min; Liu, Yanming

    2018-01-01

    The plasma sheath-surrounded hypersonic vehicle is a dynamic and time-varying medium and it is almost impossible to calculate time-varying physical parameters directly. The in-fight detection of the time-varying degree is important to understand the dynamic nature of the physical parameters and their effect on re-entry communication. In this paper, a constant envelope zero autocorrelation (CAZAC) sequence based on time-varying frequency detection and channel sounding method is proposed to detect the plasma sheath electronic density time-varying property and wireless channel characteristic. The proposed method utilizes the CAZAC sequence, which has excellent autocorrelation and spread gain characteristics, to realize dynamic time-varying detection/channel sounding under low signal-to-noise ratio in the plasma sheath environment. Theoretical simulation under a typical time-varying radio channel shows that the proposed method is capable of detecting time-variation frequency up to 200 kHz and can trace the channel amplitude and phase in the time domain well under -10 dB. Experimental results conducted in the RF modulation discharge plasma device verified the time variation detection ability in practical dynamic plasma sheath. Meanwhile, nonlinear phenomenon of dynamic plasma sheath on communication signal is observed thorough channel sounding result.

  5. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H; Panne, Robert; Smerecnik, Chris

    2012-11-28

    While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how these are composed of methods for individual change ('Bundling') and how within one environmental level, organizations, methods differ when directed at the management ('At') or applied by the management ('From'). The first part of this online survey dealt with examining the 'bundling' of individual level methods to methods at the environmental level. The question asked was to what extent the use of an environmental level method would involve the use of certain individual level methods. In the second part of the survey the question was whether there are differences between applying methods directed 'at' an organization (for instance, by a health promoter) versus 'from' within an organization itself. All of the 20 respondents are experts in the field of health promotion. Methods at the individual level are frequently bundled together as part of a method at a higher ecological level. A number of individual level methods are popular as part of most of the environmental level methods, while others are not chosen very often. Interventions directed at environmental agents often have a strong focus on the motivational part of behavior change.There are different approaches targeting a level or being targeted from a level. The health promoter will use combinations of motivation and facilitation. The manager will use individual level change methods focusing on self-efficacy and skills. Respondents think that any method may be used under the right circumstances, although few endorsed coercive methods. Taxonomies of theoretical change methods for environmental change should include combinations of individual level methods that may be bundled and separate suggestions for methods targeting a level

  6. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell Gottlieb; Robert Panne; Chris Smerecnik; Gerjo Kok

    2012-01-01

    Background: While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how

  7. Development of radio acoustic sounding method in Kharkov National University of Radio Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proshkin, Y G; Kartashov, V M; Babkin, S I

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of the role of Kharkov National University of Radio Electronics in developing the atmosphere radio acoustic sounding (RAS) method within the period from 1968 to 2008 was carried out. As a part of the investigation program six experimental models of the sounding radio equipment were developed and manufactured. The atmosphere sounding methods were developed for measuring the base meteorological values. For the first time in the world practice, relevant comparative measurements of air temperature, wind velocity and direction were performed on a short base (about 150 m) using the centimetre RAS equipment and standard sensors of a high (300 m) meteorological mast. The RAS equipment was used for the purpose of meteorological support to investigations in the field of the atmosphere physics and applied problems. All instrumental, atmosphere and social factors, affecting operation the RAS systems, were generalized. It is shown that compact and mobile systems for remote monitoring of the atmospheric boundary layer with possible prompt obtaining of relevant information about base meteorological values in large volumes can be based on the RAS equipment

  8. Sound Radiation from a Loudspeaker Cabinet using the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren

    had been reported, based on subjective testing. This study aims to detect the reported problem. The radiation from the cabinet is calculated using the Boundary Element Method. The analysis examines both the frequency domain and the time domain characteristics (in other words, the steady state response......, in some cases becoming clearly audible. The aim of this study is to provide a tool that can evaluate the contribution from the cabinet to the overall sound radiated by a loudspeaker. The specific case of a B&O Beolab 9 early prototype has been investigated. An influence by the cabinet of this prototype...... and the impulse response) of the loudspeaker and the cabinet. A significant influence of the cabinet has been detected, which becomes especially apparent in the time domain, during the sound decay process....

  9. Sound Cross-synthesis and Morphing Using Dictionary-based Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Nick; Sturm, Bob L.

    2011-01-01

    Dictionary-based methods (DBMs) provide rich possibilities for new sound transformations; as the analysis dual to granular synthesis, audio signals are decomposed into `atoms', allowing interesting manipulations. We present various approaches to audio signal cross-synthesis and cross-analysis via...... atomic decomposition using scale-time-frequency dictionaries. DBMs naturally provide high-level descriptions of a signal and its content, which can allow for greater control over what is modified and how. Through these models, we can make one signal decomposition influence that of another to create cross......-synthesized sounds. We present several examples of these techniques both theoretically and practically, and present on-going and further work....

  10. Reduction of heart sound interference from lung sound signals using empirical mode decomposition technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Ashok; Bhattacharya, P S; Saha, Goutam

    2011-01-01

    During the recording time of lung sound (LS) signals from the chest wall of a subject, there is always heart sound (HS) signal interfering with it. This obscures the features of lung sound signals and creates confusion on pathological states, if any, of the lungs. A novel method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique is proposed in this paper for reducing the undesired heart sound interference from the desired lung sound signals. In this, the mixed signal is split into several components. Some of these components contain larger proportions of interfering signals like heart sound, environmental noise etc. and are filtered out. Experiments have been conducted on simulated and real-time recorded mixed signals of heart sound and lung sound. The proposed method is found to be superior in terms of time domain, frequency domain, and time-frequency domain representations and also in listening test performed by pulmonologist.

  11. Diagnostic validity of methods for assessment of swallowing sounds: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveira, Karinna Veríssimo Meira; Santos, Rosane Sampaio; Leão, Bianca Lopes Cavalcante de; Neto, José Stechman; Pernambuco, Leandro; Silva, Letícia Korb da; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Porporatti, André Luís

    2018-02-03

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a highly prevalent comorbidity in neurological patients and presents a serious health threat, which may lead to outcomes of aspiration pneumonia, ranging from hospitalization to death. This assessment proposes a non-invasive, acoustic-based method to differentiate between individuals with and without signals of penetration and aspiration. This systematic review evaluated the diagnostic validity of different methods for assessment of swallowing sounds, when compared to Videofluroscopic of Swallowing Study (VFSS) to detect oropharyngeal dysphagia. Articles in which the primary objective was to evaluate the accuracy of swallowing sounds were searched in five electronic databases with no language or time limitations. Accuracy measurements described in the studies were transformed to construct receiver operating characteristic curves and forest plots with the aid of Review Manager v. 5.2 (The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark). The methodology of the selected studies was evaluated using the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2. The final electronic search revealed 554 records, however only 3 studies met the inclusion criteria. The accuracy values (area under the curve) were 0.94 for microphone, 0.80 for Doppler, and 0.60 for stethoscope. Based on limited evidence and low methodological quality because few studies were included, with a small sample size, from all index testes found for this systematic review, Doppler showed excellent diagnostic accuracy for the discrimination of swallowing sounds, whereas microphone-reported good accuracy discrimination of swallowing sounds of dysphagic patients and stethoscope showed best screening test. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Noise source separation of diesel engine by combining binaural sound localization method and blind source separation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiachi; Xiang, Yang; Qian, Sichong; Li, Shengyang; Wu, Shaowei

    2017-11-01

    In order to separate and identify the combustion noise and the piston slap noise of a diesel engine, a noise source separation and identification method that combines a binaural sound localization method and blind source separation method is proposed. During a diesel engine noise and vibration test, because a diesel engine has many complex noise sources, a lead covering method was carried out on a diesel engine to isolate other interference noise from the No. 1-5 cylinders. Only the No. 6 cylinder parts were left bare. Two microphones that simulated the human ears were utilized to measure the radiated noise signals 1 m away from the diesel engine. First, a binaural sound localization method was adopted to separate the noise sources that are in different places. Then, for noise sources that are in the same place, a blind source separation method is utilized to further separate and identify the noise sources. Finally, a coherence function method, continuous wavelet time-frequency analysis method, and prior knowledge of the diesel engine are combined to further identify the separation results. The results show that the proposed method can effectively separate and identify the combustion noise and the piston slap noise of a diesel engine. The frequency of the combustion noise and the piston slap noise are respectively concentrated at 4350 Hz and 1988 Hz. Compared with the blind source separation method, the proposed method has superior separation and identification effects, and the separation results have fewer interference components from other noise.

  13. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013952)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca from 1978 to 2006. ESI data characterize...

  14. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Alaska, Prince William Sound-2000, Aleutians-2001, Bristol Bay-2004, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Alaska; Prince William Sound (2000), Aleutians (2001), and Bristol Bay (2004). ESI data...

  15. Memory for environmental sounds in sighted, congenitally blind and late blind adults: evidence for cross-modal compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Brigitte; Rösler, Frank

    2003-10-01

    Several recent reports suggest compensatory performance changes in blind individuals. It has, however, been argued that the lack of visual input leads to impoverished semantic networks resulting in the use of data-driven rather than conceptual encoding strategies on memory tasks. To test this hypothesis, congenitally blind and sighted participants encoded environmental sounds either physically or semantically. In the recognition phase, both conceptually as well as physically distinct and physically distinct but conceptually highly related lures were intermixed with the environmental sounds encountered during study. Participants indicated whether or not they had heard a sound in the study phase. Congenitally blind adults showed elevated memory both after physical and semantic encoding. After physical encoding blind participants had lower false memory rates than sighted participants, whereas the false memory rates of sighted and blind participants did not differ after semantic encoding. In order to address the question if compensatory changes in memory skills are restricted to critical periods during early childhood, late blind adults were tested with the same paradigm. When matched for age, they showed similarly high memory scores as the congenitally blind. These results demonstrate compensatory performance changes in long-term memory functions due to the loss of a sensory system and provide evidence for high adaptive capabilities of the human cognitive system.

  16. A managed approach to achieve a safe, cost effective, and environmentally sound demolition of a plutonium-238 contaminated building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Ralph R.; Geichman, Jack R.; Keener, Douglas E.; Farmer, Billy M.

    1992-01-01

    DOE's Mound Plant has the problem of demolishing a former plutonium-238 processing facility, the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building. The building is located within 200 feet of a major public road and golf course. Previous removal efforts on appendages to the building used the technique of tenting small segments and used labor intensive segment-by-segment removal with expendable hand tools. This approach was very slow and costly, but offered good environmental control of radioactive contamination. It was realized that this method, when applied to the entire structure of the building, would not only be very costly, but would also be of high risk to worker safety and worker exposure to contamination. The new approach to overcome these problems is to dismantle the building structure using a rotating grapple to hold sections of the building structure while a portable rotating shear cuts the steel beams into appropriate lengths for loading directly into large waste containers. By the former method, the cut jagged steel would be size reduced with hand tools and loaded into waste containers manually. The additional handling has a high probability of producing minor, yet potentially contaminated, skin lacerations. The shear and grapple method eliminates this hazard. To apply this safer and more cost effective technology, Mound had to assure that the method would be environmentally sound and that neither onsite workers or the general public would be exposed to radioactivity. The Annex was decontaminated to as low as reasonably possible and the contaminated interior painted. However, there were numerous areas where contamination could be trapped. Mound conducted a formal sampling of these areas and had the results modeled for potential release during demolition. The results of this sampling and modeling effort showed that the building could be dismantled using this technology without producing a harmful effect on the environment. Application of this managed approach to the

  17. Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Toro Calderón

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA in Colombia constitutes the primary tool for making decisions with respect to projects, works and activities (PWA with potential for significant environmental impacts. In the case of the infrastructure of the PWA, the EIA is mandatory and determines the environmental license (EL for construction and operation. This paper analyzes the methods used to assess the environmental impact of the PWA that have applied for licenses with the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development. It was found that the method most frequently used is the qualitative proposal by Conesa, with modifications that reduce the effectiveness of the EIA and favor the subjectivity and bias of the evaluator. Finally a series of recom­mendations to improve the process in the country are proposed.

  18. NIS method for uncertainty estimation of airborne sound insulation measurement in field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Basheer Tarek M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In structures, airborne sound insulation is utilized to characterize the acoustic nature of barriers between rooms. However, the assessment of sound insulation index is once in a while troublesome or indeed, even questionable, both in field and laboratory measurements, notwithstanding the way that there are some unified measurement methodology indicated in the ISO 140 series standards. There are issues with the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurement results. A few troubles might be brought on by non-diffuse acoustic fields, non-uniform reverberation time, or blunders of the reverberation time measurements. Some minor issues are additionally postured by flanking transmission. In this paper, investigation of the uncertainties of the above specified measurement parts and their impact on the consolidated uncertainty in 1/3-octave frequency band. The total measurement uncertainty model contributes several different partial uncertainties, which are evaluated by the method of type A or type B. Also, the determination of the sound reduction index decided by ISO 140-4 has been performed.

  19. Numerical design and testing of a sound source for secondary calibration of microphones using the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    Secondary calibration of microphones in free field is performed by placing the microphone under calibration in an anechoic chamber with a sound source, and exposing it to a controlled sound field. A calibrated microphone is also measured as a reference. While the two measurements are usually made...... apart to avoid acoustic interaction. As a part of the project Euromet-792, aiming to investigate and improve methods for secondary free-field calibration of microphones, a sound source suitable for simultaneous secondary free-field calibration has been designed using the Boundary Element Method...... of the Danish Fundamental Metrology Institute (DFM). The design and verification of the source are presented in this communication....

  20. A New Method for Rating Hazard from Intense Sounds: Implications for Hearing Protection, Speech Intelligibility, and Situation Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, G. R

    2005-01-01

    The auditory hazard assessment algorithm for the human (AHAAH), developed by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, is theoretically based and has been demonstrated to rate hazard from intense sounds much more accurately than existing methods...

  1. Sound and sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    There is no difference in principle between the infrasonic and ultrasonic sounds, which are inaudible to humans (or other animals) and the sounds that we can hear. In all cases, sound is a wave of pressure and particle oscillations propagating through an elastic medium, such as air. This chapter...... is about the physical laws that govern how animals produce sound signals and how physical principles determine the signals’ frequency content and sound level, the nature of the sound field (sound pressure versus particle vibrations) as well as directional properties of the emitted signal. Many...... of these properties are dictated by simple physical relationships between the size of the sound emitter and the wavelength of emitted sound. The wavelengths of the signals need to be sufficiently short in relation to the size of the emitter to allow for the efficient production of propagating sound pressure waves...

  2. Characterization of condenser microphones under different environmental conditions for accurate speed of sound measurements with acoustic resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guianvarc' h, Cecile; Pitre, Laurent [Laboratoire Commun de Metrologie LNE/Cnam, 61 rue du Landy, 93210 La Plaine Saint Denis (France); Gavioso, Roberto M.; Benedetto, Giuliana [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Turin (Italy); Bruneau, Michel [Laboratoire d' Acoustique de l' Universite du Maine UMR CNRS 6613, av. Olivier Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans Cedex 9 (France)

    2009-07-15

    Condenser microphones are more commonly used and have been extensively modeled and characterized in air at ambient temperature and static pressure. However, several applications of interest for metrology and physical acoustics require to use these transducers in significantly different environmental conditions. Particularly, the extremely accurate determination of the speed of sound in monoatomic gases, which is pursued for a determination of the Boltzmann constant k by an acoustic method, entails the use of condenser microphones mounted within a spherical cavity, over a wide range of static pressures, at the temperature of the triple point of water (273.16 K). To further increase the accuracy achievable in this application, the microphone frequency response and its acoustic input impedance need to be precisely determined over the same static pressure and temperature range. Few previous works examined the influence of static pressure, temperature, and gas composition on the microphone's sensitivity. In this work, the results of relative calibrations of 1/4 in. condenser microphones obtained using an electrostatic actuator technique are presented. The calibrations are performed in pure helium and argon gas at temperatures near 273 K and in the pressure range between 10 and 600 kPa. These experimental results are compared with the predictions of a realistic model available in the literature, finding a remarkable good agreement. The model provides an estimate of the acoustic impedance of 1/4 in. condenser microphones as a function of frequency and static pressure and is used to calculate the corresponding frequency perturbations induced on the normal modes of a spherical cavity when this is filled with helium or argon gas.

  3. A statistical method for predicting sound absorbing property of porous metal materials by using quartet structure generation set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Dong; Wu, Jiu Hui; Jing, Li

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A random internal morphology and structure generation-growth method, termed as the quartet structure generation set (QSGS), has been utilized based on the stochastic cluster growth theory for numerical generating the various microstructures of porous metal materials. • Effects of different parameters such as thickness and porosity on sound absorption performance of the generated structures are studied by the present method, and the obtained results are validated by an empirical model as well. • This method could be utilized to guide the design and fabrication of the sound-absorption porous metal materials. - Abstract: In this paper, a statistical method for predicting sound absorption properties of porous metal materials is presented. To reflect the stochastic distribution characteristics of the porous metal materials, a random internal morphology and structure generation-growth method, termed as the quartet structure generation set (QSGS), has been utilized based on the stochastic cluster growth theory for numerical generating the various microstructures of porous metal materials. Then by using the transfer-function approach along with the QSGS tool, we investigate the sound absorbing performance of porous metal materials with complex stochastic geometries. The statistical method has been validated by the good agreement among the numerical results for metal rubber from this method and a previous empirical model and the corresponding experimental data. Furthermore, the effects of different parameters such as thickness and porosity on sound absorption performance of the generated structures are studied by the present method, and the obtained results are validated by an empirical model as well. Therefore, the present method is a reliable and robust method for predicting the sound absorption performance of porous metal materials, and could be utilized to guide the design and fabrication of the sound-absorption porous metal materials

  4. Controlled Acoustic Bass System (CABS) A Method to Achieve Uniform Sound Field Distribution at Low Frequencies in Rectangular Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    The sound field produced by loudspeakers at low frequencies in small- and medium-size rectangular listening rooms is highly nonuniform due to the multiple reflections and diffractions of sound on the walls and different objects in the room. A new method, called controlled acoustic bass system (CA......-frequency range. CABS has been simulated and measured in two different standard listening rooms with satisfactory results....

  5. Modelling the Influence of Ground Surface Relief on Electric Sounding Curves Using the Integral Equations Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balgaisha Mukanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of electrical sounding of a medium with ground surface relief is modelled using the integral equations method. This numerical method is based on the triangulation of the computational domain, which is adapted to the shape of the relief and the measuring line. The numerical algorithm is tested by comparing the results with the known solution for horizontally layered media with two layers. Calculations are also performed to verify the fulfilment of the “reciprocity principle” for the 4-electrode installations in our numerical model. Simulations are then performed for a two-layered medium with a surface relief. The quantitative influences of the relief, the resistivity ratios of the contacting media, and the depth of the second layer on the apparent resistivity curves are established.

  6. Requirements for, and benefits of, environmentally sound and economically viable management of battery recycling in the Philippines in the wake of Basel Convention trade restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, U.; Wilson, B.

    The ban on the export of used lead-acid batteries (ULAB) from Annex VII to non-Annex VII countries pursuant to decision III/1 of the Basel Convention reduced the availability of imported scrap feedstock for battery recycling in the Philippines. As ULAB supply from other developing countries becomes scarcer, the ban is likely to encourage and enhance collection and recuperation for domestically generated scrap. From a short-term perspective, this study explores the technological and managerial opportunities for improving the environmental and occupational health performance of the formal battery recycling sector and unregulated reconditioning. From a medium- and long-term point of view, the study investigates restructuring the informal ULAB's collection and recycling sector. The objective has been to make the smaller battery recyclers and reconditioners in the informal sector part of an effective and efficient collection infrastructure that supports an environmentally sound secondary lead sector. This approach gradually phases out uncontrolled, inefficient and environmentally unacceptable methods of secondary lead recovery. Due attention has also been paid to the logistical peculiarities of an archipelago, in particular the regional spread of collection infrastructure, collection and shipment costs as well as the assurance of environmentally safe transport.

  7. Sampling method of environmental radioactivity monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This manual provides sampling methods of environmental samples of airborne dust, precipitated dust, precipitated water (rain or snow), fresh water, soil, river sediment or lake sediment, discharged water from a nuclear facility, grains, tea, milk, pasture grass, limnetic organisms, daily diet, index organisms, sea water, marine sediment, marine organisms, and that for tritium and radioiodine determination for radiation monitoring from radioactive fallout or radioactivity release by nuclear facilities. This manual aims at the presentation of standard sampling procedures for environmental radioactivity monitoring regardless of monitoring objectives, and shows preservation method of environmental samples acquired at the samplingpoint for radiation counting for those except human body. Sampling techniques adopted in this manual is decided by the criteria that they are suitable for routine monitoring and any special skillfulness is not necessary. Based on the above-mentioned principle, this manual presents outline and aims of sampling, sampling position or object, sampling quantity, apparatus, equipment or vessel for sampling, sampling location, sampling procedures, pretreatment and preparation procedures of a sample for radiation counting, necessary recording items for sampling and sample transportation procedures. Special attention is described in the chapter of tritium and radioiodine because these radionuclides might be lost by the above-mentioned sample preservation method for radiation counting of less volatile radionuclides than tritium or radioiodine. (Takagi, S.)

  8. Statistical Methods for Environmental Pollution Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Richard O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The application of statistics to environmental pollution monitoring studies requires a knowledge of statistical analysis methods particularly well suited to pollution data. This book fills that need by providing sampling plans, statistical tests, parameter estimation procedure techniques, and references to pertinent publications. Most of the statistical techniques are relatively simple, and examples, exercises, and case studies are provided to illustrate procedures. The book is logically divided into three parts. Chapters 1, 2, and 3 are introductory chapters. Chapters 4 through 10 discuss field sampling designs and Chapters 11 through 18 deal with a broad range of statistical analysis procedures. Some statistical techniques given here are not commonly seen in statistics book. For example, see methods for handling correlated data (Sections 4.5 and 11.12), for detecting hot spots (Chapter 10), and for estimating a confidence interval for the mean of a lognormal distribution (Section 13.2). Also, Appendix B lists a computer code that estimates and tests for trends over time at one or more monitoring stations using nonparametric methods (Chapters 16 and 17). Unfortunately, some important topics could not be included because of their complexity and the need to limit the length of the book. For example, only brief mention could be made of time series analysis using Box-Jenkins methods and of kriging techniques for estimating spatial and spatial-time patterns of pollution, although multiple references on these topics are provided. Also, no discussion of methods for assessing risks from environmental pollution could be included.

  9. Sound level of environmental music and drinking behavior: a field experiment with beer drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas; Jacob, Céline; Le Guellec, Hélène; Morineau, Thierry; Lourel, Marcel

    2008-10-01

    It had been found that environmental music was associated with an increase in alcohol consumption. The presence versus absence of music, high versus slow tempo and the different styles of environmental music is associated with different level of alcohol consumption. However, the effect of the level of the environmental music played in a bar still remained in question. Forty male beer drinkers were observed in a bar. According to a random distribution, patrons were exposed to the usual level of environmental music played in 2 bars where the experiment was carried out or were exposed to a high level. The results show that high level volume led to increase alcohol consumption and reduced the average amount of time spent by the patrons to drink their glass. The impact of environmental music on consumption was discussed and the "arousal" hypothesis and the negative effect of loud music on social interaction were used to explain our results.

  10. Reconstruction of Sound Source Pressures in an Enclosure Using the Phased Beam Tracing Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Ih, Jeong-Guon

    2009-01-01

    . First, surfaces of an extended source are divided into reasonably small segments. From each source segment, one beam is projected into the field and all emitted beams are traced. Radiated beams from the source reach array sensors after traveling various paths including the wall reflections. Collecting...... all the pressure histories at the field points, source-observer relations can be constructed in a matrix-vector form for each frequency. By multiplying the measured field data with the pseudo-inverse of the calculated transfer function, one obtains the distribution of source pressure. An omni......-directional sphere and a cubic source in a rectangular enclosure were taken as examples in the simulation tests. A reconstruction error was investigated by Monte Carlo simulation in terms of field point locations. When the source information was reconstructed by the present method, it was shown that the sound power...

  11. Potential environmental drivers of a regional blue mussel mass mortality event (winter of 2014, Breton Sound, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsenaere, Pierre; Soletchnik, Patrick; Le Moine, Olivier; Gohin, Francis; Robert, Stéphane; Pépin, Jean-François; Stanisière, Jean-Yves; Dumas, Franck; Béchemin, Christian; Goulletquer, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    In the context of global change, increasing mariculture production has raised particular concerns regarding its environmental impact and sustainability. Molluscs and particularly blue mussel account for a significant part of this total production. Although blue mussels are considered to be pretty resilient to environmental disturbances, we report in this study an unprecedented mussel mortality event that occurred during the winter of 2014 in the Breton Sound. 9000 metric tonnes of mussels were lost and mortality rates up to 100% were recorded at some farming areas. Through a coupling approach, the present work aims to better understand the potential environmental drivers associated with those mortalities. Firstly, we analysed long-term in situ and satellite data from environmental monitoring networks (available since 1998) to characterize the variability of seawater masses of the sound during the winter of 2014. Secondly, we used modelling simulations to study the possible relationship between seawater hydrodynamics and observed spatio-temporal patterns of mussel mortalities. From January to April 2014 at the long-line culture site where mortalities started, seawater temperatures ranged from 8.3 to 13.3 °C (10.2 ± 0.8 °C). Salinity and turbidity values showed successive and short drops (below 16; 29.3 ± 2.3) and numerous peaks (above 70 NTU; 17.4 ± 13.4 NTU) respectively. Winter conditions of 2014 were encountered along the entire French Atlantic coastline and linked to the sixth highest positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO +) index recorded since 1865. These particular environmental variations characterized the winter of 2014 but also others whereas no comparable mussel mortality rates were reported. Exact causes of the 2014 mortality event are still unknown but we showed these environmental variations could not alone be responsible. These have likely affected the sensitivity of the blue mussel populations that were already weakened by early spawning

  12. Effects of Listening to Music versus Environmental Sounds in Passive and Active Situations on Levels of Pain and Fatigue in Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadíe, Lolita; Mick, Gérard; Guétin, Stéphane; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2015-10-01

    In fibromyalgia, pain symptoms such as hyperalgesia and allodynia are associated with fatigue. Mechanisms underlying such symptoms can be modulated by listening to pleasant music. We expected that listening to music, because of its emotional impact, would have a greater modulating effect on the perception of pain and fatigue in patients with fibromyalgia than listening to nonmusical sounds. To investigate this hypothesis, we carried out a 4-week study in which patients with fibromyalgia listened to either preselected musical pieces or environmental sounds when they experienced pain in active (while carrying out a physical activity) or passive (at rest) situations. Concomitant changes of pain and fatigue levels were evaluated. When patients listened to music or environmental sounds at rest, pain and fatigue levels were significantly reduced after 20 minutes of listening, with no difference of effect magnitude between the two stimuli. This improvement persisted 10 minutes after the end of the listening session. In active situations, pain did not increase in presence of the two stimuli. Contrary to our expectations, music and environmental sounds produced a similar relieving effect on pain and fatigue, with no benefit gained by listening to pleasant music over environmental sounds. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 77 FR 61642 - National Environmental Policy Act; Sounding Rockets Program; Poker Flat Research Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... the sun-earth connection. Related Environmental Documents In recent years, concerns raised by agencies... these lands. BLM and USFWS are currently considering if and how future authorizations for rocket landing...

  14. Cortical regions activated by the subjective sense of perceptual coherence of environmental sounds: a proposal for a neuroscience of intuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Kirsten G; Rübsamen, Rudolf; von Cramon, D Yves

    2008-09-01

    According to the Oxford English Dictionary, intuition is "the ability to understand or know something immediately, without conscious reasoning." In other words, people continuously, without conscious attention, recognize patterns in the stream of sensations that impinge upon them. The result is a vague perception of coherence, which subsequently biases thought and behavior accordingly. Within the visual domain, research using paradigms with difficult recognition has suggested that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) serves as a fast detector and predictor of potential content that utilizes coarse facets of the input. To investigate whether the OFC is crucial in biasing task-specific processing, and hence subserves intuitive judgments in various modalities, we used a difficult-recognition paradigm in the auditory domain. Participants were presented with short sequences of distorted, nonverbal, environmental sounds and had to perform a sound categorization task. Imaging results revealed rostral medial OFC activation for such auditory intuitive coherence judgments. By means of a conjunction analysis between the present results and those from a previous study on visual intuitive coherence judgments, the rostral medial OFC was shown to be activated via both modalities. We conclude that rostral OFC activation during intuitive coherence judgments subserves the detection of potential content on the basis of only coarse facets of the input.

  15. THE ENVIRONMENTAL LEGACY OF THE IXTOC-I OIL SPILL IN CAMPECHE SOUND, SOUTHWESTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Arturo Soto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The southwestern Gulf of Mexico constitutes an important subsystem within a Large Marine Ecosystem. Due to its high biodiversity, living resources and energy resources, this region is strategic in the national plans for social and economic development of Mexico. The discovery of fossil fuel reserves in the seabed of Campeche Sound in the 1970s promoted the rapid expansion of the national oil industry in offshore waters. Unfortunately, the accidental blowout of the most productive well (Ixtoc-I in June of 1979, caused the first–world massive oil spill in a tropical marine environment. More than 3.4 million of barrels of crude oil were liberated in an ecosystem formerly renowned for its pristine conditions. In the aftermath of this dreadful accident, an immediate concern emerged not only for the oil acute effects but also for the long-term environmental consequences derived from the residual hydrocarbon compounds accumulated in coastal environments of the southern Gulf of Mexico. The attempts to assess the magnitude of the environmental damage were strongly precluded by the lack of pre-spill information. Natural variability in the ecosystem and oil weathering-factors contributed to attenuate the acute pollution effects that lasted nine months. However, the post-spill environmental alterations caused by the Ixtoc-I blowout still remain unanswered. The sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil platform in the deep-waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico, in 2010 rekindled our concern for the great risk involved for human lives and the health of shallow and deep sea habitats. The authors of this contribution offer their views on this environmental riddle from their own perspective as direct witnesses of the Ixtoc-I environmental tragedy.

  16. Enlisting qualitative methods to improve environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental monitoring tracks ecological changes in order to support environmental management decisions. Monitoring design is driven by natural scientists, usually lacking a formal social science basis. However, human perspectives drive environmental resource decisions, with ...

  17. Suspended sediment assessment by combining sound attenuation and backscatter measurements - analytical method and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Massimo; Di Federico, Vittorio

    2018-03-01

    The use of acoustic techniques has become common for estimating suspended sediment in water environments. An emitted beam propagates into water producing backscatter and attenuation, which depend on scattering particles concentration and size distribution. Unfortunately, the actual particles size distribution (PSD) may largely affect the accuracy of concentration quantification through the unknown coefficients of backscattering strength, ks2, and normalized attenuation, ζs. This issue was partially solved by applying the multi-frequency approach. Despite this possibility, a relevant scientific and practical question remains regarding the possibility of using acoustic methods to investigate poorly sorted sediment in the spectrum ranging from clay to fine sand. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of combining the measurement of sound attenuation and backscatter to determine ζs for the suspended particles and the corresponding concentration. The proposed method is moderately dependent from actual PSD, thus relaxing the need of frequent calibrations to account for changes in ks2 and ζs coefficients. Laboratory tests were conducted under controlled conditions to validate this measurement technique. With respect to existing approaches, the developed method more accurately estimates the concentration of suspended particles ranging from clay to fine sand and, at the same time, gives an indication on their actual PSD.

  18. Computational simulation in architectural and environmental acoustics methods and applications of wave-based computation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, Shinichi; Otsuru, Toru

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews a variety of methods for wave-based acoustic simulation and recent applications to architectural and environmental acoustic problems. Following an introduction providing an overview of computational simulation of sound environment, the book is in two parts: four chapters on methods and four chapters on applications. The first part explains the fundamentals and advanced techniques for three popular methods, namely, the finite-difference time-domain method, the finite element method, and the boundary element method, as well as alternative time-domain methods. The second part demonstrates various applications to room acoustics simulation, noise propagation simulation, acoustic property simulation for building components, and auralization. This book is a valuable reference that covers the state of the art in computational simulation for architectural and environmental acoustics.  

  19. A home automation based environmental sound alert for people experiencing hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Matthias; Bruck, Rainer

    2016-08-01

    Different assistive technologies are available for deaf people (i.e. deaf, deafened, and hard of hearing). Besides the well-known hearing aid, devices for detection of sound events that occur at home or at work (e.g. doorbell, telephone) are available. Despite the technological progress in the last years and resulting new possibilities, the basic functions and concepts of such devices have not changed. The user still needs special assistive technology that is bound to the home or work environment. In this contribution a new concept for awareness of events in buildings is presented. In contrast to state-of-the-art assistive devices, it makes use of modern Information and Communication and home automation technology, and thus offers the prospect of cheap implementation and higher comfort for the user. In this concept events are indicated by notifications that are send over a Bluetooth Low Energy mesh network from a source to the user. The notifications are received by the user's smartwatch and the event is indicated by vibration and an icon representing its source.

