WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmentally responsible behaviour

  1. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...

  2. Environmental concern and environmentally responsible behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, environmental concern has been conceptualised as the manifestation of attitudes that are directed at behavioural intentions of active personal involvement in caring about environmental matters. Based on a critique of theoretical approaches towards understanding the formation of environmental attitudes, ...

  3. Predicting People's Environmental Behaviour: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Model of Responsible Environmental Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Long

    2012-01-01

    Using different measures of self-reported and other-reported environmental behaviour (EB), two important theoretical models explaining EB--Hines, Hungerford and Tomera's model of responsible environmental behaviour (REB) and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB)--were compared regarding the fit between model and data, predictive ability,…

  4. Environmentally Responsible Behaviour and its Relationship with Environmental Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Monteiro da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to examine the relationship between the environmentally responsible behaviours and the perception of Environmental Education of students and public servants of a Federal Public Institution of Education through an electronic questionnaire applied to students and workers of the institution. The data analysis was done by using descriptive statistics, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, t-tests for independent samples, variance analysis, and regression trees. Those results contribute to understand the behaviour considered as environmentally responsible of individuals from a Federal Public Institution of Education, before their perception regarding Environmental Education. Based on the results presented in this survey, one can devise strategies for teaching, research, outreaching, empowerment, and awareness of future technicians, graduates, and technologists as well as other stakeholders involved with environmental issues. Thus, this study contributes to the surveyed institution in the sense that, based on it, goals and strategies towards the empowerment in education and environmental management can be traced, highlighting themes that address waste management, sustainable biddings, labour life quality, raise of students’ awareness, empowerment of the civil servants, and rational use of resources. The study also contributes to identify what are the environmentally responsible behaviors in an organizational academic environment.

  5. The Main Drivers of Environmentally Responsible Behaviour in Lithuanian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Preserving environmental and natural resources is one of the most important challenges for ensuring the sustainability of well-being over time. One can notice that measuring of environmental indicators related to environmentally responsible behaviour is complicated and demanding task. It is also important to define the main drivers of environmentally responsible development. The objective of this paper is to provide comparatives analysis of indicators of environmentally responsible behaviour in the Baltic States by comparing and assessing them in terms of the EU-28 average and to present the main drivers of environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuania. Environmentally responsible behaviour is related to resource and energy savings, use of renewable energy sources, waste sorting and recycling, wastewater disposal etc. Comparative assessment of environmentally responsible behaviour indicators in the Baltic States indicated that all these indicators are bellow the EU-average, except the use of renewable energy sources. The main drivers of consumption behaviour in Lithuania were assessed by applying households surveys in order to define the major issues of concern and to develop relevant policies targeting these issues. Age, gender, education, and income of Lithuanian residents do not have impact on environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuanian households (energy saving, buying energy efficient electric appliances, willingness to pay electricity from renewable energy sources use of biofuels. Only environmental awareness has impact on energy saving behaviour at home and use of biofuels in cars and waste recycle.

  6. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2006-01-01

    is carried out based on a survey of residents of Denmark. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally responsible behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source separating compostable kitchen waste, and using public transportation for work...... and shopping. Also the frequency of the four behaviours was measured. The revised taxonomy has content, discriminant, predictive, and nomological validity and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The most internalized of the new norm constructs, integrated norms, is most strongly correlated with conventional...... of correlation between norm constructs and between norms and behaviour vary between behaviours. Hence, respondents seem to apply different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours....

  7. The relationship between Corporate Environmental Responsibility, employees' biospheric values and pro-environmental behaviour at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruepert, Angela Maria; Keizer, Kees; Steg, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Many organizations strive for Corporate Environmental Responsibility (CER). This can make organizational processes and procedures more pro-environmental, but does it also promote employees' pro environmental behaviour? We reason that CER can encourage employees to act pro-environmentally at work by

  8. The relationship between Corporate Environmental Responsibility, employees’ biospheric values and pro-environmental behaviour at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruepert, Angela Maria; Keizer, Kees; Steg, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Many organizations strive for Corporate Environmental Responsibility (CER). This can make organizational processes and procedures more pro-environmental, but does it also promote employees’ pro-environmental behaviour? We reason that CER can encourage employees to act pro-environmentally at work by

  9. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    consumers (N = 206). Each questionnaire contained standard items measuring subjective social and personal norms for the purchase of organic food, self-reported buying behaviour, and a "hard laddering" instrument probing reasons and motives for doing so. As expected, participants' means-end associations......This paper investigates whether norms guiding environmentally desirable behaviour are genuinely internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures or just shallowly "introjected" social norms. Internet-based questionnaires were administered to a stratified sample of Danish...... to the studied behaviour differ significantly depending on the strength of their norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. The behavioural influence of subjective social norms and expressed reasons and motives is mediated through personal norms...

  10. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    consumers (N = 206). Each questionnaire contained standard items measuring subjective social and personal norms for the purchase of organic food, self-reported buying behaviour, and a "hard laddering" instrument probing reasons and motives for doing so. As expected, participants' means-end associations......This paper investigates whether norms guiding environmentally desirable behaviour are genuinely internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures or just shallowly "introjected" social norms. Internet-based questionnaires were administered to a stratified sample of Danish...... to the studied behaviour differ significantly depending on the strength of their norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. The behavioural influence of subjective social norms and expressed reasons and motives is mediated through personal norms...

  11. Designing the Internet of Things for Learning Environmentally Responsible Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; van der Vlist, Bram; Niezen, Gerrit; Willemsen, Willem; Willems, Don; Feijs, Loe

    2013-01-01

    We present two designs in the area of the Internet of Things, utilizing the ontology-driven Smart Objects For Intelligent Applications (SOFIA) Interoperability Platform (IOP). The IOP connects domestic objects in the physical world to the information world, allowing for coaching the behaviour of, or raising awareness in, domestic energy…

  12. Evolution and behavioural responses to human-induced rapid environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Ferrari, Maud C O; Harris, David J

    2011-01-01

    Almost all organisms live in environments that have been altered, to some degree, by human activities. Because behaviour mediates interactions between an individual and its environment, the ability of organisms to behave appropriately under these new conditions is crucial for determining their immediate success or failure in these modified environments. While hundreds of species are suffering dramatically from these environmental changes, others, such as urbanized and pest species, are doing better than ever. Our goal is to provide insights into explaining such variation. We first summarize the responses of some species to novel situations, including novel risks and resources, habitat loss/fragmentation, pollutants and climate change. Using a sensory ecology approach, we present a mechanistic framework for predicting variation in behavioural responses to environmental change, drawing from models of decision-making processes and an understanding of the selective background against which they evolved. Where immediate behavioural responses are inadequate, learning or evolutionary adaptation may prove useful, although these mechanisms are also constrained by evolutionary history. Although predicting the responses of species to environmental change is difficult, we highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of evolutionary history in shaping individuals’ responses to their environment and provide suggestion for future work. PMID:25567979

  13. Behavioural stress responses predict environmental perception in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millot, Sandie; Cerqueira, Marco; Castanheira, Maria-Filipa; Overli, Oyvind; Oliveira, Rui F; Martins, Catarina I M

    2014-01-01

    .... The goal of this study was to investigate whether pre-existing differences in behaviour predict the outcome of such assessment of environmental cues, using a conditioned place preference/avoidance (CPP/CPA) paradigm...

  14. Behaviour of mobile macrofauna is a key factor in beach ecology as response to rapid environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapini, Felicita

    2014-10-01

    Sandy beach animals show behavioural adaptations that are expressed as contingencies during the life history of individuals to face periodic and episodic environmental changes. Such adaptations include activity rhythms, orientation, zonation, burrowing, escape responses and feeding strategies, the first two being common adaptations to all mobile animals. The complex conditions of a particular beach environment may be integrated in a learning process enhancing the adaptation and survival of individuals and eventually of populations. Evidence exists of genetic determination of some behavioural features that are adaptive in the long term (throughout generations) by increasing individual survival and reproductive potential. The environmental features integrated with the life history of beach animals shape the individual behaviour through ontogenetic processes, as well as population behaviour through evolutionary processes. Thus, behavioural differences among individuals may reflect environmental variation at the local and small/medium temporal scales of beach processes, whereas within-population behavioural coherence and differences among populations may reflect variation at the geographic scale. The different foci stressed by different authors and the variety of evidence dependent upon local geographical and ecological conditions have often resulted in compartmentalised explanations, making generalizations and the repeatability of behavioural studies of beach ecology challenging. There was a need to developing a more synthetic paradigm for beach animal behaviour. This paper gives a brief overview of the theoretical background and keystone studies, which have contributed to our understanding of animal behaviour in sandy beach ecology, and proposes testable hypotheses to be integrated in the beach ecology paradigm.

  15. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy and a preliminary assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...

  16. Environmental Education and Behaviour: The Case of Corporate Social-Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Brian

    1981-01-01

    Addresses the potential effects of environmental education on corporate behavior and social and environmental impact by examining connections between human behavior and environmental problems, the role of the modern corporation, a behavioral theory of the firm, and corporate social responsibility. (DC)

  17. The Drosophila TRPA1 Channel and Neuronal Circuits Controlling Rhythmic Behaviours and Sleep in Response to Environmental Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Roessingh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available trpA1 encodes a thermosensitive transient receptor potential channel (TRP channel that functions in selection of preferred temperatures and noxious heat avoidance. In this review, we discuss the evidence for a role of TRPA1 in the control of rhythmic behaviours in Drosophila melanogaster. Activity levels during the afternoon and rhythmic temperature preference are both regulated by TRPA1. In contrast, TRPA1 is dispensable for temperature synchronisation of circadian clocks. We discuss the neuronal basis of TRPA1-mediated temperature effects on rhythmic behaviours, and conclude that they are mediated by partly overlapping but distinct neuronal circuits. We have previously shown that TRPA1 is required to maintain siesta sleep under warm temperature cycles. Here, we present new data investigating the neuronal circuit responsible for this regulation. First, we discuss the difficulties that remain in identifying the responsible neurons. Second, we discuss the role of clock neurons (s-LNv/DN1 network in temperature-driven regulation of siesta sleep, and highlight the role of TRPA1 therein. Finally, we discuss the sexual dimorphic nature of siesta sleep and propose that the s-LNv/DN1 clock network could play a role in the integration of environmental information, mating status and other internal drives, to appropriately drive adaptive sleep/wake behaviour.

  18. Behavioural and physiological responses of birds to environmentally relevant concentrations of an antidepressant

    OpenAIRE

    Bean, Tom G.; Boxall, Alistair B.A.; Lane, Julie; Herborn, Katherine A; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Arnold, Kathryn E

    2014-01-01

    Many wildlife species forage on sewage-contaminated food, for example, at wastewater treatment plants and on fields fertilized with sewage sludge. The resultant exposure to human pharmaceuticals remains poorly studied for terrestrial species. On the basis of predicted exposure levels in the wild, we administered the common antidepressant fluoxetine (FLUOX) or control treatment via prey to wild-caught starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) for 22 weeks over winter. To investigate responses to fluoxetine...

  19. Gender differences in environmental related behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalen, Hanne Marit; Halvorsen, Bente

    2011-11-15

    survey, the effect of the number of adults in the household is often more important for choices. The results also imply that there are gender differences in how people respond to questions about hypothetical policy measures, where females tend to be more positive on average. Since these positive attitudes is not necessarily mirrored in reported behaviour, it may be difficult to infer on the basis of gender differences in the response to these hypothetical policy questions, to gender differences in actual behaviour. Even if the analyses reveal significant gender differences, it does not necessarily imply that gender differences in environmental behaviour should have implications for environmental policies. Focusing on gender differences may lead to inferior policy recommendations because the focus is shifted away from the main aim, which is to improve the environment. (Author)

  20. Radio-telemetry shows differences in the behaviour of wild and hatchery-reared European grayling Thymallus thymallus in response to environmental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horká, P; Horký, P; Randák, T; Turek, J; Rylková, K; Slavík, O

    2015-01-21

    Juvenile wild and hatchery-reared European grayling Thymallus thymallus were tagged with radio-transmitters and tracked in the Blanice River, River Elbe catchment, Czech Republic, to study their behavioural response to stocking and environmental variation. Both wild and hatchery-reared T. thymallus increased their diel movements and home range with increasing light intensity, flow, temperature and turbidity, but the characteristics of their responses differed. Environmental variables influenced the movement of wild T. thymallus up to a specific threshold, whereas no such threshold was observed in hatchery-reared T. thymallus. Hatchery-reared fish displayed greater total migration distance over the study period (total migration) than did wild fish, which was caused mainly by their dispersal in the downstream direction. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Theoretical perspectives on pro-environmental behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela PAVALACHE-ILIE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines a synthesis of the models (The rationalist models, models based on Theory of Reasoned Action/ Theory of Planned Behavior, prosocial models and antecedents of pro-environmental behaviors. The values models applicable for the study of pro-environmental behaviours (Rokeach’s; Schwartz’s; Kollmus and Agyeman synthesis, are presented afterwards, as the results of the studies which confirm the predictive role of values when it comes to pro-environmental behaviour.

  2. Lipid nanocapsules for behavioural testing in aquatic toxicology: Time-response of Eurytemora affinis to environmental concentrations of PAHs and PCB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalec, François-Gaël; Holzner, Markus; Souissi, Anissa; Stancheva, Stefka; Barras, Alexandre; Boukherroub, Rabah; Souissi, Sami

    2016-01-01

    The increasing interest for behavioural investigations in aquatic toxicology has heightened the need for developing tools that allow realistic exposure conditions and provide robust quantitative data. Calanoid copepods dominate the zooplankton community in marine and brackish environments. These small organisms have emerged as attractive models because of the sensitivity of their behaviour to important environmental parameters and the significance of self-induced motion in their ecology. Estuarine copepods are particularly relevant in this context because of their incessant exposure to high levels of pollution. We used lipid nanocapsules to deliver sub-lethal concentrations of PAHs (pyrene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene) and PCB 153 into the digestive track of males and females Eurytemora affinis. This novel approach enabled us to achieve both contact and trophic exposure without using phytoplankton, and to expose copepods to small hydrophobic molecules without using organic solvent. We reconstructed the motion of many copepods swimming simultaneously by means of three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry. We quantified the combined effects of contact and trophic toxicity by comparing the kinematic and diffusive properties of their motion immediately and after 3h and 24h of exposure. Despite the lack of toxicity of their excipients, both empty and loaded capsules increased swimming activity and velocity immediately after exposure. Laser microscopy imaging shows adhesion of nanocapsules on the exoskeleton of the animals, suggesting contact toxicity. The behavioural response resembles an escape reaction allowing copepods to escape stressful conditions. The contact toxicity of empty capsules and pollutants appeared to be additive and nanocapsules loaded with PCB caused the greatest effects. We observed a progressive accumulation of capsules in the digestive track of the animals after 3h and 24h of exposure, which suggests an increasing contribution of systemic

  3. Electrochemical Behaviour of Environmentally Friendly Inhibitor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrochemical Behaviour of Environmentally Friendly Inhibitor of Aloe Secundiflora Extract in Corrosion Control of Carbon Steel in Soft Water Media. ... corrosion control in neutral and aerated soft water solutions have been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization techniques.

  4. Practice of Environmentally Significant Behaviours in Rural China: From Being Motivated by Economic Gains to Being Motivated by Environmental Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A continuous and increasing crisis that present-day China is facing is environmental degradation. The cultivation of citizens who have environmentally friendly behaviours has been deemed as a fundamental way to solve environmental crises. However, the main focus of environmentalism studies has been urban residents, whereas rare research attention was put on rural Chinese. This paper focuses on environmentally significant behaviours in rural China and aims to clarify the practice of five environmentally significant behaviours and two motivations underlying these behaviours. In total, 508 rural residents in 51 villages of Ningyang county were interviewed. Analytical results derived from survey data showed that environmentally significant behaviours are widely conducted in rural areas. However, these behaviours are mainly motivated by economic gains rather than environmental considerations. In addition, based on the norm-activation theory and considering the influences of demographic factors, the formation of environmentally motivated behaviours were quantitatively analysed. Analytical results indicated that the more people worried about environmental deterioration, the more likely they were to form environmentally motivated behaviours, and people who ascribe the most important environmental responsibility to the government are less likely to form environmentally motivated behaviours. Increasing people’s anxiety towards the environment, decreasing people’s dependency on the government in protecting the environment, and using females, the elderly, and people with low income and education levels as the main targets of environmental education are suggested to promote environmentally motivated behaviours in rural China.

  5. Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Created in 2009 as part of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate's Integrated Systems Research Program, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation...

  6. Environmental considerations in the organizational context : A pathway to pro-environmental behaviour at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruepert, Angela; Keizer, Kees; Steg, Linda; Maricchiolo, Fridanna; Carrus, Giuseppe; Dumitru, Adina; Garcia Mira, Ricardo; Stancu, Alexandra; Moza, Daniela

    Encouraging pro-environmental behaviour at work can result in a significant reduction in environmental problems. Research revealed that general environmental considerations such as biospheric values and environmental self-identity are important antecedents of private pro-environmental behaviour.

  7. Determining Factors on Environmental Behaviour in Brasilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nascimento de Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing concern about the environment has been changing the people's behaviour, leading to questions about the origin of products and the damage they cause to the environment, resulting in a new type of consumer, known as "green consumer". The purpose is to identify the influence of socio-demographic and psychographic factors on the environmental behaviour of individuals in the city of Brasilia and to provide information for the planning of environmental marketing strategies. Data were collected through a questionnaire and by way of logistic regression as analytical tools.The results indicated that the environmentally conscious individuals are those with higher levels of education and, especially, those who perceive the effectiveness of their environmental actions, however small or isolated.

  8. Environmental Response Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    This website will serve as a resource directory of the Environmental Response Team's roles and capabilities as well as list contacts for each discipline to provide information to EPA personnel and the public.

  9. Academic sensemaking and behavioural responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Lise

    2018-01-01

    Reforms and changing ideas about what higher education institutions are and should be have put pressure on academic identity. The present paper explores the way academics in Danish universities make sense of their changing circumstances, and how this affects their perceptions of their organization......, their leaders and of themselves. The study highlights how the formal organizations’ translations of external impulses and ideas constitute a more severe threat on the perceived identity of the academic staff than the impulses and ideas themselves. The findings indicate that with the tighter couplings of top......-level management and the political system, the coupling and identification between academic staff and the formal organization may become weaker. Also, the behavioural responses perceived threats are studied, by examining the ‘us’/‘them’ categorizations of the academics, providing a burgeoning conceptual framework...

  10. Responsibility and hand washing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jasmine; Purdon, Christine

    2016-06-01

    Recent research suggests that compulsions persist due to a self-perpetuating mechanism of poor memory confidence and repetition. However, most of this work has examined checking compulsions and findings may not generalize well to washing compulsions. This study examined the role of responsibility in the persistence of washing behaviour. Hand washing was examined in undergraduates (n = 80) high and low in contamination fears (CF) under conditions of high or low responsibility (RL). Wash duration and number of visits to objects/locations key to the wash (e.g., soap) were examined. Overvalued responsibility predicted washing duration across groups. Neither wash duration nor number of visits was associated with memory for the wash. Wash duration predicted post-wash certainty that the wash had prevented harm, but only in the high CF group, and that effect varied according to RL: longer wash duration predicted greater certainty under conditions of low RL but predicted less certainty under conditions of high RL. Greater repetition predicted poorer sensory confidence, but only in the high CF group under high RL conditions. The data were collected in an analogue sample of modest size. Replication in a clinical sample is required. Self-perpetuating mechanisms identified in perseverative checking seem to also be present in perseverative washing, but only under conditions of high responsibility. Sensory confidence may be more important to perseverative washing than memory confidence. More research is required to understand self-perpetuating mechanisms at play when washing to under conditions of high responsibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF GREEN MARKETING STRATEGIES TO CONSUMERS ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Yoan Nita

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the influence of eco-labelling, green packaging and branding, environmental advertisement, green premium pricing, and eco-image to consumers’ environmental behaviour. The result found that in overall all has influence consumers’ environmental behaviour. However, when it came to partial test, only eco-labelling, green packaging and branding, and green premium pricing which contributes to the consumers’ environmental behaviour.

  12. Behavioural Spillover in the Environmental Domain: An Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanzini, Pietro; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    behaviours over the six weeks, to identify instances of behavioural spillover from "green" purchase behaviour to other pro-environmental behaviours and to investigate if such spillover was affected by the nature of the intervention. The study revealed a positive spillover from "green" purchasing to other pro......This study tests hypotheses about behavioural spillover in the environmental domain as well as the impacts of monetary inducements and verbal praise on behavioural spillover by means of a field experiment. A sample of 194 students from a large university in Denmark were randomly allocated...... of environmentally relevant behaviours and after a six weeks intervention period where they were requested to keep track of their purchases by means of a shopping diary they answered a second survey with the same content as the first. This allowed us to analyse the change in self-reported pro- environmental...

  13. Environmentally responsive graphene systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Song, Long; Zhang, Zhipan; Chen, Nan; Qu, Liangti

    2014-06-12

    Graphene materials have been attracting significant research interest in the past few years, with the recent focuses on graphene-based electronic devices and smart stimulus-responsive systems that have a certain degree of automatism. Owing to its huge specific surface area, large room-temperature electron mobility, excellent mechanical flexibility, exceptionally high thermal conductivity and environmental stability, graphene is identified as a beneficial additive or an effective responding component by itself to improve the conductivity, flexibility, mechanical strength and/or the overall responsive performance of smart systems. In this review article, we aim to present the recent advances in graphene systems that are of spontaneous responses to external stimulations, such as environmental variation in pH, temperature, electric current, light, moisture and even gas ambient. These smart stimulus-responsive graphene systems are believed to have great theoretical and practical interests to a wide range of device applications including actuators, switches, robots, sensors, drug/gene deliveries, etc. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. a study of predictors of environmental behaviour using us samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    behaviour predictors (perceived skill and knowledge of environmental action strategies ... intervention (ecomanagement), persuasion, legal action, and political action. A behaviour score, generated from the BIEA, served as the criterion variable. Sections three to ..... personality variables in the prediction of environmental ...

  15. Relations between peripheral and brain serotonin measures and behavioural responses in a novelty test in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursinus, Winanda W.; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Zonderland, Johan J.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; de Souza, Adriana S.; Koopmanschap, Rudie E.; Kemp, Bas; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Korte, S. Mechiel; van Reenen, Cornelis G.

    2013-01-01

    Pigs differ in their behavioural responses towards environmental challenges. Individual variation in maladaptive responses such as tail biting, may partly originate from underlying biological characteristics related to (emotional) reactivity to challenges and serotonergic system functioning.

  16. Farmers' perceptual, emotional and behavioural responses to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental policies purposefully encourage environmental protection by redirecting human decision-making and activities. Achieving the right human responses to environmental policy is therefore critically important. This paper discusses the regulatory framework and pastoral farmers' adaptation to a new regulation, ...

  17. Multilevel corporate environmental responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karassin, Orr; Bar-Haim, Aviad

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel empirical study of the antecedents of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been identified as "the first knowledge gap" in CSR research. Based on an extensive literature review, the present study outlines a conceptual multilevel model of CSR, then designs and empirically validates an operational multilevel model of the principal driving factors affecting corporate environmental responsibility (CER), as a measure of CSR. Both conceptual and operational models incorporate three levels of analysis: institutional, organizational, and individual. The multilevel nature of the design allows for the assessment of the relative importance of the levels and of their components in the achievement of CER. Unweighted least squares (ULS) regression analysis reveals that the institutional-level variables have medium relationships with CER, some variables having a negative effect. The organizational level is revealed as having strong and positive significant relationships with CER, with organizational culture and managers' attitudes and behaviors as significant driving forces. The study demonstrates the importance of multilevel analysis in improving the understanding of CSR drivers, relative to single level models, even if the significance of specific drivers and levels may vary by context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Behaviour and stress responses in horses with gastric ulceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens; Poulsen, Janne Møller; Luthersson, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    mucosa) to paired controls (n = 30; free from gastric ulcers). Baseline and response concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM), heart rate and behaviour were measured in a novel object test (NOT, Day 1) and behaviour during postponed feeding (PF, Day 2). Glandular lesions occurred in 55.......2% and non-glandular lesions in 40.6% of the horses. The amount of starch in the feed (P = 0.006) and paternal stallion (P = 0.031) influenced ulceration in the non-glandular region only; it should be noted that our study does not allow for separating hereditary from environmental influences, as offspring...

  19. When action speaks louder than words: The effect of parenting on young consumers' pro-environmental behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    The present study examines intergenerational transfers of pro-environmental behaviours between parents and children. In a survey study involving 600 Danish families, we examine whether children's pro-environmental behaviours can be determined by their parents' attitudes and behaviours with respect...... to three "green" consumption activities: buying organic/environmentally friendly products, handling waste responsibly, and energy saving activities. In addition, we examine the effect of parenting on adolescents' pro-environmental behaviours by including a particular aspect of parenting style: parental...... autonomy support. Results show that the adolescents are influenced by their parents' behaviour, and especially how they perceive parents' behaviour, which seems to depend on how visible these behaviours are to them. Furthermore, parenting style influences the adolescents' behaviour in various ways....

  20. School Phobia: Understanding a Complex Behavioural Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitiyo, Morgan; Wheeler, John J.

    2006-01-01

    School phobia affects about 5% of the school-age population. If left untreated, school phobia can have devastating long-term consequences in children challenged by this condition. Various treatment approaches have been used to explore this complex behavioural response, major among them being the psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, pharmacological and…

  1. Physiological and behavioural responses of Ruditapes decussatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study highlights the potential use of behavioural and physiological response of a sentinel organism for monitoring the pesticides in the marine environment. KEY WORDS: LC50, glyphosate, chlorpyrifos-methyl, valve movement, oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion, energy lost. Egyptian Journal of Botany Vol.5 ...

  2. Consumer behaviour in a social context : implications for environmental policy

    OpenAIRE

    Partha Dasgupta; Dale Southerton; Alistair Ulph; David Ulph

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we summarise some of our recent work on consumer behaviour, drawing on recent developments in behavioural economics, in which consumers are embedded in a social context, so their behaviour is shaped by their interactions with other consumers. For the purpose of this paper we also allow consumption to cause environmental damage. Analysing the social context of consumption naturally lends itself to the use of game theoretic tools, and indicates that we seek to develop links betwee...

  3. Behavioural Study of Captive Sloth Bears Using Environmental Enrichment Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Veeraselvam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of environmental enrichment on behavioural changes were studied in five captive sloth bears kept in confined enclosure at Zoological Park, Chennai, India. Behavioural categories like active, passive, and abnormal behaviours were taken for the study. The activity budget was recorded as a single animal scan. The detailed baseline data of 150 hours, over a period of 30 days, were collected. At baseline, bears exhibited passive and more abnormal behaviours. Similarly, after application of the environmental tools like honey-log, underground food pipes, and wobbling box in the enclosure, the data were collected for 150 hours (30 days. Increased active behaviours and decreased abnormal behaviours were observed and showed highly significant changes in the abnormal behaviour as a whole when compared to the baseline level. During the postenrichment period, the data that were collected for 150 hours (30 days showed no significant differences statistically between the behavioural categories. But certain level of difference was evident from the percentage of abnormal behaviours exhibited by individual bears. Among the enrichment devices, honey-log was the most preferred enrichment tool as revealed by the percentage of time spent by individual animal. The results show that application of enrichment tool continuously may bring long term effect in stereotypic behaviour.

  4. Moral responsibility for (un)healthy behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca C H

    2013-11-01

    Combatting chronic, lifestyle-related disease has become a healthcare priority in the developed world. The role personal responsibility should play in healthcare provision has growing pertinence given the growing significance of individual lifestyle choices for health. Media reporting focussing on the 'bad behaviour' of individuals suffering lifestyle-related disease, and policies aimed at encouraging 'responsibilisation' in healthcare highlight the importance of understanding the scope of responsibility ascriptions in this context. Research into the social determinants of health and psychological mechanisms of health behaviour could undermine some commonly held and tacit assumptions about the moral responsibility of agents for the sorts of lifestyles they adopt. I use Philip Petit's conception of freedom as 'fitness to be held responsible' to consider the significance of some of this evidence for assessing the moral responsibility of agents. I propose that, in some cases, factors outside the agent's control may influence behaviour in such a way as to undermine her freedom along the three dimensions described by Pettit: freedom of action; a sense of identification with one's actions; and whether one's social position renders one vulnerable to pressure from more powerful others.

  5. Self-interest and pro-environmental behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Laurel; Maio, Gregory R.; Corner, Adam; Hodgetts, Carl J.; Ahmed, Sameera; Hahn, Ulrike

    2013-02-01

    Inspired by the principles used to market physical products, campaigns to promote pro-environmental behaviour have increasingly emphasized self-interested (for example, economic) reasons for engaging with a self-transcendent cause (that is, protecting the environment). Yet, psychological evidence about values and behaviour suggests that giving self-interested reasons, rather than self-transcending reasons, to carry out a self-transcending action should be ineffective at increasing self-transcending behaviour more generally. In other words, such a campaign may fail to cause spillover, or an increase in other, different environmental behaviours. Here we show that recycling rates are dependent on the information participants receive about a separate environmental behaviour, car-sharing (carpooling in the USA). In two experiments, we found that recycling was significantly higher than control when participants received environmental information about car-sharing, but was no different from control when they received financial information or (in experiment 2) received both financial and environmental information. Our results suggest that, congruent with value theory, positive spillover from one environmental message to another behaviour (car-sharing to recycling) may occur primarily when self-transcending reasons alone are made salient.

  6. The Influence of Active Participation and Organisation in Environmental Protection Activities on the Environmental Behaviour of Pupils: Study of a Teaching Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Armin; Haase, Hans-Martin

    2015-01-01

    Until now, many efforts in the area of environmental education, intended to instill consciously responsible behaviour into the general public in Germany, have failed. Several of the available intervention studies aimed at improving environmental behaviour of pupils with classroom tuition were able to show positive results, but there were often…

  7. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA) Gulf Response

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA) (R) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  8. The Impact of Media on Consumers’ Environmental Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Jagodic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available People, companies and society are becoming more mindful about the environment, and thus the market demand environmentally-sustainable merchandises and services. Today consumers act more pro-environmentally, as in the past decades they have changed their behaviour. We all recognise that the development of different types of media, especially the Internet and social media, has generated a different approach from societies and traders towards the individual consumer. In this research, we have established that the Internet, social media and TV have at the moment the largest influence on consumers’ environmental behaviour, due to the fact that companies and marketers are targeting at the same time different target groups of consumers. In the case of the Internet or social media, the marketers are very aggressive, although many consumers have the sense that they are something special for the companies and, therefore, change their environmental behaviour following the marketers and companies’ desires.

  9. Aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours in competitive sports: an analysis of related personal and environmental variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Pelegrín

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an analysis of personal and environmental variables related to aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours in a sample of Spanish sports competitors. We aim to: 1 ascertain how personality and expression variables relate to trait anger control and unsportsmanlike behaviors, in relation to men and women, age groups and type of sport, 2 identify and analyze the most maladjusted and the most adjusted profiles in a sample of sportsmen and women; 3 identify personality variables as predictors of aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours. Differences in gender, age and type of sport were appreciated in personality variables and in aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours. Men have better emotional adjustment (more behaviours of emotional stability, better self-esteem, self-confidence and leadership, and have worse social adjustment (fewer behaviours of tolerance, social skills and responsibility; more aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours. Women have better social adjustment (more behaviours of tolerance, understanding, adaptation, responsibility, discipline and sociability, and have worse emotional adjustment (greater anxiety. More aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours and greater emotional maladjustment were found in the youngest sportsmen and women. Aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours were more frequent in team sports. This study highlights personality variables as predictors of aggressive and unsportsmanlike behaviours.

  10. Environmental knowledge and attitudes and behaviours towards energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paço, Arminda; Lavrador, Tânia

    2017-07-15

    Numerous investigations have arisen in order to study and characterise environmentally friendly consumer profiles, with some authors applying the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and behaviour to this end. The present research approach, based upon the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), seeks to verify the existence of relationships between knowledge and attitudes and between knowledge and environmental behaviour. In this instance, data collection involved a questionnaire aimed at assessing the overall environmental knowledge of respondents as well as their attitudes and behaviours regarding energy issues (savings, consumption, interest, use). The results pointed to the lack of relationship between knowledge and attitudes, and between knowledge and behaviour whilst the relationship between attitudes and behaviour proved to be only weak. The results also found that males, older students and those studying Engineering and the Social and Human Sciences are those reporting higher levels of environmental knowledge. However, when it comes to attitudes and behaviours, females seem to display more awareness around these issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: (i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, (ii) modelling, (iii) countermeasures, (iv) runoff (v) spatial variations, and (vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239-240}Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  12. Effect of environmental enrichment and group size on behaviour and live weight in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Zucca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effects of group size and environmental enrichment on behaviour and growth of 108 hybrid growing rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus. We compared the behaviour (time budget and reactions to specific behavioural tests: “tonic immobility” and “emergence test” and live weight of growing rabbits housed in cages with a different number of rabbits per cage (2, 3 and 4; same density:14 rabbits/m2. Half of the cages were enriched with a wooden stick (Robinia Pseudoacacia, length: 20 cm – diameter: 6 cm, cylindrical hanging from the ceiling of the cage. The stick and number of animals per cage had no effect on weight gain or on behavioural tests responses. Interaction with the stick was significantly higher at the beginning of the growing period. Principal component analysis performed on the data for the whole period showed significant differences according to the treatments: increasing the number of rabbits per cage and introducing a wooden stick seemed to affect locomotor activity frequency and social interactions. Rabbits housed 3 and 4 per cage showed less lying behaviour and higher locomotor activity and sitting. The larger functional space allowance enabled rabbits to perform more natural behaviours compared to smaller cages (2 rabbits/cage. Environmental enrichment seems to be related to higher allogrooming behaviour frequency, which could indicate a social behaviour related to pheromonal olfactory stimulation and mutual recognition.

  13. Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behaviour: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Robert; Nilsson, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    We review the personal and social influences on pro-environmental concern and behaviour, with an emphasis on recent research. The number of these influences suggests that understanding pro-environmental concern and behaviour is far more complex than previously thought. The influences are grouped into 18 personal and social factors. The personal factors include childhood experience, knowledge and education, personality and self-construal, sense of control, values, political and world views, goals, felt responsibility, cognitive biases, place attachment, age, gender and chosen activities. The social factors include religion, urban-rural differences, norms, social class, proximity to problematic environmental sites and cultural and ethnic variations We also recognize that pro-environmental behaviour often is undertaken based on none of the above influences, but because individuals have non-environmental goals such as to save money or to improve their health. Finally, environmental outcomes that are a result of these influences undoubtedly are determined by combinations of the 18 categories. Therefore, a primary goal of researchers now should be to learn more about how these many influences moderate and mediate one another to determine pro-environmental behaviour. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Environmental behavioural modification programme for street children in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, G; Moloukhia, T M; Abd Elsalam, G; Abd Elatif, F

    2007-01-01

    An environmental behavioural modification programme was implemented in Alexandria city, Egypt, in order to help street children to change their behaviour, discover their abilities and develop and acquire new skills and knowledge. The programme included camping and field trips, recreational activities and games, role play and theatre, story-telling, life-skill activities, and gardening and animal care. Data were collected from observational sheets of adaptive behaviour and conversation sessions before and after the intervention on a sample of 35 street children aged between 7 and 15 years. The mean scores for each behavioural item and all items together before and after the intervention were significantly improved in a number of areas, except for speech disorders and substance use.

  15. Developing Pro-Environmental Behaviour: Ecotourism Fieldtrip and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Ding Hooi; Cheng, Charles Fang Chin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a student participatory approach and assessment to achieve an environmentally friendly behaviour and change strategy. Design/methodology/approach Three time-phase studies employed a participatory and experiential case in the form of ecotourism experiential learning and assessment using a…

  16. Environmentally Sustainable Apparel Acquisition and Disposal Behaviours among Slovenian Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žurga Zala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibre production and textile processing comprise various industries that consume large amounts of energy and resources. Textiles are a largely untapped consumer commodity with a strong reuse and recycling potential, still fibres and fibre containing products ends up in landfill sites or in waste incinerators to a large extent. Reuse and recycle of waste clothing results in reduction in the environmental burden. Between 3% and 4% of the municipal solid waste stream in Slovenia is composed of apparel and textiles. This exploratory study examines consumer practices regarding purchase and the disposal of apparel in Slovenia. Data were collected through structured online survey from a representative random sample of 535 consumers. Responses to online questionnaire indicated the use of a variety of textile purchase and disposal methods. The influence of different sociodemographic variables on apparel purchase, disposal and recycling behaviour was examined. Moreover, the differences in the frequency of apparel recycling between consumers with and without an apparel bank available nearby were explored. This research was conducted, since it is crucial to analyse the means by which consumers are currently disposing their textile waste in order to plan the strategies that would encourage them to further reduce the amount of apparel sent to landfills.

  17. Environmental philosophy: response to critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sahotra

    2014-03-01

    The following piece is a response to the critiques from Frank, Garson, and Odenbaugh. The issues at stake are: the definition of biodiversity and its normativity, historical fidelity in ecological restoration, naturalism in environmental ethics, and the role of decision theory. The normativity of the concept of biodiversity in conservation biology is defended. Historical fidelity is criticized as an operative goal for ecological restoration. It is pointed out that the analysis requires only minimal assumptions about ethics. Decision theory is presented as a tool, not a domain-limiting necessary requirement for environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Intergenerational transmission of values, attitudes, and behaviours in the environmental domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    Is young people's proenvironmental orientation - or lack thereof - a function of parents' proenvironmental values, attitudes and behaviours? To answer this question, the paper examines parent-adolescent similarities of general values, specific attitudes and behaviours related to three common...... household practices: purchasing environmentally friendly products, curtailing electricity use, and handling waste responsibly. Significant, but weak correlations between parents and adolescents were found across all of Schwartz's ten value domains, which suggests a clear, albeit not necessarily strong......, parental influence on values. The IG influence was found to be much stronger as regards specific environmental attitudes and behaviours. Mothers seem to influence their offspring more than fathers, and some indications of sex-typed gender socialization are found. On average, the younger generation...

  19. Encouraging pro-environmental behaviour : An integrative review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L.; Vlek, C.A.J.

    Environmental quality strongly depends on human behaviour patterns. We review the contribution and the potential of environmental psychology for understanding and promoting pro-environmental behaviour A general framework is proposed, comprising: (1) identification of the behaviour to be changed, (2)

  20. Agri-environmental policies and Dutch dairy farmers' responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, Gerlinda Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses on analysing the Dutch dairy farmer behaviour in a changing political environment. The general objective of this research is to analyse the responses of Dutch dairy farmers in the situation of a changing agricultural and environmental policy context (i.e. changes in the subsidy

  1. Behavioural differentiation induced by environmental variation when crossing a toxic zone in an amoeba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunita, Itsuki; Ueda, Kei-Ichi; Akita, Dai; Kuroda, Shigeru; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2017-09-01

    Organisms choose from among various courses of action in response to a wide variety of environmental conditions and the mechanism by which various behaviours are induced is an open question. Interesting behaviour was recently reported: that a unicellular organism of slime mold Physarum polycephalum known as an amoeba had multiple responses (crossing, returning, etc) when the amoeba encounters a zone with toxic levels of quinine, even under carefully controlled conditions. We here examined this elegant example in more detail to obtain insight into behavioural differentiation. We found that the statistical distribution of passage times across a quinine zone switch from unimodal to bimodal (with peaks corresponding to fast crossing and no crossing) when a periodic light stimulation to modulate a biorhythm in amoeba is applied homogeneously across the space, even under the same level of chemical stimuli. Based on a mathematical model for cell movement in amoeba, we successfully reproduced the stimulation-induced differentiation, which was observed experimentally. These dynamics may be explained by a saddle structure around a canard solution. Our results imply that the differentiation of behavioural types in amoeba is modified step-by-step via the compounding of stimulation inputs. The complex behaviour like the differentiation in amoeba may provide a basis for understanding the mechanism of behaviour selection in higher animals from an ethological perspective.

  2. Springbok behaviour as affected by environmental conditions in the Kalahari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Stapelberg

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Springbok behavioural ecology in the Kalahari was examined with the use of public questionnaires and field forms. Springbok favoured grass and forbs overall more than shrubs and trees, but diet selection was influenced by time of day and season. Feeding was the most common activity and the frequency of occurrence varied during the day and between seasons. Weather and microhabitat conditions were found to have a significant effect on the feeding behaviour. Springbok fed in direct sunlight in the mornings and moved into the shade during the afternoon. More time was spent feeding in the shade during the warmer months than during the colder months, especially under northerly to northeasterly wind directions. Natural licks were commonly utilised. Herd sizes were found to increase during the cold-dry season and decrease during the hot-wet season. Springbok and blue wildebeest appeared to avoid competition by niche separation. The study showed that springbok behaviour was significantly affected by environmental conditions. These results imply that changes in climatic conditions, such as those predicted by climate change, or changes in vegetation structure due to degradation, can negatively affect springbok behaviour.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY MODEL BASED ON ISO 14000 MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina SITNIKOV

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide corporations, as well as their stakeholders, are more conscious of the need for environmental management, SR behaviour, and sustainable growth and development. International Standards are becoming more significant for corporations to work towards common environmental management practices. ISO 14001 is the first and the broadest standard intended at a more responsible approach of corporations and the world’s most acknowledged framework for environmental management systems that assists corporations to better manage the effect of their activities on the environment. This article aims to study ISO 14001 implementation and its effects on the environmental responsibility. A model will be built, which covers the environmental management system, the components of organizational culture, being able to influence environmental standards implementation.

  4. Pro-environmental Behaviour of Households in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Prášilová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from the positive effects, which are reflected in the relative improvement of the quality of life, the way households satisfy their needs has a direct impact on many environmental problems. Among them are global climatic changes, air, soil and water pollution, excessive usage of natural resources and loss of biodiversity. Sustainable consumption belongs to the key elements of global movement for sustainable development. It can be characterized as consumer behaviour which satisfies the needs of current and future generations. Czech households influence the environment every day by doing their shopping, consuming and using various kinds of products and services, the way they spend their leisure time, by commuting to work and travelling in general and, last but not the least, by producing waste. Both the location and the size of the household significantly influence the environment as well. 30 to 40% of environmental problems are caused by households. Thus, pro-environmental movements warn of the necessity to eliminate negative impacts of households’ behaviour. This paper analyses development tendencies of relevant indicators of household operations which have impact on the environment. The attention is paid primarily to consumption of electrical energy, water and food by households, usage of personal means of transport and production of communal waste. Time series statistical methods were used when assessing development tendencies.

  5. Behavioural ecotoxicology, an "early warning" signal to assess environmental quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellou, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    In this review, the position of behavioural ecotoxicology within the available means to assess the status of marine environments is described as filling the gap for the needed "early warning" signals. A few examples of studies performed since the 1960s are discussed to highlight the sensitivity of these approaches in investigating the effects of chemicals, including priority pollutants and emerging contaminants, relative to conventional toxicity tests measuring survival. The advantage of the behavioural response is due to the integration of biochemical and physiological processes that reflect changes at higher levels of organisation with ecological relevance. Avoidance often represents a behavioural symptom easily detected in many animals exposed to contaminants and would be a useful test to explore more widely. This rapid response would reflect a defence mechanism protective against further exposure and the potential development of more pronounced deleterious effects, whilst in some cases, escape could lead to the relocation of a species with negative consequences. An investigation of the avoidance behaviour of mud shrimp, Corophium volutator, along with the chemical analyses of sediments and amphipods to assess the quality of harbour sediments is summarised. The body burden of the amphipods was 1,000 times lower than the one associated with narcosis, emphasizing the sensitivity of this endpoint. The application of this acute toxicity test is briefly compared to additional work that involved intertidal mussels collected in the field. Recent research undertaken with mud snails, Ilyanassa obsoleta, and harbour sediments confirmed the usefulness of the escape behaviour as an assessment tool. However, the limits of the state of knowledge regarding the fate of contaminants in species with the ability to metabolise contaminants is further discussed along with directions to be pursued to address questions arising from the reviewed literature.

  6. Assessing High School Students’ Pro-Environmental Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, N.; Agustin, R. R.

    2017-09-01

    This paper aims to reveal students’ pro-environmental behavior in a High School. Self-reported behavior assessment was administered in this study involving students with age range 15 to 18 years. Pro-environmental behavior in this study comprises six domains. Those are recycling, waste avoidance, consumerism, energy conservation, mobility and transportation, and vicarious conservation behavior. Pro-environmental behavior (PEB) of science class students was compared to behavior of non-science class students. Effect of students’ grade level and extracurricular activity on the behavior was evaluated. Study revealed that science could improve students’ PEB. It is because environmental topics are covered in science class. Student’s involvement in extracurricular activity may enhance PEB as well. In conclusion, students’ PEB is influenced by class program (science or non-science) but it is not influenced by time length in learning science. This finding could be consider by science educator in choosing strategy to enhance student’s pro-environmental behaviour.

  7. Environmental Education for Behaviour Change: Which actions should be targeted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2012-07-01

    One aim of environmental education is to enable people to make informed decisions about their environmental behaviour; this is particularly significant with environmental problems that are believed to be both major and imminent, such as climate change resulting from global warming. Previous research suggests no strong link between a person's general environmental attitudes and knowledge, and his or her willingness to undertake pro-environmental actions, so this study focuses on some specific issues. Using survey methods to produce quantitative data about students' beliefs concerning the usefulness of specific actions and their willingness to adopt them, novel indices have been constructed that indicate the potential of education to increase students' willingness to undertake those actions. The findings imply that altering a student's belief about certain issues will have little effect on their willingness to act. This can be because most students, even those with only a weak belief in the efficacy, are prepared to take action anyway. Conversely, it can be because a majority, including those convinced about the efficacy, are not prepared to take action. Education about such actions, where there is only a weak link between believed effectiveness and willingness to act, may be ineffective in terms of changing practice, because other factors such as social norms and situational influences dominate. For such actions other strategies may be required. For another set of actions, however, the benefits of education in changing practice seemed more positive; increasing recycling, reducing the use of artificial fertilisers and planting more trees are examples.

  8. Encouraging sustainability in the workplace: a survey on the pro-environmental behaviour of university employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, V.; Wesselink, R.; Studynka, O.; Kemp, R.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance more sustainable behaviour in households, recent research focuses on the identification of factors that have an impact on sustainable or pro-environmental behaviour. The aim of this study is to identify factors that could predict pro-environmental behaviour in the workplace.

  9. Physiological and behavioural responses of livestock to road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological and behavioural responses of livestock to road transportation stress are reviewed. Livestock transported by road in most part of the world are predisposed to many stressors which affect the haematological, hormonal function as well as the behavioural activities of the livestock thereby disrupting body ...

  10. Like father, like son? Intergenerational transmission of values, attitudes, and behaviours in the environmental domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2009-01-01

    -child correlations are stronger for specific pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours. The positive correlations suggest that family socialization exert a significant influence on young consumers' pro-environmental orientation. Still, the young generation is, on average, significantly less environmentally...

  11. Macroecology of Environmental Change Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard

    Human induced changes in the earth system, such as anthropogenic climate change, cause loss of biodiversity that feed back as food, health and environmental challenges for human society. Climate change is one of the main threats to biodiversity and human society due to its global manifestation......, long interval from reduction in green house emission to cessation of warming, and the uncertain capacity of the natural systems to buffer greenhouse gas emissions. This thesis explores current challenges in our understanding of how climate change will affect biodiversity and how consequent challenges...... and European breeding bird surveys. The next four chapters in the thesis (chapters III-VI) are based on these programs. The chapters seek to answer questions about the continental-scale responses of biodiversity to climate change through investigation of population dynamics since 1980. Chapter III presents...

  12. Defence behaviour of reindeer in response to flying parasitic Diptera

    OpenAIRE

    Karter, Andrew J.; Ivar Folstad

    1989-01-01

    Similar defence behaviours were exhibited by a reindeer when experimentally exposed to three different species of tethered, flying parasitic Diptera, Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer), Hypoderma tarandi (L) and Tabanid. Defencive behavioural responses appeared to be related to attack angle, and were not elicited by auditory stimuli. These observations raise questions about the validity of parasite species-specific defence responses in reindeer.Forsvars-adferd hos rein angrepet av flyvende, parasitt...

  13. Environmental and Behavioural Determinants of Leptospirosis Transmission: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwachui, Mwanajaa Abdalla; Crump, Lisa; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Zinsstag, Jakob; Hattendorf, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases, which is of global medical and veterinary importance, and also a re-emerging infectious disease. The main tracks of transmission are known; however, the relative importance of each of the components and the respective environmental risk factors are unclear. We aimed to assess and specify quantitative evidence of environmental risks of leptospirosis transmission. Methods/findings A database of pre-selected studies, with publication dates from 1970 until 2008, was provided by an expert group. The database has been updated until 2015 using a text mining algorithm. Study selection was based on stringent quality criteria. A descriptive data analysis was performed to calculate the medians of the log transformed odds ratios. From a selection of 2723 unique publications containing information on leptospirosis, 428 papers dealing with risk factors were identified. Of these, 53 fulfilled the quality criteria, allowing us to identify trends in different geo-climatic regions. Water associated exposures were, with few exceptions, associated with an increased leptospirosis risk. In resource poor countries, floods and rainfall were of particular importance, whereas recreational water activities were more relevant in developed countries. Rodents were associated with increased leptospirosis risk, but the variation among studies was high, which might be partly explained by differences in exposure definition. Livestock contact was commonly associated with increased risk; however, several studies found no association. The median odds ratios associated with dog and cat contacts were close to unity. Sanitation and behavioural risk factors were almost always strongly associated with leptospirosis, although their impact was rarely investigated in Europe or North America. Conclusion This review confirms the complex environmental transmission pathways of leptospirosis, as previously established. Although, floods

  14. Environmental and Behavioural Determinants of Leptospirosis Transmission: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwanajaa Abdalla Mwachui

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases, which is of global medical and veterinary importance, and also a re-emerging infectious disease. The main tracks of transmission are known; however, the relative importance of each of the components and the respective environmental risk factors are unclear. We aimed to assess and specify quantitative evidence of environmental risks of leptospirosis transmission.A database of pre-selected studies, with publication dates from 1970 until 2008, was provided by an expert group. The database has been updated until 2015 using a text mining algorithm. Study selection was based on stringent quality criteria. A descriptive data analysis was performed to calculate the medians of the log transformed odds ratios. From a selection of 2723 unique publications containing information on leptospirosis, 428 papers dealing with risk factors were identified. Of these, 53 fulfilled the quality criteria, allowing us to identify trends in different geo-climatic regions. Water associated exposures were, with few exceptions, associated with an increased leptospirosis risk. In resource poor countries, floods and rainfall were of particular importance, whereas recreational water activities were more relevant in developed countries. Rodents were associated with increased leptospirosis risk, but the variation among studies was high, which might be partly explained by differences in exposure definition. Livestock contact was commonly associated with increased risk; however, several studies found no association. The median odds ratios associated with dog and cat contacts were close to unity. Sanitation and behavioural risk factors were almost always strongly associated with leptospirosis, although their impact was rarely investigated in Europe or North America.This review confirms the complex environmental transmission pathways of leptospirosis, as previously established. Although, floods appeared to be among the

  15. Environmental and Behavioural Determinants of Leptospirosis Transmission: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwachui, Mwanajaa Abdalla; Crump, Lisa; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Zinsstag, Jakob; Hattendorf, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases, which is of global medical and veterinary importance, and also a re-emerging infectious disease. The main tracks of transmission are known; however, the relative importance of each of the components and the respective environmental risk factors are unclear. We aimed to assess and specify quantitative evidence of environmental risks of leptospirosis transmission. A database of pre-selected studies, with publication dates from 1970 until 2008, was provided by an expert group. The database has been updated until 2015 using a text mining algorithm. Study selection was based on stringent quality criteria. A descriptive data analysis was performed to calculate the medians of the log transformed odds ratios. From a selection of 2723 unique publications containing information on leptospirosis, 428 papers dealing with risk factors were identified. Of these, 53 fulfilled the quality criteria, allowing us to identify trends in different geo-climatic regions. Water associated exposures were, with few exceptions, associated with an increased leptospirosis risk. In resource poor countries, floods and rainfall were of particular importance, whereas recreational water activities were more relevant in developed countries. Rodents were associated with increased leptospirosis risk, but the variation among studies was high, which might be partly explained by differences in exposure definition. Livestock contact was commonly associated with increased risk; however, several studies found no association. The median odds ratios associated with dog and cat contacts were close to unity. Sanitation and behavioural risk factors were almost always strongly associated with leptospirosis, although their impact was rarely investigated in Europe or North America. This review confirms the complex environmental transmission pathways of leptospirosis, as previously established. Although, floods appeared to be among the most important

  16. Modelling the effects of environmental conditions on the acoustic occurrence and behaviour of Antarctic blue whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabangu, Fannie W; Yemane, Dawit; Stafford, Kathleen M; Ensor, Paul; Findlay, Ken P

    2017-01-01

    Harvested to perilously low numbers by commercial whaling during the past century, the large scale response of Antarctic blue whales Balaenoptera musculus intermedia to environmental variability is poorly understood. This study uses acoustic data collected from 586 sonobuoys deployed in the austral summers of 1997 through 2009, south of 38°S, coupled with visual observations of blue whales during the IWC SOWER line-transect surveys. The characteristic Z-call and D-call of Antarctic blue whales were detected using an automated detection template and visual verification method. Using a random forest model, we showed the environmental preferences pattern, spatial occurrence and acoustic behaviour of Antarctic blue whales. Distance to the southern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (SBACC), latitude and distance from the nearest Antarctic shores were the main geographic predictors of blue whale call occurrence. Satellite-derived sea surface height, sea surface temperature, and productivity (chlorophyll-a) were the most important environmental predictors of blue whale call occurrence. Call rates of D-calls were strongly predicted by the location of the SBACC, latitude and visually detected number of whales in an area while call rates of Z-call were predicted by the SBACC, latitude and longitude. Satellite-derived sea surface height, wind stress, wind direction, water depth, sea surface temperatures, chlorophyll-a and wind speed were important environmental predictors of blue whale call rates in the Southern Ocean. Blue whale call occurrence and call rates varied significantly in response to inter-annual and long term variability of those environmental predictors. Our results identify the response of Antarctic blue whales to inter-annual variability in environmental conditions and highlighted potential suitable habitats for this population. Such emerging knowledge about the acoustic behaviour, environmental and habitat preferences of Antarctic blue whales is

  17. Modelling the effects of environmental conditions on the acoustic occurrence and behaviour of Antarctic blue whales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fannie W Shabangu

    Full Text Available Harvested to perilously low numbers by commercial whaling during the past century, the large scale response of Antarctic blue whales Balaenoptera musculus intermedia to environmental variability is poorly understood. This study uses acoustic data collected from 586 sonobuoys deployed in the austral summers of 1997 through 2009, south of 38°S, coupled with visual observations of blue whales during the IWC SOWER line-transect surveys. The characteristic Z-call and D-call of Antarctic blue whales were detected using an automated detection template and visual verification method. Using a random forest model, we showed the environmental preferences pattern, spatial occurrence and acoustic behaviour of Antarctic blue whales. Distance to the southern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (SBACC, latitude and distance from the nearest Antarctic shores were the main geographic predictors of blue whale call occurrence. Satellite-derived sea surface height, sea surface temperature, and productivity (chlorophyll-a were the most important environmental predictors of blue whale call occurrence. Call rates of D-calls were strongly predicted by the location of the SBACC, latitude and visually detected number of whales in an area while call rates of Z-call were predicted by the SBACC, latitude and longitude. Satellite-derived sea surface height, wind stress, wind direction, water depth, sea surface temperatures, chlorophyll-a and wind speed were important environmental predictors of blue whale call rates in the Southern Ocean. Blue whale call occurrence and call rates varied significantly in response to inter-annual and long term variability of those environmental predictors. Our results identify the response of Antarctic blue whales to inter-annual variability in environmental conditions and highlighted potential suitable habitats for this population. Such emerging knowledge about the acoustic behaviour, environmental and habitat preferences of

  18. Fetal Behavioural Responses to Maternal Voice and Touch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Marx

    Full Text Available Although there is data on the spontaneous behavioural repertoire of the fetus, studies on their behavioural responses to external stimulation are scarce.The aim of the current study was to measure fetal behavioural responses in reaction to maternal voice; to maternal touch of the abdomen compared to a control condition, utilizing 3D real-time (4D sonography. Behavioural responses of 23 fetuses (21st to 33rd week of gestation; N = 10 in the 2nd and N = 13 in the 3rd trimester were frame-by-frame coded and analyzed in the three conditions.Results showed that fetuses displayed more arm, head, and mouth movements when the mother touched her abdomen and decreased their arm and head movements to maternal voice. Fetuses in the 3rd trimester showed increased regulatory (yawning, resting (arms crossed and self-touch (hands touching the body responses to the stimuli when compared to fetuses in the 2nd trimester.In summary, the results from this study suggest that fetuses selectively respond to external stimulation earlier than previously reported, fetuses actively regulated their behaviours as a response to the external stimulation, and that fetal maturation affected the emergence of these differential responses to the environment.

  19. Corporate Social Responsibility and Profit Maximizing Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Giallonardo, Luisa; Tessitore, Maria Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    We examine the behavior of a profit maximizing monopolist in a horizontal differentiation model in which consumers differ in their degree of social responsibility (SR) and consumers SR is dynamically influenced by habit persistence. The model outlines parametric conditions under which (consumer driven) corporate social responsibility is an optimal choice compatible with profit maximizing behavior.

  20. Response behaviour of oxygen sensing solid electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Scharenborg, A.H.A.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The response time (t r) after a step change in oxygen partial pressure was investigated for some solid electrolytes used in Nernst type oxygen sensors. The electrolyte as well as the (porous) electrode material affect the value oft r. Stabilized Bi2O3 materials exhibit slower response rates (largert

  1. Making Small Numbers Count : Environmental and Financial Feedback in Promoting Eco-driving Behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogan, Ebru; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Energy conservation results in environmental (reduced emissions) and financial (reduced costs) savings. Consumers’ perception of the worthiness of changes in behaviour may differ depending on whether environmental or financial savings are emphasized. The current study investigated the effects of

  2. We are at risk, and so what? Place attachment, environmental risk perceptions and preventive coping behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Dominicis, Stefano; Fornara, Ferdinando; Ganucci Cancellieri, Uberta

    2015-01-01

    Place attachment regulates people-environment transactions across various relevant environmental-psychological processes. However, there is no consensus about its role in the relationship between environmental risk perception and coping behaviours. Since place attachment is strongly related to pl...

  3. Food-Related Environmental Beliefs and Behaviours among University Undergraduates: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Arvai, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to document the food-related environmental beliefs and behaviours of undergraduate university students. More specifically, this research was focussed on determining if environmental sustainability is a consideration in students' food choices, identifying the specific choices and behaviours adopted to reduce…

  4. FORAGING BEHAVIOUR RESPONSES IN THE AFRICAN GIANT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    stereotype (Chase, 1982). The tentacle retractor nerve is entirely responsible for carrying the central motor signal from the initial, fast component of the ... and unilateral consequences are important because an animal come to establish its dietary preferences. In nature, we rarely observe a conditioned reflex in as “pure” a ...

