WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmentally responsible behavior

  1. Place Attachment and Environmentally Responsible Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaske, Jerry J.; Kobrin, Katherine C.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates how an attachment to a local natural resource can influence environmentally responsible behavior (ERB) in an individual's everyday life. Reports four general and three specific behavioral indicators reflecting a single environmentally responsible latent construct. Investigates the place dependence and place identity's role on ERB using…

  2. Speech Versus Action in Environmentally Responsible Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanna Ferreira Peixoto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The need of rethinking the consumption culture in contemporary society brings up the interest in researching how consumption habits are related to environmental preservation. Even though sustainable practices are valuable, the comparison amid how people act as consumers and their assumed ethical stance raises questions. Consumers advocate a concern for environmental issues but research shows that their consumption habits are still old fashioned. This study target the convergence and divergence between environmentally responsible speech and consumption behavior under the perspective of theories of action (Argyris, Putnam & Smith, 1985. Research utilized in-depth interviews and self-reports, using a logbook, to collect information about environmentally responsible discourse and consumption behavior of 11 participants. Data collection and analysis explore dimensions of environmentally responsible behavior (Stern, 1999, 2000: personal domain; behavioral domain; contextual domain; personal capabilities; and habits & routines. Results suggest that environmentally responsible behavior is not always consistent with the discourse due to influence of motivational issues (impotence, lack of interest, sacrifice, and convenience and contextual issues (financial situation, lack of public policies, time constraints, and culture.

  3. A motivational model for environmentally responsible behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, Carmen; Hernández, Bernardo

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a study examining whether self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation are related to environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). The study analysed past environmental behavior, self-regulatory mechanisms (self-efficacy, satisfaction, goals), and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in relation to ERBs in a sample of 156 university students. Results show that all the motivational variables studied are linked to ERB. The effects of self-efficacy on ERB are mediated by the intrinsic motivation responses of the participants. A theoretical model was created by means of path analysis, revealing the power of motivational variables to predict ERB. Structural equation modeling was used to test and fit the research model. The role of motivational variables is discussed with a view to creating adequate learning contexts and experiences to generate interest and new sensations in which self-efficacy and affective reactions play an important role.

  4. Environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, T.H.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the conceptualization of environmentally responsible behavior and methods for measuring such behavior based on a review of previous studies. Four major scales for the extent to which an individual’s behavior is responsible behavior are discussed. Various theoretical backgrounds and cultures provide diverse conceptualizations of environmentally responsible behavior. Both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior has been identified in the past studies. This study also discusses the precedents of environmentally responsible behavior and with a general overview; it provides insight into improving future research on this subject.

  5. Development and Validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Mehmet; Ok, Ahmet; Marcinkowski, Thomas Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Though environmentally responsible behavior (ERB) has been a focus of many studies in the field of environmental education, very few scales have been developed to assess children's ERB. In this regard, this article focuses on the development and validation of Children's Responsible Environmental Behavior Scale (CREBS) and also reports the…

  6. Environmental Learning in Online Social Networks: Adopting Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelia, Beth A.; Greenhow, Christine; Burton, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks are increasingly important information and communication tools for young people and for the environmental movement. Networks may provide the motivation for young adults to increase environmental behaviors by increasing their knowledge of environmental issues and of the specific actions they can take to reduce greenhouse gas…

  7. Exploring Additional Determinants of Environmentally Responsible Behavior: The Influence of Environmental Literature and Environmental Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Catherine; Vagias, Wade M.; DeWard, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    It is often assumed that individuals who are knowledgeable and concerned about the environment will engage in environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). We use data from a large scale Web survey hosted on National Geographic's Web site in 2001-2002 to investigate this premise. We examine whether reading three classic environmental books…

  8. Emotional Responses to Environmental Messages and Future Behavioral Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    The present research investigated effects of message framing (losses-framed or gains-framed), message modality (video with text or text-only) and emotional arousal on environmentally responsible behavioral intentions. The sample consisted of 161 college students. The present research did not find a significant difference in behavioral intentions…

  9. The Effects of an Environmental Studies Course on Selected Variables Related To Environmentally Responsible Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.

    1995-01-01

    Reports that students completing an environmental studies course displayed significant gains when compared with students not completing such a course. These gains were made in acquiring a more internally-oriented locus of control of reinforcement for environmentally responsible behavior, a higher perception of their knowledge of and skill in using…

  10. Symbolic Beliefs as Barriers to Responsible Environmental Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurin, Richard R.; Fortner, Rosane W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an exploratory study that investigates how environmental beliefs relate to self-reported environmental behaviors. Includes a student sample (N=110) which was administered a 208-item instrument. Reports that based on survey results, most of the sample perceived themselves as environmentally aware and differed only in strength of attitudes.…

  11. A Case Study on Primary, Secondary and University Students' Environmentally Responsible Behaviors in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahyaoglu, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to prove the environmentally responsible behaviors of primary, secondary and university students in Turkey. The students', who attended the study as participants, environmentally political behaviors, consumer/economical behaviors, direct behaviors toward protecting the environment and individual and public persuasion…

  12. Are We Meeting the Goal of Responsible Environmental Behavior: An Examination of Nature and Environmental Education Center Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Deborah A.

    1991-01-01

    Through two surveys of nature and environmental centers throughout the United States, the author compares the centers' expressed goals with the goals of environmental education. These goals were determined by an accepted behavior model that is considered conducive to environmentally responsible behavior. (17 references) (MCO)

  13. Behavioral response of manatees to variations in environmental sound levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L.; Wagner, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) inhabit coastal regions because they feed on the aquatic vegetation that grows in shallow waters, which are the same areas where human activities are greatest. Noise produced from anthropogenic and natural sources has the potential to affect these animals by eliciting responses ranging from mild behavioral changes to extreme aversion. Sound levels were calculated from recordings made throughout behavioral observation periods. An information theoretic approach was used to investigate the relationship between behavior patterns and sound level. Results indicated that elevated sound levels affect manatee activity and are a function of behavioral state. The proportion of time manatees spent feeding and milling changed in response to sound level. When ambient sound levels were highest, more time was spent in the directed, goal-oriented behavior of feeding, whereas less time was spent engaged in undirected behavior such as milling. This work illustrates how shifts in activity of individual manatees may be useful parameters for identifying impacts of noise on manatees and might inform population level effects.