  20. Methods and Metrics for Evaluating Environmental Dredging ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the objectives, approach, methodologies, results, and interpretation of a collaborative research study conducted by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) and the National Exposure Research laboratory (NERL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA’s) Office of Research and Development (ORD) and the U.S. EPA’s Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO). The objectives of the research study were to: 1) evaluate remedy effectiveness of environmental dredging as applied to contaminated sediments in the Ashtabula River in northeastern Ohio, and 2) monitor the recovery of the surrounding ecosystem. The project was carried out over 6 years from 2006 through 2011 and consisted of the development and evaluation of methods and approaches to assess river and ecosystem conditions prior to dredging (2006), during dredging (2006 and 2007), and following dredging, both short term (2008) and long term (2009-2011). This project report summarizes and interprets the results of this 6-year study to develop and assess methods for monitoring pollutant fate and transport and ecosystem recovery through the use of biological, chemical, and physical lines of evidence (LOEs) such as: 1) comprehensive sampling of and chemical analysis of contaminants in surface, suspended, and historic sediments; 2) extensive grab and multi-level real time water sampling and analysis of contaminants in the water column; 3) sampling, chemi

  1. On - Site Assessment Methods For Environmental Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrinec, B.; Babic, D.; Bituh, T.

    2015-01-01

    A method for the rapid determination of radioactivity in cases of release into the environment as well as in cases of nuclear/radiological accidents is described. These measurements would enable a direct risk assessment for humans and biota, without any sampling and at a considerably larger number of locations than in previous studies. Thus obtained, the substantially expanded dataset is expected to shed more light on the properties of environmental radioactivity both in the region studied and in other similar areas. Field measurements will be performed and samples of soil and biota will be collected in order to compare field results with laboratory measurements. Once the method has been validated, previously unexplored locations will be included in the study. Our measurements at numerous locations will also provide control values for comparison in cases of any unplanned or accidental radiological event. An assessment of the possible effects of radionuclide concentrations on the human food chain and biota will be performed within the appropriate models used worldwide exactly for this purpose. In this way, the project should contribute to regional, European, and global efforts towards understanding the radiological impact on ecosystems. Field measurements will also address certain issues in the environmental metrology of radioactive substances, e.g., simultaneous determination of activity concentrations and related dose rates. This will serve as a tool for rapid risk assessment in emergency situations. (author).

  2. Material sound source localization through headphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunai, Larisa; Peris-Fajarnes, Guillermo; Lengua, Ismael Lengua; Montaña, Ignacio Tortajada

    2012-09-01

    In the present paper a study of sound localization is carried out, considering two different sounds emitted from different hit materials (wood and bongo) as well as a Delta sound. The motivation of this research is to study how humans localize sounds coming from different materials, with the purpose of a future implementation of the acoustic sounds with better localization features in navigation aid systems or training audio-games suited for blind people. Wood and bongo sounds are recorded after hitting two objects made of these materials. Afterwards, they are analysed and processed. On the other hand, the Delta sound (click) is generated by using the Adobe Audition software, considering a frequency of 44.1 kHz. All sounds are analysed and convolved with previously measured non-individual Head-Related Transfer Functions both for an anechoic environment and for an environment with reverberation. The First Choice method is used in this experiment. Subjects are asked to localize the source position of the sound listened through the headphones, by using a graphic user interface. The analyses of the recorded data reveal that no significant differences are obtained either when considering the nature of the sounds (wood, bongo, Delta) or their environmental context (with or without reverberation). The localization accuracies for the anechoic sounds are: wood 90.19%, bongo 92.96% and Delta sound 89.59%, whereas for the sounds with reverberation the results are: wood 90.59%, bongo 92.63% and Delta sound 90.91%. According to these data, we can conclude that even when considering the reverberation effect, the localization accuracy does not significantly increase.

  3. Continuous Re-Exposure to Environmental Sound Cues During Sleep Does Not Improve Memory for Semantically Unrelated Word Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Kelly C; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2011-06-01

    Two recent studies illustrated that cues present during encoding can enhance recall if re-presented during sleep. This suggests an academic strategy. Such effects have only been demonstrated with spatial learning and cue presentation was isolated to slow wave sleep (SWS). The goal of this study was to examine whether sounds enhance sleep-dependent consolidation of a semantic task if the sounds are re-presented continuously during sleep. Participants encoded a list of word pairs in the evening and recall was probed following an interval with overnight sleep. Participants encoded the pairs with the sound of "the ocean" from a sound machine. The first group slept with this sound; the second group slept with a different sound ("rain"); and the third group slept with no sound. Sleeping with sound had no impact on subsequent recall. Although a null result, this work provides an important test of the implications of context effects on sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

  4. Distribution of juvenile Pacific herring relative to environmental and geospatial factors in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandoski, Sean; Bishop, Mary Anne

    2018-01-01

    Documenting distribution patterns of juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) can clarify habitat preferences and provide insight into ecological factors influencing early life survival. However, few analyses relating juvenile Pacific herring density to habitat characteristics have been conducted. We sampled age-0 Pacific herring in nine bays and fjords distributed throughout Alaska's Prince William Sound during November over a 3-year period (2013-2015) and investigated associations between catch rate and habitat covariates using generalized linear mixed models. Our results indicated that the night-time distribution of age-0 Pacific herring in the pelagic environment was influenced by proximity to eelgrass (Zostera marina) beds, salinity, and water depth. Age-0 Pacific herring catch rate was negatively associated with tow depth, with herring favoring shallower water across the range of depths sampled (7.2-35.4 m). In addition, Pacific herring distribution was positively associated with fresher water within the sampled salinity gradient (24.1-32.3 psu) and proximity to eelgrass beds. Seasonal changes in juvenile Pacific herring distribution were investigated by sampling one bay over a seven month period (October-April). Age-0 Pacific herring tended to remain in the inner bay region throughout the seven months, while age-1 Pacific herring had shifted from the inner to the outer bay by spring (March-April). Additionally, catch rate of age-0 Pacific herring in areas where ice breakup had just occurred was higher than in open water, suggesting that age-0 herring preferentially select ice-covered habitats when available. Based on our results we recommend that habitat preferences of age-0 Pacific herring should be considered in the development of Pacific herring year-class strength indices from catch data.

  5. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F.W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1997-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  6. Coal and wood fuel for electricity production: An environmentally sound solution for waste and demolition wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninks, F W.M. [EPON, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    Waste wood from primary wood processing and demolition presents both a problem and a potential. If disposed in landfills, it consumes large volumes and decays, producing CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases. As an energy source used in a coal fired power plant it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels reducing the greenhouse effect significantly. Additional advantages are a reduction of the ash volume and the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. The waste wood requires collection, storage, processing and burning. This paper describes a unique project which is carried out in the Netherlands at EPON`s Gelderland Power Plant (635 MW{sub e}) where 60 000 tonnes of waste and demolition wood will be used annually. Special emphasis is given to the processing of the powdered wood fuel. Therefore, most waste and demolition wood can be converted from an environmental liability to an environmental and economic asset. (author)

  7. Environmental applications of manometric respirometric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roppola, K.

    2009-07-01

    In this work a manometric respirometric measuring system was applied to practical environmental cases related to wastewater management and biodegradation studies of oil-contaminated soils and materials used in landfill structures. Pollution of groundwater, surface water and soils is a worldwide problem. Therefore, tests simulating the biodegradation behaviour of organic compounds in water media and soils have become increasingly important. Respirometric methods provide direct measurement of the oxygen consumed by micro-organisms in biodegradation processes from an air or oxygen-enriched environment in a closed vessel. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a crucial environmental parameter used to measure the quality of water and treatment results in wastewater. Generally, BOD is measured with standardised methods, which are usually time-consuming as well as laborious. In this work the manometric respirometric test was compared with conventional BOD tests by determining the BOD of pulp and paper mills as well as domestic wastewater samples. The effect of different factors such as type, amount and pre-treatment of inoculum and the effect of dilution of a sample on the BOD values were also tested. A right dilution was noticed to be the most significant factor affecting the BOD values of the industrial wastewater samples. The mathematic estimation of the BOD7 values from the respirometric data was proved to work reliably after a 2-3 day incubation period. Characterisation of organic fractions of the pulp and paper mill wastewater was carried out with methods including filtration, long term BOD measurements and COD analyses. The most significant observation in characterisation analyses was that a remarkable part of the detected oxygen demand was consumed for the biotransformation of biodegradable fractions into new inert decomposition products, not only for mineralisation of the biodegradable COD fraction. Biodegradation behaviour of the peat samples with different

  8. Fractal dimension to classify the heart sound recordings with KNN and fuzzy c-mean clustering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniati, D.; Khotimah, C.; Wardani, D. E. K.; Budayasa, K.

    2018-01-01

    The heart abnormalities can be detected from heart sound. A heart sound can be heard directly with a stethoscope or indirectly by a phonocardiograph, a machine of the heart sound recording. This paper presents the implementation of fractal dimension theory to make a classification of phonocardiograms into a normal heart sound, a murmur, or an extrasystole. The main algorithm used to calculate the fractal dimension was Higuchi’s Algorithm. There were two steps to make a classification of phonocardiograms, feature extraction, and classification. For feature extraction, we used Discrete Wavelet Transform to decompose the signal of heart sound into several sub-bands depending on the selected level. After the decomposition process, the signal was processed using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to determine the spectral frequency. The fractal dimension of the FFT output was calculated using Higuchi Algorithm. The classification of fractal dimension of all phonocardiograms was done with KNN and Fuzzy c-mean clustering methods. Based on the research results, the best accuracy obtained was 86.17%, the feature extraction by DWT decomposition level 3 with the value of kmax 50, using 5-fold cross validation and the number of neighbors was 5 at K-NN algorithm. Meanwhile, for fuzzy c-mean clustering, the accuracy was 78.56%.

  9. Multimodal method for scattering of sound at a sudden area expansion in a duct with subsonic flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, G.; Testud, P.; Aurégan, Y.; Hirschberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    The scattering of sound at a sudden area expansion in a duct with subsonic mean flow has been modelled with a multimodal method. Technological applications are for instance internal combustion engine exhaust silencers and silencers in industrial duct systems. Both two-dimensional (2D) rectangular

  10. Three-Dimensional Elasticity Solutions for Sound Radiation of Functionally Graded Materials Plates considering State Space Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieliang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study for sound radiation of functionally graded materials (FGM plate based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity. The FGM plate is a mixture of metal and ceramic, and its material properties are assumed to have smooth and continuous variation in the thickness direction according to a power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of the constituents. Based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity and state space method, the governing equations with variable coefficients of the FGM plate are derived. The sound radiation of the vibration plate is calculated with Rayleigh integral. Comparisons of the present results with those of solutions in the available literature are made and good agreements are achieved. Finally, some parametric studies are carried out to investigate the sound radiation properties of FGM plates.

  11. Simple indicator to identify the environmental soundness of growth of consumption and technology: "eco-velocity of consumption".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansai, Keisuke; Kagawa, Shigemi; Suh, Sangwon; Inaba, Rokuta; Moriguchi, Yuichi

    2007-02-15

    Today's material welfare has been achieved at the expense of consumption of finite resources and generation of environmental burdens. Over the past few decades the volume of global consumption has grown dramatically, while at the same time technological advances have enabled products with greater efficiencies. These two directions of change, consumption growth and technological advance, are the foci of the present paper. Using quantitative measures for these two factors, we define a new indicator, "eco-velocity of consumption", analogous to velocity in physics. The indicator not only identifies the environmental soundness of consumption growth and technological advance but also indicates whether and to what extent our society is shifting toward sustainable consumption. This study demonstrates the practicability of the indicator through a case study in which we calculate the eco-velocities of Japanese household consumption in 2 years: 1995 and 2000. The rate of technological advance during the periods concerned is quantified in terms of the embodied carbon dioxide emission per yen of product. The results show that the current growth rate of Japanese household consumption is greater than the rate of technological advance to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. The eco-velocities at the level of individual commodity groups are also examined, and the sources of changes in eco-velocity for each commodity are identified using structural decomposition analysis.

  12. Social and environmental sustainability in large-scale coastal zones: Taking an issue-based approach to the implementation of the Prince William Sound sustainable human use framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale J. Blahna; Aaron Poe; Courtney Brown; Clare M. Ryan; H. Randy Gimblett

    2017-01-01

    Following the grounding of the Exxon Valdez in 1989, a sustainable human use framework (human use framework) for Prince William Sound (PWS), AK was developed by the Chugach National Forest after concerns emerged about the social and environmental impacts of expanding human use due to cleanup activities and increased recreation visitation. A practical, issue-based...

  13. Higuchi’s Method applied to detection of changes in timbre of digital sound synthesis of string instruments with the functional transformation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanapen, Manorth; Kunsombat, Cherdsak; Chiangga, Surasak

    2017-09-01

    The functional transformation method (FTM) is a powerful tool for detailed investigation of digital sound synthesis by the physical modeling method, the resulting sound or measured vibrational characteristics at discretized points on real instruments directly solves the underlying physical effect of partial differential equation (PDE). In this paper, we present the Higuchi’s method to examine the difference between the timbre of tone and estimate fractal dimension of musical signals which contains information about their geometrical structure that synthesizes by FTM. With the Higuchi’s method we obtain the whole process is not complicated, fast processing, with the ease of analysis without expertise in the physics or virtuoso musicians and the easiest way for the common people can judge that sounds similarly presented.

  14. A strategy for an advanced nuclear-electric sector - proliferation-proof, environmentally-sound, economical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    A strategy is proposed for deployment of an advanced nuclear-electric power sector that is ultimately fueled only by recycled uranium. The sector is optimized on a system basis to meet several objectives in the context of international safeguards against diversion of plutonium and proliferation of nuclear weapons. These objectives include: generation of electric power efficiently and economically; performance with utmost predictable safety; minimization of environmental impacts through conservation of natural resources, consumption of actinides and long-lived fission products, and responsible disposal of unavoidable waste; and consumption of spent fuel from currently used reactors. (author)

  15. A Survey of Sound Source Localization Methods in Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Cobos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless acoustic sensor networks (WASNs are formed by a distributed group of acoustic-sensing devices featuring audio playing and recording capabilities. Current mobile computing platforms offer great possibilities for the design of audio-related applications involving acoustic-sensing nodes. In this context, acoustic source localization is one of the application domains that have attracted the most attention of the research community along the last decades. In general terms, the localization of acoustic sources can be achieved by studying energy and temporal and/or directional features from the incoming sound at different microphones and using a suitable model that relates those features with the spatial location of the source (or sources of interest. This paper reviews common approaches for source localization in WASNs that are focused on different types of acoustic features, namely, the energy of the incoming signals, their time of arrival (TOA or time difference of arrival (TDOA, the direction of arrival (DOA, and the steered response power (SRP resulting from combining multiple microphone signals. Additionally, we discuss methods not only aimed at localizing acoustic sources but also designed to locate the nodes themselves in the network. Finally, we discuss current challenges and frontiers in this field.

  16. Identification of aquifer potential in Karanganyar city by using vertical electrical sounding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfuatik, L.; Koesuma, S.; Legowo, B.; Darsono

    2018-03-01

    The identification of aquifer was done by using Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method. This research aims to identify potential and depth of the aquifers. The locations of surveys are at ten points,namely TS1 (Alastuwo), TS2 (Wonorejo), TS3 (Kaling), TS4 (Kaling), TS5 (Buran), TS6 (Wonolopo), TS7 (Buran), TS8 (Ngijo), TS9 (Jati), and TS10 (Suruhkalang) where all located in Karanganyar regency. The survey path is about 500-600 meters length which can penetrate current to 100 – 200 meters in depth. The measurement was done by using OYO Mc OHM-EL Model 2119C. Geoelectrical data analysis was processed using Progress version 3.0 Software. The interpretation result shows that the locations of research area are included in Lawu-volcano rock formation which is breccias, lava, and tuff as the constituents. We found that unconfined aquifer in all of locations with different depth and confined aquifer just 7 locations start from 25.04 meters.

  17. Environmental psychology: history, scope and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L.; Berg, van den A.E.; Groot, de J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to give an introduction in environmental psychology. We defi ne environmental psychology as the discipline that studies the interplay between individuals and their built and natural environment. This means that environmental psychology examines the infl uence of the environment on

  18. What Constitutes a Phrase in Sound-Based Music? A Mixed-Methods Investigation of Perception and Acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kirk N; Dean, Roger T; Leung, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Phrasing facilitates the organization of auditory information and is central to speech and music. Not surprisingly, aspects of changing intensity, rhythm, and pitch are key determinants of musical phrases and their boundaries in instrumental note-based music. Different kinds of speech (such as tone- vs. stress-languages) share these features in different proportions and form an instructive comparison. However, little is known about whether or how musical phrasing is perceived in sound-based music, where the basic musical unit from which a piece is created is commonly non-instrumental continuous sounds, rather than instrumental discontinuous notes. This issue forms the target of the present paper. Twenty participants (17 untrained in music) were presented with six stimuli derived from sound-based music, note-based music, and environmental sound. Their task was to indicate each occurrence of a perceived phrase and qualitatively describe key characteristics of the stimulus associated with each phrase response. It was hypothesized that sound-based music does elicit phrase perception, and that this is primarily associated with temporal changes in intensity and timbre, rather than rhythm and pitch. Results supported this hypothesis. Qualitative analysis of participant descriptions showed that for sound-based music, the majority of perceived phrases were associated with intensity or timbral change. For the note-based piano piece, rhythm was the main theme associated with perceived musical phrasing. We modeled the occurrence in time of perceived musical phrases with recurrent event 'hazard' analyses using time-series data representing acoustic predictors associated with intensity, spectral flatness, and rhythmic density. Acoustic intensity and timbre (represented here by spectral flatness) were strong predictors of perceived musical phrasing in sound-based music, and rhythm was only predictive for the piano piece. A further analysis including five additional spectral

  19. A novel method for direct localized sound speed measurement using the virtual source paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byram, Brett; Trahey, Gregg E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2007-01-01

    ) mediums. The inhomogeneous mediums were arranged as an oil layer, one 6 mm thick and the other 11 mm thick, on top of a water layer. To complement the phantom studies, sources of error for spatial registration of virtual detectors were simulated. The sources of error presented here are multiple sound...... registered virtual detector. Between a pair of registered virtual detectors a spherical wave is propagated. By beamforming the received data the time of flight between the two virtual sources can be calculated. From this information the local sound speed can be estimated. Validation of the estimator used...... both phantom and simulation results. The phantom consisted of two wire targets located near the transducer's axis at depths of 17 and 28 mm. Using this phantom the sound speed between the wires was measured for a homogeneous (water) medium and for two inhomogeneous (DB-grade castor oil and water...

  20. Effects of shoreline treatment methods on intertidal biota in Prince William Sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, D.C.; Houghton, J.P.; Driskell, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    Several studies conducted in Prince William Sound during 1989 were directed at assessing short term biological effects of treatment methods considered or employed for treating oil contaminated beaches. The four treatment alternatives evaluated in this paper are: low pressure warm water wash (LP-WW); high pressure hot water wash (HP-HW); the dispersant Corexit 7664; and the beach cleaner Corexit 9580 M2. Effects on the biota were assessed primarily on the basis of changes in the abundance of dominant taxa and the magnitude of selected community attributes (such as percent cover by algae or animals, and number of taxa). Significant reductions in one or more community or population attributes, and increases in the percent of dead mussels were observed in response to all types of treatment but the strongest and most consistent effects were observed following high pressure hot water treatment, which was also accompanied by heavy mortality in rockweed. Generally, the programs were not designed to discriminate among the potential causes of damage. However, available data suggest that neither chemical nor LP-WW treatments caused significant thermal impacts in the intertidal biota. In contrast, temperature appeared to cause significant mortality in the dominant plants and grazing and filter-feeding animals in HP-HW treatment sites. Observations of displacement and mortality for clams and mussels suggest that physical effects may be substantial in some cases. Of the types of treatment examined, dispersant and beach cleaner treatments appeared to be accompanied with the smallest number of significant changes in abundance; however, this conclusion is weak because the LP-WW wash accompanying chemical applications during the tests was sometimes less rigorous than when performed by itself. LP-WW treatment was accompanied by an intermediate level of changes whereas HP-HW treatment was accompanied with the highest percentage of changes, nearly all of which were decreases

  1. Hydraulic transmissivity determination for the groundwater exploration using vertical electric sounding method in comparison to the traditional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, M.; Shakoor, A.; Ahmad, M.

    2013-01-01

    An important aquifer characteristic, transmissivity significantly contributes to the development of local and regional groundwater resources and solute transport management. Estimation of this property allows quantitative prediction of the hydraulic response and solute transport of the aquifer to recharge and pumping. This study presents the three techniques, used to compare transmissivity determination by Vertical Electric Sounding (VES) over the traditional techniques. The validation of VES was compared with the old widely used methods such as grain size distribution and pumping test techniques. Grain size distribution analysis was carried out to determine transmissivity. Pumping test was performed to determine transmissivity using the type curves solution for unconfined aquifer and taking into account the delayed yield. In resistivity imaging survey, the soil layers were detected through interpretation of resistivity data. Formation factor for each layer was determined with the relation of aquifer soil resistivity and ground water resistivity. The estimated transmissivities though grain size distribution, pumping test and resistivity survey were 0.588, 0.578 and 0.756m/sup 2//min, respectively. The results emphasized the potential of the resistivity survey for aquifer transmissivity determination. (author)

  2. Environmental monitoring well housing and protection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenner, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for housing and protecting an environmental monitoring well having a well pipe disposed in a well bore with an upper and extending toward the surface of the ground. It comprises: placing an enclosure ins aid well bore around the upper end of the well pipe, the enclosure being of unitary construction and having an upper opening, a lower opening and an inwardly-protruding ledge between the upper opening and the lower opening, placing sealing means in the well bore between the outter surface of the well pipe and the inner surface of the enclosure, the sealing means being a composition distinct from the well pipe; placing on the ledge a flexible gasket having a shape substantially identical to the shape of the surface of the ledge; placing on the gasket within the enclosure a cover having an upper surface and a peripheral shape substantially identical to the shape of the interior of the enclosure, and attaching the cover to the enclosure so that the upper opening of the enclosure and the upper surface of the cover are substantially flush with the surface of the ground

  3. The impact of architectural design upon the environmental sound and light exposure of neonates who require intensive care: an evaluation of the Boekelheide Neonatal Intensive Care Nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, D C; Akram Khan, M; Munson, D P; Reid, E J; Helseth, C C; Buggy, J

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the differences in environmental sound, illumination and physiological parameters in the Boekelheide Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (BNICU), which was designed to comply with current recommendations and standards, as compared with a conventional neonatal intensive care unit (CNICU). Prospectively designed observational study. Median sound levels in the unoccupied BNICU (37.6 dBA) were lower than the CNICU (42.1 dBA, P<0.001). Median levels of minimum (6.4 vs 48.4 lux, P<0.05) and maximum illumination (357 vs 402 lux, P<0.05) were lower in the BNICU. A group of six neonates delivered at 32 weeks gestation showed significantly less periodic breathing (14 vs 21%) and awake time (17.6 vs 29.3%) in the BNICU as compared to the CNICU. Light and sound were both significantly reduced in the BNICU. Care in the BNICU was associated with improved physiological parameters.

  4. Sound Waste Management Plan environmental operations, and used oil management system: Restoration project 97115. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report: Volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This project constitutes Phase 2 of the Sound Waste Management Plan and created waste oil collection and disposal facilities, bilge water collection and disposal facilities, recycling storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage facilities in Prince William Sound. A wide range of waste streams are generated within communities in the Sound including used oil generated from vehicles and vessels, and hazardous wastes generated by households. This project included the design and construction of Environmental Operations Stations buildings in Valdez, Cordova, Whittier, Chenega Bay and Tatitlek to improve the overall management of oily wastes. They will house new equipment to facilitate oily waste collection, treatment and disposal. This project also included completion of used oil management manuals.

  5. Sound Waste Management Plan environmental operations, and used oil management system: Restoration project 97115. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report: Volumes 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This project constitutes Phase 2 of the Sound Waste Management Plan and created waste oil collection and disposal facilities, bilge water collection and disposal facilities, recycling storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage, and household hazardous waste collection and storage facilities in Prince William Sound. A wide range of waste streams are generated within communities in the Sound including used oil generated from vehicles and vessels, and hazardous wastes generated by households. This project included the design and construction of Environmental Operations Stations buildings in Valdez, Cordova, Whittier, Chenega Bay and Tatitlek to improve the overall management of oily wastes. They will house new equipment to facilitate oily waste collection, treatment and disposal. This project also included completion of used oil management manuals

  6. Sound algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    De Götzen , Amalia; Mion , Luca; Tache , Olivier

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We call sound algorithms the categories of algorithms that deal with digital sound signal. Sound algorithms appeared in the very infancy of computer. Sound algorithms present strong specificities that are the consequence of two dual considerations: the properties of the digital sound signal itself and its uses, and the properties of auditory perception.

  7. Computer science handbook. Vol. 13.3. Environmental computer science. Computer science methods for environmental protection and environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, B.; Hilty, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental computer science is a new partial discipline of applied computer science, which makes use of methods and techniques of information processing in environmental protection. Thanks to the inter-disciplinary nature of environmental problems, computer science acts as a mediator between numerous disciplines and institutions in this sector. The handbook reflects the broad spectrum of state-of-the art environmental computer science. The following important subjects are dealt with: Environmental databases and information systems, environmental monitoring, modelling and simulation, visualization of environmental data and knowledge-based systems in the environmental sector. (orig.) [de

  8. Critical Analysis of Methods for Integrating Economic and Environmental Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguet Ferran, Pau; Heijungs, Reinout; Vogtländer, Joost G.

    2018-01-01

    The application of environmental strategies requires scoring and evaluation methods that provide an integrated vision of the economic and environmental performance of systems. The vector optimisation, ratio and weighted addition of indicators are the three most prevalent techniques for addressing

  9. Energy-based method for near-real time modeling of sound field in complex urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasareanu, Stephanie M; Remillieux, Marcel C; Burdisso, Ricardo A

    2012-12-01

    Prediction of the sound field in large urban environments has been limited thus far by the heavy computational requirements of conventional numerical methods such as boundary element (BE) or finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods. Recently, a considerable amount of work has been devoted to developing energy-based methods for this application, and results have shown the potential to compete with conventional methods. However, these developments have been limited to two-dimensional (2-D) studies (along street axes), and no real description of the phenomena at issue has been exposed. Here the mathematical theory of diffusion is used to predict the sound field in 3-D complex urban environments. A 3-D diffusion equation is implemented by means of a simple finite-difference scheme and applied to two different types of urban configurations. This modeling approach is validated against FDTD and geometrical acoustic (GA) solutions, showing a good overall agreement. The role played by diffraction near buildings edges close to the source is discussed, and suggestions are made on the possibility to predict accurately the sound field in complex urban environments, in near real time simulations.

  10. Separation of non-stationary multi-source sound field based on the interpolated time-domain equivalent source method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chuan-Xing; Geng, Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Zheng

    2016-05-01

    In the sound field with multiple non-stationary sources, the measured pressure is the sum of the pressures generated by all sources, and thus cannot be used directly for studying the vibration and sound radiation characteristics of every source alone. This paper proposes a separation model based on the interpolated time-domain equivalent source method (ITDESM) to separate the pressure field belonging to every source from the non-stationary multi-source sound field. In the proposed method, ITDESM is first extended to establish the relationship between the mixed time-dependent pressure and all the equivalent sources distributed on every source with known location and geometry information, and all the equivalent source strengths at each time step are solved by an iterative solving process; then, the corresponding equivalent source strengths of one interested source are used to calculate the pressure field generated by that source alone. Numerical simulation of two baffled circular pistons demonstrates that the proposed method can be effective in separating the non-stationary pressure generated by every source alone in both time and space domains. An experiment with two speakers in a semi-anechoic chamber further evidences the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Prediction of radiation ratio and sound transmission of complex extruded panel using wavenumber domain Unite element and boundary element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H; Ryue, J; Thompson, D J; Müller, A D

    2016-01-01

    Recently, complex shaped aluminium panels have been adopted in many structures to make them lighter and stronger. The vibro-acoustic behaviour of these complex panels has been of interest for many years but conventional finite element and boundary element methods are not efficient to predict their performance at higher frequencies. Where the cross-sectional properties of the panels are constant in one direction, wavenumber domain numerical analysis can be applied and this becomes more suitable for panels with complex cross-sectional geometries. In this paper, a coupled wavenumber domain finite element and boundary element method is applied to predict the sound radiation from and sound transmission through a double-layered aluminium extruded panel, having a typical shape used in railway carriages. The predicted results are compared with measured ones carried out on a finite length panel and good agreement is found. (paper)

  12. A study of methods of prediction and measurement of the transmission sound through the walls of light aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssen, B.; Wang, Y. S.; Crocker, M. J.

    1981-12-01

    Several aspects were studied. The SEA theory was used to develop a theoretical model to predict the transmission loss through an aircraft window. This work mainly consisted of the writing of two computer programs. One program predicts the sound transmission through a plexiglass window (the case of a single partition). The other program applies to the case of a plexiglass window window with a window shade added (the case of a double partition with an air gap). The sound transmission through a structure was measured in experimental studies using several different methods in order that the accuracy and complexity of all the methods could be compared. Also, the measurements were conducted on the simple model of a fuselage (a cylindrical shell), on a real aircraft fuselage, and on stiffened panels.

  13. Method and system for environmentally adaptive fault tolerant computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copenhaver, Jason L. (Inventor); Jeremy, Ramos (Inventor); Wolfe, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Brenner, Dean (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method and system for adapting fault tolerant computing. The method includes the steps of measuring an environmental condition representative of an environment. An on-board processing system's sensitivity to the measured environmental condition is measured. It is determined whether to reconfigure a fault tolerance of the on-board processing system based in part on the measured environmental condition. The fault tolerance of the on-board processing system may be reconfigured based in part on the measured environmental condition.

  14. Comparative study of environmental impact assessment methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... 3Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. .... lines in a virtual place aiming at goals opportunity. .... available to show the reality of quantitative model.

  15. Method for environmental risk analysis (MIRA) revision 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    OLF's instruction manual for carrying out environmental risk analyses provides a united approach and a common framework for environmental risk assessments. This is based on the best information available. The manual implies standardizations of a series of parameters, input data and partial analyses that are included in the environmental risk analysis. Environmental risk analyses carried out according to the MIRA method will thus be comparable between fields and between companies. In this revision an update of the text in accordance with today's practice for environmental risk analyses and prevailing regulations is emphasized. Moreover, method adjustments for especially protected beach habitats have been introduced, as well as a general method for estimating environmental risk concerning fish. Emphasis has also been put on improving environmental risk analysis' possibilities to contribute to a better management of environmental risk in the companies (ml)

  16. Environmental Chemistry Methods (ECM) Index - 0-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratories use testing methods to identify pesticides in water and soil. Environmental chemistry methods test soil and water samples to determine the fate of pesticides in the environment. Find methods for chemicals with a number as the first character.

  17. Modeling and Eigenfrequency Analysis of Sound-Structure Interaction in a Rectangular Enclosure with Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mohamady

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration of structures due to external sound is one of the main causes of interior noise in cavities like automobile, aircraft, and rotorcraft, which disturb the comfort of passengers. Accurate modelling of such phenomena is required in eigenfrequency analysis and in designing an active noise control system to reduce the interior noise. In this paper, the effect of periodic noise travelling into a rectangular enclosure is investigated with finite element method (FEM using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The periodic acoustic wave is generated by a point source outside the enclosure and propagated through the enclosure wall and excites an aluminium flexible panel clamped onto the enclosure. The behaviour of the transmission of sound into the cavity is investigated by computing the modal characteristics and the natural frequencies of the cavity. The simulation results are compared with previous analytical and experimental works for validation and an acceptable match between them were obtained.

  18. Assessment of chemical exposures: calculation methods for environmental professionals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daugherty, Jack E

    1997-01-01

    ... on by scientists, businessmen, and policymakers. Assessment of Chemical Exposures: Calculation Methods for Environmental Professionals addresses the expanding scope of exposure assessments in both the workplace and environment...

  19. Environmental baselines in Long Island Sound, 1972 to 1975 : tables and figures : final report (NODC Accession 8300070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic species, marine sediments, and temperature profile data were collected using bottle in the Long Island Sound from 01 January 1972 to 31 December 1975. Data...

  20. Continuous Re-Exposure to Environmental Sound Cues During Sleep Does Not Improve Memory for Semantically Unrelated Word Pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Donohue, Kelly C.; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2011-01-01

    Two recent studies illustrated that cues present during encoding can enhance recall if re-presented during sleep. This suggests an academic strategy. Such effects have only been demonstrated with spatial learning and cue presentation was isolated to slow wave sleep (SWS). The goal of this study was to examine whether sounds enhance sleep-dependent consolidation of a semantic task if the sounds are re-presented continuously during sleep. Participants encoded a list of word pairs in the evening...