  5. Predicting behavioural responses to novel organisms: state-dependent detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmer, Pete C; Ehlman, Sean M; Sih, Andrew

    2017-01-25

    Human activity alters natural habitats for many species. Understanding variation in animals' behavioural responses to these changing environments is critical. We show how signal detection theory can be used within a wider framework of state-dependent modelling to predict behavioural responses to a major environmental change: novel, exotic species. We allow thresholds for action to be a function of reserves, and demonstrate how optimal thresholds can be calculated. We term this framework 'state-dependent detection theory' (SDDT). We focus on behavioural and fitness outcomes when animals continue to use formerly adaptive thresholds following environmental change. In a simple example, we show that exposure to novel animals which appear dangerous-but are actually safe-(e.g. ecotourists) can have catastrophic consequences for 'prey' (organisms that respond as if the new organisms are predators), significantly increasing mortality even when the novel species is not predatory. SDDT also reveals that the effect on reproduction can be greater than the effect on lifespan. We investigate factors that influence the effect of novel organisms, and address the potential for behavioural adjustments (via evolution or learning) to recover otherwise reduced fitness. Although effects of environmental change are often difficult to predict, we suggest that SDDT provides a useful route ahead. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Behavioural response of silver eel to effluent plumes: Telemetry experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, H.V.; Keeken, van O.A.; Foekema, E.M.; Kleissen, F.; Friocourt, Y.; Beare, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Fish migration may be hampered by a range of physical barriers. That non-physical barriers such as sudden changes in water quality may also serve as barriers is often stated, but only very few studies address this issue. This study focusses on linking the behavioural response of silver eel and river

  7. Modulatory Role of Ascorbic Acid on Behavioural Responses of Pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were performed on adult local pigs with the aim of investigating the modulatory role of ascorbic acid (AA) on their behavioural responses to 4-h, road transportation during the harmattan season. Sixteen adult pigs administered with AA at the dose of 250 mg/kg dissolve in sterile water served as experimental ...

  8. Short-Term Behavioural Response Of Granivorous Birds To Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The site also had the most number of bird species which further gave credence to its quality. This result gives an insight into the likely behaviour of birds in response to their changing habitats especially in this period of global climate change. Future studies of this type could be instrumental in the assessment and monitoring ...

  9. Behavioural and biochemical responses of juvenile catfish ( Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The behavioural and serum liver enzyme responses of juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were evaluated for 72 hours. Thirty-six (36) healthy fishes with standard weight, 20 ± 1.52 g and standard length, 18.25 ± 0.50 cm were used for the experiment in non-renewable bioassay system. The test fish exhibited stressful ...

  10. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  11. Overweight prevention in adolescents and children (behavioural and environmental prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas, Sabine

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: In 2006, the prevalence of overweight and adiposity among children and adolescents aged three to 17 years is 15%, 6.3% (800,000 of these are obese. Scientific background: Obese children and adolescents have an increased body fat ratio. The reasons for overweight are – among others – sociocultural factors, and a low social status as determined by income and educational level of the parents. The consequences of adiposity during childhood are a higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and increased mortality in adulthood. Possible approaches to primary prevention in children and adolescents are measures taken in schools and kindergarten, as well as education and involvement of parents. Furthermore, preventive measures geared towards changing environmental and living conditions are of particular importance. Research questions: What is the effectiveness and efficiency of different measures and programs (geared towards changing behaviour and environmental and living conditions for primary prevention of adiposity in children and adolescents, with particular consideration of social aspects? Methods: The systematic literature search yielded 1,649 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process with predefined criteria 31 publications were included in the assessment. Results: The majority of interventions evaluated in primary studies take place in schools. As the measures are mostly multi-disciplinary and the interventions are often not described in detail, no criteria of success for the various interventions can be extrapolated from the reviews assessed. An economic model calculation for Australia, which compares the efficiency of different interventions (although on the basis of low evidence comes to the conclusion that the intervention with the greatest impact on society is the reduction of TV-ads geared towards children for foods and drinks rich in fat and sugar. There is a significant correlation between

  12. Food-induced brain responses and eating behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Paul A M; Charbonnier, Lisette; van Meer, Floor; van der Laan, Laura N; Spetter, Maartje S

    2012-11-01

    The brain governs food intake behaviour by integrating many different internal and external state and trait-related signals. Understanding how the decisions to start and to stop eating are made is crucial to our understanding of (maladaptive patterns of) eating behaviour. Here, we aim to (1) review the current state of the field of 'nutritional neuroscience' with a focus on the interplay between food-induced brain responses and eating behaviour and (2) highlight research needs and techniques that could be used to address these. The brain responses associated with sensory stimulation (sight, olfaction and taste), gastric distension, gut hormone administration and food consumption are the subject of increasing investigation. Nevertheless, only few studies have examined relations between brain responses and eating behaviour. However, the neural circuits underlying eating behaviour are to a large extent generic, including reward, self-control, learning and decision-making circuitry. These limbic and prefrontal circuits interact with the hypothalamus, a key homeostatic area. Target areas for further elucidating the regulation of food intake are: (eating) habit and food preference formation and modification, the neural correlates of self-control, nutrient sensing and dietary learning, and the regulation of body adiposity. Moreover, to foster significant progress, data from multiple studies need to be integrated. This requires standardisation of (neuroimaging) measures, data sharing and the application and development of existing advanced analysis and modelling techniques to nutritional neuroscience data. In the next 20 years, nutritional neuroscience will have to prove its potential for providing insights that can be used to tackle detrimental eating behaviour.

  13. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) Pacific Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  14. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®), Great Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  15. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly known as Superfund, provides a federal "superfund" to clean up...

  16. Environmental Problems in Africa: A Theological Response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Environmental Problems in Africa: A Theological Response ... technology, urbanization, the internet, globalization and theology are related to ecology ... apply ethical scientific knowledge to food ..... ecological education, and useful information.

  17. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  18. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). CERCLA, commonly known as...

  19. Environmental Problems in Africa: A Theological Response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, global and local role players must take appropriate responsibility in order to ensure the necessary ecological balance to sustain life on this planet. This article analyses and demonstrates the importance of environmental protection of the African continent. The overall objective is to promote environmental ...

  20. Monitoring adaptive genetic responses to environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.M.; Olivieri, I.; Waller, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Widespread environmental changes including climate change, selective harvesting and landscape alterations now greatly affect selection regimes for most organisms. How animals and plants can adapt to these altered environments via contemporary evolution is thus of strong interest. We discuss how...... for selection and establishing clear links between genetic and environmental change. We then review a few exemplary studies that explore adaptive responses to climate change in Drosophila, selective responses to hunting and fishing, and contemporary evolution in Daphnia using resurrected resting eggs. We...

  1. Child-orientated environmental education influences adult knowledge and household behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damerell, P.; Howe, C.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    2013-03-01

    Environmental education is frequently undertaken as a conservation intervention designed to change the attitudes and behaviour of recipients. Much conservation education is aimed at children, with the rationale that children influence the attitudes of their parents, who will consequently change their behaviour. Empirical evidence to substantiate this suggestion is very limited, however. For the first time, we use a controlled trial to assess the influence of wetland-related environmental education on the knowledge of children and their parents and household behaviour. We demonstrate adults exhibiting greater knowledge of wetlands and improved reported household water management behaviour when their child has received wetland-based education at Seychelles wildlife clubs. We distinguish between ‘folk’ knowledge of wetland environments and knowledge obtained from formal education, with intergenerational transmission of each depending on different factors. Our study provides the first strong support for the suggestion that environmental education can be transferred between generations and indirectly induce targeted behavioural changes.

  2. Ant functional responses along environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnan, Xavier; Cerdá, Xim; Retana, Javier

    2014-11-01

    Understanding species distributions and diversity gradients is a central challenge in ecology and requires prior knowledge of the functional traits mediating species' survival under particular environmental conditions. While the functional ecology of plants has been reasonably well explored, much less is known about that of animals. Ants are among the most diverse, abundant and ecologically significant organisms on earth, and they perform a great variety of ecological functions. In this study, we analyse how the functional species traits present in ant communities vary along broad gradients in climate, productivity and vegetation type in the south-western Mediterranean. To this end, we compiled one of the largest animal databases to date: it contains information on 211 local ant communities (including eight climate variables, productivity, and vegetation type) and 124 ant species, for which 10 functional traits are described. We used traits that characterize different dimensions of the ant functional niche with respect to morphology, life history and behaviour at both individual and colony level. We calculated two complementary functional trait community indices ('trait average' and 'trait dissimilarity') for each trait, and we analysed how they varied along the three different gradients using generalized least squares models that accounted for spatial autocorrelation. Our results show that productivity, vegetation type and, to a lesser extent, each climate variable per se might play an important role in shaping the occurrence of functional species traits in ant communities. Among the climate variables, temperature and precipitation seasonality had a much higher influence on functional responses than their mean values, whose effects were almost lacking. Our results suggest that strong relationships might exist between the abiotic environment and the distribution of functional traits among south-western Mediterranean ant communities. This finding indicates that

  3. Sleep hygiene behaviours: an application of the theory of planned behaviour and the investigation of perceived autonomy support, past behaviour and response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kor, Kenny; Mullan, Barbara Ann

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the sleep hygiene behaviour of university students within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB [Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.]), and examined the predictive validity of additional variables including perceived autonomy support, past behaviour and response inhibition. A total of 257 undergraduate students from an Australian university were administered two online questionnaires at two time points. At time 1, participants completed the TPB questionnaire and the Go/NoGo task as a measure of response inhibition. A week later at time 2, participants completed a questionnaire measuring the performance of sleep hygiene behaviours. Multiple and hierarchical regression analyses showed that the TPB model significantly predicted intention and behaviour. Although intention and perceived behavioural control were statistically significant in predicting behaviour, past behaviour and response inhibition accounted for more variance when added to the TPB model. Subjective norm was found to be the strongest predictor of intention implying the importance of normative influences in sleep hygiene behaviours. Response inhibition was the strongest predictor of behaviour, reinforcing the argument that the performance of health protective behaviours requires self-regulatory ability. Therefore, interventions should be targeted at enhancing self-regulatory capacity.

  4. Comparing normative influences as determinants of environmentally conscious behaviours between the USA and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    ANDO, Kaori; OHNUMA, Susumu; Chang, Edward C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study explored the influences of subjective and descriptive norms on environmentally conscious behaviours between the USA and Japan. It was predicted that subjective norms would have a larger effect on behaviour in Japan than in the USA. Descriptive norms were expected to have a greater influence on behaviour in the USA. The survey was done with 160 American students and 114 Japanese students. The results showed that subjective norms are relevant only in Japan, but the effect was ...

  5. Consumer behaviour with environmental and social externalities : implications for analysis and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Partha; Southerton, Dale; Ulph, Alistair; Ulph, David

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we summarise some of our recent work on consumer behaviour, drawing on recent developments in behavioural economics, particularly linked to sociology as much as psychology, in which consumers are embedded in a social context, so their behaviour is shaped by their interactions with other consumers. For the purpose of this paper we also allow consumption to cause environmental damage. Analysing the social context of consumption naturally lends itself to the use of game theoretic t...

  6. Exposure-response relationships for environmental use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the following exposure-response relationships that can be used for assessing the impact of environmental noise: • Lden - annoyance relationships from the EU Position Paper on exposure-response relationships for transportation noise annoyance (EC-WG/2 2002; Env.

  7. Maternal frustration, emotional and behavioural responses to prolonged infant crying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ronald G; Fairbrother, Nicole; Pauwels, Julie; Green, James; Chen, Mandy; Brant, Rollin

    2014-11-01

    Prolonged inconsolable crying bouts in the first months of life are frustrating to parents and may lead to abuse. There is no empirical description of frustration trajectories during prolonged crying, nor of their emotional predictors or emotional and behavioural sequelae. Frustration responses and their relationships were explored in an analogue cry listening paradigm. Without knowing how long it would last, 111 postpartum mothers were randomized to listen to a 10-min audiotape of infant crying or cooing while continuously recording frustration on a visual analogue 'slider' scale. The listening bout was preceded by questionnaires on negative mood, trait anger and empathy and followed by questionnaires on the reality of the cry sound, positive and negative emotions, soothing strategies, coping strategies and urges to comfort and flee. Individual frustration trajectories were modelled parametrically and characterized by frustration maximum, rate of rise, inflections and harmonicity parameters. As hypothesized, the modal response was of gradually increasing frustration throughout. However, there were marked individual differences in frustration trajectories. Negative mood, trait anger and empathy did not predict modal or modelled individual trajectories. However, frustration responses were significantly related to post-listening emotions and behavioural ratings. In particular, prolonged crying generated highly ambivalent positive and negative emotional responses. In summary, maternal frustration generally increased as the crying bout progressed; however, frustration trajectories were highly individual and emotional responses were highly ambivalent in terms of positive and negative emotions generated. Some emotional and behavioural responses were associated with specific trajectory parameters of frustration responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Speech Versus Action in Environmentally Responsible Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanna Ferreira Peixoto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The need of rethinking the consumption culture in contemporary society brings up the interest in researching how consumption habits are related to environmental preservation. Even though sustainable practices are valuable, the comparison amid how people act as consumers and their assumed ethical stance raises questions. Consumers advocate a concern for environmental issues but research shows that their consumption habits are still old fashioned. This study target the convergence and divergence between environmentally responsible speech and consumption behavior under the perspective of theories of action (Argyris, Putnam & Smith, 1985. Research utilized in-depth interviews and self-reports, using a logbook, to collect information about environmentally responsible discourse and consumption behavior of 11 participants. Data collection and analysis explore dimensions of environmentally responsible behavior (Stern, 1999, 2000: personal domain; behavioral domain; contextual domain; personal capabilities; and habits & routines. Results suggest that environmentally responsible behavior is not always consistent with the discourse due to influence of motivational issues (impotence, lack of interest, sacrifice, and convenience and contextual issues (financial situation, lack of public policies, time constraints, and culture.

  9. Examining Associations of Environmental Characteristics with Recreational Cycling Behaviour by Street-Level Strava Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yeran; Du, Yunyan; Wang, Yu; Zhuang, Liyuan

    2017-01-01

    Policymakers pay much attention to effectively increasing frequency of people’s cycling in\\ud the context of developing sustainable and green cities. Investigating associations of environmental characteristics and cycling behaviour could offer implications for changing urban infrastructure aiming at encouraging active travel. However, earlier examinations of associations between environmental characteristics and active travel behaviour are limited by low spatial granularity and coverage of tr...

  10. Cellular responses to environmental DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Cellular Responses to Environmental DNA Damage held in Banff,Alberta December 1--6, 1991. The conference addresses various aspects of DNA repair in sessions titled DNA repair; Basic Mechanisms; Lesions; Systems; Inducible Responses; Mutagenesis; Human Population Response Heterogeneity; Intragenomic DNA Repair Heterogeneity; DNA Repair Gene Cloning; Aging; Human Genetic Disease; and Carcinogenesis. Individual papers are represented as abstracts of about one page in length.

  11. Copia is transcriptionally responsive to environmental stress.

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, D J; McDonald, J F

    1985-01-01

    Adult Drosophila subjected to a variety of environmental stresses that induce classic Drosophila heat shock response simultaneously exhibit a rapid and significant rise in copia homologous transcripts. Levels of Drosophila Adh (alcohol dehydrogenase gene) and 18s ribosomal RNA were unaffected by environmental stress. Copia's ability to be induced by stress is correlated with the presence of sequences homologous to the heat shock promoter consensus sequence which appear to be appropriately pos...

  12. How pride and guilt guide pro-environmental behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onwezen, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The world is currently confronted with environmental problems such as water pollution, loss of biodiversity, and air pollution. A promising way to reduce environmental problems is to encourage consumers towards more sustainable consumption patterns. Pro-environmental consumer choices involve a

  13. Environmental Context Influences Visual Attention to Responsible Drinking Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frings, Daniel; Moss, Antony C; Albery, Ian P; Eskisan, Guleser; Wilcockson, Thomas D W; Marchant, Alexander P

    2017-10-13

    Responsible drinking messages (RDMs) are used as a key tool to reduce alcohol-related harms. A common form of RDM is in a poster format displayed in places such as bars, bus stops and toilet cubicles. However, evidence for the effectiveness of RDMs remains limited. Moreover, it is not known how environmental contexts (e.g. the number of alcohol-related cues in the environment) impact how such RDMs are interacted with, nor how this in turn affects their efficacy. One hundred participants completed a pseudo taste preference task in either in a bar laboratory (alcohol cue rich environmental context) or a traditional laboratory. The walls of the laboratory displayed either RDM or control posters during this task and eye tracking was used to assess participant attention to the posters. Participants looked at the RDM posters less in the bar laboratory where the environmental context is rich in alcohol cues compared to a traditional laboratory where alcohol cues are sparse. Neither poster type or environmental context affected the amount of 'alcohol' consumed and the amount of visual attention given to RDMs was unrelated to the amount of 'alcohol' consumed. These findings provide experimental evidence that RDMs do not influence drinking behaviour in the direction intended (reduced consumption in situ). In addition, locating RDMs in alcohol-cue rich environments may result in sub-optimal behavioural responses to the RDM materials (e.g. visual attention to content). To maximize the potential impact of RDMs, the optimal location for RDMs is in environments where pre-existing alcohol cues are sparse to non-existent. Responsible drinking messages (RDMs) aim to reduce alcohol consumption, however, the findings of this study show that they may not influence in situ consumption. These findings also suggest that the optimal location for RDMs is in environments with few or no other alcohol-related cues.

  14. Interplay between behavioural thermoregulation and immune response in mealworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Tamara P; Niemeyer, Hermann M; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2012-11-01

    Since the preferential body temperature should positively correlate with physiological performance, behavioural fever should enhance an organism's immune response under an immune challenge. Here we have studied the preferential body temperature (T(p)) and its consequences on immune response performance after an immune challenge in larvae of Tenebrio molitor. We evaluated T(p) and immune responses of larvae following a challenge with various concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and we studied the correlation between T(p) and two immune traits, namely antibacterial and phenoloxidase (PO) activities. Larvae that were immune challenged with higher LPS concentrations (C(50) and C(100)) preferred in average, warmer temperatures than did larvae challenged with lower concentrations (C(0) and C(25)). T(p) of C(25)-C(100) (challenged)-mealworms was 2.3°C higher than of C(0) (control) larvae. At lower LPS concentration immune challenge (C(0) and C(25)) antibacterial activity correlated positively with T(p), but at C(50) and C(100) correlation was lose. PO activity was higher at higher LPS concentration, but its magnitude of response did not correlate with T(p) Our data suggest that behavioural fever may have a positive effect on host performance by enhancing antibacterial response under a low pathogen load situation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Behavioural intentions in response to an influenza pandemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaalma Herman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known regarding which behavioural responses can be expected if an influenza pandemic were to occur. Methods A survey comprising questions based on risk perception theories, in particular PMT, was conducted with a Dutch sample. Results Although fear that an influenza pandemic may occur was high, participants do not feel well informed. General practitioners and local health authorities were considered trustworthy sources of information and the information considered most urgent pertained to which protective measures should be taken. Participants reported an intention to comply with recommendations regarding protective measures. However, response and self efficacy were low. Maladaptive behaviours can be expected. Increasing numbers of ill individuals and school closures are also expected to lead to a decreased work force. Participants indicated wanting antiviral drugs even if the supply were to be insufficient. Conclusions Messages regarding health protective behaviours from local health authorities should anticipate the balance between overreacting and underreacting. Also, when protective recommendations from health professionals conflict with company policies, it is unclear how employees will react.

  16. The influence of environmental change on the behaviour of sheltered dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells; Hepper

    2000-05-10

    The majority of sheltered dogs are overlooked for purchase because they are considered undesirable by potential buyers. Many factors may determine a dog's appeal, although of interest here are the dog's behaviour and cage environment which can influence its desirability. People prefer dogs which are at the front rather than the back of the cage, quiet as opposed to barking, and alert rather than non-alert. Potential buyers also prefer dogs which are held in complex as opposed to barren environments. This study examined the behaviour of sheltered dogs in response to environmental change, to determine whether it influenced dog behaviour in ways that could be perceived as desirable to potential dog buyers, and/or had any effect upon the incidence of dogs purchased from the shelter. One hundred and twenty dogs sheltered by the Ulster Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals were studied over a 4-h period. The dogs' position in the cage, vocalisation, and activity were investigated in response to increased human social stimulation, moving the dog's bed to the front of the cage, or suspending a toy from the front of the dog's cage. Social stimulation resulted in dogs spending more time at the front of the enclosure, more time standing, and slightly more time barking. Moving the bed to the front of the cage encouraged dogs to this position, but did not influence activity or vocalisation. Suspending a toy at the front of the pen exerted no effect on dog behaviour, although its presence in the pen may help to promote more positive perceptions of dog desirability. The incidence of dogs purchased from the rescue shelter increased whenever the dogs' cages were fitted with a bed at the front of the pen, whenever the dogs were subjected to increased regular human contact, and whenever a toy was placed at the front of the enclosure. Findings highlight the important role that cage environment can play in shaping the behaviour of sheltered dogs and influencing whether or

  17. Influence of environmental manipulation on exploratory behaviour in male BDNF knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shun-Wei; Codita, Alina; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Hjerling-Leffler, Jens; Ernfors, Patrik; Winblad, Bengt; Dickins, David W; Mohammed, Abdul H

    2009-02-11

    It is widely accepted that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in mediating changes in learning and memory performance induced by environmental conditions. In order to ascertain whether BDNF modulates environmentally induced changes in exploratory behaviour, we examined mice carrying a deletion in one copy of the BDNF gene. Young heterozygous male BDNF knockout mice (BDNF+/-) and their wild-type (WT) controls were exposed to the enriched environment condition (EC) or the standard condition (SC) for 8 weeks. Exploratory behaviour was assessed in the open-field (OF) and hole-board (HB) test. Brains from EC and SC reared animals were processed for Golgi-Cox staining and the dendritic spine density in the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 hippocampal regions were examined. We found behavioural differences both due to the genetic modification and the environmental manipulation, with the BDNF+/- mice being more active in the OF whereas the EC mice had increased exploratory behaviour in the HB test. Environmental enrichment also led to an increase in dendritic spines in the hippocampal CA1 region and DG of the wild-type mice. This effect was also found in the enriched BDNF+/- mice, but was less pronounced. Our findings support the critical role of BDNF in behavioural and neural plasticity associated with environmental enrichment and suggest that besides maze learning performance, BDNF dependent mechanisms are also involved in other aspects of behaviour. Here we provide additional evidence that exploratory activity is influenced by BDNF.

  18. The effect of positioning on preterm infants' sleep-wake states and stress behaviours during exposure to environmental stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Niang-Huei; Chen, Li-Li; Li, Tsai-Chung; Smith, Marlaine; Chang, Yu-Shan; Huang, Li-Chi

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies separately examined the effects of positioning or environmental stressors on preterm infants' sleep and stress. Since positioning and environmental stressors occur simultaneously during infant hospitalization exploring these variables in the same study may offer new insights. A quasi-experimental study by one-group interrupted time-series design. In the current study, a total of 22 preterm infants were enrolled. Each infant was moved to either the supine or prone position for an hour at a time. Infants were videotaped and the sleep-wake states, stress behaviours and environmental conditions (light, noise and stimulation/handling) were recorded during the observation period. A total of 80 observations from 22 infants were accrued. In the supine position, preterm infants demonstrated more frequent waking states after adjusting for various environmental stressors (p position after adjusting for various environmental stressors (p position is a more favourable position for facilitating sleep and reducing stress for preterm infants exposed to varying environmental stressors. Preterm infants present different stress behaviours in response to varying types of environmental stimuli. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Physical Environmental Correlates of Domain-Specific Sedentary Behaviours across Five European Regions (the SPOTLIGHT Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Compernolle

    Full Text Available The relation between neighbourhood environmental factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviours among adults remains unclear. This study firstly aims to examine the association of perceived and objectively measured neighbourhood safety, aesthetics, destinations and functionality with transport-related, work-related and leisure-time sedentary behaviour. Secondly, the study aims to assess whether these associations are moderated by age, gender or educational level.In 60 randomly sampled neighbourhoods from 5 urban regions in Europe (Ghent and suburbs, Paris and inner suburbs, Budapest and suburbs, the Randstad, and Greater London, a virtual audit with Google Street View was performed to assess environmental characteristics. A total of 5,205 adult inhabitants of these neighbourhoods reported socio-demographic characteristics, sedentary behaviours, and neighbourhood perceptions in an online survey. Generalized linear mixed models were conducted to examine associations between physical environmental neighbourhood factors and sedentary behaviours. Interaction terms were added to test the moderating role of individual-level socio-demographic variables.Lower levels of leisure-time sedentary behaviour (i.e. all leisure activities except television viewing and computer use were observed among adults who perceived greater numbers of destinations such as supermarkets, recreational facilities, or restaurants in their neighbourhood, and among adults who lived in a neighbourhood with more objectively measured aesthetic features, such as trees, water areas or public parks. Lower levels of work-related sedentary behaviour were observed among adults who perceived less aesthetic features in their neighbourhood, and among adults who lived in a neighbourhood with less objectively measured destinations. Both age, gender and educational level moderated the associations between neighbourhood environmental factors and sedentary behaviours.Preliminary evidence was

  20. Physical Environmental Correlates of Domain-Specific Sedentary Behaviours across Five European Regions (the SPOTLIGHT Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, Sofie; De Cocker, Katrien; Roda, Célina; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Glonti, Ketevan; Bardos, Helga; Rutter, Harry; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    The relation between neighbourhood environmental factors and domain-specific sedentary behaviours among adults remains unclear. This study firstly aims to examine the association of perceived and objectively measured neighbourhood safety, aesthetics, destinations and functionality with transport-related, work-related and leisure-time sedentary behaviour. Secondly, the study aims to assess whether these associations are moderated by age, gender or educational level. In 60 randomly sampled neighbourhoods from 5 urban regions in Europe (Ghent and suburbs, Paris and inner suburbs, Budapest and suburbs, the Randstad, and Greater London), a virtual audit with Google Street View was performed to assess environmental characteristics. A total of 5,205 adult inhabitants of these neighbourhoods reported socio-demographic characteristics, sedentary behaviours, and neighbourhood perceptions in an online survey. Generalized linear mixed models were conducted to examine associations between physical environmental neighbourhood factors and sedentary behaviours. Interaction terms were added to test the moderating role of individual-level socio-demographic variables. Lower levels of leisure-time sedentary behaviour (i.e. all leisure activities except television viewing and computer use) were observed among adults who perceived greater numbers of destinations such as supermarkets, recreational facilities, or restaurants in their neighbourhood, and among adults who lived in a neighbourhood with more objectively measured aesthetic features, such as trees, water areas or public parks. Lower levels of work-related sedentary behaviour were observed among adults who perceived less aesthetic features in their neighbourhood, and among adults who lived in a neighbourhood with less objectively measured destinations. Both age, gender and educational level moderated the associations between neighbourhood environmental factors and sedentary behaviours. Preliminary evidence was found for

  1. Nonshared environmental influences on teacher-reported behaviour problems: monozygotic twin differences in perceptions of the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Bonamy R; Pike, Alison; Plomin, Robert

    2008-06-01

    The identification of specific nonshared environments responsible for the variance in behaviour problems is a key challenge. Nonshared environmental influences on teacher-reported behaviour problems were explored independently of genetics using the monozygotic (MZ) twin differences design. Six aspects of classroom environment were rated by a representative sample of 570 nine-year-old MZ twins in the UK in different classrooms and were related to their different teachers' reports of prosocial behaviour, hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer problems and emotional symptoms. Within-pair differences in perceptions of the classroom were significantly correlated with teacher-reported behaviour problems, indicating that children with less favourable perceptions of their classroom environment were reported by their teachers as less prosocial, more hyperactive, and to have more conduct and peer problems. Socioeconomic status did not significantly moderate any of these relationships. However, parent-reported household chaos was a significant moderator. The classroom environment is related to behaviour problems even when genetic factors are held constant. Classroom environment is more strongly associated with behaviour problems when the home environment is more chaotic.

  2. The Effect of Eco-Schools on Children's Environmental Values and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of eco-schools concerning their students' environmental values and environmental behaviour, and includes 1287 children from fifty-nine schools (thirty-eight eco-schools and twenty-one control schools) in Flanders. Controlling for effects of gender and socio-economic status, analyses show that eco-schools have…

  3. Explaining the paradox : How pro-environmental behaviour can both thwart and foster well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhoeven, Leonie; Bolderdijk, J.W; Steg, L.

    Although pro-environmental behaviour is often believed to be difficult, aggravating, and potentially threatening one's quality of life, recent studies suggest that people who behave in a more pro-environmental way are actually more satisfied with their lives. In this manuscript, we aim to explain

  4. Monitoring adaptive genetic responses to environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael M. Hansen; Isabelle Olivieri; Donald M. Waller; Einar E. Nielsen; F. W. Allendorf; M. K. Schwartz; C. S. Baker; D. P. Gregovich; J. A. Jackson; K. C. Kendall; L. Laikre; K. McKelvey; M. C. Neel; N. Ryman; R. Short Bull; J. B. Stetz; D. A. Tallmon; C. D. Vojta; R. S. Waples

    2012-01-01

    Widespread environmental changes including climate change, selective harvesting and landscape alterations now greatly affect selection regimes for most organisms. How animals and plants can adapt to these altered environments via contemporary evolution is thus of strong interest. We discuss how to use genetic monitoring to study adaptive responses via repeated analysis...

  5. Environmental social responsible practices of hospitality industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a means of sustainability achievement and balanced assessment of positive and negative impact of tourism and hospitality industry, taking responsibility towards the silent stakeholder (environment) emerged as a new phenomenon in the late 1980s. The main concern of this paper is to identify the environmental ...

  6. Environmental risk management strategies: household response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental risk management strategies used by farmers in response to rice yield variability in Ebonyi State, Nigeria was examined. A total of 108 rice farmers were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Data analysis shows that the mean age of the farmers was 45.9 years and majority (63%) had only primary ...

  7. Extended exposure to elevated temperature affects escape response behaviour in coral reef fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald T. Warren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The threat of predation, and the prey’s response, are important drivers of community dynamics. Yet environmental temperature can have a significant effect on predation avoidance techniques such as fast-start performance observed in marine fishes. While it is known that temperature increases can influence performance and behaviour in the short-term, little is known about how species respond to extended exposure during development. We produced a startle response in two species of damselfish, the lemon damsel Pomacentrus moluccensis, and the Ambon damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis, by the repeated use of a drop stimulus. We show that the length of thermal exposure of juveniles to elevated temperature significantly affects this escape responses. Short-term (4d exposure to warmer temperature affected directionality and responsiveness for both species. After long-term (90d exposure, only P. moluccensis showed beneficial plasticity, with directionality returning to control levels. Responsiveness also decreased in both species, possibly to compensate for higher temperatures. There was no effect of temperature or length of exposure on latency to react, maximum swimming speed, or escape distance suggesting that the physical ability to escape was maintained. Evidence suggests that elevated temperature may impact some fish species through its effect on the behavioural responses while under threat rather than having a direct influence on their physical ability to perform an effective escape response.

  8. Behavioural Responses of Stallions to a Novel Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Popescu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the response towards a novel object in Lipizzaner and Romanian Draft stallions. In addition the effect of the object’s colour on the behavioural response of the horses was investigated. The novel object test was performed in Lipizzaner (n = 11 and Romanian Draft (n = 8 stallions, in four different stages, observing the stallions during 45 minutes in each stage (15 minute/colour ball, and assessing a series of behavioural indicators. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. There were no significant differences in the response of the horses to the novel object in the three stages, or between the different breeds. An important result was the absence of discrimination of colour differences; the stallions were behaving similarly, irrespective to the colour of the ball. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that the stallions were receptive to the novel object, they liked the balls, and these can be used to alleviate the monotony in the periods of individual housing in boxes.

  9. Phenotypic plasticity in response to the social environment: effects of density and sex ratio on mating behaviour following ecotype divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Karlsson

    Full Text Available The ability to express phenotypically plastic responses to environmental cues might be adaptive in changing environments. We studied phenotypic plasticity in mating behaviour as a response to population density and adult sex ratio in a freshwater isopod (Asellus aquaticus. A. aquaticus has recently diverged into two distinct ecotypes, inhabiting different lake habitats (reed Phragmites australis and stonewort Chara tomentosa, respectively. In field surveys, we found that these habitats differ markedly in isopod population densities and adult sex ratios. These spatially and temporally demographic differences are likely to affect mating behaviour. We performed behavioural experiments using animals from both the ancestral ecotype ("reed" isopods and from the novel ecotype ("stonewort" isopods population. We found that neither ecotype adjusted their behaviour in response to population density. However, the reed ecotype had a higher intrinsic mating propensity across densities. In contrast to the effects of density, we found ecotype differences in plasticity in response to sex ratio. The stonewort ecotype show pronounced phenotypic plasticity in mating propensity to adult sex ratio, whereas the reed ecotype showed a more canalised behaviour with respect to this demographic factor. We suggest that the lower overall mating propensity and the phenotypic plasticity in response to sex ratio have evolved in the novel stonewort ecotype following invasion of the novel habitat. Plasticity in mating behaviour may in turn have effects on the direction and intensity of sexual selection in the stonewort habitat, which may fuel further ecotype divergence.

  10. Behavioural response of silver eel to effluent plumes: Telemetry experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, H.V.; Keeken, van, O.A.; Foekema, E.M.; Kleissen, F.; Friocourt, Y.; Beare, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Fish migration may be hampered by a range of physical barriers. That non-physical barriers such as sudden changes in water quality may also serve as barriers is often stated, but only very few studies address this issue. This study focusses on linking the behavioural response of silver eel and river lamprey when encountering a waste water plume (effluent) in field situations. Individual fish movements were tracked by means of acoustic telemetry in 2D (in 2009) and in 3D (in 2010) at a locatio...

  11. Socio-demographic predictors of health and environmental co-benefit behaviours for climate change mitigation in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Emily Ying Yang; Wang, Susan Shuxin; Ho, Janice Ying-En; Huang, Zhe; Liu, Sida; Guo, Chunlan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the patterns and socio-demographic predictors of health and environmental co-benefit behaviours that support climate change mitigation in a densely populated Asian metropolis-Hong Kong. A population-based, stratified and cross-sectional random digit dialling telephone survey study was conducted between January and February 2016, among the Cantonese-speaking population aged 15 and above in Hong Kong. Socio-demographic data and the self-reported practice of 10 different co-benefit behaviours were solicited. Ethics approval and participant's verbal consent were sought. The study sample consisted of 1,017 respondents (response rate: 63.6%) were comparable to the age, gender and geographical distributions of the Hong Kong population found in the latest 2011 Hong Kong Population Census. Among the co-benefit behaviours, using less packaging and disposable shopping bags were practiced in the highest frequency (70.1%). However, four behaviours were found to have never been practiced by more than half of the respondents, including bringing personal eating utensils when dining in restaurants or small eateries, showering less than five minutes, having one vegetarian meal a week, and buying more organic food. Results of multivariable logistic regression showed that frequency of practicing co-benefit behaviours were consistently associated with gender and age. Urban residents in Hong Kong do not engage in the practice of co-benefit behaviours in a uniform way. In general, females and older people are more likely to adopt co-benefit behaviours in their daily lives. Further research to assess the knowledge and attitudes of the population towards these co-benefit behaviours will provide support to relevant climate change mitigation policies and education programmes.

  12. The value of environmental self-identity : The relationship between biospheric values, environmental self-identity and environmental preferences, intentions and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, Ellen; Steg, Linda; Keizer, Kees

    Biospheric values and environmental self-identities are considered to be important antecedents of environmental preferences, intentions, and behaviour. Although various authors suggest a relationship between values and self-identity, this has rarely been studied empirically. This paper aimed to

  13. Defence behaviour of reindeer in response to flying parasitic Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Karter

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Similar defence behaviours were exhibited by a reindeer when experimentally exposed to three different species of tethered, flying parasitic Diptera, Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer, Hypoderma tarandi (L and Tabanid. Defencive behavioural responses appeared to be related to attack angle, and were not elicited by auditory stimuli. These observations raise questions about the validity of parasite species-specific defence responses in reindeer.Forsvars-adferd hos rein angrepet av flyvende, parasittiske diptera.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Likeartet forsvars-adferd ble utvist av en rein som ble eksperimentelt utsatt for tre forskjellige arter av bundne, flyvende parasittiske diptera, Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer, Hypoderma tarandi (L og Tabanid. Den forsvarsmessige adferd syntes å ha sammenheng med parasittenes angreps-vinkel og ble ikke utløst av lydstimuli. Disse observasjoner reiser spørsmål om gyldigheten av parasittære artsspesifikke forsvarsreaksjoner hos rein.Poron puolustuskàyttàytyminen lentàvià kaksisiipisià (Diptera hyônteisià vastaan.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Poro kàyttàytyi samalla tavalla kun se joutui tekemisiin kolmen kiinniolevan lentàvân kaksisiipisen hyônteisen: saulakan {Cephenemyia trompe Modeer, kurumupaarman {Hypoderma tarandi L ja parman kanssa. Puolustuskàyttàytyminen riippui hyônteisen làhestymiskulvàt kysymyksià lajispesifisen puolustuskàyttàytymisen esiintymisestà proolla hyônteisià vastaan.

  14. THE ECONOMIC JUSTIFICATION OF THE RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOUR OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGETA GRIGORE

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the contemporary economy, we are witnessing the amplification of concerns regarding corporate social responsibility, a very complex issue dealing with trans and interdisciplinary approaches, with contemporary dynamics and pressures occurring as a consequence of the complex effects of the world crisis. The current crisis is a complex one with powerful insertions on economic, financial, social, value, moral and psycho-behavioural level. Therefore, the analysis of corporate social responsibility is not only an attractive and modern theme, but also necessary and of high relevance for Romania, being a real challenge in order to understand the economic and social trends at national and international level, especially under the conditions of an amplified world crisis.

  15. Disaster Response and Preparedness Application: Emergency Environmental Response Tool (EERT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, James; Carr, Hugh; Jester, Keith

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Office at the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed an Environmental Geographic Information Systems (EGIS) database. NASA had previously developed a GIS database at SSC to assist in the NASA Environmental Office's management of the Center. This GIS became the basis for the NASA-wide EGIS project, which was proposed after the applicability of the SSC database was demonstrated. Since its completion, the SSC EGIS has aided the Environmental Office with noise pollution modeling, land cover assessment, wetlands delineation, environmental hazards mapping, and critical habitat delineation for protected species. At SSC, facility management and safety officers are responsible for ensuring the physical security of the facilities, staff, and equipment as well as for responding to environmental emergencies, such as accidental releases of hazardous materials. All phases of emergency management (planning, mitigation, preparedness, and response) depend on data reliability and system interoperability from a variety of sources to determine the size and scope of the emergency operation. Because geospatial data are now available for all NASA facilities, it was suggested that this data could be incorporated into a computerized management information program to assist facility managers. The idea was that the information system could improve both the effectiveness and the efficiency of managing and controlling actions associated with disaster, homeland security, and other activities. It was decided to use SSC as a pilot site to demonstrate the efficacy of having a baseline, computerized management information system that ultimately was referred to as the Emergency Environmental Response Tool (EERT).

  16. Physiological and behavioural stress responses in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to noise associated with construction work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlund, K; Fernström, A-L; Wergård, E-M; Fredlund, H; Hau, J; Spångberg, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioural and physiological responses to environmental disturbances (live and recorded dynamite explosions) in laboratory non-human primates in preparation for a future tunnel construction underneath our animal facility. In a pilot study (A) on 20 female Macaca fascicularis, a day of test blasts resulted in an increase in faecal cortisol and immunoreactive cortisol metabolites (CICM), and the animals reacted behaviourally with vertical flight and vocalizations. In a follow-up study (B), we assessed the impact of 10 days of exposure to recorded detonations on the behaviour and CICM in 16 M. fascicularis. In the latter study we introduced a predictive signal, serving as a conditional stimulus, to half of the animals. We found no significant effects of the noise in the Signal group; while the Control groups' CICM values were affected. The behaviour was largely unaffected in the two groups. It was decided not to introduce a research moratorium on biomedical research planned to be conducted during the future tunnel construction, and that a conditional stimulus ('warning signal') will be used.

  17. Animal behaviour shapes the ecological effects of ocean acidification and warming: moving from individual to community-level responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Munday, Philip L

    2016-03-01

    Biological communities are shaped by complex interactions between organisms and their environment as well as interactions with other species. Humans are rapidly changing the marine environment through increasing greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in ocean warming and acidification. The first response by animals to environmental change is predominantly through modification of their behaviour, which in turn affects species interactions and ecological processes. Yet, many climate change studies ignore animal behaviour. Furthermore, our current knowledge of how global change alters animal behaviour is mostly restricted to single species, life phases and stressors, leading to an incomplete view of how coinciding climate stressors can affect the ecological interactions that structure biological communities. Here, we first review studies on the effects of warming and acidification on the behaviour of marine animals. We demonstrate how pervasive the effects of global change are on a wide range of critical behaviours that determine the persistence of species and their success in ecological communities. We then evaluate several approaches to studying the ecological effects of warming and acidification, and identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled, to better understand how global change will affect marine populations and communities through altered animal behaviours. Our review provides a synthesis of the far-reaching consequences that behavioural changes could have for marine ecosystems in a rapidly changing environment. Without considering the pervasive effects of climate change on animal behaviour we will limit our ability to forecast the impacts of ocean change and provide insights that can aid management strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Development and validation of the pro-environmental behaviour scale for women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyunKyoung

    2017-05-01

    This study was aimed to develop and test the Pro-environmental Behavior Scale for Women's Health. Women adopt sustainable behaviours and alter their life styles to protect the environment and their health from environmental pollution. The conceptual framework of pro-environmental behaviours was based on Rogers' protection motivation theory and Weinstein's precaution adoption process model. The cross-sectional design was used for instrument development. The instrument development process consisted of a literature review, personal depth interviews and focus group interviews. The sample comprised 356 adult women recruited in April-May 2012 in South Korea using quota sampling. For construct validity, exploratory factor analysis was conducted to examine the factor structure, after which convergent and discriminant validity and known-group comparisons were tested. Principal component analysis yielded 17 items with four factors, including 'women's health protection,' 'chemical exposure prevention,' 'alternative consumption,' and 'community-oriented behaviour'. The Cronbach's α was 0·81. Convergent and discriminant validity were supported by performing correlations with other environmental-health and health-behaviour measures. Nursing professionals can reliably use the instrument to assess women's behaviours, which protect their health and the environment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Environmentally responsive peptides as anticancer drug carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Aluri, Suhaas; Janib, Siti M.; MacKay, J. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment provides multiple cues that may be exploited to improve the efficacy of established chemotherapeutics; furthermore, polypeptides are uniquely situated to capitalize on these signals. Peptides provide: 1) a rich repertoire of biologically specific interactions to draw upon; 2) environmentally-responsive phase behaviors, which may be tuned to respond to signatures of disease; 3) opportunities to direct self-assembly; 4) control over routes of biodegradation; 5) the op...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL ACCUNTING AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Constantin Danuletiu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is an economic growth strategy aimed to conciliate economic and social progress without endangering the natural equilibrium of the planet. The true stake of the future is the avoidance of environment degradation through developing of a responsibility sense both of citizens as well as of companies, for the purpose of reaching a stable sustainable development. Environmental accounting expresses the appearance of a new ethics that answer to the human worries for planetary development and progress. Starting from the damage caused to the environment, we ask ourselves about the destructive activity conducted by companies and making them responsible of the problem to the future generations.

  1. Environmental influences on the spatial ecology and spawning behaviour of an estuarine-resident fish, Macquaria colonorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, C. T.; Reinfelds, I. V.; Ives, M. C.; Gray, C. A.; West, R. J.; van der Meulen, D. E.

    2013-02-01

    Estuarine-resident fishes are highly susceptible to the effects of environmental and anthropogenic impacts on their assemblages and habitats. We investigated the distribution, movement and spawning behaviour of estuary perch, Macquaria colonorum, in response to selected environmental variables using an acoustic telemetry array in a large tidal river in south-eastern (SE) Australia. Adult M. colonorum were monitored for up to two years, covering two consecutive spawning periods between September 2007 and 2009. Salinity, water temperature and river flows all had a significant relationship with their estuarine distribution. In particular, large-scale movements were influenced by large freshwater inflow events and the resultant reduction in salinity levels, together with the seasonal cooling and warming trends in water temperatures associated with spawning behaviour. During the winter months, male and female M. colonorum migrated from their upper estuarine home ranges to the lower estuarine spawning grounds in synchrony, with numbers of individual visits by both sexes consistently higher in the 'wetter' winter/spring period of 2008. Location, arrival, departure and occupation time within the spawning grounds were similar between sexes and years. Both resident and migrating M. colonorum exhibited strong diel, and to a lesser extent, tidal behavioural patterns, with fish more likely to be detected at night and during the ebb tides. It is postulated that the effect of environmental fluctuations on the distribution and movement of M. colonorum is influenced by behavioural mechanisms in response to osmoregulatory stress, predator-prey interactions and reproductive activity. The results also demonstrate the importance of accounting for autocorrelation inherent in telemetry data, and for developing management strategies that are more robust to the effect of future climate trends on estuarine fish populations.

  2. Evaluating Three Dimensions of Environmental Knowledge and Their Impact on Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Tina; Dierkes, Paul

    2017-09-01

    This research evaluates the development of three environmental knowledge dimensions of secondary school students after participation in a singular 1-day outdoor education programme. Applying a cross-national approach, system, action-related and effectiveness knowledge levels of students educated in Germany and Singapore were assessed before and after intervention participation. Correlations between single knowledge dimensions and behaviour changes due to the environmental education intervention were examined. The authors applied a pre-, post- and retention test design and developed a unique multiple-choice instrument. Results indicate significant baseline differences in the prevalence of the different knowledge dimensions between subgroups. Both intervention subsamples showed a low presence of all baseline knowledge dimensions. Action-related knowledge levels were higher than those of system and effectiveness knowledge. Subsample-specific differences in performed pro-environmental behaviour were also significant. Both experimental groups showed significant immediate and sustained knowledge increases in the three dimensions after programme participation. Neither of the two control cohorts showed any significant increase in any knowledge dimension. Effectiveness knowledge improved most. The amount of demonstrated environmental actions increased significantly in both intervention groups. Both control cohorts did not show shifts in environmental behaviour. Yet, only weak correlations between any knowledge dimension and behaviour could be found.

  3. Environmental Behaviour of Plutonium Accidentally Released at Thule, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker

    1977-01-01

    The environmental contamination resulting from the B-52 accident in 1968 at Thule was studied by scientific expeditions in 1968, 1970 and 1974. The contamination was mainly confined to the marine environment, where plutonium was preferentially located in the sediments and the benthic fauna. Pluto...... such as fish, seabirds and marine mammals have shown no tendency to increasing plutonium levels since the accident. (C)1977Health Physics Society...

  4. From Environmental Awareness to Environmental Responsibility: Towards a Stewardship Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoogun, Ajayi C.; Egbonyi, Etuki E.; Onnoghen, Usang N.

    2016-01-01

    The period of environmentalism heightened environmental concern and subsequently the emergence of Environmental Education (EE) that is anchored on awareness. It is thought that an increase in environmental awareness will reverse the misuse of the environment and its resources. Four decades after the international call for Environmental Education,…

  5. The stress response and exploratory behaviour in Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa): Relations to sex and social rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Sarah J J; Martin, Gerard M; Walsh, Carolyn J

    2015-12-01

    According to the coping styles hypothesis, an individual demonstrates an integrated behavioural and physiological response to environmental challenge that is consistent over time and across situations. Individual consistency in behavioural responses to challenge has been documented across the animal kingdom. Comparatively few studies, however, have examined inter-individual variation in the physiological response, namely glucocorticoid and catecholamine levels, the stress hormones secreted by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system, respectively. Variation in coping styles between individuals may be explained in part by differences in social rank and sex. Using 20 Yucatan minipigs (Sus scrofa) we: (1) investigated the existence of consistent inter-individual variation in exploratory behaviour and the hormonal stress response, and tested for correlations as predicted by the coping styles hypothesis; and (2) evaluated whether inter-individual behavioural and hormonal variation is related to social rank and sex. Salivary stress biomarkers (cortisol, alpha-amylase, chromogranin A) were assessed in the presence and absence of a stressor consisting of social isolation in a crate for 10 min. Principal components analysis on a set of behavioural variables revealed two traits, which we labelled exploratory tendency and neophobia. Neither exploratory tendency nor neophobia predicted the physiological stress response. Subordinate pigs exhibited higher catecholamine levels compared to dominant conspecifics. We observed sex differences in the repeatability of salivary stress markers and reactivity of the stress systems. The results do not provide support for the existence of behavioural-physiological coping styles in pigs. Sex is an important determinant of the physiological stress response and warrants consideration in research addressing behavioural and hormonal variation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Response of Two Mytilids to a Heatwave: The Complex Interplay of Physiology, Behaviour and Ecological Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarria, Celia; Gestoso, Ignacio; Lima, Fernando P; Vázquez, Elsa; Comeau, Luc A; Gomes, Filipa; Seabra, Rui; Babarro, José M F

    2016-01-01

    Different combinations of behavioural and physiological responses may play a crucial role in the ecological success of species, notably in the context of biological invasions. The invasive mussel Xenostrobus securis has successfully colonised the inner part of the Galician Rias Baixas (NW Spain), where it co-occurs with the commercially-important mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This study investigated the effect of a heatwave on the physiological and behavioural responses in monospecific or mixed aggregations of these species. In a mesocosm experiment, mussels were exposed to simulated tidal cycles and similar temperature conditions to those experienced in the field during a heat-wave that occurred in the summer of 2013, when field robo-mussels registered temperatures up to 44.5°C at low tide. The overall responses to stress differed markedly between the two species. In monospecific aggregations M. galloprovincialis was more vulnerable than X. securis to heat exposure during emersion. However, in mixed aggregations, the presence of the invader was associated with lower mortality in M. galloprovincialis. The greater sensitivity of M. galloprovincialis to heat exposure was reflected in a higher mortality level, greater induction of Hsp70 protein and higher rates of respiration and gaping activity, which were accompanied by a lower heart rate (bradycardia). The findings show that the invader enhanced the physiological performance of M. galloprovincialis, highlighting the importance of species interactions in regulating responses to environmental stress. Understanding the complex interactions between ecological factors and physiological and behavioural responses of closely-related species is essential for predicting the impacts of invasions in the context of future climate change.

  7. Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlimi, Tina; Skinner, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M; Martin, Ian D.; Tsuji, Leonard J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish) and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck). Study design Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q). Methods Schoolchildren in grades 6–12 (n =262) responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a) Do you eat game? (b) How often do you eat game? (c) How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d) I would eat more game if… [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany), 2005 (Peawanuck), 2006 (Attawapiskat), 2007 (Moose Factory) and 2009 (Kashechewan). Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM) was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Results Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game “rarely or never” at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game “at least once a day”. Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. Conclusion The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently. PMID:22456047

  8. Traditional food consumption behaviour and concern with environmental contaminants among Cree schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Hlimi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate factors influencing consumption of traditional foods (e.g. wild game, fish and concerns about environmental contaminants among schoolchildren of the Mushkegowuk Territory First Nations (Moose Factory, Fort Albany, Kashechewan, Attawapiskat, and Peawanuck. Study design: Cross-sectional data collection from a Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q. Methods: Schoolchildren in grades 6–12 (n = 262 responded to 4 of the WEB-Q questions: (a Do you eat game? (b How often do you eat game? (c How concerned are you about the environmental contaminants in the wild game and fish that you eat? (d I would eat more game if… [6 response options]. Data were collected in 2004 (Fort Albany, 2005 (Peawanuck, 2006 (Attawapiskat, 2007 (Moose Factory and 2009 (Kashechewan. Hierarchical log-linear modelling (LLM was used for analyses of multi-way frequency data. Results: Of the schoolchildren answering the specific questions: 174 consumed game; 95 reported concerns about contaminants in game; and 84 would increase their game consumption if it were more available in their homes. LLM revealed significant differences between communities; schoolchildren in Moose Factory consumed game “rarely or never” at greater than expected frequency, and fewer than expected consumed game “at least once a day”. Schoolchildren in Kashechewan had greater frequency of daily game consumption and few were concerned about contaminants in game. Using LLM, we found that sex was an insignificant variable and did not affect game consumption frequency or environmental contaminant concern. Conclusion: The consumption of traditional foods differed between communities and appears to be related to contamination concerns. In addition, latitudinal variation appears to influence the frequency of traditional food consumption in children; children in the most southerly location consumed traditional food less frequently.

  9. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Corke

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs. We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle.

  10. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handcock, Rebecca N; Swain, Dave L; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J; Patison, Kym P; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle.

  11. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handcock, Rebecca N.; Swain, Dave L.; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J.; Patison, Kym P.; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle. PMID:22412327

  12. How to Promote Conservation Behaviours: The Combined Role of Environmental Education and Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Raquel; Castro, Paula; Martins-Loução, Maria Amélia

    2017-01-01

    This study tested the influence of both environmental education (EE) and commitment interventions among teenagers for promoting energy and water conservation at home. Conservation behaviours were measured in two ways--directly and through questionnaires--prior to and after the interventions. Results indicate (1) EE participants may have saved more…

  13. Changing the Environmental Behaviour of Small Business Owners: The Business Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Beth; Redmond, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the environment is something of a cracked record to many small business owners, as historically any calls to business to change or improve their practices or behaviours were from the "environmental" or "green" perspective, rather than from a business perspective. As a consequence, many small businesses have…

  14. Epigenetic memory in response to environmental stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineis, Paolo; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Cunliffe, Vincent T; Flanagan, James M; Hanson, Mark; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to environmental stressors, toxicants, and nutrient deficiencies can affect DNA in several ways. Some exposures cause damage and alter the structure of DNA, but there is increasing evidence that the same or other environmental exposures, including those that occur during fetal development in utero, can cause epigenetic effects that modulate DNA function and gene expression. Some epigenetic changes to DNA that affect gene transcription are at least partially reversible (i.e., they can be enzymatically reversed after cessation of exposure to environmental agents), but some epigenetic modifications seem to persist, even for decades. To explain the effects of early life experiences (such as famine and exposures to other stressors) on the long-term persistence of specific patterns of epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, we propose an analogy with immune memory. We propose that an epigenetic memory can be established and maintained in self-renewing stem cell compartments. We suggest that the observations on early life effects on adult diseases and the persistence of methylation changes in smokers support our hypothesis, for which a mechanistic basis, however, needs to be further clarified. We outline a new model based on methylation changes. Although these changes seem to be mainly adaptive, they are also implicated in the pathogenesis and onset of diseases, depending on individual genotypic background and types of subsequent exposures. Elucidating the relationships between the adaptive and maladaptive consequences of the epigenetic modifications that result from complex environmental exposures is a major challenge for current and future research in epigenetics.-Vineis, P., Chatziioannou, A., Cunliffe, V. T., Flanagan, J. M., Hanson, M., Kirsch-Volders, M., Kyrtopoulos, S. Epigenetic memory in response to environmental stressors. © FASEB.

  15. Communicating Responsible Behaviour in Tourism Through Online Videos: a Cross-Cultural Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wided Batat; Sonja Prentovic

    2014-01-01

      This research aims to discuss the approaches of tourism professionals to communication on responsible behaviour through sustainable tourism video contents shared on social media indicating cross...

  16. Red and processed meat consumption and purchasing behaviours and attitudes: impacts for human health, animal welfare and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonan, Angie; Wilson, Paul; Swift, Judy A; Leibovici, Didier G; Holdsworth, Michelle

    2015-09-01

    Higher intakes of red and processed meat are associated with poorer health outcomes and negative environmental impacts. Drawing upon a population survey the present paper investigates meat consumption behaviours, exploring perceived impacts for human health, animal welfare and the environment. Structured self-completion postal survey relating to red and processed meat, capturing data on attitudes, sustainable meat purchasing behaviour, red and processed meat intake, plus sociodemographic characteristics of respondents. Urban and rural districts of Nottinghamshire, East Midlands, UK, drawn from the electoral register. UK adults (n 842) aged 18-91 years, 497 females and 345 males, representing a 35·6 % response rate from 2500 randomly selected residents. Women were significantly more likely (P60 years) were more likely to hold positive attitudes towards animal welfare (Pimpact of climate change could be reduced by consuming less meat, dairy products and eggs. Positive attitudes towards animal welfare were associated with consuming less meat and a greater frequency of 'higher welfare' meat purchases. Human health and animal welfare are more common motivations to avoid red and processed meat than environmental sustainability. Policy makers, nutritionists and health professionals need to increase the public's awareness of the environmental impact of eating red and processed meat. A first step could be to ensure that dietary guidelines integrate the nutritional, animal welfare and environmental components of sustainable diets.

  17. Single and combined effects of microplastics and mercury on juveniles of the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax): Changes in behavioural responses and reduction of swimming velocity and resistance time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Luís Gabriel Antão; Vieira, Luís Russo; Guilhermino, Lúcia

    2018-02-12

    Microplastics and mercury are environmental pollutants of great concern. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of these pollutants, both individually and in binary mixtures, on the swimming performance of juvenile European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Microplastics alone, mercury alone and all the mixtures caused significant reduction of the swimming velocity and resistance time of fish. Moreover, changes in behavioural responses including lethargic and erratic swimming behaviour were observed. These results highlight that fish behavioural responses can be used as sensitive endpoint to establish the effects of contamination by microplastics and also emphasizes the need to assess the combined effects of microplastics and other environmental contaminants, with special attention to the effects on behavioural responses in fish and other aquatic species. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. [Environmental uncertainty and arousal/stress as the direct determinants of animal behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, S V

    2010-01-01

    A model of direct behavioural mechanisms is suggested. The suggestion is founded on the following prerequisites: the law of optimum arousal by Yerkes-Dodson; the data on animals' purposeful striving towards the optimum; and the data on effect of stimuli uncertainty (unpredictability and/or uncontrollability) on susceptibility to the stimuli. The key postulate of the model is animals' ability to affect the environment uncertainty with their behaviour and, hence, to change their susceptibility to various stimuli and optimize their stress/arousal level. This function of behaviour had never been discussed and seems to be rather important for proximal behavioural mechanisms and for forming direct motives of behaviour. Optimization of arousal level may be viewed as "universal benefit" at the level of direct behavioural mechanisms (similar to "joint genetic fitness" at the level of evolutional mechanisms). Within the model framework it is possible to take up some sophisticated aspects of ethology such as social relations forming, "begging for punishment", "zoo stereotypy", and so on. Among verifiable predictions that can be derived from its analysis, the following ones are worthwhile: (1) the stronger of two similar social relations cannot be more stressful than the weaker one; (2) the intensity of marking activity never increases as arousal/stress level decreases; (3) stress/arousal level of an animal having been experienced "zoo stereotypy" for a long time can never be higher than that of a conspecific individual showing the behaviour for the first time; (4) the rate of "begging for punishment" behaviour of an individual should positively correlate with environmental uncertainty; (5) arousal/stress level of an individual looking for novelty can never be higher than arousal/stress level of the same individual when avoiding novelty; (6) the striving of a specimen for displaying the behaviour promoting an increase in uncertainty can be suppressed by raising the

  19. Emotional Responses to Multisensory Environmental Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Schreuder

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available How we perceive our environment affects the way we feel and behave. The impressions of our ambient environment are influenced by its entire spectrum of physical characteristics (e.g., luminosity, sound, scents, temperature in a dynamic and interactive way. The ability to manipulate the sensory aspects of an environment such that people feel comfortable or exhibit a desired behavior is gaining interest and social relevance. Although much is known about the sensory effects of individual environmental characteristics, their combined effects are not a priori evident due to a wide range of non-linear interactions in the processing of sensory cues. As a result, it is currently not known how different environmental characteristics should be combined to effectively induce desired emotional and behavioral effects. To gain more insight into this matter, we performed a literature review on the emotional effects of multisensory stimulation. Although we found some interesting mechanisms, the outcome also reveals that empirical evidence is still scarce and haphazard. To stimulate further discussion and research, we propose a conceptual framework that describes how environmental interventions are likely to affect human emotional responses. This framework leads to some critical research questions that suggest opportunities for further investigation.