  14. Urban Elementary Students' Views of Environmental Scientists, Environmental Caretakers and Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Patricia Lynne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the nature of the relationship between urban elementary fifth graders, environmental workers, and the environment. The study examined 320 urban fifth grade elementary students' drawings of environmental scientists (DAEST) and environmental caretakers (DAECT). Additionally, semi-structured interviews…

  15. Urban elementary students' views of environmental scientists, environmental caretakers and environmentally responsible behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Patricia Lynne

    The purpose of this research was to determine the nature of the relationship between urban elementary fifth graders, environmental workers, and the environment. The study examined 320 urban fifth grade elementary students' drawings of environmental scientists (DAEST) and environmental caretakers (DAECT). Additionally, semi-structured interviews were included to elucidate student illustrations. The study's sample represented one-third of all fifth graders in the mid-Atlantic school district selected for this research. Approximately 5% of participants were chosen for follow-up semi-structured interviews based on their illustrations. A general conclusion is some of the stereotypes, particularly related to gender, revealed in prior research (Barman, 1999, Chambers, 1983; Huber & Burton, 1995; Schibeci & Sorensen's, 1983; Sumrall, 1995) are evident among many elementary students. Male environmental scientists were drawn twice as often as female environmental scientists. Females were represented in more pictures of environmental caretakers than environmental scientists. Students overwhelmingly drew environmental scientists (98.1%) and environmental caretakers (76.5%) working alone. Wildlife was noticeably absent from most drawings (85%). Where wildlife was included, it was most often birds (6.9%) and fish (3.1%). More than one species was evident in only 2.5% of the pictures. Fifty percent of environmental caretakers were shown picking up trash from land. Actions such as reducing resource use occurred in only 13 out of 319 pictures (4.1%). Pictures of environmental caretakers sharing knowledge were even less common (2.5%). Almost 22% of females drew multiple individuals compared to 18.5% drawn by males. Females were more likely to show individuals collaborating (22.4% to 16.8%) while males were more likely to show individuals working in opposition (5.2% to 2.0%).

  16. The Effects of Recreation Experience, Environmental Attitude, and Biospheric Value on the Environmentally Responsible Behavior of Nature-Based Tourists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung Hung; Jan, Fen-Hauh

    2015-07-01

    The scientific understanding of the recreation experience and the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists is limited. This study examines the relationship among the recreation experience, environmental attitude, biospheric value, and the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists in Taomi, Liuqiu Island, and Aowanda and Najenshan in Taiwan. A total of 1342 usable questionnaires were collected for this study. The empirical results indicate that the recreation experience influences biospheric value and environmental attitude; subsequently, it then indirectly influences the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists. Our theoretical behavioral model elucidates previously proposed but unexamined behavioral models among nature-based tourists, and it offers a theoretical framework for researchers, decision makers, managers, and tourists in the field of nature-based tourism. We conclude that when an individual participates in nature-based tourism as described here, these recreation experiences strengthen their environmental attitude and biospheric value, and consequently increase their engagement in both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behaviors.

  17. The effects of recreation experience, environmental attitude, and biospheric value on the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung Hung; Jan, Fen-Hauh

    2015-07-01

    The scientific understanding of the recreation experience and the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists is limited. This study examines the relationship among the recreation experience, environmental attitude, biospheric value, and the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists in Taomi, Liuqiu Island, and Aowanda and Najenshan in Taiwan. A total of 1342 usable questionnaires were collected for this study. The empirical results indicate that the recreation experience influences biospheric value and environmental attitude; subsequently, it then indirectly influences the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists. Our theoretical behavioral model elucidates previously proposed but unexamined behavioral models among nature-based tourists, and it offers a theoretical framework for researchers, decision makers, managers, and tourists in the field of nature-based tourism. We conclude that when an individual participates in nature-based tourism as described here, these recreation experiences strengthen their environmental attitude and biospheric value, and consequently increase their engagement in both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behaviors.

  18. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2009-01-01

    -reported behavior and the person's reasons and motives for performing the behavior were measured. The number and types of associations differ depending on the strength of the person's norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. With the partial exception...

  19. Tourists’ Environmentally Responsible Behavior in Response to Climate Change and Tourist Experiences in Nature-Based Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hyoung Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nature-based tourism destinations—locations in which economic viability and environmental responsibility are sought—are sensitive to climate change and its effects on important environmental components of the tourism areas. To meet the dual roles, it is important for destination marketers and resources managers to provide quality experiences for tourists and to induce tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior in such destinations. This study documents the importance of perceptions toward climate change and tourist experiences in determining tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior while enjoying holidays at nature-based tourism destinations in Jeju Island, South Korea. Two hundred and eleven Korean and 204 Chinese tourists marked dominant tourist arrivals to the island, and responded to the survey questionnaire. Results showed that perceptions toward climate change and tourist experiences affect Korean tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior intentions, whereas tourist experiences—not perceptions toward climate change—only significantly affect Chinese tourists’ behavior intention. In a nature-based tourism context under the pressure of climate change and adverse environmental effects as consequences of tourism activities, resources managers and destination marketers need to develop environmental campaigns or informative tourist programs to formulate environmentally responsible behavior as well as to increase tourist quality experiences among domestic and international tourists.

  20. Climate change and environmentally responsible behavior on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee In Yoon; Gerard Kyle; Carena J. vanRiper; Stephen G. Sutton

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between Australians' perceptions of climate change, its impact on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and predictors of environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). Our hypothesized model suggested that general attitudes toward climate change, social pressure for engaging in ERBs (subjective norms), and perceived behavioral control (...

  1. Games in Instruction Leading To Environmentally Responsible Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on instructional games designed to teach about environmental topics such as wetlands, pollution, endangered species, population, energy, and individual effects on the environment. Fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students (N=295) were tested, and significant results were found between students who played four games and those who did not…

  2. Learning from internet of things for improving environmentally responsible behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.; Vlist, van der B.J.J.; Niezen, G.; Willemsen, W.; Willems, D.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Chang, M.; Hwang, W.Y.; Chen, M.P.; et al., xx

    2011-01-01

    We present two designs in the area of Internet of Things, utilizing an ontology-driven platform, namely Smart-M3, to connect domestic objects in the physical world to the information world, for coaching the behavior or raising the awareness in domestic energy consumption. The concept and

  3. When Legitimacy Shapes Environmentally Responsible Behaviors: Considering Exposure to University Sustainability Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Watson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how perceptions of the legitimacy of university sustainability efforts—support by the administration (authorization or from students’ peers (endorsement—as well as the physical context in which students live, matter in shaping students’ environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs. Using survey data collected from fourth-year students at a university in the Southeastern US, we employ Seeming Unrelated Regression to analyze the impact of perceived legitimacy and context on recycling and conservation behaviors, controlling for demographic characteristics, pro-environmental attitudes, and environmental identity. Our findings indicate that students’ perceptions of what university administrators support affect the likelihood of students to enact recycling and conservation behaviors, and peer support influences conservation behaviors. This research contributes to the literature on legitimacy by examining how legitimacy processes work in natural, rather than experimental, settings.

  4. Visitation to Natural Areas on Campus and Its Relation to Place Identity and Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Eva K.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined college students' visits to natural areas on campus and how these visits relate to place identity and environmentally responsible behaviors. The majority (76.5%) of the 115 participants visited the natural areas, and 55.7% of these students visited for a course requirement. Students who lived on campus, were younger, and…

  5. When Legitimacy Shapes Environmentally Responsible Behaviors: Considering Exposure to University Sustainability Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Lesley; Hegtvedt, Karen A.; Johnson, Cathryn; Parris, Christie L.; Subramanyam, Shruthi

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how perceptions of the legitimacy of university sustainability efforts--support by the administration (authorization) or from students' peers (endorsement)--as well as the physical context in which students live, matter in shaping students' environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs). Using survey data collected from…

  6. A cognitive dissonance interpretation of consistencies and inconsistencies in environmentally responsible behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2004-01-01

    The issue of consistency and inconsistency in environmentally responsible behavior (ERB), as reflected in the correlations between different ERBs, is discussed in the light of social psychological theories suggesting that most people desire to behave consistently. It is ar-gued that except in cases......" in this context) and measurement error and it is moderated by perceived dissimilarity between the behaviors and by the (moral) importance of behaving in a responsible way towards the environment. These propositions are tested (and confirmed) by means of a mall-intercept survey of ordinary Danish shop...