  1. Deterministic Approach to Detect Heart Sound Irregularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mengko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new method to detect heart sound that does not require machine learning is proposed. The heart sound is a time series event which is generated by the heart mechanical system. From the analysis of heart sound S-transform and the understanding of how heart works, it can be deducted that each heart sound component has unique properties in terms of timing, frequency, and amplitude. Based on these facts, a deterministic method can be designed to identify each heart sound components. The recorded heart sound then can be printed with each component correctly labeled. This greatly help the physician to diagnose the heart problem. The result shows that most known heart sounds were successfully detected. There are some murmur cases where the detection failed. This can be improved by adding more heuristics including setting some initial parameters such as noise threshold accurately, taking into account the recording equipment and also the environmental condition. It is expected that this method can be integrated into an electronic stethoscope biomedical system.

  2. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Thomas, B.L.; Riley, R.G.; Sklarew, D.S.; Mong, G.M.; Fadeff, S.K.

    1993-03-01

    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) provides applicable methods in use by. the US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories for sampling and analyzing constituents of waste and environmental samples. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Laboratory Management Division (LMD) of the DOE. This document contains chapters and methods that are proposed for use in evaluating components of DOE environmental and waste management samples. DOE Methods is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities that will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), or others

  3. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, S C; McCulloch, M; Thomas, B L; Riley, R G; Sklarew, D S; Mong, G M; Fadeff, S K [eds.; Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) provides applicable methods in use by. the US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories for sampling and analyzing constituents of waste and environmental samples. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Laboratory Management Division (LMD) of the DOE. This document contains chapters and methods that are proposed for use in evaluating components of DOE environmental and waste management samples. DOE Methods is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities that will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), or others.

  4. Sound transmission analysis of plate structures using the finite element method and elementary radiator approach with radiator error index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Jaesoon; Kook, Junghwan; Goo, Seongyeol

    2017-01-01

    combines the FEM and Elementary Radiator Approach (ERA) is proposed. The FE-ERA method analyzes the vibrational response of the plate structure excited by incident sound using FEM and then computes the transmitted acoustic pressure from the vibrating plate using ERA. In order to improve the accuracy...... and efficiency of the FE-ERA method, a novel criterion for the optimal number of elementary radiators is proposed. The criterion is based on the radiator error index that is derived to estimate the accuracy of the computation with used number of radiators. Using the proposed criterion a radiator selection method...... is presented for determining the optimum number of radiators. The presented radiator selection method and the FE-ERA method are combined to improve the computational accuracy and efficiency. Several numerical examples that have been rarely addressed in previous studies, are presented with the proposed method...

  5. Foley Sounds vs Real Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to study the world of sound effects for motion pictures, also known as Foley sounds. Throughout several audio and audio-video tests we have compared both Foley and real sounds originated by an identical action. The main purpose was to evaluate if sound effects...

  6. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas (2): Cook Inlet - 2002, Kodiak - 1998, Southeast - 2002, Bristol Bay - 2004, Prince William Sound - 2000, Aleutians - 2001, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0050372)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Alaska; Kodiak (1998), Prince William Sound (2000), Aleutians (2001), Cook Inlet (2002),...

  7. The multicriteria method for environmentally oriented business decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čančer Vesna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Stimulated by the expressed managers’ need for some completed methods for environmental management in enterprises, we present the method for environmentally oriented business decision-making. It is based on simulations where optimization models of business processes are used as scenarios. The possibilities for an integrated approach to environmental protection are introduced and – decomposed according to the type of the considered element by using zero-one variables – included in the optimization models. The method is completed for multicriteria decision-making where in the simulations obtained optimal values are included. In a real-life case where the Analytic Hierarchy Process technique is used to evaluate environmentally oriented business processes, special attention is given to criteria and weights: we consider preferences and survey findings on the environmental impact of business processes in the enterprise, survey findings on environmental management in the processing industry, and ecobalances.

  8. Methodological proposal for environmental impact evaluation since different specific methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Pelaez, Juan Diego; Lopera Arango Gabriel Jaime

    1999-01-01

    Some conceptual and practical elements related to environmental impact evaluation are described and related to the preparation of technical reports (environmental impact studies and environmental management plans) to be presented to environmental authorities for obtaining the environmental permits for development projects. In the first part of the document a summary of the main aspects of normative type is made that support the studies of environmental impact in Colombia. We propose a diagram for boarding and elaboration of the evaluation of environmental impact, which begins with the description of the project and of the environmental conditions in the area of the same. Passing then to identify the impacts through a method matricial and continuing with the quantitative evaluation of the same. For which we propose the use of the method developed by Arboleda (1994). Also we propose to qualify the activities of the project and the components of the environment in their relative importance, by means of a method here denominated agglomerate evaluation. Which allows finding those activities more impacting and the mostly impacted components. Lastly it is presented some models for the elaboration and presentation of the environmental management plans. The pursuit programs and those of environmental supervision

  9. Improved algorithms and methods for room sound-field prediction by acoustical radiosity in arbitrary polyhedral rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosal, Eva-Marie; Hodgson, Murray; Ashdown, Ian

    2004-08-01

    This paper explores acoustical (or time-dependent) radiosity-a geometrical-acoustics sound-field prediction method that assumes diffuse surface reflection. The literature of acoustical radiosity is briefly reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed. A discrete form of the integral equation that results from meshing the enclosure boundaries into patches is presented and used in a discrete-time algorithm. Furthermore, an averaging technique is used to reduce computational requirements. To generalize to nonrectangular rooms, a spherical-triangle method is proposed as a means of evaluating the integrals over solid angles that appear in the discrete form of the integral equation. The evaluation of form factors, which also appear in the numerical solution, is discussed for rectangular and nonrectangular rooms. This algorithm and associated methods are validated by comparison of the steady-state predictions for a spherical enclosure to analytical solutions.

  10. Simultaneous sound velocity and thickness measurement by the ultrasonic pitch-catch method for corrosion-layer-forming polymeric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Masahiro; Takizawa, Shota; Sakai, Tetsuya; Arao, Yoshihiko; Kubouchi, Masatoshi

    2018-01-01

    Since thermosetting resins have excellent resistance to chemicals, fiber reinforced plastics composed of such resins and reinforcement fibers are widely used as construction materials for equipment in chemical plants. Such equipment is usually used for several decades under severe corrosive conditions so that failure due to degradation may result. One of the degradation behaviors in thermosetting resins under chemical solutions is "corrosion-layer-forming" degradation. In this type of degradation, surface resins in contact with a solution corrode, and some of them remain asa corrosion layer on the pristine part. It is difficult to precisely measure the thickness of the pristine part of such degradation type materials by conventional pulse-echo ultrasonic testing, because the sound velocity depends on the degree of corrosion of the polymeric material. In addition, the ultrasonic reflection interface between the pristine part and the corrosion layer is obscure. Thus, we propose a pitch-catch method using a pair of normal and angle probes to measure four parameters: the thicknesses of the pristine part and the corrosion layer, and their respective sound velocities. The validity of the proposed method was confirmed by measuring a two-layer sample and a sample including corroded parts. The results demonstrate that the pitch-catch method can successfully measure the four parameters and evaluate the residual thickness of the pristine part in the corrosion-layer-forming sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A rapid method for assessing the environmental performance of commercial farms in the Pampas of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglizzo, E F; Frank, F; Bernardos, J; Buschiazzo, D E; Cabo, S

    2006-06-01

    The generation of reliable updated information is critical to support the harmonization of socio-economic and environmental issues in a context of sustainable development. The agro-environmental assessment and management of agricultural systems often relies on indicators that are necessary to make sound decisions. This work aims to provide an approach to (a) assess the environmental performance of commercial farms in the Pampas of Argentina, and (b) propose a methodological framework to calculate environmental indicators that can rapidly be applied to practical farming. 120 commercial farms scattered across the Pampas were analyzed in this study during 2002 and 2003. Eleven basic indicators were identified and calculation methods described. Such indicators were fossil energy (FE) use, FE use efficiency, nitrogen (N) balance, phosphorus (P) balance, N contamination risk, P contamination risk, pesticide contamination risk, soil erosion risk, habitat intervention, changes in soil carbon stock, and balance of greenhouse gases. A model named Agro-Eco-Index was developed on a Microsoft-Excel support to incorporate on-farm collected data and facilitate the calculation of indicators by users. Different procedures were applied to validate the model and present the results to the users. Regression models (based on linear and non-linear models) were used to validate the comparative performance of the study farms across the Pampas. An environmental dashboard was provided to represent in a graphical way the behavior of farms. The method provides a tool to discriminate environmentally friendly farms from those that do not pay enough attention to environmental issues. Our procedure might be useful for implementing an ecological certification system to reward a good environmental behavior in society (e.g., through tax benefits) and generate a commercial advantage (e.g., through the allocation of green labels) for committed farmers.

  12. Environmental Warning System Based on the DPSIR Model: A Practical and Concise Method for Environmental Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqi Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Though we are in urgent need of environmental warnings to slow environmental deterioration, currently, there is no internationally concise method for environmental warnings. In addition, the existing approaches do not combine the three aspects of ecology, resources, and environment. At the same time, the three elements of the environment (air, water, and soil are separated in most environmental warning systems. Thus, the method this paper gives is an innovative attempt and aims to make environmental assessment more practical. This paper establishes the index system of an environmental early warning based on the Driving–Pressure–State–Influence–Response (DPSIR model. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method was used to determine the weights. Next, single and integrated index methods further assess the environmental warning state, in which the weighted summation method is used to summarize the data and results. The case of Tianjin is used to confirm the applicability of this method. In conclusion, the method in this paper is more well-behaved and, therefore, more suitable to assist cities in their environmental assessment.

  13. Environmental reference materials methods and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm-Nielsen, Karina Edith

    1998-01-01

    . This study lasted 22 months as well. The samples were produced and stored according to a 2³ factorial design. The influences of storage temperature, UV radiation and ultra-filtration on the stability of NH4-N and total phosphorous have been investigated. A Youden plot method is suggested for the graphical....... The methods have been evaluated with regard to their robustness towards variations in the chemical analytical method and with regard to the number of times a significant out of control situation is indicated. The second study regards the stability of NH4-N and total phosphorous in autoclaved seawater samples...... with wastewater. The purpose was to improve ortho-phosphate (and total phosphorous) homogeneity. A procedure is suggested which includes freeze-drying and redissolving. All calculations have been performed in SAS® primarily by means of elementary procedures, analyses of variance procedures, SAS Insight and SAS...

  14. The velocity of sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the work carried out on the velocity of sound in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to determine the velocity measurements are described. Tables are presented of reported data on the velocity of sound in lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. A formula is given for alkali metals, in which the sound velocity is a function of shear viscosity, atomic mass and atomic volume. (U.K.)

  15. A study of environmental polluting factors by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paunoiu, C.; Doca, C.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents: a) some importance factors of the environmental pollution; b) the theoretical aspects of the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) used in the study of the environmental pollution; c) the NAA specific hardware and software facilities existing at the Institute for Nuclear Research; d) a direct application of the NAA method in the study of the environmental pollution for Pitesti city by the analysis of some ground and vegetation samples; e) results and conclusions. (authors)

  16. A study of methods of prediction and measurement of the transmission of sound through the walls of light aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssen, B.; Wang, Y. S.; Raju, P. K.; Crocker, M. J.

    1981-08-01

    The acoustic intensity technique was applied to the sound transmission loss of panel structures (single, composite, and stiffened). A theoretical model of sound transmission through a cylindrical shell is presented.

  17. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  18. Recommended environmental dose calculation methods and Hanford-specific parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Rhoads, K.; Napier, B.A.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Davis, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    This document was developed to support the Hanford Environmental Dose overview Panel (HEDOP). The Panel is responsible for reviewing all assessments of potential doses received by humans and other biota resulting from the actual or possible environmental releases of radioactive and other hazardous materials from facilities and/or operations belonging to the US Department of Energy on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. This document serves as a guide to be used for developing estimates of potential radiation doses, or other measures of risk or health impacts, to people and other biota in the environs on and around the Hanford Site. It provides information to develop technically sound estimates of exposure (i.e., potential or actual) to humans or other biotic receptors that could result from the environmental transport of potentially harmful materials that have been, or could be, released from Hanford operations or facilities. Parameter values and information that are specific to the Hanford environs as well as other supporting material are included in this document

  19. Recommended environmental dose calculation methods and Hanford-specific parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Rhoads, K.; Napier, B.A.; Ramsdell, J.V. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Davis, J.S. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    This document was developed to support the Hanford Environmental Dose overview Panel (HEDOP). The Panel is responsible for reviewing all assessments of potential doses received by humans and other biota resulting from the actual or possible environmental releases of radioactive and other hazardous materials from facilities and/or operations belonging to the US Department of Energy on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. This document serves as a guide to be used for developing estimates of potential radiation doses, or other measures of risk or health impacts, to people and other biota in the environs on and around the Hanford Site. It provides information to develop technically sound estimates of exposure (i.e., potential or actual) to humans or other biotic receptors that could result from the environmental transport of potentially harmful materials that have been, or could be, released from Hanford operations or facilities. Parameter values and information that are specific to the Hanford environs as well as other supporting material are included in this document.

  20. New method to improve the accuracy of quench position measurement on a superconducting cavity by a second sound method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhenChao Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Quench is a common phenomenon in a superconducting cavity and often limits the accelerating gradient of the cavity. Accurate location of the quench site, typically located at a material or geometrical defect, is the key to improve the cavity accelerating gradient. Here, the second sound propagation in liquid helium II is used to detect the quench location on the cavity. The technique is relatively convenient and complements the traditional temperature mapping which measures the “prequench” temperature rise on the cavity using an array of sensors. The speed of the second sound in liquid helium II is roughly 1.7  cm/ms at 2 K which is sufficiently fast to provide a millimeter-size position resolution. However, the dynamics of the quench at the cavity surface are also found to significantly affect the achievable resolution with real cavities. Here we use a dynamic quench model, based on ANSYS, to calculate the quench area and the temperature distribution on the cavity. The detection error caused by the thermal conduction in the niobium was calculated.

  1. Prediction methods environmental-effect reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, R.J.; Koester, H.W.

    1987-12-01

    This report provides a survey of prediction methods which can be applied to the calculation of emissions in cuclear-reactor accidents, in the framework of environment-effect reports (dutch m.e.r.) or risk analyses. Also emissions during normal operation are important for m.e.r.. These can be derived from measured emissions of power plants being in operation. Data concerning the latter are reported. The report consists of an introduction into reactor technology, among which a description of some reactor types, the corresponding fuel cycle and dismantling scenarios - a discussion of risk-analyses for nuclear power plants and the physical processes which can play a role during accidents - a discussion of prediction methods to be employed and the expected developments in this area - some background information. (aughor). 145 refs.; 21 figs.; 20 tabs

  2. Electrochemical methods for monitoring of environmental carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barek, J; Cvacka, J; Muck, A; Quaiserová, V; Zima, J

    2001-04-01

    The use of modern electroanalytical techniques, namely differential pulse polarography, differential pulse voltammetry on hanging mercury drop electrode or carbon paste electrode, adsorptive stripping voltammetry and high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection for the determination of trace amounts of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, azo compounds, heterocyclic compounds, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic and heterocyclic amines is discussed. Scope and limitations of these methods are described and some practical applications based on their combination with liquid-liquid or solid phase extraction are given.

  3. Photogrammetric methods in surveying environmental state and changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitek, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Various types of maps prepared by means of photogrammetry are reviewed. So-called orthophotomaps, showing air, land or water pollution and their sources on the background of ground, vegetation and various surface objects are characterized. Methods of interpreting orthophotomaps showing environmental effects of mining coal, coal combustion and other pollution sources are reviewed. Role of statistical data in evaluation of pollution and the general environmental impact of mines or power stations are discussed. A comprehensive system of describing the condition of the natural environment, observed environmental changes, and forecasting environmental effects of coal mining, combustion and other pollution sources is described. It is called environmental monitoring. Role of photogrammetry in environmental monitoring is stressed: air photography, satellite data, and infrared photography of vegetation. (7 refs.) (In Polish)

  4. Hanford environmental analytical methods (methods as of March 1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goheen, S.D.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    Information is provided on the techniques employed towards the chemical analysis of volatile, semi-volatile matter, pesticides and PCB's at the Hanford Reservation. Sample preparation methods are included

  5. Interlaboratory Validation of the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) Method 1313 and Method 1316

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the results of an interlaboratory study conducted to generate precision estimates for two parallel batch leaching methods which are part of the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF). These methods are: (1) Method 1313: Liquid-Solid Partition...

  6. A Analysis of the Low Frequency Sound Field in Non-Rectangular Enclosures Using the Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Earl Russell

    The details of the low frequency sound field for a rectangular room can be studied by the use of an established analytic technique--separation of variables. The solution is straightforward and the results are well-known. A non -rectangular room has boundary conditions which are not separable and therefore other solution techniques must be used. This study shows that the finite element method can be adapted for use in the study of sound fields in arbitrary shaped enclosures. The finite element acoustics problem is formulated and the modification of a standard program, which is necessary for solving acoustic field problems, is examined. The solution of the semi-non-rectangular room problem (one where the floor and ceiling remain parallel) is carried out by a combined finite element/separation of variables approach. The solution results are used to construct the Green's function for the low frequency sound field in five rooms (or data cases): (1) a rectangular (Louden) room; (2) The smallest wall of the Louden room canted 20 degrees from normal; (3) The largest wall of the Louden room canted 20 degrees from normal; (4) both the largest and the smallest walls are canted 20 degrees; and (5) a five-sided room variation of Case 4. Case 1, the rectangular room was calculated using both the finite element method and the separation of variables technique. The results for the two methods are compared in order to access the accuracy of the finite element method models. The modal damping coefficient are calculated and the results examined. The statistics of the source and receiver average normalized RMS P('2) responses in the 80 Hz, 100 Hz, and 125 Hz one-third octave bands are developed. The receiver averaged pressure response is developed to determine the effect of the source locations on the response. Twelve source locations are examined and the results tabulated for comparison. The effect of a finite sized source is looked at briefly. Finally, the standard deviation of the

  7. Evaluation on the structural soundness of the package for subsurface disposal by finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Chihiro

    2009-01-01

    The structural analysis of the disposal package for low-level radioactive wastes with relatively high activities (called L1 waste in Japan) were performed against normal and hypothetical conditions. As a normal condition the external load due to lifting, stacking of the package and filling the space of disposal pit with mortar or something were considered. On the other hand, drop incident during handling and pressure due to some external force were taken up as hypothetical conditions. Using finite element code ABAQUS and three dimensional finite element model, structural analyses were carried out for the normal conditions. The results show that the maximum stresses occurred at the package due to the loads above mentioned were far less than the yield strength for all conditions. Therefore, it is confirmed that the disposal package keeps its integrity under the normal conditions. Analyses for load cases of 9 m drop onto the reinforced concrete slab and 5.9 m drop onto the embedded disposal package were performed by using finite element code LS-DYNA. Both results show that the strains at the impact zone of the package exceeded the fracture strain of the material but the damaged area was limited in the vicinity of impact zone. As a maximum external pressure, 4MPa was applied to the surface of the packages which were piled up in four layered in the disposal tunnel. According to the results of analyses by ABAQUS code the maximum strain occurred at the contact surfaces close to the welding zone between lid and body of the top package. However, the package stays in sound because the value of the maximum strain was less than the fracture strain of the materials. (author)

  8. EEEE - Environmentally-sound Eastern European Eco-housing, Innovative design approaches with low cost materials for new housing projects within environmental planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, P.

    1998-01-01

    • The contribution/paper deals flrstly with the need of a framing condition of human(e)- ecologically-sound planning in order to reach a responsible way to build towards a Sustainable Development. • Within this frame it is secondly important to respect the local circumstances concerning all kinds of

  9. Quantifying the measurement uncertainty of results from environmental analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, J; Wegscheider, W; Sperka-Gottlieb, C

    2001-07-01

    The Eurachem-CITAC Guide Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement was put into practice in a public laboratory devoted to environmental analytical measurements. In doing so due regard was given to the provisions of ISO 17025 and an attempt was made to base the entire estimation of measurement uncertainty on available data from the literature or from previously performed validation studies. Most environmental analytical procedures laid down in national or international standards are the result of cooperative efforts and put into effect as part of a compromise between all parties involved, public and private, that also encompasses environmental standards and statutory limits. Central to many procedures is the focus on the measurement of environmental effects rather than on individual chemical species. In this situation it is particularly important to understand the measurement process well enough to produce a realistic uncertainty statement. Environmental analytical methods will be examined as far as necessary, but reference will also be made to analytical methods in general and to physical measurement methods where appropriate. This paper describes ways and means of quantifying uncertainty for frequently practised methods of environmental analysis. It will be shown that operationally defined measurands are no obstacle to the estimation process as described in the Eurachem/CITAC Guide if it is accepted that the dominating component of uncertainty comes from the actual practice of the method as a reproducibility standard deviation.

  10. Hanford environmental analytical methods: Methods as of March 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Daniel, J.L.

    1993-05-01

    This paper from the analytical laboratories at Hanford describes the method used to measure pH of single-shell tank core samples. Sludge or solid samples are mixed with deionized water. The pH electrode used combines both a sensor and reference electrode in one unit. The meter amplifies the input signal from the electrode and displays the pH visually

  11. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... result of a rigorous and standardized research method. However, this anthropological analysis shows that evidence and evidence-based is a hegemonic ‘way of knowing’ that sometimes transposes everyday reasoning into an epistemological form. However, the empirical material shows a variety of understandings...

  12. Shoreline ecology program for Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 1: Study design and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.S.; Gilfillan, E.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Harner, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design and analysis of a large field and laboratory program to assess shoreline recovery in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The study was designed so that results could be generalized area-wide (biology, chemistry) or habitat-wide (toxicology) and projected forward in time (chemistry). It made use of the sediment quality triad approach, combining biological, chemical, and toxicological measurements to assess shoreline recovery. Key aspects of the study include the following: coordinated field sampling for chemical, toxicological, and biological studies; stratified random sampling (SRS) as a basis for spatial generalization; periodic sampling to assess trends, including sites with worst-case conditions; analysis of oil-spill effects on hundreds of species; statistical methods based on normal and non-normal theory, consistent with the structure of the data, including generalized linear models and multivariate correspondence analysis. 45 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  13. ABOUT SOUNDS IN VIDEO GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denikin Anton A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the aesthetical and practical possibilities for sounds (sound design in video games and interactive applications. Outlines the key features of the game sound, such as simulation, representativeness, interactivity, immersion, randomization, and audio-visuality. The author defines the basic terminology in study of game audio, as well as identifies significant aesthetic differences between film sounds and sounds in video game projects. It is an attempt to determine the techniques of art analysis for the approaches in study of video games including aesthetics of their sounds. The article offers a range of research methods, considering the video game scoring as a contemporary creative practice.

  14. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Thomas, B.L.; Riley, R.G.; Sklarew, D.S.; Mong, G.M.; Fadeff, S.K.

    1994-04-01

    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities for the evaluation of environmental and waste management samples from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE Methods is the result of extensive cooperation from all DOE analytical laboratories. All of these laboratories have contributed key information and provided technical reviews as well as significant moral support leading to the success of this document. DOE Methods is designed to encompass methods for collecting representative samples and for determining the radioisotope activity and organic and inorganic composition of a sample. These determinations will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, or others. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Laboratory Management Division of the DOE. Methods are prepared for entry into DOE Methods as chapter editors, together with DOE and other participants in this program, identify analytical and sampling method needs. Unique methods or methods consolidated from similar procedures in the DOE Procedures Database are selected for potential inclusion in this document. Initial selection is based largely on DOE needs and procedure applicability and completeness. Methods appearing in this document are one of two types. open-quotes Draftclose quotes or open-quotes Verified.close quotes. open-quotes Draftclose quotes methods that have been reviewed internally and show potential for eventual verification are included in this document, but they have not been reviewed externally, and their precision and bias may not be known. open-quotes Verifiedclose quotes methods in DOE Methods have been reviewed by volunteers from various DOE sites and private corporations

  15. Unsound Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the change in premise that digitally produced sound brings about and how digital technologies more generally have changed our relationship to the musical artifact, not simply in degree but in kind. It demonstrates how our acoustical conceptions are thoroughly challenged...... by the digital production of sound and, by questioning the ontological basis for digital sound, turns our understanding of the core term substance upside down....

  16. A method of environmental management for landfill evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata Munoz, Andres Felipe; Zapata Sanchez, Carmen Elena

    2013-01-01

    From the description of the activities of the operation of the landfill and environmental farm Los Saltos and the physicochemical characterization of its leachate, a method of environmental assessment was proposed. It includes an analysis of interactions as a diagnostic tool for the development of a cause-effect matrix to identify the impacts on associated environmental components. With this information, it was developed a matrix of importance where impacts were classified as critical, severe, moderate and irrelevant. A qualitative assessment of environmental impact was then carried out to help identify the most impacting activities as well as the most affected parameters. As a result of this method, it was determined that the operation of a landfill has a greater impact on the physical and biotic components of the environment, producing effects such as impaired air quality, loss of aquatic species and terrestrial flora, alteration of the hydrological cycle, and deterioration of surface and groundwater quality.

  17. Hierarchical modelling for the environmental sciences statistical methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, James S

    2006-01-01

    New statistical tools are changing the way in which scientists analyze and interpret data and models. Hierarchical Bayes and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods for analysis provide a consistent framework for inference and prediction where information is heterogeneous and uncertain, processes are complicated, and responses depend on scale. Nowhere are these methods more promising than in the environmental sciences.

  18. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  19. Wastes behavior and environmental impacts, researches and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeyrie, J.; Chateau, L.; Gin, St.

    2001-01-01

    The wastes management policy takes into account more and more often the environmental impacts mastership. This evolution is particularly appreciable when the wastes directly interact with the environment: storage, utilization for roads construction and so on. In this context the ADEME organized the 8 june 2000 a colloquium to present the new evaluation methods and tools, to describe the regulations and to identify the research programs needed for this environmental policy. Eleven papers are presented. (A.L.B.)

  20. A comprehensive environmental impact assessment method for shale gas development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjin Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The great success of US commercial shale gas exploitation stimulates the shale gas development in China, subsequently, the corresponding supporting policies were issued in the 12th Five-Year Plan. But from the experience in the US shale gas development, we know that the resulted environmental threats are always an unavoidable issue, but no uniform and standard evaluation system has yet been set up in China. The comprehensive environment refers to the combination of natural ecological environment and external macro-environment. In view of this, we conducted a series of studies on how to set up a comprehensive environmental impact assessment system as well as the related evaluation methodology and models. First, we made an in-depth investigation into shale gas development procedures and any possible environmental impacts, and then compared, screened and modified environmental impact assessment methods for shale gas development. Also, we established an evaluating system and assessment models according to different status of the above two types of environment: the correlation matrix method was employed to assess the impacts on natural ecological environment and the optimization distance method was modified to evaluate the impacts on external macro-environment. Finally, we substitute the two subindexes into the comprehensive environmental impact assessment model and achieved the final numerical result of environmental impact assessment. This model can be used to evaluate if a shale gas project has any impact on environment, compare the impacts before and after a shale gas development project, or the impacts of different projects.

  1. Sound field computations in the Bay of Bengal using parabolic equation method

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Navelkar, G.S.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Murty, C.S.

    Effect of the cold core eddy in the Bay of Bengal on acoustic propagation was analysed by parabolic equation (PE) method. Source depth, frequency and propagation range considered respectively for the two numerical experiments are 150 m, 400 Hz, 650...

  2. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Thomas, B.L.; Riley, R.G.; Sklarew, D.S.; Mong, G.M.; Fadeff, S.K.

    1994-10-01

    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities for the evaluation of environmental and waste management samples from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE Methods is the result of extensive cooperation from all DOE analytical laboratories. All of these laboratories have contributed key information and provided technical reviews as well as significant moral support leading to the success of this document. DOE Methods is designed to encompass methods for collecting representative samples and for determining the radioisotope activity and organic and inorganic composition of a sample. These determinations will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, or others. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Analytical Services Division of DOE. Unique methods or methods consolidated from similar procedures in the DOE Procedures Database are selected for potential inclusion in this document. Initial selection is based largely on DOE needs and procedure applicability and completeness. Methods appearing in this document are one of two types, open-quotes Draftclose quotes or open-quotes Verifiedclose quotes. open-quotes Draftclose quotes methods that have been reviewed internally and show potential for eventual verification are included in this document, but they have not been reviewed externally, and their precision and bias may not be known. open-quotes Verifiedclose quotes methods in DOE Methods have been reviewed by volunteers from various DOE sites and private corporations. These methods have delineated measures of precision and accuracy

  3. DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Thomas, B.L.; Riley, R.G.; Sklarew, D.S.; Mong, G.M.; Fadeff, S.K. [eds.

    1994-10-01

    DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) is a resource intended to support sampling and analytical activities for the evaluation of environmental and waste management samples from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE Methods is the result of extensive cooperation from all DOE analytical laboratories. All of these laboratories have contributed key information and provided technical reviews as well as significant moral support leading to the success of this document. DOE Methods is designed to encompass methods for collecting representative samples and for determining the radioisotope activity and organic and inorganic composition of a sample. These determinations will aid in defining the type and breadth of contamination and thus determine the extent of environmental restoration or waste management actions needed, as defined by the DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, or others. The development of DOE Methods is supported by the Analytical Services Division of DOE. Unique methods or methods consolidated from similar procedures in the DOE Procedures Database are selected for potential inclusion in this document. Initial selection is based largely on DOE needs and procedure applicability and completeness. Methods appearing in this document are one of two types, {open_quotes}Draft{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Verified{close_quotes}. {open_quotes}Draft{close_quotes} methods that have been reviewed internally and show potential for eventual verification are included in this document, but they have not been reviewed externally, and their precision and bias may not be known. {open_quotes}Verified{close_quotes} methods in DOE Methods have been reviewed by volunteers from various DOE sites and private corporations. These methods have delineated measures of precision and accuracy.

  4. Steroid hormones in environmental matrices: extraction method comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaluri, Gangadhar; Suri, Rominder P S; Graham, Kendon

    2017-11-09

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed methods for the analysis of steroid hormones in water, soil, sediment, and municipal biosolids by HRGC/HRMS (EPA Method 1698). Following the guidelines provided in US-EPA Method 1698, the extraction methods were validated with reagent water and applied to municipal wastewater, surface water, and municipal biosolids using GC/MS/MS for the analysis of nine most commonly detected steroid hormones. This is the first reported comparison of the separatory funnel extraction (SFE), continuous liquid-liquid extraction (CLLE), and Soxhlet extraction methods developed by the U.S. EPA. Furthermore, a solid phase extraction (SPE) method was also developed in-house for the extraction of steroid hormones from aquatic environmental samples. This study provides valuable information regarding the robustness of the different extraction methods. Statistical analysis of the data showed that SPE-based methods provided better recovery efficiencies and lower variability of the steroid hormones followed by SFE. The analytical methods developed in-house for extraction of biosolids showed a wide recovery range; however, the variability was low (≤ 7% RSD). Soxhlet extraction and CLLE are lengthy procedures and have been shown to provide highly variably recovery efficiencies. The results of this study are guidance for better sample preparation strategies in analytical methods for steroid hormone analysis, and SPE adds to the choice in environmental sample analysis.