  20. Predictions replaced by facts: a keystone species' behavioural responses to declining arctic sea-ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Charmain D; Lydersen, Christian; Ims, Rolf A; Kovacs, Kit M

    2015-11-01

    Since the first documentation of climate-warming induced declines in arctic sea-ice, predictions have been made regarding the expected negative consequences for endemic marine mammals. But, several decades later, little hard evidence exists regarding the responses of these animals to the ongoing environmental changes. Herein, we report the first empirical evidence of a dramatic shift in movement patterns and foraging behaviour of the arctic endemic ringed seal (Pusa hispida), before and after a major collapse in sea-ice in Svalbard, Norway. Among other changes to the ice-regime, this collapse shifted the summer position of the marginal ice zone from over the continental shelf, northward to the deep Arctic Ocean Basin. Following this change, which is thought to be a 'tipping point', subadult ringed seals swam greater distances, showed less area-restricted search behaviour, dived for longer periods, exhibited shorter surface intervals, rested less on sea-ice and did less diving directly beneath the ice during post-moulting foraging excursions. In combination, these behavioural changes suggest increased foraging effort and thus also likely increases in the energetic costs of finding food. Continued declines in sea-ice are likely to result in distributional changes, range reductions and population declines in this keystone arctic species. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Individual, social and physical environmental correlates of sedentary behaviours in adults: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Stephanie A; Gresty, Katelin M; Reed, Jennifer L; Wright, Erica; Tremblay, Mark S; Reid, Robert D

    2014-10-21

    Adults spend the majority of their time being sedentary, and evidence suggests that those who spend more of their day engaged in sedentary activities (TV viewing, sitting, screen-based activities) are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality, regardless of whether they exercise regularly. In order to develop effective interventions to reduce sedentary time, it is necessary to identify and understand the strongest modifiable factors of these behaviours. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to examine the available evidence in order to identify individual, social, environmental and policy correlates and determinants of sedentary behaviours (TV time, sitting time, screen time) and total sedentary time among adults. Six electronic databases will be searched to identify all studies that report on individual, social and/or environmental correlates and determinants of sedentary behaviours and total sedentary time in adults. Grey literature sources including theses, published conference abstracts and websites from relevant organizations will also be included. Articles that report on modifiable individual (e.g. health behaviours and status, self-efficacy, socio-economic status), social (e.g. crime, safety, social support, climate and capital), environmental (e.g. weather, workplace, home, neighbourhood, recreation environment, transportation environment) and policy correlates and determinants (based on study design) of sedentary behaviours in an adult population (mean age ≥18 years) will be included. Study quality and risk of bias will be assessed within and across all included studies. Harvest plots will be used to synthesize results across all correlates, and meta-analyses will be conducted where possible among studies with sufficient homogeneity. This review will provide a comprehensive examination of evidence in the field and will serve to highlight gaps for future research on the determinants of sedentary behaviours and inform intervention

  2. Examining Associations of Environmental Characteristics with Recreational Cycling Behaviour by Street-Level Strava Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yeran; Du, Yunyan; Wang, Yu; Zhuang, Liyuan

    2017-06-15

    Policymakers pay much attention to effectively increasing frequency of people's cycling in the context of developing sustainable and green cities. Investigating associations of environmental characteristics and cycling behaviour could offer implications for changing urban infrastructure aiming at encouraging active travel. However, earlier examinations of associations between environmental characteristics and active travel behaviour are limited by low spatial granularity and coverage of traditional data. Crowdsourced geographic information offers an opportunity to determine the fine-grained travel patterns of people. Particularly, Strava Metro data offer a good opportunity for studies of recreational cycling behaviour as they can offer hourly, daily or annual cycling volumes with different purposes (commuting or recreational) in each street across a city. Therefore, in this study, we utilised Strava Metro data for investigating associations between environmental characteristics and recreational cycling behaviour at a large spatial scale (street level). In this study, we took account of population density, employment density, road length, road connectivity, proximity to public transit services, land use mix, proximity to green space, volume of motor vehicles and traffic accidents in an empirical investigation over Glasgow. Empirical results reveal that Strava cyclists are more likely to cycle for recreation on streets with short length, large connectivity or low volume of motor vehicles or on streets surrounded by residential land.

  3. Examining Associations of Environmental Characteristics with Recreational Cycling Behaviour by Street-Level Strava Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeran Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Policymakers pay much attention to effectively increasing frequency of people’s cycling in the context of developing sustainable and green cities. Investigating associations of environmental characteristics and cycling behaviour could offer implications for changing urban infrastructure aiming at encouraging active travel. However, earlier examinations of associations between environmental characteristics and active travel behaviour are limited by low spatial granularity and coverage of traditional data. Crowdsourced geographic information offers an opportunity to determine the fine-grained travel patterns of people. Particularly, Strava Metro data offer a good opportunity for studies of recreational cycling behaviour as they can offer hourly, daily or annual cycling volumes with different purposes (commuting or recreational in each street across a city. Therefore, in this study, we utilised Strava Metro data for investigating associations between environmental characteristics and recreational cycling behaviour at a large spatial scale (street level. In this study, we took account of population density, employment density, road length, road connectivity, proximity to public transit services, land use mix, proximity to green space, volume of motor vehicles and traffic accidents in an empirical investigation over Glasgow. Empirical results reveal that Strava cyclists are more likely to cycle for recreation on streets with short length, large connectivity or low volume of motor vehicles or on streets surrounded by residential land.

  4. Environmental Learning in Online Social Networks: Adopting Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelia, Beth A.; Greenhow, Christine; Burton, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks are increasingly important information and communication tools for young people and for the environmental movement. Networks may provide the motivation for young adults to increase environmental behaviors by increasing their knowledge of environmental issues and of the specific actions they can take to reduce greenhouse gas…

  5. Individual and environmental predictors of health risk behaviours among Dutch adolescents: the HBSC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Z; de Looze, M E; Schrijvers, C T M; van Dorsselaer, S A F M; Vollebergh, W A M

    2012-07-01

    To examine unique and common predictors of tobacco smoking, binge drinking, cannabis smoking, early sexual intercourse and multiple health risk behaviours. Cross-sectional survey study. The Dutch Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study was used to provide data on 1742 adolescents aged 15 and 16 years of age. This study focused on a variety of individual and environmental predictors of health risk behaviours, tapping into four domains (mental health, family, peers and school), retrieved by adolescent self-reports and corrected for sociodemographic variables. Logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. Unique predictors (i.e., gender, low and very low education level, general health, hyperactivity problems, conduct problems, incomplete family, religion, knowledge of mother, parental rules on alcohol drinking, time spent with friends, number of friends, perceived tobacco use of classmates, truancy) were identified. In addition, common predictors (i.e., permissive rules on alcohol drinking and much time spent with friends) were also identified, explaining an increase in engagement in all investigated health risk behaviours in adolescence, including multiple risk behaviours. A prevention strategy targeting restrictive parenting and time spent with friends may be effective to reduce/discourage engagement in health risk behaviours. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Attitudes, social support and environmental perceptions as predictors of active commuting behaviour in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, J R; Jones, A P; van Sluijs, E M F; Griffin, S J

    2010-01-01

    Environmental perceptions appear to play a role in determining behaviour in children, although their influence on active commuting remains unclear. This study examines whether attitudes, social support and environmental perceptions are associated with active commuting behaviour in school children and whether these associations are moderated by the distance to school. Data were collected as part of the SPEEDY study (Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people), a cross-sectional study of 2064 children from schools in Norfolk, UK. Data regarding the usual mode of travel to school, attitudes towards and social support for active commuting, perceptions of the neighbourhood and route to school were assessed using questionnaires completed by 2012 children and their parents. Distance to school was estimated using a Geographic Information System and this was used to compare associations between personal and environmental factors and active travel, across different distance categories. Forty per cent of children reported usually walking to school, with 9% cycling and the remainder using motorised travel. Parental attitudes and safety concerns, the presence of social support from parents and friends and parent-reported neighbourhood walkability were all found to be predictors of active commuting, with children receiving peer and family support and living in supportive environments being more likely to walk or cycle. There was some evidence of a moderating effect of distance whereby attitudes were more important for short distances and safety concerns long. Both attitudinal and environmental perceptions are associated with children's active commuting behaviours. Given the difficulty in modifying attitudes directly, the effect on them of interventions to provide more supportive environments should be evaluated.

  7. Environmentally responsive peptides as anticancer drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluri, Suhaas; Janib, Siti M; Mackay, J Andrew

    2009-09-30

    The tumor microenvironment provides multiple cues that may be exploited to improve the efficacy of established chemotherapeutics; furthermore, polypeptides are uniquely situated to capitalize on these signals. Peptides provide: 1) a rich repertoire of biologically specific interactions to draw upon; 2) environmentally responsive phase behaviors, which may be tuned to respond to signatures of disease; 3) opportunities to direct self-assembly; 4) control over routes of biodegradation; 5) the option to seamlessly combine functionalities into a single polymer via a one-step biosynthesis. As development of cancer-targeted nanocarriers expands, peptides provide a unique source of functional units that may target disease. This review explores potential microenvironmental physiology indicative of tumors and peptides that have demonstrated an ability to target and deliver to these signals.

  8. Environmental influences on the at-sea behaviour of a major consumer, Mirounga leonina, in a rapidly changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor McIntyre

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution and foraging ecology of major consumers within pelagic systems, specifically in relation to physical parameters, can be important for the management of bentho-pelagic systems undergoing rapid change associated with global climate change and other anthropogenic disturbances such as fishing (i.e., the Antarctic Peninsula and Scotia Sea. We tracked 11 adult male southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina, during their five-month post-moult foraging migrations from King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo, northern Antarctic Peninsula, using tags capable of recording and transmitting behavioural data and in situ temperature and salinity data. Seals foraged mostly within the Weddell–Scotia Confluence, while a few foraged along the western Antarctic Peninsula shelf of the Bellingshausen Sea. Mixed model outputs suggest that the at-sea behaviour of seals was associated with a number of environmental parameters, especially seafloor depth, sea-ice concentrations and the temperature structure of the water column. Seals increased dive bottom times and travelled at slower speeds in shallower areas and areas with increased sea-ice concentrations. Changes in dive depth and durations, as well as relative amount of time spent during the bottom phases of dives, were observed in relation to differences in overall temperature gradient, likely as a response to vertical changes in prey distribution associated with temperature stratification in the water column. Our results illustrate the likely complex influences of bathymetry, hydrography and sea ice on the behaviour of male southern elephant seals in a changing environment and highlight the need for region-specific approaches to studying environmental influences on behaviour.

  9. Using a multibiomarker approach and behavioural responses to assess the effects of anthracene in Palaemon serratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravato, Carlos; Almeida, Joana R; Silva, Carlos; Oliveira, Cristiana; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2014-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recognised as one of the main groups of contaminants that assume more importance in the marine environment, enhancing the need of studies concerning their adverse effects and more efficient and ecologically relevant tools for environmental monitoring purposes. This study aims to apply an integrated approach including several multi-level biological responses (accumulation levels, biochemical responses important for different physiological functions and behavioural alterations) to assess the ecological relevance of the effects induced by sub-lethal concentrations of anthracene (ANT) in Palaemon serratus (common prawn). ANT accumulation was assessed by measuring the levels of ANT-type compounds in prawn digestive gland, muscle and eye; biochemical responses were determined using biomarkers involved in biotransformation, oxidative damage, energy production and neurotransmission processes; and behavioural alterations through swimming performance after 96 h exposure bioassay (ANT:16-1,024 μg/L). The rationale behind this approach is to assess the ecologically relevant effects induced by ANT in prawn, given by the association between behavioural alterations with biochemical responses, in search for more efficient tools for environmental risk assessment. Results show a significant decrease of swimming velocity (LOEC=128 μg/L) along with increased levels of ANT-type compounds in digestive gland (LOEC=128 μg/L), muscle (LOEC=256 μg/L) and eye (LOEC=32 μg/L) in prawn exposed to ANT. Increased activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT), involved in anti-oxidant defence system, were also observed (LOEC=256 μg/L; 1024μg/L, respectively) in the digestive gland of prawn, induction of oxidative damage in lipids (LPO) also occurred (LOEC=32 μg/L). The inhibition of swimming velocity showed a correlation with some biochemical parameters measured, including the levels of ANT-type compounds in tissues and LPO, and

  10. Avian endocrine responses to environmental pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B A; Eroschenko, V P; Fox, G A; Fry, D M; Gorsline, J

    1984-12-01

    Many environmental contaminants are hazardous to populations of wild birds. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and industrial pollutants are thought to be responsible for population declines of several species of predatory birds through eggshell thinning. Studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have estrogenic potency and may affect the functioning of the gonadal and thyroidal endocrine subsystems. Petroleum crude oil exerts toxicity externally, by oiling of plumage, and internally, by way of ingestion of oil while feeding or preening. Extensive ultrastructural damage to the inner zone of the adrenal, diminished adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and reduced corticosterone secretion rate suggest that low levels of plasma corticosterone reflect a direct effect of petroleum on the adrenal gland. Suppressive effects of oil on the ovary and decreases in circulating prolactin have been associated with impaired reproductive function. Large-scale field studies of free-living seabirds have confirmed some of the inhibitory effects of oil on reproduction that have been observed in laboratory studies. Organophosphorus insecticides, representing the most widely used class of pesticides in North America, have been shown to impair reproductive function, possibly by altering secretion of luteinizing hormone and progesterone. Relevant areas of future research on the effects of contaminants on avian endocrine function are discussed.

  11. Proteomic responses of fruits to environmental stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhulong eChan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are extremely susceptible to decay and easily lose commercial value after harvest. Different strategies have been developed to control postharvest decay and prevent quality deterioration during postharvest storage, including cold storage, controlled atmosphere, and application of biotic and abiotic stimulus. In this review, mechanisms related to protein level responses of host side and pathogen side were characterized. Protein extraction protocols have been successfully developed for recalcitrant, low protein content fruit tissues. Comparative proteome profiling and functional analysis revealed that defense related proteins, energy metabolism and antioxidant pathway played important roles in fruits in response to storage conditions and exogenous elicitor treatments. Secretome of pathogenic fungi has been well investigated and the results indicated that hydrolytic enzymes were the key virulent factors for the pathogen infection. These protein level changes shed new light on interaction among fruits, pathogens and environmental conditions. Potential postharvest strategies to reduce risk of fruit decay were further proposed based on currently available proteomic data.

  12. To buy green or not to buy: environmental concerned companies and individuals' rewarding behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Rodr??guez-Priego, Nuria; Montoro-R??os, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    The present research aim to examine individuals?? purchasing behavioural intention related with corporations who are environmental concerned. Two Structural Equations Models are proposed and tested independently for the behavioral intention or rewarding and punishing companies by buying or not their products. Results highlight the importance of increasing perceived consumer effectiveness of their energy saving actions, as well as involvement to enhance the risk perceived of global climate cha...

  13. Behaviour response of Namaqua Afrikaner, Dorper and South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uvp

    2013-09-18

    Sep 18, 2013 ... South African Journal of Animal Science 2013, 43 (Issue 5, Supplement 1) ... which gives an indication of the total distance travelled by an individual lamb ..... litter size and periconceptional ewe nutrition on offspring behaviour ...

  14. Residential Demand Response Behaviour Modeling applied to Cyber-physical Intrusion Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Tyge, Emil; Kosek, Anna Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    be identified and how the characterization can be updated continuously. Finally, we propose an approach to apply this behaviour characterization to the identification of anomalous and potentially malicious behaviour modifications as part of a cyber-physical intrusion detection mechanism.......A real-time demand response system can be viewed as a cyber-physical system, with physical systems dependent on cyber infrastructure for coordination and control, which may be vulnerable to cyber-attacks. The time domain dynamic behaviour of individual residential demand responses is governed...... by a mix of physical system parameters, exogenous influences, user behaviour and preferences, which can be characterized by unstructured models such as a time-varying finite impulse response. In this study, which is based on field data, it is shown how this characteristic response behaviours can...

  15. Environmentally friendly health care food services: a survey of beliefs, behaviours, and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Elisa D; Garcia, Alicia C

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing global interest in sustainability and the environment. A hospital/health care food service facility consumes large amounts of resources; therefore, efficiencies in operation can address sustainability. Beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours about environmentally friendly practices in hospital/health care food services were explored in this study. Questionnaires addressed environmentally friendly initiatives in building and equipment, waste management, food, and non-food procurement issues. The 68 participants included hospital food service managers, clinical dietitians, dietary aides, food technicians, and senior management. Data analysis included correlation analysis and descriptive statistics. Average scores for beliefs were high in building and equipment (90%), waste management (94%), and non-food procurement (87%), and lower in food-related initiatives (61%) such as buying locally, buying organic foods, buying sustainable fish products, and reducing animal proteins. Average positive scores for behaviours were positively correlated with beliefs (waste management, p=0.001; food, p=0.000; non-food procurement, p=0.002). Average positive scores for attitude in terms of implementing the initiatives in health care were 74% for building and equipment, 81% for waste management, 70% for non-food procurement, and 36% for food. The difference in food-related beliefs, behaviours, and attitudes suggests the need for education on environmental impacts of food choices. Research is recommended to determine facilitators and barriers to the implementation of green strategies in health care. As food experts, dietitians can lead changes in education, practice, and policy development.

  16. Investigating the probability of behavioural responses to cold thermal discomfort

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    In buildings, occupant behaviour is recognised as a major contributing factor to energy demand and in particular to heating consumption. To achieve thermal comfort within the heating season, people report to use heat in very different ways; for example behaviours include switching on the heating system, putting on warm clothes, drawing curtains, changing rooms, making a hot drink and using a hot water bottle. While research has focused on subjective accounts using interviews, diaries and ques...

  17. Parental responsibility beliefs: associations with parental anxiety and behaviours in the context of childhood anxiety disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetroaia, Adela; Hill, Claire; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Background High levels of parental anxiety are associated with poor treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Associated parental cognitions and behaviours have been implicated as impediments to successful treatment. We examined the association between parental responsibility beliefs, maternal anxiety and parenting behaviours in the context of childhood anxiety disorders. Methods Anxious and non-anxious mothers of 7–12 year old children with a current anxiety disorder reported their parental responsibility beliefs using a questionnaire measure. Parental behaviours towards their child during a stressor task were measured. Results Parents with a current anxiety disorder reported a greater sense of responsibility for their child's actions and wellbeing than parents who scored within the normal range for anxiety. Furthermore, higher parental responsibility was associated with more intrusive and less warm behaviours in parent–child interactions and there was an indirect effect between maternal anxiety and maternal intrusive behaviours via parental responsibility beliefs. Limitations The sample was limited to a treatment-seeking, relatively high socio-economic population and only mothers were included so replication with more diverse groups is needed. The use of a range of stressor tasks may have allowed for a more comprehensive assessment of parental behaviours. Conclusions The findings suggest that parental anxiety disorder is associated with an elevated sense of parental responsibility and may promote parental behaviours likely to inhibit optimum child treatment outcomes. Parental responsibility beliefs may therefore be important to target in child anxiety treatments in the context of parental anxiety disorders. PMID:26363612

  18. Taking a comparative approach: analysing personality as a multivariate behavioural response across species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecia J Carter

    Full Text Available Animal personality, repeatable behaviour through time and across contexts, is ecologically and evolutionarily important as it can account for the exhibition of sub-optimal behaviours. Interspecific comparisons have been suggested as important for understanding the evolution of animal personality; however, these are seldom accomplished due, in part, to the lack of statistical tools for quantifying differences and similarities in behaviour between groups of individuals. We used nine species of closely-related coral reef fishes to investigate the usefulness of ecological community analyses for the analysis of between-species behavioural differences and behavioural heterogeneity. We first documented behavioural carryover across species by observing the fishes' behaviour and measuring their response to a threatening stimulus to quantify boldness. Bold fish spent more time away from the reef and fed more than shy fish. We then used ecological community analysis tools (canonical variate analysis, multi-response permutation procedure, and permutational analysis of multivariate dispersion and identified four 'clusters' of behaviourally similar fishes, and found that the species differ in the behavioural variation expressed; some species are more behaviourally heterogeneous than others. We found that ecological community analysis tools are easily and fruitfully applied to comparative studies of personality and encourage their use by future studies.

  19. Taking a comparative approach: analysing personality as a multivariate behavioural response across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Alecia J; Feeney, William E

    2012-01-01

    Animal personality, repeatable behaviour through time and across contexts, is ecologically and evolutionarily important as it can account for the exhibition of sub-optimal behaviours. Interspecific comparisons have been suggested as important for understanding the evolution of animal personality; however, these are seldom accomplished due, in part, to the lack of statistical tools for quantifying differences and similarities in behaviour between groups of individuals. We used nine species of closely-related coral reef fishes to investigate the usefulness of ecological community analyses for the analysis of between-species behavioural differences and behavioural heterogeneity. We first documented behavioural carryover across species by observing the fishes' behaviour and measuring their response to a threatening stimulus to quantify boldness. Bold fish spent more time away from the reef and fed more than shy fish. We then used ecological community analysis tools (canonical variate analysis, multi-response permutation procedure, and permutational analysis of multivariate dispersion) and identified four 'clusters' of behaviourally similar fishes, and found that the species differ in the behavioural variation expressed; some species are more behaviourally heterogeneous than others. We found that ecological community analysis tools are easily and fruitfully applied to comparative studies of personality and encourage their use by future studies.

  20. Environmental plasticity of fish avoidance diapause response in Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław ŚLUSARCZYK

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Organisms cope with harsh environmental conditions in various ways: either by tolerating environmental stress (through physiological adaptations, or by avoiding it in space (through migration or time (diapause. Some species rely on a single strategy while others may choose from an array of options when facing different environmental stressors. Planktonic crustaceans may utilise different active (morphological, behavioural, life-history or passive (diapause defences to survive periods of high risk of fish predation. Recent evidence has indicated that resting egg production could be induced in Daphnia magna by chemical cues associated with fish predation. This suggests that contrary to most known cases of diapause, which are triggered well in advance of catastrophic events (here termed "predictive diapause", fish avoidance diapause in D. magna may exhibit a "responsive nature" and be initiated only after intensive predation appears. Experimental evidence discussed here indicates that the reaction of D. magna to chemical signals of fish predation could be conditional and determined by key environmental conditions, which in nature affect relative gains of activity vs dormancy. At high risk of fish predation, the decision of Daphnia to produce resting eggs was disfavoured by high food concentration. This reaction was claimed adaptive since high food allows for higher reproductive rates and better survival of offspring. All this may assure higher benefits due to activity despite some risk of predation (once predation pressure is not fatal to all active descendants and disfavour resting eggs production. Moreover, at moderate food conditions the decision of Daphnia to produce resting eggs was disfavoured by the availability of a dark refuge from fish visual predators and thus likely lowering the risk of being preyed upon. Furthermore, when food was at a moderate level and a dark refuge was not present the decision of Daphnia to produce resting eggs was

  1. The influence of insecticide exposure and environmental stimuli on the movement behaviour and dispersal of a freshwater isopod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusiak, Jacqueline; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2016-09-01

    Behaviour links physiological function with ecological processes and can be very sensitive towards environmental stimuli and chemical exposure. As such, behavioural indicators of toxicity are well suited for assessing impacts of pesticides at sublethal concentrations found in the environment. Recent developments in video-tracking technologies offer the possibility of quantifying behavioural patterns, particularly locomotion, which in general has not been studied and understood very well for aquatic macroinvertebrates to date. In this study, we aim to determine the potential effects of exposure to two neurotoxic pesticides with different modes of action at different concentrations (chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid) on the locomotion behaviour of the water louse Asellus aquaticus. We compare the effects of the different exposure regimes on the behaviour of Asellus with the effects that the presence of food and shelter exhibit to estimate the ecological relevance of behavioural changes. We found that sublethal pesticide exposure reduced dispersal distances compared to controls, whereby exposure to chlorpyrifos affected not only animal activity but also step lengths while imidacloprid only slightly affected step lengths. The presence of natural cues such as food or shelter induced only minor changes in behaviour, which hardly translated to changes in dispersal potential. These findings illustrate that behaviour can serve as a sensitive endpoint in toxicity assessments. However, under natural conditions, depending on the exposure concentration, the actual impacts might be outweighed by environmental conditions that an organism is subjected to. It is, therefore, of importance that the assessment of toxicity on behaviour is done under relevant environmental conditions.

  2. Reducing Students' Carbon Footprints Using Personal Carbon Footprint Management System Based on Environmental Behavioural Theory and Persuasive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shyh-ming

    2016-01-01

    This study applied environmental behavioural theories to develop a personal carbon footprint management system and used persuasive technology to implement it. The system serves as an educational system to improve the determinants of students' low-carbon behaviours, to promote low-carbon concepts and to facilitate their carbon management. To assess…

  3. Development and validation of the ACSI : measuring students' science attitudes, pro-environmental behaviour, climate change attitudes and knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of

  4. Measuring Professional Behaviour in Canadian Physical Therapy Students' Objective Structured Clinical Examinations: An Environmental Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerton, Cindy; Evans, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify professional behaviours measured in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) by Canadian university physical therapy (PT) programs. Method: A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted to review current practice and determine which OSCE items Canadian PT programs are using to measure PT students' professional behaviours. Telephone interviews using semi-structured questions were conducted with individual instructors responsible for courses that included an OSCE as part of the assessment component. Results: Nine PT programmes agreed to take part in the study, and all reported conducting at least one OSCE. The number and characteristics of OSCEs varied both within and across programs. Participants identified 31 professional behaviour items for use in an OSCE; these items clustered into four categories: communication (n=14), respect (n=10), patient safety (n=4), and physical therapists' characteristics (n=3). Conclusions: All Canadian entry-level PT programmes surveyed assess professional behaviours in OSCE-type examinations; however, the content and style of assessment is variable. The local environment should be considered when determining what professional behaviours are appropriate to assess in the OSCE context in individual programmes. PMID:25931656

  5. Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events: challenges and directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    More extreme climatic events (ECEs) are among the most prominent consequences of climate change. Despite a long-standing recognition of the importance of ECEs by paleo-ecologists and macro-evolutionary biologists, ECEs have only recently received a strong interest in the wider ecological and evolutionary community. However, as with many rapidly expanding fields, it lacks structure and cohesiveness, which strongly limits scientific progress. Furthermore, due to the descriptive and anecdotal nature of many ECE studies it is still unclear what the most relevant questions and long-term consequences are of ECEs. To improve synthesis, we first discuss ways to define ECEs that facilitate comparison among studies. We then argue that biologists should adhere to more rigorous attribution and mechanistic methods to assess ECE impacts. Subsequently, we discuss conceptual and methodological links with climatology and disturbance-, tipping point- and paleo-ecology. These research fields have close linkages with ECE research, but differ in the identity and/or the relative severity of environmental factors. By summarizing the contributions to this theme issue we draw parallels between behavioural, ecological and evolutionary ECE studies, and suggest that an overarching challenge is that most empirical and theoretical evidence points towards responses being highly idiosyncratic, and thus predictability being low. Finally, we suggest a roadmap based on the proposition that an increased focus on the mechanisms behind the biological response function will be crucial for increased understanding and predictability of the impacts of ECE. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Behavioural, ecological and evolutionary responses to extreme climatic events’. PMID:28483865

  6. Environmental enrichment reduces behavioural alterations induced by chronic stress in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, A; Houdelier, C; Calandreau, L; Arnould, C; Favreau-Peigné, A; Leterrier, C; Boissy, A; Lumineau, S

    2015-02-01

    Animals perceiving repeated aversive events can become chronically stressed. Chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can have deleterious consequences on physiological parameters (e.g. BW, blood chemistry) and behaviour (e.g. emotional reactivity, stereotypies, cognition). Environmental enrichment (EE) can be a mean to reduce animal stress and to improve welfare. The aim of this study was first, to assess the effects of EE in battery cages on the behaviour of young Japanese quail and second, to evaluate the impact of EE on quail exposed to chronic stress. The experiment involved quail housed in EE cages and submitted or not to a chronic stress procedure (CSP) (EE cages, control quail: n=16, CSP quail: n=14) and quail housed in standard cages and exposed or not to the CSP (standard non-EE cages, control quail: n=12, CSP quail: n=16). Our procedure consisted of repeated aversive events (e.g. ventilators, delaying access to food, physical restraint, noise) presented two to five times per 24 h, randomly, for 15 days. During CSP, EE improved quail's welfare as their stereotypic pacing decreased and they rested more. CSP decreased exploration in all quail. After the end of CSP, quail presented increased emotional reactivity in emergence test. However, the effect of EE varied with test. Finally, chronic stress effects on comfort behaviours in the emergence test were alleviated by EE. These results indicate that EE can alleviate some aspects of behavioural alterations induced by CSP.

  7. Chemical Speciation of Long-lived Radionuclide Technetium-99 and its Environmental Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Keliang

    Because of the high fission yield, high mobility and long half-life, technetium-99 is considered to be one of the most important radionuclides in environmental trace application as well as nuclear waste management. The study on the determination of technetium and its speciation is therefore a key...... issue for understanding its fate and behaviour in ecosystem. This thesis aims to develop series of analytical methods for rapid and accurate determination of total 99Tc in environmental samples (e.g., seaweed, soil, and seawater), as well as speciation analysis of 99Tc in seaweeds. The application of 99...... limit of 1.5 mBq for 99Tc was obtained by ICP-MS measurement. The analytical methods were proved to be reliable and have been successfully applied for the determination of 99Tc in environmental samples. An analytical method for chemical speciation of 99Tc in natural seaweed has been developed. Different...

  8. Preschool childrenʼs understanding of pro-environmental behaviours: is it too hard for them?

    OpenAIRE

    Kos, Marjanca; Jerman, Janez; Anžlovar, Urška; Torkar, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood is a period of life in which lifelong attitudes, values and patterns of behaviour regarding nature are shaped. Environmental education is becoming a growing area of interest in early childhood education. The aim of the research study was to identify children’s understanding of why and how their pro-environmental behaviours influence the environment. The sample was composed of 40 children aged 5 and 6. A quasi-experiment was conducted with control and experimental groups, each ...

  9. Responsive feeding: establishing healthy eating behaviour early on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The literature indicates that RF is the foundation for the development of healthy eating behaviour and optimal skills for self-regulation and self-control of food intake. Therefore, practising RF is associated with ideal growth standards, optimal nutrient intake and long-term regulation of weight. On the other hand, nonresponsive ...

  10. Behavioural responses of four goat genotypes to successive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immediately after blood and faecal collection, behavioural measurements through vocalization scoring (VS), pen scoring (PS), crush scoring (CS), flight speed (FS) and flight time (FT) were recorded for each goat every forth-night for 8 weeks. The Nguni was the most temperamental (p < 0.05) and the Boer goats were the ...

  11. Adult Response to Children's Exploratory Behaviours: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chak, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Children's interest in exploration is the hallmark of their curiosity. As people who are significant in organising children's environment, how teachers and parents respond to children's exploratory behaviours may promote or hinder the child's desire for further investigation. With reference to Kurt Lewin's concept of "total situation",…

  12. Gender Differences in Responsible Sexual Behaviour of In-School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Section A tapped demographical information such as age, sex, an religion while Section B is the sexual behaviour scale developed by Oluwatelure, (2011). The Cronbach alpha of the scale in the present study was .90. T-test of independent ...

  13. Team Learning Beliefs and Behaviours in Response Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Anne; Raes, Elisabeth; Kyndt, Eva; Dochy, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Teams, teamwork and team learning have been the subject of many research studies over the last decades. This article aims at investigating and confirming the Team Learning Beliefs and Behaviours (TLB&B) model within a very specific population, i.e. police and firemen teams. Within this context, the paper asks whether the team's…

  14. Benthic diatom response to changing environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibic, Tamara; Comici, Cinzia; Bussani, Andrea; Del Negro, Paola

    2012-12-01

    In the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea, Italy) the benthic diatom community dynamics has been studied for seven years (1999-2005) at two sublittoral stations and related to variations of temperature, salinity, nutrient concentrations, freshwater inflow and mucilage. Bin-averaged temperature versus abundance of the main genera revealed that Nitzschia and Navicula presented a positive stepped trend with increasing temperature. An increase of ca. 860 ± 150 cells per cm3 per °C was calculated for Navicula and up to 590 ± 170 cells per cm3 per °C for Nitzschia. The genus Pleurosigma revealed a negative trend with increasing temperature, with a calculated decrease of ca. 140 ± 60 cells per cm3 per °C. A negative relation between Diploneis and temperature was found only in the shallower site. A peak of the tychopelagic genus Cylindrotheca was observed in correspondence with high salinity, but no significant results between bin-averaged salinity and benthic diatom abundance were found. Significant negative relations were obtained between bin-averaged abundance of Pleurosigma and H4SiO4 and NO3- at the deeper station and between the bin-averaged abundance of Gyrosigma and NH4+ at the coastal station. In this site the abundance of Gyrosigma showed a significant increasing trend over the study period. Navicula and Nitzschia seemed to suffer from the presence of mucilage events occurred in summer 2000 and 2004 whereas Diploneis occupied the ecological niche which remained temporarily uncovered by Navicula and Nitzschia. An exceptional freshwater plume with extremely high terrigenous input in November 2000 completely covered the benthic diatom community, causing a remarkable decrease in its total abundance in late autumn and winter 2000-01. The Gulf of Trieste may be considered a natural megacosm due to its geomorphologic characteristics and therefore the benthic diatom response to changing environmental conditions observed in this site could be extended beyond the

  15. Influence of User Behaviour on Indoor Environmental Quality and Heating Energy Consumptions in Danish Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano Paolo

    Models of occupants’ interactions with heating controls based on measurements were implemented in a simulation program. Simulation results were given as probability distributions of energy consumption and indoor environmental quality depending on user behaviour. Heating set-point behaviour of 13...... Danish dwellings were analysed by means of logistic regression to infer the probability of adjusting the set-point of TRVs. Three different models of occupant’s interactions with heating controls were obtained and implemented in a building simulation tool. They were used to investigate how different...... probabilistic user patterns influence indoor climate quality and energy consumptions. The aim was to compare the obtained results with an actual/deterministic use of the simulation program. Since comfort categories are related to users’ expectations and the users’ impact is crucial on determining the energy...

  16. Behavioural responses to facial and postural expressions of emotion: An interpersonal circumplex approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aan Het Rot, Marije; Enea, Violeta; Dafinoiu, Ion; Iancu, Sorina; Taftă, Steluţa A; Bărbuşelu, Mariana

    2017-11-01

    While the recognition of emotional expressions has been extensively studied, the behavioural response to these expressions has not. In the interpersonal circumplex, behaviour is defined in terms of communion and agency. In this study, we examined behavioural responses to both facial and postural expressions of emotion. We presented 101 Romanian students with facial and postural stimuli involving individuals ('targets') expressing happiness, sadness, anger, or fear. Using an interpersonal grid, participants simultaneously indicated how communal (i.e., quarrelsome or agreeable) and agentic (i.e., dominant or submissive) they would be towards people displaying these expressions. Participants were agreeable-dominant towards targets showing happy facial expressions and primarily quarrelsome towards targets with angry or fearful facial expressions. Responses to targets showing sad facial expressions were neutral on both dimensions of interpersonal behaviour. Postural versus facial expressions of happiness and anger elicited similar behavioural responses. Participants responded in a quarrelsome-submissive way to fearful postural expressions and in an agreeable way to sad postural expressions. Behavioural responses to the various facial expressions were largely comparable to those previously observed in Dutch students. Observed differences may be explained from participants' cultural background. Responses to the postural expressions largely matched responses to the facial expressions. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Perceived parental rearing behaviours, responsibility attitudes and life events as predictors of obsessive compulsive symptomatology: test of a cognitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Bikem; Karanci, A Nuray

    2014-11-01

    It is important to investigate the role of cognitive, developmental and environmental factors in the development and maintenance of Obsessive Compulsive Symptomatology (OCS). The main objective of this study was to examine the vulnerability factors of OCS in a non-clinical sample. On the basis of Salkovskis' cognitive model of OCD, the study aimed to investigate the role of perceived parental rearing behaviours, responsibility attitudes, and life events in predicting OCS. Furthermore, the mediator role of responsibility attitudes in the relationship between perceived parental rearing behaviours and OCS was examined. Finally, the specificity of these variables to OCS was evaluated by examining the relationship of the same variables with depression and trait anxiety. A total of 300 university students (M = 19.55±1.79) were administered the Padua Inventory-Washington State University Revision, Responsibility Attitudes Scale, s-EMBU (My memories of upbringing), Life Events Inventory for University Students, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Form. Regression analysis revealed that perceived mother overprotection, responsibility attitudes and life events significantly predicted OCS. Furthermore, responsibility attitudes mediated the relationship between perceived mother overprotection and OCS. The predictive role of perceived mother overprotection and the mediator role responsibility attitudes were OCS specific. The findings of the present study supported that perceived mother over-protection as a developmental vulnerability factor significantly contributed to the explanation of a cognitive vulnerability factor (namely responsibility attitudes), and perceived maternal overprotection had its predictive role for OCS through responsibility attitudes.

  18. Environmental Problems in Africa: A Theological Response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol.3 No.2 2010 ... Climate change is a global environmental problem and while ..... risk for cancer. In addition, there are the bio- technological hazards associated with genetic modifications carried out in research laboratories and by the pharmaceutical industry ...

  19. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) behavioural response to bioinspired robotic fish and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polverino, Giovanni; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-12-01

    The field of ethorobotics holds promise in aiding fundamental research in animal behaviour, whereby it affords fully controllable and easily reproducible experimental tools. Most of the current ethorobotics studies are focused on the behavioural response of a selected target species as it interacts with a biologically-inspired robot in controlled laboratory conditions. In this work, we first explore the interactions between two social fish species and a robotic fish, whose design is inspired by salient visual features of one of the species. Specifically, this study investigates the behavioural response of small shoals of zebrafish interacting with a zebrafish-inspired robotic fish and small shoals of mosquitofish in a basic ecological context. Our results demonstrate that the robotic fish differentially influences the behaviour of the two species by consistently attracting zebrafish, while repelling mosquitofish. This selective behavioural control is successful in spatially isolating the two species, which would otherwise exhibit prey-predator interactions, with mosquitofish attacking zebrafish.

  20. Environmental variation and population responses to global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawson, Callum R.; Vindenes, Yngvild; Bailey, Liam; van de Pol, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Species' responses to environmental changes such as global warming are affected not only by trends in mean conditions, but also by natural and human-induced environmental fluctuations. Methods are needed to predict how such environmental variation affects ecological and evolutionary processes, in

  1. Socio-environmental, personal and behavioural predictors of fast-food intake among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Katherine W; Larson, Nicole I; Nelson, Melissa C; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2009-10-01

    To identify the socio-environmental, personal and behavioural factors that are longitudinally predictive of changes in adolescents' fast-food intake. Population-based longitudinal cohort study. Participants from Minnesota schools completed in-class assessments in 1999 (Time 1) while in middle school and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2) while in high school. A racially, ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of adolescents (n 806). Availability of unhealthy food at home, being born in the USA and preferring the taste of unhealthy foods were predictive of higher fast-food intake after 5 years among both males and females. Among females, personal and behavioural factors, including concern about weight and use of healthy weight-control techniques, were protective against increased fast-food intake. Among males, socio-environmental factors, including maternal and friends' concern for eating healthy food and maternal encouragement to eat healthy food, were predictive of lower fast-food intake. Sports team participation was a strong risk factor for increased fast-food intake among males. Our findings suggest that addressing socio-environmental factors such as acculturation and home food availability may help reduce fast-food intake among adolescents. Additionally, gender-specific intervention strategies, including working with boys' sports teams, family members and the peer group, and for girls, emphasizing the importance of healthy weight-maintenance strategies and the addition of flavourful and healthy food options to their diet, may help reduce fast-food intake.

  2. Behavioural ecotoxicology, an “early warning” signal to assess environmental quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background In this review, the position of behavioural ecotoxicology within the available means to assess the status of marine environments is described as filling the gap for the needed “early warning” signals. A few examples of studies performed since the 1960s are discussed to highlight the sensitivity of these approaches in investigating the effects of chemicals, including priority pollutants and emerging contaminants, relative to conventional toxicity tests measuring survival. Discussion The advantage of the behavioural response is due to the integration of biochemical and physiological processes that reflect changes at higher levels of organisation with ecological relevance. Avoidance often represents a behavioural symptom easily detected in many animals exposed to contaminants and would be a useful test to explore more widely. This rapid response would reflect a defence mechanism protective against further exposure and the potential development of more pronounced deleterious effects, whilst in some cases, escape could lead to the relocation of a species with negative consequences. An investigation of the avoidance behaviour of mud shrimp, Corophium volutator, along with the chemical analyses of sediments and amphipods to assess the quality of harbour sediments is summarised. The body burden of the amphipods was 1,000 times lower than the one associated with narcosis, emphasizing the sensitivity of this endpoint. The application of this acute toxicity test is briefly compared to additional work that involved intertidal mussels collected in the field. Conclusions Recent research undertaken with mud snails, Ilyanassa obsoleta, and harbour sediments confirmed the usefulness of the escape behaviour as an assessment tool. However, the limits of the state of knowledge regarding the fate of contaminants in species with the ability to metabolise contaminants is further discussed along with directions to be pursued to address questions arising from the reviewed

  3. A single class of olfactory neurons mediates behavioural responses to a Drosophila sex pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtovic, Amina; Widmer, Alexandre; Dickson, Barry J

    2007-03-29

    Insects, like many other animals, use sex pheromones to coordinate their reproductive behaviours. Volatile pheromones are detected by odorant receptors expressed in olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). Whereas fruit odours typically activate multiple ORN classes, pheromones are thought to act through single dedicated classes of ORN. This model predicts that activation of such an ORN class should be sufficient to trigger the appropriate behavioural response. Here we show that the Drosophila melanogaster male-specific pheromone 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) acts through the receptor Or67d to regulate both male and female mating behaviour. Mutant males that lack Or67d inappropriately court other males, whereas mutant females are less receptive to courting males. These data suggest that cVA has opposite effects in the two sexes: inhibiting mating behaviour in males but promoting mating behaviour in females. Replacing Or67d with moth pheromone receptors renders these ORNs sensitive to the corresponding moth pheromones. In such flies, moth pheromones elicit behavioural responses that mimic the normal response to cVA. Thus, activation of a single ORN class is both necessary and sufficient to mediate behavioural responses to the Drosophila sex pheromone cVA.

  4. Food for Thought: An Analysis of Pro-Environmental Behaviours and Food Choices in Ontario Environmental Studies Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, Mary

    2013-01-01

    In Canada, there exists a noteworthy educational initiative referred to as Environmental Studies Programs (ESPs). These secondary school programs are interdisciplinary, helping to link subject matter and encouraging student responsibility. This paper will present student reports from five case studies where I investigated how ESP participation…

  5. Study of mouse behavioural response in microgravity: ethogram and neurobiological related

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, Daniela; Francia, Nadia; Schwartz, Silvia; Biticchi, Roberta; Liu, Yi; Cancedda, Ranieri; Aloe, Luigi

    The conquest of space, which started with the dog Laika in 1966 to be followed few years later by Yuri Gagarin, has witnessed an increasing numbers of both vertebrates (tadpoles, frogs, rats mice etc.) and invertebrates (flies, scorpions, protozoa) species exposed to zero gravity levels. Animals are sent into orbit to proactively foresee possible health problems in humans. The issue of animal exposure to un-physiological gravity is of primary importance to i) understand behavioural and physiological adaptations in such environment as well as ii) develop coun-termeasures to improve 0-g life conditions and reduce possible animal suffering. The Mouse Drawer System (MDS), an Italian facility, has been transferred to the International Space Sta-tion with a first experiment investigating mechanisms underlying bone mass loss in microgravity in mice. Preliminary and ground-based control experiments have been conducted with six mice housed individually inside the MDS facility for 20 and 100 days. The behavioural repertoire of wild-type and transgenic mice housed in the MDS has been videorecorded with the observation subsystem, which allows to monitor animal's behavior through the use of 6 video cameras. The behavioural patterns characterizing mice in the MDS system have been finely analysed at several time points during the the experiment. Moreover, neurobiological parameters, known to be involved in the response to stress, have been evaluated. In particular, NGF and BDNF levels have been measured in the central nervous system (hippocampus, striatum, and cortex), adrenal gland and limbs. Preliminary data from ground based experiment revealed Several dif-ferences in behavioural profile between wt and tg mice, with transgenic ones apparently more active than wild type controls. Moreover a clear difference in time spent in different areas of the MDS cage was observed. Finally changes in neurotrophins levels were observed in relation to both genotype and environmental

  6. [Affective behavioural responses by dogs to tactile human-dog interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhne, Franziska; Hössler, Johanna C; Struwe, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The communication of dogs is based on complex, subtle body postures and facial expressions. Some social interaction between dogs includes physical contact. Humans generally use both verbal and tactile signals to communicate with dogs. Hence, interaction between humans and dogs might lead to conflicts because the behavioural responses of dogs to human-dog interaction may be misinterpreted and wrongly assessed. The behavioural responses of dogs to tactile human-dog interactions and human gestures are the focus of this study. The participating dogs (n = 47) were privately owned pets.They were of varying breed and gender.The test consisted of nine randomised test sequences (e. g. petting the dog's head or chest). A test sequence was performed for a period of 30 seconds. The inter-trial interval was set at 60 seconds and the test-retest interval was set at 10 minutes. The frequency and duration of the dogs'behavioural responses were recorded using INTERACT. To examine the behavioural responses of the dogs, a two-way analysis of variance within the linear mixed models procedure of IBM SPSS Statistics 19 was conducted. A significant influence of the test-sequenc order on the dogs' behaviour could be analysed for appeasement gestures (F8,137 = 2.42; p = 0.018), redirected behaviour (F8,161 = 6.31; p = 0.012) and socio-positive behaviour (F8,148 = 6.28; p = 0.012). The behavioural responses of the dogs, which were considered as displacement activities (F8,109 = 2.5; p = 0.014) differed significantly among the test sequences. The response of the dogs, measured as gestures of appeasement, redirected behaviours, and displacement activities, was most obvious during petting around the head and near the paws.The results of this study conspicuously indicate that dogs respond to tactile human-dog interactions with gestures of appeasement and displacement activities. Redirected behaviours, socio-positive behaviours as well displacement activities are behavioural responses which dogs

  7. Consumer behaviour and the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2005-01-01

    for the environmental cause, but for facilitating environmentally responsible behaviour in many specific ways. Research dealing with the diverse roles of information in the environmental field shows a need to distinguish between different forms and objectives of information, but also, it needs to be stressed......, that information alone is usually not sufficient to change behaviour (Stern, 1999). My aim here is to present a broad-brush overview of some of the most important roles that information has been found to play as a tool for pro-moting environmentally responsible consumer behaviour. Because this publication...

  8. Community stability under different correlation structures of species' environmental responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruokolainen, Lasse; Ranta, Esa; Kaitala, Veijo; Fowler, Mike S

    2009-12-07

    The outcome of species interactions in a variable environment is expected to depend on how similarly different species react to variation in environmental conditions. We study community stability (evenness and species diversity) in competitive communities that are either closed or subjected to random migration, under different regimes of environmental forcing. Community members respond to environmental variation: (i) independently (IR), (ii) in a positively correlated way (CR), or (iii) hierarchically, according to niche differences (HR). Increasing the amplitude of environmental variation and environmental reddening both reduce species evenness in closed communities through a reduction in species richness and increased skew in species abundances, under all three environmental response scenarios, although autocorrelation only has a minor effect with HR. Open communities show important qualitative differences, according to changes in the correlation structure of species' environmental responses. There is an intermediate minimum in evenness for HR communities with increasing environmental amplitude, explained by the interaction of changes in species richness and changes in the variance of within-species environmental responses across the community. Changes in autocorrelation also lead to qualitative differences between IR, CR and HR communities. Our results highlight the importance of considering mechanistically derived, hierarchical environmental correlations between species when addressing the influence of environmental variation on ecological communities, not only uniform environmental correlation across all species within a community.

  9. Butterfly Density and Behaviour in Uncut Hay Meadow Strips: Behavioural Ecological Consequences of an Agri-Environmental Scheme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Lebeau

    Full Text Available Sparing zones from mowing has been proposed, and applied, to improve local conditions for survival and reproduction of insects in hay meadows. However, little is known about the efficiency of refuge zones and the consequences for local populations. We studied population densities of butterflies before and after mowing in the refuge zone of 15 meadows in 2009 and 2011. We also studied the behaviour of the meadow brown (Maniola jurtina comparing nectar use, interactions and flights in the refuge zone before and after mowing. Densities of grassland butterflies in this zone doubled on average after mowing. The density of females of M. jurtina increased on average fourfold, while males showed a more modest increase. In line with the idea of increased scramble competition in the refuge zone after mowing, M. jurtina increased the time spent on nectar feeding, the preferred nectar source was visited more frequently, and females made more use of non-preferred nectar sources. Maniola jurtina did not interact more with conspecifics after mowing, but interactions lasted longer. Flight tracks did not change in linearity, but were faster and shorter after mowing. After mowing, only a part of the local grassland butterflies moved to the uncut refuge zone. The resulting concentration effect alters the time allocated to different activities, nectar use and movements. These aspects have been largely ignored for agri-environmental schemes and grassland management in nature reserves and raise questions about optimal quantities and quality of uncut refuge sites for efficient conservation of grassland arthropods in agricultural landscapes.

  10. Socio-cultural, environmental and behavioural determinants of obesity in black South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklesfield, Lisa K; Lambert, Estelle V; Hume, David John; Chantler, Sarah; Pienaar, Paula R; Dickie, Kasha; Puoane, Thandi; Goedecke, Julia H

    2013-01-01

    South Africa (SA) is undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition and has the highest prevalence of obesity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with black women being the most affected (obesity prevalence 31.8%). Although genetic factors are important, socio-cultural, environmental and behavioural factors, as well as the influence of socio-economic status, more likely explain the high prevalence of obesity in black SA women. This review examines these determinants in black SA women, and compares them to their white counterparts, black SA men, and where appropriate, to women from SSA. Specifically this review focuses on environmental factors influencing obesity, the influence of urbanisation, as well as the interaction with socio-cultural and socio-economic factors. In addition, the role of maternal and early life factors and cultural aspects relating to body image are discussed. This information can be used to guide public health interventions aimed at reducing obesity in black SA women.

  11. Response styles, bipolar risk, and mood in students: The Behaviours Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Claire; Dodd, Alyson L; Collins, Alan

    2015-12-01

    An Integrative Cognitive Model of mood swings and bipolar disorder proposes that extreme positive and negative appraisals about internal states trigger ascent and descent behaviours, contributing to the onset and maintenance of mood swings. This study investigated the reliability and validity of a new inventory, the Behaviours Checklist (BC), by measuring associations with appraisals, response styles to positive and negative affect, bipolar risk, mania, and depression. Correlational analogue study. Students (N = 134) completed the BC alongside measures of appraisals, response styles to positive and negative mood, mania, depression, and hypomanic personality (bipolar risk). The BC was of adequate reliability and showed good validity. Ascent behaviours and appraisals predicted bipolar risk, whereas descent behaviours and appraisals were associated with depression. Appraisals, ascent, and descent behaviours may play an important role in the development and maintenance of mood swings. Limitations and research recommendations are outlined. Extreme positive and negative appraisals of internal states, and subsequent behavioural responses (ascent and descent behaviours), are associated with bipolar risk and bipolar mood symptoms in a student sample. These processes are involved with mood dysregulation in clinical populations as well as bipolar risk in students, with implications for mood management. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Modeling adaptive and non-adaptive responses to environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coulson, Tim; Kendall, Bruce E; Barthold, Julia A.

    2017-01-01

    , with plastic responses being either adaptive or non-adaptive. We develop an approach that links quantitative genetic theory with data-driven structured models to allow prediction of population responses to environmental change via plasticity and adaptive evolution. After introducing general new theory, we...... construct a number of example models to demonstrate that evolutionary responses to environmental change over the short-term will be considerably slower than plastic responses, and that the rate of adaptive evolution to a new environment depends upon whether plastic responses are adaptive or non-adaptive......Understanding how the natural world will be impacted by environmental change over the coming decades is one of the most pressing challenges facing humanity. Addressing this challenge is difficult because environmental change can generate both population level plastic and evolutionary responses...

  13. The behavioural response of migrating humpback whales to a full seismic airgun array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Rebecca A; Noad, Michael J; McCauley, Robert D; Kniest, Eric; Slade, Robert; Paton, David; Cato, Douglas H

    2017-12-20

    Despite concerns on the effects of noise from seismic survey airguns on marine organisms, there remains uncertainty as to the biological significance of any response. This study quantifies and interprets the response of migrating humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae ) to a 3130 in 3 (51.3l) commercial airgun array. We compare the behavioural responses to active trials (array operational; n = 34 whale groups), with responses to control trials (source vessel towing the array while silent; n = 33) and baseline studies of normal behaviour in the absence of the vessel ( n = 85). No abnormal behaviours were recorded during the trials. However, in response to the active seismic array and the controls , the whales displayed changes in behaviour. Changes in respiration rate were of a similar magnitude to changes in baseline groups being joined by other animals suggesting any change group energetics was within their behavioural repertoire. However, the reduced progression southwards in response to the active treatments, for some cohorts, was below typical migratory speeds. This response was more likely to occur within 4 km from the array at received levels over 135 dB re 1 µPa 2 s. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Echinoderms display morphological and behavioural phenotypic plasticity in response to their trophic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adam D; Brunner, Lars; Cook, Elizabeth J; Kelly, Maeve S; Wilson, Ben

    2012-01-01

    The trophic interactions of sea urchins are known to be the agents of phase shifts in benthic marine habitats such as tropical and temperate reefs. In temperate reefs, the grazing activity of sea urchins has been responsible for the destruction of kelp forests and the formation of 'urchin barrens', a rocky habitat dominated by crustose algae and encrusting invertebrates. Once formed, these urchin barrens can persist for decades. Trophic plasticity in the sea urchin may contribute to the stability and resilience of this alternate stable state by increasing diet breadth in sea urchins. This plasticity promotes ecological connectivity and weakens species interactions and so increases ecosystem stability. We test the hypothesis that sea urchins exhibit trophic plasticity using an approach that controls for other typically confounding environmental and genetic factors. To do this, we exposed a genetically homogenous population of sea urchins to two very different trophic environments over a period of two years. The sea urchins exhibited a wide degree of phenotypic trophic plasticity when exposed to contrasting trophic environments. The two populations developed differences in their gross morphology and the test microstructure. In addition, when challenged with unfamiliar prey, the response of each group was different. We show that sea urchins exhibit significant morphological and behavioural phenotypic plasticity independent of their environment or their nutritional status.

  15. Echinoderms display morphological and behavioural phenotypic plasticity in response to their trophic environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Hughes

    Full Text Available The trophic interactions of sea urchins are known to be the agents of phase shifts in benthic marine habitats such as tropical and temperate reefs. In temperate reefs, the grazing activity of sea urchins has been responsible for the destruction of kelp forests and the formation of 'urchin barrens', a rocky habitat dominated by crustose algae and encrusting invertebrates. Once formed, these urchin barrens can persist for decades. Trophic plasticity in the sea urchin may contribute to the stability and resilience of this alternate stable state by increasing diet breadth in sea urchins. This plasticity promotes ecological connectivity and weakens species interactions and so increases ecosystem stability. We test the hypothesis that sea urchins exhibit trophic plasticity using an approach that controls for other typically confounding environmental and genetic factors. To do this, we exposed a genetically homogenous population of sea urchins to two very different trophic environments over a period of two years. The sea urchins exhibited a wide degree of phenotypic trophic plasticity when exposed to contrasting trophic environments. The two populations developed differences in their gross morphology and the test microstructure. In addition, when challenged with unfamiliar prey, the response of each group was different. We show that sea urchins exhibit significant morphological and behavioural phenotypic plasticity independent of their environment or their nutritional status.

  16. Behavioural and physiological responses of shelter dogs to long-term confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Dalla Villa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, National Law (281/1991 prohibits euthanasia of shelter dogs if they are not dangerous or suffering seriously. Adoption rates in rescue shelters are often lower than entrance rates, leading inevitably to overcrowded facilities where animals are likely to spend the rest of their lives in kennels. In this situation, housing conditions (i.e. space provided, environmental, and social stimulation may have an impact on canine welfare. In this research project, the effects of two different forms of housing (group- and pair housing on long-term shelter dogs were compared using behavioural and physiological parameters. Observational data and saliva samples were collected from dogs exposed to both experimental settings; behaviour and cortisol concentration levels were used as welfare indicators. Pair housing offered fewer social and environmental stimuli and behavioural analysis showed a significant decrease in locomotor, exploratory, and social behaviour. Cortisol levels show that this parameter varied independently of housing conditions. Although this study found no evidence suggesting that one form of confinement reduced animal welfare more than the other (e.g. in terms of abnormal behaviour, or higher cortisol concentrations, the type of confinement did affect the expression of a variety of behaviours and these variations should not be ignored with respect to housing decisions for long-term shelter dogs.

  17. Behavioural and physiological responses of shelter dogs to long-term confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Villa, Paolo; Barnard, Shanis; Di Fede, Elisa; Podaliri, Michele; Candeloro, Luca; Di Nardo, Antonio; Siracusa, Carlo; Serpell, James A

    2013-01-01

    In Italy, National Law (281/1991) prohibits euthanasia of shelter dogs if they are not dangerous or suffering seriously. Adoption rates in rescue shelters are often lower than entrance rates, leading inevitably to overcrowded facilities where animals are likely to spend the rest of their lives in kennels. In this situation, housing conditions (i.e. space provided, environmental, and social stimulation) may have an impact on canine welfare. In this research project, the effects of two different forms of housing (group- and pair housing) on long-term shelter dogs were compared using behavioural and physiological parameters. Observational data and saliva samples were collected from dogs exposed to both experimental settings; behaviour and cortisol concentration levels were used as welfare indicators. Pair housing offered fewer social and environmental stimuli and behavioural analysis showed a significant decrease in locomotor, exploratory, and social behaviour. Cortisol levels show that this parameter varied independently of housing conditions. Although this study found no evidence suggesting that one form of confinement reduced animal welfare more than the other (e.g. in terms of abnormal behaviour, or higher cortisol concentrations), the type of confinement did affect the expression of a variety of behaviours and these variations should not be ignored with respect to housing decisions for long-term shelter dogs.