  7. Behavioral and physiologic responses to environmental enrichment in the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Dawn; Brown, Janine L; Rodden, Melissa D; Songsasen, Nucharin

    2007-09-01

    The ex situ population of maned wolves is not self-sustaining due to poor reproduction, caused primarily by parental incompetence. Studies have shown that environmental enrichment can promote natural parental behaviors in zoo animals. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of environmental enrichment on behavioral and physiological responses of maned wolves. During an 8-week experimental period, daily behavior observations and fecal sample collection were conducted on four adult wolves (2.2) individually housed in environments without enrichment. After 2 weeks, the wolves were chronologically provided with 2-week intervals of hiding dead mice around the exhibit, no enrichment, and introduction of boomer balls. Responses of the wolves to enrichment were assessed based on activity levels and exploratory rates, as well as the level of corticoid metabolites in fecal samples collected daily throughout the study period. Providing wolves with environmental enrichment significantly increased exploratory behaviors (Pmaned wolves. There is evidence suggesting that providing animals with ability to forage for food is a more effective enrichment strategy than introducing objects. There is need for a longer term study to determine the impact of environmental enrichment in this species. Zoo Biol 26:331-343, 2007. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. When Legitimacy Shapes Environmentally Responsible Behaviors: Considering Exposure to University Sustainability Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Lesley Watson; Karen A. Hegtvedt; Cathryn Johnson; Christie L. Parris; Shruthi Subramanyam

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how perceptions of the legitimacy of university sustainability efforts—support by the administration (authorization) or from students’ peers (endorsement)—as well as the physical context in which students live, matter in shaping students’ environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs). Using survey data collected from fourth-year students at a university in the Southeastern US, we employ Seeming Unrelated Regression to analyze the impact of perceived legitimacy and context o...

  9. Attitude towards littering as a mediator of the relationship between personality attributes and responsible environmental behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojedokun, Oluyinka

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Independently, altruism and locus of control contributed significantly toward attitude towards littering. → Altruism and locus of control jointly contributed significantly to attitude towards littering. → The results further show a significant joint influence of altruism and locus of control on REB. → The independent contributions reveal that altruism and locus of control contribute significantly to REB. → Attitude towards littering mediates the relationship between locus of control and REB. - Abstract: The study tested whether attitude towards littering mediates the relationship between personality attributes (altruism and locus of control) and responsible environmental behavior (REB) among some residents of Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. Using multistage sampling technique, measures of each construct were administered to 1360 participants. Results reveal significant independent and joint influence of personality attributes on attitude towards littering and responsible environmental behavior, respectively. Attitude towards littering also mediates the relationship between personality characteristics and REB. These findings imply that individuals who possess certain desirable personality characteristics and who have unfavorable attitude towards littering have more tendencies to engage in pro-environmental behavior. Therefore, stakeholders who have waste management as their priority should incorporate this information when guidelines for public education and litter prevention programs are being developed. It is suggested that psychologists should be involved in designing of litter prevention strategies. This will ensure the inclusion of behavioral issues in such strategies. An integrated approach to litter prevention that combines empowerment, cognitive, social, and technical solutions is recommended as the most effective tool of tackling the litter problem among residents of Ibadan metropolis.

  10. Individual differences in maternal response to immune challenge predict offspring behavior: Contribution of environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, Stefanie L.; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Horn, Paul S.; Kern, Joseph R.; Richtand, Neil M.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy elevates risk for schizophrenia and related disorders in offspring. Converging evidence suggests the maternal inflammatory response mediates the interaction between maternal infection, altered brain development, and behavioral outcome. The extent to which individual differences in the maternal response to immune challenge influence the development of these abnormalities is unknown. The present study investigated the impact of individual differences in maternal response to the viral mimic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) on offspring behavior. We observed significant variability in body weight alterations of pregnant rats induced by administration of poly I:C on gestational day 14. Furthermore, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss predicted MK-801 and amphetamine stimulated locomotor abnormalities in offspring. MK-801 stimulated locomotion was altered in offspring of all poly I:C treated dams; however, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss resulted in decreased and modestly increased locomotion, respectively. Adult offspring of poly I:C treated dams that lost weight exhibited significantly decreased amphetamine stimulated locomotion, while offspring of poly I:C treated dams without weight loss performed similarly to vehicle controls. Social isolation and increased maternal age predicted weight loss in response to poly I:C but not vehicle injection. In combination, these data identify environmental factors associated with the maternal response to immune challenge and functional outcome of offspring exposed to maternal immune activation. PMID:21255612

  11. Designing a Likert-Type Scale to Predict Environmentally Responsible Behavior in Undergraduate Students: A Multistep Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.; D'Costa, Ayres

    1995-01-01

    Describes an attempt to develop a reliable and valid instrument to assess the relationship between locus of control of reinforcement and environmentally responsible behavior. Presents a six-step psychometric process used to develop the Environmental Action Internal Control Index (EAICI) for undergraduate students. Contains 54 references. (JRH)

  12. Sense of place among New England organic farmers and commercial fishermen: How social context shapes identity and environmentally responsible behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Anneliese Marie

    Given the prominence of sense of place in new environmental education curricula, this study aims to strengthen the conceptual and empirical foundations of sense of place, and to determine how sense of place may be linked to environmentally responsible behavior. For this study, five commercial fishermen and five organic farmers from the New England Seacoast region participated in a series of in-depth phenomenological interviews and observations. The data was systematically coded in order to allow themes and categories to emerge. The results indicate that aspects of the existing conceptual framework of sense of place, such as place attachment, ecological knowledge, and public involvement, do in fact describe the relationship between people and place. However, the results also indicate that two conceptual elements---attention to social context and awareness of moral theory---are missing from the current conceptual framework in EE theory. These results suggest that the current framework should be expanded to emphasize the role of human and non-human communities: the development of a sense of place and the learning of environmentally responsible behavior must be situated within a social context. This study lends support to the view that for sense of place to move people to ethical action, it is crucial for them to recognize, and to participate in, a community of support and care.

  13. Specific responsible environmental behavior among boaters on the Chesapeake Bay: a predictive model part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart P. Cottrell; Alan R. Graefe

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines predictors of boater behavior in a specific behavior situation, namely the percentage of raw sewage discharged from recreational vessels in a sanitation pumpout facility on the Chesapeake Bay. Results of a multiple regression analysis show knowledge predicts behavior in specific issue situations. In addition, the more specific the...