  5. An asymptotic inversion method of inferring the sound velocity distribution in the sun from the spectrum of p-mode oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekii, Takashi; Shibahashi, Hiromoto

    1989-01-01

    We present an inversion method of inferring the sound velocity distribution in the Sun from its oscillation data of p-modes. The equation governing the p-mode oscillations is reduced to a form similar to the Schroedinger equation in quantum mechanics. By using a quantization rule based on the KWBJ asymptotic method, we derive an integral equation of which solution provides the 'acoustic potential' of the wave equation. The acoustic potential consists of two parts: One of them is related with the squared sound velocity and is dependent on the degree of the mode l, while the other term is independent of l and dominates in the outer part of the Sun. By examining the l-dependence of the acoustic potential obtained as the solution of the integral equation, we separate these two components of the potential and eventually obtain the sound velocity distribution from a set of eigenfrequencies of p-modes. In order to evaluate prospects of this inversion method, we perform numerical simulations in which eigenfrequencies of a theoretical solar model are used to reproduce the sound velocity distribution of the model. The error of thus inferred sound velocity relative to the true values is estimated to be less than a few percent. (author)

  6. An approximate inversion method of geoelectrical sounding data using linear and bayesian statistical approaches. Examples of Tritrivakely volcanic lake and Mahitsy area (central part of Madagascar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaivo Nomenjanahary, F.; Rakoto, H.; Ratsimbazafy, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    This paper is concerned with resistivity sounding measurements performed from single site (vertical sounding) or from several sites (profiles) within a bounded area. The objective is to present an accurate information about the study area and to estimate the likelihood of the produced quantitative models. The achievement of this objective obviously requires quite relevant data and processing methods. It also requires interpretation methods which should take into account the probable effect of an heterogeneous structure. In front of such difficulties, the interpretation of resistivity sounding data inevitably involves the use of inversion methods. We suggest starting the interpretation in simple situation (1-D approximation), and using the rough but correct model obtained as an a-priori model for any more refined interpretation. Related to this point of view, special attention should be paid for the inverse problem applied to the resistivity sounding data. This inverse problem is nonlinear, while linearity inherent in the functional response used to describe the physical experiment. Two different approaches are used to build an approximate but higher dimensional inversion of geoelectrical data: the linear approach and the bayesian statistical approach. Some illustrations of their application in resistivity sounding data acquired at Tritrivakely volcanic lake (single site) and at Mahitsy area (several sites) will be given. (author). 28 refs, 7 figs

  7. Beyond Box Checking: Toward Sound Environmental Justice Analyses for Informed Decision-Making and Meaningful Tribal Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, R. E.; Rivers, L., III; Blank, G. B.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental justice analyses are mandatory components of federal environmental reviews in the United States. They are intended to help regulators and developers identify and address disproportionate impacts on poor and/or minority populations. In many cases, however, environmental justice analyses are treated as "box checking" exercises that employ weak or flawed designs unable to detect disparate impacts on vulnerable populations. We use a recent example of an environmental review led by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to demonstrate how flawed analyses mask disproportionate impacts on poor and/or minority populations. In this case, regulators conducted a flawed environmental justice analysis for the proposed Atlantic Coast Pipeline concluding no disproportionate impacts on vulnerable populations. We reanalyze data from the project's environmental impact statement and provide a more accurate assessment of impacts on Native Americans in North Carolina. Specifically, we show that Native Americans make up a disproportionately large fraction of residents along the proposed pipeline route (13.2%) compared to their representation in the affected counties (6.2%) or in the state at large (1.2%). We discuss implications of the original, flawed analysis for tribes representing nearly 30,000 Native Americans along the project route, and we discuss efforts by affected tribes to have their unique perspectives incorporated into the decision-making process. We conclude with general recommendations for designing environmental justice analyses that serve as useful tools to guide environmental decision-making and consultation with affected groups.

  8. 48 CFR 2923.271 - Purchase and use of environmentally sound and energy efficient products and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... can be used to assess the life cycle cost of each good or product, including building energy system... the Government Through Leadership in Environmental Management Systems, dated April 21, 2000. This Executive Order assists with developing an environmental management system. The following sources are...

  9. Entrepreneur environment management behavior evaluation method derived from environmental economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Hou, Xilin; Xi, Fengru

    2013-12-01

    Evaluation system can encourage and guide entrepreneurs, and impel them to perform well in environment management. An evaluation method based on advantage structure is established. It is used to analyze entrepreneur environment management behavior in China. Entrepreneur environment management behavior evaluation index system is constructed based on empirical research. Evaluation method of entrepreneurs is put forward, from the point of objective programming-theory to alert entrepreneurs concerned to think much of it, which means to take minimized objective function as comprehensive evaluation result and identify disadvantage structure pattern. Application research shows that overall behavior of Chinese entrepreneurs environmental management are good, specially, environment strategic behavior are best, environmental management behavior are second, cultural behavior ranks last. Application results show the efficiency and feasibility of this method. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular detection of native and invasive marine invertebrate larvae present in ballast and open water environmental samples collected in Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J.B.J.; Hoy, M.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-native marine species have been and continue to be introduced into Puget Sound via several vectors including ship's ballast water. Some non-native species become invasive and negatively impact native species or near shore habitats. We present a new methodology for the development and testing of taxon specific PCR primers designed to assess environmental samples of ocean water for the presence of native and non-native bivalves, crustaceans and algae. The intergenic spacer regions (IGS; ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S) of the ribosomal DNA were sequenced for adult samples of each taxon studied. We used these data along with those available in Genbank to design taxon and group specific primers and tested their stringency against artificial populations of plasmid constructs containing the entire IGS region for each of the 25 taxa in our study, respectively. Taxon and group specific primer sets were then used to detect the presence or absence of native and non-native planktonic life-history stages (propagules) from environmental samples of ballast water and plankton tow net samples collected in Puget Sound. This methodology provides an inexpensive and efficient way to test the discriminatory ability of taxon specific oligonucleotides (PCR primers) before creating molecular probes or beacons for use in molecular ecological applications such as probe hybridizations or microarray analyses. This work addresses the current need to develop molecular tools capable of diagnosing the presence of planktonic life-history stages from non-native marine species (potential invaders) in ballast water and other environmental samples. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Waveform analysis of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Tohyama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduat...

  12. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2008-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  13. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2010-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  14. Sound generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2007-01-01

    A sound generator, particularly a loudspeaker, configured to emit sound, comprising a rigid element (2) enclosing a plurality of air compartments (3), wherein the rigid element (2) has a back side (B) comprising apertures (4), and a front side (F) that is closed, wherein the generator is provided

  15. A qualitative method proposal to improve environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toro, Javier, E-mail: jjtoroca@unal.edu.co [Institute of Environmental Studies, National University of Colombia at Bogotá (Colombia); Requena, Ignacio, E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es [Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada (Spain); Duarte, Oscar, E-mail: ogduartev@unal.edu.co [National University of Colombia at Bogotá, Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics (Colombia); Zamorano, Montserrat, E-mail: zamorano@ugr.es [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities. -- Highlights: • Concept of vulnerability has been used to calculate the importance impact assessment. • This paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. • The method includes the characteristics of environmental and project activities. • The application has shown greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts. • Better correlation between impact values, environment and the project has been shown.

  16. A qualitative method proposal to improve environmental impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro, Javier; Requena, Ignacio; Duarte, Oscar; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities. -- Highlights: • Concept of vulnerability has been used to calculate the importance impact assessment. • This paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. • The method includes the characteristics of environmental and project activities. • The application has shown greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts. • Better correlation between impact values, environment and the project has been shown

  17. Development of environmental risk assessment framework using index method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.W.; Wu, Y.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a newly developed framework for assessing the risk from events which are considered to be major accidents to the environment according to the classifications by the United Kingdom Department of Environment (DoE). The application of an environmental risk assessment framework using the newly developed index method is demonstrated by means of a case study. The framework makes use of Environmental Hazard Index (EHI) method by the United Kingdom AEA Technology for releases to river, but improves it by taking account to toxic dose rather than concentration; taking account of long-term effects including persistence and bio accumulation, not just short term effects; extending the method to all aspects of environment, not just rivers; and allowing account to be taken of design changes to mitigate the risk. The development of the framework has also led to a revision of the tolerability criteria to be used with the framework proposed earlier by weakness and recommend further work to improve this newly proposed environmental risk assessment framework. From the study, it is recommended that the environmental risk assessment framework be applied to a wide range of other case studies in order to further improve it. The framework should be modified to maintain consistency when the DoE revises its definitions of major accidents to the environment. Ease-of-use of the framework (and any other environmental framework) would be aided by the compilation of databases for environmental toxicity, river data and available consequence models. Further work could also be done to suggest methods of mitigating the risk and including them as numerical factors within method. (author)

  18. Bat calls while preying: A method for reconstructing the signal emitted by a directional sound source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guarato, Francesco; Hallam, John

    2010-01-01

    Understanding and modeling bat biosonar behavior should take into account what the bat actually emitted while exploring the surrounding environment. Recording of the bat calls could be performed by means of a telemetry system small enough to sit on the bat head, though filtering due to bat...... directivity affects recordings and not all bat species are able to carry such a device. Instead, remote microphone recordings of the bat calls could be processed by means of a mathematical method that estimates bat head orientation as a first step before calculating the amplitudes of each call for each...... and discussed. A further improvement of the method is necessary as its performance for call reconstruction strongly depends on correct choice of the sample at which the recorded call is thought to start in each microphone data set....

  19. Investigation Methods for Detection of Embedding in Sound Files Format WAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Alenin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there cases of unauthorized use of multimedia products (photographs, audio and video files are frequent. One of the methods of copyright protection is the introduction of hidden labels (markers, watermarks to protected media files. The discovery of these tags allows an offender to remove watermarks from a container. It is obvious that the introduction of hidden information in multimedia files should be implemented so that an offender was unable to detect and remove changes made in a container.

  20. Radiochemistry methods in DOE methods for evaluating environmental and waste management samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadeff, S.K.; Goheen, S.C.

    1994-08-01

    Current standard sources of radiochemistry methods are often inappropriate for use in evaluating US Department of Energy environmental and waste management (DOE/EW) samples. Examples of current sources include EPA, ASTM, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater and HASL-300. Applicability of these methods is limited to specific matrices (usually water), radiation levels (usually environmental levels), and analytes (limited number). Radiochemistry methods in DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) attempt to fill the applicability gap that exists between standard methods and those needed for DOE/EM activities. The Radiochemistry chapter in DOE Methods includes an ''analysis and reporting'' guidance section as well as radiochemistry methods. A basis for identifying the DOE/EM radiochemistry needs is discussed. Within this needs framework, the applicability of standard methods and targeted new methods is identified. Sources of new methods (consolidated methods from DOE laboratories and submissions from individuals) and the methods review process will be discussed. The processes involved in generating consolidated methods add editing individually submitted methods will be compared. DOE Methods is a living document and continues to expand by adding various kinds of methods. Radiochemistry methods are highlighted in this paper. DOE Methods is intended to be a resource for methods applicable to DOE/EM problems. Although it is intended to support DOE, the guidance and methods are not necessarily exclusive to DOE. The document is available at no cost through the Laboratory Management Division of DOE, Office of Technology Development

  1. The role of interdisciplinary collaboration for stated preference methods to value marine environmental goods and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börger, Tobias; Böhnke-Henrichs, Anne; Hattam, Caroline; Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Schasfoort, Femke; Austen, Melanie C.

    2018-02-01

    With the increasing use of environmental valuation methods in coastal, marine and deep-sea settings, there is a growing need for the collaboration of natural scientists and environmental economists. Stated preference valuation methods in particular need to be based on sound natural science information and translate such information to be used in social surveys. This paper uses three applications to make explicit the flow of information between different disciplines in the preparation and implementation of stated preference studies. One approach for facilitating this flow is to increase knowledge and understanding of natural scientists on these methods. To address this, this paper highlights key opportunities and pitfalls and demonstrates those in the context of three case studies. It therefore provides guidance on stated preference valuation for natural scientists rather than for economists.

  2. IRP methods for Environmental Impact Statements of utility expansion plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, J.D.; Hemphill, R.C.; Veselka, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    Most large electric utilities and a growing number of gas utilities in the United States are using a planning method -- Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) - which incorporates demand-side management (DSM) programs whenever the marginal cost of the DSM programs are lower than the marginal cost of supply-side expansion options. Argonne National Laboratory has applied the IRP method in its socio-economic analysis of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) of power marketing for a system of electric utilities in the mountain and western regions of the United States. Applying the IRP methods provides valuable information to the participants in an EIS process involving capacity expansion of an electric or gas utility. The major challenges of applying the IRP method within an EIS are the time consuming and costly task of developing a least cost expansion path for each altemative, the detailed quantification of environmental damages associated with capacity expansion, and the explicit inclusion of societal-impacts to the region

  3. Methods for Evaluating the Biodegradability of Environmentally Degradable Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of the current knowledge on experimental methods for monitoring the biodegradability of polymeric materials. The focus is, in particular, on the biodegradation of materials under environmental conditions. Examples of in vivo degradation of polymers used in

  4. Assessment of Environmental Problems and Methods of Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the environmental problems and methods of waste management in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Waste management is the collection, transportation, processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials, usually the one produced by human activities in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or on local ...

  5. Radiochemistry methods in DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples: Addressing new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadeff, S.K.; Goheen, S.C.; Riley, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    Radiochemistry methods in Department of Energy Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods) add to the repertoire of other standard methods in support of U.S. Department of Energy environmental restoration and waste management (DOE/EM) radiochemical characterization activities. Current standard sources of radiochemistry methods are not always applicable for evaluating DOE/EM samples. Examples of current sources include those provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, and Environmental Measurements Laboratory Procedures Manual (HASL-300). The applicability of these methods is generally limited to specific matrices (usually water), low-level radioactive samples, and a limited number of analytes. DOE Methods complements these current standard methods by addressing the complexities of EM characterization needs. The process for determining DOE/EM radiochemistry characterization needs is discussed. In this context of DOE/EM needs, the applicability of other sources of standard radiochemistry methods is defined, and gaps in methodology are identified. Current methods in DOE Methods and the EM characterization needs they address are discussed. Sources of new methods and the methods incorporation process are discussed. The means for individuals to participate in (1) identification of DOE/EM needs, (2) the methods incorporation process, and (3) submission of new methods are identified

  6. Measuring the 'complexity' of sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cate that specialized regions of the brain analyse different types of sounds [1]. Music, ... The left panel of figure 1 shows examples of sound–pressure waveforms from the nat- ... which is shown in the right panels in the spectrographic representation using a 45 Hz .... Plot of SFM(t) vs. time for different environmental sounds.

  7. Photo-acoustic and video-acoustic methods for sensing distant sound sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Dan; Kozacik, Stephen; Kelmelis, Eric

    2017-05-01

    Long range telescopic video imagery of distant terrestrial scenes, aircraft, rockets and other aerospace vehicles can be a powerful observational tool. But what about the associated acoustic activity? A new technology, Remote Acoustic Sensing (RAS), may provide a method to remotely listen to the acoustic activity near these distant objects. Local acoustic activity sometimes weakly modulates the ambient illumination in a way that can be remotely sensed. RAS is a new type of microphone that separates an acoustic transducer into two spatially separated components: 1) a naturally formed in situ acousto-optic modulator (AOM) located within the distant scene and 2) a remote sensing readout device that recovers the distant audio. These two elements are passively coupled over long distances at the speed of light by naturally occurring ambient light energy or other electromagnetic fields. Stereophonic, multichannel and acoustic beam forming are all possible using RAS techniques and when combined with high-definition video imagery it can help to provide a more cinema like immersive viewing experience. A practical implementation of a remote acousto-optic readout device can be a challenging engineering problem. The acoustic influence on the optical signal is generally weak and often with a strong bias term. The optical signal is further degraded by atmospheric seeing turbulence. In this paper, we consider two fundamentally different optical readout approaches: 1) a low pixel count photodiode based RAS photoreceiver and 2) audio extraction directly from a video stream. Most of our RAS experiments to date have used the first method for reasons of performance and simplicity. But there are potential advantages to extracting audio directly from a video stream. These advantages include the straight forward ability to work with multiple AOMs (useful for acoustic beam forming), simpler optical configurations, and a potential ability to use certain preexisting video recordings. However

  8. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  9. Analysis of the most widely used Building Environmental Assessment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Zhenhong; Wennersten, R.; Assefa, G.

    2006-01-01

    Building Environmental Assessment (BEA) is a term used for several methods for environmental assessment of the building environment. Generally, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important foundation and part of the BEA method, but current BEA methods form more comprehensive tools than LCA. Indicators and weight assignments are the two most important factors characterizing BEA. From the comparison of the three most widely used BEA methods, EcoHomes (BREEAM for residential buildings), LEED-NC and GBTool, it can be seen that BEA methods are shifting from ecological, indicator-based scientific systems to more integrated systems covering ecological, social and economic categories. Being relatively new methods, current BEA systems are far from perfect and are under continuous development. The further development of BEA methods will focus more on non-ecological indicators and how to promote implementation. Most BEA methods are developed based on regional regulations and LCA methods, but they do not attempt to replace these regulations. On the contrary, they try to extend implementation by incentive programmes. There are several ways to enhance BEA in the future: expand the studied scope from design levels to whole life-cycle levels of constructions, enhance international cooperation, accelerate legislation and standardize and develop user-oriented assessment systems

  10. Methods of I-129 analysis for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kitahara, Y.; Fukuda, S.

    1980-01-01

    Among the radioiodine isotopes discharged from nuclear facilities, I-129 has the longest half-life (1.7 x 10 7 years) and thus environmental monitoring of this nuclide is important. Methods of analysis of low level I-129 in environmental samples such as milk, crops, seaweeds and soils are described. The iodine is separated from the dried or pulverized samples by ignition at 1000 0 C in a quartz combustion apparatus with a stream of oxygen. Stable I-127 is simultaneously determined and the atom ratio of 129 I/ 127 I calculated in order to evaluate the thyroid dose by the specific activity method. Results of an analysis of typical food samples collected near the fuel reprocessing plant of Tokai Works showed no I-129 concentrations higher than the detection limit of the method (10 -2 pCi for 10 g. dry sample). (UK)

  11. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  12. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  13. Multimodal method for scattering of sound at a sudden area expansion in a duct with subsonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, G.; Testud, P.; Aurégan, Y.; Hirschberg, A.

    2008-03-01

    The scattering of sound at a sudden area expansion in a duct with subsonic mean flow has been modelled with a multimodal method. Technological applications are for instance internal combustion engine exhaust silencers and silencers in industrial duct systems. Both two-dimensional (2D) rectangular and 2D cylindrical geometry and uniform mean flow as well as non-uniform mean flow profiles are considered. Model results for the scattering of plane waves in case of uniform flow, in which case an infinitely thin shear layer is formed downstream of the area expansion, are compared to results obtained by other models in literature. Generally good agreement is found. Furthermore, model results for the scattering are compared to experimental data found in literature. Also here fairly good correspondence is observed. When employing a turbulent pipe flow profile in the model, instead of a uniform flow profile, the prediction for the downstream transmission- and upstream reflection coefficient is improved. However, worse agreement is observed for the upstream transmission and downstream reflection coefficient. On the contrary, employing a non-uniform jet flow profile, which represents a typical shear layer flow downstream of the expansion, gives worse agreement for the downstream transmission- and the upstream reflection coefficient, whereas prediction for the upstream transmission and downstream reflection coefficient improves.

  14. Improved Methods for Production Manufacturing Processes in Environmentally Benign Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available How to design a production process with low carbon emissions and low environmental impact as well as high manufacturing performance is a key factor in the success of low-carbon production. It is important to address concerns about climate change for the large carbon emission source manufacturing industries because of their high energy consumption and environmental impact during the manufacturing stage of the production life cycle. In this paper, methodology for determining a production process is developed. This methodology integrates process determination from three different levels: new production processing, selected production processing and batch production processing. This approach is taken within a manufacturing enterprise based on prior research. The methodology is aimed at providing decision support for implementing Environmentally Benign Manufacturing (EBM and low-carbon production to improve the environmental performance of the manufacturing industry. At the first level, a decision-making model for new production processes based on the Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (GSAA is presented. The decision-making model considers not only the traditional factors, such as time, quality and cost, but also energy and resource consumption and environmental impact, which are different from the traditional methods. At the second level, a methodology is developed based on an IPO (Input-Process-Output model that integrates assessments of resource consumption and environmental impact in terms of a materials balance principle for batch production processes. At the third level, based on the above two levels, a method for determining production processes that focus on low-carbon production is developed based on case-based reasoning, expert systems and feature technology for designing the process flow of a new component. Through the above three levels, a method for determining the production process to identify, quantify, assess, and optimize the

  15. Project Method, as One of the Basic Methods of Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szállassy, Noémi

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to present in this paper the one of the most important methods of environmental education, the project method. We present here the steps and phases of project method and we give an example of how to use these elements in planning an activity for celebrating the World Day for Water.

  16. The impact of traditional coffee processing on river water quality in Ethiopia and the urgency of adopting sound environmental practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Abebe; Kassahun, Yared; Addis, Taffere; Assefa, Fassil; Amsalu, Aklilu; Legesse, Worku; Kloos, Helmut; Triest, Ludwig

    2012-11-01

    Although waste from coffee processing is a valuable resource to make biogas, compost, and nutrient-rich animal food, it is usually dumped into nearby water courses. We carried out water quality assessment at 44 sampling sites along 18 rivers that receive untreated waste from 23 coffee pulping and processing plants in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Twenty upstream sampling sites free from coffee waste impact served as control, and 24 downstream sampling sites affected by coffee waste were selected for comparison. Physicochemical and biological results revealed a significant river water quality deterioration as a result of disposing untreated coffee waste into running water courses. During coffee-processing (wet) season, the highest organic load (1,900 mg/l), measured as biochemical oxygen demand, depleted dissolved oxygen (DO) to a level less than 0.01 mg/l, and thus curtailed nitrification. During off season, oxygen started to recuperate and augmented nitrification. The shift from significantly elevated organic load and reduced DO in the wet season to increased nitrate in the off season was found to be the determining factor for the difference in macroinvertebrate community structure as verified by ordination analysis. Macroinvertebrate diversity was significantly reduced in impacted sites during the wet season contrary to the off season. However, there was a significant difference in the ratio of sensitive to pollution-tolerant taxa in the off season, which remained depreciated in the longer term. This study highlights the urgency of research exploring on the feasibility of adopting appropriate pollution abatement technologies to implement ecologically sound coffee-processing systems in coffee-growing regions of Ethiopia.

  17. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Appendix D, Conservation, Load Management and Fuel Switching Analysis : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    Various conservation, load management, and fuel switching programs were considered as ways to reduce or shift system peak load. These programs operate at the end-use level, such as residential water heat. Figure D-1a shows what electricity consumption for water heat looks like on normal and extreme peak days. Load management programs, such as water heat control, are designed to reduce electricity consumption at the time of system peak. On the coldest day in average winter, system load peaks near 8:00 a.m. In a winter with extremely cold weather, electricity consumption increases fr all hours, and the system peak shifts to later in the morning. System load shapes in the Puget Sound area are shown in Figure D-1b for a normal winter peak day (February 2, 1988) and extreme peak day (February 3, 1989). Peak savings from any program are calculated to be the reduction in loads on the entire system at the hour of system peak. Peak savings for all programs are measured at 8:00 a.m. on a normal peak day and 9:00 a.m. on an extreme peak day. On extremely cold day, some water heat load shifts to much later in the morning, with less load available for shedding at the time of system peak. Models of hourly end-use consumption were constructed to simulate the impact of conservation, land management, and fuel switching programs on electricity consumption. Javelin, a time-series simulating package for personal computers, was chosen for the hourly analysis. Both a base case and a program case were simulated. 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. The development of a code of practice for the environmental sound use of PFA as a fill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, R.; Sear, L.K.A. [National Power, Selby (United Kingdom). Quality Ash Association

    2000-07-01

    Although pulverised fuel ash (PFA) has been successfully used in a range of applications for many years there has always been need to give consideration to its environmental impact. The increasing awareness of environmental issues has had an impact on sales, with the need to assess its use on a site by site basis, the time taken to get approval for the use of PFA can exceed the time scales imposed by site operations. There has therefore been a need for an alternative approach to the problem. This paper details the approach at present being developed. This is a three-stage one with an initial assessment of the process, a review of existing data and what further data are required and finally a code of practice that recommends a rational approach to the use of PFA as a fill. 6 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Methods for detecting the environmental coccoid form of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz eMazaheri Assadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is recognized as the most common pathogen to cause gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. The organisms are found in two forms: 1 spiral-shaped bacillus and 2 coccoid. H. pylori coccoid form, generally found in the environment, is the transformed form of the normal spiral-shaped bacillus after exposed to water or adverse environmental conditions such as exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents. The putative infectious capability and the viability of H. pylori under environmental conditions are controversial. This disagreement is partially due to the fact of lack in detecting the coccoid form of H. pylori in the environment. Accurate and effective detection methods of H. pylori will lead to rapid treatment and disinfection, and less human health damages and reduction in health care costs. In this review, we provide a brief introduction to H. pylori environmental coccoid forms, their transmission and detection methods. We further discuss the use of these detection methods including their accuracy and efficiency.

  20. Representativeness of environmental impact assessment methods regarding Life Cycle Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esnouf, Antoine; Latrille, Éric; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Helias, Arnaud

    2018-04-15

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) characterises all the exchanges between human driven activities and the environment, thus representing a powerful approach for tackling the environmental impact of a production system. However, LCA practitioners must still choose the appropriate Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) method to use and are expected to justify this choice: impacts should be relevant facing the concerns of the study and misrepresentations should be avoided. This work aids practitioners in evaluating the adequacy between the assessed environmental issues and studied production system. Based on a geometrical standpoint of LCA framework, Life Cycle Inventories (LCIs) and LCIA methods were localized in the vector space spanned by elementary flows. A proximity measurement, the Representativeness Index (RI), is proposed to explore the relationship between those datasets (LCIs and LCIA methods) through an angular distance. RIs highlight LCIA methods that measure issues for which the LCI can be particularly harmful. A high RI indicates a close proximity between a LCI and a LCIA method, and highlights a better representation of the elementary flows by the LCIA method. To illustrate the benefits of the proposed approach, representativeness of LCIA methods regarding four electricity mix production LCIs from the ecoinvent database are presented. RIs for 18 LCIA methods (accounting for a total of 232 impact categories) were calculated on these LCIs and the relevance of the methods are discussed. RIs prove to be a criterion for distinguishing the different LCIA methods and could thus be employed by practitioners for deeper interpretations of LCIA results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...

  2. Progress, influence and perspectives of emergy theories in China, in support of environmentally sound economic development and equitable trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Xiaobin; Ulgiati, Sergio; Yan, Maochao; Gao, Wangsheng

    2008-01-01

    Emergy Accounting and Synthesis, developed by Howard Odum in the 1980s, accounts for both the work of nature and that of humans as part of it in generating products and services. Since the 1990s, when Odum's system theories and emergy approach were introduced to China, a great attention was paid to them, since they appeared to Chinese scholars very important, comprehensive, and rich with application opportunities to China's economic development and environmental management. Until now more than 150 papers related to emergy theories were published in Chinese scientific journals, more than 20 dissertations presented in all Chinese Universities, and a large number of emergy-based papers were authored by Chinese scholars in international journals. Also, several reports dealing with emergy evaluation of different provinces of China were presented to local governments for decision-making. Emergy theories were applied to valuation of ecosystems and eco-industrial parks, as well as to studies of benefits/cost analysis and feasibility of ecological engineering. Meanwhile, a series of monographs and translated books related to emergy theories were published in China, some of which are used as text books in Chinese universities and institutes. Compared with the great potential of emergy application, there are many new fields that should be addressed in China, including: assessing the environmental impact of processes based on matching of high-quality and low-quality resources, establishing new frameworks and systems for environmental accounting, evaluating natural capital and services and applying research results to the process of decision-making, and finally studying the patterns and the available development options of China regional eco-economic systems. (author)

  3. Sound therapies for tinnitus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Margaret M

    2007-01-01

    Many people with bothersome (suffering) tinnitus notice that their tinnitus changes in different acoustical surroundings, it is more intrusive in silence and less profound in the sound enriched environments. This observation led to the development of treatment methods for tinnitus utilizing sound. Many of these methods are still under investigation in respect to their specific protocol and effectiveness and only some have been objectively evaluated in clinical trials. This chapter will review therapies for tinnitus using sound stimulation.

  4. (Environmental and geophysical modeling, fracture mechanics, and boundary element methods)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, L.J.

    1990-11-09

    Technical discussions at the various sites visited centered on application of boundary integral methods for environmental modeling, seismic analysis, and computational fracture mechanics in composite and smart'' materials. The traveler also attended the International Association for Boundary Element Methods Conference at Rome, Italy. While many aspects of boundary element theory and applications were discussed in the papers, the dominant topic was the analysis and application of hypersingular equations. This has been the focus of recent work by the author, and thus the conference was highly relevant to research at ORNL.

  5. Emergy assessment method for wheat cultivar efficiency and environmental sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Jankowiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The method based on emergy was applied to quantify the fluxes of the energy, matter and monetary investment use (water, seeds, work, fertilizer and plant protecting agents, fuel, goods and services, productivity, environmental services and sustainability in typical wheat cultivar conducted in Wielkopolska. In order to convert all the flows mentioned into common base (seJ a conversion factors (solar transformities were used. In this way it was possible to consider also such flows that are free and generally neglected in the traditional balances. Generally only 52% emergy inflow is delivered by financial investment, while the remaining part, delivered in the form of the environmental services, is free. The Emergy Yield Ratio EYR = 1.14 indicate a low level of output per emergy investment unit. The values of Environmental Loading Ratio ELR = 11 and Emergy Sustainability Index ESI = 0.1 indicate an environmental stress and low level of cultivar sustainability, respectively. The final cultivar product (wheat has the emergy density 4.35 E12 seJ/kg and transformity 26.3 E4 seJ/J.

  6. Nuclear and nuclear related analytical methods applied in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Ion V.; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Cimpoca, G. V; Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Oros Calin; Frontasyeva, Marina; Petre, Marian; Dulama, Ioana; Vlaicu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Analytical Methods can be used for research activities on environmental studies like water quality assessment, pesticide residues, global climatic change (transboundary), pollution and remediation. Heavy metal pollution is a problem associated with areas of intensive industrial activity. In this work the moss bio monitoring technique was employed to study the atmospheric deposition in Dambovita County Romania. Also, there were used complementary nuclear and atomic analytical methods: Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). These high sensitivity analysis methods were used to determine the chemical composition of some samples of mosses placed in different areas with different pollution industrial sources. The concentrations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined. The concentration of Fe from the same samples was determined using all these methods and we obtained a very good agreement, in statistical limits, which demonstrate the capability of these analytical methods to be applied on a large spectrum of environmental samples with the same results. (authors)

  7. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  8. A comparison of radiological risk assessment methods for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Peterson, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Evaluation of risks to human health from exposure to ionizing radiation at radioactively contaminated sites is an integral part of the decision-making process for determining the need for remediation and selecting remedial actions that may be required. At sites regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a target risk range of 10 -4 to 10 -6 incremental cancer incidence over a lifetime is specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as generally acceptable, based on the reasonable maximum exposure to any individual under current and future land use scenarios. Two primary methods currently being used in conducting radiological risk assessments at CERCLA sites are compared in this analysis. Under the first method, the radiation dose equivalent (i.e., Sv or rem) to the receptors of interest over the appropriate period of exposure is estimated and multiplied by a risk factor (cancer risk/Sv). Alternatively, incremental cancer risk can be estimated by combining the EPA's cancer slope factors (previously termed potency factors) for radionuclides with estimates of radionuclide intake by ingestion and inhalation, as well as radionuclide concentrations in soil that contribute to external dose. The comparison of the two methods has demonstrated that resulting estimates of lifetime incremental cancer risk under these different methods may differ significantly, even when all other exposure assumptions are held constant, with the magnitude of the discrepancy depending upon the dominant radionuclides and exposure pathways for the site. The basis for these discrepancies, the advantages and disadvantages of each method, and the significance of the discrepant results for environmental restoration decisions are presented

  9. Indoor air - assessment: Methods of analysis for environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.R.; Naugle, D.F.; Berry, M.A.

    1990-06-01

    The monograph describes, in a general way, published sampling procedures and analytical approaches for known and suspected carcinogens. The primary focus is upon carcinogens found in indoor air, although the methods described are applicable to other media or environments. In cases where there are no published methods for a particular pollutant in indoor air, methods developed for the workplace and for ambient air are included since they should be adaptable to indoor air. Known and suspected carcinogens have been grouped into six categories for the purposes of this and related work. The categories are radon, asbestos, organic compounds, inorganic species, particles, and non-ionizing radiation. Some methods of assessing exposure that are not specific to any particular pollutant category are covered in a separate section. The report is the fifth in a series of EPA/Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office Monographs

  10. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  11. Nuclear sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambach, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei, like more familiar mechanical systems, undergo simple vibrational motion. Among these vibrations, sound modes are of particular interest since they reveal important information on the effective interactions among the constituents and, through extrapolation, on the bulk behaviour of nuclear and neutron matter. Sound wave propagation in nuclei shows strong quantum effects familiar from other quantum systems. Microscopic theory suggests that the restoring forces are caused by the complex structure of the many-Fermion wavefunction and, in some cases, have no classical analogue. The damping of the vibrational amplitude is strongly influenced by phase coherence among the particles participating in the motion. (author)

  12. Estimation methods of eco-environmental water requirements: Case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhifeng; CUI Baoshan; LIU Jingling

    2005-01-01

    Supplying water to the ecological environment with certain quantity and quality is significant for the protection of diversity and the realization of sustainable development. The conception and connotation of eco-environmental water requirements, including the definition of the conception, the composition and characteristics of eco-environmental water requirements, are evaluated in this paper. The classification and estimation methods of eco-environmental water requirements are then proposed. On the basis of the study on the Huang-Huai-Hai Area, the present water use, the minimum and suitable water requirement are estimated and the corresponding water shortage is also calculated. According to the interrelated programs, the eco-environmental water requirements in the coming years (2010, 2030, 2050) are estimated. The result indicates that the minimum and suitable eco-environmental water requirements fluctuate with the differences of function setting and the referential standard of water resources, and so as the water shortage. Moreover, the study indicates that the minimum eco-environmental water requirement of the study area ranges from 2.84×1010m3 to 1.02×1011m3, the suitable water requirement ranges from 6.45×1010m3 to 1.78×1011m3, the water shortage ranges from 9.1×109m3 to 2.16×1010m3 under the minimum water requirement, and it is from 3.07×1010m3 to 7.53×1010m3 under the suitable water requirement. According to the different values of the water shortage, the water priority can be allocated. The ranges of the eco-environmental water requirements in the three coming years (2010, 2030, 2050) are 4.49×1010m3-1.73×1011m3, 5.99×10m3?2.09×1011m3, and 7.44×1010m3-2.52×1011m3, respectively.