  18. Schooling behaviour and environmental forcing in relation to anchoveta distribution: An analysis across multiple spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Arnaud; Gerlotto, François; Bertrand, Sophie; Gutiérrez, Mariano; Alza, Luis; Chipollini, Andres; Díaz, Erich; Espinoza, Pepe; Ledesma, Jesús; Quesquén, Roberto; Peraltilla, Salvador; Chavez, Francisco

    2008-10-01

    The Peruvian anchovy or anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) supports the highest worldwide fishery landings and varies in space and time over many scales. Here we present the first comprehensive sub-mesocale study of anchoveta distribution in relation to the environment. During November 2004, we conducted a behavioural ecology survey off central Peru and used a series of observational and sampling tools including SST and CO 2 sensors, Niskin bottles, CTD probes, zooplankton sampling, stomach content analysis, echo-sounder, multibeam sonar, and bird observations. The sub-mesoscale survey areas were chosen from mesoscale acoustic surveys. A routine coast-wide (∼2000 km) acoustic survey performed just after the sub-mesoscale surveys, provided information at an even larger population scale. The availability of nearly concurrent sub-mesoscale, mesoscale and coast-wide information on anchoveta distribution allowed for a unique multi-scale synthesis. At the sub-mesoscale (100s m to km) physical processes (internal waves and frontogenesis) concentrated plankton into patches and determined anchoveta spatial distribution. At the mesoscale (10s km) location relative to the zone of active upwelling (and age of the upwelled water) and the depth of the oxycline had strong impacts on the anchoveta. Finally, over 100s km the size of the productive area, as defined by the upwelled cold coastal waters, was the determining factor. We propose a conceptual view of the relative importance of social behaviour and environmental (biotic and abiotic) processes on the spatial distribution of anchoveta. Our ecological space has two y-axis; one based on self-organization (social behaviour), and the other based on the environmental processes. At scales from the individual (10s cm), to the nucleus (m), social behaviour (e.g. the need to school) drives spatial organization. At scales larger than the school, environmental forces are the main driver of fish distribution. The conceptual ecosystem

  19. Immune response and insulin signalling alter mosquito feeding behaviour to enhance malaria transmission potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cator, Lauren J; Pietri, Jose E; Murdock, Courtney C; Ohm, Johanna R; Lewis, Edwin E; Read, Andrew F; Luckhart, Shirley; Thomas, Matthew B

    2015-07-08

    Malaria parasites alter mosquito feeding behaviour in a way that enhances parasite transmission. This is widely considered a prime example of manipulation of host behaviour to increase onward transmission, but transient immune challenge in the absence of parasites can induce the same behavioural phenotype. Here, we show that alterations in feeding behaviour depend on the timing and dose of immune challenge relative to blood ingestion and that these changes are functionally linked to changes in insulin signalling in the mosquito gut. These results suggest that altered phenotypes derive from insulin signalling-dependent host resource allocation among immunity, blood feeding, and reproduction in a manner that is not specific to malaria parasite infection. We measured large increases in mosquito survival and subsequent transmission potential when feeding patterns are altered. Leveraging these changes in physiology, behaviour and life history could promote effective and sustainable control of female mosquitoes responsible for transmission.

  20. Prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants and behavioural problems at age 7-8years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; Den Hond, Elly; Nelen, Vera; Van de Mieroop, Els; Croes, Kim; Van Larebeke, Nik; Nawrot, Tim S; Schoeters, Greet

    2013-09-01

    Animal studies showed that the developing brain is particularly sensitive to chemical exposure. Human studies carried out in areas with high exposures have proven neurodevelopmental disorders in relation to e.g. lead and PCBs. Whether these chemicals are associated with behavioural problems in childhood at current environmental levels is not well known. Therefore, we assessed the association between prenatal exposure to lead, cadmium, PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, HCB and p,p'-DDE and behavioural problems in 7-8year old children. Prenatal exposure data were obtained from the Flemish mother-new-born cohort. Lead, cadmium, PCBs, dioxin-like compounds, HCB and p,p'-DDE were analysed in cord blood. When the child reached 7-8years, 270 mothers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire assessing their children's behavioural health. We found that doubling the prenatal lead exposure (cord blood lead levels) was associated with a 3.43 times higher risk for hyperactivity in both boys and girls. In addition, total difficulties were 5.08 times more likely in the highest tertile for prenatal lead exposure compared to the lowest tertile. In girls, total difficulties were 4.92 more likely when doubling cord blood p,p'-DDE, whereas no significant association was found in boys. Further, we noted in boys a 1.53 times higher risk for emotional problems when doubling cord blood cadmium, whereas no significant association was found in girls. These results indicate that the presence of environmental contaminants influences the mental health of the next generation. © 2013.

  1. Capturing the Interrelationship between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children in the Context of Diverse Environmental Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun R. Katapally

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though physical activity and sedentary behaviour are two distinct behaviours, their interdependent relationship needs to be studied in the same environment. This study examines the influence of urban design, neighbourhood built and social environment, and household and individual factors on the interdependent relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children in the Canadian city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon’s built environment was assessed by two validated observation tools. Neighbourhood socioeconomic variables were derived from 2006 Statistics Canada Census and 2010 G5 Census projections. A questionnaire was administered to 10–14 year old children to collect individual and household data, followed by accelerometry to collect physical activity and sedentary behaviour data. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to understand the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the context of diverse environmental exposures. A complex set of factors including denser built environment, positive peer relationships and consistent parental support influenced the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour. In developing interventions to facilitate active living, it is not only imperative to delineate pathways through which diverse environmental exposures influence physical activity and sedentary behaviour, but also to account for the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

  2. Developmental and environmental responsibilities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is, however, not yet much legislation concerning environmental protection, because the Rechtsstaat finds itself in a position where it cannot take sides. In no circumstances can the state legalize the ecological aspect, for this will presuppose state interference in the economic system, therefore violation a principle of the ...

  3. Changes in Brain Monoamines Underlie Behavioural Disruptions after Zebrafish Diet Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Environmental Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Vignet

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish were exposed through diet to two environmentally relevant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs mixtures of contrasted compositions, one of pyrolytic (PY origin and one from light crude oil (LO. Monoamine concentrations were quantified in the brains of the fish after six month of exposure. A significant decrease in noradrenaline (NA was observed in fish exposed to both mixtures, while a decrease in serotonin (5HT and dopamine (DA was observed only in LO-exposed fish. A decrease in metabolites of 5HT and DA was observed in fish exposed to both mixtures. Several behavioural disruptions were observed that depended on mixtures, and parallels were made with changes in monoamine concentrations. Indeed, we observed an increase in anxiety in fish exposed to both mixtures, which could be related to the decrease in 5HT and/or NA, while disruptions of daily activity rhythms were observed in LO fish, which could be related to the decrease in DA. Taken together, these results showed that (i chronic exposures to PAHs mixtures disrupted brain monoamine contents, which could underlie behavioural disruptions, and that (ii the biological responses depended on mixture compositions.

  4. Environmentally Responsible Trade and Its Importance for Sustainable Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Maxymets

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the environmental component of trade, primarily foreign trade, which concerns the interests of many countries. It examines the reciprocal influence of foreign trade and the environment. The author defines environmentally responsible trade and formulates its main principles. She examines the development of trade in forest products globally and in Ukraine and evaluates the impact of different trade restrictions on the condition of forests and the forestry industry. Indicators of the efficiency of foreign trade from the economic and environmental perspectives are proposed. Underlining the need for enterprises to switch over to environmentally responsible trade, the author proposes instruments to achieve this end.

  5. The behaviour and recovery of juvenile lemon sharks Negaprion brevirostris in response to external accelerometer tag attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, R W; Guttridge, T L; Cowx, I G; Elliott, M; Gruber, S H

    2015-12-01

    Behavioural responses of lemon sharks Negaprion brevirostris to a fin-mounted tag package (CEFAS G6A tri-axial accelerometer with epoxied Sonotronics PT4 acoustic transmitter) were measured in a controlled captive environment (n = 10, total length, LT range 80-140 cm) and in free-ranging sharks upon release (n = 7, LT range 100-160 cm). No changes were detected in behaviour (i.e. swimming speed, tailbeat frequency, time spent resting and frequency of chafing) between control and tagged captive shark trials, suggesting that the tag package itself does not alter behaviour. In the free-ranging trials, an initial period of elevated swimming activity was found in all individuals (represented by overall dynamic body acceleration). Negaprion brevirostris, however, appeared to recover quickly, returning to a steady swimming state between 2 and 35 min after release. Post-release tracking found that all sharks swim immediately for the shoreline and remain within 100 m of shore for prolonged periods. Hence, although N. brevirostris are capable of quick adaptation to stressors and demonstrate rapid recovery in terms of activity, tracking data suggest that they may modify their spatial use patterns post release. This research is important in separating deviation in behaviour due to environmental stressors from artefacts caused by experimental techniques. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Behavioural responses to olfactory cues in carrion crows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wascher, Claudia A F; Heiss, Rebecca S; Baglione, Vittorio; Canestrari, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    Until recently, the use of olfactory signals in birds has been largely ignored, despite the fact that birds do possess a fully functioning olfactory system and have been shown to use odours in social and foraging tasks, predator detection and orientation. The present study investigates whether carrion crows (Corvus corone corone), a bird species living in complex social societies, respond behaviourally to olfactory cues of conspecifics. During our experiment, carrion crows were observed less often close to the conspecific scent compared to a control side. Because conspecific scent was extracted during handling, a stressful procedure for birds, we interpreted the general avoidance of the 'scent' side as disfavour against a stressed conspecific. However, males, unlike females, showed less avoidance towards the scent of a familiar individual compared to an unfamiliar one, which might reflect a stronger interest in the information conveyed and/or willingness to provide social support. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The response rate in postal epidemiological studies in the context of national cultural behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelova, Radostina A.; Naydenov, Kiril; Hägerhed-Engman, Linda

    2012-01-01

    , but the obtained response rate was different: 78.8% in DBH and 34.5% in ALLHOME. The differences in the obtained response rate and the reasons for these differences were analyzed on the basis of the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions’ indexes, which clearly show the distinction in the national cultural behaviour...... of people in Sweden and Bulgaria. It was found that national culture could strongly influence the response behaviour of people in epidemiological studies and Hofstede’s indexes can be useful tool when designing and performing epidemiological studies, and in particular – questionnaire surveys....

  8. Metaphor, Architectural Design, and Environmental Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Muller

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Value-laden articulations of the task of the architect guide manners of working - the concerns, inspirations and procedures given priority. Architectural practices in turn determine the nature of the physical constructs that result. If architects are contributing to environmental degradation by designing buildings that are inefficient and unhealthy, and a pressing need exists to advance more life enhancing, sustaining practices, then perhaps environmentally concerned architects ought not only work towards the creation of better performing, more resourceful building assemblies, but also to engage in basic reflection as to how design problems are expressed and the environmental receptivity such expressions reveal. By tracing the lineage binding utterance to practice to making, we might come to recognize that even subtle shifts in articulation can alter outcomes dramatically. Through such newfound awareness, we are open and encouraged to reexamine the architect’s role, to new descriptions of architecture, and to the possibility of deeper attunement and constructive engagement with our world. In their recent edited anthology on sustainable architectures, Simon Guy and Steven Moore suggest “while we might support and even encourage critical engagement with abstract theory about environmentalism, we are not interested in simply playing language games.” Although word play should not be the sole focus of our efforts, in a profession so reliant on effective communication, we should not underestimate the facility of language as constitutive of meaning. This paper explores metaphors as one potentially transformative means by which designers come to understand and describe the works they undertake. It examines the role of metaphors as agents of innovation, capable of heightening awareness of attributes often overlooked or undervalued, yet perhaps of critical significance given the particularities of a design problem seeking explication. This paper

  9. The Value Relevance of Environmental Responsibility Information Disclosure in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Chiedu Oba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria firms are facing the challenge of discharging sound environmental practices anddisclosing environmental information in order to meet upwith public concerns regarding these issues.This study basically investigates the association between environmental responsibility informationdisclosure and financial performance. To achieve the objective of this study, eighteen listed firmswere randomly selected from four environmentally sensitive industries for the year 2005–2009.Using the ordinary least square and logistic regression to test the research proposition, the studyobserved that there is a positive significant association between environmental responsibility andfinancial performance and vice versa. Additionally, foreign directors were found to play significantroles in these interactions. The paper therefore calls for an embrace of sound environmental policiesand disclosure practices by Nigerian firms and also recommends further research into associatedexplanatory factors and disclosure practices.

  10. Owners’ Perceptions of Their Animal’s Behavioural Response to the Loss of an Animal Companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica K.; Waran, Natalie K.; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The loss of a companion animal is recognised as being associated with experiences of grief by the owner, but it is unclear how other animals in the household may be affected by such a loss. This paper investigates the behavioural responses of dogs and cats to the loss of an animal companion through owner-reported observations. There was consensus that behaviour changed as a result of loss including increased affectionate behaviour, territorial behaviour, and changes in food consumption and vocalisation. Abstract The loss of a companion animal is recognised as being associated with experiences of grief by the owner, but it is unclear how other animals in the household may be affected by such a loss. Our aim was to investigate companion animals’ behavioural responses to the loss of a companion through owner-report. A questionnaire was distributed via, and advertised within, publications produced by the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) across Australia and New Zealand, and through a selection of veterinary clinics within New Zealand. A total of 279 viable surveys were returned pertaining to 159 dogs and 152 cats. The two most common classes of behavioural changes reported for both dogs and cats were affectionate behaviours (74% of dogs and 78% of cats) and territorial behaviours (60% of dogs and 63% of cats). Both dogs and cats were reported to demand more attention from their owners and/or display affiliative behaviour, as well as spend time seeking out the deceased’s favourite spot. Dogs were reported to reduce the volume (35%) and speed (31%) of food consumption and increase the amount of time spent sleeping (34%). Cats were reported to increase the frequency (43%) and volume (32%) of vocalisations following the death of a companion. The median duration of reported behavioural changes in both species was less than 6 months. There was consensus that the behaviour of companion animals changed in response to the loss of

  11. Transposable elements in response to environmental stressors&

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miousse, Isabelle R.; Chalbot, Marie-Cecile G.; Lumen, Annie; Ferguson, Alesia; Kavouras, Ilias G.; Koturbash, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) comprise a group of repetitive sequences that bring positive, negative, as well as neutral effects to the host organism. Earlier considered as “junk DNA,” TEs are now well-accepted driving forces of evolution and critical regulators the of expression of genetic information. Their activity is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, including methylation of DNA and histone modifications. The loss of epigenetic control over TEs, exhibited as loss of DNA methylation and decondensation of the chromatin structure, may result in TEs reactivation, initiation of their insertional mutagenesis (retrotransposition) and has been reported in numerous human diseases, including cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that these alterations are not the simple consequences of the disease, but often may drive the pathogenesis, as they can be detected early during disease development. Knowledge derived from the in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies, clearly demonstrates that exposure to ubiquitous environmental stressors, many of which are carcinogens or suspected carcinogens, are capable of causing alterations in methylation and expression of TEs and initiate retrotransposition events. Evidence summarized in this review suggests that TEs are the sensitive endpoints for detection of effects caused by such environmental stressors, as ionizing radiation (terrestrial, space, and UV-radiation), air pollution (including particulate matter [PM]-derived and gaseous), persistent organic pollutants, and metals. Furthermore, the significance of these effects is characterized by their early appearance, persistence and presence in both, target organs and peripheral blood. Altogether, these findings suggest that TEs may potentially be introduced into safety and risk assessment and serve as biomarkers of exposure to environmental stressors. Furthermore, TEs also show significant potential to become invaluable surrogate biomarkers in clinic and possible targets

  12. Response of transposable elements to environmental stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miousse, Isabelle R; Chalbot, Marie-Cecile G; Lumen, Annie; Ferguson, Alesia; Kavouras, Ilias G; Koturbash, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) comprise a group of repetitive sequences that bring positive, negative, as well as neutral effects to the host organism. Earlier considered as "junk DNA," TEs are now well-accepted driving forces of evolution and critical regulators of the expression of genetic information. Their activity is regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, including methylation of DNA and histone modifications. The loss of epigenetic control over TEs, exhibited as loss of DNA methylation and decondensation of the chromatin structure, may result in TEs reactivation, initiation of their insertional mutagenesis (retrotransposition) and has been reported in numerous human diseases, including cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that these alterations are not the simple consequences of the disease, but often may drive the pathogenesis, as they can be detected early during disease development. Knowledge derived from the in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies, clearly demonstrates that exposure to ubiquitous environmental stressors, many of which are carcinogens or suspected carcinogens, are capable of causing alterations in methylation and expression of TEs and initiate retrotransposition events. Evidence summarized in this review suggests that TEs are the sensitive endpoints for detection of effects caused by such environmental stressors, as ionizing radiation (terrestrial, space, and UV-radiation), air pollution (including particulate matter [PM]-derived and gaseous), persistent organic pollutants, and metals. Furthermore, the significance of these effects is characterized by their early appearance, persistence and presence in both, target organs and peripheral blood. Altogether, these findings suggest that TEs may potentially be introduced into safety and risk assessment and serve as biomarkers of exposure to environmental stressors. Furthermore, TEs also show significant potential to become invaluable surrogate biomarkers in clinic and possible targets for

  13. Behavioural responses of larval container mosquitoes to a size-selective predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Alto, Barry W; Lounibos, L Philip; Juliano, Steven A

    2007-06-01

    The hypothesis that size-selective predation and species-specific prey behaviours facilitate the coexistence between larvae of invasive Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and U.S.A.-native Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say) was tested experimentally with the predator Corethrella appendiculata (Grabham).Larval behaviours associated with a higher risk of predation were identified, and prey behavioural responses were tested in either the physical presence of predators or in water containing predation cues. Larvae that thrashed on container bottoms had a higher risk of being captured by fourth instar C. appendiculata than did larvae resting on the water surface. Ochlerotatus triseriatus, but not A. albopictus, adopted low-risk behaviours in response to water-borne cues to predation. Both prey species reduced risky behaviours in the physical presence of the predator, but O. triseriatus showed a stronger response.The vulnerability of 2nd and 3rd instar prey to predation was compared, and behavioural responses were correlated with prey vulnerability. Second instars of both species were more vulnerable to predation by C. appendiculata than were 3rd instars, and the 3rd instar A. albopictus was more vulnerable than O. triseriatus of the same stage. All instars of O. triseriatus showed a similar reduction of risky behaviours in response to the presence of C. appendiculata despite 4th instar prey being relatively invulnerable to size-selective predation.Weaker predator avoidance, coupled with superior competitive ability, of invasive A. albopictus is likely to contribute to its coexistence with O. triseriatus in containers of the south-eastern U.S.A., where C. appendiculata can be abundant.

  14. Physiological and behavioural responses of livestock to road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... to road transportation stress: A review. Adenkola, A. Y.1* ... 0.279% of turkeys transported to slaughter plant in Czech. Republic .... function of the immune system of animals. ... suppressing the immune response (Warris, 2004).

  15. Environmental and nursing-staff factors contributing to aggressive and violent behaviour of patients in mental health facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Evalina; Traut, Annalene; Julie, Hester

    2014-08-14

    Aggressive and violent behaviour of inpatients in mental health facilities disrupts the therapeutic alliance and hampers treatment. The aim of the study was to describe patients' perceptions of the possible environmental and staff factors that might contribute to their aggressive and violent behaviour after admission to a mental health facility; and to propose strategies to prevent and manage such behaviour. A qualitative, phenomenological study was utilised, in which purposefully sampled inpatients were interviewed over a six-month period. Inpatients were invited to participate if they had been admitted for at least seven days and were in touch with reality. Forty inpatients in two mental health facilities in Cape Town participated in face-to-face, semi-structured interviews over a period of six months. Tesch's descriptive method of open coding formed the framework for the data analysis and presentation of the results. Trustworthiness was ensured in accordance with the principles of credibility, confirmability, transferability and dependability. Analysis of the data indicates two central categories in the factors contributing to patients' aggressive and violent behaviour, namely, environmental factors and the attitude and behaviour of staff. From the perspective of the inpatients included in this study, aggressive and violent episodes are common and require intervention. Specific strategies for preventing such behaviour are proposed and it is recommended that these strategies be incorporated into the in-service training programmes of the staff of mental health facilities. These strategies could prevent, or reduce, aggressive and violent behaviour in in-patient facilities.

  16. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®), Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  17. A comparative experimental approach to ecotoxicology in shallow-water and deep-sea holothurians suggests similar behavioural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alastair; Wright, Roseanna; Mevenkamp, Lisa; Hauton, Chris

    2017-10-01

    Exploration of deep-sea mineral resources is burgeoning, raising concerns regarding ecotoxicological impacts on deep-sea fauna. Assessing toxicity in deep-sea species is technologically challenging, which promotes interest in establishing shallow-water ecotoxicological proxy species. However, the effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on toxicity, and how adaptation to deep-sea environmental conditions might moderate these effects, are unknown. To address these uncertainties we assessed behavioural and physiological (antioxidant enzyme activity) responses to exposure to copper-spiked artificial sediments in a laboratory experiment using a shallow-water holothurian (Holothuria forskali), and in an in situ experiment using a deep-sea holothurian (Amperima sp.). Both species demonstrated sustained avoidance behaviour, evading contact with contaminated artificial sediment. However, A. sp. demonstrated sustained avoidance of 5mgl -1 copper-contaminated artificial sediment whereas H. forskali demonstrated only temporary avoidance of 5mgl -1 copper-contaminated artificial sediment, suggesting that H. forskali may be more tolerant of metal exposure over 96h. Nonetheless, the acute behavioural response appears consistent between the shallow-water species and the deep-sea species, suggesting that H. forskali may be a suitable ecotoxicological proxy for A. sp. in acute (≤24h) exposures, which may be representative of deep-sea mining impacts. No antioxidant response was observed in either species, which was interpreted to be the consequence of avoiding copper exposure. Although these data suggest that shallow-water taxa may be suitable ecotoxicological proxies for deep-sea taxa, differences in methodological and analytical approaches, and in sex and reproductive stage of experimental subjects, require caution in assessing the suitability of H. forskali as an ecotoxicological proxy for A. sp. Nonetheless, avoidance behaviour may have bioenergetic consequences that

  18. Patient predictors of response to cognitive behaviour therapy and schema therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet D; McIntosh, Virginia Vw; Jordan, Jennifer; Porter, Richard J; Douglas, Katie; Frampton, Christopher M; Joyce, Peter R

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have examined differential predictors of response to psychotherapy for depression. Greater understanding about the factors associated with therapeutic response may better enable therapists to optimise response by targeting therapy for the individual. The aim of the current exploratory study was to examine patient characteristics associated with response to cognitive behaviour therapy and schema therapy for depression. Participants were 100 outpatients in a clinical trial randomised to either cognitive behaviour therapy or schema therapy. Potential predictors of response examined included demographic, clinical, functioning, cognitive, personality and neuropsychological variables. Individuals with chronic depression and increased levels of pre-treatment negative automatic thoughts had a poorer response to both cognitive behaviour therapy and schema therapy. A treatment type interaction was found for verbal learning and memory. Lower levels of verbal learning and memory impairment markedly impacted on response to schema therapy. This was not the case for cognitive behaviour therapy, which was more impacted if verbal learning and memory was in the moderate range. Study findings are consistent with the Capitalisation Model suggesting that therapy that focuses on the person's strengths is more likely to contribute to a better outcome. Limitations were that participants were outpatients in a randomised controlled trial and may not be representative of other depressed samples. Examination of a variety of potential predictors was exploratory and requires replication.

  19. Parallel and nonparallel behavioural evolution in response to parasitism and predation in Trinidadian guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquin, L; Reader, S M; Boniface, A; Mateluna, J; Patalas, I; Pérez-Jvostov, F; Hendry, A P

    2016-07-01

    Natural enemies such as predators and parasites are known to shape intraspecific variability of behaviour and personality in natural populations, yet several key questions remain: (i) What is the relative importance of predation vs. parasitism in shaping intraspecific variation of behaviour across generations? (ii) What are the contributions of genetic and plastic effects to this behavioural divergence? (iii) And to what extent are responses to predation and parasitism repeatable across independent evolutionary lineages? We addressed these questions using Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) (i) varying in their exposure to dangerous fish predators and Gyrodactylus ectoparasites for (ii) both wild-caught F0 and laboratory-reared F2 individuals and coming from (iii) multiple independent evolutionary lineages (i.e. independent drainages). Several key findings emerged. First, a population's history of predation and parasitism influenced behavioural profiles, but to different extent depending on the behaviour considered (activity, shoaling or boldness). Second, we had evidence for some genetic effects of predation regime on behaviour, with differences in activity of F2 laboratory-reared individuals, but not for parasitism, which had only plastic effects on the boldness of wild-caught F0 individuals. Third, the two lineages showed a mixture of parallel and nonparallel responses to predation/parasitism, with parallel responses being stronger for predation than for parasitism and for activity and boldness than for shoaling. These findings suggest that different sets of behaviours provide different pay-offs in alternative predation/parasitism environments and that parasitism has more transient effects in shaping intraspecific variation of behaviour than does predation. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Impaired behavioural response to alarm substance in rainbow trout exposed to copper nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovová, Tereza; Boyle, David; Sloman, Katherine A; Vanegas Pérez, Cecilia; Handy, Richard D

    2014-07-01

    To date, studies of the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in fish have not fully considered effects on olfactory-mediated behaviours, despite their ecological importance. In this study the effects of copper NPs (Cu NPs) on the anti-predator behavioural responses of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to trout alarm substance was investigated. Individual fish were exposed for 12h to a control (no added Cu), 50μgl(-1) of Cu as Cu NPs, or 50μgl(-1) Cu as CuSO4, after which fish behaviours were analyzed in 10min periods before and after the addition of the alarm substance stimulus. The response of control fish to deionised water (negative control, no alarm substance stimulus) was also analyzed. The alarm substance elicited a behavioural response in the control fish characterized by an immediate freeze response and the slower resumption of swimming activity compared to negative controls exposed to the sham deionised water stimuli. In fish exposed to Cu NPs, the behavioural response to alarm substance was eliminated, with no significant difference in behaviours compared to negative controls. In comparison, exposure to 50μgl(-1) Cu as CuSO4 decreased, but did not eliminate the response of fish to alarm substance, which indicated a significantly greater effect of Cu NPs on olfactory mediated behaviours than of the equivalent concentration of Cu as CuSO4. Measurement of total Cu concentrations in the tissues of fish demonstrated no significant accumulation of Cu from any treatment in gill, liver or brain, confirming the effects of Cu NPs, and to a lesser extent CuSO4, on behavioural responses were mostly associated with the interaction of the materials with the external surfaces of the fish. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that Cu as CuSO4 caused a pronounced depletion of ciliated sensory and non-sensory cells in the olfactory rosette surrounding the midline raphe, whereas Cu NPs had no impact on the structure of the rosette. However, exposure to

  1. Social vs. environmental stress models of depression from a behavioural and neurochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzala, E; García-García, A L; Elizalde, N; Tordera, R M

    2013-07-01

    Major depression is a mental disorder often preceded by exposure to chronic stress or stressful life events. Recently, animal models based on social conflict such as chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) are proposed to be more relevant to stress-induced human psychopathology compared to environmental models like the chronic mild stress (CMS). However, while CMS reproduces specifically core depressive symptoms such as anhedonia and helplessness, CSDS studies rely on the analysis of stress-induced social avoidance, addressing different neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we study comparatively the two models from a behavioural and neurochemical approach and their possible relevance to human depression. Mice (C57BL/6) were exposed to CMS or CSDS for six weeks and ten days. Anhedonia was periodically evaluated. A battery of test applied during the fourth week after the stress procedure included motor activity, memory, anxiety, social interaction and helplessness. Subsequently, we examined glutamate, GABA, 5-HT and dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and brainstem. CMS induced a clear depressive-like profile including anhedonia, helplessness and memory impairment. CSDS induced anhedonia, hyperactivity, anxiety and social avoidance, signs also common to anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorders. While both models disrupted the excitatory inhibitory balance in the prefrontal cortex, CMS altered importantly this balance in the brainstem. Moreover, CSDS decreased dopamine in the prefrontal cortex and brainstem. We suggests that while depressive-like behaviours might be associated to altered aminoacid neurotransmission in cortical and brain stem areas, CSDS induced anxiety behaviours might be linked to specific alteration of dopaminergic pathways involved in rewarding processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased anterior cingulate cortex response precedes behavioural adaptation in anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Daniel; Ritschel, Franziska; King, Joseph A.; Bernardoni, Fabio; Seidel, Maria; Boehm, Ilka; Runge, Franziska; Goschke, Thomas; Roessner, Veit; Smolka, Michael N.; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are characterised by increased self-control, cognitive rigidity and impairments in set-shifting, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural correlates of behavioural adaptation to changes in reward contingencies in young acutely ill AN patients. Thirty-six adolescent/young adult, non-chronic female AN patients and 36 age-matched healthy females completed a well-established probabilistic reversal learning task during fMRI. We analysed hemodynamic responses in empirically-defined regions of interest during positive feedback and negative feedback not followed/followed by behavioural adaptation and conducted functional connectivity analyses. Although overall task performance was comparable between groups, AN showed increased shifting after receiving negative feedback (lose-shift behaviour) and altered dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) responses as a function of feedback. Specifically, patients had increased dACC responses (which correlated with perfectionism) and task-related coupling with amygdala preceding behavioural adaption. Given the generally preserved task performance in young AN, elevated dACC responses specifically during behavioural adaption is suggestive of increased monitoring for the need to adjust performance strategies. Higher dACC-amygdala coupling and increased adaptation after negative feedback underlines this interpretation and could be related to intolerance of uncertainty which has been suggested for AN. PMID:28198813

  3. BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF BEEF CATTLE IN INTENSIVE REARING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brscic

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the behaviour of beef cattle reared in intensive systems in northern Italy under different climatic conditions. In particular, it considered 3 levels of THI (Temperature-Humidity-Index in order to evaluate the coping response to heat stress conditions regarding changes of beef cattle nutritional and social behaviours, drinking frequency and resting time. Behavioural observations were carried out from July to October 2005, during hot (THI above 78, mild (THI 76 and cool (THI below 72 conditions, on 24 finishing French crossbred bulls. The animals were housed in 6 fully slatted floor group pens of 4 bulls each. Within each class of THI, behaviours were recorded in two sessions of 24 hours using a 5 minute interval scan sampling technique. A focal animal was chosen in order to count the number of visits at the waterer. Results showed that eating behaviour was maximum during the first 8 hours after fresh feed delivery. However, in the same interval, when THI was above 78, eating activity was penalized while an increase of ruminating was observed. The overall number of visits at the waterer was increased by the heat stress condition and they were mainly concentrated in the hottest hours of the day. Hot environment also affected beef cattle social behaviour increasing agonistic interactions and mounts among penmates. Since heat stress affected bulls behaviour impairing their welfare, the adoption of cooling devices should be recommended.

  4. Core set of recommendations for patients with ankylosing spondylitis concerning behaviour and environmental adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldtkeller, Ernst; Lind-Albrecht, Gudrun; Rudwaleit, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Advice concerning behaviour and adaptations of living and working environment is considered an unmet need by patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The aim of this study was to develop a core set of recommendations to be given to patients by their rheumatologists. A systematic literature research of scientific and patient-oriented literature revealed 70 raw recommendations. These recommendations were evaluated and ranked at a meeting of the Ankylosing Spondylitis International Federation (ASIF, 26 participants including 19 patients with AS, 5 rheumatologists and 2 physiotherapists from 13 countries) in November 2011. Thereafter, the 59 remaining recommendations were extensively discussed, supplemented, reworded, condensed and voted on during a meeting of local branch leaders of the AS patient organisation in Germany (Deutsche Vereinigung Morbus Bechterew, DVMB) with 80 participants (95 % of whom with AS), 2 rheumatologists and 1 occupational therapist in March 2012. The core set of final recommendations comprises (1) a general statement regarding living with AS which was considered highly important by patients and (2) the following domains: sitting position, walking, sleeping, at work, exercises, sports and recreational activities, diet and lifestyle, sexuality and pregnancy, fall prevention, car driving and advantages of membership in an AS-specific patient organisation. Most recommendations are relevant already in early disease, others concern advanced AS (e.g. fall prevention and car driving). The selected recommendations received high agreements (80-100 %). A first core set of recommendations for the behaviour and environmental adaptations of patients with AS was established under participation of many patients.

  5. Main physical environmental drivers of occupant behaviour with regard to space heating energy demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano Paolo

    2012-01-01

    real building energy requirements . The paper focuses on the particular topics of space heating energy demand related to the occupants habits of adjusting heating set-points. The parameters influencing the user interaction with the heating control system are analyzed in literature for residential......Several studies have highlighted the significant gap between the predicted energy performance of buildings and their measured actual performance. Uncertainties regarding behaviour of building occupants are one of the key factors limiting the ability of energy simulation tools to accurately predict......) environmental conditions and the occupants’ heating set-point preferences. The paper aims at providing a reliable basis for a more accurate description of control action models in performance simulation applications....

  6. Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Andresen, Inger; Perino, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Significant improvement have been achieved on efficiency improvements of specific building elements like the building envelope and building equipment and services and whilst most building elements still offer opportunities for efficiency improvements, the greatest future potential lie...... with technologies that promote the integration of responsive building elements and building services in integrated building concepts. In order to address some of these issues an international research effort, IEA-ECBCS Annex 44 has been initiated. The paper especially presents the annex activities regarding...

  7. Bridging the Gap between Individual and Corporate Responsible Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, V.

    2017-01-01

    We reflect on the nature of corporate codes of conduct is this article. Based on John Austin’s speech act theory, four characteristics of a performative concept of corporate codes will be introduced: 1) the existential self-performative of the firm identity, 2) which is demanded by and responsive to

  8. Corporate Social Responsibility and Civil Environmental Liability: A Neoinstitutionalist Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sales Rios

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The new economic paradigm including environmental transformation by human actions causes impact and pressure at numerous social classes. Therefore, there are many institutional and organizational changes to meet this new social and environmental demand. Thus, the work is divided into three parts. This work reveals, with the neo-institutionalism framework, how the institutional dynamics affect the decision-making process of business organizations in the adoption of environmental responsibility in its activities by dividing it in three parts. In the first part, it is studied the relationship between social agents, institutions and organizations, connecting them to the new environmental management present in the social system. In the second part it is characterized the role of informal institutions - manner, culture, values ​​- that operate action of organizations such as corporate social responsibility. Finally, in the third part, the role of formal institutions is explained - rules, regulations, laws – in the environmental liability.

  9. Owners’ Perceptions of Their Animal’s Behavioural Response to the Loss of an Animal Companion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Walker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The loss of a companion animal is recognised as being associated with experiences of grief by the owner, but it is unclear how other animals in the household may be affected by such a loss. Our aim was to investigate companion animals’ behavioural responses to the loss of a companion through owner-report. A questionnaire was distributed via, and advertised within, publications produced by the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA across Australia and New Zealand, and through a selection of veterinary clinics within New Zealand. A total of 279 viable surveys were returned pertaining to 159 dogs and 152 cats. The two most common classes of behavioural changes reported for both dogs and cats were affectionate behaviours (74% of dogs and 78% of cats and territorial behaviours (60% of dogs and 63% of cats. Both dogs and cats were reported to demand more attention from their owners and/or display affiliative behaviour, as well as spend time seeking out the deceased’s favourite spot. Dogs were reported to reduce the volume (35% and speed (31% of food consumption and increase the amount of time spent sleeping (34%. Cats were reported to increase the frequency (43% and volume (32% of vocalisations following the death of a companion. The median duration of reported behavioural changes in both species was less than 6 months. There was consensus that the behaviour of companion animals changed in response to the loss of an animal companion. These behavioural changes suggest the loss had an impact on the remaining animal.

  10. Owners' Perceptions of Their Animal's Behavioural Response to the Loss of an Animal Companion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica K; Waran, Natalie K; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-11-03

    The loss of a companion animal is recognised as being associated with experiences of grief by the owner, but it is unclear how other animals in the household may be affected by such a loss. Our aim was to investigate companion animals' behavioural responses to the loss of a companion through owner-report. A questionnaire was distributed via, and advertised within, publications produced by the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) across Australia and New Zealand, and through a selection of veterinary clinics within New Zealand. A total of 279 viable surveys were returned pertaining to 159 dogs and 152 cats. The two most common classes of behavioural changes reported for both dogs and cats were affectionate behaviours (74% of dogs and 78% of cats) and territorial behaviours (60% of dogs and 63% of cats). Both dogs and cats were reported to demand more attention from their owners and/or display affiliative behaviour, as well as spend time seeking out the deceased's favourite spot. Dogs were reported to reduce the volume (35%) and speed (31%) of food consumption and increase the amount of time spent sleeping (34%). Cats were reported to increase the frequency (43%) and volume (32%) of vocalisations following the death of a companion. The median duration of reported behavioural changes in both species was less than 6 months. There was consensus that the behaviour of companion animals changed in response to the loss of an animal companion. These behavioural changes suggest the loss had an impact on the remaining animal.

  11. Which Factors Contribute to Environmental Behaviour of Landowners in Southwestern Ontario, Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Silke; Brick, Jeff; Lantz, Van A.; Trenholm, Ryan

    2017-09-01

    Loss of natural heritage is a problem that is particularly prevalent in areas of high population density. We used a survey to understand the factors that drive environmental behavior of landowners in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The survey, which contained questions about environmental attitude, pro-environmental behavior and demographics, was mailed to 18,090 rural route addresses, and we received 3256 completed surveys (18% response rate). Two types of environmental behavior, namely voluntarily increasing the area of land set aside for conservation, and enrollment in a conservation stewardship program, were significantly correlated with a positive attitude towards conservation. Financial considerations also played a role. We showed that the biggest motivator to enroll in a wetland enhancement program was access to `more information on how the decline in wetland area affects them personally', while `public recognition' was the least motivating factor. We suggest that enrollment in voluntary land stewardship programs might be increased by providing information about the effects of ecosystem loss, and by providing financial incentives for participation. In a larger social context, outreach programs by government agencies could focus on improving pro-environmental attitudes, which in turn is likely to result in more pro-environmental behavior of landowners.

  12. The environmental behaviour of beryllium-7; implications for its use as a soil erosion tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A.; Blake, W. H.; Keith-Roach, M. J.; Couldrick, L.

    2010-05-01

    Beryllium-7 is a cosmogenic fallout radionuclide (FRN) that can be employed as a tracer in soil erosion studies. Owing to its short half-life (53.3 days), estimates of soil redistribution from a single event or wet season can be derived, complimenting medium-term 137Cs-based data. The ability of 7Be to provide robust quantification of soil erosion over short timescales is vital when considering the potential for climate change to influence precipitation patterns and shifts in landuse. A major requirement of the technique is the capacity of the FRN to adsorb to soil particles and remain bound during transport. To date, little attention has been given to the geochemical behaviour of 7Be. The research reported here aims to develop knowledge of 7Be adsorption behaviour in a range of soil types and environmental conditions to support its use as a tracer at the catchment-scale. Four agricultural soils common to south Devon, UK were selected for experiments designed to investigate7Be solid-phase partitioning in soils and tracer stability under changing environmental conditions. Preliminary results from two key aspects of the work are presented here. The BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure was adopted to determine 7Be adsorption to operationally-defined soil fractions. Early findings indicate that 7Be is largely associated with Fe/Mn fractions with up to 67% adsorbed to this reducible phase. This supports the use of 7Be as a soil erosion tracer at the slope-scale but may have implications for 7Be mobility under reducing conditions in deposition zones. In addition, batch experiments have been undertaken to evaluate 7Be behaviour in the dissolved phase focussing upon the role of DOC as a complexing agent in soil solutions since soil solution DOC can increase following manure and compost application. Results will underpin the use of 7Be as a sediment tracer within an Interreg IVA funded research programme addressing wetland restoration as a catchment management

  13. The environmental behaviour of beryllium-7: implications for its use as a soil erosion tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A.; Blake, W. H.; Keith-Roach, M. J.; Couldrick, L.

    2010-05-01

    Beryllium-7 is a cosmogenic fallout radionuclide (FRN) that can be employed as a tracer in soil erosion studies. Owing to its short half life (53.3 days), estimates of soil redistribution from a single event or wet season can be derived, complimenting medium-term 137Cs-based data. The ability of 7Be to provide robust quantification of soil erosion over short timescales is vital when considering the potential for climate change to influence precipitation patterns and shifts in landuse. A major requirement of the technique is the capacity of the FRN to adsorb to soil particles and remain bound during transport. To date, little attention has been given to the geochemical behaviour of 7Be. The research reported here aims to develop knowledge of 7Be adsorption behaviour in a range of soil types and environmental conditions to support its use as a tracer at the catchment scale. Four agricultural soils common to south Devon, UK were selected for experiments designed to investigate7Be solid-phase partitioning in soils and tracer stability under changing environmental conditions. Preliminary results from two key aspects of the work are reported here. The BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure was adopted to investigate 7Be adsorption to operationally-defined soil fractions. Early findings indicate that 7Be is largely associated with Fe/Mn fractions with up to 67% adsorbed to this reducible phase. This supports the use of 7Be as a soil erosion tracer at the slope-scale but may have implications for 7Be mobility under reducing conditions in deposition zones. In addition, batch experiments have been undertaken to evaluate 7Be behaviour in the dissolved phase focusing upon the role of DOC as a complexing agent in soil solutions since soil solution DOC can increase following manure and compost application. Results will be used to underpin the application of 7Be as a sediment tracer within an Interreg IVA funded research programme addressing wetland restoration as a

  14. Immigrant Children Promoting Environmental Care: Enhancing Learning, Agency and Integration through Culturally-Responsive Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet-Cohen, Natasha; Reilly, Rosemary C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of culturally-responsive environmental education to engage immigrant early adolescents. Our study suggests that environmental involvement can become a means and an end for children to bridge their school and home in agential ways. Drawing from a multi-phase study involving focus groups with children, parents, and…

  15. Stereotypic behaviour in standard non-enriched cages is an alternative to depression-like responses in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fureix, Carole; Walker, Michael; Harper, Laura; Reynolds, Kathryn; Saldivia-Woo, Amanda; Mason, Georgia

    2016-05-15

    Depressive-like forms of waking inactivity have been recently observed in laboratory primates and horses. We tested the hypotheses that being awake but motionless within the home-cage is a depression-like symptom in mice, and that in impoverished housing, it represents an alternative response to stereotypic behaviour. We raised C57BL/6 ('C57') and DBA/2 ('DBA') females to adulthood in non-enriched (n=62 mice) or enriched (n=60 mice) cages, observing home-cage behaviour during the active (dark) phases. We predicted that being still but awake would be reduced by environmental enrichment; more pronounced in C57s, as the strain most prone to learned helplessness; negatively related to stereotypic behaviour; and positively related to immobility in Forced Swim Tests (FST). Compared to enriched mice, non-enriched subjects did spend more time spent being inactive but awake, especially if they displayed relatively little stereotypic behaviour. C57 mice also spent more time awake but motionless than DBAs. Furthermore, even after statistically controlling for housing type and strain, this behaviour very strongly tended to predict increased immobility in the FST, while high levels of stereotypic behaviours in contrast predicted low immobility in the FST. Being awake but motionless is thus a reaction to non-enriched housing that seems to be an alternative to stereotypic behaviour, and could reflect depression-like states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The modelling of avian visual perception predicts behavioural rejection responses to foreign egg colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassey, Phillip; Honza, Marcel; Grim, Tomas; Hauber, Mark E

    2008-10-23

    How do birds tell the colours of their own and foreign eggs apart? We demonstrate that perceptual modelling of avian visual discrimination can predict behavioural rejection responses to foreign eggs in the nest of wild birds. We use a photoreceptor noise-limited colour opponent model of visual perception to evaluate its accuracy as a predictor of behavioural rates of experimental egg discrimination in the song thrush Turdus philomelos. The visual modelling of experimental and natural eggshell colours suggests that photon capture from the ultraviolet and short wavelength-sensitive cones elicits egg rejection decisions in song thrushes, while inter-clutch variation of egg coloration provides sufficient contrasts for detecting conspecific parasitism in this species. Biologically realistic sensory models provide an important tool for relating variability of behavioural responses to perceived phenotypic variation.

  17. Seabird species vary in behavioural response to drone census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson-Curadeau, Émile; Bird, David; Burke, Chantelle; Fifield, David A; Pace, Paul; Sherley, Richard B; Elliott, Kyle H

    2017-12-20

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide an opportunity to rapidly census wildlife in remote areas while removing some of the hazards. However, wildlife may respond negatively to the UAVs, thereby skewing counts. We surveyed four species of Arctic cliff-nesting seabirds (glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus, Iceland gull Larus glaucoides, common murre Uria aalge and thick-billed murre Uria lomvia) using a UAV and compared censusing techniques to ground photography. An average of 8.5% of murres flew off in response to the UAV, but >99% of those birds were non-breeders. We were unable to detect any impact of the UAV on breeding success of murres, except at a site where aerial predators were abundant and several birds lost their eggs to predators following UAV flights. Furthermore, we found little evidence for habituation by murres to the UAV. Most gulls flew off in response to the UAV, but returned to the nest within five minutes. Counts of gull nests and adults were similar between UAV and ground photography, however the UAV detected up to 52.4% more chicks because chicks were camouflaged and invisible to ground observers. UAVs provide a less hazardous and potentially more accurate method for surveying wildlife. We provide some simple recommendations for their use.

  18. A Specific Pathway Can Be Identified between Genetic Characteristics and Behaviour Profiles in Prader-Willi Syndrome via Cognitive, Environmental and Physiological Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, K. A.; Oliver, C.; Humphreys, G. W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Behavioural phenotypes associated with genetic syndromes have been extensively investigated in order to generate rich descriptions of phenomenology, determine the degree of specificity of behaviours for a particular syndrome, and examine potential interactions between genetic predispositions for behaviour and environmental influences.…

  19. Prion switching in response to environmental stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Tyedmers

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Evolution depends on the manner in which genetic variation is translated into new phenotypes. There has been much debate about whether organisms might have specific mechanisms for "evolvability," which would generate heritable phenotypic variation with adaptive value and could act to enhance the rate of evolution. Capacitor systems, which allow the accumulation of cryptic genetic variation and release it under stressful conditions, might provide such a mechanism. In yeast, the prion [PSI(+] exposes a large array of previously hidden genetic variation, and the phenotypes it thereby produces are advantageous roughly 25% of the time. The notion that [PSI(+] is a mechanism for evolvability would be strengthened if the frequency of its appearance increased with stress. That is, a system that mediates even the haphazard appearance of new phenotypes, which have a reasonable chance of adaptive value would be beneficial if it were deployed at times when the organism is not well adapted to its environment. In an unbiased, high-throughput, genome-wide screen for factors that modify the frequency of [PSI(+] induction, signal transducers and stress response genes were particularly prominent. Furthermore, prion induction increased by as much as 60-fold when cells were exposed to various stressful conditions, such as oxidative stress (H2O2 or high salt concentrations. The severity of stress and the frequency of [PSI(+] induction were highly correlated. These findings support the hypothesis that [PSI(+] is a mechanism to increase survival in fluctuating environments and might function as a capacitor to promote evolvability.

  20. Prenatal androgen exposure alters girls' responses to information indicating gender-appropriate behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Pasterski, Vickie; Spencer, Debra; Neufeld, Sharon; Patalay, Praveetha; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L

    2016-02-19

    Individual variability in human gender-related behaviour is influenced by many factors, including androgen exposure prenatally, as well as self-socialization and socialization by others postnatally. Many studies have looked at these types of influences in isolation, but little is known about how they work together. Here, we report that girls exposed to high concentrations of androgens prenatally, because they have the genetic condition congenital adrenal hyperplasia, show changes in processes related to self-socialization of gender-related behaviour. Specifically, they are less responsive than other girls to information that particular objects are for girls and they show reduced imitation of female models choosing particular objects. These findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure may influence subsequent gender-related behaviours, including object (toy) choices, in part by changing processes involved in the self-socialization of gendered behaviour, rather than only by inducing permanent changes in the brain during early development. In addition, the findings suggest that some of the behavioural effects of prenatal androgen exposure might be subject to alteration by postnatal socialization processes. The findings also suggest a previously unknown influence of early androgen exposure on later processes involved in self-socialization of gender-related behaviour, and thus expand understanding of the developmental systems regulating human gender development. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Social and economic influences on human behavioural response in an emerging epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, P.; Wiwatanapataphee, B.; Wu, Y. H.

    2017-10-01

    The human behavioural changes have been recognized as an important key in shaping the disease spreading and determining the success of control measures in the course of epidemic outbreaks. However, apart from cost-benefit considerations, in reality, people are heterogeneous in their preferences towards adopting certain protective actions to reduce their risk of infection, and social norms have a function in individuals’ decision making. Here, we studied the interplay between the epidemic dynamics, imitation dynamics and the heterogeneity of individual protective behavioural response under the considerations of both economic and social factors, with a simple mathematical compartmental model and multi-population game dynamical replicator equations. We assume that susceptibles in different subpopulations have different preferences in adopting either normal or altered behaviour. By incorporating both intra- and inter-group social pressure, the outcome of the strategy distribution depends on the initial proportion of susceptible with normal and altered strategies in both subpopulations. The increase of additional cost to susceptible with altered behaviour will discourage people to take up protective actions and hence results in higher epidemic final size. For a specific cost of altered behaviour, the social group pressure could be a “double edge sword”, though. We conclude that the interplays between individual protective behaviour adoption, imitation and epidemic dynamics are necessarily complex if both economic and social factors act on populations with existing preferences.

  2. How do gender differences affect families' pro-environmental consumer behaviour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    be discerned. Most notably, the division of household and consumption roles within families often made sub-activities of pro-environmental practices the prime responsibility of either one of the partners. This division was, however, not always fully recognized by both partners. It is suggested...... significant consumption issues were explored in a qualitative study including 30 couples with children. The couples' responses to the issues did not differ much. Nevertheless, the participants perceived the differences between themselves and their partner to be rather large. A number of reasons for this could...

  3. Endocrine and behavioural response of dog in stress situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Țurcanu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Visit to the veterinary doctor for different reasons constitutes an unpleasant/negative or perhaps stressed experience for the dog. The stress could modify the physiological function and mask the symptom of an illness, or make the dog aggressive (1. Aims: Comparing the endocrine and behavioral response of dogs during the visit to the veterinary hospital and during activities in other places that are not related to stress (workplace, park. Materials and Methods: Six dog were taken in consideration, as indicators of stress there were used urinary cortisol, and behavioral observations. Results: Five of six dogs got high values of urinary cortisol after the visit to the veterinary clinic comparing with the values obtained in working spaces/park – areas that were familiar for dogs. Behavioral data’s have indicated a hesitating behavior at the entrance of the clinic and also in the examination room for all dogs, but the levels of intensity range individually for each dog. The results of the „Clinic Dog Stress Scale” classify behavior of dogs in following categories: 1 dog had score of 1 point that means a calm, relaxed dog; 2 dogs-3 points that means a middle level of stress, the dog is tense but cooperative; 2 dogs got 4 points-very tense, difficult to maneuver, and one dog 5 points that means a high level of distress.. Conclusion: Studding behavior relating with stress and the endocrine response at the veterinary visit it has importance for animal, owner and veterinary doctor. There is also a correlation between the stress manifestation and urinary cortisol.

  4. Multivariate analysis of behavioural response experiments in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Rebecca A; Noad, Michael J; Cato, Douglas H; Kniest, Eric; Miller, Patrick J O; Smith, Joshua N; Stokes, M Dale

    2013-03-01

    The behavioural response study (BRS) is an experimental design used by field biologists to determine the function and/or behavioural effects of conspecific, heterospecific or anthropogenic stimuli. When carrying out these studies in marine mammals it is difficult to make basic observations and achieve sufficient samples sizes because of the high cost and logistical difficulties. Rarely are other factors such as social context or the physical environment considered in the analysis because of these difficulties. This paper presents results of a BRS carried out in humpback whales to test the response of groups to one recording of conspecific social sounds and an artificially generated tone stimulus. Experiments were carried out in September/October 2004 and 2008 during the humpback whale southward migration along the east coast of Australia. In total, 13 'tone' experiments, 15 'social sound' experiments (using one recording of social sounds) and three silent controls were carried out over two field seasons. The results (using a mixed model statistical analysis) suggested that humpback whales responded differently to the two stimuli, measured by changes in course travelled and dive behaviour. Although the response to 'tones' was consistent, in that groups moved offshore and surfaced more often (suggesting an aversion to the stimulus), the response to 'social sounds' was highly variable and dependent upon the composition of the social group. The change in course and dive behaviour in response to 'tones' was found to be related to proximity to the source, the received signal level and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This study demonstrates that the behavioural responses of marine mammals to acoustic stimuli are complex. In order to tease out such multifaceted interactions, the number of replicates and factors measured must be sufficient for multivariate analysis.

  5. Autonomous Motivation and Pro-Environmental Behaviours among Bedouin Students in Israel: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Haya; Madjar, Nir

    2015-01-01

    Promoting pro-environmental behaviours (PEBs) among students is a major concern for educators. The present article presents an educational program based on a self-determination theory framework (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000) and a study demonstrating that working according to the theoretical principles presented in the program leads to the desired…

  6. Environmental Knowledge and Behavioural Outcomes of Tourism Students in Australia: Towards Testing a Range of Mediation and Moderated Mediation Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Johra Kayeser; Khan, Habib Zaman; Goh, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    Our study examines the environmental knowledge (EK) and behavioural outcomes of students studying ecotourism in Sydney, Australia. Three competing models were tested to examine the relationships between EK, participation intention (PI) in ecotourism programs, landscape likeability (LL) and social interactions (SI); and the study also tested the…

  7. The seperate and interactive effects of handling and environmental enrichment on the behaviour and welfare of growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Day, J.E.L.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Burfoot, A.; Chamberlain, H.L.; Edwards, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to determine the interactive effects of handling and environmental enrichment on the behaviour, performance and welfare of the growing/finishing pig. Groups of pigs were exposed to one of eight treatments arranged in a 2 x 4 factorial design with two levels of handling

  8. Development and Validation of the ACSI: Measuring Students' Science Attitudes, Pro-Environmental Behaviour, Climate Change Attitudes and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of science, scientists, a career in science and the urgency…

  9. Selection on feather pecking affects response to novelty and foraging behaviour in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de E.N.; Nielsen, B.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Buitenhuis, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Feather pecking (FP) is a major welfare problem in laying hens, influenced by multiple factors. FP is thought to be redirected foraging behaviour, however fearful birds are also known to be more sensitive to develop FP. The relationship between fear-responses, foraging and FP is not well understood,

  10. Behavioural response of Daphnia to olfactory cues from food, competitors and predators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, F.; Lürling, M.

    2001-01-01

    The behavioural response of the freshwater zooplankter Daphnia to chemicals from its food, the green alga Scenedesmus, to algal cells, to the green colour from chlorophyll, to chemicals released from congeners and conspecifics, and to chemicals released from invertebrate (Chaoborus) and vertebrate

  11. Behavioural response of Heterorhabditis megidis towards plant roots and insect larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boff, M.I.C.; Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Smits, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    The behavioural response of infective juveniles (IJs) of Heterorhabditis megidis (strain NLH-E87.3) to cues from roots of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.), thuja (Thuja occidentalis L.) and to larvae of the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, was studied. Choice assays were conducted in

  12. Behavioural treatment of tics: Habit reversal and exposure with response prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griendt, J.M.T.M. van de; Verdellen, C.W.J.; Dijk, M.K. van; Verbraak, M.J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Behaviour therapy has been shown to be an effective strategy in treating tics; both habit reversal (HR) and exposure and response prevention (ER) are recommended as first-line interventions. This review provides an overview of the history, theoretical concepts and evidence at present for HR and ER.