  14. The Moderating Effects of Students’ Personality Traits on Pro-Environmental Behavioral Intentions in Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tai-Yi; Yu, Tai-Kuei

    2017-01-01

    This study developed a model that examined the relationship between undergraduate students’ beliefs, norms and pro-environment behavioral intentions in the context of global climate change (GCC). The model was further evaluated to determine whether latent variables, such as sustainability value, environmental concern, social norms, perceived risk, pro-environmental attitude, as defined by the theory of planned behavior and value-belief-norm theory, significantly influenced students’ intentions towards pro-environmental behavior. The research model was empirically tested using data collected form 275 undergraduate students. Empirical results found support for four interaction effects of personality traits and the related latent variables of environmental attitude, including sustainability value, social norms, environmental concern and perceived risk. The impact of undergraduate students’ environmental attitudes was moderated by personality traits. The findings of this research offer policy makers and enterprises better understandings of undergraduate students’ attitudes and behavioral intentions towards GCC and promote the visibility of this issue. PMID:29186016

  15. The Moderating Effects of Students' Personality Traits on Pro-Environmental Behavioral Intentions in Response to Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tai-Yi; Yu, Tai-Kuei

    2017-11-29

    This study developed a model that examined the relationship between undergraduate students' beliefs, norms and pro-environment behavioral intentions in the context of global climate change (GCC). The model was further evaluated to determine whether latent variables, such as sustainability value, environmental concern, social norms, perceived risk, pro-environmental attitude, as defined by the theory of planned behavior and value-belief-norm theory, significantly influenced students' intentions towards pro-environmental behavior. The research model was empirically tested using data collected form 275 undergraduate students. Empirical results found support for four interaction effects of personality traits and the related latent variables of environmental attitude, including sustainability value, social norms, environmental concern and perceived risk. The impact of undergraduate students' environmental attitudes was moderated by personality traits. The findings of this research offer policy makers and enterprises better understandings of undergraduate students' attitudes and behavioral intentions towards GCC and promote the visibility of this issue.

  16. Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Created in 2009 as part of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate's Integrated Systems Research Program, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation...

  17. Perception of Global Climate Change as a Mediator of the Effects of Major and Religious Affiliation on College Students' Environmentally Responsible Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Emily; Snider, Anthony; Luo, Shanhong

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown a reliable association between environmental education and environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). Research has also shown that aspects of religion were associated with ERB. However, the mechanisms of associations are unclear. This study builds on previous research addressing the relationship between student major,…

  18. STRAIN-SPECIFIC BEHAVIORAL-RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT IN THE MOUSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDEWEERD, HA; BAUMANS, [No Value; KOOLHAAS, JM; VANZUTPHEN, LFM

    The influence of environmental enrichment on the behaviour of the mouse has been studied in two inbred strains (C57BL and BALB/c). Male mice of each of the two strains were subjected to behavioural tests after being housed for two months either under standard housing conditions or in an enriched

  19. Behavioral responses of three armadillo species (Mammalia: Xenarthra) to an environmental enrichment program in Villavicencio, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés Duarte, Alexandra; Trujillo, Fernando; Superina, Mariella

    2016-07-01

    Enrichment is a powerful tool to improve the welfare of animals under human care. Stress-related health and behavioral problems, as well as reproductive failure, are frequent in armadillos (Xenarthra, Cingulata, Dasypodidae) under human care, which hinders the development of successful ex situ conservation programs. Nevertheless, scientific studies on the effect of enrichment programs on armadillos are virtually non-existent. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an enrichment program on the behavior of armadillos under human care. The behavior of 12 individuals of three species (Dasypus novemcinctus, D. sabanicola, and Cabassous unicinctus) maintained at Finca El Turpial, Villavicencio, Colombia, was recorded using scan sampling during three daily time blocks of 2 hr each before (4 weeks) and after (4 weeks) implementing an enrichment program. Enrichment did not stimulate the armadillos to change or extend their activity period. In general, activity levels were low during the entire study, and virtually no activity was recorded in the morning in any species, neither without nor with enrichment. The latter did, however, improve welfare by reducing abnormal and increasing natural foraging behaviors. All species were attracted by artificial termite mounds. Dasypus spp. showed special interest in cardboard boxes with food, while Cabassous was mainly attracted to hollow plastic balls filled with food. Our results suggest that separate enrichment programs need to be developed for different armadillo species, and that they should be applied during the time of day at which they are most active. Zoo Biol. 35:304-312, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Multilevel corporate environmental responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karassin, Orr; Bar-Haim, Aviad

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel empirical study of the antecedents of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been identified as "the first knowledge gap" in CSR research. Based on an extensive literature review, the present study outlines a conceptual multilevel model of CSR, then designs and empirically validates an operational multilevel model of the principal driving factors affecting corporate environmental responsibility (CER), as a measure of CSR. Both conceptual and operational models incorporate three levels of analysis: institutional, organizational, and individual. The multilevel nature of the design allows for the assessment of the relative importance of the levels and of their components in the achievement of CER. Unweighted least squares (ULS) regression analysis reveals that the institutional-level variables have medium relationships with CER, some variables having a negative effect. The organizational level is revealed as having strong and positive significant relationships with CER, with organizational culture and managers' attitudes and behaviors as significant driving forces. The study demonstrates the importance of multilevel analysis in improving the understanding of CSR drivers, relative to single level models, even if the significance of specific drivers and levels may vary by context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Implications of Attitude and Behavior Research for Environmental Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are the determinants of environmentally responsible behavior, the attitude-behavior discrepancy problem, how environmental attitudes are formed and changed, and the effects of individual differences on appropriateness of educational techniques. (CW)

  2. Behavioral responses of maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Canidae) to different categories of environmental enrichment stimuli and their implications for successful reintroduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carlyle Mendes; de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini; Young, Robert John

    2012-01-01

    The maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger, 1815, Canidae) is a threatened species that inhabits the cerrados of Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Captive maned wolves could be potentially used in reintroduction programs for species conservation; however, it is necessary that their behavior and cognitive abilities are conserved. Environmental enrichment is a tool used to stimulate captive animals and maintain a natural behavioral repertoire. To compare the variation of captive maned wolves' behavioral responses to environmental enrichment, we studied three maned wolves held by Belo Horizonte Zoo, Brazil. Foraging, interspecific, and intraspecific stimuli were offered to the animals and their responses were compared with a baseline and postenrichment treatments. The test was used to help in choosing which one of the three individuals would participate in a reintroduction project. The results showed that stimuli type did influence the animal's responses, and that individually wolves responded differently to foraging, interspecific, and intraspecific enrichment items (P80.05 for some behaviors in each enrichment category). The individual's personality seemed to influence their behavioral responses, with animals showing bold and shy responses, and this trait should be considered during decision makings for reintroduction. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Childhood Origins of Young Adult Environmental Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Otto, Siegmar; Kaiser, Florian G

    2018-05-01

    Prospective, longitudinal analyses revealed that over a 12-year period from ages 6 to 18, individuals who grew up with mothers with more proenvironmental attitudes engaged in more proenvironmental behavior as young adults. A similar marginal association was uncovered between mothers' proenvironmental behaviors and the proenvironmental behavior of their young adult offspring. Maternal educational attainment, but not political ideology, was also associated with more proenvironmental behavior as children matured. Moreover, childhood time spent outdoors was positively associated with increased environmentally responsible behavior in young adulthood. Interestingly, one's own childhood proenvironmental behavior and attitude, at least as assessed at age 6, bear little on one's eventual proenvironmental behavior as a young adult. Finally, among this set of childhood factors, maternal education and childhood time spent outdoors were independent predictors of positive changes in environmental behavior from early childhood to young adulthood.