  13. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  14. Second Sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 6. Second Sound - The Role of Elastic Waves. R Srinivasan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 6 June 1999 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/06/0015-0019 ...

  15. Vortex sound in bass-reflex ports of loudspeakers : part II. a method to estimate the point of separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, N.B.; Bockholts, M.; van Eck, P.; Hirschberg, A.

    1998-01-01

    In part I of this paper, the vortex shedding that may occur in a bass-reflex port of a loudspeaker system was discussed. At the Helmholtz frequency of the bass-reflex port, air is pumped in and out at rather high velocities, vortex shedding occurs at the end of the port, and blowing sounds are

  16. Developing site-specific interactive environmental management tools: An exciting method of communicating training, procedures, and other information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeckels, J.M.

    1999-07-01

    Environmental managers are faced with numerous programs that must be communicated throughout their organizations. Among these are regulatory training programs, internal environmental policy, regulatory guidance/procedures and internal guidance/procedures. Traditional methods of delivering this type of information are typically confined to written materials and classroom training. There are many challenges faced by environmental managers with these traditional approaches including: determining if recipients of written plans or procedures are reading and comprehending the information; scheduling training sessions to reach all affected people across multiple schedules/shifts; and maintaining adequate training records. In addition, current trends toward performance-based or competency-based training requires a more consistent method of measuring and documenting performance. The use of interactive computer applications to present training or procedural information is a new and exciting tool for delivering environmental information to employees. Site-specific pictures, text, sound, and even video can be combined with multimedia software to create informative and highly interactive applications. Some of the applications that can be produced include integrated environmental training, educational pieces, and interactive environmental procedures. They can be executed from a CD-ROM, hard drive, network or a company Intranet. Collectively, the authors refer to these as interactive environmental management tools (IEMTs). This paper focuses on site-specific, interactive training as an example of an IEMT. Interactive training not only delivers a highly effective message, but can also be designed to focus on site-specific environmental issues that are unique to each company. Interactive training also lends itself well to automated record keeping functions and to reaching all affected employees.

  17. Intercomparison of measuring and evaluation methods for environmental radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Nagaoka, Toshi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Moriuchi, Shigeru; Okano, Masaharu.

    1990-11-01

    This report presents the results of the cooperative research by IPCR and JAERI. In order to investigate the accuracy and characteristics of the measurement and evaluation methods for environmental radiations, developed independently by IPCR and by JAERI, field experiments were performed using the both methods under the same conditions at the same time. The experiments were performed at fixed points on the ground, in a moving car and in a flying helicopter. Discussion was made on the basis of the comparison of the results from the both methods. The exposure rates from the IPCR method agreed within 10% with those from the JAERI method, however the former were systematically higher than the latter. Since the evaluated exposure rate components due to 238 U-series, 232 Th-series and 40 K showed apparent differences between the IPCR method and the JAERI method, further investigation is necessary for the positions and widths of the applied energy bands and the coefficients in the equations to evaluate the components. In measurements in a moving vehicle, the sequential data should be gathered per sufficiently short distance to distinguish the local change of the radiation level when it changes greatly according to the location. The aerial data showed that the exposure rates from terrestrial gamma rays in the region west of the Abe river are apparently higher than those in the Kanto district. (author)

  18. Mapping urban environmental noise: a land use regression method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dan; Liu, Yi; Chen, Jining

    2011-09-01

    Forecasting and preventing urban noise pollution are major challenges in urban environmental management. Most existing efforts, including experiment-based models, statistical models, and noise mapping, however, have limited capacity to explain the association between urban growth and corresponding noise change. Therefore, these conventional methods can hardly forecast urban noise at a given outlook of development layout. This paper, for the first time, introduces a land use regression method, which has been applied for simulating urban air quality for a decade, to construct an urban noise model (LUNOS) in Dalian Municipality, Northwest China. The LUNOS model describes noise as a dependent variable of surrounding various land areas via a regressive function. The results suggest that a linear model performs better in fitting monitoring data, and there is no significant difference of the LUNOS's outputs when applied to different spatial scales. As the LUNOS facilitates a better understanding of the association between land use and urban environmental noise in comparison to conventional methods, it can be regarded as a promising tool for noise prediction for planning purposes and aid smart decision-making.

  19. Alternative Testing Methods for Predicting Health Risk from Environmental Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Colacci

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to animal testing are considered as promising tools to support the prediction of toxicological risks from environmental exposure. Among the alternative testing methods, the cell transformation assay (CTA appears to be one of the most appropriate approaches to predict the carcinogenic properties of single chemicals, complex mixtures and environmental pollutants. The BALB/c 3T3 CTA shows a good degree of concordance with the in vivo rodent carcinogenesis tests. Whole-genome transcriptomic profiling is performed to identify genes that are transcriptionally regulated by different kinds of exposures. Its use in cell models representative of target organs may help in understanding the mode of action and predicting the risk for human health. Aiming at associating the environmental exposure to health-adverse outcomes, we used an integrated approach including the 3T3 CTA and transcriptomics on target cells, in order to evaluate the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM on toxicological complex endpoints. Organic extracts obtained from PM2.5 and PM1 samples were evaluated in the 3T3 CTA in order to identify effects possibly associated with different aerodynamic diameters or airborne chemical components. The effects of the PM2.5 extracts on human health were assessed by using whole-genome 44 K oligo-microarray slides. Statistical analysis by GeneSpring GX identified genes whose expression was modulated in response to the cell treatment. Then, modulated genes were associated with pathways, biological processes and diseases through an extensive biological analysis. Data derived from in vitro methods and omics techniques could be valuable for monitoring the exposure to toxicants, understanding the modes of action via exposure-associated gene expression patterns and to highlight the role of genes in key events related to adversity.

  20. Tools and methods for evaluating and refining alternative futures for coastal ecosystem management—the Puget Sound Ecosystem Portfolio Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kristin B.; Kreitler, Jason R.; Labiosa, William B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Puget Sound Ecosystem Portfolio Model (PSEPM) is a decision-support tool that uses scenarios to evaluate where, when, and to what extent future population growth, urban growth, and shoreline development may threaten the Puget Sound nearshore environment. This tool was designed to be used iteratively in a workshop setting in which experts, stakeholders, and decisionmakers discuss consequences to the Puget Sound nearshore within an alternative-futures framework. The PSEPM presents three possible futures of the nearshore by analyzing three growth scenarios developed out to 2060: Status Quo—continuation of current trends; Managed Growth—adoption of an aggressive set of land-use management policies; and Unconstrained Growth—relaxation of land-use restrictions. The PSEPM focuses on nearshore environments associated with barrier and bluff-backed beaches—the most dominant shoreforms in Puget Sound—which represent 50 percent of Puget Sound shorelines by length. This report provides detailed methodologies for development of three submodels within the PSEPM—the Shellfish Pollution Model, the Beach Armoring Index, and the Recreation Visits Model. Results from the PSEPM identify where and when future changes to nearshore ecosystems and ecosystem services will likely occur within the three growth scenarios. Model outputs include maps that highlight shoreline sections where nearshore resources may be at greater risk from upland land-use changes. The background discussed in this report serves to document and supplement model results displayed on the PSEPM Web site located at http://geography.wr.usgs.gov/pugetSound/.

  1. Environmental risk comparisons with internal methods of UST leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgin, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    The past five years have seen a variety of advances in how leaks can be detected from within underground storage tanks. Any leak-detection approach employed within a storage tanks must be conducted at specific time intervals and meet certain leak-rate criteria according to federal and state regulations. Nevertheless, the potential environmental consequences of leak detection approaches differ widely. Internal, volumetric UST monitoring techniques have developed over time including: (1) inventory control with stick measurements, (2) precision tank testing, (3) automatic tank gauging (ATG), (4) statistical inventory reconciliation (SIR), and (5) statistical techniques with automatic tank gauging. An ATG focuses on the advantage of precise data but measured for only a brief period. On the other hand, stick data has less precision but when combined with SIR over extended periods it too can detect low leak rates. Graphs demonstrate the comparable amounts of fuel than can leak out of a tank before being detected by these techniques. The results indicate that annual tank testing has the greatest potential for large volumes of fuel leaking without detection while new statistical approaches with an ATG have the least potential. The environmental implications of the volumes of fuel leaked prior to detection are site specific. For example, if storage tank is surrounded by a high water table and in a sole-source aquifer even small leaks may cause problems. The user must also consider regulatory risks. The level of environmental and regulatory risk should influence selection of the UST leak detection method

  2. Regarding "A new method for predicting nonlinear structural vibrations induced by ground impact loading" [Journal of Sound and Vibration, 331/9 (2012) 2129-2140

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmell, Matthew P.

    2016-09-01

    The Editor wishes to make the reader aware that the paper "A new method for predicting nonlinear structural vibrations induced by ground impact loading" by Jun Liu, Yu Zhang, Bin Yun, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 331 (2012) 2129-2140, did not contain a direct citation of the fundamental and original work in this field by Dr. Mark Svinkin. The Editor regrets that this omission was not noted at the time that the above paper was accepted and published.

  3. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television...

  4. GMTR: two-dimensional geo-fit multitarget retrieval model for michelson interferometer for passive atmospheric sounding/environmental satellite observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotti, Massimo; Brizzi, Gabriele; Papandrea, Enzo; Prevedelli, Marco; Ridolfi, Marco; Dinelli, Bianca Maria; Magnani, Luca

    2006-02-01

    We present a new retrieval model designed to analyze the observations of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), which is on board the ENVironmental SATellite (ENVISAT). The new geo-fit multitarget retrieval model (GMTR) implements the geo-fit two-dimensional inversion for the simultaneous retrieval of several targets including a set of atmospheric constituents that are not considered by the ground processor of the MIPAS experiment. We describe the innovative solutions adopted in the inversion algorithm and the main functionalities of the corresponding computer code. The performance of GMTR is compared with that of the MIPAS ground processor in terms of accuracy of the retrieval products. Furthermore, we show the capability of GMTR to resolve the horizontal structures of the atmosphere. The new retrieval model is implemented in an optimized computer code that is distributed by the European Space Agency as "open source" in a package that includes a full set of auxiliary data for the retrieval of 28 atmospheric targets.

  5. Eliciting Sound Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

  6. A novel application of Recursive Equation Method for determining thermodynamic properties of single phase fluids from density and speed-of-sound measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, S.; Giuliano Albo, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel method for calculating the isobaric specific heat capacity is presented. ► Heat capacity (C p ) was determined only by speed-of-sound and density measurements. ► (C p ) temperature dependence has been related to speed-of-sound by a new expression. ► Heat capacity for water, nonane, undecane, and rapeseed oil methyl ester are obtained. -- Abstract: The determination of thermal quantities from mechanical properties is still a challenge in the thermodynamic field. In this work, the authors suggest a preliminary numerical calculation which allows to determine the constant pressure specific heat capacity, starting from density and speed-of-sound experimental values, as input data. This method is a variant of the well characterized Recursive Equation Method (REM) [1] and permits to develop empirical equations of state for single phase fluids. In particular, the isobaric specific heat capacity has been obtained, in a wide range of temperatures and pressures, for pure water, n-nonane, n-undecane, and rapeseed oil methyl ester. The results have been compared with those available in the literature, when it was possible. Moreover, the typical uncertainty of heat capacity has been estimated to be in the order of 1.5%; however it has been shown that it can be improved when proper distributions of the experimental points are available

  7. Environmental impact from different modes of transport. Method of comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    A prerequisite of long-term sustainable development is that activities of various kinds are adjusted to what humans and the natural world can tolerate. Transport is an activity that affects humans and the environment to a very great extent and in this project, several actors within the transport sector have together laid the foundation for the development of a comparative method to be able to compare the environmental impact at the different stages along the transport chain. The method analyses the effects of different transport concepts on the climate, noise levels, human health, acidification, land use and ozone depletion. Within the framework of the method, a calculation model has been created in Excel which acts as a basis for the comparisons. The user can choose to download the model from the Swedish EPA's on-line bookstore or order it on a floppy disk. Neither the method nor the model are as yet fully developed but our hope is that they can still be used in their present form as a basis and inspire further efforts and research in the field. In the report, we describe most of these shortcomings, the problems associated with the work and the existing development potential. This publication should be seen as the first stage in the development of a method of comparison between different modes of transport in non-monetary terms where there remains a considerable need for further development and amplification

  8. Metal speciation: survey of environmental methods of analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mach, M.H.; Nott, B.; Scott, J.W.; Maddalone, R.F.; Whiddon, N.T. [TRW, Redondo Beach, CA (United States). Chemistry Technology Dept.

    1996-07-01

    As part of a recent task under the EPRI Analytical Methods Qualification Program (RP 1851), TRW has surveyed the methods available for monitoring metal species in typical utility aqueous discharge streams. Methods for determining the individual species of these metals can become important in a regulatory sense as the EPA transitions to assessment of environmental risk based on bioavailability. For example, EPA considers methyl mercury and Cr(VI) much more toxic to the aquatic environment than inorganic mercury or Cr(III). The species of a given element can also differ in their transport and bioaccumulation. Methods for speciation generally include a selective separation step followed by standard metals analysis. Speciation, therefore, is mainly derived from the separation step and not from the method of final quantisation. Examples of separation/analysis include: selective extraction followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption or ICP-MS; separation by GC followed by metals detection; chelation and/or direct separation by LC followed by UV measurement or metals detection; and ion chromatography with conductivity, UV, or metals detection. There are a number of sampling issues associated with metal species such as stabilization (maintaining oxidation state), absorption, and filtration that need to be addressed in order to obtain and maintain a representative sample for analysis. 45 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Comparison of DNA preservation methods for environmental bacterial community samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Michael A; Pratte, Zoe A; Kellogg, Christina A

    2013-02-01

    Field collections of environmental samples, for example corals, for molecular microbial analyses present distinct challenges. The lack of laboratory facilities in remote locations is common, and preservation of microbial community DNA for later study is critical. A particular challenge is keeping samples frozen in transit. Five nucleic acid preservation methods that do not require cold storage were compared for effectiveness over time and ease of use. Mixed microbial communities of known composition were created and preserved by DNAgard(™), RNAlater(®), DMSO-EDTA-salt (DESS), FTA(®) cards, and FTA Elute(®) cards. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and clone libraries were used to detect specific changes in the faux communities over weeks and months of storage. A previously known bias in FTA(®) cards that results in lower recovery of pure cultures of Gram-positive bacteria was also detected in mixed community samples. There appears to be a uniform bias across all five preservation methods against microorganisms with high G + C DNA. Overall, the liquid-based preservatives (DNAgard(™), RNAlater(®), and DESS) outperformed the card-based methods. No single liquid method clearly outperformed the others, leaving method choice to be based on experimental design, field facilities, shipping constraints, and allowable cost. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sound Visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dolenc, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contains a description of a construction of subwoofer case that has an extra functionality of being able to produce special visual effects and display visualizations that match the currently playing sound. For this reason, multiple lighting elements made out of LED (Light Emitting Diode) diodes were installed onto the subwoofer case. The lighting elements are controlled by dedicated software that was also developed. The software runs on STM32F4-Discovery evaluation board inside a ...

  11. Tentative reference method for measurement of tritium in environmental waters. Environmental monitoring series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-12-01

    A tentative reference method for the measurement of tritium in potable and nonpotable environmental water is described. Water samples are treated with sodium hydroxide and potassium permanganate and then a water fraction is separated from interferences by distillation. Two distillation procedures are described, a simple aqueous distillation for samples from potable water sources, and an aqueous-azeotropic-benzene distillation for nonpotable water sources. Alliquots of a designated distillate fraction are measured for tritium activity by liquid scintillation detection. Distillation recovery and counting efficiency factors are determined with tritium standards. Results are reported in picocuries per milliliter

  12. Sound Velocity in Soap Foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gong-Tao; Lü Yong-Jun; Liu Peng-Fei; Li Yi-Ning; Shi Qing-Fan

    2012-01-01

    The velocity of sound in soap foams at high gas volume fractions is experimentally studied by using the time difference method. It is found that the sound velocities increase with increasing bubble diameter, and asymptotically approach to the value in air when the diameter is larger than 12.5 mm. We propose a simple theoretical model for the sound propagation in a disordered foam. In this model, the attenuation of a sound wave due to the scattering of the bubble wall is equivalently described as the effect of an additional length. This simplicity reasonably reproduces the sound velocity in foams and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experiments. Further measurements indicate that the increase of frequency markedly slows down the sound velocity, whereas the latter does not display a strong dependence on the solution concentration

  13. Sound Exposure of Symphony Orchestra Musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Pedersen, Ellen Raben; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2011-01-01

    dBA and their left ear was exposed 4.6 dB more than the right ear. Percussionists were exposed to high sound peaks >115 dBC but less continuous sound exposure was observed in this group. Musicians were exposed up to LAeq8h of 92 dB and a majority of musicians were exposed to sound levels exceeding......Background: Assessment of sound exposure by noise dosimetry can be challenging especially when measuring the exposure of classical orchestra musicians where sound originate from many different instruments. A new measurement method of bilateral sound exposure of classical musicians was developed...... and used to characterize sound exposure of the left and right ear simultaneously in two different symphony orchestras.Objectives: To measure binaural sound exposure of professional classical musicians and to identify possible exposure risk factors of specific musicians.Methods: Sound exposure was measured...

  14. A general procedure to generate models for urban environmental-noise pollution using feature selection and machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torija, Antonio J; Ruiz, Diego P

    2015-02-01

    The prediction of environmental noise in urban environments requires the solution of a complex and non-linear problem, since there are complex relationships among the multitude of variables involved in the characterization and modelling of environmental noise and environmental-noise magnitudes. Moreover, the inclusion of the great spatial heterogeneity characteristic of urban environments seems to be essential in order to achieve an accurate environmental-noise prediction in cities. This problem is addressed in this paper, where a procedure based on feature-selection techniques and machine-learning regression methods is proposed and applied to this environmental problem. Three machine-learning regression methods, which are considered very robust in solving non-linear problems, are used to estimate the energy-equivalent sound-pressure level descriptor (LAeq). These three methods are: (i) multilayer perceptron (MLP), (ii) sequential minimal optimisation (SMO), and (iii) Gaussian processes for regression (GPR). In addition, because of the high number of input variables involved in environmental-noise modelling and estimation in urban environments, which make LAeq prediction models quite complex and costly in terms of time and resources for application to real situations, three different techniques are used to approach feature selection or data reduction. The feature-selection techniques used are: (i) correlation-based feature-subset selection (CFS), (ii) wrapper for feature-subset selection (WFS), and the data reduction technique is principal-component analysis (PCA). The subsequent analysis leads to a proposal of different schemes, depending on the needs regarding data collection and accuracy. The use of WFS as the feature-selection technique with the implementation of SMO or GPR as regression algorithm provides the best LAeq estimation (R(2)=0.94 and mean absolute error (MAE)=1.14-1.16 dB(A)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Methods to maximise recovery of environmental DNA from water samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rheyda Hinlo

    Full Text Available The environmental DNA (eDNA method is a detection technique that is rapidly gaining credibility as a sensitive tool useful in the surveillance and monitoring of invasive and threatened species. Because eDNA analysis often deals with small quantities of short and degraded DNA fragments, methods that maximize eDNA recovery are required to increase detectability. In this study, we performed experiments at different stages of the eDNA analysis to show which combinations of methods give the best recovery rate for eDNA. Using Oriental weatherloach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus as a study species, we show that various combinations of DNA capture, preservation and extraction methods can significantly affect DNA yield. Filtration using cellulose nitrate filter paper preserved in ethanol or stored in a -20°C freezer and extracted with the Qiagen DNeasy kit outperformed other combinations in terms of cost and efficiency of DNA recovery. Our results support the recommendation to filter water samples within 24hours but if this is not possible, our results suggest that refrigeration may be a better option than freezing for short-term storage (i.e., 3-5 days. This information is useful in designing eDNA detection of low-density invasive or threatened species, where small variations in DNA recovery can signify the difference between detection success or failure.

  16. Evaluative conditioning induces changes in sound valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative Conditioning (EC has hardly been tested in the auditory domain, but it is a potentially valuable research tool. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether the affective evaluation of short environmental sounds can be changed using affective words as unconditioned stimuli (US. Congruence effects on an affective priming task (APT for conditioned sounds demonstrated successful EC. Subjective ratings for sounds paired with negative words changed accordingly. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether the acquired valence remains stable after repeated presentation of the conditioned sound without the US or whether extinction occurs. The acquired affective value remained present, albeit weaker, even after 40 extinction trials. These results warrant the use of EC to study processing of short environmental sounds with acquired valence, even if this requires repeated stimulus presentations. This paves the way for studying processing of affective environmental sounds while effectively controlling low level-stimulus properties.

  17. COMPARISON OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF MINING WASTE DISPOSAL TECHNOLOGY USING AHP METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Kubicz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of tailing ponds sites for storing all types of waste materials creates multiple problems concerning waste disposal and the environmental impact of the waste. Tailing ponds waste may comprise e.g. flotation tailings from ore enrichment plants. Despite the fact that companies / corporations use state-of-the-art methods of extraction and processing of copper ore, and introduce modern systems of organization and production management, the area located closest to the reservoir is exposed to its negative effects. Many types of waste material are a valuable source of secondary raw materials which are suitable for use by various industries. Examples of such materials are mining waste (flotation tailings, usually neutral to the environment, whose quantities produced in the process of exploitation of minerals is sizeable. The article compares different technological methods of mining waste disposal using AHP method and their environmental impact.

  18. Developing integrated methods to address complex resource and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; McCafferty, Anne E.; Clark, Roger N.

    2016-02-08

    IntroductionThis circular provides an overview of selected activities that were conducted within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Integrated Methods Development Project, an interdisciplinary project designed to develop new tools and conduct innovative research requiring integration of geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and remote-sensing expertise. The project was supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program, and its products and acquired capabilities have broad applications to missions throughout the USGS and beyond.In addressing challenges associated with understanding the location, quantity, and quality of mineral resources, and in investigating the potential environmental consequences of resource development, a number of field and laboratory capabilities and interpretative methodologies evolved from the project that have applications to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster and hazard assessment, and planetary science. New or improved tools and research findings developed within the project have been applied to other projects and activities. Specifically, geophysical equipment and techniques have been applied to a variety of traditional and nontraditional mineral- and energy-resource studies, military applications, environmental investigations, and applied research activities that involve climate change, mapping techniques, and monitoring capabilities. Diverse applied geochemistry activities provide a process-level understanding of the mobility, chemical speciation, and bioavailability of elements, particularly metals and metalloids, in a variety of environmental settings. Imaging spectroscopy capabilities maintained and developed within the project have been applied to traditional resource studies as well as to studies related to ecosystem health, human health, disaster assessment, and planetary science. Brief descriptions of capabilities and laboratory facilities and summaries of some

  19. Environmentally-sound building technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, P.

    1998-01-01

    Referring to numbers of international scientific reports it arises that Sustainable Building Constructions are the only acceptable possibilities yet. The Sustainability of a construction deals with responsible choices of materials and energies as well as similar choices of production and execution.

  20. Environmentally-friendly product development: methods and tools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abele, Eberhard; Anderl, R; Birkhofer, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    ... to assess a product's environmental effects. Fig. 1. Vision of Environment as a key target for product development vvi Preface Product related environmental issues are getting more and more political and public awareness. Development of environmentally friendly products has become an action item for both, politics and industry (UNFCCC 1997). Energy...

  1. Environmental Methods Review: Retooling Impact Assessment for the New Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Environmental Assessment Research Council. Netherlands, Commission for Environmental Impact Assessment. 1993. Year book of the Commission for Environmental...professional standards. Currently. the main avenues to obtain information in order to maintain or improve competence include: • journals. books ...World Wide Web • professional associations and networks such as IAIA. All of these. however. rely on using the expertise of others secondhand . Who

  2. Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, B. H.

    1973-01-01

    The Mississippi Sound Remote Sensing Study was initiated as part of the research program of the NASA Earth Resources Laboratory. The objective of this study is development of remote sensing techniques to study near-shore marine waters. Included within this general objective are the following: (1) evaluate existing techniques and instruments used for remote measurement of parameters of interest within these waters; (2) develop methods for interpretation of state-of-the-art remote sensing data which are most meaningful to an understanding of processes taking place within near-shore waters; (3) define hardware development requirements and/or system specifications; (4) develop a system combining data from remote and surface measurements which will most efficiently assess conditions in near-shore waters; (5) conduct projects in coordination with appropriate operating agencies to demonstrate applicability of this research to environmental and economic problems.

  3. Contemporary methods for realization and estimation of efficiency of 3Daudio technology application for sound interface improvement of an aircraft cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Korsun

    2014-01-01

    Dancings" from A.P. Borodin's opera "Prince Igor", the horn sounds, the modulated broadband noise (with the fixed position, and "wandering" in the range ±5º in the vertical direction with respect to the fixed position. In the course of experiments the examinee was offered to define in what of possible positions (on an azimuth ±80º, ±40º, 0º, on an eminence ±45º, 0º, and 90º - over the head there is a virtual source of sound.According to results of experiments, directions with "rough" gradation 90 ° (in a horizontal "at the left–direct-on the right", in a vertical ""up-direct-down" are distinguished with he high probability (on the average 0.94 for all types of signals. Thus the spectral content of signal is of no importance. Results of more accurate recognition with gradation of 40 … 45 ° depend on the type of signal and are different for horizontal and vertical channels. In the horizontal channel the probability of the correct recognition for broadband signals (the modulated noise, classical music is 0,77 … 0,78, for a sound of horn it is 0,75. In the vertical channel for broadband signals (the modulated noise, classical music the probability of the correct recognition is 0.48 … 0.50, for a sound of horn it is 0.36. The results allow us to assume that the person recognizes better the position of sound signal sources with rather wide spectrum close to the natural ones (broadband noise, symphonic orchestra.Thus, as a result of the carried-out work the sound processing algorithms have been realized and the software to allow reproducing spatial audio-helps via earphones has been created. In the course of research the methods of a digital filtration as well the statistical methods to analyse the results of experiments have been used. The main result defining a scientific novelty of work is the objective quantitative characteristics of the 3D - audio technology, which are expedient for considering in designing the interfaces for pilots' cabins of modern

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of Hydraulic Methods Regarding Hydromorphologic Data Derivation Methods to Determine Environmental Water Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shokoohi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the accuracy of hydraulic methods in determining environmental flow requirements. Despite the vital importance of deriving river cross sectional data for hydraulic methods, few studies have focused on the criteria for deriving this data. The present study shows that the depth of cross section has a meaningful effect on the results obtained from hydraulic methods and that, considering fish as the index species for river habitat analysis, an optimum depth of 1 m should be assumed for deriving information from cross sections. The second important parameter required for extracting the geometric and hydraulic properties of rivers is the selection of an appropriate depth increment; ∆y. In the present research, this parameter was found to be equal to 1 cm. The uncertainty of the environmental discharge evaluation, when allocating water in areas with water scarcity, should be kept as low as possible. The Manning friction coefficient (n is an important factor in river discharge calculation. Using a range of "n" equal to 3 times the standard deviation for the study area, it is shown that the influence of friction coefficient on the estimation of environmental flow is much less than that on the calculation of river discharge.

  5. Second sound tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jihee; Ihas, Gary G.; Ekdahl, Dan

    2017-10-01

    It is common that a physical system resonates at a particular frequency, whose frequency depends on physical parameters which may change in time. Often, one would like to automatically track this signal as the frequency changes, measuring, for example, its amplitude. In scientific research, one would also like to utilize the standard methods, such as lock-in amplifiers, to improve the signal to noise ratio. We present a complete He ii second sound system that uses positive feedback to generate a sinusoidal signal of constant amplitude via automatic gain control. This signal is used to produce temperature/entropy waves (second sound) in superfluid helium-4 (He ii). A lock-in amplifier limits the oscillation to a desirable frequency and demodulates the received sound signal. Using this tracking system, a second sound signal probed turbulent decay in He ii. We present results showing that the tracking system is more reliable than those of a conventional fixed frequency method; there is less correlation with temperature (frequency) fluctuation when the tracking system is used.

  6. Discussion on the method of environmental radiological impact assessment for the highway construction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guohua

    2008-01-01

    Based on the characteristics and environmental radiological impact of the highway construction project, the basic procedure of environmental radiological impact assessment for the highway construction project is put forward, including analysis and determination of contamination sources, selection of evaluation factors, determination of assessment range and dose limit, environmental investigation, environmental impact prediction and assessment. The working method of each procedure is analyzed. (authors)

  7. Automation method to identify the geological structure of seabed using spatial statistic analysis of echo sounding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, O.; Kim, W.; Kim, J.

    2017-12-01

    Recently construction of subsea tunnel has been increased globally. For safe construction of subsea tunnel, identifying the geological structure including fault at design and construction stage is more than important. Then unlike the tunnel in land, it's very difficult to obtain the data on geological structure because of the limit in geological survey. This study is intended to challenge such difficulties in a way of developing the technology to identify the geological structure of seabed automatically by using echo sounding data. When investigation a potential site for a deep subsea tunnel, there is the technical and economical limit with borehole of geophysical investigation. On the contrary, echo sounding data is easily obtainable while information reliability is higher comparing to above approaches. This study is aimed at developing the algorithm that identifies the large scale of geological structure of seabed using geostatic approach. This study is based on theory of structural geology that topographic features indicate geological structure. Basic concept of algorithm is outlined as follows; (1) convert the seabed topography to the grid data using echo sounding data, (2) apply the moving window in optimal size to the grid data, (3) estimate the spatial statistics of the grid data in the window area, (4) set the percentile standard of spatial statistics, (5) display the values satisfying the standard on the map, (6) visualize the geological structure on the map. The important elements in this study include optimal size of moving window, kinds of optimal spatial statistics and determination of optimal percentile standard. To determine such optimal elements, a numerous simulations were implemented. Eventually, user program based on R was developed using optimal analysis algorithm. The user program was designed to identify the variations of various spatial statistics. It leads to easy analysis of geological structure depending on variation of spatial statistics

  8. Application of a value-based equivalency method to assess environmental damage compensation under the European Environmental Liability Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Ortega, J.; Brouwer, R.; Aiking, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Liability Directive (ELD) establishes a framework of liability based on the 'polluter-pays' principle to prevent and remedy environmental damage. The ELD requires the testing of appropriate equivalency methods to assess the scale of compensatory measures needed to offset damage.

  9. THE APPLICATION OF THE METHOD ENVIRONMENTAL VALUE AT RISK (EVaR IN ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cornelia I. PICIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that the methodology Value at Risk or the method VaR, which is omnipresent in investment banking and which has lately become a standard in the procedure of evaluating risks for any category of economic activities, we shall use a technique that is compatible with the VaR-market, called Environmental Value at Risk or EvaR. While the VaR- market uses a level of trust of 95%, the EvaR uses a set of levels up to 99,999%. Thus, we shall try to analyze the variables of the method EVaR, and the way in which this model can be applied as a risk of the lack (rarity of petroleum. This risk is not only analyzed as a unique risk of growing the prices, but also as an uncertainty risk on volatile markets, in which the price and the volatility are the main variables used by the function EVaR.

  10. [DOE method for evaluating environmental and waste management samples: Revision 1, Addendum 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goheen, S.C.

    1995-04-01

    The US Dapartment of Energy's (DOE's) environmental and waste management (EM) sampling and analysis activities require that large numbers of samples be analyzed for materials characterization, environmental surveillance, and site-remediation programs. The present document, DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods), is a supplemental resource for analyzing many of these samples

  11. [DOE method for evaluating environmental and waste management samples: Revision 1, Addendum 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goheen, S.C.

    1995-04-01

    The US Dapartment of Energy`s (DOE`s) environmental and waste management (EM) sampling and analysis activities require that large numbers of samples be analyzed for materials characterization, environmental surveillance, and site-remediation programs. The present document, DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods), is a supplemental resource for analyzing many of these samples.