  13. Domestication effects on behavioural and hormonal responses to acute stress in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Maria; Fallahsharoudi, Amir; Bergquist, Jonas; Kushnir, Mark M; Jensen, Per

    2014-06-22

    Comparative studies have shown that alterations in physiology, morphology and behaviour have arisen due to the domestication. A driving factor behind many of the changes could be a shift in stress responses, with modified endocrine and behavioural profiles. In the present study we compared two breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus), the domestic White Leghorn (WL) egg laying breed and its ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (RJF). Birds were exposed to an acute stress event, invoked by 3 or 10 min of physical restraint. They were then continuously monitored for the effects on a wide range of behaviours during a 60 min recovery phase. Blood samples were collected from the chicken at baseline, and after 10 and 60 min following a similar restraint stress, and the samples were analyzed for nine endogenous steroids of the HPA and HPG axes. Concentration of the steroids was determined using validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. In RJF, an immediate behavioural response was observed after release from restraint in several behaviours, with a relatively fast return to baseline within 1h. In WL, some behaviours were affected for a longer period of time, and others not at all. Concentrations of corticosterone increased more in RJF, but returned faster to baseline compared to WL. A range of baseline levels for HPG-related steroids differed between the breeds, and they were generally more affected by the stress in WL than in RJF. In conclusion, RJF reacted stronger both behaviourally and physiologically to the restraint stress, but also recovered faster. This would appear to be adaptive under natural conditions, whereas the stress recovery of domesticated birds has been altered by domestication and breeding for increased reproductive output. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Empathic responsiveness and helping behaviours in young children with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesa Skwerer, D; Tager-Flusberg, H

    2016-10-01

    Anecdotal and caregiver reports often highlight the sociability and empathy of children with Williams syndrome (WS), a genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by a distinctive, cognitive and social phenotype. Despite these characteristics, people with WS have many difficulties navigating the social world. In this study, we investigated whether the heightened social motivation and empathy demonstrated by children with WS lead to prosocial behaviours such as instrumental helping. We compared 2;8 to 5;8 year olds with WS to an age-matched and developmental quotient-matched group of children with Down syndrome (DS) and an age-matched group of typically developing children, in their responses to semi-structured naturalistic situations designed to elicit empathic and helping behaviours. Children with WS showed more empathic concern than both comparison groups towards a person in distress but did not differ from controls in their level of helping behaviour. Children in both the WS and DS groups consistently received higher ratings on empathy than on helpfulness, in contrast to the balanced profile shown by the typically developing children. Findings suggest that the heightened emotional responsivity displayed by children with WS or DS does not readily translate into other forms of socially competent behaviour. The complex relations between empathy and prosocial behaviours in typical and atypical development are discussed. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Physical Health Problems and Environmental Challenges Influence Balancing Behaviour in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Stephanie; Tobalske, Bret; Quinton, Margaret; Springthorpe, Dwight; Szkotnicki, Bill; Wuerbel, Hanno; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    With rising public concern for animal welfare, many major food chains and restaurants are changing their policies, strictly buying their eggs from non-cage producers. However, with the additional space in these cage-free systems to perform natural behaviours and movements comes the risk of injury. We evaluated the ability to maintain balance in adult laying hens with health problems (footpad dermatitis, keel damage, poor wing feather cover; n = 15) using a series of environmental challenges and compared such abilities with those of healthy birds (n = 5). Environmental challenges consisted of visual and spatial constraints, created using a head mask, perch obstacles, and static and swaying perch states. We hypothesized that perch movement, environmental challenges, and diminished physical health would negatively impact perching performance demonstrated as balance (as measured by time spent on perch and by number of falls of the perch) and would require more exaggerated correctional movements. We measured perching stability whereby each bird underwent eight 30-second trials on a static and swaying perch: with and without disrupted vision (head mask), with and without space limitations (obstacles) and combinations thereof. Video recordings (600 Hz) and a three-axis accelerometer/gyroscope (100 Hz) were used to measure the number of jumps/falls, latencies to leave the perch, as well as magnitude and direction of both linear and rotational balance-correcting movements. Laying hens with and without physical health problems, in both challenged and unchallenged environments, managed to perch and remain off the ground. We attribute this capacity to our training of the birds. Environmental challenges and physical state had an effect on the use of accelerations and rotations to stabilize themselves on a perch. Birds with physical health problems performed a higher frequency of rotational corrections to keep the body centered over the perch, whereas, for both health categories

  16. Physical Health Problems and Environmental Challenges Influence Balancing Behaviour in Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Stephanie; Tobalske, Bret; Quinton, Margaret; Springthorpe, Dwight; Szkotnicki, Bill; Wuerbel, Hanno; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    With rising public concern for animal welfare, many major food chains and restaurants are changing their policies, strictly buying their eggs from non-cage producers. However, with the additional space in these cage-free systems to perform natural behaviours and movements comes the risk of injury. We evaluated the ability to maintain balance in adult laying hens with health problems (footpad dermatitis, keel damage, poor wing feather cover; n = 15) using a series of environmental challenges and compared such abilities with those of healthy birds (n = 5). Environmental challenges consisted of visual and spatial constraints, created using a head mask, perch obstacles, and static and swaying perch states. We hypothesized that perch movement, environmental challenges, and diminished physical health would negatively impact perching performance demonstrated as balance (as measured by time spent on perch and by number of falls of the perch) and would require more exaggerated correctional movements. We measured perching stability whereby each bird underwent eight 30-second trials on a static and swaying perch: with and without disrupted vision (head mask), with and without space limitations (obstacles) and combinations thereof. Video recordings (600 Hz) and a three-axis accelerometer/gyroscope (100 Hz) were used to measure the number of jumps/falls, latencies to leave the perch, as well as magnitude and direction of both linear and rotational balance-correcting movements. Laying hens with and without physical health problems, in both challenged and unchallenged environments, managed to perch and remain off the ground. We attribute this capacity to our training of the birds. Environmental challenges and physical state had an effect on the use of accelerations and rotations to stabilize themselves on a perch. Birds with physical health problems performed a higher frequency of rotational corrections to keep the body centered over the perch, whereas, for both health categories

  17. Physical Health Problems and Environmental Challenges Influence Balancing Behaviour in Laying Hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie LeBlanc

    Full Text Available With rising public concern for animal welfare, many major food chains and restaurants are changing their policies, strictly buying their eggs from non-cage producers. However, with the additional space in these cage-free systems to perform natural behaviours and movements comes the risk of injury. We evaluated the ability to maintain balance in adult laying hens with health problems (footpad dermatitis, keel damage, poor wing feather cover; n = 15 using a series of environmental challenges and compared such abilities with those of healthy birds (n = 5. Environmental challenges consisted of visual and spatial constraints, created using a head mask, perch obstacles, and static and swaying perch states. We hypothesized that perch movement, environmental challenges, and diminished physical health would negatively impact perching performance demonstrated as balance (as measured by time spent on perch and by number of falls of the perch and would require more exaggerated correctional movements. We measured perching stability whereby each bird underwent eight 30-second trials on a static and swaying perch: with and without disrupted vision (head mask, with and without space limitations (obstacles and combinations thereof. Video recordings (600 Hz and a three-axis accelerometer/gyroscope (100 Hz were used to measure the number of jumps/falls, latencies to leave the perch, as well as magnitude and direction of both linear and rotational balance-correcting movements. Laying hens with and without physical health problems, in both challenged and unchallenged environments, managed to perch and remain off the ground. We attribute this capacity to our training of the birds. Environmental challenges and physical state had an effect on the use of accelerations and rotations to stabilize themselves on a perch. Birds with physical health problems performed a higher frequency of rotational corrections to keep the body centered over the perch, whereas, for both

  18. Predicting Response Trajectories during Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Panic Disorder: No Association with the BDNF Gene or Childhood Maltreatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Santacana

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and result in low quality of life and a high social and economic cost. The efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT for anxiety disorders is well established, but a substantial proportion of patients do not respond to this treatment. Understanding which genetic and environmental factors are responsible for this differential response to treatment is a key step towards "personalized medicine". Based on previous research, our objective was to test whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and/or childhood maltreatment are associated with response trajectories during exposure-based CBT for panic disorder (PD.We used Growth Mixture Modeling to identify latent classes of change (response trajectories in patients with PD (N = 97 who underwent group manualized exposure-based CBT. We conducted logistic regression to investigate the effect on these trajectories of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and two different types of childhood maltreatment, abuse and neglect.We identified two response trajectories ("high response" and "low response", and found that they were not significantly associated with either the genetic (BDNF Val66Met polymorphism or childhood trauma-related variables of interest, nor with an interaction between these variables.We found no evidence to support an effect of the BDNF gene or childhood trauma-related variables on CBT outcome in PD. Future studies in this field may benefit from looking at other genotypes or using different (e.g. whole-genome approaches.

  19. Quantifying Behaviour Change in reducing environmental impact within large organisations - 3 case studies from the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F.G. Smith

    2015-10-01

    over 50% have been achieved. In total, these programmes have saved the organisations substantial amounts of money and avoided CO2 emissions. Analysis has shown that the three universities are currently benefitting by over £320,000 / year and 1,300 tonnes of avoided CO2, as behavioural-led changes have already reduced demand by between 5% and 8%. Figure 1 shows the savings made by one university, and demonstrates a 99kW reduction in electricity demand that has been created through staff behaviour change. CONCLUSIONS Effecting behaviour change within large organisations has always been difficult owing to the large numbers of people involved, the slow speed of feedback and the difficulty in quantifying results. This work shows that well-designed IT systems are a key enabler in overcoming all of these challenges. IT has permitted and facilitated the following: Community building, awareness raising, quantification of savings, feedback on actions, competitive activity and rapid reporting. The results from these programmes have helped three universities to cut their electricity consumption by between 5% and 8%, with potential for greater future cuts. Collectively, as a result of this mechanism, the three universities are reducing their environmental impact by over 1,300 tonnes of CO2 per year. The implications for other areas of behaviour change are significant. Potentially the lessons learned in these IT-enabled environmental impact reduction initiatives can be translated into other fields (eg: other health, organisational change, etc.

  20. Behavioural and brain responses related to Internet search and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-10-01

    The ready availability of data via searches on the Internet has changed how many people seek and perhaps store and recall information, although the brain mechanisms underlying these processes are not well understood. This study investigated brain mechanisms underlying Internet-based vs. non-Internet-based searching. The results showed that Internet searching was associated with lower accuracy in recalling information as compared with traditional book searching. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, Internet searching was associated with less regional brain activation in the left ventral stream, the association area of the temporal-parietal-occipital cortices, and the middle frontal cortex. When comparing novel items with remembered trials, Internet-based searching was associated with higher brain activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex and lower brain activation in the right middle temporal gyrus when facing those novel trials. Brain activations in the middle temporal gyrus were inversely correlated with response times, and brain activations in the orbitofrontal cortex were positively correlated with self-reported search impulses. Taken together, the results suggest that, although Internet-based searching may have facilitated the information-acquisition process, this process may have been performed more hastily and be more prone to difficulties in recollection. In addition, people appear less confident in recalling information learned through Internet searching and that recent Internet searching may promote motivation to use the Internet. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Feeding behaviour of an intertidal snail: Does past environmental stress affect predator choices and prey vulnerability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestoso, Ignacio; Arenas, Francisco; Olabarria, Celia

    2015-03-01

    Predation is one of the most important factors in determining structure and dynamics of communities on intertidal rocky shores. Such regulatory role may be of special relevance in novel communities resulting from biological invasions. Non-indigenous species frequently escape natural predators that limit their distribution and abundance in the native range. However, biological interactions also can limit the establishment and spread of non-native populations. There is a growing concern that climate change might affect predator-prey interactions exacerbating the ecological impacts of non-indigenous species. However, mechanisms underlying such interactions are poorly understood in marine ecosystems. Here, we explored if past environmental stress, i.e., increasing temperature and decreasing pH, could affect the vulnerability of two mussel prey, the native Mytilus galloprovincialis and the non-indigenous Xenostrobus securis, to predation by the native dogwhelk Nucella lapillus. In addition, we evaluated the consequences on the feeding behaviour of N. lapillus. First, we exposed monospecific assemblages of each mussel species to combined experimental conditions of increasing temperature and decreasing pH in mesocosms for 3 weeks. Then assemblages were placed on a rocky shore and were enclosed in cages with dogwhelks where they remained for 3 weeks. Despite the lack of preference, consumption was much greater on the native than on the invasive mussels, which barely were consumed by dogwhelks. However, this trend was diverted when temperature increased. Thus, under a coastal warming scenario shifts in dogwhelks feeding behaviour may help to contain invader's populations, especially in estuarine areas where these predators are abundant.

  2. THE IMPORTANCE OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rahizah Abd Rahim; Kasmah Tajuddin; Farah Waheeda Jalaludin

    2011-01-01

    Malaysian consumers should be more aware that, in pursuing their business objectives, corporations now bear more responsibility towards society and the environment. The awareness level has increased through better education and the increased influence of the media. Corporations also now believe that, to a certain extent, the degree of their involvement in corporate social responsibility (CSR) does have certain effect on consumers' buying behaviour. This paper aims to examine the influence of ...

  3. Urban elementary students' views of environmental scientists, environmental caretakers and environmentally responsible behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Patricia Lynne

    The purpose of this research was to determine the nature of the relationship between urban elementary fifth graders, environmental workers, and the environment. The study examined 320 urban fifth grade elementary students' drawings of environmental scientists (DAEST) and environmental caretakers (DAECT). Additionally, semi-structured interviews were included to elucidate student illustrations. The study's sample represented one-third of all fifth graders in the mid-Atlantic school district selected for this research. Approximately 5% of participants were chosen for follow-up semi-structured interviews based on their illustrations. A general conclusion is some of the stereotypes, particularly related to gender, revealed in prior research (Barman, 1999, Chambers, 1983; Huber & Burton, 1995; Schibeci & Sorensen's, 1983; Sumrall, 1995) are evident among many elementary students. Male environmental scientists were drawn twice as often as female environmental scientists. Females were represented in more pictures of environmental caretakers than environmental scientists. Students overwhelmingly drew environmental scientists (98.1%) and environmental caretakers (76.5%) working alone. Wildlife was noticeably absent from most drawings (85%). Where wildlife was included, it was most often birds (6.9%) and fish (3.1%). More than one species was evident in only 2.5% of the pictures. Fifty percent of environmental caretakers were shown picking up trash from land. Actions such as reducing resource use occurred in only 13 out of 319 pictures (4.1%). Pictures of environmental caretakers sharing knowledge were even less common (2.5%). Almost 22% of females drew multiple individuals compared to 18.5% drawn by males. Females were more likely to show individuals collaborating (22.4% to 16.8%) while males were more likely to show individuals working in opposition (5.2% to 2.0%).

  4. Responsible Environmental Action: Its Role and Status in Environmental Education and Environmental Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    This century will be one of continued global population growth, technological advancement, and subsequent burdens on the natural world from consumer demands. A citizenry capable of understanding the complexity of environmental issues and actively participating in their resolutions is vital. The ultimate goal of environmental educators should be to…

  5. Managing Responsive Behaviours: A Wicked Problem Addressed through a Grassroots Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémault-Phillips, Suzette; Friesen, Steven; Moulton, Lynne; Germani, Tamara; Miciak, Maxi; Parmar, Jasneet; Rogers, Laura G

    2015-01-01

    Challenging responsive behaviours, such as aggression, wandering and social inappropriateness, exhibited by persons with neurological, mental health or developmental disorders are of increasing concern across Canada. These behaviours can cause distress or catastrophic outcomes for the person, others in care, caregivers and healthcare providers, and result in extensive resource utilization. The objective of this paper is to discuss the role and impact of a unique, grassroots provincial initiative aimed at networking among healthcare providers, decision-makers and caregivers across government ministries and service-provider agencies. This collaboration provides a model for informing service provision and policy development across multiple stakeholders.

  6. Genetic and environmental influences on risky sexual behaviour and its relationship with personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zietsch, B.P.; Verweij, K.J.H.; Bailey, J.M.; Wright, M.J.; Martin, N.G.

    2010-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviour is a major health issue in society, and it is therefore important to understand factors that may predispose individuals to such behaviour. Research suggests a link between risky sexual behaviour and personality, but the basis of this link remains unknown. Hans Eysenck proposed

  7. Applying environmental-behaviour concepts to renewable energy siting controversy. Reflections on a longitudinal bioenergy case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upham, Paul [Tyndall Centre Manchester and Manchester Institute of Innovation Research, Pariser Building, The University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    To date, studies of energy siting controversy and of environmental psychology have barely informed one another, despite the environmental-behaviour literature potentially having considerable relevance to understanding public opposition to energy projects. This paper points towards this relevance, using the example of a longitudinal study of public objections to a 21.5 MWe bioenergy gasifier proposed for Winkleigh in Devon, England. Local opinion surveys in 2004 and 2007 showed that public opposition to the proposed gasifier remained strong but also revealed some statistically significant change and correlations of wider interest. In the context of the environmental psychology literature, the dominant model of contextualised values, intention and behaviour, as well as other psychological approaches, are found to be helpful, both for making sense of the results and for informing a psychological research agenda on public objection to new energy infrastructure. (author)

  8. In-task and post-task affective response to exercise: translating exercise intentions into behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Bethany M; Bryan, Angela

    2010-02-01

    To test whether affective response to an acute bout of exercise can predict regular voluntary exercise, and specifically whether a positive affective response helps translate intentions into behaviour. A prospective correlational design. Participants (N=127) recruited from the community reported intentions to engage in voluntary exercise and frequency of participation in voluntary exercise both at baseline and at a 3-month follow-up. Self-reported positive affect, negative affect, tranquillity, and fatigue were assessed during a bout of moderate intensity exercise. Within subject slopes for increases in positive affect and decreases in fatigue during exercise, and increased tranquillity and decreased fatigue post-exercise were associated with more frequent participation in exercise at follow-up. Changes in negative affect did not predict exercise at follow-up; however, this was likely due to floor effects leading to lack of baseline variability in negative affect. Importantly, a positive affective response to exercise moderated the intention-behaviour relationship, such that those who responded to exercise more favourably exhibited stronger relationships between intentions and future exercise behaviour Conclusions: We conclude that exercise-related increases in positive affect and tranquillity and decreases in feelings of fatigue can aid in the successful translation of exercise intentions into behaviour.

  9. Impaired behavioural response to alarm substance in rainbow trout exposed to copper nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovová, Tereza [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Plymouth University, Devon (United Kingdom); Department of Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Boyle, David, E-mail: david.boyle@ualberta.ca [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Plymouth University, Devon (United Kingdom); Sloman, Katherine A. [School of Science, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley (United Kingdom); Vanegas Pérez, Cecilia [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Plymouth University, Devon (United Kingdom); Laboratory of Animal Ecophysiology and Aquatic Ecotoxicology, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Handy, Richard D. [Ecotoxicology Research and Innovation Centre, School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, Plymouth University, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Copper nanoparticles impaired the behavioural response of trout to alarm substance. • This effect appeared to be greater than in trout exposed to copper sulphate. • Toxicity was mediated by interaction of materials at external surfaces of fish. • Copper nanoparticles did not affect the morphology of the olfactory rosette. • Copper nanoparticles caused a change in glutathione status in brains of fish. - Abstract: To date, studies of the toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in fish have not fully considered effects on olfactory-mediated behaviours, despite their ecological importance. In this study the effects of copper NPs (Cu NPs) on the anti-predator behavioural responses of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to trout alarm substance was investigated. Individual fish were exposed for 12 h to a control (no added Cu), 50 μg l⁻¹ of Cu as Cu NPs, or 50 μg l⁻¹ Cu as CuSO₄, after which fish behaviours were analyzed in 10 min periods before and after the addition of the alarm substance stimulus. The response of control fish to deionised water (negative control, no alarm substance stimulus) was also analyzed. The alarm substance elicited a behavioural response in the control fish characterized by an immediate freeze response and the slower resumption of swimming activity compared to negative controls exposed to the sham deionised water stimuli. In fish exposed to Cu NPs, the behavioural response to alarm substance was eliminated, with no significant difference in behaviours compared to negative controls. In comparison, exposure to 50 μg l⁻¹ Cu as CuSO₄ decreased, but did not eliminate the response of fish to alarm substance, which indicated a significantly greater effect of Cu NPs on olfactory mediated behaviours than of the equivalent concentration of Cu as CuSO₄. Measurement of total Cu concentrations in the tissues of fish demonstrated no significant accumulation of Cu from any treatment in gill, liver or brain

  10. Environmental and nursing-staff factors contributing to aggressive and violent behaviour of patients in mental health facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aggressive and violent behaviour of inpatients in mental health facilities disrupts the therapeutic alliance and hampers treatment.Objectives: The aim of the study was to describe patients’ perceptions of the possible environmental and staff factors that might contribute to their aggressive and violent behaviour after admission to a mental health facility; and to propose strategies to prevent and manage such behaviour.Research design: A qualitative, phenomenological study was utilised, in which purposefully sampled inpatients were interviewed over a six-month period. Inpatients were invited to participate if they had been admitted for at least seven days and were in touch with reality.Method: Forty inpatients in two mental health facilities in Cape Town participated in face-to-face, semi-structured interviews over a period of six months. Tesch’s descriptive method of open coding formed the framework for the data analysis and presentation of the results. Trustworthiness was ensured in accordance with the principles of credibility, confirmability, transferability and dependability.Results: Analysis of the data indicates two central categories in the factors contributing to patients’ aggressive and violent behaviour, namely, environmental factors and the attitude and behaviour of staff. Conclusion: From the perspective of the inpatients included in this study, aggressive and violent episodes are common and require intervention. Specific strategies for preventing such behaviour are proposed and it is recommended that these strategies be incorporated into the in-service training programmes of the staff of mental health facilities. These strategies could prevent, or reduce, aggressive and violent behaviour in in-patient facilities.

  11. THE IMPORTANCE OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahizah Abd Rahim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian consumers should be more aware that, in pursuing their business objectives, corporations now bear more responsibility towards society and the environment. The awareness level has increased through better education and the increased influence of the media. Corporations also now believe that, to a certain extent, the degree of their involvement in corporate social responsibility (CSR does have certain effect on consumers' buying behaviour. This paper aims to examine the influence of CSR on the buying behaviour of Malaysian consumers and whether they consider a corporation's CSR initiatives before making any purchase decisions of the products and services. The definition of CSR was adopted from Carroll's definition, which included economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibilities. A total of 220 structured questions were distributed, with 193 returned for analysis. The results showed significant positive relationships between all of the variables used in measuring CSR and consumers' buying behaviour. Malaysian consumers' priority, however, seemed to be different from Carroll's pyramid, where, although economic responsibility remained the utmost priority, philanthropy stood second, followed by ethical and legal responsibility.

  12. Genetic correlations between behavioural responses and performance traits in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozempolska-Rucińska, Iwona; Zięba, Grzegorz; Kibała, Lucyna; Próchniak, Tomasz; Łukaszewicz, Marek

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate genetic correlations between the behavioural profile and performance in laying hens as an indirect answer to the question whether the observed behavioural responses are associated with increased levels of stress in these birds. The assessment of birds' temperament was carried out using the novel objects test. The behavioural test was conducted in two successive generations comprising 9,483 Rhode Island White (RIW) birds (approx. 4,700 individuals per generation) and 4,326 Rhode Island Red (RIR) birds (approx. 2,100 individuals per generation). Based on the recorded responses, the birds were divided into two groups: a fearful profile (1,418 RIW hens and 580 RIR hens) and a brave/curious profile (8,065 RIW hens and 3,746 RIR hens). The birds were subjected to standard assessment of their performance traits, including SM, age at sexual maturity; ST, shell thickness; SG, egg specific gravity; EW, mean egg weight; IP, initial egg production; and HC, number of hatched chicks. The pedigree was three generations deep (including two behaviour-recorded generations). Estimation of the (co)variance components was performed with the Gibbs sampling method, which accounts for the discrete character of the behavioural profile denotation. The analyses revealed negative correlations between the performance traits of the laying hens and the behavioural profile defined as fearful. In the group of fearful RIW birds, delayed sexual maturation (0.22) as well as a decrease in the initial egg production (-0.30), egg weight (-0.54), egg specific gravity (-0.331), shell thickness (-0.11), and the number of hatched chicks (-0.24) could be expected. These correlations were less pronounced in the RIR breed, in which the fearful birds exhibited a decline in hatchability (-0.37), egg specific gravity (-0.11), and the number of hatched chicks (-0.18). There were no correlations in the case of the other traits or they were positive but exhibited a substantial

  13. Novel approaches to alcohol rehabilitation: Modification of stress-responsive brain regions through environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Terence Y; Hannan, Anthony J; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2018-02-22

    Relapse remains the most prominent hurdle to successful rehabilitation from alcoholism. The neural mechanisms underlying relapse are complex, but our understanding of the brain regions involved, the anatomical circuitry and the modulation of specific nuclei in the context of stress and cue-induced relapse have improved significantly in recent years. In particular, stress is now recognised as a significant trigger for relapse, adding to the well-established impact of chronic stress to escalate alcohol consumption. It is therefore unsurprising that the stress-responsive regions of the brain have also been implicated in alcohol relapse, such as the nucleus accumbens, amygdala and the hypothalamus. Environmental enrichment is a robust experimental paradigm which provides a non-pharmacological tool to alter stress response and, separately, alcohol-seeking behaviour and symptoms of withdrawal. In this review, we examine and consolidate the preclinical evidence that alcohol seeking behaviour and stress-induced relapse are modulated by environmental enrichment, and these are primarily mediated by modification of neural activity within the key nodes of the addiction circuitry. Finally, we discuss the limited clinical evidence that stress-reducing approaches such as mindfulness could potentially serve as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of alcoholism. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Relationships among social and environmental responsibility and business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Soriana Sitnikov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of an economy can be achieved through socially responsible behavior of companies in both the balanced development of labour and environmental protection as well as in responsible consumption of non-renewable resources. This paper aims to highlight the impact of the implementation of quality management systems on increasing responsibility for companies on sustainable management of human and natural resources. First, we perform a quantitative analysis to determine the effects of the adoption of ISO 14000 on the evolution of greenhouse gases. Secondly, we take a qualitative research on the impact of the adoption of ISO 26000 as a national standard. Based on three essential factors of production (labour, nature and capital we propose a model of sustainable development based on the three pillars: social responsibility, environmental protection and business

  15. Choice of organic foods is related to perceived consequences for human health and to environmentally friendly behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Maria K; Arvola, Anne; Hursti, Ulla Kaisa Koivisto; Aberg, Lars; Sjödén, Per-Olow

    2003-04-01

    We designed a questionnaire concerned with attitudes and behaviour towards organic foods, environmentally friendly behaviour (EFB), and perceived consequences of organic food choice in terms of human health, the environment and animal welfare. It was mailed in 1998 to a random nation-wide sample of 2000 Swedish citizens, ages 18-65 years, and 1154 (58%) responded. Self-reported purchase of organic foods was most strongly related to perceived benefit for human health. Performance of EFBs such as refraining from car driving was also a good predictor of purchase frequency. The results indicate that egoistic motives are better predictors of the purchase of organic foods than are altruistic motives.

  16. Behavioural responses of feral and domestic guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to predators and their cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaney, William T; Cabrera-Álvarez, María J; Reader, Simon M

    2015-09-01

    Predation is an important factor during adaptation to novel environments, and the feralisation of introduced domestic species often involves responding appropriately to allopatric predators despite a background of domestication and inbreeding. Twenty years ago, domestic guppies were introduced to a semi-natural environment at Burgers' Zoo in the Netherlands, where they have since been exposed to avian predation. We compared predation-linked behaviours in this feral population and in domestic guppies akin to the original founders. We found that both populations responded to a novel predator and to conspecific alarm cues. However, shoaling, an important anti-predator behaviour, was higher among feral guppies both at baseline and when exposed to the novel predator. We did not observe a linked suite of anti-predator behaviours across shoaling, predator inspection, alarm substance sensitivity and boldness, suggesting that these responses may be decoupled from one another depending on local predation regimes. As we compared two populations, we cannot identify the causal factors determining population differences, however, our results do suggest that shoaling is either a particularly consequential anti-predator adaptation or the most labile of the behaviours we tested. Finally, the behavioural adaptability of domestic guppies may help to explain their success as an invasive species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Early sex-dependent differences in response to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cerezales, Serafin; Ramos-Ibeas, Priscila; Rizos, Dimitrios; Lonergan, Pat; Bermejo-Alvarez, Pablo; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso

    2017-10-13

    Developmental plasticity enables the appearance of long-term effects in offspring caused by exposure to environmental stressors during embryonic and foetal life. These long-term effects can be traced to pre- and post-implantation development, and in both cases the effects are usually sex-specific. During preimplantation development, male and female embryos exhibit an extensive transcriptional dimorphism mainly driven by incomplete X-chromosome inactivation. These early developmental stages are crucial for the establishment of epigenetic marks that will be conserved throughout development, making it a particularly susceptible period for the appearance of long-term epigenetic-based phenotypes. Later in development, gonadal formation generates hormonal differences between the sexes, and male and female placentae exhibit different responses to environmental stressors. The maternal environment, including hormones and environmental insults during pregnancy, contributes to sex-specific placental development that controls genetic and epigenetic programming during foetal development, regulating sex-specific differences, including sex-specific epigenetic responses to environmental hazards, leading to long-term effects. This review summarizes several human and animal studies examining sex-specific responses to environmental stressors during both the periconception period (caused by differences in sex chromosome dosage) and placental development (caused by both sex chromosomes and hormones). The identification of relevant sex-dependent trajectories caused by sex-chromosomes and/or sex-hormones is essential to define diagnostic markers and prevention/intervention protocols.

  18. Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Environmental Performance, and Tax Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia Sari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the influence of the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure and environmental performance on the level of tax aggressiveness. This study took a sample of non-financial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2009-2012. This study shows that the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure has significant negative effect towards the tax aggressiveness. It means the higher the level of the CSR disclosure, the lower the company’s tax aggressiveness. This study also proves that good environmental performance will strengthen the negative effect of CSR disclosure on tax aggressiveness. The assessment of environmental performance is conducted by the Ministry of Environment as independent party. It means that the higher the score of company’s environmental performance, the higher the commitment to pay taxes. This study supports the view that more socially responsible corporations are likely to be less tax aggressive.

  19. Beyond Turing : The response of patterned ecosystems to environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siteur, Koen; Siero, Eric; Eppinga, Maarten B.; Rademacher, Jens D M; Doelman, Arjen; Rietkerk, Max

    2014-01-01

    Spatially periodic patterns can be observed in a variety of ecosystems. Model studies revealed that patterned ecosystems may respond in a nonlinear way to environmental change, meaning that gradual changes result in rapid degradation. We analyze this response through stability analysis of patterned

  20. Assessment of environmental responses to land use/land cover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of environmental responses to land use/land cover dynamics in the Lower Ogun River Basin, Southwestern Nigeria. ... Findings show the growing impact of urban agriculture on wetland ecosystem within the study area, manifesting in soil degradation and biodiversity loss. The implication of these findings is that ...

  1. Emotional Responses to Environmental Messages and Future Behavioral Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    The present research investigated effects of message framing (losses-framed or gains-framed), message modality (video with text or text-only) and emotional arousal on environmentally responsible behavioral intentions. The sample consisted of 161 college students. The present research did not find a significant difference in behavioral intentions…

  2. Interactions and constraints in model species response to environmental heteroscedasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanson, George P

    2017-04-21

    Increasing environmental variability could exacerbate the effects of climate change on ecological processes such as population dynamics, or positive and negative effects (favorable or unfavorable weather) could balance. Such a balance could depend on constraints of the processes. Biological and spatial constraints are represented in a spatially explicit individual based simulation of an ecotone reduced to two species on a single environmental gradient. The effects of climate amelioration are simulated from a plant's-eye-view by increasing the establishment and decreasing the mortality rates. Variability is introduced as a random multiplier of these rates, and the strength of the variation is increased through the period of climate change. The biological constraints limit change in the rates, and the extent of the simulation grid represents a spatial constraint. A small increase in environmental variation, multiplied through time with climate change, increases extinction rates. The biological and spatial constraints have little effect on the response of populations. Instead, competition, based on the form of the species response functions to the environmental gradient at the point where they intersect, determines differences in population responses. Positive and negative variations in the environment do not balance because the responses are hierarchical and asymmetric. Differences persist because extinction during a negative anomaly cannot be reversed by a later positive one. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Facilitating Comprehension, Connection and Commitment to Environmentally Responsible Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Given the increased awareness of the negative effects the building industry has on the environment, designs produced without considering sustainability of the planet can no longer be accepted. Although the concepts of sustainability and environmental responsibility are not new to the field of interior design, a review of the literature reveals…

  4. Responses of Lens esculenta Moench to controlled environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saint-Clair, P.M.

    1972-01-01

    Many experiments were undertaken to study the responses of the lentil cultivars 'Large blonde' and 'Anicia' to controlled environmental factors. They covered different aspects of the physiology and the ecology of the crop.

    The orientation experiments (2) involved germination and

  5. Thermal behaviour of Anopheles stephensi in response to infection with malaria and fungal entomopathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read Andrew F

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temperature is a critical determinant of the development of malaria parasites in mosquitoes, and hence the geographic distribution of malaria risk, but little is known about the thermal preferences of Anopheles. A number of other insects modify their thermal behaviour in response to infection. These alterations can be beneficial for the insect or for the infectious agent. Given current interest in developing fungal biopesticides for control of mosquitoes, Anopheles stephensi were examined to test whether mosquitoes showed thermally-mediated behaviour in response to infection with fungal entomopathogens and the rodent malaria, Plasmodium yoelii. Methods Over two experiments, groups of An. stephensi were infected with one of three entomopathogenic fungi, and/or P. yoelii. Infected and uninfected mosquitoes were released on to a thermal gradient (14 – 38°C for "snapshot" assessments of thermal preference during the first five days post-infection. Mosquito survival was monitored for eight days and, where appropriate, oocyst prevalence and intensity was assessed. Results and conclusion Both infected and uninfected An. stephensi showed a non-random distribution on the gradient, indicating some capacity to behaviourally thermoregulate. However, chosen resting temperatures were not altered by any of the infections. There is thus no evidence that thermally-mediated behaviours play a role in determining malaria prevalence or that they will influence the performance of fungal biopesticides against adult Anopheles.

  6. Environmental enrichment reduces innate anxiety with no effect on depression-like behaviour in mice lacking the serotonin transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jake; Li, Shanshan; Lanfumey, Laurence; Hannan, Anthony J; Renoir, Thibault

    2017-08-14

    Along with being the main target of many antidepressant medications, the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is known to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety disorders. In line with this, mice with varying 5-HTT genotypes are invaluable tools to study depression- and anxiety-like behaviours as well as the mechanisms mediating potential therapeutics. There is clear evidence that both genetic and environmental factors play a role in the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. In that regard, housing paradigms which seek to enhance cognitive stimulation and physical activity have been shown to exert beneficial effects in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, we examined the effects of environmental enrichment on affective-like behaviours and sensorimotor gating function of 5-HTT knock-out (KO) mice. Using the elevated-plus maze and the light-dark box, we found that environmental enrichment ameliorated the abnormal innate anxiety of 5-HTT KO mice on both tests. In contrast, environmental enrichment did not rescue the depression-like behaviour displayed by 5-HTT KO mice in the forced-swim test. Finally, measuring pre-pulse inhibition, we found no effect of genotype or treatment on sensorimotor gating. In conclusion, our data suggest that environmental enrichment specifically reduces innate anxiety of 5-HTT KO mice with no amelioration of the depression-like behaviour. This has implications for the current use of clinical interventions for patients with symptoms of both anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Behavioural, brain and cardiac responses to hypobaric hypoxia in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jessica E; Christensen, Karen; Vizzier-Thaxton, Yvonne; Mitchell, Malcolm A; McKeegan, Dorothy E F

    2016-09-01

    A novel approach to pre-slaughter stunning of chickens has been developed in which birds are rendered unconscious by progressive hypobaric hypoxia. Termed Low Atmospheric Pressure Stunning (LAPS), this approach involves application of gradual decompression lasting 280s according to a prescribed curve. We examined responses to LAPS by recording behaviour, electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) in individual male chickens, and interpreted these with regard to the welfare impact of the process. We also examined the effect of two temperature adjusted pressure curves on these responses. Broiler chickens were exposed to LAPS in 30 triplets (16 and 14 triplets assigned to each pressure curve). In each triplet, one bird was instrumented for recording of EEG and ECG while the behaviour of all three birds was observed. Birds showed a consistent sequence of behaviours during LAPS (ataxia, loss of posture, clonic convulsions and motionless) which were observed in all birds. Leg paddling, tonic convulsions, slow wing flapping, mandibulation, head shaking, open bill breathing, deep inhalation, jumping and vocalisation were observed in a proportion of birds. Spectral analysis of EEG responses at 2s intervals throughout LAPS revealed progressive decreases in median frequency at the same time as corresponding progressive increases in total power, followed later by decreases in total power as all birds exhibited isoelectric EEG and died. There was a very pronounced increase in total power at 50-60s into the LAPS cycle, which corresponded to dominance of the signal by high amplitude slow waves, indicating loss of consciousness. Slow wave EEG was seen early in the LAPS process, before behavioural evidence of loss of consciousness such as ataxia and loss of posture, almost certainly due to the fact that it was completely dark in the LAPS chamber. ECG recordings showed a pronounced bradycardia (starting on average 49.6s into LAPS), often associated with arrhythmia, until

  8. Anxiety-Like Behavioural Inhibition Is Normative under Environmental Threat-Reward Correlations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik R Bach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural inhibition is a key anxiety-like behaviour in rodents and humans, distinct from avoidance of danger, and reduced by anxiolytic drugs. In some situations, it is not clear how behavioural inhibition minimises harm or maximises benefit for the agent, and can even appear counterproductive. Extant explanations of this phenomenon make use of descriptive models but do not provide a formal assessment of its adaptive value. This hampers a better understanding of the neural computations underlying anxiety behaviour. Here, we analyse a standard rodent anxiety model, the operant conflict test. We harvest Bayesian Decision Theory to show that behavioural inhibition normatively arises as cost-minimising strategy in temporally correlated environments. Importantly, only if behavioural inhibition is aimed at minimising cost, it depends on probability and magnitude of threat. Harnessing a virtual computer game, we test model predictions in four experiments with human participants. Humans exhibit behavioural inhibition with a strong linear dependence on threat probability and magnitude. Strikingly, inhibition occurs before motor execution and depends on the virtual environment, thus likely resulting from a neural optimisation process rather than a pre-programmed mechanism. Individual trait anxiety scores predict behavioural inhibition, underlining the validity of this anxiety model. These findings put anxiety behaviour into the context of cost-minimisation and optimal inference, and may ultimately pave the way towards a mechanistic understanding of the neural computations gone awry in human anxiety disorder.

  9. Anxiety-Like Behavioural Inhibition Is Normative under Environmental Threat-Reward Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Dominik R

    2015-12-01

    Behavioural inhibition is a key anxiety-like behaviour in rodents and humans, distinct from avoidance of danger, and reduced by anxiolytic drugs. In some situations, it is not clear how behavioural inhibition minimises harm or maximises benefit for the agent, and can even appear counterproductive. Extant explanations of this phenomenon make use of descriptive models but do not provide a formal assessment of its adaptive value. This hampers a better understanding of the neural computations underlying anxiety behaviour. Here, we analyse a standard rodent anxiety model, the operant conflict test. We harvest Bayesian Decision Theory to show that behavioural inhibition normatively arises as cost-minimising strategy in temporally correlated environments. Importantly, only if behavioural inhibition is aimed at minimising cost, it depends on probability and magnitude of threat. Harnessing a virtual computer game, we test model predictions in four experiments with human participants. Humans exhibit behavioural inhibition with a strong linear dependence on threat probability and magnitude. Strikingly, inhibition occurs before motor execution and depends on the virtual environment, thus likely resulting from a neural optimisation process rather than a pre-programmed mechanism. Individual trait anxiety scores predict behavioural inhibition, underlining the validity of this anxiety model. These findings put anxiety behaviour into the context of cost-minimisation and optimal inference, and may ultimately pave the way towards a mechanistic understanding of the neural computations gone awry in human anxiety disorder.

  10. Behaviour Change in the UK Climate Debate: An Assessment of Responsibility, Agency and Political Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane Fudge

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the politics around the role of agency in the UK climate change debate. Government interventions on the demand side of consumption have increasingly involved attempts to obtain greater traction with the values, attitudes and beliefs of citizens in relation to climate change and also in terms of influencing consumer behaviour at an individual level. With figures showing that approximately 40% of the UK’s carbon emissions are attributable to household and transport behaviour, policy initiatives have progressively focused on the facilitation of “sustainable behaviours”. Evidence suggests however, that mobilisation of pro-environmental attitudes in addressing the perceived “value-action gap” has so far had limited success. Research in this field suggests that there is a more significant and nuanced “gap” between context and behaviour; a relationship that perhaps provides a more adroit reflection of reasons why people do not necessarily react in the way that policy-makers anticipate. Tracing the development of the UK Government’s behaviour change agenda over the last decade, we posit that a core reason for the limitations of this programme relates to an excessively narrow focus on the individual. This has served to obscure some of the wider political and economic aspects of the debate in favour of a more simplified discussion. The second part of the paper reports findings from a series of focus groups exploring some of the wider political views that people hold around household energy habits, purchase and use of domestic appliances, and transport behaviour-and discusses these insights in relation to the literature on the agenda’s apparent limitations. The paper concludes by considering whether the aims of the Big Society approach (recently established by the UK’s Coalition Government hold the potential to engage more directly with some of these issues or whether they merely constitute a “repackaging” of the

  11. Plant Phenotypic Plasticity in Response to Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Gratani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are exposed to heterogeneity in the environment where new stress factors (i.e., climate change, land use change, and invasiveness are introduced, and where inter- and intraspecies differences may reflect resource limitation and/or environmental stress factors. Phenotypic plasticity is considered one of the major means by which plants can cope with environmental factor variability. Nevertheless, the extent to which phenotypic plasticity may facilitate survival under environmental condition changes still remains largely unknown because results are sometimes controversial. Thus, it is important to identify plant functional traits in which plasticity may play a determinant role in plant response to global change as well as on the ecological consequences at an ecosystem level for the competition between wild and invasive species, considering that species with a greater adaptive plasticity may be more likely to survive in novel environmental conditions. In the near future, it will be important to increase long-term studies on natural populations in order to understand plant response to environmental factor fluctuations including climate change. There is the necessity to analyze variations at phenotypic and genetic levels for the same species and, in particular, for endemic and rare species because these could have drastic effects at an ecosystem level.

  12. Exploring multi-modal sensory integration of the acoustic startle reflex in relation to behavioural avoidance responses in phocid seals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinka, Chloe Elizabeth; Goetz, Thomas; Janik, Vincent M.

    auditory sensitivity. In this study, we tested whether multi-modal integration could lay the foundation for expanding sustainable deterrence methods. In addition, we investigated the link between the magnitude of startle flinches and behavioural follow-up responses. Specifically, we tested the fine...... to both capture the fine-scale accelerometry signatures of startle responses, with which norm-jerk, overall dynamic body acceleration and vectorial dynamic body acceleration were calculated. The DTAGs also recorded the on-animal received levels of the sound exposures. Videos were used to code behavioural...... responses of avoidance. Generalised linear mixed models were used to test both how fine scale and behavioural responses varied by exposure type, as well as to test whether the magnitude of the startle response could be used to predict behavioural responses....

  13. Behavioural, endocrine and immune responses to repeated social stress in pregnant gilts

    OpenAIRE

    Couret, David; Otten, W.; Puppe, B.; Prunier, Armelle; Merlot, Elodie

    2009-01-01

    Pregnant sows are exposed to various stressors in intensive pig husbandry that may have negative consequences on their health, reproductive performances and welfare. Social stress is one of these challenges, because gestating sows have to be housed in groups according to EU guidelines (2001/88/CE). The purpose of this study was to determine the consequences of repeated social stress in pregnant female pigs on their behavioural, endocrine and immunological responses and on pregnancy outcome. P...

  14. Data-based information gain on the response behaviour of hydrological models at catchment scale

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    A data-based approach is presented to analyse the response behaviour of hydrological models at the catchment scale. The approach starts with a number of sequential time series processing steps, applied to available rainfall, ETo and river flow observation series. These include separation of the high frequency (e.g., hourly, daily) river flow series into subflows, split of the series in nearly independent quick and slow flow hydrograph periods, and the extraction of nearly independent peak and...

  15. Physiological and behavioural responses of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda) exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felten, V. [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, CEMAGREF, 3 bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France)], E-mail: vincent.felten@univ-reims.fr; Charmantier, G. [Equipe Adaptation Ecophysiologique et Ontogenese, UMR 5119 Ecolag, Universite Montpellier II, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Mons, R. [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, CEMAGREF, 3 bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Geffard, A. [Laboratoire d' Eco-toxicologie, Universite de Reims Champagne Ardenne, Faculte des Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Rousselle, P. [Laboratoire Biodiversite et Fonctionnement des Ecosystemes, Universite de Metz, Campus Bridoux, Rue du General Delestraint, 57 070 Metz (France); Coquery, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Environnementale, CEMAGREF, 3 bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Garric, J.; Geffard, O. [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, CEMAGREF, 3 bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France)

    2008-02-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium on physiological and behavioural responses in Gammarus pulex. In a first experiment, cadmium LC50s for different times were evaluated in 264 h experiment under continuous mode of exposure (LC50{sub 96h} = 82.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}, LC50{sub 120h} = 37.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}, LC50{sub 168h} = 21.6 {mu}g L{sup -1}, LC50{sub 264h} = 10.5 {mu}g L{sup -1}). In a second experiment, the physiological and behavioural responses of the amphipod exposed to cadmium (0, 7.5 and 15 {mu}g L{sup -1}) were investigated under laboratory conditions. The mortality and the whole body cadmium concentration of organisms exposed to cadmium were significantly higher than in controls. Concerning physiological responses, cadmium exposure exerted a significant decrease on osmolality and haemolymph Ca{sup 2+} concentration, but not on haemolymph Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} concentrations, whereas the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity was significantly increased. Behavioural responses, such as feeding rate, locomotor and ventilatory activities, were significantly reduced in Cd exposed organisms. Mechanism of cadmium action and consequent energetic reallocation in favour of maintenance functions (i.e., osmoregulation) are discussed. The results of this study indicate that osmolality and locomotor activity in G. pulex could be effective ecophysiological/behavioural markers to monitor freshwater ecosystem and to assess the health of organisms.

  16. Behavioural and immunological responses to an immune challenge in Octopus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatello, Lisa; Fiorito, Graziano; Finos, Livio; Rasotto, Maria B

    2013-10-02

    Behavioural and immunological changes consequent to stress and infection are largely unexplored in cephalopods, despite the wide employment of species such as Octopus vulgaris in studies that require their manipulation and prolonged maintenance in captivity. Here we explore O. vulgaris behavioural and immunological (i.e. haemocyte number and serum lysozyme activity) responses to an in vivo immune challenge with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Behavioural changes of immune-treated and sham-injected animals were observed in both sight-allowed and isolated conditions, i.e. visually interacting or not with a conspecific. Immune stimulation primarily caused a significant increase in the number of circulating haemocytes 4h after the treatment, while serum lysozyme activity showed a less clear response. However, the effect of LPS on the circulating haemocytes begins to vanish 24h after injection. Our observations indicate a significant change in behaviour consequent to LPS administration, with treated octopuses exhibiting a decrease of general activity pattern when kept in the isolated condition. A similar decrease was not observed in the sight-allowed condition, where we noticed a specific significant reduction only in the time spent to visually interact with the conspecific. Overall, significant, but lower, behavioural and immunological effects of injection were detected also in sham-injected animals, suggesting a non-trivial susceptibility to manipulation and haemolymph sampling. Our results gain importance in light of changes of the regulations for the use of cephalopods in scientific procedures that call for the prompt development of guidelines, covering many aspects of cephalopod provision, maintenance and welfare. © 2013.

  17. Weather forecasting by insects: modified sexual behaviour in response to atmospheric pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Ana Cristina; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda Gomes Villalba; Nardi, Cristiane; Bezner-Kerr, Wayne; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Bento, José Maurício Simões; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2013-01-01

    Prevailing abiotic conditions may positively or negatively impact insects at both the individual and population levels. For example while moderate rainfall and wind velocity may provide conditions that favour development, as well as movement within and between habitats, high winds and heavy rains can significantly decrease life expectancy. There is some evidence that insects adjust their behaviours associated with flight, mating and foraging in response to changes in barometric pressure. We studied changes in different mating behaviours of three taxonomically unrelated insects, the curcurbit beetle, Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera), the true armyworm moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera) and the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera), when subjected to natural or experimentally manipulated changes in atmospheric pressure. In response to decreasing barometric pressure, male beetles exhibited decreased locomotory activity in a Y-tube olfactometer with female pheromone extracts. However, when placed in close proximity to females, they exhibited reduced courtship sequences and the precopulatory period. Under the same situations, females of the true armyworm and the potato aphid exhibited significantly reduced calling behaviour. Neither the movement of male beetles nor the calling of armyworm females differed between stable and increasing atmospheric pressure conditions. However, in the case of the armyworm there was a significant decrease in the incidence of mating under rising atmospheric conditions, suggesting an effect on male behaviour. When atmospheric pressure rose, very few M. euphorbiae oviparae called. This was similar to the situation observed under decreasing conditions, and consequently very little mating was observed in this species except under stable conditions. All species exhibited behavioural modifications, but there were interspecific differences related to size-related flight ability and the diel periodicity of mating activity. We

  18. Weather forecasting by insects: modified sexual behaviour in response to atmospheric pressure changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Pellegrino

    Full Text Available Prevailing abiotic conditions may positively or negatively impact insects at both the individual and population levels. For example while moderate rainfall and wind velocity may provide conditions that favour development, as well as movement within and between habitats, high winds and heavy rains can significantly decrease life expectancy. There is some evidence that insects adjust their behaviours associated with flight, mating and foraging in response to changes in barometric pressure. We studied changes in different mating behaviours of three taxonomically unrelated insects, the curcurbit beetle, Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera, the true armyworm moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera and the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera, when subjected to natural or experimentally manipulated changes in atmospheric pressure. In response to decreasing barometric pressure, male beetles exhibited decreased locomotory activity in a Y-tube olfactometer with female pheromone extracts. However, when placed in close proximity to females, they exhibited reduced courtship sequences and the precopulatory period. Under the same situations, females of the true armyworm and the potato aphid exhibited significantly reduced calling behaviour. Neither the movement of male beetles nor the calling of armyworm females differed between stable and increasing atmospheric pressure conditions. However, in the case of the armyworm there was a significant decrease in the incidence of mating under rising atmospheric conditions, suggesting an effect on male behaviour. When atmospheric pressure rose, very few M. euphorbiae oviparae called. This was similar to the situation observed under decreasing conditions, and consequently very little mating was observed in this species except under stable conditions. All species exhibited behavioural modifications, but there were interspecific differences related to size-related flight ability and the diel periodicity of mating

  19. Auditory assessment of children with severe hearing loss using behavioural observation audiometry and brainstem evoked response audiometry

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhi Kumari; Priyanko Chakraborty; Jain, R K; Dhananjay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early detection of hearing loss has been a long-standing priority in the field of audiology. Currently available auditory testing methods include both behavioural and non-behavioural or objective tests of hearing. This study was planned with an objective to assess hearing loss in children using behavioural observation audiometry and brain stem evoked response audiometry. Methods: A total of 105 cases suffering from severe to profound hearing loss were registered. After proper h...

  20. Physiological and behavioural responses of young horses to hot iron branding and microchip implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erber, R; Wulf, M; Becker-Birck, M; Kaps, S; Aurich, J E; Möstl, E; Aurich, C

    2012-02-01

    Branding is the traditional and well-established method used to mark horses, but recently microchip transponders for implantation have become available. In this study, behaviour, physiological stress variables and skin temperature in foals were determined in response to hot-iron branding (n=7) and microchip implantation (n=7). Salivary cortisol concentrations increased in response to branding (1.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL) and microchip implantation (1.4 ± 0.1ng/mL), but cortisol release over time did not differ. In response to both manipulations there was a transient increase in heart rate (PBranding and microchip implantation induced a comparable aversive behaviour (branding, score 3.86 ± 0.85; microchip, score 4.00 ± 0.82). Both techniques thus caused similar physiological and behavioural changes indicative of stress. Acutely, implantation of a microchip was as stressful as branding in foals. Branding caused a necrotising skin burn lasting at least 7 days. Moreover branding, but not microchip implantation (P<0.001), was accompanied by a generalized increase in skin temperature which was comparable to low degree post-burn hypermetabolism in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antipredator behaviours of a spider mite in response to cues of dangerous and harmless predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cleide Rosa; Bernardo, Ana Maria Guimarães; Mencalha, Jussara; Freitas, Caelum Woods Carvalho; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Pallini, Angelo; Janssen, Arne

    2016-07-01

    Prey are known to invest in costly antipredator behaviour when perceiving cues of dangerous, but not of relatively harmless predators. Whereas most studies investigate one type of antipredator behaviour, we studied several types (changes in oviposition, in escape and avoidance behaviour) in the spider mite Tetranychus evansi in response to cues from two predatory mites. The predator Phytoseiulus longipes is considered a dangerous predator for T. evansi, whereas Phytoseiulus macropilis has a low predation rate on this prey, thus is a much less dangerous predator. Spider mite females oviposited less on leaf disc halves with predator cues than on clean disc halves, independent of the predator species. On entire leaf discs, they laid fewer eggs in the presence of cues of the dangerous predator than on clean discs, but not in the presence of cues of the harmless predator. Furthermore, the spider mites escaped more often from discs with cues of the dangerous predator than from discs without predator cues, but they did not escape more from discs with cues of the harmless predator. The spider mites did not avoid plants with conspecifics and predators. We conclude that the spider mites displayed several different antipredator responses to the same predator species, and that some of these antipredator responses were stronger with cues of dangerous predators than with cues of harmless predators.

  2. Evaluation of the Children's Environmental Health Network's environmental stewardship checklist responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilden, Robyn; McElroy, Katie; Friedmann, Erika; Witherspoon, Nsedu Obot; Paul, Hester

    2015-03-01

    Children are subject to multiple hazards on a daily basis, including in child care facilities. Research has shown that children in the child care setting may be exposed to lead, radon, pesticides, and multiple chemicals that are associated with known or suspected adverse health effects. The authors' study used an existing environmental health endorsement program to describe current practices of child care facilities as related to environmental health and safety. The facilities varied greatly in size and were located mainly in the U.S. with a few from Canada and Australia. A few checklist items had nearly a 100% positive response rate; however, some of the items had more than 10% of the facilities answer "false" or "don't know." Although many areas exist in which these sampled child care facilities are being environmentally responsible, further education is needed, particularly as related to the use of wall-to-wall carpeting, radon testing, aerosols, and air fresheners.

  3. Environmental Protection Theme at Discourses of Corporative Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Rodrigues Leite da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper views and discusses discourses on social responsibility in organizations and their use of the environmental theme. We suppose that strategies are used to disseminate some discourses concerning these matters. The ambiguities of themes within organizations point to a fragmented discourse (Fineman, 1996, revealing practices of openness and dissimulation. The theoretical discussion starts with the theme of social responsibility, confronting it with an environmental theme and discusses discourses with ambiguities of organizational practice stemming from two themes. At the end, a case study of Antena completes the discussion. Data was collected with documental research and semi-structured interviews. We made use of Discourse Analysis methodology (Fiorin, 1989. In conclusion, the concern with social responsibility and its environmental thematic lie within the organization. It is found in the discourse and actions at a high administration level including managers and a high number of technical workers. The silence about the limits of this responsibility is fulfilled by a technical workers group that reveals dissimulation when openness menaces some objectives.

  4. A Study of Environmental Behaviour of the Wenceslau Braz (In the State of Paraná Population as Regards Urban Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Januário

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing and continuous production of waste in cities is a major concern for Public Managers. The implementation of the Environmental Public Policy has contributed to the responsible participation of all citizens. A partnership between the State University of Northern Paraná, in the Bandeirantes (PR campus, and the City of Wenceslau Braz (PR enabled the implementation of the "Green Partnership" Extension Project. Among the results, the implementation of selective collection of municipal solid waste was the most important. This study aims to understand the environmental behaviour of the population of Wenceslau Braz (PR after 15 months after the start of the selective collection service. A field research was done to study the environmental awareness of the people regarding the treatment of solid waste. Semi-structured questionnaires were applied by Community Health Agents, provided by the local Health Department, which, in the first week of December 2013, interviewed 310 people. The results show that 51% of respondents have a high interest in the issue of waste in nature. However, only 29% of them have substituted products for others to reduce the impact on the environment. Of the respondents, 1 in 5 do not commit to recycling at home. The data show that the lower the educational level, the greater the indifference to waste in nature. The study concludes that environmental education is the main tool to promote the overcoming of the current environmental problems, making possible the effective sustainability of our planet.

  5. Neurophysiological and behavioural responses to music therapy in vegetative and minimally conscious states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian eO'Kelly

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of awareness for those with disorders of consciousness (DOC is a challenging undertaking, due to the complex presentation of the population, where misdiagnosis rates remain high. Music therapy may be effective in the assessment and rehabilitation with this population due to effects of musical stimuli on arousal, attention and emotion, irrespective of verbal or motor deficits, however, an evidence base is lacking. To address this, a neurophysiological and behavioural study was undertaken comparing EEG, heart rate variability, respiration and behavioural responses of 20 healthy subjects with 21 individuals in vegetative or minimally conscious states (VS or MCS. Subjects were presented with live preferred music and improvised music entrained to respiration (i.e., music therapy procedures, recordings of disliked music, white noise and silence. ANOVA tests indicated a range of significant responses (p ≤ 0.05 across healthy subjects corresponding to arousal and attention in response to preferred music including concurrent increases in respiration rate with globally enhanced EEG power spectra responses across frequency bandwidths. Whilst physiological responses were heterogeneous across patients, significant post hoc EEG amplitude increases for stimuli associated with preferred music were found for frontal midline theta in 6 VS and 4 MCS subjects, and frontal alpha in 3 VS and 4 MCS subjects (p = 0.05 - 0.0001. Furthermore, behavioural data showed a significantly increased blink rate for preferred music (p = 0.029 across the VS cohort. Two VS cases are presented with concurrent changes (p ≤ 0.05 across measures indicative of discriminatory responses to both music therapy procedures. A MCS case study highlights how more sensitive selective attention may distinguish MCS from VS. Further investigation is warranted to explore the use of music therapy for prognostic indicators, and its potential to support neuroplasticity in rehabilitation

  6. Behavioural Response Thresholds in New Zealand Crab Megalopae to Ambient Underwater Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jenni A.; Radford, Craig A.; Jeffs, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    A small number of studies have demonstrated that settlement stage decapod crustaceans are able to detect and exhibit swimming, settlement and metamorphosis responses to ambient underwater sound emanating from coastal reefs. However, the intensity of the acoustic cue required to initiate the settlement and metamorphosis response, and therefore the potential range over which this acoustic cue may operate, is not known. The current study determined the behavioural response thresholds of four species of New Zealand brachyuran crab megalopae by exposing them to different intensity levels of broadcast reef sound recorded from their preferred settlement habitat and from an unfavourable settlement habitat. Megalopae of the rocky-reef crab, Leptograpsus variegatus, exhibited the lowest behavioural response threshold (highest sensitivity), with a significant reduction in time to metamorphosis (TTM) when exposed to underwater reef sound with an intensity of 90 dB re 1 µPa and greater (100, 126 and 135 dB re 1 µPa). Megalopae of the mud crab, Austrohelice crassa, which settle in soft sediment habitats, exhibited no response to any of the underwater reef sound levels. All reef associated species exposed to sound levels from an unfavourable settlement habitat showed no significant change in TTM, even at intensities that were similar to their preferred reef sound for which reductions in TTM were observed. These results indicated that megalopae were able to discern and respond selectively to habitat-specific acoustic cues. The settlement and metamorphosis behavioural response thresholds to levels of underwater reef sound determined in the current study of four species of crabs, enables preliminary estimation of the spatial range at which an acoustic settlement cue may be operating, from 5 m to 40 km depending on the species. Overall, these results indicate that underwater sound is likely to play a major role in influencing the spatial patterns of settlement of coastal crab

  7. Small Variations in Early-Life Environment Can Affect Coping Behaviour in Response to Foraging Challenge in the Three-Spined Stickleback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Apperloo, Rienk; Komdeur, Jan

    2016-01-01

    An increasing concern in the face of human expansion throughout natural habitats is whether animal populations can respond adaptively when confronted with challenges like environmental change and novelty. Behavioural flexibility is an important factor in estimating the adaptive potential of both individuals and populations, and predicting the degree to which they can cope with change. This study on the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is an empiric illustration of the degree of behavioural variation that can emerge between semi-natural systems within only a single generation. Wild-caught adult sticklebacks (P, N = 400) were randomly distributed in equal densities over 20 standardized semi-natural environments (ponds), and one year later offspring (F1, N = 652) were presented with repeated behavioural assays. Individuals were challenged to reach a food source through a novel transparent obstacle, during which exploration, activity, foraging, sociability and wall-biting behaviours were recorded through video observation. We found that coping responses of individuals from the first generation to this unfamiliar foraging challenge were related to even relatively small, naturally diversified variation in developmental environment. All measured behaviours were correlated with each other. Especially exploration, sociability and wall-biting were found to differ significantly between ponds. These differences could not be explained by stickleback density or the turbidity of the water. Our findings show that a) differences in early-life environment appear to affect stickleback feeding behaviour later in life; b) this is the case even when the environmental differences are only small, within natural parameters and diversified gradually; and c) effects are present despite semi-natural conditions that fluctuate during the year. Therefore, in behaviourally plastic animals like the stickleback, the adaptive response to human-induced habitat disturbance may occur

  8. Small Variations in Early-Life Environment Can Affect Coping Behaviour in Response to Foraging Challenge in the Three-Spined Stickleback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rohaa Langenhof

    Full Text Available An increasing concern in the face of human expansion throughout natural habitats is whether animal populations can respond adaptively when confronted with challenges like environmental change and novelty. Behavioural flexibility is an important factor in estimating the adaptive potential of both individuals and populations, and predicting the degree to which they can cope with change.This study on the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus is an empiric illustration of the degree of behavioural variation that can emerge between semi-natural systems within only a single generation. Wild-caught adult sticklebacks (P, N = 400 were randomly distributed in equal densities over 20 standardized semi-natural environments (ponds, and one year later offspring (F1, N = 652 were presented with repeated behavioural assays. Individuals were challenged to reach a food source through a novel transparent obstacle, during which exploration, activity, foraging, sociability and wall-biting behaviours were recorded through video observation. We found that coping responses of individuals from the first generation to this unfamiliar foraging challenge were related to even relatively small, naturally diversified variation in developmental environment. All measured behaviours were correlated with each other. Especially exploration, sociability and wall-biting were found to differ significantly between ponds. These differences could not be explained by stickleback density or the turbidity of the water.Our findings show that a differences in early-life environment appear to affect stickleback feeding behaviour later in life; b this is the case even when the environmental differences are only small, within natural parameters and diversified gradually; and c effects are present despite semi-natural conditions that fluctuate during the year. Therefore, in behaviourally plastic animals like the stickleback, the adaptive response to human-induced habitat disturbance

  9. STRAIN-SPECIFIC BEHAVIORAL-RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT IN THE MOUSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDEWEERD, HA; BAUMANS, [No Value; KOOLHAAS, JM; VANZUTPHEN, LFM

    The influence of environmental enrichment on the behaviour of the mouse has been studied in two inbred strains (C57BL and BALB/c). Male mice of each of the two strains were subjected to behavioural tests after being housed for two months either under standard housing conditions or in an enriched

  10. A note on the relationship between the behavioural response of lactating sows to humans and the survival of their piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemsworth, P.H.; Pedersen, V.; Cox, M.