  4. Outdoor Education and Environmental Responsibility. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Rita; Haras, Kathy

    Outdoor education programs provide opportunities for students to become environmentally conscious citizens. However, awareness of environmental issues is not enough to preserve our world of limited natural resources. Students must also recognize their environmental responsibilities and change their behaviors accordingly. This digest reviews the…

  5. Environmental concern and ecological responsible behavior in university students: A comparative analysis between Chilean and Spanish students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireya Palavecinos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of a pilot study aimed at the transcultural analysis of environmental concern and its relationship with ecological behavior, a questionnaire assessing these was developed in Spain, and tested in Spain and in Chile. Chilean (n=88 and Spanish (n=149 students filled out the questionnaire. The results were analysed according to the model of multidimensional conceptualisation of concern for the environment manifested in 4 types of attitude: apathetic, anthropocentric, connected and emotional affinity (Amérigo et al., 2012. Results differed between the two groups, and cultural and psychosocial variables appear to play a significant role in this. This suggest that it is important to have instruments that facilitate environmental studies in the Chilean context, and to take contextual factors (such as the exacerbation of the country's environmental crisis and citizens' concern about the situation into account in such studies. Transcultural studies are key to deepening our understanding of the subject at the worldwide level.

  6. Environmental Ethics and Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo Rouanet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2015v14n3p382 This paper resumes a previous discussion on Environmental Ethics and Irreversibility, which was presented in 2005. There I first faced the problem. Now I would like to reevaluate the issue. Was my paper “catastrophist”? Or was it, instead, realistic? Which are today the main issues confronting Environmental Ethics? Plainly speaking, what can we really do? These are some of the questions I would like to bring in to the debate with my colleagues and the public. In other words, instead of focusing in the aspect of “irreversibility”, I prefer here to focus on the “responsibility” of agents and institutions. It rescues the so-called “Principle of Responsibility”, by Hans Jonas. There is also some debate with Karl-Otto Appel and Habermas. If, on one hand, there are irreversible damages to nature, as the extinction of species and even of natural locations, as rivers and other natural accidents, there are, on the other hand, many actions that can and must be taken in order to preserve or deter the grave consequences of the environmental degradation. In this paper, I try to discuss some of the problems and propose some solutions, but the more important thing is to call everyone – individuals, groups, or institutions – to responsibility face the Earth, the Human and not-human beings, and mainly the future generations.

  7. Behavioral assays in environmental toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B.

    1979-01-01

    Environmental toxicology is too permeated by questions about how the whole organism functions to abandon intact animals as test systems. Behavior does not participate as a single entity or discipline. It ranges across the total spectrum of functional toxicity, from tenuous subjective complaints to subtle sensory and motor disturbances demanding advanced instrumentation for their evaluation. Three facets of behavioral toxicology that illustrate its breadth of interests and potential contributions are discussed.

  8. Connections with nature and environmental behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Liuna; Xu, Jingke; Ye, Lijuan; Zhou, Wenjun; Zhou, Kexin

    2015-01-01

    The influence of environmental attitudes on environmental behaviors has long been discussed. However, few studies have addressed the foundation of such attitudes. In the present study, we explored primitive belief underlying environmental attitudes, i.e., connections with nature, and its relationship with pro-environmental behaviors. Specifically, we used scales, a computerized Implicit Association Test, and a situational simulation experiment to examine both explicit and implicit connections with nature, both deliberate and spontaneous environmental behaviors, and to find correlations between environmental connectedness and environmental behaviors. Results showed that explicit connectedness was positively correlated with deliberate environmental behaviors, while implicit connectedness was positively correlated with spontaneous environmental behaviors. Additionally, explicit and implicit connectedness was independent of each other. In conclusion, the current study confirms the positive role played by connections with nature in promoting environmental behavior, and accordingly suggests means to encourage pro-environmental behavior by enhancing people's connectedness to nature.

  9. Environmental behavior of technetium-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, M.D.S.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a review of the literature on technetium-99. The chemical and physical properties of some technetium compounds are considered, and a discussion of possible source terms is included. Literature on the environmental behavior of technetium is presented, including its behavior in the bodies of animals and humans. The primary sources of Tc-99 in the environment are fallout from atomic detonations and releases from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The environmental behavior of technetium-99 has been studied predominantly with respect to movement in soil and accumulation in plants. There is a surprising scarcity of data on behavior of Tc-99 in the atmosphere and in aquatic systems. Additional work needs to be conducted in these two areas to determine behavior and to acquire baseline concentration data. Much of the soil work has produced contradictory results. In-depth studies of holdup mechanisms for Tc-99 in both geological repositories and soil need to be conducted. Since plants represent a potential bioaccumulation of Tc-99, plant uptake studies of Tc-99 under field conditions also need to be done

  10. Considerations Regarding the Environmental Responsibility and Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian-Marcel Nuta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The public policy tool of taxation may generate discouraging effects upon the economicagents – consumers or producers – but also could beused as incentives. High environmental taxationcould generate crowding effect in terms of responsibility. Sometimes a very sophisticated system ofenvironmental taxation is the basis for a highly regulated business environment and conformity butwith a lack of real responsible citizenship. We aretrying to see if the impact of taxation uponresponsibility is real and can affect the motivation for environmental responsible citizenship. Themain findings are related to the impact of regulating power of environmental taxes. Also there isevident the interest of entrepreneurs in environmentally responsible behavior and the less informationabout the benefits of responsible citizenship.

  11. Environmental Cost Accounting – Assessing the Environmental Responsibility Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Marcel Nuțǎ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper’s aim is to evaluate different approaches of environmental cost accounting used aroundthe world. One of the main issues of modern enterprise is to affirm its responsible behavior and to connect itwith a positive economic benefit for the shareholders. Practically the management systems must find a way toaddress all the stakeholders’ interests and needs.

  12. Corporate environmental responsibility. Conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The European and U.S. industrial participants presented their environmental policies and programs. There is a difference of opinion between the European and U.S. industry representatives with regard to disclosure of environmental data. The coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies (CERES) had played a role in the recent evolution of industry environmental programs, especially as they relate to environmental performance measurement, communication of environmental issues and concerns with shareholders and the public, and issues related to public accountability and disclosure. An overview of accomplishments is given and a common agenda is offered. (DG)

  13. Are Tourists’ Environmental Behavior Affected by Their Environmental Perceptions and Beliefs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola Anastasia RAMCHURJEE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The key to eliminating environmental problems depends mainly on how much individuals are motivated to change their consumer behaviors and participate in more environmentally responsible practices. The purpose of this research is to examine if tourists’ environmental behaviors are affected by their environmental perceptions and beliefs and how these concepts influence tourists to engage in environmentally responsible behaviors while visiting Hassan, Karnataka India. Random sampling utilizes a structured questionnaire for this investigation. The questionnaire consisted of four sections with 335 participants. The results showed that some tourists engage in positive environmental behaviors. It also revealed that the tourists largely held positive environmental beliefs and perceptions, and are aware of the concerns for the environment, however, they are not ready to transfer their environmental beliefs into their behavioral practices. Their main aim when on vacation is to experience the destination and activities offered, relax and enjoy the cultural atmosphere and to generally “have a good time”.