  12. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  13. Market applications of Resistivity, Induced Polarisation, Magnetic Resonance and Electromagnetic methods for Groundwater Investigations, Mining Exploration, Environmental and Engineering Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Manufacturers of geophysical instruments have been facing these past decades the fast evolution of the electronics and of the computer sciences. More automatisms have been introduced into the equipment and into the processing and interpretation software which may let believe that conducting geophysical surveys requires less understanding of the method and less experience than in the past. Hence some misunderstandings in the skills that are needed to make the geophysical results well integrated among the global information which the applied geologist needs to acquire to be successful in his applications. Globally, the demand in geophysical investigation goes towards more penetration depth, requiring more powerful transmitters, and towards a better resolution, requiring more data such as in 3D analysis. Budgets aspects strongly suggest a high efficiency in the field associated to high speed data processing. The innovation is required in all aspects of geophysics to fit with the market needs, including new technological (instruments, software) and methodological (methods, procedures, arrays) developments. The structures in charge of the geophysical work can be public organisations (institutes, ministries, geological surveys,…) or can come from the private sector (large companies, sub-contractors, consultants, …), each one of them getting their own constraints in the field work and in the processing and interpretation phases. In the applications concerning Groundwater investigations, Mining Exploration, Environmental and Engineering surveys, examples of data and their interpretation presently carried out all around the world will be presented for DC Resistivity (Vertical Electrical Sounding, 2D, 3D Resistivity Imaging, Resistivity Monitoring), Induced Polarisation (Time Domain 2D, 3D arrays for mining and environmental), Magnetic Resonance Sounding (direct detection and characterisation of groundwater) and Electromagnetic (multi-component and multi

  14. Methods and advantages of intercomparisons of TLDs for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Klemic, G.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most difficult tasks facing the international community is the monitoring of environmental radiation for potential increases due to facility accidents or weapons activity. Monitoring networks have been established to provide a record of natural background radiation as well as measure any radiation releases from a facility. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are an important element of such networks and are the most widely used passive detector for environmental monitoring. In order to reach a high international standard in the application of TLDs in routine environmental monitoring, there is a need for a intercomparisons. (authors)

  15. Evaluating Environmental Favorability for Tropical Cyclone Development with the Method of Point-Downscaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Nolan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A new method is presented to determine the favorability for tropical cyclone development of an atmospheric environment, as represented by a mean sounding of temperature, humidity, and wind as a function of height. A mesoscale model with nested, moving grids is used to simulate the evolution of a weak, precursor vortex in a large domain with doubly periodic boundary conditions. The equations of motion are modified to maintain arbitrary profiles of both zonal and meridional wind as a function of height, without the necessary large-scale temperature gradients that cannot be consistent with doubly periodic boundary conditions. Comparisons between simulations using the point-downscaling method and simulations using wind shear balanced by temperature gradients illustrate both the advantages and the limitations of the technique. Further examples of what can be learned with this method are presented using both idealized and observed soundings and wind profiles.

  16. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  17. Project-Based Learning in Undergraduate Environmental Chemistry Laboratory: Using EPA Methods to Guide Student Method Development for Pesticide Quantitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eric J.; Pauls, Steve; Dick, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Presented is a project-based learning (PBL) laboratory approach for an upper-division environmental chemistry or quantitative analysis course. In this work, a combined laboratory class of 11 environmental chemistry students developed a method based on published EPA methods for the extraction of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its…

  18. Method for environmental risk analysis (MIRA) revision 2007; Metode for miljoerettet risikoanalyse (MIRA) revisjon 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    OLF's instruction manual for carrying out environmental risk analyses provides a united approach and a common framework for environmental risk assessments. This is based on the best information available. The manual implies standardizations of a series of parameters, input data and partial analyses that are included in the environmental risk analysis. Environmental risk analyses carried out according to the MIRA method will thus be comparable between fields and between companies. In this revision an update of the text in accordance with today's practice for environmental risk analyses and prevailing regulations is emphasized. Moreover, method adjustments for especially protected beach habitats have been introduced, as well as a general method for estimating environmental risk concerning fish. Emphasis has also been put on improving environmental risk analysis' possibilities to contribute to a better management of environmental risk in the companies (ml)

  19. Evaluation on the structural soundness of the package with the lid bolted for subsurface disposal by finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chihiro

    2011-01-01

    The structural analysis of the disposal package for low-level radioactive wastes with relatively high activities (called L1 waste in Japan) were performed against normal and hypothetical conditions. As a normal condition the external load due to lifting, stacking of the package and filling the space of disposal pit with mortar or something were considered. Drop incident during handling and pressure due to some external force were taken up as hypothetical conditions. Using finite element code ABAQUS and three dimensional finite element model, structural analyses were carried out for the normal conditions. The results show that the maximum stresses occurred at the package due to the loads above mentioned were far less than the yield strength for all conditions. Therefore, it is confirmed that the disposal package keeps its integrity against the normal conditions. Analyses for load cases of 8 m drop onto the reinforced concrete slab were performed by using finite element code LS-DYNA. The results show that the strains at the impact zone of the package exceeded the fracture strain of the material and the opening of the lid at the vicinity on the impact zone was observed but the damaged area was limited in the vicinity of impact zone. As a maximum external pressure, 4 MPa was applied to the surface of the packages which were piled up in four layered in the disposal tunnel. According to the results of analyses by ABAQUS code the maximum strain occurred at the contact surfaces between lid and body of the top package. However, the package stays in sound because the plastic zone was so small and the value of the maximum strain was less than the fracture strain of the materials. (author)

  20. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: HYDRO (Hydrology)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  1. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: INVERT (Invertebrates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  2. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: INDEX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  3. USING FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING METHODS TO FURTHER DEVELOP AND COMMUNICATE ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING USING EMERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea that the methods and models of accounting and bookkeeping might be useful in describing, understanding, and managing environmental systems is implicit in the title of H.T. Odum's book, Environmental Accounting: Emergy and Environmental Decision Making. In this paper, I ...

  4. Determining the Environmental Effects of Indirect Subsidies: Integrated Method and Application to the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beers, C.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; de Moor, A.; Oosterhuis, F.H.

    2007-01-01

    The term 'environmentally damaging subsidies' covers all sorts of direct and indirect subsidies with negative consequences for the environment. This article presents a method to determine the environmental impact of these subsidies. It combines a microeconomic framework with an environmental impact

  5. Sound in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebreil Seraji

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.

  6. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhanov Dmitry; Erzakova Nadezhda

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the...

  7. Sound localization and occupational noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Lemos Menezes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of occupational noise on sound localization in different spatial planes and frequencies among normal hearing firefighters. METHOD: A total of 29 adults with pure-tone hearing thresholds below 25 dB took part in the study. The participants were divided into a group of 19 firefighters exposed to occupational noise and a control group of 10 adults who were not exposed to such noise. All subjects were assigned a sound localization task involving 117 stimuli from 13 sound sources that were spatially distributed in horizontal, vertical, midsagittal and transverse planes. The three stimuli, which were square waves with fundamental frequencies of 500, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, were presented at a sound level of 70 dB and were randomly repeated three times from each sound source. The angle between the speaker's axis in the same plane was 45°, and the distance to the subject was 1 m. RESULT: The results demonstrate that the sound localization ability of the firefighters was significantly lower (p<0.01 than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Exposure to occupational noise, even when not resulting in hearing loss, may lead to a diminished ability to locate a sound source.

  8. Rapid methods for measuring radionuclides in food and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    The application of ICP/mass spectrometry for the isotopic analysis of environmental samples, the use of drum assayers for measuring radionuclides in food and a rapid procedure for the measurement of the transuranic elements and thorium, performed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory are discussed

  9. Environmental change, climate, and health: issues and research methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMichael, A. J. (Anthony J.); Martens, Willem Jozef Meine

    2002-01-01

    ... relationships. The agenda of research and policy advice must be extended to include the larger-framed and longer-term environmental change issues. This book identifies the nature and scope of the problem, and explores the conceptual and methodological approaches to studying these relationships, modelling their future realization, providing estimates of health i...

  10. Neuroanatomic organization of sound memory in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Michael A; Pitcock, Jeffery A; Calhoun, Vince; Li, Juan; Freeman, Thomas; Hart, John

    2006-11-01

    The neural interface between sensory perception and memory is a central issue in neuroscience, particularly initial memory organization following perceptual analyses. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify anatomic regions extracting initial auditory semantic memory information related to environmental sounds. Two distinct anatomic foci were detected in the right superior temporal gyrus when subjects identified sounds representing either animals or threatening items. Threatening animal stimuli elicited signal changes in both foci, suggesting a distributed neural representation. Our results demonstrate both category- and feature-specific responses to nonverbal sounds in early stages of extracting semantic memory information from these sounds. This organization allows for these category-feature detection nodes to extract early, semantic memory information for efficient processing of transient sound stimuli. Neural regions selective for threatening sounds are similar to those of nonhuman primates, demonstrating semantic memory organization for basic biological/survival primitives are present across species.

  11. The Sound of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  12. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  13. Making Sound Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2007-01-01

    Sound provides and offers amazing insights into the world. Sound waves may be defined as mechanical energy that moves through air or other medium as a longitudinal wave and consists of pressure fluctuations. Humans and animals alike use sound as a means of communication and a tool for survival. Mammals, such as bats, use ultrasonic sound waves to…

  14. Development of computer program ENAUDIBL for computation of the sensation levels of multiple, complex, intrusive sounds in the presence of residual environmental masking noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebich, R. E.; Chang, Y.-S.; Chun, K. C.

    2000-03-31

    The relative audibility of multiple sounds occurs in separate, independent channels (frequency bands) termed critical bands or equivalent rectangular (filter-response) bandwidths (ERBs) of frequency. The true nature of human hearing is a function of a complex combination of subjective factors, both auditory and nonauditory. Assessment of the probability of individual annoyance, community-complaint reaction levels, speech intelligibility, and the most cost-effective mitigation actions requires sensation-level data; these data are one of the most important auditory factors. However, sensation levels cannot be calculated by using single-number, A-weighted sound level values. This paper describes specific steps to compute sensation levels. A unique, newly developed procedure is used, which simplifies and improves the accuracy of such computations by the use of maximum sensation levels that occur, for each intrusive-sound spectrum, within each ERB. The newly developed program ENAUDIBL makes use of ERB sensation-level values generated with some computational subroutines developed for the formerly documented program SPECTRAN.

  15. Betweenness-Based Method to Identify Critical Transmission Sectors for Supply Chain Environmental Pressure Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Xu, Ming

    2016-02-02

    To develop industry-specific policies for mitigating environmental pressures, previous studies primarily focus on identifying sectors that directly generate large amounts of environmental pressures (a.k.a. production-based method) or indirectly drive large amounts of environmental pressures through supply chains (e.g., consumption-based method). In addition to those sectors as important environmental pressure producers or drivers, there exist sectors that are also important to environmental pressure mitigation as transmission centers. Economy-wide environmental pressure mitigation might be achieved by improving production efficiency of these key transmission sectors, that is, using less upstream inputs to produce unitary output. We develop a betweenness-based method to measure the importance of transmission sectors, borrowing the betweenness concept from network analysis. We quantify the betweenness of sectors by examining supply chain paths extracted from structural path analysis that pass through a particular sector. We take China as an example and find that those critical transmission sectors identified by betweenness-based method are not always identifiable by existing methods. This indicates that betweenness-based method can provide additional insights that cannot be obtained with existing methods on the roles individual sectors play in generating economy-wide environmental pressures. Betweenness-based method proposed here can therefore complement existing methods for guiding sector-level environmental pressure mitigation strategies.

  16. Geostatistical Analysis Methods for Estimation of Environmental Data Homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Danilov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology for assessing the spatial homogeneity of ecosystems with the possibility of subsequent zoning of territories in terms of the degree of disturbance of the environment is considered in the study. The degree of pollution of the water body was reconstructed on the basis of hydrochemical monitoring data and information on the level of the technogenic load in one year. As a result, the greatest environmental stress zones were isolated and correct zoning using geostatistical analysis techniques was proved. Mathematical algorithm computing system was implemented in an object-oriented programming C #. A software application has been obtained that allows quickly assessing the scale and spatial localization of pollution during the initial analysis of the environmental situation.

  17. Environmental Monitoring Of Microbiological Laboratory: Expose Plate Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaya Talib; Othman Mahmud; Noraisyah Mohd Yusof; Asmah Mohibat; Muhamad Syazwan Zulkifli

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of microorganism is important and conducted regularly on environment of microbiological laboratory at Medical Technology Division. Its objective is to ensure the quality of working environment is maintained according to microbial contamination, consequently to assure the quality of microbiological tests. This paper presents report of environmental monitoring since year 2007. The test involved was bacterial colony counts after the growth media was exposed to air at identified location. (author)

  18. A comprehensive environmental impact assessment method for shale gas development

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Renjin; Wang, Zhenjie

    2015-01-01

    The great success of US commercial shale gas exploitation stimulates the shale gas development in China, subsequently, the corresponding supporting policies were issued in the 12th Five-Year Plan. But from the experience in the US shale gas development, we know that the resulted environmental threats are always an unavoidable issue, but no uniform and standard evaluation system has yet been set up in China. The comprehensive environment refers to the combination of natural ecological environm...

  19. A method for estimating the orientation of a directional sound source from source directivity and multi-microphone recordings: principles and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guarato, Francesco; Jakobsen, Lasse; Vanderelst, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account directivity of real sound sources makes it possible to try solving an interesting and biologically relevant problem: estimating the orientation in three-dimensional space of a directional sound source. The source, of known directivity, produces a broadband signal (in the ultra......Taking into account directivity of real sound sources makes it possible to try solving an interesting and biologically relevant problem: estimating the orientation in three-dimensional space of a directional sound source. The source, of known directivity, produces a broadband signal (in...

  20. A Mixed-Methods Trial of Broad Band Noise and Nature Sounds for Tinnitus Therapy: Group and Individual Responses Modeled under the Adaptation Level Theory of Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai, Mithila; Searchfield, Grant D

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: A randomized cross-over trial in 18 participants tested the hypothesis that nature sounds, with unpredictable temporal characteristics and high valence would yield greater improvement in tinnitus than constant, emotionally neutral broadband noise. Study Design: The primary outcome measure was the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI). Secondary measures were: loudness and annoyance ratings, loudness level matches, minimum masking levels, positive and negative emotionality, attention reaction and discrimination time, anxiety, depression and stress. Each sound was administered using MP3 players with earbuds for 8 continuous weeks, with a 3 week wash-out period before crossing over to the other treatment sound. Measurements were undertaken for each arm at sound fitting, 4 and 8 weeks after administration. Qualitative interviews were conducted at each of these appointments. Results: From a baseline TFI score of 41.3, sound therapy resulted in TFI scores at 8 weeks of 35.6; broadband noise resulted in significantly greater reduction (8.2 points) after 8 weeks of sound therapy use than nature sounds (3.2 points). The positive effect of sound on tinnitus was supported by secondary outcome measures of tinnitus, emotion, attention, and psychological state, but not interviews. Tinnitus loudness level match was higher for BBN at 8 weeks; while there was little change in loudness level matches for nature sounds. There was no change in minimum masking levels following sound therapy administration. Self-reported preference for one sound over another did not correlate with changes in tinnitus. Conclusions: Modeled under an adaptation level theory framework of tinnitus perception, the results indicate that the introduction of broadband noise shifts internal adaptation level weighting away from the tinnitus signal, reducing tinnitus magnitude. Nature sounds may modify the affective components of tinnitus via a secondary, residual pathway, but this appears to be less important

  1. International viewpoints on environmental protection: goals and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.A.; Carroll, S.; Stephenson, A.D.; Stringer, R.L.; Santillo, D.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental protection of natural ecosystems against the effects of radiation has been largely predicated upon human radiological protection regimes. It has been explicitly assumed that if human populations are adequately protected then this will also confer protection to other species at the population level and hence to the 'environment'. Accordingly, non-human organisms have principally been incorporated into regulatory and assessment frameworks in recognition of their role as part of diverse critical pathways of radionuclide transfer to human populations. Hence, the utility of these non-human organisms in assessing hazards to ecosystems is strictly limited since their selection for monitoring purposes relates more to human perspectives than to their role and importance in natural ecosystems. By contrast, a multispecies ecosystem level approach should work on the basis of selecting 'keystone' species and evaluating the effects of radiation upon natural ecosystem dynamics. This would accommodate the full range of sub-lethal effects, differential life-stage sensitivity, reproductive sensitivity and interspecific interactions. While such an approach would undoubtedly improve the current situation, experience from chemical ecotoxicology suggests that the selection and verification of suitable endpoints will prove difficult beyond an organismal level. Thus, a regulatory regime based upon this approach is almost certain to be less than effective at protecting the environment. The precautionary approach to environmental protection has largely grown from an awareness of the limitations of ecotoxicological studies and protocols. This paper, therefore, considers the need for application of such an approach in relation to environmental protection requirements of the nuclear industry

  2. Little Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker M. Bani-Khair

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Spider and the Fly   You little spider, To death you aspire... Or seeking a web wider, To death all walking, No escape you all fighters… Weak and fragile in shape and might, Whatever you see in the horizon, That is destiny whatever sight. And tomorrow the spring comes, And the flowers bloom, And the grasshopper leaps high, And the frogs happily cry, And the flies smile nearby, To that end, The spider has a plot, To catch the flies by his net, A mosquito has fallen down in his net, Begging him to set her free, Out of that prison, To her freedom she aspires, Begging...Imploring...crying,  That is all what she requires, But the spider vows never let her free, His power he admires, Turning blind to light, And with his teeth he shall bite, Leaving her in desperate might, Unable to move from site to site, Tied up with strings in white, Wrapped up like a dead man, Waiting for his grave at night,   The mosquito says, Oh little spider, A stronger you are than me in power, But listen to my words before death hour, Today is mine and tomorrow is yours, No escape from death... Whatever the color of your flower…     Little sounds The Ant The ant is a little creature with a ferocious soul, Looking and looking for more and more, You can simply crush it like dead mold, Or you can simply leave it alone, I wonder how strong and strong they are! Working day and night in a small hole, Their motto is work or whatever you call… A big boon they have and joy in fall, Because they found what they store, A lesson to learn and memorize all in all, Work is something that you should not ignore!   The butterfly: I’m the butterfly Beautiful like a blue clear sky, Or sometimes look like snow, Different in colors, shapes and might, But something to know that we always die, So fragile, weak and thin, Lighter than a glimpse and delicate as light, Something to know for sure… Whatever you have in life and all these fields, You are not happier than a butterfly

  3. WODA technical guidance on underwater sound from dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, F.; Borsani, F.; Clarke, D.; Jong, C. de; Wit, P. de; Goethals, F.; Holtkamp, M.; Martin, E.S.; Spadaro, P.; Raalte, G. van; Victor, G.Y.V.; Jensen, A.

    2016-01-01

    The World Organization of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) prepared a guidance paper in 2013 on dredging sound, including a summary of potential impacts on aquatic

  4. The WODA guidance paper on underwater sound from dredging (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, F.; Borsani, F.; Clarke, D.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Witt, P. de; Holtkamp, M.; Goethals, F.; San Martin, E.; Spadaro, P.; Raalte, G. van; Jensen, A.

    2013-01-01

    The World Organisation of Dredging Associations (WODA) has identified underwater sound as an environmental issue that needs further consideration. A WODA Expert Group on Underwater Sound (WEGUS) was established to provide a guidance paper on dredging sound, impact on aquatic biota and advice on

  5. A cost effective method for the determination of 210Po and 210Pb in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, R.F.; Bradley, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    The majority of the methods for the determination of 210 Pb and 210 Po in environmental materials were developed in the 1960s. However, with the advances in technology since that time, particularly in the areas of ion-exchange chromatography and instrumentation, new methods may be more appropriate to measure these radionuclides in environmental media such as foodstuffs. A review was conducted of potentially suitable methods. Four methods were selected for detailed evaluation on the basis of cost and sensitivity. A cheap, sensitive and simple method is recommended for the analysis of 210 Pb and 210 Po in environmental materials

  6. Method for accelerated aging under combined environmental stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, K.T.

    1979-01-01

    An accelerated aging method which can be used to simulate aging in combined stress environment situations is described. It is shown how the assumptions of the method can be tested experimentally. Aging data for a chloroprene cable jacketing material in single and combined radiation and temperature environments are analyzed and it is shown that these data offer evidence for the validity of the method

  7. PFAS methods and guidance for sampling and analyzing water and other environmental media (Technical Brief)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's methods for analyzing PFAS in environmental media are in various stages of development. This fact sheet summarizes EPA's analytical methods development for groundwater, surface water, wastewater, and solids, including soils, sediments, and biosolids

  8. Use of the method of biosphere compatibility for the assessment of environmental protection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyov, Sergey

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the question of using the indicator of biosphere compatibility for assessing the effectiveness of environmental protection methods. The indicator of biosphere compatibility was proposed by the vice-president of RAASN (Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences), Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor V.I. Ilyichev. This indicator is allows not only qualitatively but also quantitatively to assess the degree of development of urban urban areas, from the standpoint of preserving the biosphere in urban ecosystems while realizing the city’s main functions. The integral indicator of biosphere compatibility is allows us to assess not only the current ecological situation in the territory under consideration, but also to plan the forecast of its changes for building the new construction projects, or for reconstructing existing ones. The indicator of biosphere compatibility, which is a mathematical expression of the tripartite balance (technosphere, biosphere and population of this area), is allows us to quantify the degree of effectiveness of different method of protecting the environment for choose the most effective for these conditions.

  9. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...... and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance......In conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) it is not possible to distinguish between sound from the two sides of the array, thus, it is a requirement that all the sources are confined to only one side and radiate into a free field. When this requirement cannot be fulfilled, sound field...

  10. Method and Apparatus of Measuring Velocity and Sound Attenuation Coefficient in Bulk Materials Based on the Analysis of the Structure of Sound-Insulation Materials on the Basis of Perlite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapranov, B. I.; Mashanov, A. P.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents the results of research and describes the apparatus for measuring the acoustic characteristics of bulk materials. Ultrasound, it has passed through a layer of bulk material, is further passes through an air gap. The presence of air gap prevents from measuring tract mechanical contacts, but complicates the measurement technology Studies were conducted on the example of measuring the acoustic characteristics of the widely used perlite-based sound-proofing material.

  11. DRIFT-ARID: Application of a method for environmental water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods developed to determine the amount of water required (EWR) to sustain ecosystem services in non-perennial rivers need a different approach to those used in perennial rivers. Current EWR methods were mostly developed for use in perennial rivers. Non-perennial rivers differ from perennial ones in terms of ...

  12. The Oil Point Method - A tool for indicative environmental evaluation in material and process selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki

    2000-01-01

    to three essential assessment steps, the method enables rough environmental evaluations and supports in this way material- and process-related decision-making in the early stages of design. In its overall structure, the Oil Point Method is related to Life Cycle Assessment - except for two main differences...... of environmental evaluation and only approximate information about the product and its life cycle. This dissertation addresses this challenge in presenting a method, which is tailored to these requirements of designers - the Oil Point Method (OPM). In providing environmental key information and confining itself...

  13. Concepts, methods and models to assess environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    The environmental impact of chemicals generally in the environment is a subject that has been approached in recent years in ways that are different in concept and practice. They range from chemical 'toxicity' and 'residual' risk assessments based on individuals, to broader based, ecological risk assessments. At the same time, approaches to considering what in the environment should be protected, and how, has also changed. Approaches to this subject vary from strict conservation of identified species and areas, to the more general concepts of wishing to maintain the biological diversity within and amongst all species and habitats, and of protecting large habitat areas against irreversible human damage. Against this background, approaches to the issue of the possible impact of radionuclides in the environment over the last decade or so have centred around the various statements made by the ICRP; either attempting to support them, or seeking to compensate for their perceived deficiencies. There have been arguments that, because man is an integral part of 'the environment', and is afforded such a high level of protection, then all other components of it would be axiomatically protected. There have also been calculations to demonstrate that, in hypothetical situations, if radionuclide concentrations in the environment were such that the 1 mSv a -1 dose limit to man was not exceeded, then the concentrations of radionuclides in the animals and plants in their food chain would therefore receive dose-rates less than those likely to cause them 'harm' at the population level. Some countries have been more direct. In the USA, dose 'standards' for the protection of populations of all aquatic animals have been introduced, and consideration is being given to the introduction of dose 'standards' for populations of all terrestrial plants and animals. The introduction of a set of 'no effects' dose-rate screening reference levels for different types of fauna, to be applied to

  14. A modal-based reduction method for sound absorbing porous materials in poro-acoustic finite element models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpler, Romain; Deü, Jean-François; Göransson, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Structural-acoustic finite element models including three-dimensional (3D) modeling of porous media are generally computationally costly. While being the most commonly used predictive tool in the context of noise reduction applications, efficient solution strategies are required. In this work, an original modal reduction technique, involving real-valued modes computed from a classical eigenvalue solver is proposed to reduce the size of the problem associated with the porous media. In the form presented in this contribution, the method is suited for homogeneous porous layers. It is validated on a 1D poro-acoustic academic problem and tested for its performance on a 3D application, using a subdomain decomposition strategy. The performance of the proposed method is estimated in terms of degrees of freedom downsizing, computational time enhancement, as well as matrix sparsity of the reduced system.

  15. [The application of cybernetic modeling methods for the forensic medical personality identification based on the voice and sounding speech characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaganov, A Sh; Kir'yanov, P A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present publication was to discuss the possibility of application of cybernetic modeling methods to overcome the apparent discrepancy between two kinds of the speech records, viz. initial ones (e.g. obtained in the course of special investigation activities) and the voice prints obtained from the persons subjected to the criminalistic examination. The paper is based on the literature sources and the materials of original criminalistics expertises performed by the authors.

  16. Methods and apparatus for environmental correction of thermal neutron logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preeg, W.E.; Scott, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    An on-line environmentally-corrected measurement of the thermal neutron decay time (tau) of an earth formation traversed by a borehole is provided in a two-detector, pulsed neutron logging tool, by measuring tau at each detector and combining the two tau measurements in accordance with a previously established empirical relationship of the general form: tau = tausub(F) +A(tausub(F) + tausub(N)B) + C, where tausub(F) and tausub(N) are the tau measurements at the far-spaced and near-spaced detectors, respectively, A is a correction coefficient for borehole capture cross section effects, B is a correction coefficient for neutron diffusion effects, and C is a constant related to parameters of the logging tool. Preferred numerical values of A, B and C are disclosed, and a relationship for more accurately approximating the A term to specific borehole conditions. (author)

  17. Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume 3, Appendix A: Public response to revised NOI, Appendix B: Environmental restoration, Appendix C, Environmental impact analysis methods, Appendix D, Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    Volume three contains appendices for the following: Public comments do DOE's proposed revisions to the scope of the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement; Environmental restoration sensitivity analysis; Environmental impacts analysis methods; and Waste management facility human health risk estimates

  18. Assessment of Environmental Problems and Methods of Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Keywords: Environment, Methods, Problems, and Waste Management. ... Solid waste management differs in developing countries like Nigeria, and in ..... References. Adegoke, O.S. ... Textbook of Public Health Medicine for the Tropics. 4th Ed.

  19. Application of improved topsis method to comprehensive assessment of radiological environmental quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Dongsheng; Di Yuming; Zhou Chunlin

    2007-01-01

    TOPSIS is a method for multiobjective decision-making, which can be applied to comprehensive assessment of radiological environmental quality. This paper introduces the principle of TOPSIS method and sets up the model of improved TOPSIS method, discusses the application of improved TOPSIS method to comprehensive assessment of radiological environmental quality. This method sufficiently makes use of the information of the optimal matrix. Analysis of practical examples using MATLAB program shows that it is objectively reasonable and feasible to comprehensively assess radiological environmental quality by improved TOPSIS method. This paper also provides the result of optimum number of sites and compares it with optimal index method based on TOPSIS method and traditional method. (authors)

  20. Regulatory relevant and reliable methods and data for determining the environmental fate of manufactured nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Sayre, Phil; Steinhäuser, Klaus Günter

    2017-01-01

    The widespread use of manufactured nanomaterials (MN) increases the need for describing and predicting their environmental fate and behaviour. A number of recent reviews have addressed the scientific challenges in disclosing the governing processes for the environmental fate and behaviour of MNs,...... data. Gaps do however exist in test methods for environmental fate, such as methods to estimate heteroagglomeration and the tendency for MNs to transform in the environment.......The widespread use of manufactured nanomaterials (MN) increases the need for describing and predicting their environmental fate and behaviour. A number of recent reviews have addressed the scientific challenges in disclosing the governing processes for the environmental fate and behaviour of MNs......, however there has been less focus on the regulatory adequacy of the data available for MN. The aim of this paper is therefore to review data, testing protocols and guidance papers which describe the environmental fate and behaviour of MN with a focus on their regulatory reliability and relevance. Given...

  1. Environmental radiological monitoring methods in TENORM facilities and its relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Iyu Lin; Ismail Bahari; Muhamad Samudi Yasir

    2011-01-01

    In Malaysia, mineral processing plant is one of the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) processing industries controlled by the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) through the enforcement of Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304). The activities generated waste which is called as TENORM wastes. TENORM wastes are mainly found in thorium hydroxide from the processing of xenotime and monazite, and iron oxide and red gypsum from the processing of ilmenite. Other TENORM wastes are scales and sludge from the oil and gas industries, tin slag produced from the smelting of tin, and ilmenite, zircon, and monazite produced from the processing of tin tailing (amang). The environmental and radiological monitoring program is needed to ensure that the TENORM wastes did not caused any contamination to the environment. The wastes vary in the types of samples, parameters of analysis as well as the frequency of monitoring based on licenses conditions issued by the AELB. The main objective of this study is to assess the suitability of licenses condition and the monitoring program required in oil and gas, and mineral processing industries. Study was done by assessing the data submitted to the AELB in order to comply with the licensing requirement. This study had found out that there are a few of licenses conditions that need to be reviewed accordingly based on the processing activity. (Author)

  2. Methods for detection of environmental agents that produce congenital defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, T.H.; Miller, J.R.; Marois, M. (eds.)

    1975-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: current methods for teratogenicity testing in animals and suggestion for improvement; use of zebra fish for screening of teratogens; chemical structure and teratogenic mechanism of action; somatic cell genetics and teratogenesis; studies on mammalian embryos during organogenesis; infectious agents as teratogens; and pharmacogenetics and teratogenesis. (HLW)

  3. Linking environmental protection in practice. Advantages of a systematical method of sustainable building, from initiative to demolition; Aansluitende milieuzorg in de praktijk. Voordelen van een systematische aanpak van duurzaam bouwen, van initiatief tot sloop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Based on the results of four building projects the advantages of a systematical method (so-called linking environmental protection or in Dutch 'aansluitende milieuzorg') for sustainable construction of buildings are discussed. By formulating sound agreements and making sure that every party involved in the building process knows its tasks, responsibilities and competencies the whole process from initiative to demolition can be streamlined. By applying the right tools in every phase of the project the environmental effectiveness will be optimal.

  4. Visualizing Sound Directivity via Smartphone Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Hawley, Scott H.; McClain Jr, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    We present a fast, simple method for automated data acquisition and visualization of sound directivity, made convenient and accessible via a smartphone app, "Polar Pattern Plotter." The app synchronizes measurements of sound volume with the phone's angular orientation obtained from either compass, gyroscope or accelerometer sensors and produces a graph and exportable data file. It is generalizable to various sound sources and receivers via the use of an input-jack-adaptor to supplant the smar...

  5. Sound wave transmission (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  6. Making fictions sound real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related...... to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy...... of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences....

  7. Principles of underwater sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urick, Robert J

    1983-01-01

    ... the immediately useful help they need for sonar problem solving. Its coverage is broad-ranging from the basic concepts of sound in the sea to making performance predictions in such applications as depth sounding, fish finding, and submarine detection...

  8. Isotope methods in water resources assessment and environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araguas-Araguas, L.

    1996-01-01

    Availability of water and protection of water resources have become top environmental issues in many countries. Governments are forced to issue strict guidelines to protect the environment and create agencies to pursue these aspects as well as enforce such regulations. The supply of good-quality water from rivers and lakes is becoming a costly and complex problem for many institutes responsible for water supply. Because of the high pollution levels in surface waters, ground water is the main source of drinking water in many countries. It is estimated that 1.5 billion people world-wide depend on it for drinking water. Since ground water cannot be directly measured, and despite its importance for drinking purposes there is not enough public concern about its protection. In other cases, it is found that the exploited ground water is not a renewable resource. In many countries in arid and semi-arid regions, fossil ground water is being tapped for extensive agricultural development, but such extraction depletes the reserves, in the same way as an oil reservoir. The availability of correct information, before decisions are taken will lead to improved management of water resources, distributing the available resources for different uses according to their quality, and ultimately, to manage the resource. Nuclear science has developed a series of methodologies based on the use of naturally-occurring isotopes and artificial tracers to study the processes involved in the occurrence and circulation of water. The discipline called 'Isotope Hydrology' provides a deep insight into many parts of the water cycle; from the evaporation over the ocean or the continents, to the formation of surface runoff and ground water and in the discharge of aquifer systems into the ocean. Isotope hydrology, as a scientific and applied discipline in earth sciences, was created during the late 1950s and early 1960s, beyond the classical hydrological science. In these early stages, new methodologies

  9. Recommended environmental dose calculation methods and Hanford-specific parameters. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Rhoads, K.; Napier, B.A.; Ramsdell, J.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Davis, J.S. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    This document was developed to support the Hanford Environmental Dose overview Panel (HEDOP). The Panel is responsible for reviewing all assessments of potential doses received by humans and other biota resulting from the actual or possible environmental releases of radioactive and other hazardous materials from facilities and/or operations belonging to the US Department of Energy on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. This document serves as a guide to be used for developing estimates of potential radiation doses, or other measures of risk or health impacts, to people and other biota in the environs on and around the Hanford Site. It provides information to develop technically sound estimates of exposure (i.e., potential or actual) to humans or other biotic receptors that could result from the environmental transport of potentially harmful materials that have been, or could be, released from Hanford operations or facilities. Parameter values and information that are specific to the Hanford environs as well as other supporting material are included in this document.