    1999-01-01

    at 2-4 and 16-18 days of lactation and a correlation analysis, using unit averages, was used to examine the behaviour-productivity relationships. Moderate and significant between-unit correlations were found between the behavioural response of lactating sows at days 16-18 to an approaching experimenter...

  11. Long Term Physiologic and Behavioural Effects of Housing Density and Environmental Resource Provision for Adult Male and Female Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Pinelli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in refining laboratory rodent environments to promote animal well-being, as well as research reproducibility. Few studies have evaluated the long term impact of enhancing rodent environments with resources and additional cagemates. To that end, male and female Sprague Dawley (SD rats were housed singly (n = 8/sex, in pairs (n = 16/sex, or in groups of four (n = 16/sex for five months. Single and paired rats were housed in standard cages with a nylon chew toy, while group-housed rats were kept in double-wide cages with two PVC shelters and a nylon chew toy and were provided with food enrichment three times weekly. Animal behaviour, tests of anxiety (open field, elevated plus maze, and thermal nociception, and aspects of animal physiology (fecal corticoid levels, body weight, weekly food consumption, organ weights, and cerebral stress signaling peptide and receptor mRNA levels were measured. Significant differences were noted, primarily in behavioural data, with sustained positive social interactions and engagement with environmental resources noted throughout the study. These results suggest that modest enhancements in the environment of both male and female SD rats may be beneficial to their well-being, while introducing minimal variation in other aspects of behavioural or physiologic responses.

  12. The behavioural response of adult Petromyzon marinus to damage-released alarm and predator cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, István; Di Rocco, Richard; Belanger, Cowan; Brown, Grant; Johnson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Using semi-natural enclosures, this study investigated (1) whether adult sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus show avoidance of damage-released conspecific cues, damage-released heterospecific cues and predator cues and (2) whether this is a general response to injured heterospecific fishes or a specific response to injured P. marinus. Ten replicate groups of 10 adult P. marinus, separated by sex, were exposed to one of the following nine stimuli: deionized water (control), extracts prepared from adult P. marinus, decayed adult P. marinus (conspecific stimuli), sympatric white sucker Catostomus commersonii, Amazon sailfin catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis (heterospecific stimuli), 2-phenylethylamine (PEA HCl) solution, northern water snake Nerodia sipedon washing, human saliva (predator cues) and an adult P. marinus extract and human saliva combination (a damage-released conspecific cue and a predator cue). Adult P. marinus showed a significant avoidance response to the adult P. marinus extract as well as to C. commersonii, human saliva, PEA and the adult P. marinus extract and human saliva combination. For mobile P. marinus, the N. sipedon washing induced behaviour consistent with predator inspection. Exposure to the P. pardalis extract did not induce a significant avoidance response during the stimulus release period. Mobile adult female P. marinus showed a stronger avoidance behaviour than mobile adult male P. marinus in response to the adult P. marinus extract and the adult P. marinus extract and human saliva combination. The findings support the continued investigation of natural damage-released alarm cue and predator-based repellents for the behavioural manipulation of P. marinus populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  13. Using Arabidopsis Protoplasts to Study Cellular Responses to Environmental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confraria, Ana; Baena-González, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts can be readily isolated and transfected in order to transiently express proteins of interest. As freshly isolated mesophyll protoplasts maintain essentially the same physiological characteristics of whole leaves, this cell-based transient expression system can be used to molecularly dissect the responses to various stress conditions. The response of stress-responsive promoters to specific stimuli can be accessed via reporter gene assays. Additionally, reporter systems can be easily engineered to address other levels of regulation, such as transcript and/or protein stability. Here we present a detailed protocol for using the Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplast system to study responses to environmental stress, including preparation of reporter and effector constructs, large scale DNA purification, protoplast isolation, transfection, treatment, and quantification of luciferase-based reporter gene activities.

  14. The Behavioural Response of Australian Fur Seals to Motor Boat Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripovich, Joy S.; Hall-Aspland, Sophie; Charrier, Isabelle; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Australian fur seals breed on thirteen islands located in the Bass Strait, Australia. Land access to these islands is restricted, minimising human presence but boat access is still permissible with limitations on approach distances. Thirty-two controlled noise exposure experiments were conducted on breeding Australian fur seals to determine their behavioural response to controlled in-air motor boat noise on Kanowna Island (39°10′S, 146°18′E). Our results show there were significant differences in the seals' behaviour at low (64–70 dB) versus high (75–85 dB) sound levels, with seals orientating themselves towards or physically moving away from the louder boat noise at three different sound levels. Furthermore, seals responded more aggressively with one another and were more alert when they heard louder boat noise. Australian fur seals demonstrated plasticity in their vocal responses to boat noise with calls being significantly different between the various sound intensities and barks tending to get faster as the boat noise got louder. These results suggest that Australian fur seals on Kanowna Island show behavioural disturbance to high level boat noise. Consequently, it is recommended that an appropriate level of received boat sound emissions at breeding fur seal colonies be below 74 dB and that these findings be taken into account when evaluating appropriate approach distances and speed limits for boats. PMID:22623998

  15. The behavioural response of Australian fur seals to motor boat noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripovich, Joy S; Hall-Aspland, Sophie; Charrier, Isabelle; Arnould, John P Y

    2012-01-01

    Australian fur seals breed on thirteen islands located in the Bass Strait, Australia. Land access to these islands is restricted, minimising human presence but boat access is still permissible with limitations on approach distances. Thirty-two controlled noise exposure experiments were conducted on breeding Australian fur seals to determine their behavioural response to controlled in-air motor boat noise on Kanowna Island (39°10'S, 146°18'E). Our results show there were significant differences in the seals' behaviour at low (64-70 dB) versus high (75-85 dB) sound levels, with seals orientating themselves towards or physically moving away from the louder boat noise at three different sound levels. Furthermore, seals responded more aggressively with one another and were more alert when they heard louder boat noise. Australian fur seals demonstrated plasticity in their vocal responses to boat noise with calls being significantly different between the various sound intensities and barks tending to get faster as the boat noise got louder. These results suggest that Australian fur seals on Kanowna Island show behavioural disturbance to high level boat noise. Consequently, it is recommended that an appropriate level of received boat sound emissions at breeding fur seal colonies be below 74 dB and that these findings be taken into account when evaluating appropriate approach distances and speed limits for boats.

  16. Behavioural responses of dusky dolphin groups (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) to tour vessels off Kaikoura, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, David; Gemmell, Neil J; Würsig, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Commercial viewing and swimming with dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) near Kaikoura, New Zealand began in the late 1980s and researchers have previously described changes in vocalisation, aerial behaviour, and group spacing in the presence of vessels. This study was conducted to assess the current effects that tourism has on the activity budget of dusky dolphins to provide wildlife managers with information for current decision-making and facilitate development of quantitative criteria for management of this industry in the future. First-order time discrete Markov chain models were used to assess changes in the behavioural state of dusky dolphin pods targeted by tour vessels. Log-linear analysis was conducted on behavioural state transitions to determine whether the likelihood of dolphins moving from one behavioural state to another changed based on natural and anthropogenic factors. The best-fitting model determined by Akaike Information Criteria values included season, time of day, and vessel presence within 300 m. Interactions with vessels reduced the proportion of time dolphins spent resting in spring and summer and increased time spent milling in all seasons except autumn. Dolphins spent more time socialising in spring and summer, when conception occurs and calves are born, and the proportion of time spent resting was highest in summer. Resting decreased and traveling increased in the afternoon. Responses to tour vessel traffic are similar to those described for dusky dolphins elsewhere. Disturbance linked to vessels may interrupt social interactions, carry energetic costs, or otherwise affect individual fitness. Research is needed to determine if increased milling is a result of acoustic masking of communication due to vessel noise, and to establish levels at which changes to behavioural budgets of dusky dolphins are likely to cause long-term harm. Threshold values from these studies would allow managers to set appropriate operational conditions based

  17. Behavioural responses of dusky dolphin groups (Lagenorhynchus obscurus to tour vessels off Kaikoura, New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lundquist

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Commercial viewing and swimming with dusky dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obscurus near Kaikoura, New Zealand began in the late 1980s and researchers have previously described changes in vocalisation, aerial behaviour, and group spacing in the presence of vessels. This study was conducted to assess the current effects that tourism has on the activity budget of dusky dolphins to provide wildlife managers with information for current decision-making and facilitate development of quantitative criteria for management of this industry in the future. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First-order time discrete Markov chain models were used to assess changes in the behavioural state of dusky dolphin pods targeted by tour vessels. Log-linear analysis was conducted on behavioural state transitions to determine whether the likelihood of dolphins moving from one behavioural state to another changed based on natural and anthropogenic factors. The best-fitting model determined by Akaike Information Criteria values included season, time of day, and vessel presence within 300 m. Interactions with vessels reduced the proportion of time dolphins spent resting in spring and summer and increased time spent milling in all seasons except autumn. Dolphins spent more time socialising in spring and summer, when conception occurs and calves are born, and the proportion of time spent resting was highest in summer. Resting decreased and traveling increased in the afternoon. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Responses to tour vessel traffic are similar to those described for dusky dolphins elsewhere. Disturbance linked to vessels may interrupt social interactions, carry energetic costs, or otherwise affect individual fitness. Research is needed to determine if increased milling is a result of acoustic masking of communication due to vessel noise, and to establish levels at which changes to behavioural budgets of dusky dolphins are likely to cause long-term harm. Threshold

  18. Response diversity determines the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akira S; Furukawa, Takuya; Sasaki, Takehiro

    2013-05-01

    A growing body of evidence highlights the importance of biodiversity for ecosystem stability and the maintenance of optimal ecosystem functionality. Conservation measures are thus essential to safeguard the ecosystem services that biodiversity provides and human society needs. Current anthropogenic threats may lead to detrimental (and perhaps irreversible) ecosystem degradation, providing strong motivation to evaluate the response of ecological communities to various anthropogenic pressures. In particular, ecosystem functions that sustain key ecosystem services should be identified and prioritized for conservation action. Traditional diversity measures (e.g. 'species richness') may not adequately capture the aspects of biodiversity most relevant to ecosystem stability and functionality, but several new concepts may be more appropriate. These include 'response diversity', describing the variation of responses to environmental change among species of a particular community. Response diversity may also be a key determinant of ecosystem resilience in the face of anthropogenic pressures and environmental uncertainty. However, current understanding of response diversity is poor, and we see an urgent need to disentangle the conceptual strands that pervade studies of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Our review clarifies the links between response diversity and the maintenance of ecosystem functionality by focusing on the insurance hypothesis of biodiversity and the concept of functional redundancy. We provide a conceptual model to describe how loss of response diversity may cause ecosystem degradation through decreased ecosystem resilience. We explicitly explain how response diversity contributes to functional compensation and to spatio-temporal complementarity among species, leading to long-term maintenance of ecosystem multifunctionality. Recent quantitative studies suggest that traditional diversity measures may often be uncoupled from

  19. Behavioural responses of poultry during kosher slaughter and their implications for the birds' welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, J L; Cronin, G M; Scott, P C

    2007-01-13

    Measurements were made during Shechita (kosher) slaughter of 692 meat chickens, including the behaviour of the birds during the procedure and the times from their removal from the crate, to neck cutting, bleed-out and shackling. Four of 100 birds showed a mild physical response to neck cutting but the others showed no response. Approximately 60 per cent of the birds showed a physical response to touching the eye or eyelid at up to 5 seconds after neck cutting, but by 15 seconds none showed this response. The birds became unable to retain their posture and suffered involuntary muscular contractions at 12 to 15 seconds after neck cutting and had lost approximately 40 per cent of their total blood volume by 30 seconds after neck cutting.

  20. Migratory behaviour and survival rates of wild northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts: Effects of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, J.G.; Rikardsen, A.H.; Halttunen, E.; Thorstad, E.B.; Okland, F.; Letcher, B.H.; Skarhamar, J.; Naesje, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    To study smolt behaviour and survival of a northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar population during river descent, sea entry and fjord migration, 120 wild S. salar were tagged with acoustic tags and registered at four automatic listening station arrays in the mouth of the north Norwegian River Alta and throughout the Alta Fjord. An estimated 75% of the post-smolts survived from the river mouth, through the estuary and the first 17 km of the fjord. Survival rates in the fjord varied with fork length (LF), and ranged from 97??0 to 99??5% km-1. On average, the post-smolts spent 1??5 days (36 h, range 11-365 h) travelling from the river mouth to the last fjord array, 31 km from the river mouth. The migratory speed was slower (1??8 LF s-1) in the first 4 km after sea entry compared with the next 27 km (3??0 LF s-1). Post-smolts entered the fjord more often during the high or ebbing tide (70%). There was no clear diurnal migration pattern within the river and fjord, but most of the post-smolts entered the fjord at night (66%, 2000-0800 hours), despite the 24 h daylight at this latitude. The tidal cycle, wind-induced currents and the smolts' own movements seemed to influence migratory speeds and routes in different parts of the fjord. A large variation in migration patterns, both in the river and fjord, might indicate that individuals in stochastic estuarine and marine environments are exposed to highly variable selection regimes, resulting in different responses to environmental factors on both temporal and spatial scales. Post-smolts in the northern Alta Fjord had similar early marine survival rates to those observed previously in southern fjords; however, fjord residency in the north was shorter. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Temperature Insensitivity and Behavioural Reduction of the Physiological Stress Response to Longline Capture by the Gummy Shark, Mustelus antarcticus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guida, Leonardo; Walker, Terence I; Reina, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    .... We investigated the effect of SST and behaviour on the physiological stress response to capture of the gummy shark, Mustelus antarcticus, and compared our results to a laboratory study using similar...

  2. Aberrant brain responses to emotionally valent words is normalised after cognitive behavioural therapy in female depressed adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chuang, Jie-Yu; J Whitaker, Kirstie; Murray, Graham K; Elliott, Rebecca; Hagan, Cindy C; Graham, Julia Me; Ooi, Cinly; Tait, Roger; Holt, Rosemary J; van Nieuwenhuizen, Adrienne O; Reynolds, Shirley; Wilkinson, Paul O; Bullmore, Edward T; Lennox, Belinda R; Sahakian, Barbara J; Goodyer, Ian; Suckling, John

    2016-01-01

    .... To examine the interaction between emotion, cognition and treatment, functional brain responses to sad and happy distractors in an affective go/no-go task were explored before and after Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT...

  3. Limited transcriptional responses of Rickettsia rickettsii exposed to environmental stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon W Ellison

    Full Text Available Rickettsiae are strict obligate intracellular pathogens that alternate between arthropod and mammalian hosts in a zoonotic cycle. Typically, pathogenic bacteria that cycle between environmental sources and mammalian hosts adapt to the respective environments by coordinately regulating gene expression such that genes essential for survival and virulence are expressed only upon infection of mammals. Temperature is a common environmental signal for upregulation of virulence gene expression although other factors may also play a role. We examined the transcriptional responses of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, to a variety of environmental signals expected to be encountered during its life cycle. R. rickettsii exposed to differences in growth temperature (25 degrees C vs. 37 degrees C, iron limitation, and host cell species displayed nominal changes in gene expression under any of these conditions with only 0, 5, or 7 genes, respectively, changing more than 3-fold in expression levels. R. rickettsii is not totally devoid of ability to respond to temperature shifts as cold shock (37 degrees C vs. 4 degrees C induced a change greater than 3-fold in up to 56 genes. Rickettsiae continuously occupy a relatively stable environment which is the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Because of their obligate intracellular character, rickettsiae are believed to be undergoing reductive evolution to a minimal genome. We propose that their relatively constant environmental niche has led to a minimal requirement for R. rickettsii to respond to environmental changes with a consequent deletion of non-essential transcriptional response regulators. A minimal number of predicted transcriptional regulators in the R. rickettsii genome is consistent with this hypothesis.

  4. Quantifying Preferences and Responsiveness of Marine Zooplankton to Changing Environmental Conditions using Microfluidics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirupama Ramanathan

    Full Text Available Global environmental change significantly affects marine species composition. However, analyzing the impact of these changes on marine zooplankton communities was so far mostly limited to assessing lethal doses through mortality assays and hence did not allow a direct assessment of the preferred conditions, or preferendum. Here, we use a microfluidic device to characterize individual behavior of actively swimming zooplankton, and to quantitatively determine their ecological preferendum. For the annelid zooplankton model Platynereis dumerilii we observe a broader pH preferendum than for the copepod Euterpina acutifrons, and reveal previously unrecognized sub-populations with different pH preferenda. For Platynereis, the minimum concentration difference required to elicit a response (responsiveness is ~1 μM for H+ and ~13.7 mM for NaCl. Furthermore, using laser ablations we show that olfactomedin-expressing sensory cells mediate chemical responsiveness in the Platynereis foregut. Taken together, our microfluidic approach allows precise assessment and functional understanding of environmental perception on planktonic behaviour.

  5. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  6. Design of Environmentally Responsive Fluorescent Polymer Probes for Cellular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Arisa; Hiruta, Yuki; Wang, Jian; Ayano, Eri; Kanazawa, Hideko

    2015-08-10

    We report the development of environmentally responsive fluorescent polymers. The reversible temperature-induced phase transition of copolymers composed of N-isopropylacrylamide and a fluorescent monomer based on the fluorescein (FL), coumarin (CO), rhodamine (RH), or dansyl (DA) skeleton was used as a molecular switch to control the fluorescence intensity. The poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) chain showed an expanded coil conformation below the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) due to hydration, but it changed to a globular form above the LCST due to dehydration. Through the combination of a polarity-sensitive fluorophore with PNIPAAm, the synthetic fluorescent polymer displayed a response to external temperature, with the fluorescence strength dramatically changing close to the LCST. Additionally, the P(NIPAAm-co-FL) and P(NIPAAm-co-CO) polymers, containing fluorescein and coumarin groups, respectively, exhibited pH responsiveness. The environmental responsiveness of the reported polymers is derived directly from the PNIPAAm and fluorophore structures, thus allowing for the cellular uptake of the fluorescence copolymer by RAW264.7 cells to be temperature-controlled. Cellular uptake was suppressed below the LCST but enhanced above the LCST. Furthermore, the cellular uptake of both P(NIPAAm-co-CO) and P(NIPAAm-co-RH) conjugated with a fusogenic lipid, namely, l-α-phosphatidylethanolamine, dioleoyl (DOPE), was enhanced. Such lipid-conjugated fluorescence probes are expected to be useful as physiological indicators for intracellular imaging.

  7. Determinants of households’ investment in energy efficiency and renewables: evidence from the OECD survey on household environmental behaviour and attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameli, Nadia; Brandt, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides novel evidence on the main factors behind consumer choices regarding investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies using the OECD Survey on Household Environmental Behaviour and Attitudes. The empirical analysis is based on the estimation of binary logit regression models. Empirical results suggest that households’ propensity to invest in clean energy technologies depends mainly on home ownership, income, social context and household energy conservation practices. Indeed, home owners and high-income households are more likely to invest than renters and low-income households. In addition, environmental attitudes and beliefs, as manifest in energy conservation practices or membership in an environmental non-governmental organisation, also play a relevant role in technology adoption.

  8. A transcription factor hierarchy defines an environmental stress response network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liang; Huang, Shao-Shan Carol; Wise, Aaron; Castanon, Rosa; Nery, Joseph R; Chen, Huaming; Watanabe, Marina; Thomas, Jerushah; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Ecker, Joseph R

    2016-11-04

    Environmental stresses are universally encountered by microbes, plants, and animals. Yet systematic studies of stress-responsive transcription factor (TF) networks in multicellular organisms have been limited. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) influences the expression of thousands of genes, allowing us to characterize complex stress-responsive regulatory networks. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, we identified genome-wide targets of 21 ABA-related TFs to construct a comprehensive regulatory network in Arabidopsis thaliana Determinants of dynamic TF binding and a hierarchy among TFs were defined, illuminating the relationship between differential gene expression patterns and ABA pathway feedback regulation. By extrapolating regulatory characteristics of observed canonical ABA pathway components, we identified a new family of transcriptional regulators modulating ABA and salt responsiveness and demonstrated their utility to modulate plant resilience to osmotic stress. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Biochemical responses of two Erythrinidae fish to environmental ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Moraes

    Full Text Available The non-ionized form of ammonia is very toxic to many aquatic species. It is especially important in several aspects of fish biology. A large range of organismal strategies for coping with environmental stressors is usually observed in living organisms. Among those, the responses for managing chemical stressors are well studied. The present work compares biochemical responses of two evolutionarily close species, Hoplias malabaricus and Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus, exposed to environmental ammonia. Adult fish were submitted to 1.0 mg/L of ammonium chloride for 24 hours, and plasma ammonia and urea levels were determined. The activities of OUC enzymes OCT and ARG, and the accessory enzyme GS, were quantified in liver extract and are expressed below in mumol/min/mg of wet tissue. Increases in OUC enzymes (GS from 1.14 to 2.43, OCT from 0.81 to 1.72, and ARG from 3.15 to 4.23, plasma ammonia (from 0.95 to 1.42 mmol/L, and plasma urea (from 0.82 to 1.53 mmol/L were observed (p < 0.05 in H. malabaricus exposed to 1 mg/L of ammonia chloride. The GS in H. unitaeniatus increased from 1.43 to 1.84, however the OCT, ARG, and plasma urea from H. unitaeniatus did not change. These data indicate that each species responds differently to the same environmental stressor.

  10. Immediate behavioural responses to earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand, and Hitachi, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Michael K; Prater, Carla S; Wu, Hao Che; Huang, Shih-Kai; Johnston, David M; Becker, Julia S; Shiroshita, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    This study examines people's immediate responses to earthquakes in Christchurch, New Zealand, and Hitachi, Japan. Data collected from 257 respondents in Christchurch and 332 respondents in Hitachi revealed notable similarities between the two cities in people's emotional reactions, risk perceptions, and immediate protective actions during the events. Respondents' physical, household, and social contexts were quite similar, but Hitachi residents reported somewhat higher levels of emotional reaction and risk perception than did Christchurch residents. Contrary to the recommendations of emergency officials, the most frequent response of residents in both cities was to freeze. Christchurch residents were more likely than Hitachi residents to drop to the ground and take cover, whereas Hitachi residents were more likely than Christchurch residents to evacuate immediately the building in which they were situated. There were relatively small correlations between immediate behavioural responses and demographic characteristics, earthquake experience, and physical, social, or household context. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  11. Avian migrants adjust migration in response to environmental conditions en route

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Anders P; Thorup, Kasper; Rainio, Kalle

    2008-01-01

    The onset of migration in birds is assumed to be primarily under endogenous control in long-distance migrants. Recently, climate changes appear to have been driving a rapid change in breeding area arrival. However, little is known about the climatic factors affecting migratory birds during...... the migration cycle, or whether recently reported phenological changes are caused by plastic behavioural responses or evolutionary change. Here, we investigate how environmental conditions in the wintering areas as well as en route towards breeding areas affect timing of migration. Using data from 1984 to 2004...... covering the entire migration period every year from observatories located in the Middle East and northern Europe, we show that passage of the Sahara Desert is delayed and correlated with improved conditions in the wintering areas. By contrast, migrants travel more rapidly through Europe, and adjust...

  12. Caffeine and sleep-deprivation mediated changes in open-field behaviours, stress response and antioxidant status in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Olakunle Onaolapo

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Repeated caffeine consumption and/or acute sleep-deprivation led to significant changes in pattern of open-field behaviour and stress/antioxidant response in mice. Responses seen in the study are probably due to modulatory effects of caffeine on the total body response to stressful stimuli.

  13. The effects of responsible drinking messages on attentional allocation and drinking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Antony C; Albery, Ian P; Dyer, Kyle R; Frings, Daniel; Humphreys, Karis; Inkelaar, Thomas; Harding, Emily; Speller, Abbie

    2015-05-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess the acute impact of context and exposure to responsible drinking messages (RDMs) on attentional allocation and drinking behaviour of younger drinkers and to explore the utility of lab-based methods for the evaluation of such materials. A simulated bar environment was used to examine the impact of context, RDM posters, and brief online responsible drinking advice on actual drinking behaviour. Experiments one (n = 50) and two (n = 35) comprised female non-problem drinkers, whilst Experiments three (n = 80) and 4 (n = 60) included a mixed-gender sample of non-problem drinkers, recruited from an undergraduate student cohort. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to assess drinking patterns. Alcohol intake was assessed through the use of a taste preference task. Drinking in a simulated bar was significantly greater than in a laboratory setting in the first two studies, but not in the third. There was a significant increase in alcohol consumption as a result of being exposed to RDM posters. Provision of brief online RDM reduced the negative impact of these posters somewhat; however the lowest drinking rates were associated with being exposed to neither posters nor brief advice. Data from the final experiment demonstrated a low level of visual engagement with RDMs, and that exposure to posters was associated with increased drinking. Poster materials promoting responsible drinking were associated with increased consumption amongst undergraduate students, suggesting that poster campaigns to reduce alcohol harms may be having the opposite effect to that intended. Findings suggest that further research is required to refine appropriate methodologies for assessing drinking behaviour in simulated drinking environments, to ensure that future public health campaigns of this kind are having their intended effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tax compliance and behavioural response in South Africa: an alternative investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurika Robinson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxpayer behaviour has in South Africa moved to the forefront of the investigation of revenue collection with regular tax awareness campaigns being launched by the South African Revenue Service (SARS. Issues relating to tax amnesty and the contribution of the informal sector (second economy to tax revenue have become important. This paper attempts to find explanations, be they economic or psychological, for taxpayer behaviour in South Africa. Factors influencing tax evasion and ultimately collection targets are thus examined. A questionnaire was designed to determine how individuals, in this case a sample of students, respond when filing taxes. Each question frames a scenario to invoke a specific tax regime. The paper’s unique findings show, generally, that behaviour is to a large extent determined by economic factors, specifically inequality as predicted by the expected utility theory. This theory also successfully predicts 50 per cent of the responses to the control questions. The remaining 50 per cent are explained by combined economic and psychological factors, modelled by the prospect theory. This is significant considering the fact that the results were generated within a developing and not a developed context as is the case in most studies of this type.

  15. Acupuncture Affects Autonomic and Endocrine but Not Behavioural Responses Induced by Startle in Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dias Villas-Boas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Startle is a fast response elicited by sudden acoustic, tactile, or visual stimuli in a variety of animals and in humans. As the magnitude of startle response can be modulated by external and internal variables, it can be a useful tool to study reaction to stress. Our study evaluated whether acupuncture can change cardiac autonomic modulation (heart rate variability; and behavioural (reactivity and endocrine (cortisol levels parameters in response to startle. Brazilian Sport horses (n=6 were subjected to a model of startle in which an umbrella was abruptly opened near the horse. Before startle, the horses were subjected to a 20-minute session of acupuncture in acupoints GV1, HT7, GV20, and BL52 (ACUP and in nonpoints (NP or left undisturbed (CTL. For analysis of the heart rate variability, ultrashort-term (64 s heart rate series were interpolated (4 Hz and divided into 256-point segments and the spectra integrated into low (LF; 0.01–0.07 Hz; index of sympathetic modulation and high (HF; 0.07–0.50 Hz; index of parasympathetic modulation frequency bands. Acupuncture (ACUP changed the sympathovagal balance with a shift towards parasympathetic modulation, reducing the prompt startle-induced increase in LF/HF and reducing cortisol levels 30 min after startle. However, acupuncture elicited no changes in behavioural parameters.

  16. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2009-01-01

    How internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures are norms guiding environmentally desirable behavior? In two surveys (N = 206 and N = 200), subjective social norms and personal norms for a specific behavior (the purchase of organic food or recycling) as well as self......-reported behavior and the person's reasons and motives for performing the behavior were measured. The number and types of associations differ depending on the strength of the person's norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. With the partial exception...... of really low-cost behaviors (e.g., recycling in many contexts), environmentally responsible behavior is guided by what seems to be truly internalized and integrated (personal) norms....

  17. Responsibility Attribution and Consumer Behaviour in the Light of the Bangladesh Factory Collapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Tina; Gwozdz, Wencke; Reisch, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    The current fashion system is highly unsustainable, as continuous overproduction and overconsumption is contributing to environmental as well as social degradation. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between consumers’ perceived responsibility for the non-sustainability of th...

  18. Response inhibition is linked to emotional devaluation: behavioural and electrophysiological evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available To study links between the inhibition of motor responses and emotional evaluation, we combined electrophysiological measures of prefrontal response inhibition with behavioural measures of affective evaluation. Participants first performed a Go-Nogo task in response to Asian and Caucasian faces (with race determining their Go or Nogo status, followed by a trustworthiness rating for each face. Faces previously seen as Nogo stimuli were rated as less trustworthy than previous Go stimuli. To study links between the efficiency of response inhibition in the Go-Nogo task and subsequent emotional evaluations, the Nogo N2 component was quantified separately for faces that were later judged to be high versus low in trustworthiness. Nogo N2 amplitudes were larger in response to low-rated as compared to high-rated faces, demonstrating that trial-by-trial variations in the efficiency of response inhibition triggered by Nogo faces, as measured by the Nogo N2 component, co-vary with their subsequent affective evaluation. These results suggest close links between inhibitory processes in top-down motor control and emotional responses.

  19. Role of etology in detecting environmental pollutants that affect changes in animal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of chemical pollutants originating from industrial agricultural and urban through the direct or indirect disruption of endocrine gland and hormone function. That is why these pollutants are known as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC. By disrupting endocrine function, the EDC change certain forms of animal behaviour. This is why a direct link can be established between etology, as a scientific discipline that studied the role, function, ontogenetic and evolutionary development of behaviour from the aspect of the animal's adaption to living conditions, and ecotoxicology. In this mutual connection, the role of etology is to identify changes in animal behaviour which will serve as the first bioindicator of the presence of EDC in a certain environment, and before the occurrence of organic changes that could have lethal consequences.

  20. Multiple physiological responses to multiple environmental challenges: an individual approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calosi, P; Turner, L M; Hawkins, M; Bertolini, C; Nightingale, G; Truebano, M; Spicer, J I

    2013-10-01

    The injection of anthropogenically-produced CO2 into the atmosphere will lead to an increase in temperature and a decrease in pH at the surface of the oceans by 2100. Marine intertidal organisms possess the ability to cope in the short term with environmental fluctuations exceeding predicted values. However, how they will cope with chronic exposure to elevated temperature and pCO2 is virtually unknown. In addition, individuals from the same species/population often show remarkable levels of variation in their responses to complex climatic changes: in particular, variation in metabolic rates often is linked to differences in individuals' performances and fitness. Despite its ecological and evolutionary importance, inter-individual variation has rarely been investigated within the context of climatic changes, and most investigations have typically employed orthogonal experimental designs paired to analyses of independent samples. Although this is undoubtedly a powerful and useful approach, it may not be the most appropriate for understanding all alterations of biological functions in response to environmental changes. An individual approach arguably should be favored when trying to describe organisms' responses to climatic change. Consequently, to test which approach had the greater power to discriminate the intensity and direction of an organism's response to complex climatic changes, we investigated the extracellular osmo/iono-regulatory abilities, upper thermal tolerances (UTTs), and metabolic rates of individual adults of an intertidal amphipod, Echinogammarus marinus, exposed for 15 days to combined elevated temperature and pCO2. The individual approach led to stronger and different predictions on how ectotherms will likely respond to ongoing complex climatic change, compared with the independent approaches. Consequently, this may call into question the relevance, or even the validity, of some of the predictions made to date. Finally, we argue that treating

  1. Adolescents’ associations between travel behaviour and environmental impact: A qualitative study based on the Norm-Activation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja; Bohlbro, Marie S.

    2018-01-01

    on their personal norm and the denial of consequences and responsibility of own behaviour, we identified five sub-groups of adolescents called Environmentalists, Pragmatics, Indifferent, De-emphasisers, and Deniers. Results indicate a need for measures to increase adolescents’ awareness and acceptance of daily...... transport as a relevant issue in relation to sustainability. Such measures should include tangible feedback in a daily context while taking different coping strategies with regard to climate change into account....

  2. Obese mice exhibit an altered behavioural and inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine B. Lawrence

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increase in the prevalence and severity of infections. Genetic animal models of obesity (ob/ob and db/db mice display altered centrally-mediated sickness behaviour in response to acute inflammatory stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS. However, the effect of diet-induced obesity (DIO on the anorectic and febrile response to LPS in mice is unknown. This study therefore determined how DIO and ob/ob mice respond to a systemic inflammatory challenge. C57BL/6 DIO and ob/ob mice, and their respective controls, were given an intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of LPS. Compared with controls, DIO and ob/ob mice exhibited an altered febrile response to LPS (100 μg/kg over 8 hours. LPS caused a greater and more prolonged anorexic effect in DIO compared with control mice and, in ob/ob mice, LPS induced a reduction in food intake and body weight earlier than it did in controls. These effects of LPS in obese mice were also seen after a fixed dose of LPS (5 μg. LPS (100 μg/kg induced Fos protein expression in several brain nuclei of control mice, with fewer Fos-positive cells observed in the brains of obese mice. An altered inflammatory response to LPS was also observed in obese mice compared with controls: changes in cytokine expression and release were detected in the plasma, spleen, liver and peritoneal macrophages in obese mice. In summary, DIO and ob/ob mice displayed an altered behavioural response and cytokine release to systemic inflammatory challenge. These findings could help explain why obese humans show increased sensitivity to infections.

  3. 48 CFR 1426.7103 - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Superfund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Superfund Minority Contractors Utilization... Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Superfund Minority Contractors Utilization...

  4. Physiological and behavioural responses to noxious stimuli in the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared R Eckroth

    Full Text Available In the present study, our aim was to compare physiological and behavioural responses to different noxious stimuli to those of a standardized innocuous stimulus, to possibly identify aversive responses indicative of injury detection in a commercially important marine teleost fish, the Atlantic cod. Individual fish were administered with a noxious stimulus to the lip under short-term general anaesthesia (MS-222. The noxious treatments included injection of 0.1% or 2% acetic acid, 0.005% or 0.1% capsaicin, or piercing the lip with a commercial fishing hook. Counts of opercular beat rate (OBR at 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min and observations of behaviour at 30 and 90 min post-treatment were compared with pre-treatment values and with control fish injected with physiological saline, an innocuous stimulus. Circulatory levels of physiological stress indicators were determined in all fish at 120 minutes post-treatment. All treatments evoked temporarily increased OBR that returned to pre-treatment levels at 60 minutes (saline, 0.005% capsaicin, hook, 90 minutes (0.1% acetic acid, 0.1% capsaicin, or 120 minutes (2% acetic acid, but with no significant differences from the control group at any time point. Fish treated with 0.1% and 2% acetic acid and 0.1% capsaicin displayed increased hovering close to the bottom of the aquaria and fish given 2% acetic acid and 0.1% capsaicin also displayed a reduced use of shelter. The only effect seen in hooked fish was brief episodes of lateral head shaking which were not seen pre-treatment or in the other groups, possibly reflecting a resiliency to tissue damage in the mouth area related to the tough nature of the Atlantic cod diet. There were no differences between groups in circulatory stress indicators two hours after treatment. This study provides novel data on behavioural indicators that could be used to assess potentially aversive events in Atlantic cod.

  5. Physiological and Behavioural Responses to Noxious Stimuli in the Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckroth, Jared R.; Aas-Hansen, Øyvind; Sneddon, Lynne U.; Bichão, Helena; Døving, Kjell B.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, our aim was to compare physiological and behavioural responses to different noxious stimuli to those of a standardized innocuous stimulus, to possibly identify aversive responses indicative of injury detection in a commercially important marine teleost fish, the Atlantic cod. Individual fish were administered with a noxious stimulus to the lip under short-term general anaesthesia (MS-222). The noxious treatments included injection of 0.1% or 2% acetic acid, 0.005% or 0.1% capsaicin, or piercing the lip with a commercial fishing hook. Counts of opercular beat rate (OBR) at 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min and observations of behaviour at 30 and 90 min post-treatment were compared with pre-treatment values and with control fish injected with physiological saline, an innocuous stimulus. Circulatory levels of physiological stress indicators were determined in all fish at 120 minutes post-treatment. All treatments evoked temporarily increased OBR that returned to pre-treatment levels at 60 minutes (saline, 0.005% capsaicin, hook), 90 minutes (0.1% acetic acid, 0.1% capsaicin), or 120 minutes (2% acetic acid), but with no significant differences from the control group at any time point. Fish treated with 0.1% and 2% acetic acid and 0.1% capsaicin displayed increased hovering close to the bottom of the aquaria and fish given 2% acetic acid and 0.1% capsaicin also displayed a reduced use of shelter. The only effect seen in hooked fish was brief episodes of lateral head shaking which were not seen pre-treatment or in the other groups, possibly reflecting a resiliency to tissue damage in the mouth area related to the tough nature of the Atlantic cod diet. There were no differences between groups in circulatory stress indicators two hours after treatment. This study provides novel data on behavioural indicators that could be used to assess potentially aversive events in Atlantic cod. PMID:24936652

  6. Predicting Survey Responses: How and Why Semantics Shape Survey Statistics on Organizational Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnulf, Jan Ketil; Larsen, Kai Rune; Martinsen, Øyvind Lund; Bong, Chih How

    2014-01-01

    Some disciplines in the social sciences rely heavily on collecting survey responses to detect empirical relationships among variables. We explored whether these relationships were a priori predictable from the semantic properties of the survey items, using language processing algorithms which are now available as new research methods. Language processing algorithms were used to calculate the semantic similarity among all items in state-of-the-art surveys from Organisational Behaviour research. These surveys covered areas such as transformational leadership, work motivation and work outcomes. This information was used to explain and predict the response patterns from real subjects. Semantic algorithms explained 60–86% of the variance in the response patterns and allowed remarkably precise prediction of survey responses from humans, except in a personality test. Even the relationships between independent and their purported dependent variables were accurately predicted. This raises concern about the empirical nature of data collected through some surveys if results are already given a priori through the way subjects are being asked. Survey response patterns seem heavily determined by semantics. Language algorithms may suggest these prior to administering a survey. This study suggests that semantic algorithms are becoming new tools for the social sciences, opening perspectives on survey responses that prevalent psychometric theory cannot explain. PMID:25184672

  7. Predicting survey responses: how and why semantics shape survey statistics on organizational behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ketil Arnulf

    Full Text Available Some disciplines in the social sciences rely heavily on collecting survey responses to detect empirical relationships among variables. We explored whether these relationships were a priori predictable from the semantic properties of the survey items, using language processing algorithms which are now available as new research methods. Language processing algorithms were used to calculate the semantic similarity among all items in state-of-the-art surveys from Organisational Behaviour research. These surveys covered areas such as transformational leadership, work motivation and work outcomes. This information was used to explain and predict the response patterns from real subjects. Semantic algorithms explained 60-86% of the variance in the response patterns and allowed remarkably precise prediction of survey responses from humans, except in a personality test. Even the relationships between independent and their purported dependent variables were accurately predicted. This raises concern about the empirical nature of data collected through some surveys if results are already given a priori through the way subjects are being asked. Survey response patterns seem heavily determined by semantics. Language algorithms may suggest these prior to administering a survey. This study suggests that semantic algorithms are becoming new tools for the social sciences, opening perspectives on survey responses that prevalent psychometric theory cannot explain.

  8. Predicting survey responses: how and why semantics shape survey statistics on organizational behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnulf, Jan Ketil; Larsen, Kai Rune; Martinsen, Øyvind Lund; Bong, Chih How

    2014-01-01

    Some disciplines in the social sciences rely heavily on collecting survey responses to detect empirical relationships among variables. We explored whether these relationships were a priori predictable from the semantic properties of the survey items, using language processing algorithms which are now available as new research methods. Language processing algorithms were used to calculate the semantic similarity among all items in state-of-the-art surveys from Organisational Behaviour research. These surveys covered areas such as transformational leadership, work motivation and work outcomes. This information was used to explain and predict the response patterns from real subjects. Semantic algorithms explained 60-86% of the variance in the response patterns and allowed remarkably precise prediction of survey responses from humans, except in a personality test. Even the relationships between independent and their purported dependent variables were accurately predicted. This raises concern about the empirical nature of data collected through some surveys if results are already given a priori through the way subjects are being asked. Survey response patterns seem heavily determined by semantics. Language algorithms may suggest these prior to administering a survey. This study suggests that semantic algorithms are becoming new tools for the social sciences, opening perspectives on survey responses that prevalent psychometric theory cannot explain.

  9. Sea Ice Microorganisms: Environmental Constraints and Extracellular Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody W. Deming

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Inherent to sea ice, like other high latitude environments, is the strong seasonality driven by changes in insolation throughout the year. Sea-ice organisms are exposed to shifting, sometimes limiting, conditions of temperature and salinity. An array of adaptations to survive these and other challenges has been acquired by those organisms that inhabit the ice. One key adaptive response is the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, which play multiple roles in the entrapment, retention and survival of microorganisms in sea ice. In this concept paper we consider two main areas of sea-ice microbiology: the physico-chemical properties that define sea ice as a microbial habitat, imparting particular advantages and limits; and extracellular responses elicited in microbial inhabitants as they exploit or survive these conditions. Emphasis is placed on protective strategies used in the face of fluctuating and extreme environmental conditions in sea ice. Gaps in knowledge and testable hypotheses are identified for future research.

  10. Shared aetiology of risky sexual behaviour and adolescent misconduct: Genetic and environmental influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Zietsch, B.P.; Bailey, J.M.; Martin, N.G.

    2009-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviour (RSB) is a major risk factor for serious diseases as well as unplanned pregnancy. It is not known if RSB has a genetic basis or if it is only influenced by social and cultural conditions. Adolescent conduct disorder has previously been linked to RSB and has been found to be

  11. The norm-attitude-behaviour relationship: Theory and application in the environmental domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    1998-01-01

    , the decision-making is of a more spontaneous nature and the definition of the event is framed -- and behaviour guided -- by the attitudinal constr that is most accessible in memory. In the studied cases in this category, the personal norm is more accessible than a summary attitude measuring overall...

  12. Behavioural and electrophysiological responses of Triatoma dimidiata nymphs to conspecific faecal volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Marroquin, Z; Cruz-López, L; Malo, E A; Ramsey, J M; Rojas, J C

    2018-03-01

    The behavioural and electrophysiological (electroantennography) responses of the first two instars of Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Latreille to fresh and dry faecal headspace volatile extracts from fifth instar conspecific nymphs and synthetic compounds were analysed in this study. Recently emerged nymphs (3-5 days) aggregated around filter paper impregnated with dry faeces and around filter paper impregnated with extracts from both fresh and dry faeces. Older first instars (10-15 days) and second instars aggregated around filter paper impregnated with fresh and dry faeces, and their respective headspace extracts. Dry faecal volatile extracts elicited the strongest antennal responses, followed by fresh faecal extracts. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of dried faecal headspace volatiles demonstrated the presence of 12 compounds: 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, n-octadecane, n-nonadecane, n-eicosane, n-heneicosane, n-tricosane, n-pentaeicosane, n-hexaeicosane, n-octaeicosane, nonanal, and 4-methyl quinazoline. In fresh faecal headspace extracts, only nonanal was clearly detected, although there were other trace compounds, including several unidentified sesquiterpenes. Four of the 11 compounds tested individually elicited aggregation behaviour at concentrations of 100 ng/µL and 1 µg/µL. A blend containing these four components also mediated the aggregation of nymphs. These volatiles may be valuable for developing monitoring methods and designing sensitive strategies to detect and measure T. dimidiata infestation. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  13. Brain size affects the behavioural response to predators in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bijl, Wouter; Thyselius, Malin; Kotrschal, Alexander; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-08-07

    Large brains are thought to result from selection for cognitive benefits, but how enhanced cognition leads to increased fitness remains poorly understood. One explanation is that increased cognitive ability results in improved monitoring and assessment of predator threats. Here, we use male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata), artificially selected for large and small brain size, to provide an experimental evaluation of this hypothesis. We examined their behavioural response as singletons, pairs or shoals of four towards a model predator. Large-brained females, but not males, spent less time performing predator inspections, an inherently risky behaviour. Video analysis revealed that large-brained females were further away from the model predator when in pairs but that they habituated quickly towards the model when in shoals of four. Males stayed further away from the predator model than females but again we found no brain size effect in males. We conclude that differences in brain size affect the female predator response. Large-brained females might be able to assess risk better or need less sensory information to reach an accurate conclusion. Our results provide experimental support for the general idea that predation pressure is likely to be important for the evolution of brain size in prey species. © 2015 The Authors.

  14. Behavioural responses of Ixodes ricinus nymphs to carbon dioxide and rodent odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN Duijvendijk, G; Gort, G; Sprong, H; Takken, W

    2017-06-01

    Many haematophagous ectoparasites use carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and host odour to detect and locate their hosts. The tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) walks only small distances and quests in vegetation until it encounters a host. The differential effects of CO2 and host odour on the host-finding behaviour of I. ricinus have, however, never been clarified and hence represent the subject of this study. The effects of CO2 and odour from bank voles on the activation and attraction of I. ricinus nymphs were analysed in a Y-tube olfactometer. Carbon dioxide evoked a response in the absence and presence of host odour, but did not attract nymphs. Host odour, however, did not evoke a response but did attract nymphs in the absence and presence of CO2 . The current results show that CO2 is an activator, but not an attractant, and that host odour is an attractant, but not an activator, of I. ricinus nymphs, and provide ecological insights into the host-finding behaviour of I. ricinus. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  15. Behavioural and physiological responses of Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea Amphipoda) exposed to silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce Funck, J; Danger, M; Gismondi, E; Cossu-Leguille, C; Guérold, F; Felten, V

    2013-10-15

    The study aims at investigating the effects of silver (Ag), a re-emerging contaminant, on physiological and behavioural responses in Gammarus fossarum. In a first experiment, G. fossarum Ag LC50s were evaluated during 96 h under semi-static mode of exposure. Juveniles appeared to be more sensitive to Ag (LC5096h: 1.01 μg L(-1)) than ovigerous females (LC5096h: 1.9 μg L(-1)) and adult males (LC5096h: 2.2 μg L(-1)). In a second experiment, the physiological (osmo-/ionoregulation; antioxidant enzymes; lipid peroxidation (LPO)) and behavioural (locomotor activity and ventilation) responses of male G. fossarum exposed to Ag (0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 μg L(-1)) were investigated. The mortality and Ag bioconcentration of gammarids exposed to Ag were significantly higher than controls. Concerning physiological responses, a 48 h-exposure to Ag had no impact on catalase activity but led to a significant decrease of haemolymph osmolality and [Na(+)]. On the contrary, LPO, Se-GPx and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity were significantly increased. Behavioural responses, such as locomotor and ventilatory activities, were also significantly reduced in Ag exposed gammarids. After 96 h-exposure, especially to 0.5 μg Ag L(-1), most responses (ventilation, locomotor activity, haemolymph osmolality and [Na(+)]) were even more pronounced and haemolymph [Cl(-)] was significantly decreased but, contrary to observations after 48 h-exposure, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was significantly reduced. Our results demonstrate the drastic effects of realistic [Ag] concentration (0.5 μg Ag L(-1)) on an ubiquitous and functionally important freshwater invertebrate (implied in detritus breakdown), but also strongly suggest an energetic reallocation to the detriment of locomotor activity and in favour of maintenance functions (i.e., osmoregulation and detoxification). These results highlight the risk represented by Ag and the need to perform integrated studies (at different scales, from individual to

  16. Proteome Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Response to Environmental Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Thomas E.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Yang, Xiaohua; Nicora, Carrie D.; Camp, David G.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-11-02

    We examined global changes in protein expression in the B31 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, in response to two environmental cues (pH and temperature) chosen for their reported similarity to those encountered at different stages of the organism’s life cycle. Multidimensional nano-liquid chromatographic separations coupled with tandem mass spectrometry were used to examine the array of proteins (i.e., the proteome) of B. burgdorferi for different pH and temperature culture conditions. Changes in pH and temperature elicited in vitro adaptations of this spirochete known to cause Lyme disease and led to alterations in protein expression that are associated with increased microbial pathogenesis. We identified 1031 proteins that represent 59% of the annotated genome of B. burgdorferi and elucidated a core proteome of 414 proteins that were present in all environmental conditions investigated. Observed changes in protein abundances indicated varied replicon usage, as well as proteome functional distributions between the in vitro cell culture conditions. Surprisingly, the pH and temperature conditions that mimicked B. burgdorferi residing in the gut of a fed tick showed a marked reduction in protein diversity. Additionally, the results provide us with leading candidates for exploring how B. burgdorferi adapts to and is able to survive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and lay a foundation for planned in situ studies of B. burgdorferi isolated from the tick midgut and infected animals.

  17. ACCOUNTING FOR SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NINKO KOSTOVSKI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Socially responsible and environmentally friendly operations of the companies are equally important to the investors as their successful financial performance. This because the issues of good governance, socially and environmentally correct operations become so important to the public that mistake in any of these domains can almost instantly ruin the meticulously built value of the company shares. However, in most countries, including Republic of Macedonia, the reporting for non-financial activities is out of the domain of the accounting regulations. On the other hand, many researchers and various international organizations dealing with development and promotion of international accounting and financial reporting standards promote the idea that these only seemingly non-financial areas of operations should be addressed in the reports to shareholders together with the financial data. They only diverge in the proposed ways in which this should be done. The aim of our research is to investigate the accounting practice of recording and reporting investment and operational costs of these activities and the way in which they are presented to shareholders in case of Republic of Macedonia. The interviews in a selected large companies revealed that financial managers agree on the benefits of the sustainability and socially related activities accounting and reporting. This reporting helps more elaborated decisions on the side of the all interested parties, inside and outside of the companies. They also believe that the capital expenditure for the purposes of environmental protection is long-term investment, rather than one time cost.

  18. Motivational indicators of protective behaviour in response to urban water shortage threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankad, Aditi; Greenhill, Murni; Tucker, David; Tapsuwan, Sorada

    2013-05-01

    The present study examined the role of protection motivation variables in predicting rainwater tank adoption among urban householders. A regression analysis found that subjective knowledge, threat appraisal, response efficacy, response costs, subjective norms and social norms significantly predicted adaptive behavioural intentions (F(6, 399) = 50.769, p subjective knowledge and subjective norms). This suggests that people who perceive there is a real water shortage threat, and believe that rainwater tanks are effective in relieving the threat and require minimal or manageable effort to obtain, are more likely to install a tank on their property as a protective measure. Implications of these results are discussed from a research and policy perspective. Recommendations for future motivational research in the area of urban decentralised system acceptance and adoption are presented.

  19. Is disgust sensitive to classical conditioning as indexed by facial electromyography and behavioural responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Charmaine; Bosman, Renske C; Engelhard, Iris; Olatunji, Bunmi O; de Jong, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies provided preliminary support for the role of classical conditioning as a pathway of disgust learning, yet this evidence has been limited to self-report. This study included facial electromyographical (EMG) measurements (corrugator and levator muscles) and a behavioural approach task to assess participants' motivation-to-eat the actual food items (conditioned stimuli, CS). Food items served as CS and film excerpts of a woman vomiting served as unconditioned stimuli (US). Following acquisition the CS+ (neutral CS paired with US disgust) was rated as more disgusting and less positive. Notably, the conditioned response was transferred to the actual food items as evidenced by participants' reported lowered willingness-to-eat. Participants also showed heightened EMG activity in response to the CS+ which seemed driven by the corrugator indexing a global negative affect. These findings suggest that classical conditioning as a pathway of disgust learning can be reliably observed in subjective but not in disgust-specific physiological responding.

  20. At the extreme end of the psychoneuroimmunological spectrum: Delirium as a maladaptive sickness behaviour response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Colm; MacLullich, Alasdair MJ

    2014-01-01

    Delirium is a common and severe neuropsychiatric syndrome characterised by acute deterioration and fluctuations in mental status. It is precipitated mainly by acute illness, trauma, surgery, or drugs. Delirium affects around 1 in 8 hospital inpatients and is associated with multiple adverse consequences, including new institutionalisation, worsening of existing dementia, and death. Patients with delirium show attentional and other cognitive deficits, altered alertness (mostly reduced, but some patients develop agitation and hyperactivity), altered sleep-wake cycle and psychoses. The pathways from the various aetiologies to the heterogeneous clinical presentations are hardly studied and are poorly understood. One of the key questions, which research is only now beginning to address, is how the factors determining susceptibility interact with the stimuli that trigger delirium. Inflammatory signals arising during systemic infection evoke sickness behaviour, a coordinated set of adaptive changes initiated by the host to respond to, and to counteract, infection. It is now clear that the same systemic inflammatory signals can have severe deleterious effects on brain function when occuring in old age or in the presence of neurodegenerative disease. Multiple animal studies now show that even mild acute systemic inflammation can induce exaggerated sickness behaviour responses and cognitive dysfunction in aged animals or those with prior degenerative pathology when compared to young and/or healthy controls. These findings appear highly promising in understanding aspects of delirium. In this review our aim is to describe and assess the parallels between exaggerated sickness behaviour in vulnerable animals and delirium in older humans. We discuss inflammatory and stress-related triggers of delirium in the context of new animal models that allow us to dissect some aspects of the mechanisms underpinning these episodes. We discuss some differences between the sickness behaviour

  1. Circulating endothelial cell-derived extracellular vesicles mediate the acute phase response and sickness behaviour associated with CNS inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Yvonne; Akbar, Naveed; Roodselaar, Jay; Evans, Matthew C; Gardiner, Chris; Sargent, Ian; Romero, Ignacio A; Bristow, Adrian; Buchan, Alastair M; Haughey, Norman; Anthony, Daniel C

    2017-08-29

    Brain injury elicits a systemic acute-phase response (APR), which is responsible for co-ordinating the peripheral immunological response to injury. To date, the mechanisms responsible for signalling the presence of injury or disease to selectively activate responses in distant organs were unclear. Circulating endogenous extracellular vesicles (EVs) are increased after brain injury and have the potential to carry targeted injury signals around the body. Here, we examined the potential of EVs, isolated from rats after focal inflammatory brain lesions using IL-1β, to activate a systemic APR in recipient naïve rats, as well as the behavioural consequences of EV transfer. Focal brain lesions increased EV release, and, following isolation and transfer, the EVs were sequestered by the liver where they initiated an APR. Transfer of blood-borne EVs from brain-injured animals was also enough to suppress exploratory behaviours in recipient naïve animals. EVs derived from brain endothelial cell cultures treated with IL-1β also activated an APR and altered behaviour in recipient animals. These experiments reveal that inflammation-induced circulating EVs derived from endothelial cells are able to initiate the APR to brain injury and are sufficient to generate the associated sickness behaviours, and are the first demonstration that EVs are capable of modifying behavioural responses.

  2. Linking genotoxic responses with cytotoxic and behavioural or physiological consequences: differential sensitivity of echinoderms (Asterias rubens) and marine molluscs (Mytilus edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canty, Martin N; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Brown, Rebecca J; Jones, Malcolm B; Jha, Awadhesh N

    2009-08-13

    Integrated laboratory studies addressed multiple biomarker responses in the sea star (Asterias rubens) and the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) exposed to a range of concentrations of direct and indirect acting genotoxins: methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) and cyclophosphamide (CP; an environmentally relevant anti-cancer pharmaceutical), respectively, in order to determine if the expressed genotoxicity has knock-on effects at the higher levels of biological organisation. The experimental design aimed to concurrently evaluate biomarkers of behavioural and physiological conditions (i.e. 'righting time' and 'clearance rate' for sea stars and mussels, respectively) in addition to cytotoxicity (neutral red retention assay), induction of micronuclei (Mn) and DNA strand breaks (as determined by the Comet assay). The protocol also included the determination of the maximum tolerated concentration (MTC), prior to genotoxic evaluation. The 3d MTC, as determined by the survival of the organisms, showed sea stars to be more sensitive than mussels to MMS (18 and 32 mg L(-1), respectively) and CP (56 and 180 mg L(-1), respectively). For both species and chemicals, cytotoxicity was not found to be significantly different compared to controls. Apart from the MMS exposure to sea stars (which showed 100% mortality at higher concentrations after 5d exposure), clear dose-response relationships were observed for both genotoxicity endpoints in each species. Following exposure to CP, good correlations were also found between the behavioural and physiological responses and genetic damage in each species (sea stars-MN vs. RT: R=0.73; Comet vs. RT: R=0.91; mussels-MN vs. CR: R=0.69; Comet vs. CR: R=0.72). This integrated approach, applying non-invasive assays to simultaneously determine the responses at different levels of biological organisation, indicates the potential value of behavioural and physiological measures in determining the toxicity of chemicals to marine organisms and highlights also

  3. Using photographs to study animal social cognition and behaviour: Do capuchins' responses to photos reflect reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, F Blake; Brosnan, Sarah F; Prétôt, Laurent; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; O'Sullivan, Eoin; Stocker, Martina; D'Mello, Daniel; Wilson, Vanessa A D

    2016-03-01

    Behavioural responses to photos are often used to infer what animals understand about their social environment, but are rarely validated against the same stimuli in real life. If subjects' responses to photos do not reflect responses to the same live stimuli, it is difficult to conclude what happens in reality based on photo responses alone. We compared capuchins' responses to photos versus live stimuli in an identical scenario within research cubicles. Subjects had the opportunity to approach food placed in front of an alpha group member and, in a separate condition, photos depicting the same individual. Subjects' latencies to approach food when placed in front of the real alpha negatively correlated with time subjects spent in close proximity to the alpha in their main enclosure. We therefore predicted subjects' latencies to approach food in the presence of photos would positively correlate with their latencies to approach food in the presence of the real alpha inside the cubicles, but negatively correlate with time they spent in proximity to the alpha in their enclosure. Neither prediction was supported. While not necessarily surprising, we explain why these results should be an important reminder that care is needed when interpreting results from photo studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The genetic and environmental basis of adaptive differences in shoaling behaviour among populations of Trinidadian guppies, Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, M; Ghalambor, C K; Reznick, D N

    2009-09-01

    The degree of plasticity an individual expresses when moving into a new environment is likely to influence the probability of colonization and potential for subsequent evolution. Yet few empirical examples exist where the ancestral and derived conditions suggest a role for plasticity in adaptive genetic divergence of populations. Here we explore the genetic and plastic components of shoaling behaviour in two pairs of populations of Poecilia reticulata (Trinidadian guppies). We contrast shoaling behaviour of guppies derived from high- and low-predation populations from two separate drainages by measuring the shoaling response of second generation laboratory-reared individuals in the presence and absence of predator induced alarm pheromones. We find persistent differences in mean shoaling cohesion that suggest a genetic basis; when measured under the same conditions high-predation guppies form more cohesive shoals than low-predation guppies. Both high and low-predation guppies also exhibit plasticity in the response to alarm pheromones, by forming tighter, more cohesive shoals. These patterns suggest a conserved capacity for adaptive behavioural plasticity when moving between variable predation communities that are consistent with models of genetic accommodation.