  14. Religious Beliefs and Environmental Behaviors in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of religion in the environment has yet to be empirically investigated in the country with the largest atheist population across the globe. Using data from the Chinese General Social Survey 2013, we examined the effects of religious beliefs on environmental behaviors in China. Dependent variables of private and public environmental behaviors were identified by factor analysis. The estimation revealed a contradictory result that most religious beliefs had negative effects on private environmental behaviors while having positive effects on public environmental behaviors. The findings suggest a religion–politics interactive mechanism to enhance pro-environmental behavior in China.

  15. Towards accurate emergency response behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, T.O.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear reactor operator emergency response behavior has persisted as a training problem through lack of information. The industry needs an accurate definition of operator behavior in adverse stress conditions, and training methods which will produce the desired behavior. Newly assembled information from fifty years of research into human behavior in both high and low stress provides a more accurate definition of appropriate operator response, and supports training methods which will produce the needed control room behavior. The research indicates that operator response in emergencies is divided into two modes, conditioned behavior and knowledge based behavior. Methods which assure accurate conditioned behavior, and provide for the recovery of knowledge based behavior, are described in detail

  16. Conceptualising environmental responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzen, Manfred; Murray, Joy

    2010-01-01

    Downstream responsibility is rarely addressed in the academic literature and in corporate sustainability reporting. We conceptualise downstream responsibility for the example of carbon emissions, by establishing a terminology as well as a framework for quantifying downstream carbon footprints. By extracting emissions-intensive sales chains for a number of Australian industry sectors, and comparing these to emissions-intensive supply chains, we demonstrated the ability of input-output analysis to quantify emissions responsibility in both directions. We extend the definition of downstream responsibility beyond the product use and disposal phases, to include what we call 'enabled' emissions. This term implies that whatever is sold downstream enables our customers to operate and emit, irrespective of whether it is our product that is combusted, or that directly combusts fuels, or not. Our structural path analyses and threshold-capture relationships reveal stark differences between industries with regard to the data collection efforts necessary to achieve a reasonably complete footprint assessment. Industries appear to have their own specific carbon footprint profiles, and one cannot design generic relevance tests that tell which data to collect. Moreover we conclude that current completeness standards in carbon reporting cannot be satisfied using relevance thresholds. Input-output analysis and structural path analysis are excellent tools that can help companies undertake screening exercises, which in turn help prioritising and streamlining the collection of data needed to establish a corporate downstream carbon footprint. Compared to conventional manual approaches, hybrid life-cycle assessments assisted by input-output analysis and structural path analysis achieve more complete results, with substantially less staff, money and time. (author)

  17. Stress influences environmental donation behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollberger, Silja; Bernauer, Thomas; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Stress has been found to have both positive and negative effects on prosocial behavior, suggesting the involvement of moderating factors such as context and underlying motives. In the present study, we investigated the conditions under which acute stress leads to an increase vs. decrease in environmental donation behavior as an indicator of prosocial behavior. In particular, we examined whether the effects of stress depended on preexisting pro-environmental orientation and stage of the donation decision (whether or not to donate vs. the amount to be donated). Male participants with either high (N=40) or low (N=39) pro-environmental orientation were randomly assigned to a social stress test or a control condition. Salivary cortisol was assessed repeatedly before and after stress induction. At the end of the experiment, all subjects were presented with an opportunity to donate a portion of their monetary compensation to a climate protection foundation. We found that stress significantly increased donation frequency, but only in subjects with low pro-environmental orientation. Congruously, their decision to donate was positively associated with cortisol response to the stress test and the emotion regulation strategy mood repair, as well as accompanied by an increase in subjective calmness. In contrast, among the participants who decided to donate, stress significantly reduced the donated amount of money, regardless of pro-environmental orientation. In conclusion, our findings suggest that acute stress might generally activate more self-serving motivations, such as making oneself feel better and securing one's own material interests. Importantly, however, a strong pro-environmental orientation partially prevented these effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. State of the art knowledge in adrenocortical and behavioral responses to environmental challenges in a threatened South American ratite: Implications to in situ and ex-situ conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Navarro Joaquín; Lèche, Alvina; Costa, Natalia S Della; Cortez, Marilina Vera; Marin, Raúl H; Martella, Mónica B

    2018-04-12

    The Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) is an endemic ratite to South America, whose wild populations have undergone a remarkable decrease due to habitat degradation and fragmentation by the expansion of the agricultural frontier, poaching and predation by dogs. Anthropogenic perturbations in wild environments, as well as the management in captivity, can generate different stress responses in this species, thus, the monitoring of adrenocortical and behavioral activities are considered primary assessment tools with both conservation and welfare implications. In this review we analyze and integrate the different measurements of glucocorticoids (in plasma, feces, and yolk) carried out in different captive and wild populations, taking into account the diverse predictable and unpredictable conditions to which the Greater Rhea responds in each of those environments. In addition, the translocation of this bird is presented as an application of stress physiology in field ecology for conservation purposes, in which we evaluated how this species responds when it is released into a novel environment. Our results indicate that this ratite has a striking high sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis compared to that of other bird species and shows a wide variety of adrenocortical responses depending on the environment in which it lives. This suggests that its HPA axis has a phenotypic plasticity that enables the rhea to cope with the environmental challenges. In this sense, we propose that one of the routes of this plasticity could be mediated by the maternal transfer of steroid hormones to the egg. Finally, we discuss the importance of integrating the monitoring of the adrenocortical response along with the environmental variables that define the life history of the species, in management and conservation programs ex-situ and in situ. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Exploring the link between environmental identity, behaviors and decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Allison

    This study was conducted with undergraduate students at a large university to investigate the association between environmental identity, pro-environmental behaviors and environmental decision-making. This study explored how environmental identity as defined by Clayton (2003) influenced the type of pro-environmental behaviors individuals choose to participate in. Environmental decision-making based on Kahneman's (2003, 2011) System 1 and System 2 framework was also assessed in association with environmental identity. A survey including the Environmental Identity Survey (Clayton, 2003), the Environmentally Responsible Behaviors Index (Smith-Sebasto & D'Acosta, 1995), and a Decision Making Questionnaire were administered. After administering the surveys, eight participants were chosen for a 60-minute interview. The quantitative results of the study showed there was a significant relationship between environmental identity and participating in environmental behaviors more often. There was also a significant relation between environmental identity and making the decision to recycle in a fast and automatic way. The interview results showed that participants with both a strong and a weak environmental identity recycled often and thought it was a fast decision. The results of this study show that certain components of environmental identity are important, but other factors like the physical environment and social norms influence the thinking that goes into recycling more than environmental identity alone. This study provides evidence of the importance of social norms and environmental structures in fostering pro-environmental behaviors and influencing the type of thinking that goes into making environmental decisions. Keywords: environmental identity, environmental behaviors, System 1, System 2, recycling.

  20. Will the Future Be Greener? The Environmental Behavioral Intentions of University Tourism Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Lan Pan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable tourism is essential for tourism sector development. Environmentally responsible behaviors and behavioral intentions are important prerequisites for sustainable tourism. This research explores the behavioral intentions of university tourism students and significant factors affecting these behavioral intentions. The questionnaire survey method was applied to university students from the tourism departments of nine universities in Taiwan. A total of 390 valid questionnaires were collected. The pro-environmental behavioral intentions of the students ranged from moderate to high. Environmental knowledge positively affected behavioral intentions and positively influenced environmental sensitivity and environmental responsibility. Furthermore, environmental sensitivity and environmental responsibility exerted a full effect in mediating the relationship between environmental knowledge and behavioral intentions. Hence, increasing students’ environmental knowledge will enhance their behavioral intentions. However, by improving students’ sensitivity and responsibility, their intentions to protect the environment can be more effectively elevated. Development implications and recommendations for sustainable tourism and higher education are provided.