  10. Methods and quality assurance in environmental medicine. Formation of a RKI-Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eis, D.

    2000-01-01

    An almost bewildering number of widely differing methods and techniques, often not validated, are being applied often inappropriately in the field of environmental medicine to answer questions regarding exposure assessment, diagnosis, treatment, counselling and prevention. Therefore, quality control within the field of environmental medicine is quite problematic. A primary goal of the newly formed RKI-Commission 'Methods and Quality Assurance in Environmental Medicine' is to form a panel of experts in the field, who evaluate the situation and generate consensus documents containing respective recommendations. By this the commission will contribute to standardization and agreement on appropriate methods, procedures and their correct application in the practice of environmental medicine. Hopefully it will also achieve a stronger, more consistent use of evidence-based-medicine and improve the quality of the structure, processes and results of research and practice in this field. The committee will initially deal with the issue of clinical environmental medicine, because here the largest problems in quality assurance are seen. In this context the commission will look at the problem areas of environmental-medical outpatient units and environmental clinics. The work of the commission will be supported by the newly formed Documentation and Evaluation Center for Methods in Environmental Medicine (Zentrale Erfassungs- und Bewertungsstelle fuer umweltmedizinische Methoden, ZEBUM) at the Robert Koch Institute. (orig.) [de

  11. Decision support methods for the environmental assessment of contamination at mining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Gyozo; Abdaal, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    Polluting mine accidents and widespread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe and elsewhere has triggered the improvement of related environmental legislation and of the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Mining has some unique features such as natural background pollution associated with natural mineral deposits, industrial activities and contamination located in the three-dimensional sub-surface space, the problem of long-term remediation after mine closure, problem of secondary contaminated areas around mine sites and abandoned mines in historic regions like Europe. These mining-specific problems require special tools to address the complexity of the environmental problems of mining-related contamination. The objective of this paper is to review and evaluate some of the decision support methods that have been developed and applied to mining contamination. In this paper, only those methods that are both efficient decision support tools and provide a 'holistic' approach to the complex problem as well are considered. These tools are (1) landscape ecology, (2) industrial ecology, (3) landscape geochemistry, (4) geo-environmental models, (5) environmental impact assessment, (6) environmental risk assessment, (7) material flow analysis and (8) life cycle assessment. This unique inter-disciplinary study should enable both the researcher and the practitioner to obtain broad view on the state-of-the-art of decision support methods for the environmental assessment of contamination at mine sites. Documented examples and abundant references are also provided.

  12. An Antropologist of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology.......PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology....

  13. Broadcast sound technology

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot-Smith, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Broadcast Sound Technology provides an explanation of the underlying principles of modern audio technology. Organized into 21 chapters, the book first describes the basic sound; behavior of sound waves; aspects of hearing, harming, and charming the ear; room acoustics; reverberation; microphones; phantom power; loudspeakers; basic stereo; and monitoring of audio signal. Subsequent chapters explore the processing of audio signal, sockets, sound desks, and digital audio. Analogue and digital tape recording and reproduction, as well as noise reduction, are also explained.

  14. Propagation of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    properties can be modified by sound absorption, refraction, and interference from multi paths caused by reflections.The path from the source to the receiver may be bent due to refraction. Besides geometrical attenuation, the ground effect and turbulence are the most important mechanisms to influence...... communication sounds for airborne acoustics and bottom and surface effects for underwater sounds. Refraction becomes very important close to shadow zones. For echolocation signals, geometric attenuation and sound absorption have the largest effects on the signals....

  15. Survey of analytical methods for environmental monitoring of krypton-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaquish, R.E.; Moghissi, A.A.

    1973-01-01

    Numerous methods have been developed for measuring krypton-85 in air as krypton ultimately accumulates in air once it is released into the environment. However, krypton-85 can be present in other media such as natural gas from wells stimulated with nuclear devices or in water when krypton-85 is used for aeration studies. Methods for the measurement of ambient levels of krypton-85 require a concentration of krypton from a large air sample of one m 3 or more. If elevated levels are to be measured, carrier krypton may be used provided the contamination of atmospheric krypton with krypton-85 does not interfere with the measurement. In certain cases, such as in the vicinity of nuclear fuel processing plants, direct measurement techniques may be used. A variety of techniques are employed for krypton-85 counting. At low levels, internal gas counting or organic scintillation is used to measure the beta emission of this radionuclide. At higher levels the gamma emission of krypton-85 may be measured using scintillation or solid state gamma spectroscopic methods. Techniques for collection of the sample, concentration of krypton, and radioactivity measurement of krypton-85 are discussed and various processes are critically evaluated and compared

  16. Physiological phenotyping of dementias using emotional sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Phillip D; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Downey, Laura E; Golden, Hannah L; Agustus, Jennifer L; Clark, Camilla N; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2015-06-01

    Emotional behavioral disturbances are hallmarks of many dementias but their pathophysiology is poorly understood. Here we addressed this issue using the paradigm of emotionally salient sounds. Pupil responses and affective valence ratings for nonverbal sounds of varying emotional salience were assessed in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) (n = 14), semantic dementia (SD) (n = 10), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA) (n = 12), and AD (n = 10) versus healthy age-matched individuals (n = 26). Referenced to healthy individuals, overall autonomic reactivity to sound was normal in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but reduced in other syndromes. Patients with bvFTD, SD, and AD showed altered coupling between pupillary and affective behavioral responses to emotionally salient sounds. Emotional sounds are a useful model system for analyzing how dementias affect the processing of salient environmental signals, with implications for defining pathophysiological mechanisms and novel biomarker development.

  17. Wastes behavior and environmental impacts, researches and methods; Comportement des dechets et impacts environnementaux, recherches et methodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labeyrie, J; Chateau, L [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, (ADEME), 49 - Angers (France); Gin, St [CEA/VALRHO - site de Marcoule, Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification DRRV, 30 - Marcoule (France); and others

    2001-07-01

    The wastes management policy takes into account more and more often the environmental impacts mastership. This evolution is particularly appreciable when the wastes directly interact with the environment: storage, utilization for roads construction and so on. In this context the ADEME organized the 8 june 2000 a colloquium to present the new evaluation methods and tools, to describe the regulations and to identify the research programs needed for this environmental policy. Eleven papers are presented. (A.L.B.)

  18. Abnormal sound detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Izumi; Matsui, Yuji.

    1995-01-01

    Only components synchronized with rotation of pumps are sampled from detected acoustic sounds, to judge the presence or absence of abnormality based on the magnitude of the synchronized components. A synchronized component sampling means can remove resonance sounds and other acoustic sounds generated at a synchronously with the rotation based on the knowledge that generated acoustic components in a normal state are a sort of resonance sounds and are not precisely synchronized with the number of rotation. On the other hand, abnormal sounds of a rotating body are often caused by compulsory force accompanying the rotation as a generation source, and the abnormal sounds can be detected by extracting only the rotation-synchronized components. Since components of normal acoustic sounds generated at present are discriminated from the detected sounds, reduction of the abnormal sounds due to a signal processing can be avoided and, as a result, abnormal sound detection sensitivity can be improved. Further, since it is adapted to discriminate the occurrence of the abnormal sound from the actually detected sounds, the other frequency components which are forecast but not generated actually are not removed, so that it is further effective for the improvement of detection sensitivity. (N.H.)

  19. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...... both physical and digital models at three distinct scales. The results suggest hyperboloid geometry, while difficult to fabricate, facilitates sound scattering....

  20. Ambient sound levels at four Department of Interior conservation units in support of Homestead Air Base reuse supplemental environmental impact statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), in cooperation with the United States Air Force (USAF), is developing a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) in support of the planned commercialization of Homestead Air Base in Southern Florid...

  1. Application of WSP method in analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacho, M.; Slugen, V.; Hinca, R.; Sojak, S.; Krnac, S.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of activity in natural samples is specific especially because of its low level and high background interferences. Reduction of background interferences could be reached using low background chamber. Measurement geometry in shape of Marinelli beaker is commonly used according to low level of activity in natural samples. The Peak Net Area (PNA) method is the world-wide accepted technique for analysis of gamma-ray spectra. It is based on the net area calculation of the full energy peak, therefore, it takes into account only a fraction of measured gamma-ray spectrum. On the other hand, the Whole Spectrum Processing (WSP) approach to the gamma analysis makes possible to use entire information being in the spectrum. This significantly raises efficiency and improves energy resolution of the analysis. A principal step for the WSP application is building up the suitable response operator. Problems are put in an appearance when suitable standard calibration sources are unavailable. It may be occurred in the case of large volume samples and/or in the analysis of high energy range. Combined experimental and mathematical calibration may be a suitable solution. Many different detectors have been used to register the gamma ray and its energy. HPGe detectors produce the highest resolution commonly available today. Therefore they are they the most often used detectors in natural samples activity analysis. Scintillation detectors analysed using PNA method could be also used in simple cases, but for complicated spectra are practically inapplicable. WSP approach improves resolution of scintillation detectors and expands their applicability. WSP method allowed significant improvement of the energetic resolution and separation of "1"3"7Cs 661 keV peak from "2"1"4Bi 609 keV peak. At the other hand the statistical fluctuations in the lower part of the spectrum highlighted by background subtraction causes that this part is still not reliably analyzable. (authors)

  2. Simplified LCA and matrix methods in identifying the environmental aspects of a product system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Tak; Lee, Jiyong; Ryu, Jiyeon; Kwon, Eunsun

    2005-05-01

    In order to effectively integrate environmental attributes into the product design and development processes, it is crucial to identify the significant environmental aspects related to a product system within a relatively short period of time. In this study, the usefulness of life cycle assessment (LCA) and a matrix method as tools for identifying the key environmental issues of a product system were examined. For this, a simplified LCA (SLCA) method that can be applied to Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) was developed to efficiently identify their significant environmental aspects for eco-design, since a full scale LCA study is usually very detailed, expensive and time-consuming. The environmentally responsible product assessment (ERPA) method, which is one of the matrix methods, was also analyzed. Then, the usefulness of each method in eco-design processes was evaluated and compared using the case studies of the cellular phone and vacuum cleaner systems. It was found that the SLCA and the ERPA methods provided different information but they complemented each other to some extent. The SLCA method generated more information on the inherent environmental characteristics of a product system so that it might be useful for new design/eco-innovation when developing a completely new product or method where environmental considerations play a major role from the beginning. On the other hand, the ERPA method gave more information on the potential for improving a product so that it could be effectively used in eco-redesign which intends to alleviate environmental impacts of an existing product or process.

  3. Coupled Microwave/Photoassisted Methods for Environmental Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Horikoshi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The microwave-induced acceleration of photocatalytic reactions was discovered serendipitously in the late 1990s. The activity of photocatalysts is enhanced significantly by both microwave radiation and UV light. Particularly relevant, other than as a heat source, was the enigmatic phenomenon of the non-thermal effect(s of the microwave radiation that facilitated photocatalyzed reactions, as evidenced when examining various model contaminants in aqueous media. Results led to an examination of the possible mechanism(s of the microwave effect(s. In the present article we contend that the microwaves’ non-thermal effect(s is an important factor in the enhancement of TiO2-photoassisted reactions involving the decomposition of organic pollutants in model wastewaters by an integrated (coupled microwave-/UV-illumination method (UV/MW. Moreover, such coupling of no less than two irradiation methods led to the fabrication and ultimate investigation of microwave discharged electrodeless lamps (MDELs as optimal light sources; their use is also described. The review focuses on the enhanced activity of photocatalytic reactions when subjected to microwave radiation and concentrates on the authors’ research of the past few years.

  4. Coupled microwave/photoassisted methods for environmental remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Serpone, Nick

    2014-11-05

    The microwave-induced acceleration of photocatalytic reactions was discovered serendipitously in the late 1990s. The activity of photocatalysts is enhanced significantly by both microwave radiation and UV light. Particularly relevant, other than as a heat source, was the enigmatic phenomenon of the non-thermal effect(s) of the microwave radiation that facilitated photocatalyzed reactions, as evidenced when examining various model contaminants in aqueous media. Results led to an examination of the possible mechanism(s) of the microwave effect(s). In the present article we contend that the microwaves' non-thermal effect(s) is an important factor in the enhancement of TiO2-photoassisted reactions involving the decomposition of organic pollutants in model wastewaters by an integrated (coupled) microwave-/UV-illumination method (UV/MW). Moreover, such coupling of no less than two irradiation methods led to the fabrication and ultimate investigation of microwave discharged electrodeless lamps (MDELs) as optimal light sources; their use is also described. The review focuses on the enhanced activity of photocatalytic reactions when subjected to microwave radiation and concentrates on the authors' research of the past few years.

  5. Methods of iodine-129 analysis for environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Aiji; Miyagawa, Naoto; Nomura, Tamotsu; Kinoshita, Mutsumi

    1976-01-01

    Some methods for the analysis of I-129 in the environment are described. Iodide ion in seawater is coprecipitated with chloride ion by silver citrate powder, and that in seaweeds and in sediment is sublimated by heating at about 900 0 C in O 2 atmosphere, and then the iodine is trapped in cooled NaOH and NaHSO 3 mixed solution. The trapped iodine is precipitated with AgNO 3 solution for γ-/X-ray spectrometry (detection limit asymptotically equals 30 pCi), or extracted into toluene scintillater solution for liquid scintillation counting. The decomposition of AgI is necessary for low level I-129 measurement; The AgI was transfered in a flask, added with 2N H 2 SO 4 and Zn sand, and decomposed by stirring for 2 hr. Filtered the solution, added 0.5 g of NaNO 2 and toluene scintillater to extract the iodine then added 1 ml of 2-methyl 1-butene to decolorize, the solution is measured by a liquid scintillation counter (detection limit asymptotically equals 1 pCi). This method can be applied for monitoring of low level radioactive water waste. (auth.)

  6. Method development for studies of environmentally assisted cracking (EAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karjalainen-Roikonen, P.; Moilanen, P.; Toivonen, A.; Aaltonen, P.

    1998-01-01

    During the use of nuclear reactors the properties of the structural materials change. Variations in the operation environment, such as changes in water chemistry, may enhance the development and growth of flaws. Neutron radiation causes embrittlement for in-core vessel materials. Radiation, together with water chemistry, increases the possibility of stress corrosion cracking in stainless steels and superalloys used in the reactor internal parts. Research on structural materials endeavours to study the ageing mechanisms of materials, and the possibilities and methods of preventing or forecasting the damage caused to structures by ageing. The objective within the subproject 'Material degradation due to corrosive environment' of the RATU2 project was to evaluate the factors affecting the changes in material properties due to the environment and stresses, and to assess their interrelationship. The subproject included among others the following tasks: (1) Development of routine EAC crack growth testing method for small test specimens, (2) Application of rising displacement testing to study irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). New simplified techniques for determination of fracture resistance curves in simulated reactor environments. Multi-specimen bellows loading system to provide more experimental EAC data than can be obtained with previous servo hydraulic or mechanical loading systems. (author)

  7. High Quantile of Environmental Screening Methods, San Joaquin Valley CA, 2013, Occidental College of Los Angeles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer combines the high quantiles of the CES, CEVA, and EJSM layers so that viewers can see the overlap of â??hot spotsâ?? for each method. This layer was...

  8. Environmental Justice Screening Method (EJSM) Score, San Joaquin Valley CA, 2013, Occidental College and UC Berkeley

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Cumulative Impacts (CI) screening method is jointly being developed by Manuel Pastor, Jim Sadd (Occidental College), and Rachel Morello-Frosch (UC Berkeley) ....

  9. A method for the determination of technetium in environmental waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, P.; Warwick, P.; Malcolme-Lawes, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described which can be used to determine technetium-99 levels in a range of water types. Ruthenium isotopes which may interfere in the analysis are removed from the sample by precipitation before concentration of pertechnetate onto an ion-exchange column. Other nuclides can be removed from the column using NaOH before elution of the technetium using NaSCN. The technetium in the NaSNC eluent can then be extracted into butan-2-one which can be evaporated onto a planchette. Technetium-99m is used as a yield tracer and after this has decayed away to negligible levels. The amount of technetium on the planchette can be determined by measuring the rate of beta radiation emission from the final concentrate. (author)

  10. Manual of analytical methods for the Environmental Health Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, C.E.

    1975-06-01

    The manual contains four sections: absorption spectrophotometry; general radiochemical procedures; instrumental analysis; and calibration of field instruments. Included in the individual analyses using absorption spectrophotometry is one for total iodine in oil. Radiochemical procedures are given for: actinides in urine and water; 137 Cs in soil and vegetation; 137 Cs in soil, urine, vegetation, and water; enriched uranium in urine; gross beta activity in soil, urine, vegetation, and water; plutonium in urine and soil; 210 Po in urine and water; 24 Na in air, blood, urine, and water; 90 Sr in soil, vegetation, and water; tritium in urine, water, and on swipes; and total uranium on fallout trays and in soil, urine, and water. Among the individual instrumental analyses is a spectrographic method for determining beryllium in air samples and swipes. (U.S.)

  11. Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's interior

    CERN Document Server

    Spichak, Viacheslav V

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition provides a comprehensive up-to-date collection of contributions, covering methodological, computational and practical aspects of Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth by different techniques at global, regional and local scales. Moreover, it contains new developments such as the concept of self-consistent tasks of geophysics and , 3-D interpretation of the TEM sounding which, so far, have not all been covered by one book. Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition consists of three parts: I- EM sounding methods, II- Forward modelling and inversion techniques, and III - Data processing, analysis, modelling and interpretation. The new edition includes brand new chapters on Pulse and frequency electromagnetic sounding for hydrocarbon offshore exploration. Additionally all other chapters have been extensively updated to include new developments. Presents recently developed methodological findings of the earth's study, including seism...

  12. The determination of Sr-90 in environmental material using an improved rapid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghods, A.; Veselsky, J.C.; Zhu, S.; Mirna, A.; Schelenz, R.

    1989-01-01

    A short report on strontium 90, its occurrence in the biosphere and its rapid determination methods is given. Classification of determination methods suitable for various environmental and biological materials is established. Interference due to Y-91 and a method to eliminate the activity of Y-90 and Y-91 is discussed. Tabs

  13. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research: proceedings of fifth international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    The conference includes papers in the areas of: (1) gamma-ray and x-ray spectroscopy and software, (2) environmental and geochemical methods and applications; (3) energy methods and applications; (4) nuclear and atomic methodology; and (5) biological and medical methods and applications. Papers have been individually abstracted for the data base

  14. Consideration of the environmental effects on fatigue behavior of austenitic components. Calculation methods and practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seichter, Johannes; Reese, Sven H.; Klucke, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    During the last years environmental effects on the fatigue behavior of nuclear power plant components has worldwide been discussed controversial with respect to the transferability of laboratory data on real components. A publication from Argonne National Laboratory on experimental results concerning environmental effects (air and LWR coolant) on fatigue of austenitic steels included a proposal on calculation methods concerning the lifetime reduction due to environmental effects. This calculation method, i.e. multiplication of the usage factor by a F(en), has been included into the ASME Code, Section III, Division I, as Code Case N-792 (fatigue evaluations including environmental effects). The presented contribution evaluates the practical application of this calculation procedure and demonstrates the determination of the usage factor of an austenitic component under environmental exposure.

  15. Environmental impact of indirect subsidies. Development and application of a policy oriented method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beers, C.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Oosterhuis, F.; De Moor, A.

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a method for determining the environmental impact of indirect subsidies. The point of departure is a typology of subsidies to cover the large number of different types. The large-scale subsidies will be considered first, on the assumption that these will often have extensive environmental effects. Then, the environmental effects in the Netherlands will be calculated. The restriction to the Netherlands means that no attention is given to the environmental consequences of abolishing subsidies. An earlier study showed that the most extensive indirect subsidies at world and OECD level are mainly in the energy, agriculture and transport sectors. The method is tested by calculating the environmental effects of large-scale subsidies in these three sectors and in the tourism sector.

  16. [A Method Research on Environmental Damage Assessment of a Truck Rollover Pollution Incident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Feng; Zhao, Shi-ho; Chen, Gang-cai; Xian, Si-shu; Yang, Qing-ling; Zhou, Xian-jie; Yu, Hai

    2015-05-01

    With high occurrence of sudden water pollution incident, China faces an increasingly severe situation of water environment. In order to deter the acts of environmental pollution, ensure the damaged resources of environment can be restored and compensated, it is very critical to quantify the economic losses caused by the sudden water pollution incident. This paper took truck rollover pollution incidents in Chongqing for an example, established a set of evaluation method for quantifying the environmental damage, and then assessed the environmental damage by the method from four aspects, including the property damage, ecological environment and resources damages, the costs of administrative affairs in emergency disposal, and the costs of investigation and evaluation.

  17. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive......Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial...

  18. Heart Sound Localization and Reduction in Tracheal Sounds by Gabor Time-Frequency Masking

    OpenAIRE

    SAATCI, Esra; Akan, Aydın

    2018-01-01

    Background and aim: Respiratorysounds, i.e. tracheal and lung sounds, have been of great interest due to theirdiagnostic values as well as the potential of their use in the estimation ofthe respiratory dynamics (mainly airflow). Thus the aim of the study is topresent a new method to filter the heart sound interference from the trachealsounds. Materials and methods: Trachealsounds and airflow signals were collected by using an accelerometer from 10 healthysubjects. Tracheal sounds were then pr...

  19. New Internet search volume-based weighting method for integrating various environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Changyoon, E-mail: changyoon@yonsei.ac.kr; Hong, Taehoon, E-mail: hong7@yonsei.ac.kr

    2016-01-15

    Weighting is one of the steps in life cycle impact assessment that integrates various characterized environmental impacts as a single index. Weighting factors should be based on the society's preferences. However, most previous studies consider only the opinion of some people. Thus, this research proposes a new weighting method that determines the weighting factors of environmental impact categories by considering public opinion on environmental impacts using the Internet search volumes for relevant terms. To validate the new weighting method, the weighting factors for six environmental impacts calculated by the new weighting method were compared with the existing weighting factors. The resulting Pearson's correlation coefficient between the new and existing weighting factors was from 0.8743 to 0.9889. It turned out that the new weighting method presents reasonable weighting factors. It also requires less time and lower cost compared to existing methods and likewise meets the main requirements of weighting methods such as simplicity, transparency, and reproducibility. The new weighting method is expected to be a good alternative for determining the weighting factor. - Highlight: • A new weighting method using Internet search volume is proposed in this research. • The new weighting method reflects the public opinion using Internet search volume. • The correlation coefficient between new and existing weighting factors is over 0.87. • The new weighting method can present the reasonable weighting factors. • The proposed method can be a good alternative for determining the weighting factors.

  20. New Internet search volume-based weighting method for integrating various environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Changyoon; Hong, Taehoon

    2016-01-01

    Weighting is one of the steps in life cycle impact assessment that integrates various characterized environmental impacts as a single index. Weighting factors should be based on the society's preferences. However, most previous studies consider only the opinion of some people. Thus, this research proposes a new weighting method that determines the weighting factors of environmental impact categories by considering public opinion on environmental impacts using the Internet search volumes for relevant terms. To validate the new weighting method, the weighting factors for six environmental impacts calculated by the new weighting method were compared with the existing weighting factors. The resulting Pearson's correlation coefficient between the new and existing weighting factors was from 0.8743 to 0.9889. It turned out that the new weighting method presents reasonable weighting factors. It also requires less time and lower cost compared to existing methods and likewise meets the main requirements of weighting methods such as simplicity, transparency, and reproducibility. The new weighting method is expected to be a good alternative for determining the weighting factor. - Highlight: • A new weighting method using Internet search volume is proposed in this research. • The new weighting method reflects the public opinion using Internet search volume. • The correlation coefficient between new and existing weighting factors is over 0.87. • The new weighting method can present the reasonable weighting factors. • The proposed method can be a good alternative for determining the weighting factors.

  1. Visualization of Broadband Sound Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanov Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the method of imaging of wideband audio sources based on the 2D microphone array measurements of the sound field at the same time in all the microphones is proposed. Designed microphone array consists of 160 microphones allowing to digitize signals with a frequency of 7200 Hz. Measured signals are processed using the special algorithm that makes it possible to obtain a flat image of wideband sound sources. It is shown experimentally that the visualization is not dependent on the waveform, but determined by the bandwidth. Developed system allows to visualize sources with a resolution of up to 10 cm.

  2. Maximum Likelihood Method for Predicting Environmental Conditions from Assemblage Composition: The R Package bio.infer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester L. Yuan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief introduction to the R package bio.infer, a set of scripts that facilitates the use of maximum likelihood (ML methods for predicting environmental conditions from assemblage composition. Environmental conditions can often be inferred from only biological data, and these inferences are useful when other sources of data are unavailable. ML prediction methods are statistically rigorous and applicable to a broader set of problems than more commonly used weighted averaging techniques. However, ML methods require a substantially greater investment of time to program algorithms and to perform computations. This package is designed to reduce the effort required to apply ML prediction methods.

  3. BREEAM [Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method] BRE [Building Research Establishment] assessment method for buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, R.

    1994-01-01

    Buildings account for a large share of environmental impacts in their construction, use, and demolition. In western Europe, buildings account for ca 50% of primary energy use (hence CO 2 output), far outweighing the contribution of the transport and industrial sectors. Other impacts from building energy use include the use of chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons for cooling. In the United Kingdom, the Building Research Establishment (BRE) has developed a certificate system for environmental labelling of buildings so that the performance of the building against a set of defined environmental criteria can be made visible to clients. This system thus rewards positive actions to improve the environmental performance of buildings and assists in marketing to an environmentally aware clientele. Issues included in assessments for awarding the certificate are addressed under three main headings: global issues and use of resources, local issues, and indoor issues. Global issues include ozone depletion and CO 2 emissions; local issues include public health and water conservation; and indoor issues include air quality and lighting. 8 refs., 1 tab

  4. Sound Probabilistic #SAT with Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Klebanov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an improved method for a sound probabilistic estimation of the model count of a boolean formula under projection. The problem solved can be used to encode a variety of quantitative program analyses, such as concerning security of resource consumption. We implement the technique and discuss its application to quantifying information flow in programs.

  5. 78 FR 13869 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ...-123-LNG; 12-128-NG; 12-148-NG; 12- 158-NG] Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; CE FLNG, LLC; Consolidated...-NG Puget Sound Energy, Inc Order granting long- term authority to import/export natural gas from/to...

  6. Compatibility of global environmental assessment methods of buildings with an Egyptian energy code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Kamal Mohamed Shamseldin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental assessment methods of buildings had emerged over the world to set environmental classifications for buildings, such as the American method “Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design” (LEED the most widespread one. Several countries decided to put their own assessment methods to catch up with the previous orientation, such as Egypt. The main goal of putting the Egyptian method was to impose the voluntary local energy efficiency codes. Through a local survey, it was clearly noted that many of the construction makers in Egypt do not even know the local method, and whom are interested in the environmental assessment of buildings seek to apply LEED rather than anything else. Therefore, several questions appear about the American method compatibility with the Egyptian energy codes – that contain the most exact characteristics and requirements and give the outmost credible energy efficiency results for buildings in Egypt-, and the possibility of finding another global method that gives closer results to those of the Egyptian codes, especially with the great variety of energy efficiency measurement approaches used among the different assessment methods. So, the researcher is trying to find the compatibility of using non-local assessment methods with the local energy efficiency codes. Thus, if the results are not compatible, the Egyptian government should take several steps to increase the local building sector awareness of the Egyptian method to benefit these codes, and it should begin to enforce it within the building permits after a proper guidance and feedback.

  7. Environmental Regulatory Compliance Plan for Site Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The DOE is committed to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and sound manner, and will comply with applicable environmental statutes and regulations. These objectives are described in DOE Order 5400.1 (Environmental Protection Program Requirements). This document -- the Environmental Regulatory Compliance Plan (ERCP) -- is one method of implementing the policy set forth in DOE Order 5400.1 and the NWPA. The ERCP describes the plan by which the DOE will comply with applicable Federal environmental statutes and regulations. The ERCP also discusses how DOE will address State and local environmental statutes and regulations. 180 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab

  8. A numerical calculation method of environmental impacts for the deep sea mining industry - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenbin; van Rhee, Cees; Schott, Dingena

    2018-03-01

    Since the gradual decrease of mineral resources on-land, deep sea mining (DSM) is becoming an urgent and important emerging activity in the world. However, until now there has been no commercial scale DSM project in progress. Together with the reasons of technological feasibility and economic profitability, the environmental impact is one of the major parameters hindering its industrialization. Most of the DSM environmental impact research focuses on only one particular aspect ignoring that all the DSM environmental impacts are related to each other. The objective of this work is to propose a framework for the numerical calculation methods of the integrated DSM environmental impacts through a literature review. This paper covers three parts: (i) definition and importance description of different DSM environmental impacts; (ii) description of the existing numerical calculation methods for different environmental impacts; (iii) selection of a numerical calculation method based on the selected criteria. The research conducted in this paper provides a clear numerical calculation framework for DSM environmental impact and could be helpful to speed up the industrialization process of the DSM industry.

  9. Urban sound energy reduction by means of sound barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordache Vlad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In urban environment, various heating ventilation and air conditioning appliances designed to maintain indoor comfort become urban acoustic pollution vectors due to the sound energy produced by these equipment. The acoustic barriers are the recommended method for the sound energy reduction in urban environment. The current sizing method of these acoustic barriers is too difficult and it is not practical for any 3D location of the noisy equipment and reception point. In this study we will develop based on the same method a new simplified tool for acoustic barriers sizing, maintaining the same precision characteristic to the classical method. Abacuses for acoustic barriers sizing are built that can be used for different 3D locations of the source and the reception points, for several frequencies and several acoustic barrier heights. The study case presented in the article represents a confirmation for the rapidity and ease of use of these abacuses in the design of the acoustic barriers.

  10. Urban sound energy reduction by means of sound barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, Vlad; Ionita, Mihai Vlad

    2018-02-01

    In urban environment, various heating ventilation and air conditioning appliances designed to maintain indoor comfort become urban acoustic pollution vectors due to the sound energy produced by these equipment. The acoustic barriers are the recommended method for the sound energy reduction in urban environment. The current sizing method of these acoustic barriers is too difficult and it is not practical for any 3D location of the noisy equipment and reception point. In this study we will develop based on the same method a new simplified tool for acoustic barriers sizing, maintaining the same precision characteristic to the classical method. Abacuses for acoustic barriers sizing are built that can be used for different 3D locations of the source and the reception points, for several frequencies and several acoustic barrier heights. The study case presented in the article represents a confirmation for the rapidity and ease of use of these abacuses in the design of the acoustic barriers.

  11. A simple method to identify areas of environmental risk due to manure application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Héctor; Arumí, José Luis; Rivera, Diego; Lagos, L Octavio

    2012-06-01

    The management of swine manure is becoming an important environmental issue in Chile. One option for the final disposal of manure is to use it as a biofertilizer, but this practice could impact the surrounding environment. To assess the potential environmental impacts of the use of swine manure as a biofertilizer, we propose a method to identify zones of environmental risk through indices. The method considers two processes: nutrient runoff and solute leaching, and uses available information about soils, crops and management practices (irrigation, fertilization, and rotation). We applied the method to qualitatively assess the environmental risk associated with the use of swine manure as a biofertilizer in an 8,000-pig farm located in Central Chile. Results showed that the farm has a moderate environmental risk, but some specific locations have high environmental risks, especially those associated with impacts on areas surrounding water resources. This information could assist the definition of better farm-level management practices, as well as the preservation of riparian vegetation acting as buffer strips. The main advantage of our approach is that it combines qualitative and quantitative information, including particular situations or field features based on expert knowledge. The method is flexible, simple, and can be easily extended or adapted to other processes.