  5. Environmental Attitudes and Behaviour of Secondary School Students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kara K. W.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an investigation into the environmental attitudes of students in Hong Kong and their readiness to engage in pro-environmental behavior that could involve change in personal lifestyle. Students' over-optimism towards technological development and the perceived importance of the benefits of modern consumer goods were major factors that…

  6. Price-minimising behaviours in response to increasing tobacco price: a cross-sectional study of students

    OpenAIRE

    Langley, Tessa; Rutter, L.; Britton, John

    2016-01-01

    Background: The public health benefits of tobacco taxation are undermined when smokers engage in price-minimising behaviours other than quitting in response to rising prices. These include switching from smoking manufactured cigarettes to cheaper alternatives such as roll your-own (RYO). Young adults are particularly sensitive to tobacco prices. Methods: 314 students at the University of Nottingham, UK completed an online survey about their current smoking behaviour and their likely respon...

  7. Effects of Sublethal Cadmium Exposure on Antipredator Behavioural and Antitoxic Responses in the Invasive Amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Sornom; Eric Gismondi; Céline Vellinger; Simon Devin; Jean-François Férard; Jean-Nicolas Beisel

    2012-01-01

    Amphipods are recognised as an important component of freshwater ecosystems and are frequently used as an ecotoxicological test species. Despite this double interest, there is still a lack of information concerning toxic impacts on ecologically relevant behaviours. The present study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd), a non-essential heavy metal, on both antipredator behaviours and antitoxic responses in the invasive amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus under laboratory conditions. Amphip...

  8. Behavioural responses of western gray whales to a 4-D seismic survey off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Gailey, Glenn; Sychenko, Olga; McDonald, Trent; Racca, Roberto; Rutenko, Alexander; Bröker, Koen

    2016-01-01

    A seismic survey was conducted off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia in 2010. The survey area was adjacent to the only known near-shore feeding ground of the Critically Endangered population of western gray whales Eschrichtius robustus in the western Pacific south of the Aleutian Islands. This study examined the effectiveness of efforts to minimize the behavioural responses of the whales to vessel proximity and sound during the survey. Two shore-based behavioural observation t...

  9. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Comprehensive Environmentally Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (FTS 896-2609 or Commercial 202/586-2609).

  10. Quitting smoking : The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C.; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined how smoker' and non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e. the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban.Design:

  11. Behaviour and orcadian rhythm of the fish bathygobius soporator Valenciennes (Gobiidae under the influence of environmental salinity and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Fanta

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavioural patterns and their cireadian rhythms may be adaptive to the peculiar environmental conditions of subtropical brackish waters where Ba-thygobius soporator Valenciennes, 1837 live. Adult fish were caught at the southern Brazilian coast from mangrove rivers and rocky shores in a bay, where temperature and water salinity vary during the day and through the year. Observation on the behaviour of the animals was undertaken in salinity 8.5ppt, 17.0ppt, 25.5ppt and 34.0ppt, each one in temperatures of 18ºC and 28ºC. Temperature and salinity affect the frequency and intensity of some of the behavioural events, more than its pattern or rhythm. Swimming is rare, decreasing along the day and with temperature increase, being even lower at low salinity; aggressiveness is the highest in the morning being not affected by temperature, but by salinity, being higher the higher it is; territory defence decreases along the day and is lower at high temperature and extreme salinities; fish hide more at high temperature and with the decrease of salinity, but this is not rhythmical; a higher proportion of fish rest in vertical position when salinity and temperature are high, increasing slightly at the beginning of the afternoon; respiratory frequency increases with temperature, salinity and in the afternoon; the colour of the fish is mainly light with spots in all hours of the day and in all temperatures and different levels of salinity, but with a tendency of the presence of some dark fish during the morning and some light ones in the afternoon, showing a higher variability of colours at low temperature and extreme salinities. Besides temperature, salinity and light, feeding seems to be one of the determinant factors for the performance of the typical behaviour of B. soporator.

  12. Behavioural and environmental correlates of soaring-bird mortality at on-shore wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios, Luis; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    1. Wind power plants represent a risk of bird mortality, but the effects are still poorly quantified. We measured bird mortality, analysed the factors that led birds to fly close to turbines, and proposed mitigation measures at two wind farms installed in the Straits of Gibraltar, one of the most important migration bottlenecks between Europe and Africa. 2. Bird corpses were surveyed along turbine lines and an associated power line to esti- mate mortality rates. The behaviour of birds...

  13. Behavioural responses to thermal conditions affect seasonal mass change in a heat-sensitive northern ungulate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris M van Beest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer. We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in

  14. Hydrate Evolution in Response to Ongoing Environmental Shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Alan [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Natural gas hydrates have the potential to become a vital domestic clean-burning energy source. However, past changes in environmental conditions have caused hydrates to become unstable and trigger both massive submarine landslides and the development of crater-like pockmarks, thereby releasing methane into the overlying seawater and atmosphere, where it acts as a powerful greenhouse gas. This project was designed to fill critical gaps in our understanding of domestic hydrate resources and improve forecasts for their response to environmental shifts. Project work can be separated into three interrelated components, each involving the development of predictive mathematical models. The first project component concerns the role of sediment properties on the development and dissociation of concentrated hydrate anomalies. To this end, we developed numerical models to predict equilibrium solubility of methane in twophase equilibrium with hydrate as a function of measureable porous medium characteristics. The second project component concerned the evolution of hydrate distribution in heterogeneous reservoirs. To this end, we developed numerical models to predict the growth and decay of anomalies in representative physical environments. The third project component concerned the stability of hydrate-bearing slopes under changing environmental conditions. To this end, we developed numerical treatments of pore pressure evolution and consolidation, then used "infinite-slope" analysis to approximate the landslide potential in representative physical environments, and developed a "rate-and-state" frictional formulation to assess the stability of finite slip patches that are hypothesized to develop in response to the dissociation of hydrate anomalies. The increased predictive capabilities that result from this work provide a framework for interpreting field observations of hydrate anomalies in terms of the history of environmental forcing that led to their development. Moreover

  15. Anchoring novel molecular biomarker responses to traditional responses in fish exposed to environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Patricia [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom); Pacheco, Mario [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Lourdes Pereira, M. [CICECO and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Mendo, Sonia [CESAM and Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rotchell, Jeanette M., E-mail: J.Rotchell@sussex.ac.u [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    The responses of Dicentrarchus labrax and Liza aurata to aquatic pollution were assessed in a contaminated coastal lagoon, using both traditional and novel biomarkers combined. DNA damage, assessed by comet assay, was higher in both fish species from the contaminated sites, whereas levels of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene expression were not significantly altered. The liver histopathological analysis also revealed significant lesions in fish from contaminated sites. Alterations in ras and xpf genes were analysed and additional pollutant-responsive genes were identified. While no alterations were found in ras gene, a downregulation of xpf gene was observed in D. labrax from a contaminated site. Suppression subtractive hybridization applied to D. labrax collected at a contaminated site, revealed altered expression in genes involved in energy metabolism, immune system activity and antioxidant response. The approach and results reported herein demonstrate the utility of anchoring traditional biomarker responses alongside novel biomarker responses. - Novel molecular biomarkers of aquatic environmental contamination in fish.

  16. 42 CFR 137.300 - Since Federal environmental responsibilities are new responsibilities, which may be assumed by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Since Federal environmental responsibilities are... additional funds available to Self-Governance Tribes to carry out these formerly inherently Federal... Nepa Process § 137.300 Since Federal environmental responsibilities are new responsibilities, which may...

  17. Fluvial response to environmental perturbations: a perspective from physical experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Sara; Tofelde, Stefanie; Wickert, Andrew; Schildgen, Taylor; Paola, Chris; Strecker, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Fluvial terraces and alluvial fans that are perched above the modern base level testify to environmental conditions that were different from today. Sedimentological studies combined with chronological constraints can be used to reconstruct the evolution of these landforms in the context of past changes in regional to global forcing. Despite the improvements in the most commonly used dating techniques (e.g. cosmogenic nuclides, 14C, and OSL), field data from fluvial and alluvial archives often represent only a brief glimpse into the evolution of that particular landscape. As such, the challenge of interpreting landscape development and its relationship to external forcing in the remaining time gaps is often unclear. To gain more insight, we performed physical experiments to test how a fluvial system responds to changes in the boundary conditions. This approach allows us to continuously record the evolution of the fluvial system and to observe, step by step, the response of the fluvial system and the development of the landscape. Additionally, we can directly link the geomorphic modifications to a specific environmental perturbation. Starting with a simple model and a single channel, we changed the amount of discharge (Qw) and sediment supply (Qs) in the system. The most prominent response results from a sudden increase in water discharge. In general, changes in the Qs/Qw ratio control the fluvial morphology (particularly the height/width ratio), the channel's profile, the dynamics of the river, and its ability to modify the surrounding landscape. Responses get more complex with the introduction of a lateral tributary, which changes the dynamics of the main stem and creates feed-back mechanisms between the two systems. For example, a change in the main stem can influence the fluvial morphology and the steepness of the tributary (even with no perturbations in the tributary) and vice-versa, illustrating the potential for non-unique interpretations of fluvial landforms

  18. Selection on feather pecking affects response to novelty and foraging behaviour in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Haas, Elske N; Nielsen, Birte L; Buitenhuis, A J (Bart)

    2010-01-01

    Feather pecking (FP) is a major welfare problem in laying hens, influenced by multiple factors. FP is thought to be redirected foraging behaviour, however fearful birds are also known to be more sensitive to develop FP. The relationship between fear-responses, foraging and FP is not well understood......, therefore we studied the behaviour of 16 birds from a high feather pecking (HFP) line and 16 birds from a low feather pecking (LFP) line at 35 weeks of age inside a plus-maze. Birds were from the 10th generation of selection for either high or low FP. First exposure to the maze was used to measure birds...... in the maze for 10 min during which they could choose to eat from all available food-items. When exposed for the first time in the maze HFP birds walked a longer distance, vocalized sooner and had more exploratory pecks compared to LFP birds who showed more wing-movements and defecations. When given a choice...

  19. Symptoms of behavioural anapyrexia--reverse fever as a defence response of snails to fluke invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbikowska, Elżbieta; Cichy, Anna

    2012-03-01

    The subject of the research was the thermal preferences of Planorbarius corneus individuals infected by larvae of digenetic trematodes. Snails were obtained over two consecutive years, 2009 and 2010, from 10 water bodies located in central Poland. The relationship between the seasons and the occurrence of patent invasions in hosts found in the shore-zone of lakes was observed. Behavioural experiments conducted on P. corneus individuals placed in a thermal gradient demonstrated that parasite infection had an impact on the thermal preferences of the snails. Individuals that shed cercariae of Bilharziella polonica, Cotylurus sp., Notocotylus ephemera, Rubenstrema exasperatum/Neoglyphe locellus, Rubenstrema opisthovitellinum, or Tylodelphys excavata displayed symptoms of behavioural anapyrexia, similarly to experimentally injured snails. This response increased the survival of infected individuals while simultaneously prolonging the period of shedding of dispersive forms of parasites. This point of view was upheld by the observation that infected snails bred at 19°C lived longer than at 26°C and the shedding rate of cercariae at a lower temperature was lower than at a higher one. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Behavioural changes, sharing behaviour and psychological responses after receiving direct-to-consumer genetic test results: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kelly F J; Wesselius, Anke; Schreurs, Maartje A C; Schols, Annemie M W J; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2017-06-29

    It has been hypothesised that direct-to-consumer genetic tests (DTC-GTs) could stimulate health behaviour change. However, genetic testing may also lead to anxiety and distress or unnecessarily burden the health care system. The aim is to review and meta-analyse the effects of DTC-GT on (1) behaviour change, (2) psychological response and (3) medical consumption. A systematic literature search was performed in three databases, using "direct-to-consumer genetic testing" as a key search term. Random effects meta-analyses were performed when at least two comparable outcomes were available. After selection, 19 articles were included involving 11 unique studies. Seven studies involved actual consumers who paid the retail price, whereas four included participants who received free genetic testing as part of a research trial (non-actual consumers). In meta-analysis, 23% had a positive lifestyle change. More specifically, improved dietary and exercise practices were both reported by 12%, whereas 19% quit smoking. Seven percent of participants had subsequent preventive checks. Thirty-three percent shared their results with any health care professional and 50% with family and/or friends. Sub-analyses show that behaviour change was more prevalent among non-actual consumers, whereas sharing was more prevalent among actual consumers. Results on psychological responses showed that anxiety, distress and worry were low or absent and that the effect faded with time. DTC-GT has potential to be effective as a health intervention, but the right audience needs to be addressed with tailored follow-up. Research is needed to identify consumers who do and do not change behaviour or experience adverse psychological responses.

  1. The Environmental Impacts of a Desktop Computer: Influence of Choice of Functional Unit, System Boundary and User Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanovska, J.; Šteina, Māra; Valters, K.; Bažbauers, G.

    2009-01-01

    The pollution prevention during the design phase of products and processes in environmental policy gains its importance over the other, more historically known principle - pollution reduction in the end-of-pipe. This approach requires prediction of potential environmental impacts to be avoided or reduced and a prioritisation of the most efficient areas for action. Currently the most appropriate method for this purpose is life cycle assessment (LCA)- a method for accounting and attributing all environmental impacts which arise during the life time of a product, starting with the production of raw materials and ending with the disposal, or recycling of the wasted product at the end of life. The LCA, however, can be misleading if the performers of the study disregard gaps of information and the limitations of the chosen methodology. During the study we researched the environmental impact of desktop computers, using a simplified LCA method - Indicators' 99, and by developing various scenarios (changing service life, user behaviour, energy supply etc). The study demonstrates that actions for improvements lie in very different areas. The study also concludes that the approach of defining functional unit must be sufficiently flexible in order to avoid discounting areas of potential actions. Therefore, with regard to computers we agree with other authors using the functional unit "one computer" but suggest not to bind this to service life or usage time, but to develop several scenarios varying these parameters. The study also demonstrates the importance of a systemic approach when assessing complex product systems - as more complex the system is, the more broad the scope for potential actions. We conclude that, regarding computers, which belong to energy using and material- intensive products, the measures to reduce environmental impacts lie not only with the producer and user of the particular product, but also with the whole national energy supply and waste management

  2. An Insecticide Further Enhances Experience-Dependent Increased Behavioural Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Abrieux

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used to protect plants against pest insects, and insecticide residues remaining in the environment affect both target and non-target organisms. Whereas low doses of neonicotinoids have been shown to disturb the behaviour of pollinating insects, recent studies have revealed that a low dose of the neonicotinoid clothianidin can improve behavioural and neuronal sex pheromone responses in a pest insect, the male moth Agrotis ipsilon, and thus potentially improve reproduction. As male moth behaviour depends also on its physiological state and previous experience with sensory signals, we wondered if insecticide effects would be dependent on plasticity of olfactory-guided behaviour. We investigated, using wind tunnel experiments, whether a brief pre-exposure to the sex pheromone could enhance the behavioural response to this important signal in the moth A. ipsilon at different ages (sexually immature and mature males and after different delays (2 h and 24 h, and if the insecticide clothianidin would interfere with age effects or the potential pre-exposure-effects. Brief pre-exposure to the pheromone induced an age-independent significant increase of sex pheromone responses 24 h later, whereas sex pheromone responses did not increase significantly 2 h after exposure. However, response delays were significantly shorter compared to naïve males already two hours after exposure. Oral treatment with clothianidin increased sex pheromone responses in sexually mature males, confirming previous results, but did not influence responses in young immature males. Males treated with clothianidin after pre-exposure at day 4 responded significantly more to the sex pheromone at day 5 than males treated with clothianidin only and than males pre-exposed only, revealing an additive effect of experience and the insecticide. Plasticity of sensory systems has thus to be taken into account when investigating the effects of sublethal doses

  3. Environmental factors associated with disordered weight-control behaviours among youth: a systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Monica L; Peterson, Karen E; McCormick, Marie C; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-01-01

    .... The purpose of the present study was to systematically review existing literature on environmental influences on DWCB among youth and to identify conceptual and methodological gaps in the literature. Systematic review...

  4. Environmental Responses to Carbon Mitigation through Geological Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Alfred [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Bromenshenk, Jerry [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2013-08-30

    In summary, this DOE EPSCoR project is contributing to the study of carbon mitigation through geological storage. Both deep and shallow subsurface research needs are being addressed through research directed at improved understanding of environmental responses associated with large scale injection of CO2 into geologic formations. The research plan has two interrelated research objectives. Objective 1: Determine the influence of CO2-related injection of fluids on pore structure, material properties, and microbial activity in rock cores from potential geological carbon sequestration sites. Objective 2: Determine the Effects of CO2 leakage on shallow subsurface ecosystems (microbial and plant) using field experiments from an outdoor field testing facility.

  5. Neutrality and the response of rare species to environmental variance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi

    Full Text Available Neutral models and differential responses of species to environmental heterogeneity offer complementary explanations of species abundance distribution and dynamics. Under what circumstances one model prevails over the other is still a matter of debate. We show that the decay of similarity over time in rocky seashore assemblages of algae and invertebrates sampled over a period of 16 years was consistent with the predictions of a stochastic model of ecological drift at time scales larger than 2 years, but not at time scales between 3 and 24 months when similarity was quantified with an index that reflected changes in abundance of rare species. A field experiment was performed to examine whether assemblages responded neutrally or non-neutrally to changes in temporal variance of disturbance. The experimental results did not reject neutrality, but identified a positive effect of intermediate levels of environmental heterogeneity on the abundance of rare species. This effect translated into a marked decrease in the characteristic time scale of species turnover, highlighting the role of rare species in driving assemblage dynamics in fluctuating environments.

  6. Responses of Yeast Biocontrol Agents to Environmental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yuan; Wisniewski, Michael; Droby, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Biological control of postharvest diseases, utilizing wild species and strains of antagonistic yeast species, is a research topic that has received considerable attention in the literature over the past 30 years. In principle, it represents a promising alternative to chemical fungicides for the management of postharvest decay of fruits, vegetables, and grains. A yeast-based biocontrol system is composed of a tritrophic interaction between a host (commodity), a pathogen, and a yeast species, all of which are affected by environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and UV light as well as osmotic and oxidative stresses. Additionally, during the production process, biocontrol agents encounter various severe abiotic stresses that also impact their viability. Therefore, understanding the ecological fitness of the potential yeast biocontrol agents and developing strategies to enhance their stress tolerance are essential to their efficacy and commercial application. The current review provides an overview of the responses of antagonistic yeast species to various environmental stresses, the methods that can be used to improve stress tolerance and efficacy, and the related mechanisms associated with improved stress tolerance. PMID:25710368

  7. Expression of mammalian GPCRs in C. elegans generates novel behavioural responses to human ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Gert

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs play a crucial role in many biological processes and represent a major class of drug targets. However, purification of GPCRs for biochemical study is difficult and current methods of studying receptor-ligand interactions involve in vitro systems. Caenorhabditis elegans is a soil-dwelling, bacteria-feeding nematode that uses GPCRs expressed in chemosensory neurons to detect bacteria and environmental compounds, making this an ideal system for studying in vivo GPCR-ligand interactions. We sought to test this by functionally expressing two medically important mammalian GPCRs, somatostatin receptor 2 (Sstr2 and chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5 in the gustatory neurons of C. elegans. Results Expression of Sstr2 and CCR5 in gustatory neurons allow C. elegans to specifically detect and respond to somatostatin and MIP-1α respectively in a robust avoidance assay. We demonstrate that mammalian heterologous GPCRs can signal via different endogenous Gα subunits in C. elegans, depending on which cells it is expressed in. Furthermore, pre-exposure of GPCR transgenic animals to its ligand leads to receptor desensitisation and behavioural adaptation to subsequent ligand exposure, providing further evidence of integration of the mammalian GPCRs into the C. elegans sensory signalling machinery. In structure-function studies using a panel of somatostatin-14 analogues, we identified key residues involved in the interaction of somatostatin-14 with Sstr2. Conclusion Our results illustrate a remarkable evolutionary plasticity in interactions between mammalian GPCRs and C. elegans signalling machinery, spanning 800 million years of evolution. This in vivo system, which imparts novel avoidance behaviour on C. elegans, thus provides a simple means of studying and screening interaction of GPCRs with extracellular agonists, antagonists and intracellular binding partners.

  8. Response of Everglades tree islands to environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Debra A.; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Holmes, Charles W.; Landacre, Bryan; Marot, Marci E.

    2006-01-01

    Tree islands are centers of biodiversity within the Florida Everglades, USA, but the factors controlling their distribution, formation, and development are poorly understood. We use pollen assemblages from tree islands throughout the greater Everglades ecosystem to reconstruct the timing of tree island formation, patterns of development, and response to specific climatic and environmental stressors. These data indicate that fixed (teardrop-shaped) and strand tree islands developed well before substantial human alteration of the system, with initial tree island vegetation in place between 3500 and 500 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP), depending on the location in the Everglades wetland. Tree island development appears to have been triggered by regional- to global-scale climatic events at 2800 cal yr BP, 1600–1500 cal yr BP, 1200–1000 cal yr BP (early Medieval Warm Period), and 500–200 cal yr BP (Little Ice Age). These periods correspond to drought intervals documented in Central and South America and periods of southward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. The records indicate a coherence of climate patterns in both subtropical North America and the Northern Hemisphere Neotropics. Water management practices of the 20th century altered plant communities and size of tree islands throughout the Everglades. Responses range from loss of tree islands due to artificially long hydroperiods and deep water to expansion of tree islands after flow reductions. These data provide evidence for the rapidity of tree island response to specific hydrologic change and facilitate prediction of the response to future changes associated with Everglades restoration plans.

  9. The behaviour of satellite cells in response to exercise: what have we learned from human studies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadi, Fawzi; Olsen, Steen Schytte

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the complex role played by satellite cells in the adaptive response to exercise in human skeletal muscle has just begun. The development of reliable markers for the identification of satellite cell status (quiescence/activation/proliferation) is an important step towards...... the understanding of satellite cell behaviour in exercised human muscles. It is hypothesised currently that exercise in humans can induce (1) the activation of satellite cells without proliferation, (2) proliferation and withdrawal from differentiation, (3) proliferation and differentiation to provide myonuclei...... and (4) proliferation and differentiation to generate new muscle fibres or to repair segmental fibre injuries. In humans, the satellite cell pool can increase as early as 4 days following a single bout of exercise and is maintained at higher level following several weeks of training. Cessation...

  10. Identifying the nonlinear mechanical behaviour of micro-speakers from their quasi-linear electrical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilletti, Michele; Marker, Arthur; Elliott, Stephen John; Holland, Keith

    2017-05-01

    In this study model identification of the nonlinear dynamics of a micro-speaker is carried out by purely electrical measurements, avoiding any explicit vibration measurements. It is shown that a dynamic model of the micro-speaker, which takes into account the nonlinear damping characteristic of the device, can be identified by measuring the response between the voltage input and the current flowing into the coil. An analytical formulation of the quasi-linear model of the micro-speaker is first derived and an optimisation method is then used to identify a polynomial function which describes the mechanical damping behaviour of the micro-speaker. The analytical results of the quasi-linear model are compared with numerical results. This study potentially opens up the possibility of efficiently implementing nonlinear echo cancellers.

  11. Hypoxia increases the behavioural activity of schooling herring: a response to physiological stress or respiratory distress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Neill A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2006-01-01

    Pa and plasma glucose was generally reduced at  However, without any rise in anaerobically derived lactate levels, there was no evidence of respiratory distress at any set  We show that a shift in physiological homeostasis is indeed linked with an increase in the swimming speed of herring but the physiological......, glucose and osmolality). Herring in hypoxia increased their swimming speed by 11-39% but only when  was plasma cortisol also exhibited an increase with  plasma osmolality was subject to a transient rise at 8.5 k......Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, increase their swimming speed during low O2 (hypoxia) and it has been hypothesised that the behavioural response is modulated by the degree of "respiratory distress" (i.e. a rise in anaerobic metabolism and severe physiological stress). To test directly whether...

  12. Environmentally relevant concentrations of endosulfan impair development, metamorphosis and behaviour in Bufo bufo tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Elvira; Bernabò, Ilaria; Berg, Cecilia; Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin; Bonacci, Antonella; Tripepi, Sandro

    2009-01-31

    Endosulfan is a widely used organochlorine pesticide with well-documented neurotoxic effects in both humans and laboratory animals (mammals and fish). Neurotoxicity has been implied also in amphibians after short-term exposure to endosulfan. Little is known about effects of chronic exposure of endosulfan in amphibians. Previously, we examined the short-term toxicity of endosulfan in common toad (Bufo bufo) tadpoles and determined the LC50 value to 0.43 mg/L. In the present study, we investigated the effects of endosulfan on B. bufo tadpoles after chronic exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations. Tadpoles were exposed in a static renewal test, from shortly after hatching (Gosner stage 25) to completed metamorphosis, to 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1mg endosulfan/L (nominal). The exposure period lasted 43-52 days. Mortality, larval growth (mass), development (reached Gosner stage at various times and deformities presence), metamorphosis and behaviour (swimming activity) were monitored regularly over the entire course of larval development. Our results show that 0.05 and 0.1mg endosulfan/L caused impaired behaviour, prolonged time to metamorphosis, increased incidences of mouth and skeletal malformations as well as mortality, and reduced body weight (observed also at 0.01 mg/L) in B. bufo tadpoles. Behavioural effects occurred at exposure day 4, before any other effects occurred, indicating a neurotoxic effect. Endosulfan levels found in groundwater and surface water range from 0.1 to 100 microg/L and after extraordinary runoff events, concentrations exceed 0.5 mg/L in surface water. Our results indicate that endosulfan may negatively affect wild frog populations in agricultural areas.

  13. Predicted and actual indoor environmental quality: Verification of occupants' behaviour models in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Fabi, Valentina; Corgnati, Stefano P.

    2016-01-01

    performance using building energy performance simulations (BEPS). However, the validity of these models has only been sparsely tested. In this paper, stochastic models of occupants' behaviour from literature were tested against measurements in five apartments. In a monitoring campaign, measurements of indoor...... station close by. The stochastic models of window opening and heating set-point adjustments were implemented in the BEPS tool IDA ICE. Two apartments from the monitoring campaign were simulated using the implemented models and the measured weather data. The results were compared to measurements from...

  14. Recycling of consumer waste: A behavioural science approach to environmental protection policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    1994-01-01

    handling. Danish authorities have succeeded in motivating consumers to source separate waste. Possible explanations for the positive attitudes are discussed. The good intentions of seemingly well-mo citizens are not always borne out in adequate action. Possible reasons and implications for policy......Evaluations of programs whose purpose is to increase recycling in Denmark through changing consumer waste handling practices are reviewed on the results discussed in a behavioural science framework Denmark is one of the fastest-moving European cou with regard to policies targeting consumer waste...

  15. Facing emotions in narcolepsy with cataplexy: haemodynamic and behavioural responses during emotional stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Pizza, Fabio; Covassin, Naima; Vandi, Stefano; Cellini, Nicola; Stegagno, Luciano; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-08-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a complex sleep disorder that affects the modulation of emotions: cataplexy, the key symptom of narcolepsy, is indeed strongly linked with emotions that usually trigger the episodes. Our study aimed to investigate haemodynamic and behavioural responses during emotional stimulation in narco-cataplexy. Twelve adult drug-naive narcoleptic patients (five males; age: 33.3 ± 9.4 years) and 12 healthy controls (five males; age: 30.9 ± 9.5 years) were exposed to emotional stimuli (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures). Heart rate, arterial blood pressure and mean cerebral blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral arteries were continuously recorded using photoplethysmography and Doppler ultrasound. Ratings of valence and arousal and coping strategies were scored by the Self-Assessment Manikin and by questionnaires, respectively. Narcoleptic patients' haemodynamic responses to pictures overlapped with the data obtained from controls: decrease of heart rate and increase of mean cerebral blood flow velocity regardless of pictures' content, increase of systolic blood pressure during the pleasant condition, and relative reduction of heart rate during pleasant and unpleasant conditions. However, when compared with controls, narcoleptic patients reported lower arousal scores during the pleasant and neutral stimulation, and lower valence scores during the pleasant condition, respectively, and also a lower score at the 'focus on and venting of emotions' dimensions of coping. Our results suggested that adult narcoleptic patients, compared with healthy controls, inhibited their emotion-expressive behaviour to emotional stimulation, and that may be related to the development of adaptive cognitive strategies to face emotions avoiding cataplexy. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. Impact of the gut microbiota on the neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabot Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastro-intestinal tract hosts a complex microbial ecosystem, the gut microbiota, whose collective genome coding capacity exceeds that of the host genome. The gut microbiota is nowadays regarded as a full organ, likely to contribute to the development of pathologies when its dynamic balance is disrupted (dysbiosis. In the last decade, evidence emerged that the gut microbiota influences brain development and function. In particular, comparisons between germ-free and conventional laboratory rodents showed that the absence of the gut microbiota exacerbates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA system reactivity to stress and alters the anxiety-like behaviour. Furthermore, the dysfunctions observed in germ-free animals can be corrected if the gut microbiota is restored in early life but not in adulthood, suggesting a critical period for microbiota imprinting on the responsiveness to stress. The modes of action are still to be deciphered. They may involve transport of neuroactive bacterial metabolites to the brain through the bloodstream, stimulation of the vagus nerve or of entero-endocrine cells, or modulation of the immune system and, consequently, of the inflammatory status. The discovery that the gut microbiota regulates the neuroendocrine and behavioural responses to stress paves the way for the hypothesis that gut microbiota dysbioses could contribute to the pathophysiology of anxiety-related disorders. In this regard, treatments of anxiety-prone rodent strains with probiotics or antibiotics aimed at modifying their gut microbiota have shown an anxiolytic-like activity. Clinical trials are now needed to know if results obtained in preclinical studies can translate to humans.

  17. Prenatal endotoxin exposure alters behavioural pain responses to lipopolysaccharide in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodyl, Nicolette A; Walker, F Rohan; Krivanek, Klara M; Clifton, Vicki L; Hodgson, Deborah M

    2010-05-11

    Evidence suggests that exposure to bacterial endotoxin in early life can alter the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in later life. This phenomenon may have significant consequences for pain and pain related behaviours as pro-inflammatory cytokines heighten pain sensitivity. This association has yet to be examined. As such, the aim of the present study was to characterize pain behaviours in adult rat offspring following prenatal endotoxin (PE) exposure. Pregnant F344 rats received endotoxin (200microg/kg, s.c.) or saline on gestational days 16, 18 and 20. Pain thresholds were assessed in the adult PE offspring (n=23) and control offspring (n=24) prior to and 4h following administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100microg/kg, s.c.). Three assays of pain were employed - the hot plate, tail immersion and von Frey tests. Results demonstrated sex-specific effects of prenatal endotoxin on the offspring, with PE males displaying unaltered pain thresholds on the von Frey test post-LPS administration (p<0.01), while male control offspring (n=24) displayed the expected hyperalgesia. Male PE offspring also displayed increased pain thresholds on the tail immersion test (p<0.01), while no change in pain sensitivity was observed in control males following LPS exposure. No difference in response was observed between the female PE and control offspring on the von Frey test, however PE female offspring displayed increased thresholds on the tail immersion test compared to baseline - an effect not observed in the control female offspring. Pain sensitivity on the hot plate test was unaffected by prenatal exposure to endotoxin. These data suggest that prenatal exposure to products associated with bacterial infection have the capacity to alter pain responses, which are evident in the adult offspring. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Experience-based modulation of behavioural responses to plant volatiles and other sensory cues in insect herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P; Anton, S

    2014-08-01

    Plant volatiles are important cues for many herbivorous insects when choosing a suitable host plant and finding a mating partner. An appropriate behavioural response to sensory cues from plants and other insects is crucial for survival and fitness. As the natural environment can show both large spatial and temporal variability, herbivores may need to show behavioural plasticity to the available cues. By using earlier experiences, insects can adapt to local variation of resources. Experience is well known to affect sensory-guided behaviour in parasitoids and social insects, but there is also increasing evidence that it influences host plant choice and the probability of finding a mating partner in herbivorous insects. In this review, we will focus upon behavioural changes in holometabolous insect herbivores during host plant choice and localization of mating partners, modulated by experience to sensory cues. The experience can be acquired during both the larval and the adult stage and can influence later responses to plant volatiles and other sensory cues not only within the developmental stage but also after metamorphosis. Furthermore, we will address the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the experience-dependent behavioural adaptations and discuss ecological and evolutionary aspects of insect behavioural plasticity based upon experience. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Behavioural responses of Pacific salmon to chemical disturbance cues during the spawning migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, Nolan N; Hinch, Scott G; Yun, Sang-Seon

    2016-11-01

    Many fish that are exposed to a threat release disturbance cues, which are chemicals that alert conspecifics to the presence of the threat. The release of disturbance cues has been well demonstrated in various species of laboratory-reared fish. Migratory fish species often exhibit increased cortisol levels and are exposed to numerous stressors during their migrations, which could trigger the release of disturbance cues. We tested the responses of wild migrating sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) to the odours of disturbed and undisturbed conspecifics to determine whether these fish release disturbance cues following exposure to a simulated stressor. Furthermore, we tested the responses of sockeye salmon to water-borne cortisol, following evidence from past studies that this chemical is excreted through the gills of stressed fish, and speculation that endogenous correlates of stress might function as disturbance cues. We found that sockeye salmon avoid the odour of disturbed conspecifics, whereas pink salmon do not. Avoidance occurred in both female and male sockeye salmon, and was associated with an increase in plasma cortisol levels in females, but not in males. We also found no behavioural response to water-borne cortisol, which suggests this chemical does not act as an exogenous disturbance cue in sockeye salmon. Avoidance of disturbed conspecifics could limit exposure to risks during the sockeye salmon spawning migration, but could also delay the rate of migration and thereby accrue reproductive costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Optical tracking of embryonic vertebrates behavioural responses using automated time-resolved video-microscopy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpitagama, Milanga; Kaslin, Jan; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2016-12-01

    The fish embryo toxicity (FET) biotest performed on embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) has gained significant popularity as a rapid and inexpensive alternative approach in chemical hazard and risk assessment. The FET was designed to evaluate acute toxicity on embryonic stages of fish exposed to the test chemical. The current standard, similar to most traditional methods for evaluating aquatic toxicity provides, however, little understanding of effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of chemical stressors. We postulate that significant environmental effects such as altered motor functions, physiological alterations reflected in heart rate, effects on development and reproduction can occur at sub-lethal concentrations well below than LC10. Behavioral studies can, therefore, provide a valuable integrative link between physiological and ecological effects. Despite the advantages of behavioral analysis development of behavioral toxicity, biotests is greatly hampered by the lack of dedicated laboratory automation, in particular, user-friendly and automated video microscopy systems. In this work we present a proof-of-concept development of an optical system capable of tracking embryonic vertebrates behavioral responses using automated and vastly miniaturized time-resolved video-microscopy. We have employed miniaturized CMOS cameras to perform high definition video recording and analysis of earliest vertebrate behavioral responses. The main objective was to develop a biocompatible embryo positioning structures that were suitable for high-throughput imaging as well as video capture and video analysis algorithms. This system should support the development of sub-lethal and behavioral markers for accelerated environmental monitoring.

  1. Behavioural response of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to host plant volatiles and synthetic blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyasembe Vincent O

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar feeding is critical for survival of malaria vectors and, although discriminative plant feeding previously has been shown to occur in Anopheles gambiae s.s., little is known about the cues mediating attraction to these plants. In this study, we investigated the role of olfaction in An. gambiae discriminative feeding behaviour. Methods Dual choice olfactometer assays were used to study odour discrimination by An. gambiae to three suspected host plants: Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae, Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae and Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae. Sugar content of the three plant species was determined by analysis of their trimethylsilyl derivatives by coupled gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS and confirmed with authentic standards. Volatiles from intact plants of the three species were collected on Super Q and analyzed by coupled GC-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD and GC-MS to identify electrophysiologically-active components whose identities were also confirmed with authentic standards. Active compounds and blends were formulated using dose–response olfactory bioassays. Responses of females were converted into preference indices and analyzed by chi-square tests. The amounts of common behaviourally-active components released by the three host plants were compared with one-way ANOVA. Results Overall, the sugar contents were similar in the two Asteraceae plants, P. hysterophorus and B. pilosa, but richer in R. communis. Odours released by P. hysterophorus were the most attractive, with those from B. pilosa being the least attractive to females in the olfactometer assays. Six EAD-active components identified were consistently detected by the antennae of adult females. The amounts of common antennally-active components released varied with the host plant, with the highest amounts released by P. hysterophorus. In dose–response assays, single compounds and blends of these components were attractive

  2. 45 CFR 640.4 - Responsibilities and procedures for preparation of an environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an environmental assessment. 640.4 Section 640.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... § 640.4 Responsibilities and procedures for preparation of an environmental assessment. (a) Program... environmental impact that the applicant's proposed study may have. (c) Should an environmental assessment be...

  3. Contact structure, mobility, environmental impact and behaviour: the importance of social forces to infectious disease dynamics and disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Ronan F; Gurley, Emily S; Salje, Henrik; Bloomfield, Laura S P; Jones, James H

    2017-05-05

    Human factors, including contact structure, movement, impact on the environment and patterns of behaviour, can have significant influence on the emergence of novel infectious diseases and the transmission and amplification of established ones. As anthropogenic climate change alters natural systems and global economic forces drive land-use and land-cover change, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the ecological and social factors that impact infectious disease outcomes for human populations. While the field of disease ecology explicitly studies the ecological aspects of infectious disease transmission, the effects of the social context on zoonotic pathogen spillover and subsequent human-to-human transmission are comparatively neglected in the literature. The social sciences encompass a variety of disciplines and frameworks for understanding infectious diseases; however, here we focus on four primary areas of social systems that quantitatively and qualitatively contribute to infectious diseases as social-ecological systems. These areas are social mixing and structure, space and mobility, geography and environmental impact, and behaviour and behaviour change. Incorporation of these social factors requires empirical studies for parametrization, phenomena characterization and integrated theoretical modelling of social-ecological interactions. The social-ecological system that dictates infectious disease dynamics is a complex system rich in interacting variables with dynamically significant heterogeneous properties. Future discussions about infectious disease spillover and transmission in human populations need to address the social context that affects particular disease systems by identifying and measuring qualitatively important drivers.This article is part of the themed issue 'Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Exploring the Relations between Childhood Experiences in Nature and Young Adults' Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a research study with young adults who explored the connections between their early childhood experiences in nature and their attitudes and actions towards the environment in adulthood. Drawing on E. Wilson's (1984) work, environmental or ecological consciousness is theorised to connect to ecological identity…

  5. Estimating the prevalence of sensitive behaviour and cheating with a dual design for direct questioning and randomized response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Ardo; Böckenholt, Ulf; van der Heijden, Peter G M

    2010-08-01

    Randomized response is a misclassification design to estimate the prevalence of sensitive behaviour. Respondents who do not follow the instructions of the design are considered to be cheating. A mixture model is proposed to estimate the prevalence of sensitive behaviour and cheating in the case of a dual sampling scheme with direct questioning and randomized response. The mixing weight is the probability of cheating, where cheating is modelled separately for direct questioning and randomized response. For Bayesian inference, Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling is applied to sample parameter values from the posterior. The model makes it possible to analyse dual sample scheme data in a unified way and to assess cheating for direct questions as well as for randomized response questions. The research is illustrated with randomized response data concerning violations of regulations for social benefit.

  6. REP sequences: Mediators of the environmental stress response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenxing; Deutscher, Murray P

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic (REP) sequences are highly conserved, structured, 35- to 40-nt elements located at ∼500 positions around the Escherichia coli chromosome. They are found in intergenic regions and are transcribed together with their upstream genes. Although their stable stem-loop structures protect messages against exoribonuclease digestion, their primary function has remained unknown. Recently, we found that about half of all REP sequences have the potential to stall ribosomes immediately upstream of the termination codon, leading to endonucleolytic cleavage of the mRNA, and induction of the trans-translation process. As a consequence, the mRNA and almost completed protein are degraded, and protein production from the affected gene is down-regulated. The process is critically dependent on the location of the REP element, with an effect only if it is within 15 nt of the termination codon. Using nrdAB as a model, we found that its down-regulation is affected by RNA helicases. Elimination of 6 helicases lowered NrdA production further, whereas overexpression of any RNA helicase partially reversed the downregulation. UV stress completely reversed down-regulation of NrdA production. Analysis of genes containing a REP sequence within 15 nt of the termination codon revealed that most, if not all, are up-regulated by environmental stress, as are RNA helicases. Based on these findings, we propose that REP-dependent downregulation serves as a mechanism to allow a rapid response to environmental stresses whereby RNA helicases partially open the REP elements enabling ribosomes to complete translation immediately increasing protein production from the affected genes.

  7. Human-lamb bonding: oxytocin, cortisol and behavioural responses of lambs to human contacts and social separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Marjorie; Nowak, Raymond; Andanson, Stéphane; Ravel, Christine; Marnet, Pierre Guy; Boissy, Alain; Boivin, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    Friendly interactions between humans and animals such as gentling or petting have been shown to have positive behavioural and physiological consequences in many species. In primates, rodents and dogs, oxytocin has been associated with tactile contact and anti-stress effects that may influence bonding and responses to stress situations. However the activation of the oxytocinergic system in other human-animal interactions such as with herbivores, had not yet been studied. Sixteen female lambs were reared by artificial feeding reinforced with 3× 30 s daily stroking sessions. At 6 weeks of age, the test consisted in measuring first plasma oxytocin and cortisol responses in lambs during a first 6-min phase in the home pen where the familiar caregiver gently stroked the lamb, and then physiological and behavioural responses in a test pen during a 20-min - phase of social isolation followed by a 20-min - phase of reunion with its familiar caregiver. The lambs expressed behavioural agitation during the whole period of isolation. A strong affiliative response towards the human and a sustained reduction of the agitation behaviour were observed during reunion. Lambs' behaviours when isolated and when in contact with the human were correlated suggesting a response to social separation from the familiar caregiver more than to social isolation from congeners. No significant changes in cortisol levels were observed during the test. Oxytocin levels did not vary during human contact, but increased when the familiar caregiver left the lamb alone in the test pen. In conclusion, lambs displayed affiliative responses towards their caregiver, and the lack of cortisol response during isolation while oxytocin was released suggest an anti-stress effect of oxytocin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mesoscale barrier estuary behaviour in response to sea-level rise, storms and sediment supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Christine; Kirby, Jason; Plater, Andrew; Lane, Timothy

    2017-04-01

    Future vulnerability and resilience of coastal landscapes, and their associated communities, infrastructure and nature conservation interests, is of increasing concern due to the combined effects of climate change and sea-level rise. The Suffolk coast, UK, characterised by gravel barrier beaches and a spit feature of international geomorphological interest, has changed dramatically. However, existing Holocene research in this respect is limited. Sediments preserved within the enclosed valleys and back-barrier wetlands of Suffolk provide an opportunity to improve understanding of the complex mesoscale (years-decades-centuries) behaviour of coastlines and their geomorphological response to changes in natural forcing. This research aims to reconstruct Holocene changes in coastline behaviour to develop reconstructions of coastal evolution relating to changes in relative sea level, sediment supply and storm incidence. Litho- and bio-stratigraphic analysis (sedimentology, particle size, and diatom analysis) has been undertaken on three marsh and wetland sites in a 5 km section between Walberswick and Dunwich. Though intra-site sediment variability is high, a consistent pattern of interbedded intertidal and freshwater units separated by transitional marsh deposits is seen at all sites. Diatom analysis from two sites (Westwood Marsh and Oldtown Marsh) indicates increased marine and brackish conditions across the organic-minerogenic transitions. The diatom assemblage from Great Dingle Hill, a more seaward site, is dominated by brackish species, with an increase in marine conditions across the main organic-minerogenic stratigraphic transition. Freshwater and salt tolerant species are minimal in this assemblage, indicating a constant saltwater input. The onset of peat deposition has been dated to 6950-6790 cal. BP at the base of the Westwood Marsh sequence. These results contrast with existing research from the Blyth estuary (5 km north) where peat deposition was dated to

  9. Repeated chlorpromazine administration increases a behavioural response of rats to 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A R

    1977-01-01

    1 The hyperactivity syndrome produced in rats by administration of tranylcypromine (20 mg/kg i.p.) followed 30 min later by L-tryptophan (50 mg/kg i.p.) is generally considered to be due to increased 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) functional activity. It is inhibited by chlorpromazine (30 mg/kg i.p.) injected 60 min before the tranylcypromine. However, chlorpromazine injection for 4 days either at a dose of 30 mg/kg once daily or 5 mg/kg twice daily results in an enhanced hyperactivity response to tranylcypromine and L-tryptophan administration 24 h after the final dose of chlorpromazine. 2 One injection of chlorpromazine (30 mg/kg) did not produce enhancement 24 h later and the inhibition of the tranylcypromine/L-tryptophan hyperactivity observed after acute chlorpromazine injection was seen if the rats were given tranylcypromine and L-tryptophan 1 h after the fourth chlorpromazine (30 mg/kg) dose. 3 Chlorpromazine (30 mg/kg) once daily or 5 mg/kg twice daily for 4 days resulted in rats displaying enhanced behavioral responses to the suggested 5-HT agonist 5-methoxy N,N-dimethyltryptamine (2 mg/kg) on day 5. 4 Chlorpromazine (30 mg/kg) once daily for 4 days produces a slight increase in brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration on day 5, but no difference in the rate of brain 5-HT synthesis or the rate of 5-HT accumulation after tranylcypromine and L-tryptophan administration. 5. There is some evidence that chlorpromazine blocks 5-HT receptors. It has also been observed that several other neuroleptic drugs do not produce enhanced 5-HT responses after repeated administration. It is suggested therefore that the enhanced behavioural response to 5-HT receptor stimulation following repeated chlorpromazine administration may be because this drug blocks 5-HT receptors. PMID:264797

  10. Behavioural, endocrine and immune responses to repeated social stress in pregnant gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couret, D; Otten, W; Puppe, B; Prunier, A; Merlot, E

    2009-01-01

    Pregnant sows are exposed to various stressors in intensive pig husbandry that may have negative consequences on their health, reproductive performances and welfare. Social stress is one of these challenges, because gestating sows have to be housed in groups according to EU guidelines (2001/88/CE). The purpose of this study was to determine the consequences of repeated social stress in pregnant female pigs on their behavioural, endocrine and immunological responses and on pregnancy outcome. Pregnant gilts were submitted to a repeated social stress procedure induced by housing unfamiliar gilts in pairs changed twice a week between days 77 and 105 of gestation (S group, n = 18). Control gilts were housed in stable pairs during the same period (C group, n = 18). Agonistic behaviour was observed during the first 3 h after each grouping. Skin lesions were numbered 2 h after each grouping. Salivary cortisol was measured before and repeatedly during the 4 weeks of grouping. Gilts were immunized against keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) on days 81 and 95 of gestation. Immunoglobulins G against KLH, proliferative responses to concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide, pokeweed mitogen and KLH and peripheral blood leukocyte numbers were evaluated 1 week before the first grouping and 3 days after the last one. Agonistic interactions and skin lesions were observed in S gilts at each grouping, although there was a decline between the first and the last grouping (P gilts compared to C gilts. The cellular as well as the humoral immunity and the leukocyte numbers were not influenced by social stress. Gestation length tended to be shorter in S gilts (P = 0.09), but litter size, piglet weight or mortality at birth were not affected. Variability of the response of S gilts to groupings was partly explained by their average success value determined according to the outcome (defeat or win) of all the groupings. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the application of repeated social stress

  11. Allocating responsibility for environmental risks : A comparative analysis of examples from water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, N.

    The focus of the present study is on the allocation of responsibilities for addressing environmental risks in transboundary water governance. Effective environmental management in transboundary situations requires coordinated and cooperative action among diverse individuals and organizations.

  12. 77 FR 44238 - Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act, as Amended, Big River Mine Tailings Superfund Site, St. Francois County, MO...

  13. 77 FR 41800 - Notice of Proposed Partial Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... of Proposed Partial Consent Decree Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and.... Environmental Protection Agency (``EPA''), lodged a proposed Partial Consent Decree under the Comprehensive..., 20201 Normandie Avenue, Los Angeles, California (used for DDT manufacturing from 1947 to 1982), and...

  14. Group behavioural responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) to light, infrasound and sound stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Samantha; Oppedal, Frode; Korsøen, Øyvind J; Sonny, Damien; Dempster, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Understanding species-specific flight behaviours is essential in developing methods of guiding fish spatially, and requires knowledge on how groups of fish respond to aversive stimuli. By harnessing their natural behaviours, the use of physical manipulation or other potentially harmful procedures can be minimised. We examined the reactions of sea-caged groups of 50 salmon (1331 ± 364 g) to short-term exposure to visual or acoustic stimuli. In light experiments, fish were exposed to one of three intensities of blue LED light (high, medium and low) or no light (control). Sound experiments included exposure to infrasound (12 Hz), a surface disturbance event, the combination of infrasound and surface disturbance, or no stimuli. Groups that experienced light, infrasound, and the combination of infrasound and surface disturbance treatments, elicited a marked change in vertical distribution, where fish dived to the bottom of the sea-cage for the duration of the stimulus. Light treatments, but not sound, also reduced the total echo-signal strength (indicative of swim bladder volume) after exposure to light, compared to pre-stimulus levels. Groups in infrasound and combination treatments showed increased swimming activity during stimulus application, with swimming speeds tripled compared to that of controls. In all light and sound treatments, fish returned to their pre-stimulus swimming depths and speeds once exposure had ceased. This work establishes consistent, short-term avoidance responses to these stimuli, and provides a basis for methods to guide fish for aquaculture applications, or create avoidance barriers for conservation purposes. In doing so, we can achieve the manipulation of group position with minimal welfare impacts, to create more sustainable practices.

  15. Group behavioural responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. to light, infrasound and sound stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Bui

    Full Text Available Understanding species-specific flight behaviours is essential in developing methods of guiding fish spatially, and requires knowledge on how groups of fish respond to aversive stimuli. By harnessing their natural behaviours, the use of physical manipulation or other potentially harmful procedures can be minimised. We examined the reactions of sea-caged groups of 50 salmon (1331 ± 364 g to short-term exposure to visual or acoustic stimuli. In light experiments, fish were exposed to one of three intensities of blue LED light (high, medium and low or no light (control. Sound experiments included exposure to infrasound (12 Hz, a surface disturbance event, the combination of infrasound and surface disturbance, or no stimuli. Groups that experienced light, infrasound, and the combination of infrasound and surface disturbance treatments, elicited a marked change in vertical distribution, where fish dived to the bottom of the sea-cage for the duration of the stimulus. Light treatments, but not sound, also reduced the total echo-signal strength (indicative of swim bladder volume after exposure to light, compared to pre-stimulus levels. Groups in infrasound and combination treatments showed increased swimming activity during stimulus application, with swimming speeds tripled compared to that of controls. In all light and sound treatments, fish returned to their pre-stimulus swimming depths and speeds once exposure had ceased. This work establishes consistent, short-term avoidance responses to these stimuli, and provides a basis for methods to guide fish for aquaculture applications, or create avoidance barriers for conservation purposes. In doing so, we can achieve the manipulation of group position with minimal welfare impacts, to create more sustainable practices.

  16. Analysis of behaviour patterns and thermal responses to a hot-arid climate in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haiyan; Yang, Liu; Zheng, Wuxing; He, Wenfang; Li, Daoyi

    2016-07-01

    Climate can greatly affect building design, life style and thermal perception for all groups of people; however, this phenomenon has not yet been rigorously evaluated in China's hot-arid climate. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a thermal comfort survey by evaluating the influence of the hot-arid climate upon the behavioural patterns and thermal comfort responses of 160 residents in 65 traditional vernacular houses in Turfan, China, in 2011. In this survey, there were 206 sets of effective data, and the features of the traditional residential buildings and the human behaviour patterns in Turfan were described and analysed. The results showed that the diversified courtyards and shade spaces were the most obvious features of traditional houses in Turfan. People here typically spend most of their time in one of two spaces for eating, resting, and entertaining. It was found that the preferred temperature was 26.5°C. The preferred air velocity occurred at 0.62m/s. A suitable air velocity range of 0.15-1.24m/s was suggested in Turfan. Moreover, the neutral temperature of the local people was 30.1°C (tg or to). The upper limits of the 80% acceptable zone by using the direct and indirect acceptability method were 32.7 and 33.8°C, respectively. The neutral temperature and upper limit of the acceptable zone in Turfan were higher than those of the adaptive standards. Attention should be paid to the role of thermal comfort in influencing building design by using simple passive cooling strategies. The above results are believed to be potentially valuable for the design and evaluation of residential buildings located in hot-arid climate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Judgments about moral responsibility and determinism in patients with behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia: still compatibilists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, Florian; Bertoux, Maxime; Bourgeois-Gironde, Sacha; Dubois, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    Do laypeople think that moral responsibility is compatible with determinism? Recently, philosophers and psychologists trying to answer this question have found contradictory results: while some experiments reveal people to have compatibilist intuitions, others suggest that people could in fact be incompatibilist. To account for this contradictory answers, Nichols and Knobe (2007) have advanced a 'performance error model' according to which people are genuine incompatibilist that are sometimes biased to give compatibilist answers by emotional reactions. To test for this hypothesis, we investigated intuitions about determinism and moral responsibility in patients suffering from behavioural frontotemporal dementia. Patients suffering from bvFTD have impoverished emotional reaction. Thus, the 'performance error model' should predict that bvFTD patients will give less compatibilist answers. However, we found that bvFTD patients give answers quite similar to subjects in control group and were mostly compatibilist. Thus, we conclude that the 'performance error model' should be abandoned in favour of other available model that best fit our data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Children’s Food Environment : Studies on environmental determinants of primary school children’s dietary behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.C. van Ansem (Wilke)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Dietary behaviour is related to overweight and obesity, but also to several chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus type II. Some dietary behaviour may reduce the risk of obesity or chronic diseases (‘healthy’ dietary behaviour), while other dietary behaviour may

  19. Behavioural and electrophysiological responses of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) to human emanations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Hoppe, S.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Bakker, E.J.; Takken, W.

    2004-01-01

    Behavioural and electrophysiological responses of Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) to human skin emanations collected on glass beads were studied using a dual-port olfactometer and electroantannography. Glass beads to which skin emanations from human hands had been

  20. Human–dog interactions and behavioural responses of village dogs in coastal villages in Michoacán, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Ortolani, A.; Ortega-Pacheco, A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In Mexican villages, most households keep dogs that roam freely. Therefore, socialisation of village dogs occurs in a different context than that of companion dogs in developed countries. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess village dogs’ behavioural responses towards familiar and

  1. Genome-wide association study of response to cognitive–behavioural therapy in children with anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coleman, J.R.I.; Lester, K.J.; Keers, R.; Roberts, S.; Curtis, C.; Arendt, K.; Bögels, S.; Cooper, P.; Creswell, C.; Dalgleish, T.; Hartman, C.A.; Heiervang, E.R.; Hötzel, K.; Hudson, J.L.; In-Albon, T.; Lavallee, K.; Lyneham, H.J.; Marin, C.E.; Meiser-Stedman, R.; Morris, T.; Nauta, M.H.; Rapee, R.M.; Schneider, S.; Schneider, S.C.; Silverman, W.K.; Thastum, M.; Thirlwall, K.; Waite, P.; Wergeland, G.J.; Breen, G.; Eley, T.C.

    Background Anxiety disorders are common, and cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is a first-line treatment. Candidate gene studies have suggested a genetic basis to treatment response, but findings have been inconsistent. Aims To perform the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of

  2. Genome-wide association study of response to cognitive-behavioural therapy in children with anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coleman, Jonathan R I; Lester, Kathryn J; Keers, Robert; Roberts, Susanna; Curtis, Charles; Arendt, Kristian; Bögels, Susan; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Dalgleish, Tim; Hartman, Catharina A; Heiervang, Einar R; Hötzel, Katrin; Hudson, Jennifer L; In-Albon, Tina; Lavallee, Kristen; Lyneham, Heidi J; Marin, Carla E; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Morris, Talia; Nauta, Maaike H; Rapee, Ronald M; Schneider, Silvia; Schneider, Sophie C; Silverman, Wendy K; Thastum, Mikael; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Waite, Polly; Wergeland, Gro Janne; Breen, Gerome; Eley, Thalia C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are common, and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is a first-line treatment. Candidate gene studies have suggested a genetic basis to treatment response, but findings have been inconsistent. AIMS: To perform the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of

  3. Impact of Extended Education/Training in Positive Behaviour Support on Staff Knowledge, Causal Attributions and Emotional Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Peter; Bradshaw, Jill; Hughes, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study sought to gather information about the impact of extended training in positive behaviour support on staff knowledge, causal attributions and emotional responses. Methods: Students completed questionnaires at the beginning, middle and end of a University Diploma course to measure changes in their knowledge of challenging…

  4. Effect of gender on physiological and behavioural responses of Gammarus roeseli (Crustacea Amphipoda) to salinity and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sornom, Pascal, E-mail: pascal.sornom@umail.univ-metz.f [Universite de Metz, Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicologie Biodiversite Ecosystemes (LIEBE), CNRS UMR 7146, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Felten, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.felten@univ-metz.f [Universite de Metz, Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicologie Biodiversite Ecosystemes (LIEBE), CNRS UMR 7146, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Medoc, Vincent, E-mail: medoc@univ-metz.f [Universite de Bourgogne, Laboratoire de Biogeosciences, equipe Ecologie Evolutive, CNRS UMR 5561, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon (France); Sroda, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.sroda@umail.univ-metz.f [Universite de Metz, Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicologie Biodiversite Ecosystemes (LIEBE), CNRS UMR 7146, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Rousselle, Philippe, E-mail: rousselle@univ-metz.f [Universite de Metz, Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicologie Biodiversite Ecosystemes (LIEBE), CNRS UMR 7146, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France); Beisel, Jean-Nicolas, E-mail: beisel@sciences.univ-metz.f [Universite de Metz, Laboratoire Interactions Ecotoxicologie Biodiversite Ecosystemes (LIEBE), CNRS UMR 7146, Avenue du General Delestraint, 57070 Metz (France)

    2010-05-15

    The importance of potentially interacting factors in organisms responses to a stress are often ignored or underestimated in ecotoxicology. In laboratory experiments we investigated how gender, temperature and age influence the behaviour and the physiology of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli under salinity stress. Our results revealed a significant higher sensitivity of females in survival, ventilation and ionoregulation whereas no inter-age differences were reported. Water temperature also exerted a significant effect in survival and ventilation of G. roeseli. Some of those factors appeared to interact significantly. This study provides evidence that gender can affect organisms responses to a stressor and consequently has to be considered while assessing a stress impact. We discussed the potential relationships between biological and behavioural responses. - Influence of gender, age and temperature in a gammarid responses to a stress.