  1. Undergraduate Students' Pro-Environmental Behavior in Daily Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Widiaswati; Sawitri, Dian R.

    2018-02-01

    Pro-environmental behavior is an individual action as a manifestation of one's responsibility to create a sustainable environment. University students as one of the agent of change can adopt pro-environmental behaviors concept, even through simple things to do on daily activities such as ride a bicycle or walk for short distance, reuse the shopping bags, separate waste, learn about environmental issues etc. Many studies have examined pro-environmental behavior from various approaches. However, the study about university students' pro-environmental behavior is lacking. The aim of this paper is to examine the undergraduate students' pro-environmental behaviors level. We surveyed 364 first year undergraduate students from a state university in Semarang. The survey included six aspects of pro-environmental behavior in daily practice which include energy conservation, mobility and transportation, waste avoidance, recycling, consumerism, and vicarious behaviors toward conservation. Findings of this study showed the level of pro-environmental behavior of first year undergraduate students is medium. Recommendations for undergraduate students and future researchers are discussed.

  2. Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior in Dutch Secondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlemeier, Hans; van den Bergh, Huub; Lagerweij, Nijs

    1999-01-01

    In a national assessment program, 57% of Dutch ninth-grade students had a positive attitude towards the environment and 35% were prepared to make sacrifices for the environment. Student knowledge about environmental problems, however, was fragmentary and often incorrect. Environmentally responsible behavior was more strongly connected with the…

  3. Connecting Urban Youth with Their Environment: The Impact of an Urban Ecology Course on Student Content Knowledge, Environmental Attitudes and Responsible Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.; McNeill, Katherine L.; Hoffman, Emily M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the impact of an urban ecology program on participating middle school students' understanding of science and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. We gathered pre and post survey data from four classes and found significant gains in scientific knowledge, but no significant changes in student beliefs regarding the…

  4. Environmental philosophy: response to critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sahotra

    2014-03-01

    The following piece is a response to the critiques from Frank, Garson, and Odenbaugh. The issues at stake are: the definition of biodiversity and its normativity, historical fidelity in ecological restoration, naturalism in environmental ethics, and the role of decision theory. The normativity of the concept of biodiversity in conservation biology is defended. Historical fidelity is criticized as an operative goal for ecological restoration. It is pointed out that the analysis requires only minimal assumptions about ethics. Decision theory is presented as a tool, not a domain-limiting necessary requirement for environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Control of Behavior: Human and Environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhoe, Ralph Wendell

    1972-01-01

    Theological perspective on human and environmental behavior, with a view toward man's ultimate concerns or longest range values and the ultimate controls of behavior. Maintains that all human behavior and destiny is ultimately in the hand of a transcendent power which prevails over any human errors.'' (LK)

  6. The Effects of Message Framing on Response to Environmental Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joel J.

    1995-01-01

    Explores how the framing of environmental communication influences attitudes and environmentally responsible behaviors. Finds that communication that discussed losses (rather than gains) to the current (rather than future) generation gave rise to the most positive responses and the highest levels of intent to participate in…

  7. Environmental concern and environmentally responsible behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, environmental concern has been conceptualised as the manifestation of attitudes that are directed at behavioural intentions of active personal involvement in caring about environmental matters. Based on a critique of theoretical approaches towards understanding the formation of environmental attitudes, ...

  8. Can Environmental Education Increase Student-Athletes' Environmental Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullenbach, Lauren E.; Green, Gary T.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental education was incorporated within a mentoring program (i.e. treatment group) for student-athletes at the University of Georgia. These student-athletes' environmental attitudes, behavioral intent, knowledge, self-efficacy, self-regulatory learning, motivation, and learning strategies were assessed before and after their environmental…

  9. The Importance of Pro-Environmental Behavior in Adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palupi, Tyas; Sawitri, Dian R.

    2018-02-01

    Studies regarding pro-environmental behavior in adolescents are lacking. This study aimed to examine the importance of pro-environmental behavior in adolescents (high school and university students) by conducting literature review from previous studies on pro environmental behavior. Pro-environmental behavior is the behavior of individuals that contributes towards environmental preservation. Based on previous studies, measurement of pro-environmental behavior were investigated on several theories, namely theory of planned behavior (TPB) and value, belief, norms (VBN) by using aspects of pro environmental behavior. Young people with critical thinking, and good environmental education, are expected to behave more environmentally friendly for creating a sustainable future.

  10. The Effects of Issue Investigation and Action Training on Eighth-Grade Students' Environmental Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Reports the instructional effects of a formal environmental education methodology, issue investigation and action training (IIAT), on eighth-grade students. Focuses on whether IIAT can improve responsible environmental behavior in middle school students and whether variables associated with responsible adult environmental behavior will be…

  11. Consumer and producer environmental responsibility. Comparing two approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Joao; Domingos, Tiago

    2008-01-01

    Two different indicators of 'environmental responsibility' were independently proposed by Rodrigues et al. [Rodrigues, J., Domingos, T., Giljum, S., Schneider, F., 2006. Designing an indicator of environmental responsibility. Ecological Economics, 59 (3): 256-266.] and Lenzen et al. [Lenzen, M., Murray, J., Sack, F., Wiedmann, T., 2007. Shared producer and consumer responsibility - theory and practice. Ecological Economics, 61: 27-42.]. These indicators are both supposed to reflect the indirect effects of consumer and producer behavior in the generation of environmental pressure. In this paper we compare their mathematical properties and interpretation. We conclude that they have different implications for environmental policy. (author)

  12. Environmental behavior of inorganic anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.; Fellows, R.J.; Wildung, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Recent efforts have addressed two aspects of anion behavior in the soil/plant system. The first involves evaluation of the gaseous component of the terrestrial iodine cycle in soils and plants. Field analyses of 129 I in soils and vegetation adjacent to a fuels reprocessing facility, which was idle for 10 years prior to the study, indicated that there may be a significant gaseous component to the terrestrial iodine cycle. Soil substrates, including a silt-sand, organic forest soil, quartz sand, and a sterilized soil, were amended with radioiodide, and the rates and quality of the volatile components evaluated

  13. Emotional Responses to Multisensory Environmental Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Schreuder

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available How we perceive our environment affects the way we feel and behave. The impressions of our ambient environment are influenced by its entire spectrum of physical characteristics (e.g., luminosity, sound, scents, temperature in a dynamic and interactive way. The ability to manipulate the sensory aspects of an environment such that people feel comfortable or exhibit a desired behavior is gaining interest and social relevance. Although much is known about the sensory effects of individual environmental characteristics, their combined effects are not a priori evident due to a wide range of non-linear interactions in the processing of sensory cues. As a result, it is currently not known how different environmental characteristics should be combined to effectively induce desired emotional and behavioral effects. To gain more insight into this matter, we performed a literature review on the emotional effects of multisensory stimulation. Although we found some interesting mechanisms, the outcome also reveals that empirical evidence is still scarce and haphazard. To stimulate further discussion and research, we propose a conceptual framework that describes how environmental interventions are likely to affect human emotional responses. This framework leads to some critical research questions that suggest opportunities for further investigation.