  12. Fault sound sources position estimation based on L array method%基于L型阵列的故障声源位置估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 栾忠权; 马超; 余周祥

    2017-01-01

    The traditional method of fault diagnosis is mainly based on the analysis of the vibration, whichhas great limitations in some special circumstances, but the method based on the sound signal from the equipment in the process can solve the problem.A new method for fault diagnosis based on L type acoustic array is presented in this paper.The DOA estimation based on two-dimensional MUSIC is used in radar, and the performance of the algorithm is studied.And with three kinds of different parameterson 2DDOA estimation, the computation is carried out.The comparison with the result of the rectangular arraysis carried out.The resultsshowthat the corresponding algorithm performance is changed while the different parameters have different values.And the method with suitable parameters could be better for the fault diagnosis of the gear drive system.%传统的故障诊断方法主要是基于接触式的振动信号分析,在某些特殊环境下该方法具有很大的局限性,而基于设备运转过程中的声音信号就可以解决该问题.提出了基于L型声阵列的位置估计方法来进行故障诊断,采取了雷达中常用的基于二维MUSIC的DOA估计,并研究了算法的估计性能情况.分别研究了在不同的阵元个数、信噪比和快拍数下的2D-DOA估计的计算机仿真结果,并和基于矩形阵列的DOA估计进行了比较.研究结果表明,在不同的参数下该算法的估计结果也会有很大的不同.所以在选择合适的参数条件下,该算法可以应用于齿轮箱的故障诊断中.

  13. Environmental dose-assessment methods for normal operations at DOE nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenge, D.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Corley, J.P.

    1982-09-01

    Methods for assessing public exposure to radiation from normal operations at DOE facilities are reviewed in this report. The report includes a discussion of environmental doses to be calculated, a review of currently available environmental pathway models and a set of recommended models for use when environmental pathway modeling is necessary. Currently available models reviewed include those used by DOE contractors, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and other organizations involved in environmental assessments. General modeling areas considered for routine releases are atmospheric transport, airborne pathways, waterborne pathways, direct exposure to penetrating radiation, and internal dosimetry. The pathway models discussed in this report are applicable to long-term (annual) uniform releases to the environment: they do not apply to acute releases resulting from accidents or emergency situations

  14. Environmentally Sound Technologies for Decision Making in Integrated Coastal Management: Prospects of Co-Operation with UNEP-IETC for Education and Training in the Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova, L.G.C.

    1999-01-01

    The present crisis in urban management in developing and 'transitioning' countries is largely the result of rapid urbanization and modernization which came to these countries without the basics of planning and management that should have gone hand in hand with them. Because economic growth was the primary goal, the advent of urban development further resulted in the degradation of the urban environment, notably its freshwater and marine resources. Today, the need for urban environmental ma...

  15. A DOE manual: DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goheen, S.C.; McCulloch, M.; Riley, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    Waste Management inherently requires knowledge of the waste's chemical composition. The waste can often be analyzed by established methods; however, if the samples are radioactive, or are plagued by other complications, established methods may not be feasible. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been faced with managing some waste types that are not amenable to standard or available methods, so new or modified sampling and analysis methods are required. These methods are incorporated into DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods), which is a guidance/methods document for sampling and analysis activities in support of DOE sites. It is a document generated by consensus of the DOE laboratory staff and is intended to fill the gap within existing guidance documents (e. g., the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, SW-846), which apply to low-level or non-radioactive samples. DOE Methods fills the gap by including methods that take into account the complexities of DOE site matrices. The most recent update, distributed in October 1993, contained quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), safety, sampling, organic analysis, inorganic analysis, and radioanalytical guidance as well as 29 methods. The next update, which will be distributed in April 1994, will contain 40 methods and will therefore have greater applicability. All new methods are either peer reviewed or labeled ''draft'' methods. Draft methods were added to speed the release of methods to field personnel

  16. Theoretical reflections on the connection between environmental assessment methods and conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Today there is a great variety of methods for evaluating the environmental impact of plans, programs and projects. But which of these methods should planners and managers choose? This theoretical article explores the connection between conflicts, communication and rationality in assessment methods. It focuses on the form (rationality) and substance of communication, i.e. what we should communicate about. The outcome supports the view that environmental assessments should be based on value- and interest-focused thinking, following a teleological ethic, when goals, alternatives and compensations are to be developed and impacts evaluated

  17. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  18. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS as a methodical approach to the development of design strategies for environmentally sustainable buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring

    . The research methodology applied in the project combines a literature study of descriptions of methodical approaches and built examples with a sensitivity analysis and a qualitative interview with two designers from a best practice example of a practice that has achieved environmentally sustainable...... architecture, such as: ecological, green, bio-climatic, sustainable, passive, low-energy and environmental architecture. This PhD project sets out to gain a better understanding of environmentally sustainable architecture and the methodical approaches applied in the development of this type of architecture...... an increase in scientific and political awareness, which has lead to an escalation in the number of research publications in the field, as well as, legislative demands for the energy consumption of buildings. The publications in the field refer to many different approaches to environmentally sustainable...

  19. Reproducibility of measurement of the environmental carbon-14 samples prepared by the gel suspension method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohura, Hirotaka; Wakabayashi, Genichiro; Nakamura, Kouji; Okai, Tomio; Matoba, Masaru; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Momoshima, Noriyuki; Kawamura, Hidehisa.

    1997-01-01

    Simple liquid scintillation counting technique for the assay of 14 C in the environment was developed. This technique was done by using gel suspension method, in which sample preparation is very simple and requires no special equipments. The reproducibility of this technique was considered and it was shown that the gel suspension method had enough reproducibility to monitor the environmental 14 C. (author)

  20. Environmental and economic assessment methods for waste management decision-support: possibilities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnveden, Göran; Björklund, Anna; Moberg, Asa; Ekvall, Tomas

    2007-06-01

    A large number of methods and approaches that can be used for supporting waste management decisions at different levels in society have been developed. In this paper an overview of methods is provided and preliminary guidelines for the choice of methods are presented. The methods introduced include: Environmental Impact Assessment, Strategic Environmental Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Cost-effectiveness Analysis, Life-cycle Costing, Risk Assessment, Material Flow Accounting, Substance Flow Analysis, Energy Analysis, Exergy Analysis, Entropy Analysis, Environmental Management Systems, and Environmental Auditing. The characteristics used are the types of impacts included, the objects under study and whether the method is procedural or analytical. The different methods can be described as systems analysis methods. Waste management systems thinking is receiving increasing attention. This is, for example, evidenced by the suggested thematic strategy on waste by the European Commission where life-cycle analysis and life-cycle thinking get prominent positions. Indeed, life-cycle analyses have been shown to provide policy-relevant and consistent results. However, it is also clear that the studies will always be open to criticism since they are simplifications of reality and include uncertainties. This is something all systems analysis methods have in common. Assumptions can be challenged and it may be difficult to generalize from case studies to policies. This suggests that if decisions are going to be made, they are likely to be made on a less than perfect basis.

  1. Creating the Data Basis for Environmental Evaluations with the Oil Point Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki; Lenau, Torben Anker

    1999-01-01

    In order to support designers in decision-making, some methods have been developed which are based on environmental indicators. These methods, however, can only be used, if indicators for the specific product concept exist and are readily available.Based on this situation, the authors developed a...

  2. A simple and rapid cultural method for detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in environmental samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillaume-Gentil, O.; Sonnard, V.; Kandhai, M.C.; Marugg, J.; Joosten, H.

    2005-01-01

    A method was developed to detect and identify Enterobacter sakazakii in environmental samples. The method is based on selective enrichment at 45 ± 0.5°C in lauryl sulfate tryptose broth supplemented with 0.5 M NaCl and 10 mg/liter vancomycin (mLST) for 22 to 24 h followed by streaking on tryptone

  3. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  4. Application of Synchrotron Radiation-based Methods for Environmental Biogeochemistry: Introduction to the Special Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Donner, Erica; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    To understand the biogeochemistry of nutrients and contaminants in environmental media, their speciation and behavior under different conditions and at multiple scales must be determined. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray techniques allow scientists to elucidate the underlying mechanisms responsible for nutrient and contaminant mobility, bioavailability, and behavior. The continuous improvement of synchrotron light sources and X-ray beamlines around the world has led to a profound transformation in the field of environmental biogeochemistry and, subsequently, to significant scientific breakthroughs. Following this introductory paper, this special collection includes 10 papers that either present targeted reviews of recent advancements in spectroscopic methods that are applicable to environmental biogeochemistry or describe original research studies conducted on complex environmental samples that have been significantly enhanced by incorporating synchrotron radiation-based X-ray technique(s). We believe that the current focus on improving the speciation of ultra-dilute elements in environmental media through the ongoing optimization of synchrotron technologies (e.g., brighter light sources, improved monochromators, more efficient detectors) will help to significantly push back the frontiers of environmental biogeochemistry research. As many of the relevant techniques produce extremely large datasets, we also identify ongoing improvements in data processing and analysis (e.g., software improvements and harmonization of analytical methods) as a significant requirement for environmental biogeochemists to maximize the information that can be gained using these powerful tools.

  5. Radio thermal sounding of natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauss, Martin; Lomukhin, Yuriy

    2017-11-01

    At the moment, methods of sounding a status of soil, plant, forest and aquatic environments using radiometry and radar methods are intensively used. The main source of information using radar sounding is the back reflection ratio. The radiometric method is used for detection of the brightness temperature. In this paper, a communication between the back reflection ratio and the brightness temperature is described. This communication is proportional.

  6. Michael Jackson's Sound Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Michelsen

    2012-01-01

    In order to discuss analytically spatial aspects of recorded sound William Moylan’s concept of ‘sound stage’ is developed within a musicological framework as part of a sound paradigm which includes timbre, texture and sound stage. Two Michael Jackson songs (‘The Lady in My Life’ from 1982 and ‘Scream’ from 1995) are used to: a) demonstrate the value of such a conceptualisation, and b) demonstrate that the model has its limits, as record producers in the 1990s began ignoring the conventions of...

  7. What is Sound?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    What is sound? This question is posed in contradiction to the every-day understanding that sound is a phenomenon apart from us, to be heard, made, shaped and organised. Thinking through the history of computer music, and considering the current configuration of digital communi-cations, sound is reconfigured as a type of network. This network is envisaged as non-hierarchical, in keeping with currents of thought that refuse to prioritise the human in the world. The relationship of sound to musi...

  8. Light and Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Our world is largely defined by what we see and hear-but our uses for light and sound go far beyond simply seeing a photo or hearing a song. A concentrated beam of light, lasers are powerful tools used in industry, research, and medicine, as well as in everyday electronics like DVD and CD players. Ultrasound, sound emitted at a high frequency, helps create images of a developing baby, cleans teeth, and much more. Light and Sound teaches how light and sound work, how they are used in our day-to-day lives, and how they can be used to learn about the universe at large.

  9. Early Sound Symbolism for Vowel Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrinne Spector

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Children and adults consistently match some words (e.g., kiki to jagged shapes and other words (e.g., bouba to rounded shapes, providing evidence for non-arbitrary sound–shape mapping. In this study, we investigated the influence of vowels on sound–shape matching in toddlers, using four contrasting pairs of nonsense words differing in vowel sound (/i/ as in feet vs. /o/ as in boat and four rounded–jagged shape pairs. Crucially, we used reduplicated syllables (e.g., kiki vs. koko rather than confounding vowel sound with consonant context and syllable variability (e.g., kiki vs. bouba. Toddlers consistently matched words with /o/ to rounded shapes and words with /i/ to jagged shapes (p < 0.01. The results suggest that there may be naturally biased correspondences between vowel sound and shape.

  10. Wet-digestion of environmental sample using silver-mediated electrochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Jun

    2010-01-01

    An application of silver-mediated electrochemical method to environmental samples as the effective digestion method for iodine analysis was tried. Usual digestion method for 129 I in many type of environmental sample is combustion method using quartz glass tube. Chemical yield of iodine on the combustion method reduce depending on the type of sample. The silver-mediated electrochemical method is expected to achieve very low loss of iodine. In this study, dried kombu (Laminaria) sample was tried to digest with electrochemical cell. At the case of 1g of sample, digestion was completed for about 24 hours under the electric condition of <10V and <2A. After the digestion, oxidized species of iodine was reduced to iodide by adding sodium sulfite. And then the precipitate of silver iodide was obtained. (author)

  11. A critical examination of some of the field indicators that have been proposed in connection with sound power determination using the intensity method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    1996-01-01

    A considerable number of 'field indicators' or 'quality indicators' have been proposed in connection with sound power determination based on measurement of intensity. For example, the ISO 9614-1 standard prescribes the use four indicators, and in the North American ANSI S12.12 standard no less th...

  12. Improvement of Accuracy in Environmental Dosimetry by TLD Cards Using Three-dimensional Calibration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HosseiniAliabadi S. J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The angular dependency of response for TLD cards may cause deviation from its true value on the results of environmental dosimetry, since TLDs may be exposed to radiation at different angles of incidence from the surrounding area. Objective: A 3D setting of TLD cards has been calibrated isotropically in a standard radiation field to evaluate the improvement of the accuracy of measurement for environmental dosimetry. Method: Three personal TLD cards were rectangularly placed in a cylindrical holder, and calibrated using 1D and 3D calibration methods. Then, the dosimeter has been used simultaneously with a reference instrument in a real radiation field measuring the accumulated dose within a time interval. Result: The results show that the accuracy of measurement has been improved by 6.5% using 3D calibration factor in comparison with that of normal 1D calibration method. Conclusion: This system can be utilized in large scale environmental monitoring with a higher accuracy

  13. Determination of 237Np in environmental and nuclear samples: A review of the analytical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, P.; Mulholland, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    A number of analytical methods has been developed and used for the determination of neptunium in environmental and nuclear fuel samples using alpha, ICP–MS spectrometry, and other analytical techniques. This review summarizes and discusses development of the radiochemical procedures for separation of neptunium (Np), since the beginning of the nuclear industry, followed by a more detailed discussion on recent trends in the separation of neptunium. This article also highlights the progress in analytical methods and issues associated with the determination of neptunium in environmental samples. - Highlights: ► Determination of Np in environmental and nuclear samples is reviewed. ► Various analytical methods used for the determination of Np are listed. ► Progress and issues associated with the determination of Np are discussed.

  14. Development of a simplified method for Tritium measurement in the environmental water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Y.; Yamanishi, H.; Iida, T.; Koganezawa, T.; Kakiuchi, M.; Satake, H.

    2002-01-01

    In Japan the tritium concentrations in the environmental water figure out at approximately 0.5-2Bq/kg-H 2 O and tends to get a little lower than at the moment. The least detectable limit enabled to count by the liquid scintillation counter attained to merely 0.4Bq/kg-H 2 O. It can survey that it is likely to have been impossible to immediately measure a tritium concentration in an environmental water by the liquid scintillation method. Although there can be some alternative methods, the liquid scintillation together with electrolysis enrichment must be the most effective measurement because we do not need to change any useful managements. We already reported that an immediate counting by the liquid scintillation method for the measurement of environmental samples such as rain, river and tap waters, the membrane filtration was an available alternative way to the distillation of the low level water samples

  15. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts.

  16. Method validation and uncertainty evaluation of organically bound tritium analysis in environmental sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Jun; Zeng, Fan; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Chao-Feng; Qin, Hong-Juan; Wu, Lian-Sheng; Guo, Gui-Yin; Yang, Li-Tao; Shang-Guan, Zhi-Hong

    2014-08-01

    The analytical method for organically bound tritium (OBT) was developed in our laboratory. The optimized operating conditions and parameters were established for sample drying, special combustion, distillation, and measurement on a liquid scintillation spectrometer (LSC). Selected types of OBT samples such as rice, corn, rapeseed, fresh lettuce and pork were analyzed for method validation of recovery rate reproducibility, the minimum detection concentration, and the uncertainty for typical low level environmental sample was evaluated. The combustion water recovery rate of different dried environmental sample was kept at about 80%, the minimum detection concentration of OBT ranged from 0.61 to 0.89 Bq/kg (dry weight), depending on the hydrogen content. It showed that this method is suitable for OBT analysis of environmental sample with stable recovery rate, and the combustion water yield of a sample with weight about 40 g would provide sufficient quantity for measurement on LSC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. SORIOS – A method for evaluating and selecting environmental certificates and labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kikkenborg Pedersen, Dennis; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Ola Strandhagen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a general method for evaluating and selecting environmental certificates and labels for companies to use on products and services. The method is developed based on a case study using a Grounded Theory approach. The result is a generalized six-step method that features an initial...... searching strategy and an evaluation model that weighs the prerequisites, rewards and the organization of certificate or label against the strategic needs of a company....

  18. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process

  19. A Method to Test the Effect of Environmental Cues on Mating Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Jenke A; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2017-07-17

    An individual's sexual drive is influenced by genotype, experience and environmental conditions. How these factors interact to modulate sexual behaviors remains poorly understood. In Drosophila melanogaster, environmental cues, such as food availability, affect mating activity offering a tractable system to investigate the mechanisms modulating sexual behavior. In D. melanogaster, environmental cues are often sensed via the chemosensory gustatory and olfactory systems. Here, we present a method to test the effect of environmental chemical cues on mating behavior. The assay consists of a small mating arena containing food medium and a mating couple. The mating frequency for each couple is continuously monitored for 24 h. Here we present the applicability of this assay to test environmental compounds from an external source through a pressurized air system as well as manipulation of the environmental components directly in the mating arena. The use of a pressurized air system is especially useful to test the effect of very volatile compounds, while manipulating components directly in the mating arena can be of value to ascertain a compound's presence. This assay can be adapted to answer questions about the influence of genetic and environmental cues on mating behavior and fecundity as well as other male and female reproductive behaviors.

  20. Environmental hedging: A theory and method for reconciling reservoir operations for downstream ecology and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, L. E.; Lund, J. R.; Moyle, P. B.; Quiñones, R. M.; Herman, J. D.; O'Rear, T. A.

    2017-09-01

    Building reservoir release schedules to manage engineered river systems can involve costly trade-offs between storing and releasing water. As a result, the design of release schedules requires metrics that quantify the benefit and damages created by releases to the downstream ecosystem. Such metrics should support making operational decisions under uncertain hydrologic conditions, including drought and flood seasons. This study addresses this need and develops a reservoir operation rule structure and method to maximize downstream environmental benefit while meeting human water demands. The result is a general approach for hedging downstream environmental objectives. A multistage stochastic mixed-integer nonlinear program with Markov Chains, identifies optimal "environmental hedging," releases to maximize environmental benefits subject to probabilistic seasonal hydrologic conditions, current, past, and future environmental demand, human water supply needs, infrastructure limitations, population dynamics, drought storage protection, and the river's carrying capacity. Environmental hedging "hedges bets" for drought by reducing releases for fish, sometimes intentionally killing some fish early to reduce the likelihood of large fish kills and storage crises later. This approach is applied to Folsom reservoir in California to support survival of fall-run Chinook salmon in the lower American River for a range of carryover and initial storage cases. Benefit is measured in terms of fish survival; maintaining self-sustaining native fish populations is a significant indicator of ecosystem function. Environmental hedging meets human demand and outperforms other operating rules, including the current Folsom operating strategy, based on metrics of fish extirpation and water supply reliability.

  1. Method for environmental risk analysis of marine terminals, process industry terminals, pipelines and shipping lanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissen-Lie, Torild R.; Aspholm, Ole O. [DNV Energy, Oslo (Norway)

    2008-07-01

    The paper describes a quantitative method for analyzing the environmental risk of marine terminals, process industry terminals, pipelines and shipping lanes. The method has been used both in Norway and elsewhere in the world; calculating the risk for environmental resources as fish, seabirds and waterfowls, marine mammals, otters, sea turtles and salt marches and other shoreline/sub tidal habitats. The environmental risk is the product of the probability of acute releases and the environmental consequences. Consequences for vulnerable species and habitats are calculated based on oil drift modelling results and a consequence matrix consisting of 5-7 consequence parameter and five consequence levels of increasing seriousness. An average consequence level is calculated on basis of defined weighting factors to provide an overall consequence value for each spill scenario for each species/habitat. An environmental risk analysis highlights the hazards that have to be managed in order to run an environmentally sustainable operation and can also provide input to establish cost-effective oil spill response measures. (author)

  2. Learning from environmental data: Methods for analysis of forest nutrition time series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulkava, M. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Computer and Information Science)

    2008-07-01

    Data analysis methods play an important role in increasing our knowledge of the environment as the amount of data measured from the environment increases. This thesis fits under the scope of environmental informatics and environmental statistics. They are fields, in which data analysis methods are developed and applied for the analysis of environmental data. The environmental data studied in this thesis are time series of nutrient concentration measurements of pine and spruce needles. In addition, there are data of laboratory quality and related environmental factors, such as the weather and atmospheric depositions. The most important methods used for the analysis of the data are based on the self-organizing map and linear regression models. First, a new clustering algorithm of the self-organizing map is proposed. It is found to provide better results than two other methods for clustering of the self-organizing map. The algorithm is used to divide the nutrient concentration data into clusters, and the result is evaluated by environmental scientists. Based on the clustering, the temporal development of the forest nutrition is modeled and the effect of nitrogen and sulfur deposition on the foliar mineral composition is assessed. Second, regression models are used for studying how much environmental factors and properties of the needles affect the changes in the nutrient concentrations of the needles between their first and second year of existence. The aim is to build understandable models with good prediction capabilities. Sparse regression models are found to outperform more traditional regression models in this task. Third, fusion of laboratory quality data from different sources is performed to estimate the precisions of the analytical methods. Weighted regression models are used to quantify how much the precision of observations can affect the time needed to detect a trend in environmental time series. The results of power analysis show that improving the

  3. A Fast Algorithm of Cartographic Sounding Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Haigang; HUA Li; ZHAO Haitao; ZHANG Yongli

    2005-01-01

    An effective strategy and framework that adequately integrate the automated and manual processes for fast cartographic sounding selection is presented. The important submarine topographic features are extracted for important soundings selection, and an improved "influence circle" algorithm is introduced for sounding selection. For automatic configuration of soundings distribution pattern, a special algorithm considering multi-factors is employed. A semi-automatic method for solving the ambiguous conflicts is described. On the basis of the algorithms and strategies a system named HGIS for fast cartographic sounding selection is developed and applied in Chinese Marine Safety Administration Bureau (CMSAB). The application experiments show that the system is effective and reliable. At last some conclusions and the future work are given.

  4. InfoSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Gopinath, B.; Haberman, Gary O.

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore ways to enhance users' comprehension of complex applications using music and sound effects to present application-program events that are difficult to detect visually. A prototype system, Infosound, allows developers to create and store musical sequences and sound effects with...

  5. Breaking the Sound Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tom; Boehringer, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Students in a fourth-grade class participated in a series of dynamic sound learning centers followed by a dramatic capstone event--an exploration of the amazing Trashcan Whoosh Waves. It's a notoriously difficult subject to teach, but this hands-on, exploratory approach ignited student interest in sound, promoted language acquisition, and built…

  6. Sound propagation in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.; Polinder, H.; Lohman, W.; Zhou, H.; Borst, H.

    2009-01-01

    A new engineering model for sound propagation in cities is presented. The model is based on numerical and experimental studies of sound propagation between street canyons. Multiple reflections in the source canyon and the receiver canyon are taken into account in an efficient way, while weak

  7. OMNIDIRECTIONAL SOUND SOURCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    A sound source comprising a loudspeaker (6) and a hollow coupler (4) with an open inlet which communicates with and is closed by the loudspeaker (6) and an open outlet, said coupler (4) comprising rigid walls which cannot respond to the sound pressures produced by the loudspeaker (6). According...

  8. Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    大矢, 健一

    2013-01-01

    Hamiltonian Algorithm (HA) is an algorithm for searching solutions is optimization problems. This paper introduces a sound synthesis technique using Hamiltonian Algorithm and shows a simple example. "Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis" uses phase transition effect in HA. Because of this transition effect, totally new waveforms are produced.

  9. Poetry Pages. Sound Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fina, Allan de

    1992-01-01

    Explains how elementary teachers can help students understand onomatopoeia, suggesting that they define onomatopoeia, share examples of it, read poems and have students discuss onomatopoeic words, act out common household sounds, write about sound effects, and create choral readings of onomatopoeic poems. Two appropriate poems are included. (SM)

  10. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  11. Trace element analysis of environmental samples by multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Masumi; Matsuo, Motoyuki; Shozugawa, Katsumi

    2011-01-01

    The multiple γ-ray detection method has been proved to be a high-resolution and high-sensitivity method in application to nuclide quantification. The neutron prompt γ-ray analysis method is successfully extended by combining it with the γ-ray detection method, which is called Multiple prompt γ-ray analysis, MPGA. In this review we show the principle of this method and its characteristics. Several examples of its application to environmental samples, especially river sediments in the urban area and sea sediment samples are also described. (author)

  12. Interlaboratory Validation of the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) Method 1314 and Method 1315

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of an interlaboratory study conducted to generate precision estimates for two leaching methods under review by the U.S. EPA’s OSWER for inclusion into the EPA’s SW-846: Method 1314: Liquid-Solid Partitioning as a Function of Liquid...

  13. Climate Change: Implications for the Assumptions, Goals and Methods of Urban Environmental Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Hill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of increasing awareness of the implications of global climate change, shifts are becoming necessary and apparent in the assumptions, concepts, goals and methods of urban environmental planning. This review will present the argument that these changes represent a genuine paradigm shift in urban environmental planning. Reflection and action to develop this paradigm shift is critical now and in the next decades, because environmental planning for cities will only become more urgent as we enter a new climate period. The concepts, methods and assumptions that urban environmental planners have relied on in previous decades to protect people, ecosystems and physical structures are inadequate if they do not explicitly account for a rapidly changing regional climate context, specifically from a hydrological and ecological perspective. The over-arching concept of spatial suitability that guided planning in most of the 20th century has already given way to concepts that address sustainability, recognizing the importance of temporality. Quite rapidly, the concept of sustainability has been replaced in many planning contexts by the priority of establishing resilience in the face of extreme disturbance events. Now even this concept of resilience is being incorporated into a novel concept of urban planning as a process of adaptation to permanent, incremental environmental changes. This adaptation concept recognizes the necessity for continued resilience to extreme events, while acknowledging that permanent changes are also occurring as a result of trends that have a clear direction over time, such as rising sea levels. Similarly, the methods of urban environmental planning have relied on statistical data about hydrological and ecological systems that will not adequately describe these systems under a new climate regime. These methods are beginning to be replaced by methods that make use of early warning systems for regime shifts, and process

  14. Sustainability in Organizations: The Application of the Gaia Method for Managing Environmental Impact on a Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Giancarlo Duarte de Mazo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates a method of managing environmental impacts, thus assessing the degree of sustainability of an organization.As an object of study, the GAIA (Gerenciamento de Aspectos e Impactos Ambientais = Management of Environmental Aspects and Impacts method for management of environmental aspects and impacts was used, based on the development of three fundamental stages: awareness, knowledge and training, having been applied to a small company in the baking business. A bibliographical research on business sustainability was carried out so theoretical basis could support field research. By way of a questionnaire and interviews, it was identified that the company has sustainability indicators at a good level, as the GAIA method states. The research presented data that confirm the efficiency of the GAIA method, with the identification of data that make it possible to determine strategies to develop actions that improve the company’s social and environmental sustainability. For future studies, we suggest that the focus of this method be expanded, thus deepening the issue of socioeconomic indicators.

  15. Tools and methods for environmental decision-making in energy production companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulenheimo, V.; Thun, R.; Backman, M.

    1996-01-01

    This report concentrates on the models and methods used for internal environmental decision-making by company management. The amount of available models aiming at this purpose is numerous. The methods differ from each other for example in their comprehensiveness, in the types of effects included, in the degree of quantification, and in the method used for weighting of environmental impacts. Different types of models and methods give the results of the valuation in qualitative, in non-monetary, or even in monetary units. Traditional financial analysis is, however, still used to compare different investment options. First-hand experiences of model applications show that a lot of work is still needed before the new integrated methodologies can be incorporated into existing decision-making systems in standardized forms. Developers of methodologies and software systems for environmental costing will benefit from co-operation and from inputs by cross-functional teams of the company. The future will show if it is possible to combine the best features of useful methods and find a solution which is leading to facilitated company environmental decision-making which is undisputed and reliable

  16. Sustainability appraisal. Quantitative methods and mathematical techniques for environmental performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erechtchoukova, Marina G.; Khaiter, Peter A. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). School of Information Technology; Golinska, Paulina (eds.) [Poznan Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    2013-06-01

    The book will present original research papers on the quantitative methods and techniques for the evaluation of the sustainability of business operations and organizations' overall environmental performance. The book contributions will describe modern methods and approaches applicable to the multi-faceted problem of sustainability appraisal and will help to fulfil generic frameworks presented in the literature with the specific quantitative techniques so needed in practice. The scope of the book is interdisciplinary in nature, making it of interest to environmental researchers, business managers and process analysts, information management professionals and environmental decision makers, who will find valuable sources of information for their work-related activities. Each chapter will provide sufficient background information, a description of problems, and results, making the book useful for a wider audience. Additional software support is not required. One of the most important issues in developing sustainable management strategies and incorporating ecodesigns in production, manufacturing and operations management is the assessment of the sustainability of business operations and organizations' overall environmental performance. The book presents the results of recent studies on sustainability assessment. It provides a solid reference for researchers in academia and industrial practitioners on the state-of-the-art in sustainability appraisal including the development and application of sustainability indices, quantitative methods, models and frameworks for the evaluation of current and future welfare outcomes, recommendations on data collection and processing for the evaluation of organizations' environmental performance, and eco-efficiency approaches leading to business process re-engineering.

  17. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    National schemes for sound classification of dwellings exist in more than ten countries in Europe, typically published as national standards. The schemes define quality classes reflecting different levels of acoustical comfort. Main criteria concern airborne and impact sound insulation between...... dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  18. Near-infrared transillumination back scattering sounding--new method to assess brain microcirculation in patients with chronic carotid artery stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej F Frydrychowski

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to assess the responses of pial artery pulsation (cc-TQ and subarachnoid width (sas-TQ to acetazolamide challenge in patients with chronic carotid artery stenosis and relate these responses to changes in peak systolic velocity (PSV, cerebral blood flow (CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV, mean transit time (MTT and time to peak response (TTP. METHODS: Fifteen patients with carotid artery stenosis ≥ 90% on the ipsilateral side and <50% on the contralateral side were enrolled into the study. PSV was assessed using colour-coded duplex sonography, CBF, CBV, MTT and TTP with perfusion computed tomography, cc-TQ and sas-TQ with near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding (NIR-T/BSS. RESULTS: Based on the ipsilateral/contralateral cc-TQ ratio after acetazolamide challenge two groups of patients were distinguished: the first group with a ratio ≥ 1 and the second with a ratio <1. In the second group increases in CBF and CBV after the acetazolamide test were significantly higher in both hemispheres (ipsilateral: +33.0% ± 8.1% vs. +15.3% ± 4.4% and +26.3% ± 6.6% vs. +14.3% ± 5.1%; contralateral: +26.8% ± 7.0% vs. +17.6% ± 5.6% and +20.0% ± 7.3% vs. +10.0% ± 3.7%, respectively, cc-TQ was significantly higher only on the ipsilateral side (+37.3% ± 9.3% vs. +26.6% ± 8.6% and the decrease in sas-TQ was less pronounced on the ipsilateral side (-0.7% ± 1.5% vs. -10.2% ± 1.5%, in comparison with the first group. The changes in sas-TQ following the acetazolamide test were consistent with the changes in TTP. CONCLUSIONS: The ipsilateral/contralateral cc-TQ ratio following acetazolamide challenge may be used to distinguish patient groups characterized by different haemodynamic parameters. Further research on a larger group of patients is warranted.

  19. The complementary use of radioanalytical methods and trace analysis methods for the characterisation of environmental IAEA reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Regge, P.; Burns, K.; Campbell, M.; Makarewicz, M.; Markowicz, A.; Mattiuzzi, M.; Tajani, A.; Toervenyi, A.; Zeiller, E.

    2001-01-01

    The IAEA laboratories have access to both nuclear analytical methods and conventional instrumental methods for trace analysis for the characterisation of its environmental and biological reference materials. A technical concept integrating the homogeneity data, the recommended test portion mass and the uncertainty on the trace element concentrations is explored using a combination of INAA, XRF, ICP-MS, ICP-AES, and AAS. The above approach is illustrated by selected examples of reference materials currently under evaluation for their trace element content. They include some or all of the following elements Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, Th, U, Zn in environmental biomonitor organisms (lichen, algae) and air dust filters. (author)

  20. Visualizing Sound Directivity via Smartphone Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Scott H.; McClain, Robert E.

    2018-02-01

    When Yang-Hann Kim received the Rossing Prize in Acoustics Education at the 2015 meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, he stressed the importance of offering visual depictions of sound fields when teaching acoustics. Often visualization methods require specialized equipment such as microphone arrays or scanning apparatus. We present a simple method for visualizing angular dependence in sound fields, made possible via the confluence of sensors available via a new smartphone app that the authors have developed.