  5. Behavioural and developmental responses of predatory coral reef fish to variation in the abundance of prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukers-Stewart, B. D.; Beukers-Stewart, J. S.; Jones, G. P.

    2011-09-01

    Ecological theory suggests that the behaviour, growth and abundance of predators will be strongly influenced by the abundance of prey. Predators may in turn play an important role in structuring prey populations and communities. Responses of predators to variation in prey abundance have most commonly been demonstrated in low-diversity communities where food webs are relatively simple. How predators respond in highly diverse assemblages such as in coral reef habitats is largely unknown. This study describes an experiment that examined how the movement, diet and growth of the coral reef piscivore, Cephalopholis boenak (Serranidae) responded to variation in the abundance of its prey. Predator densities were standardised on small patch reefs made from the lagoonal reef-building coral, Porites cylindrica. These patch reefs exhibited natural variation in the abundance and community structure of multiple species of prey. However, our experiment generated a relatively simple predator-prey relationship, with C. boenak primarily responding to the most abundant species of prey. Three responses of predators were observed: aggregative, functional and developmental. Thirty-one per cent of individuals moved between patch reefs during the experiment, all from areas of relatively low to high prey density. Feeding rates were higher on patch reefs of high prey density, while growth rates of fish that remained on low prey density reefs throughout the experiment were lower. Growth rates of C. boenak on the experimental reefs were also much higher than for those living on natural patch reefs over the same time period, corresponding with overall differences in prey abundance. These results suggest that local abundance, feeding rate and growth of C. boenak were closely linked to the abundance of their main prey. This combination of predatory responses is a potential mechanism behind recent observations of density-dependent mortality and population regulation of prey in coral reef fish

  6. Changes in behavioural response of Mediterranean seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) under different feeding distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Campobello; Gianfranco Martino; Angelo Olivieri; Gianluca Sarà

    2010-01-01

    Captive-induced behavioural deviations may involve many aspects of fish behaviour such as swimming activity and enhancement of individual aggressiveness. We studied seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) behaviour as a function of manual and automatic feeding distribution modes. Under manual mode, the food is distributed over an extended area for a longer period, and its precise location is not always predictable, while with pneumatic automatic feeders, fish receive the same amount of resource, which...

  7. Biological availability and environmental behaviour of Rare Earth Elements in soils of Hesse, Central Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loell, M.; Duering, R.-A.; Felix-Henningsen, P.

    2009-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) comprise a group of 17 transition metals with very similar chemical and physical properties. They include the elements scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y) and lanthanum (La) and the 14 elements (cerium to lutetium) that follow La in the periodic table. Their average abundance in the earth's crust varies from 0,01 to 0,02% so they are as common as Cu and Pb. Beside their widespread use in industry, REEs are applied in Chinese agriculture. Their beneficial effects both on crop yield and on animal production are reported in various investigations. As a result - by using microelement fertilisers and manure - REEs enter the pedosphere while their fate and behaviour in the environment up to now remains unexamined. The first aim of our investigation was to evaluate the concentration of REEs in agricultural used soils in central Germany (Hesse) by ICP-MS. In addition to their total concentration (aqua regia digestion) their bioavailable contents - determined by EDTA (potentially available fraction) and ammonium nitrate extraction (mobile fraction) - were analysed. The occurrence of the three REE fractions in different soils will be discussed and influencing soil properties (e.g. pH-value, content of clay and organic carbon) will be revealed. Additionally the uptake of REEs by grassland plants was determined and resulting transfer factors will be presented.

  8. Population, behavioural and environmental drivers of malaria prevalence in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshefu Antoinette K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is highly endemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, but the limits and intensity of transmission within the country are unknown. It is important to discern these patterns as well as the drivers which may underlie them in order for effective prevention measures to be carried out. Methods By applying high-throughput PCR analyses on leftover dried blood spots from the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS for the DRC, prevalence estimates were generated and ecological drivers of malaria were explored using spatial statistical analyses and multilevel modelling. Results Of the 7,746 respondents, 2268 (29.3% were parasitaemic; prevalence ranged from 0-82% within geographically-defined survey clusters. Regional variation in these rates was mapped using the inverse-distance weighting spatial interpolation technique. Males were more likely to be parasitaemic than older people or females (p Conclusions This research demonstrates the feasibility of using population-based behavioural and molecular surveillance in conjunction with DHS data and geographic methods to study endemic infectious diseases. This study provides the most accurate population-based estimates to date of where illness from malaria occurs in the DRC and what factors contribute to the estimated spatial patterns. This study suggests that spatial information and analyses can enable the DRC government to focus its control efforts against malaria.

  9. Possible environmental chemical cues affecting behaviour of the mangrove gastropod Cerithidea decollata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Anna Marta

    2017-03-01

    The Indo-West Pacific mangrove gastropod Cerithidea decollata feeds on the ground at low tide and climbs the trees (Avicennia marina) two hours before the arrival of water, settling well above the level that the incoming tide will reach at high tide (from 0 to 80 cm, depending on the tidal phase). In addition, it has been shown that these snails climb twice as high when translocated to lower shore sites (dominated by Rhizophora mucronata), where C. decollata is missing and the high water can reach 1.6 m instead of about 80 cm as within the snail home environment. The study assesses the possible role of chemical cues in the afore-mentioned behaviours. The hypothesis that snails may foresee the periodical tide level variation thanks to airborne chemical cues, possibly released by trees or sediments, has been rejected. On the other hand, airborne chemical cues released by R. mucronata may play a role in inducing snails translocated to low shore sites to climb much higher than control, allowing them to avoid submersion.

  10. Do children do what they say? Responses to hypothetical and real-life social problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and behaviour problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M; Bijman, E R; Lamberix, I C W; Wijnroks, L; de Castro, B Orobio; Vermeer, A; Matthys, W

    2005-06-01

    Most research on children's social problem-solving skills is based on responses to hypothetical vignettes. Just how these responses relate to actual behaviour in real-life social situations is, however, unclear, particularly for children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). In the present study, the spontaneous and selected responses of 56 children with MID to hypothetical situations from the Social Problem-Solving Test for children with MID (SPT-MID) were compared to their actual behaviour in comparable staged standardized real-life conflict situations. Correlations to externalizing behaviour problems were assessed using the Teacher's Report Form (TRF). The results show children with MID and accompanying externalizing behaviour problems to behave more aggressively in the staged real-life conflicts and provide more spontaneous aggressive responses to the hypothetical vignettes than children with MID and no accompanying externalizing behaviour problems; they did not, however, select more aggressive responses from the hypothetical options provided. A moderate correlation was found between the aggressiveness of the spontaneous responses in the hypothetical situations and actual behaviour in the staged real-life situations. In addition, both the spontaneous aggressive responses under hypothetical circumstances and the actual aggressive behaviour under staged real-life circumstances were related to teacher-rated aggressive behaviour in the classroom. It is concluded that the hypothetical vignettes from the SPT-MID do provide information on both the actual behaviour and knowledge of social problem-solving skills of children with MID.

  11. Autonomic, endocrine and behavioural responses to thunder in laboratory and companion dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzini de Souza, Carla Caroline; Maccariello, Carolina Elisabetta Martins; Dias, Daniel Penteado Martins; Almeida, Norma Aparecida Dos Santos; Medeiros, Magda Alves de

    2017-02-01

    Dogs are highly sensitive to sound stimuli, especially fireworks, firearms, and thunder, and therefore these sounds are used as models of stress reactivity in dogs. Companion and laboratory dogs may respond differently to stressful stimuli, due to differences in management and their relationship with humans. Therefore, the reactivity of beagle dogs (laboratory) and companion dogs to an acute acoustic stress model was studied by analysing the heart rate variability (HRV; cardiac interval values), serum cortisol levels and various behavioural parameters. Eight beagles and six privately owned dogs with no history of phobia to thunder were used. The sound stimulus consisted of a standardized recording of thunder for 2.5min with a maximum intensity of 103-104dB. To evaluate the HRV, cardiac intervals were recorded using a frequency meter (Polar RS800CX model), and later the data were analysed using CardioSeries 2.4.1 software. In both laboratory and companion dogs, thunder promoted an increase in the power of the LF band of the cardiac interval spectrum, in the LF/HF ratio and in the HR, and a decrease in the power of the HF band of the cardiac interval spectrum. Companion dogs showed higher cortisol levels, than beagles, independently of the time point studied and a significant increase in the cortisol levels 15min after acoustic stress, while beagles did not show any alterations in their cortisol levels in response to the sound. On the other hand, beagles showed higher scores in the trembling, hiding, vigilance, running, salivation, bolting and startle parameters than companion dogs. Our results showed that independently of the sound stimulus, companion dogs had higher cortisol levels than laboratory dogs. Furthermore, the sound stimulus induced a marked autonomic imbalance towards sympathetic predominance in both laboratory and companion dogs. However a significant increase in the cortisol was observed only in companion dogs. On the other hand, in general the

  12. The effects of recreation experience, environmental attitude, and biospheric value on the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung Hung; Jan, Fen-Hauh

    2015-07-01

    The scientific understanding of the recreation experience and the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists is limited. This study examines the relationship among the recreation experience, environmental attitude, biospheric value, and the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists in Taomi, Liuqiu Island, and Aowanda and Najenshan in Taiwan. A total of 1342 usable questionnaires were collected for this study. The empirical results indicate that the recreation experience influences biospheric value and environmental attitude; subsequently, it then indirectly influences the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists. Our theoretical behavioral model elucidates previously proposed but unexamined behavioral models among nature-based tourists, and it offers a theoretical framework for researchers, decision makers, managers, and tourists in the field of nature-based tourism. We conclude that when an individual participates in nature-based tourism as described here, these recreation experiences strengthen their environmental attitude and biospheric value, and consequently increase their engagement in both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behaviors.

  13. Hippocampal EEG and behaviour in dog. III. Hippocampal EEG correlates of stimulus-response tasks and of sexual behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnolds, D.E.A.T.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Aitink, J.W.; Kamp, A.

    A dog was trained to perform a spatial sound discrimination. The hippocampal EEG correlates and the movement correlates of correct trials were compared with those of incorrect trials and of ‘pressings in between’. Correct and wrong responses on a place learning task were compared both with

  14. Is pre-breeding prospecting behaviour affected by snow cover in the irruptive snowy owl? A test using state-space modelling and environmental data annotated via Movebank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Jean-François; Pinaud, David; Gauthier, Gilles; Lecomte, Nicolas; Bildstein, Keith L; Bety, Joël

    2015-01-01

    Tracking individual animals using satellite telemetry has improved our understanding of animal movements considerably. Nonetheless, thorough statistical treatment of Argos datasets is often jeopardized by their coarse temporal resolution. State-space modelling can circumvent some of the inherent limitations of Argos datasets, such as the limited temporal resolution of locations and the lack of information pertaining to the behavioural state of the tracked individuals at each location. We coupled state-space modelling with environmental characterisation of modelled locations on a 3-year Argos dataset of 9 breeding snowy owls to assess whether searching behaviour for breeding sites was affected by snow cover and depth in an arctic predator that shows a lack of breeding site fidelity. The state-space modelling approach allowed the discrimination of two behavioural states (searching and moving) during pre-breeding movements. Tracked snowy owls constantly switched from moving to searching behaviour during pre-breeding movements from mid-March to early June. Searching events were more likely where snow cover and depth was low. This suggests that snowy owls adapt their searching effort to environmental conditions encountered along their path. This modelling technique increases our understanding of movement ecology and behavioural decisions of individual animals both locally and globally according to environmental variables.

  15. Behavioural response of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) exposed to pyretrhoids insecticides of frequently use in public health

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala-Sulca, Yuri O.; Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional de San Cristóbal de Huamanga. Ayacucho, Perú. Biólogo, entomólogo médico.; Ibarra-Juarez, Luis; Laboratorio de Entomología Médica, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. Monterrey, México. Médico veterinario zootécnista.; Grieco, John P.; Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. Bethesda, USA. Biólogo, entomólogo médico. Doctor en ciencias.; Achee, Nicole; Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. Bethesda, USA. Biólogo, entomólogo médico. Doctor en ciencias.; Mercado-Hernandez, Roberto; Laboratorio de Entomología Médica, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. Monterrey, México. Químico bacteriólogo parasitólogo, entomólogo médico. Doctor en ciencias.; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Laboratorio de Entomología Médica, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. Monterrey, México. Químico bacteriólogo parasitólogo, entomólogo médico. Doctor en ciencias.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the behavioural response of the F1 generation of Aedes aegyti (L) collected in the Metropolitan area of Monterrey (Nuevo Leon, Mexico) vs. three adulticides pyrethroids frequently used in public health. Materials and methods. We used a novel modular system called HITSS (High-Throughput Screening System) to evaluate two behavioral responses (contact irritation and spatial repellency), as well as the toxicity of three insecticides DDT, permeathrin and bifenthrin at dif...

  16. The interaction between environmental norms and behaviour: A panel study of organic food consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    This paper is based on the conviction that one can get a deeper understanding of the atti-tude-norm-behavior relationship in the environmental field by analyzing the dynamic in-teraction over time between relevant attitudinal variables and specific behaviors of interest. In this paper we present ...... the results of such an analysis, based on a panel survey with a random sample of about 2400 Danes interviewed up to three times in the period 1998 to 2000. The subject matter of the study is the purchase of organic food products....

  17. Reducing the Environmental Impact of Dietary Choice: Perspectives from a Behavioural and Social Change Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Joyce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is recognised as a significant public health issue that will impact on food security. One of the major contributors to global warming is the livestock industry, and, relative to plant-based agriculture, meat production has a much higher environmental impact in relation to freshwater use, amount of land required, and waste products generated. Promoting increased consumption of plant-based foods is a recommended strategy to reduce human impact on the environment and is also now recognised as a potential strategy to reduce the high rates of some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Currently there is a scant evidence base for policies and programs aiming to increase consumption of plant-based diets and little research on the necessary conditions for that change to occur and the processes involved in such a change. This paper reviews some of the environmental and health consequences of current dietary practices, reviews literature on the determinants of consuming a plant-based diet, and provides recommendations for further research in this area.

  18. Population, behavioural and environmental drivers of malaria prevalence in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Jane P; Taylor, Steve M; Meshnick, Steven R; Linke, Andrew M; Tshefu, Antoinette K; Atua, Benjamin; Mwandagalirwa, Kashamuka; Emch, Michael

    2011-06-09

    Malaria is highly endemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), but the limits and intensity of transmission within the country are unknown. It is important to discern these patterns as well as the drivers which may underlie them in order for effective prevention measures to be carried out. By applying high-throughput PCR analyses on leftover dried blood spots from the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) for the DRC, prevalence estimates were generated and ecological drivers of malaria were explored using spatial statistical analyses and multilevel modelling. Of the 7,746 respondents, 2268 (29.3%) were parasitaemic; prevalence ranged from 0-82% within geographically-defined survey clusters. Regional variation in these rates was mapped using the inverse-distance weighting spatial interpolation technique. Males were more likely to be parasitaemic than older people or females (p < 0.0001), while wealthier people were at a lower risk (p < 0.001). Increased community use of bed nets (p = 0.001) and community wealth (p < 0.05) were protective against malaria at the community level but not at the individual level. Paradoxically, the number of battle events since 1994 surrounding one's community was negatively associated with malaria risk (p < 0.0001). This research demonstrates the feasibility of using population-based behavioural and molecular surveillance in conjunction with DHS data and geographic methods to study endemic infectious diseases. This study provides the most accurate population-based estimates to date of where illness from malaria occurs in the DRC and what factors contribute to the estimated spatial patterns. This study suggests that spatial information and analyses can enable the DRC government to focus its control efforts against malaria.

  19. Pro-environmental behaviour in the workplace and the role of managers and organisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, Renate; Blok, Vincent; Ringersma, Jarno

    2017-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility is gaining significance in the business world. However, scholars haven't sufficiently examined the factors that influence the small, everyday sustainability behaviors that individual employees might choose to perform. This study had the aim to unravel factors that

  20. Differential effects of the computer-tailored FATaintPHAT programme on dietary behaviours according to sociodemographic, cognitive and home environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezendam, N.P.M.; Brug, J.; Borsboom, G.; van Empelen, P.; Oenema, A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore whether the effects on dietary behaviours of a computer-tailored intervention aimed to prevent excessive weight gain among adolescents, FATaintPHAT, were moderated by sociodemographic, cognitive and home environmental factors. Design A two-group cluster randomized

  1. Differential effects of the computer-tailored FATaintPHAT programme on dietary behaviours according to sociodemographic, cognitive and home environmental factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezendam, N.P.M.; Burg, J.; Borsboom, G.; Empelen, P.van; Oenema, A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore whether the effects on dietary behaviours of a computer-tailored intervention aimed to prevent excessive weight gain among adolescents, FATaintPHAT, were moderated by sociodemographic, cognitive and home environmental factors. DESIGN: A two-group cluster randomized trial.

  2. Female and Male Teachers' Pro-Environmental Behaviour, Conceptions and Attitudes Towards Nature and the Environment Do Not Differ: Ecofeminism Put to the Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Ewen, B.; Clément, P.; Gericke, N. M.; Nyberg, E.; Hagman, M.; Landström, J.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' pro-environmental behaviour, conceptions and attitudes towards nature and the environment were investigated using 47 questions from the BIOHEAD-Citizen questionnaire. The sample included 1,109 pre- and in-service teachers from Sweden and France. Analyses showed only few significant differences between female and male teachers. Forty-one…

  3. Exploring the Attitudes-Action Gap in Household Resource Consumption: Does “Environmental Lifestyle” Segmentation Align with Consumer Behaviour?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Meyer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumption is a transcending challenge for the 21st century that is stimulating research on multiple pathways required to deliver a more environmentally sustainable future. This paper is nested in what is a much larger field of research on sustainable consumption and reports on part of a major Australian Research Council study into the determinants of household resource consumption, based on a survey of 1,250 residents in Melbourne, Australia. Three environmental lifestyle segments are established that represent the spectrum of attitudes, opinions and intentions across the surveyed population: “committed” greens, “material” greens and “enviro-sceptics” (representing respectively 33.5%, 40.3% and 26.3% of the population. Each segment was found to display distinctive socio-demographic attributes, as well as urban geographies. However, few differences were found in relation to each segment’s actual consumption of energy, water, housing space, urban travel and domestic appliances. The research findings indicate that in these areas of urban resource consumption—all principal contributors to the ecological footprint of households—there are sets of factors at work that override attitudes, opinions and intentions as indicators of consumer behaviour. Some of these factors are information, organization and finance related and are the focus of much public policy. However, the persistence of well ingrained habits and practices among individuals and households and the lack of norms and values in western societies that explicitly promote environmental conservation among its population, are fundamentally involved in the attitude-action gap and constitute important avenues for future research and action.

  4. Behavioural and physiological responses of dogs entering re-homing kennels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiby, Elly F; Rooney, Nicola J; Bradshaw, John W S

    2006-10-30

    Behaviour and urinary cortisol/creatinine ratios (C/C) were monitored in twenty-six dogs, on days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 10 following their admission to a rehoming kennel. Half had been relinquished from homes, and half were either strays or returns to the shelter. Drinking and grooming increased with time, while panting and paw-lifting decreased, but only drinking was linked with C/C; dogs observed drinking on the first day had significantly lower C/C than dogs not observed drinking. Mean molar C/C (40 x 10(-6)+/-16 x 10(-6)) tended to decrease with time in the strays and returns, and to increase in dogs relinquished from homes, although C/C on the first day was highly variable and not distinguishable between these two groups. This implies that these populations differed in their long-term, but possibly not their short-term, responses to kennelling. Dogs with rising C/C were more active on average than those with falling C/C, but the opposite trend was detected when making comparisons within-dog. The relationship between C/C and exercise is therefore complex and warrants further investigation before C/C can be considered as a reliable indicator of welfare in this species.

  5. Attitudes, norms, identity and environmental behaviour: using an expanded theory of planned behaviour to predict participation in a kerbside recycling programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigbur, Dennis; Lyons, Evanthia; Uzzell, David

    2010-06-01

    In an effort to contribute to greater understanding of norms and identity in the theory of planned behaviour, an extended model was used to predict residential kerbside recycling, with self-identity, personal norms, neighbourhood identification, and injunctive and descriptive social norms as additional predictors. Data from a field study (N=527) using questionnaire measures of predictor variables and an observational measure of recycling behaviour supported the theory. Intentions predicted behaviour, while attitudes, perceived control, and the personal norm predicted intention to recycle. The interaction between neighbourhood identification and injunctive social norms in turn predicted personal norms. Self-identity and the descriptive social norm significantly added to the original theory in predicting intentions as well as behaviour directly. A replication survey on the self-reported recycling behaviours of a random residential sample (N=264) supported the model obtained previously. These findings offer a useful extension of the theory of planned behaviour and some practicable suggestions for pro-recycling interventions. It may be productive to appeal to self-identity by making people feel like recyclers, and to stimulate both injunctive and descriptive norms in the neighbourhood.

  6. Assessing the Impact of the National Cultural Framework on Responsible Corporate Behaviour towards Consumers: an Application of Geert Hofstede`s Cultural Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gănescu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to define and measure responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers in EU countries by defining an index of responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers and to establish the impact of Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions on the responsible behaviour of organisations towards consumers. The index uses a specific measurement methodology based on three major components of responsible corporate behaviour towards customers and on content analysis of the Eurostat databases, the RAPEX 2012 Annual Report, the 2012-2013 Global Competitiveness Report and the Global Reporting Initiative database. We used the multifactorial regression and the Wald significance test to demonstrate that organisations operating in countries characterised by low power distance, individualism, femininity, tolerance of unknown and long-term orientation pay more attention to responsible corporate behaviour towards customers. The study highlights theoretical considerations that support the influence of the national cultural framework on responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers. The methodology for calculating the index of responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers can become a basis of analysis of responsible corporate behaviour towards local consumers or other stakeholders.

  7. Behavioural responses under different feeding methods and light regimes of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almazán Rueda, P.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the behaviour of fish under culture conditions. Several factors may have a direct effect on fish behaviour and its variations during the day. This study assessed the effect of feeding method (continuous by self-feeders vs. twice a day hand-feeding), light intensity (15 vs. 150

  8. Infrared thermography detects febrile and behavioural responses to vaccination of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, N J; Chabot, B; Lui, T; Bench, C J; Schaefer, A L

    2015-02-01

    An automated, non-invasive system for monitoring of thermoregulation has the potential to mitigate swine diseases through earlier detection. Measurement of radiated temperature of groups of animals by infrared thermography (IRT) is an essential component of such a system. This study reports on the feasibility of monitoring the radiated temperature of groups of animals as a biomarker of immune response using vaccination as a model for febrile disease. In Study A, weaned pigs were either treated with an intramuscular vaccine (FarrowSure Gold), a sham injection of 0.9% saline or left as untreated controls. An infrared thermal camera (FLIR A320) was fixed to the ceiling directly above the pen of animals, and recorded infrared images of the treatment groups at 5 min intervals. The effect on temperature of the spatial distribution of pigs within the pen was significant, with higher temperatures recorded when pigs were grouped together into a single cluster. A higher frequency of clustering behaviour was observed in vaccinated animals compared with controls during a period of the afternoon ~4 to 7 h post-vaccination. The daily mean of the maximum image temperature was significantly higher in vaccinated animals compared with control and sham-treated animals. In the vaccination treated group, the 24 h mean of the maximum temperature was significantly higher during the post-vaccination period compared with the 24 h period before vaccination. Increased temperature in the vaccinated animals occurred from ~3 h, peaked at ~10 h, and remained elevated for up to 20 h post-vaccination. In Study B, the effect of prevalence was tested in terms of the difference in maximum temperature between control and vaccination days. A thermal response to vaccination was detected in a pen of 24 to 26 animals when animals were vaccinated. The results support the concept of radiated temperature measurements of groups of animals by IRT as a screening tool for febrile diseases in pig barns.

  9. Exposures to conditioned flavours with different hedonic values induce contrasted behavioural and brain responses in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Clouard

    Full Text Available This study investigated the behavioural and brain responses towards conditioned flavours with different hedonic values in juvenile pigs. Twelve 30-kg pigs were given four three-day conditioning sessions: they received three different flavoured meals paired with intraduodenal (i.d. infusions of 15% glucose (F(Glu, lithium chloride (F(LiCl, or saline (control treatment, F(NaCl. One and five weeks later, the animals were subjected to three two-choice feeding tests without reinforcement to check the acquisition of a conditioned flavour preference or aversion. In between, the anaesthetised pigs were subjected to three (18FDG PET brain imaging coupled with an olfactogustatory stimulation with the conditioned flavours. During conditioning, the pigs spent more time lying inactive, and investigated their environment less after the F(LiCl than the F(NaCl or F(Glu meals. During the two-choice tests performed one and five weeks later, the F(NaCl and F(Glu foods were significantly preferred over the F(LICl food even in the absence of i.d. infusions. Surprisingly, the F(NaCl food was also preferred over the F(Glu food during the first test only, suggesting that, while LiCl i.d. infusions led to a strong flavour aversion, glucose infusions failed to induce flavour preference. As for brain imaging results, exposure to aversive or less preferred flavours triggered global deactivation of the prefrontal cortex, specific activation of the posterior cingulate cortex, as well as asymmetric brain responses in the basal nuclei and the temporal gyrus. In conclusion, postingestive visceral stimuli can modulate the flavour/food hedonism and further feeding choices. Exposure to flavours with different hedonic values induced metabolism differences in neural circuits known to be involved in humans in the characterization of food palatability, feeding motivation, reward expectation, and more generally in the regulation of food intake.

  10. Response of captive seabass and seabream as behavioural indicator in aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pais

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Welfare of cultivate fish at high-density represents an important concern for modern aquaculture. The behaviour of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax and seabream (Sparus aurata reared in cages was studied in a fish farm of northern Sardinia (Italy in autumn 2006 to test whether captive condition had an effect on the movement patterns of these two species.Video images recorded before, during and after the manual feeding distribution allowed us to collect data on different behaviours of captive fish. Thus, behaviours indicating the position of fish in the water column, swimming direction and possible aggressive behaviours (aggression, direction change and collision showed juveniles and adults of seabass and seabream were overall affected by feeding rhythms and captive overcrowding. Seabream had a major tendency to swim towards the bottom and higher frequency of horizontal swimming and collisions than seabass. The overall behavioural difference between two species was explained in terms of their differences in ecological features in the wild.

  11. Exploring links between genotypes, phenotypes, and clinical predictors of response to early intensive behavioural intervention in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsamma eEapen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is amongst the most familial of psychiatric disorders. Twin and family studies have demonstrated a monozygotic concordance rate of 70–90%, dizygotic concordance of around 10% and more than a 20-fold increase in risk for first-degree relatives. Despite major advances in the genetics of autism, the relationship between different aspects of the behavioural and cognitive phenotype and their underlying genetic liability is still unclear. This is complicated by the heterogeneity of autism, which exists at both genetic and phenotypic levels. Given this heterogeneity, one method to find homogeneous entities and link these with specific genotypes would be to pursue endophenotypes. Evidence from neuroimaging, eye tracking and electrophysiology studies supports the hypothesis that, building on genetic vulnerability, ASD emerges from a developmental cascade in which a deficit in attention to social stimuli leads to impaired interactions with primary caregivers. This results in abnormal development of the neurocircuitry responsible for social cognition, which in turn adversely affects later behavioural and functional domains dependent on these early processes, such as language development. Such a model begets a heterogeneous clinical phenotype, and is also supported by studies demonstrating better clinical outcomes with earlier treatment. Treatment response following intensive early behavioural intervention in ASD is also distinctly variable; however, relatively little is known about specific elements of the clinical phenotype that may predict response to current behavioural treatments. This paper overviews the literature regarding genotypes, phenotypes and predictors of response to behavioural intervention in ASD and presents suggestions for future research to explore linkages between these that would enable better identification of, and increased treatment efficacy for, ASD.

  12. Population, behavioural and physiological responses of an urban population of black swans to an intense annual noise event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Catherine J; Jessop, Tim S; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Johnstone, Michele; Feore, Megan; Mulder, Raoul A

    2012-01-01

    Wild animals in urban environments are exposed to a broad range of human activities that have the potential to disturb their life history and behaviour. Wildlife responses to disturbance can range from emigration to modified behaviour, or elevated stress, but these responses are rarely evaluated in concert. We simultaneously examined population, behavioural and hormonal responses of an urban population of black swans Cygnus atratus before, during and after an annual disturbance event involving large crowds and intense noise, the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. Black swan population numbers were lowest one week before the event and rose gradually over the course of the study, peaking after the event, suggesting that the disturbance does not trigger mass emigration. We also found no difference in the proportion of time spent on key behaviours such as locomotion, foraging, resting or self-maintenance over the course of the study. However, basal and capture stress-induced corticosterone levels showed significant variation, consistent with a modest physiological response. Basal plasma corticosterone levels were highest before the event and decreased over the course of the study. Capture-induced stress levels peaked during the Grand Prix and then also declined over the remainder of the study. Our results suggest that even intensely noisy and apparently disruptive events may have relatively low measurable short-term impact on population numbers, behaviour or physiology in urban populations with apparently high tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. Nevertheless, the potential long-term impact of such disturbance on reproductive success, individual fitness and population health will need to be carefully evaluated.

  13. Population, behavioural and physiological responses of an urban population of black swans to an intense annual noise event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J Payne

    Full Text Available Wild animals in urban environments are exposed to a broad range of human activities that have the potential to disturb their life history and behaviour. Wildlife responses to disturbance can range from emigration to modified behaviour, or elevated stress, but these responses are rarely evaluated in concert. We simultaneously examined population, behavioural and hormonal responses of an urban population of black swans Cygnus atratus before, during and after an annual disturbance event involving large crowds and intense noise, the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. Black swan population numbers were lowest one week before the event and rose gradually over the course of the study, peaking after the event, suggesting that the disturbance does not trigger mass emigration. We also found no difference in the proportion of time spent on key behaviours such as locomotion, foraging, resting or self-maintenance over the course of the study. However, basal and capture stress-induced corticosterone levels showed significant variation, consistent with a modest physiological response. Basal plasma corticosterone levels were highest before the event and decreased over the course of the study. Capture-induced stress levels peaked during the Grand Prix and then also declined over the remainder of the study. Our results suggest that even intensely noisy and apparently disruptive events may have relatively low measurable short-term impact on population numbers, behaviour or physiology in urban populations with apparently high tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. Nevertheless, the potential long-term impact of such disturbance on reproductive success, individual fitness and population health will need to be carefully evaluated.

  14. Behavioural and hormonal responses of male rhesus monkeys introduced to females in the breeding and non-breeding seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, I S; Rose, R M; Gordon, T P

    1977-08-01

    Six adult male rhesus monkeys were introduced individually to an all-female group for 10 days during the mating season. The initial aggressive responses of the females were rapidly replaced by positive social behaviour, and each male achieved alpha status and had access to social and sexual partners. A repetition of this paradigm in the non-breeding season produced significantly more female aggression, and no male attained high rank or engaged in sexual or other social behaviour. Male testosterone levels rose following introduction to the females in both seasons, but were significantly higher during the breeding season. Hormonal levels following removal from the females suggest a complex interplay between social, sexual and seasonal variables and recent social experiences. The differences in female social behaviour with newly introduced males, as a function of season, suggest an explanation for the seasonal limitation of male troop transfers.

  15. Plant behaviour under combined stress: tomato responses to combined salinity and pathogen stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuling; Kissoudis, Christos; Yan, Zhe; Visser, Richard G F; van der Linden, Gerard

    2017-12-13

    Crop plants are subjected to a variety of stresses during their lifecycle, including abiotic stress factors such as salinity and biotic stress factors such as pathogens. Plants have developed a multitude of defense and adaption responses to these stress factors. In the field, different stress factors mostly occur concurrently resulting in a new state of stress, the combined stress. There is evidence that plant resistance to pathogens can be attenuated or enhanced by abiotic stress factors. With stress tolerance research being mostly focused on plant responses to individual stresses, the understanding of a plants' ability to adapt to combined stresses is limited. In the last few years, we studied powdery mildew resistance under salt stress conditions in the model crop plant tomato with the aim to understand the requirements to achieve plant resilience to a wider array of combined abiotic and biotic stress combinations. We uncovered specific responses of tomato plants to combined salinity-pathogen stress, which varied with salinity intensity and plant resistance genes. Moreover, hormones, with their complex regulation and cross-talk, were shown to play a key role in the adaption of tomato plants to the combined stress. In this review, we attempt to understand the complexity of plant responses to abiotic and biotic stress combinations, with a focus on tomato responses (genetic control and cross talk of signaling pathways) to combined salinity and pathogen stresses. Further, we provide recommendations on how to design novel strategies for breeding crops with a sustained performance under diverse environmental conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of EMLA cream for preventing pain during tattooing of rabbits: changes in physiological, behavioural and facial expression responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C J Keating

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ear tattooing is a routine procedure performed on laboratory, commercial and companion rabbits for the purpose of identification. Although this procedure is potentially painful, it is usually performed without the provision of analgesia, so compromising animal welfare. Furthermore, current means to assess pain in rabbits are poor and more reliable methods are required. The objectives of this study were to assess the physiological and behavioural effects of ear tattooing on rabbits, evaluate the analgesic efficacy of topical local anaesthetic cream application prior to this procedure, and to develop a scale to assess pain in rabbits based on changes in facial expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a crossover study, eight New Zealand White rabbits each underwent four different treatments of actual or sham ear tattooing, with and without prior application of a topical local anaesthetic (lidocaine/prilocaine. Changes in immediate behaviour, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, serum corticosterone concentrations, facial expression and home pen behaviours were assessed. Changes in facial expression were examined to develop the Rabbit Grimace Scale in order to assess acute pain. Tattooing without EMLA cream resulted in significantly greater struggling behaviour and vocalisation, greater facial expression scores of pain, higher peak heart rate, as well as higher systolic and mean arterial blood pressure compared to all other treatments. Physiological and behavioural changes following tattooing with EMLA cream were similar to those in animals receiving sham tattoos with or without EMLA cream. Behavioural changes 1 hour post-treatment were minimal with no pain behaviours identifiable in any group. Serum corticosterone responses did not differ between sham and tattoo treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Ear tattooing causes transient and potentially severe pain in rabbits, which is almost completely prevented by prior application of local

  17. Evaluation of EMLA Cream for Preventing Pain during Tattooing of Rabbits: Changes in Physiological, Behavioural and Facial Expression Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Stephanie C. J.; Thomas, Aurelie A.; Flecknell, Paul A.; Leach, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ear tattooing is a routine procedure performed on laboratory, commercial and companion rabbits for the purpose of identification. Although this procedure is potentially painful, it is usually performed without the provision of analgesia, so compromising animal welfare. Furthermore, current means to assess pain in rabbits are poor and more reliable methods are required. The objectives of this study were to assess the physiological and behavioural effects of ear tattooing on rabbits, evaluate the analgesic efficacy of topical local anaesthetic cream application prior to this procedure, and to develop a scale to assess pain in rabbits based on changes in facial expression. Methodology/Principal Findings In a crossover study, eight New Zealand White rabbits each underwent four different treatments of actual or sham ear tattooing, with and without prior application of a topical local anaesthetic (lidocaine/prilocaine). Changes in immediate behaviour, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, serum corticosterone concentrations, facial expression and home pen behaviours were assessed. Changes in facial expression were examined to develop the Rabbit Grimace Scale in order to assess acute pain. Tattooing without EMLA cream resulted in significantly greater struggling behaviour and vocalisation, greater facial expression scores of pain, higher peak heart rate, as well as higher systolic and mean arterial blood pressure compared to all other treatments. Physiological and behavioural changes following tattooing with EMLA cream were similar to those in animals receiving sham tattoos with or without EMLA cream. Behavioural changes 1 hour post-treatment were minimal with no pain behaviours identifiable in any group. Serum corticosterone responses did not differ between sham and tattoo treatments. Conclusions Ear tattooing causes transient and potentially severe pain in rabbits, which is almost completely prevented by prior application of local anaesthetic cream. The Rabbit

  18. Environmental psychology: Human responses and relationships to natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present a thorough assessment of environmental psychology as a way to understand relationships between people and natural landscapes, and to describe how this knowledge can be applied to natural resource management. Environmental psychology seeks to clarify how individuals perceive, experience and create meaning in the environment. In...

  19. Environmentally safe health care agencies: nursing's responsibility, Nightingale's Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner-McRae, Hollie; McRae, Glenn; Jas, Victoria

    2007-05-31

    Florence Nightingale and subsequent nurse scholars have written about the impact of the environment on human health. Nightingale described, and staked out, the nurse's role in optimizing environments for healing. Since Nightingale's time numerous scholars have documented that environmental conditions play a major role in the health of individuals and populations. As nurses become more informed about the environment as a determinant of human health, they will be able to advocate more effectively for environmental conditions that promote health. This article provides both theoretical and practical perspectives to integrate environmental concerns into nursing practice. It recommends specific actions nurses can undertake to improve the environment within the health care setting. In particular the article provides a historical review of an environmental focus in nursing, discusses ways to manage both upstream waste and downstream waste (solid, biohazard, and hazardous chemical wastes) so as to decrease environmental pollution, and recommends specific nursing actions to promote a healthy environment within our health care agencies.

  20. Effects of Sublethal Cadmium Exposure on Antipredator Behavioural and Antitoxic Responses in the Invasive Amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornom, Pascal; Gismondi, Eric; Vellinger, Céline; Devin, Simon; Férard, Jean-François; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Amphipods are recognised as an important component of freshwater ecosystems and are frequently used as an ecotoxicological test species. Despite this double interest, there is still a lack of information concerning toxic impacts on ecologically relevant behaviours. The present study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd), a non-essential heavy metal, on both antipredator behaviours and antitoxic responses in the invasive amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus under laboratory conditions. Amphipod behaviour (i.e. refuge use, aggregation with conspecifics, exploration and mobility) was recorded following a 4-min test-exposure to 500 µg Cd/L with or without a 24-h Cd pre-exposure and in the presence or absence of a high perceived risk of predation (i.e. water scented by fish predators and injured conspecifics). Following behavioural tests, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, a biomarker for toxic effect, and energy reserves (i.e. lipid and glycogen contents) were assessed. Cd exposures induced (1) cell damage reflected by high MDA levels, (2) erratic behaviour quantified by decreasing refuge use and exploration, and increasing mobility, and (3) a depletion in energy reserves. No significant differences were observed between 4-min test-exposed and 24-h pre-exposed individuals. Gammarids exposed to Cd had a disturbed perception of the alarm stimuli, reflected by increased time spent outside of refuges and higher mobility compared to gammarids exposed to unpolluted water. Our results suggest that Cd exposure rapidly disrupts the normal behavioural responses of gammarids to alarm substances and alters predator-avoidance strategies, which could have potential impacts on aquatic communities. PMID:22879985

  1. Effects of sublethal cadmium exposure on antipredator behavioural and antitoxic responses in the invasive amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Sornom

    Full Text Available Amphipods are recognised as an important component of freshwater ecosystems and are frequently used as an ecotoxicological test species. Despite this double interest, there is still a lack of information concerning toxic impacts on ecologically relevant behaviours. The present study investigated the influence of cadmium (Cd, a non-essential heavy metal, on both antipredator behaviours and antitoxic responses in the invasive amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus under laboratory conditions. Amphipod behaviour (i.e. refuge use, aggregation with conspecifics, exploration and mobility was recorded following a 4-min test-exposure to 500 µg Cd/L with or without a 24-h Cd pre-exposure and in the presence or absence of a high perceived risk of predation (i.e. water scented by fish predators and injured conspecifics. Following behavioural tests, malondialdehyde (MDA levels, a biomarker for toxic effect, and energy reserves (i.e. lipid and glycogen contents were assessed. Cd exposures induced (1 cell damage reflected by high MDA levels, (2 erratic behaviour quantified by decreasing refuge use and exploration, and increasing mobility, and (3 a depletion in energy reserves. No significant differences were observed between 4-min test-exposed and 24-h pre-exposed individuals. Gammarids exposed to Cd had a disturbed perception of the alarm stimuli, reflected by increased time spent outside of refuges and higher mobility compared to gammarids exposed to unpolluted water. Our results suggest that Cd exposure rapidly disrupts the normal behavioural responses of gammarids to alarm substances and alters predator-avoidance strategies, which could have potential impacts on aquatic communities.

  2. Examining the Conflict and Interconnectedness of Young People's Ideas about Environmental Issues, Responsibility and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Leigh; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Young people's environmental views are typically conflicted, with little recognition of the links between environmental issues or between environmental responsibility and action. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether young people's understanding of the environment is in conflict or whether they are forming interconnections…

  3. 77 FR 46091 - Notice of Proposed Administrative Settlement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-18870] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9710-5] Notice of Proposed Administrative Settlement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, As Amended; Anaconda Copper Mine Site AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice, request for public...

  4. College and University Students' Breakfast Consumption Patterns: Behaviours, Beliefs, Motivations and Personal and Environmental Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Gwen E.; Melton, Christina L.; Hammond, Gail K.

    1998-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to identify the beliefs, motivations and personal and environmental influences shaping breakfast consumption patterns of a group of college and university students. Twenty-eight women and 28 men participated in individual interviews where they discussed their usual breakfast habits and their beliefs about this meal. Most of the participants always or usually ate breakfast. Weekday breakfasts were consistent, convenient and included a small number of foods, while weekend breakfasts were more varied and sometimes included richer foods that required more preparation time. Breakfast was believed to be an important meal, providing energy and increasing productivity during the morning. The marked similarities in participants' beliefs and practices demonstrated the strong definition that breakfast has within mass North American culture. However, there were variations between individuals, with specific practices being influenced by personal food preferences, time availability, health beliefs and concerns, food availability, and the physical and social environment. Nutrition intervention programs encouraging regular consumption of a healthy breakfast should recognize the factors that relate to commonalities and differences in students' breakfast eating habits and help participants identify strategies that would work for their particular situation.

  5. The chlorination behaviour and environmental fate of the antiretroviral drug nevirapine in South African surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Timothy Paul; Basson, Adriaan Erasmus; Duvenage, Cornelia; Rohwer, Egmont Richard

    2016-11-01

    The wastewater treatment process, besides discharging pharmaceuticals into the environment, has been found to result in the formation of a variety of undescribed compounds. Here we investigate the laboratory scale chlorination of the commonly used anti-HIV drug Nevirapine, characterise its disinfection transformation products (DTPs), and using liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry, screen environmental surface water for these DTPs. Chlorination of Nevirapine was scaled up, fractioned by preparative chromatography and the fractions were tested in vitro for toxicity and anti-HIV activity. Nevirapine was found to be resistant to degradation at relevant chlorination levels, which may partially explain its ubiquitous presence in South African surface water. During simulated chlorination, a variety of DTPs with varying properties were formed, some of which were detected in the environment, close to wastewater treatment plants. Interestingly, some of these compounds, although not as toxic as Nevirapine, retained antiviral activity. Further purification and synthesis is required to fully characterise these novel molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. CISM course on mechanical behaviour of soils under environmentally induced cyclic loads

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, David; Mechanical Behaviour of Soils Under Environmentally Induced Cyclic Loads

    2012-01-01

    The book gives a comprehensive description of the mechanical response of soils (granular and cohesive materials) under cyclic loading. It provides the geotechnical engineer with the theoretical and analytical tools necessary for the evaluation of settlements developng with time under cyclic, einvironmentally idncued loads (such as wave motion, wind actions, water table level variation) and their consequences for the serviceability and durability of structures such as the shallow or deep foundations used in offshore engineering, caisson beakwaters, ballast and airport pavements and also to interpret monitoring data, obtained from both natural and artificial slopes and earth embankments, for the purposes of risk assessment and mitigation.

  7. Changes in behavioural response of Mediterranean seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. under different feeding distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Campobello

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Captive-induced behavioural deviations may involve many aspects of fish behaviour such as swimming activity and enhancement of individual aggressiveness. We studied seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax behaviour as a function of manual and automatic feeding distribution modes. Under manual mode, the food is distributed over an extended area for a longer period, and its precise location is not always predictable, while with pneumatic automatic feeders, fish receive the same amount of resource, which is concentrated in the same surface area over a shorter period. We compared seabass behaviour under automatic and manual conditions collecting video image recordings before, during, and after feeding distribution, in the morning and in afternoon, on two different days, and analysing data within independent sessions of measurements. Feeding modes significantly affected swimming behaviour: automaticallyfed fish were characterised by vertical movements through the water column (towards the surface and bottom and by horizontal swimming. Manually-fed fish were instead characterised by sharp direction changes during their swimming, mostly towards the surface. Feeding distribution induced changes in collision frequency and elicited aggressive behaviour. In particular, agonistic behaviour (i.e. a fish attacks another fish was almost exclusively recorded during the feeding under automatic distribution, whereas it was constantly expressed during all the distribution phases under manual mode.

  8. Certification of Environmental Corporate Social Responsibility Activities in Differentiated Duopoly Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuwei Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, by environmental Nongovernmental Organizations certification we research corporate social responsibility in the impacts of competition structures on corporate incentives. The research explained that, to induce firms to adopt certified environmental corporate social responsibility, the certifier will set a standard lower than the optimal one. The environmental certification corporate social standard is equal to that in Cournot competition and Bertrand competition, but Bertrand competition structure will make the firm get more benefits than Cournot competition. In addition, the research also shows that firms and consumers all will get benefit from environmental corporate social responsibility.

  9. Zooplankton Responses In A Tropical System With Environmental Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Javier Aranguren Riaño

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Processes of environmental transformation that currently occur in the climatic change context generate changes in ecosystems and biological communities. ¿How populations respond to these stressors? ¿what effects could occur on taxonomic and ecological diversity? The taxonomic composition and structure of the zooplankton was analyzed with relationship to environmental changes in a tropical water reservoir located at 6º02`18``N and 73º29`16`` W. During four months, samples were taken weekly covering stations of low, medium, and high precipitation. A high degree of temporal variability was established, it associated with a short hydraulic retention time estimated at 8 days.  Nine species were collected, of which Keratella tropica tropica and Thermocyclops decipiens were the two most abundant and constant species. Found values of H’ diversity and S richness were considered low, corresponding to a little mature community associated with a fluctuating physical environment and supported by high variation coefficients of electrical conductivity and Sechhi disk transparency. Drastic variations on the system volume in short time lapses generate important changes in the physical expression of system with a direct effect on composition and structure of the zooplankton. In general, the response model of the zooplankton in the reservoir according to the statement by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis.  RESPUESTAS DEL ZOOPLANCTON EN UN SISTEMA TROPICAL CON ALTA TENSIÓN AMBIENTAL Los procesos de transformación ambiental que se dan en la actualidad, en un marco de cambio climático, generan modificaciones en los ecosistemas y comunidades biológicas, ¿Cómo responden las poblaciones a estos factores de tensión? ¿Qué efectos se darían sobre la diversidad taxonómica y ecológica? Se analizó la variación de la composición taxonómica y estructura del zooplancton en función de los cambios ambientales en un reservorio tropical ubicado a 6º

  10. Whole tree xylem sap flow responses to multiple environmental variables in a wet tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.J. O' Brien; S.F. Oberbauer; D.B. Clark

    2004-01-01

    In order to quantify and characterize the variance in rain-forest tree physiology, whole tree sap flow responses to local environmental conditions were investigated in 10 species of trees with diverse traits at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. A simple model was developed to predict tree sap flow responses to a synthetic environmental variable generated by a...

  11. The Dynamic Family Home: a qualitative exploration of physical environmental influences on children's sedentary behaviour and physical activity within the home space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Clover; Stratton, Gareth; Foster, Sarah; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2014-12-24

    Recent changes in home physical environments, such as decreasing outdoor space and increasing electronic media, may negatively affect health by facilitating sedentariness and reducing physical activity. As children spend much of their time at home they are particularly vulnerable. This study qualitatively explored family perceptions of physical environmental influences on sedentary behaviour and physical activity within the home space. Home based interviews were conducted with 28 families with children aged 9-13 years (total n = 74 individuals), living in Perth, Australia. Families were stratified by socioeconomic status and selected to provide variation in housing. Qualitative methods included a family interview, observation and home tour where families guided the researcher through their home, enabling discussion while in the physical home space. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Emergent themes related to children's sedentariness and physical activity included overall size, space and design of the home; allocation of home space; equipment within the home space; perceived safety of the home space; and the changing nature of the home space. Families reported that children's activity options were limited when houses and yards were small. In larger homes, multiple indoor living rooms usually housed additional sedentary entertainment options, although parents reported that open plan home layouts could facilitate monitoring of children's electronic media use. Most families reported changing the allocation and contents of their home space in response to changing priorities and circumstances. The physical home environment can enhance or limit opportunities for children's sedentary behaviour and physical activity. However, the home space is a dynamic ecological setting that is amenable to change and is largely shaped by the family living within it, thus differentiating it from other settings. While size and space were considered

  12. Neural responses to smoking stimuli are influenced by smokers' attitudes towards their own smoking behaviour.

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    Bastian Stippekohl

    Full Text Available An important feature of addiction is the high drug craving that may promote the continuation of consumption. Environmental stimuli classically conditioned to drug-intake have a strong motivational power for addicts and can elicit craving. However, addicts differ in the attitudes towards their own consumption behavior: some are content with drug taking (consonant users whereas others are discontent (dissonant users. Such differences may be important for clinical practice because the experience of dissonance might enhance the likelihood to consider treatment. This fMRI study investigated in smokers whether these different attitudes influence subjective and neural responses to smoking stimuli. Based on self-characterization, smokers were divided into consonant and dissonant smokers. These two groups were presented smoking stimuli and neutral stimuli. Former studies have suggested differences in the impact of smoking stimuli depending on the temporal stage of the smoking ritual they are associated with. Therefore, we used stimuli associated with the beginning (BEGIN-smoking-stimuli and stimuli associated with the terminal stage (END-smoking-stimuli of the smoking ritual as distinct stimulus categories. Stimulus ratings did not differ between both groups. Brain data showed that BEGIN-smoking-stimuli led to enhanced mesolimbic responses (amygdala, hippocampus, insula in dissonant compared to consonant smokers. In response to END-smoking-stimuli, dissonant smokers showed reduced mesocortical responses (orbitofrontal cortex, subcallosal cortex compared to consonant smokers. These results suggest that smoking stimuli with a high incentive value (BEGIN-smoking-stimuli are more appetitive for dissonant than consonant smokers at least on the neural level. To the contrary, smoking stimuli with low incentive value (END-smoking-stimuli seem to be less appetitive for dissonant smokers than consonant smokers. These differences might be one reason why dissonant

  13. Behavioural and physiological responses of Gammarus pulex exposed to cadmium and arsenate at three temperatures: individual and combined effects.

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    Céline Vellinger

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating both the individual and combined effects of cadmium (Cd and arsenate (AsV on the physiology and behaviour of the Crustacean Gammarus pulex at three temperatures (5, 10 and 15 °C. G. pulex was exposed during 96 h to (i two [Cd] alone, (ii two [AsV] alone, and (iii four combinations of [Cd] and [AsV] to obtain a complete factorial plane. After exposure, survival, [AsV] or [Cd] in body tissues, behavioural (ventilatory and locomotor activities and physiological responses (iono-regulation of [Na(+] and [Cl(-] in haemolymph were examined. The interactive effects (antagonistic, additive or synergistic of binary mixtures were evaluated for each tested temperature using a predictive model for the theoretically expected interactive effect of chemicals. In single metal exposure, both the internal metal concentration in body tissues and the mortality rate increased along metallic gradient concentration. Cd alone significantly impaired both [Na(+] and [Cl(-] while AsV alone had a weak impact only on [Cl(-]. The behavioural responses of G. pulex declined with increasing metal concentration suggesting a reallocation of energy from behavioural responses to maintenance functions. The interaction between AsV and Cd was considered as 'additive' for all the tested binary mixtures and temperatures (except for the lowest combination at 10 °C considered as "antagonistic". In binary mixtures, the decrease in both ventilatory and locomotor activities and the decline in haemolymphatic [Cl(-] were amplified when respectively compared to those observed with the same concentrations of AsV or Cd alone. However, the presence of AsV decreased the haemolymphatic [Na(+] loss when G. pulex was exposed to the lowest Cd concentration. Finally, the observed physiological and behavioural effects (except ventilation in G. pulex exposed to AsV and/or Cd were exacerbated under the highest temperature. The discussion encompasses both the toxicity

  14. Behavioural and Physiological Responses of Gammarus pulex Exposed to Cadmium and Arsenate at Three Temperatures: Individual and Combined Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellinger, Céline; Felten, Vincent; Sornom, Pascal; Rousselle, Philippe; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating both the individual and combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and arsenate (AsV) on the physiology and behaviour of the Crustacean Gammarus pulex at three temperatures (5, 10 and15°C). G. pulex was exposed during 96 h to (i) two [Cd] alone, (ii) two [AsV] alone, and (iii) four combinations of [Cd] and [AsV] to obtain a complete factorial plane. After exposure, survival, [AsV] or [Cd] in body tissues, behavioural (ventilatory and locomotor activities) and physiological responses (iono-regulation of [Na+] and [Cl−] in haemolymph) were examined. The interactive effects (antagonistic, additive or synergistic) of binary mixtures were evaluated for each tested temperature using a predictive model for the theoretically expected interactive effect of chemicals. In single metal exposure, both the internal metal concentration in body tissues and the mortality rate increased along metallic gradient concentration. Cd alone significantly impaired both [Na+] and [Cl−] while AsV alone had a weak impact only on [Cl−]. The behavioural responses of G. pulex declined with increasing metal concentration suggesting a reallocation of energy from behavioural responses to maintenance functions. The interaction between AsV and Cd was considered as ‘additive’ for all the tested binary mixtures and temperatures (except for the lowest combination at 10°C considered as “antagonistic”). In binary mixtures, the decrease in both ventilatory and locomotor activities and the decline in haemolymphatic [Cl−] were amplified when respectively compared to those observed with the same concentrations of AsV or Cd alone. However, the presence of AsV decreased the haemolymphatic [Na+] loss when G. pulex was exposed to the lowest Cd concentration. Finally, the observed physiological and behavioural effects (except ventilation) in G. pulex exposed to AsV and/or Cd were exacerbated under the highest temperature. The discussion encompasses both the toxicity

  15. Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) Report, Nike Battery Kansas City 30, Pleasant Hill, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Response, Compensation, and Liability Act CERFA Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act ERIIS Environmental Risk Information and Imaging ...SAMNG DSGN PLAN FNMENGS, NINE BA]TIY KANSAS CITY 30 Continued CERFA Category Enhaced FPiIoudr Asnow Smaplg Dm . Pla Hazardous substance release...KC-30 = Nike Battery Kansas City 30 0 O410.P’I"A-2 APPENDIX B 0410.RPF FT ~II SEIRINS ENVIRONMENTAL RISK INFORMATION & IMAGING SERVICES REPORT

  16. Allocating responsibility for environmental risks: A comparative analysis of examples from water governance

    OpenAIRE

    Doorn, N.

    2017-01-01

    The focus of the present study is on the allocation of responsibilities for addressing environmental risks in transboundary water governance. Effective environmental management in transboundary situations requires coordinated and cooperative action among diverse individuals and organizations. Currently, little insight exists on how to foster collective action such that individuals and organizations take the responsibility to address transboundary environmental risks. On the basis of 4 cases o...

  17. Behavioural responses of two-spotted spider mites induced by predator-borne and prey-borne cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuris, Enikő; Szép, Erna; Kontschán, Jenő; Hettyey, Attila; Tóth, Zoltán

    2017-11-01

    Applying predatory mites as biological control agents is a well established method against spider mites which are major pests worldwide. Although antipredator responses can influence the outcome of predator-prey interactions, we have limited information about what cues spider mites use to adjust their behavioural antipredator responses. We experimentally exposed two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) to different predator-borne cues (using a specialist predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis, or a generalist predator, Amblyseius swirskii), conspecific prey-borne cues, or both, and measured locomotion and egg-laying activity. The reactions to predator species compared to each other manifested in reversed tendencies: spider mites increased their locomotion activity in the presence of P. persimilis, whereas they decreased it when exposed to A. swirskii. The strongest response was triggered by the presence of a killed conspecific: focal spider mites decreased their locomotion activity compared to the control group. Oviposition activity was not affected by either treatment. Our results point out that spider mites may change their behaviour in response to predators, and also to the presence of killed conspecifics, but these effects were not enhanced when both types of cues were present. The effect of social contacts among prey conspecifics on predator-induced behavioural defences is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Temperature Insensitivity and Behavioural Reduction of the Physiological Stress Response to Longline Capture by the Gummy Shark, Mustelus antarcticus.

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    Leonardo Guida

    Full Text Available Many factors influence the physiological stress response to fisheries capture in elasmobranchs. However, the influence of sea surface temperatures (SST and behaviour are unknown and crucial considering global fishing pressures. We investigated the effect of SST and behaviour on the physiological stress response to capture of the gummy shark, Mustelus antarcticus, and compared our results to a laboratory study using similar conditions to test whether stress responses of in situ capture are consistent with those from laboratory simulations. Capture time for 23 M. antarcticus ranged 32-241 min as measured by hook timers or time depth recorders (TDR in SSTs ranging 12-20°C. TDR data from 13 M. antarcticus were analysed to quantify capture behaviour as the percentage of time spent moving during capture. Several physiological variables measured from blood samples obtained immediately upon the animals' landing indicated that although warmer SSTs increased metabolic rate, the stress response to capture was not exacerbated by capture duration. During capture movement occurred for an average of 10% of the time and since M. antarcticus can respire whilst stationary, restricted movement probably mitigated potential influences of increased SSTs and capture duration on the stress response. Previous laboratory findings were also shown to be indicative of in situ conditions and we thus advise that studies control for water temperature given the influence it has on variables (e.g. lactate used to measure capture stress in elasmobranchs. We highlight the importance of seasonal water temperatures and capture behaviour when assessing the resilience to fisheries capture and the implementation of appropriate fisheries management strategies.

  19. Corporate social responsible costs in the environmental area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Boria-Reverter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To know how the appli