  14. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    The currently used concept of personal or moral norms is ambiguous with regard to its motivational content. Therefore, a revision of the norm taxonomy is suggested, implying a distinction between three types of personal norms, called introjected, identified, and integrated norms. A preliminary as...... is also supported, with the reservation that the different behavioural references are more than just different methods of measuring the same latent construct(s). People evidently hold different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours.......The currently used concept of personal or moral norms is ambiguous with regard to its motivational content. Therefore, a revision of the norm taxonomy is suggested, implying a distinction between three types of personal norms, called introjected, identified, and integrated norms. A preliminary...... assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...

  15. Corporate Responsible Behavior in Multinational Enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to analyze how leadership influenced corporate responsible behavior in a complex multinational organization with ethical principles imposed by concrete actions on regulatory, environmental and international labor issues. Increasing functional specialization, multinational...... diversification and global expansion also diluted those values. Originality/value: Corporate responsible behavior is a significant challenge in large organizations with many and diverse multinational stakeholders. Ethical conduct derives from executive morality, but the role of leaders as instigators...... diversity and business acquisitions challenged the core values and called for more formal enforcement. Core values executed through investment in positive economic externalities enhanced the reputation and facilitated sustainable collaborative solutions. Design/methodology/approach: This single-case study...

  16. Behavioral patterns of environmental performance evaluation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanxin; Mauerhofer, Volker

    2016-11-01

    During the past decades numerous environmental performance evaluation programs have been developed and implemented on different geographic scales. This paper develops a taxonomy of environmental management behavioral patterns in order to provide a practical comparison tool for environmental performance evaluation programs. Ten such programs purposively selected are mapped against the identified four behavioral patterns in the form of diagnosis, negotiation, learning, and socialization and learning. Overall, we found that schemes which serve to diagnose environmental abnormalities are mainly externally imposed and have been developed as a result of technical debates concerning data sources, methodology and ranking criteria. Learning oriented scheme is featured by processes through which free exchange of ideas, mutual and adaptive learning can occur. Scheme developed by higher authority for influencing behaviors of lower levels of government has been adopted by the evaluated to signal their excellent environmental performance. The socializing and learning classified evaluation schemes have incorporated dialogue, participation, and capacity building in program design. In conclusion we consider the 'fitness for purpose' of the various schemes, the merits of our analytical model and the future possibilities of fostering capacity building in the realm of wicked environmental challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Consumer Behavior and Sustainable Development in China: The Role of Behavioral Sciences in Environmental Policymaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dias Simões

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available China’s astonishing economic development over the last decades has produced a momentous impact on the country’s environmental equilibrium. Chinese officials are now confronted with the need to tackle environmental problems without disrupting the country’s development. The Chinese government seems keen on striking a balance between these two apparently contradictory goals by promoting the concept of “ecological civilization”, a notion that emphasizes the importance of individual behavior. Over the last few years, environmental policymaking worldwide has been giving a lower profile to the role of the State and placing increasing responsibility for many environmental issues on citizens/consumers. Individuals are increasingly perceived as agents for environmental change and their behaviors are subject to tighter scrutiny. Due to the emergence of a consumer society in China, individual behaviors are increasingly a source of environmental problems and a key component of efficient and long-lasting solutions. Accordingly, Chinese policymakers should recognize the environmental significance of individual behaviors and look beyond traditional policy tools. This article argues that Behavioral Sciences can offer important lessons and help in designing new strategies that can speak directly to the Chinese people as a source of environmental harm, thus reducing their impact on the environment.

  18. Environmental Education and Behaviour: The Case of Corporate Social-Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Brian

    1981-01-01

    Addresses the potential effects of environmental education on corporate behavior and social and environmental impact by examining connections between human behavior and environmental problems, the role of the modern corporation, a behavioral theory of the firm, and corporate social responsibility. (DC)

  19. Environmental Education and Behavioral Change: An Identity-Based Environmental Education Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effectiveness of environmental education (EE) programs at fostering ecologically responsible behavior is analyzed through the lens of psychology. In section 1, a critique of knowledge and attitude appeals is presented using contemporary psychological understandings of these constructs to show why many EE programs have been met…

  20. Responsible energy planning and environmental stewardship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses the idea that operating in the best interests of the environment is also in the best interests of shareholders. Topics discussed include utility environmental policy, cost-effective recycling of materials, environmental impact of new power sources, and energy efficiency. The author states that being environmentally responsible goes beyond good business, it is the right thing to do

  1. Environmental pollution and plant responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, S.B.; Agrawal, M. [Banaras Hindu Univ. (India)

    1999-11-01

    This is a comprehensive book that presents and analyses the most current research on the causal factors contributing to the deteriorating environmental quality and its effect on plant performance. It presents a holistic approach to environmental problem throughout the world; covers recent trends in understanding mechanism of action individually and in combination with other factors; evaluates recent trends of information on global climatic change issues and its consequences; and gives management strategies to be followed for abating the problem.

  2. Environmental Behavior's Dirty Secret: The Prevalence of Waste Management in Discussions of Environmental Concern and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Rachelle K.; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Biggar, Matt; Cravens, Amanda E.; Wojcik, Deb

    2016-08-01

    Humankind and the planet face many thorny environmentally related challenges that require a range of responses, including changing behaviors related to transportation, eating habits, purchasing, and myriad other aspects of life. Using data from a 1201-person survey and 14 Community Listening Sessions (CLSs), we explore people's perceptions of and actions taken to protect the environment. Our data indicate a striking prevalence of waste management-related actions. Survey respondents described actions and concerns related to trash, recycling, and composting as the most common environmental behaviors; similarly, participants in CLSs discussed waste-related topics, for which we did not prompt, as frequently as those topics for which we specifically prompted. Explanations for this prevalence emerging from the data include (1) the nature of waste-related behaviors (concrete, supported by infrastructure, simple, compatible with lifestyle); (2) norms and social dynamics (family interactions, feelings of belonging/participation, government policy); and (3) internal psychological processes (internalized norms and environmental concern). We also found that many waste-related discussions were relatively superficial, focusing on immediate waste-related issues (e.g., litter or recycling) rather than larger issues such as consumption. Our results may provide insight into future efforts to encourage pro-environmental behavior. Given that most pro-environmental behavior involves tasks more complex and lifestyle-changing than those related to simple aspects of waste management, we suggest focusing on the latter two intertwined categories that our data suggest are important: encouraging social dynamics and related development of norms concerning environmental behavior (category 2), and fostering internalized norms and environmental concern (category 3).

  3. Education and Environmentalism: Ecological World Views and Environmentally Responsible Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaikie, Norman

    1993-01-01

    Examined a subsample of students from the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology to determine the extent to which an Ecological World View (EWV) has been adapted, an EWV related to environmental behavior, and the role education plays in the type of EWV adapted. Includes the Ecological World View Scale. (Contains 21 references.) (MDH)

  4. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) Pacific Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  5. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). CERCLA, commonly known as...

  6. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  7. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®), Great Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  8. Monitoring adaptive genetic responses to environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.M.; Olivieri, I.; Waller, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Widespread environmental changes including climate change, selective harvesting and landscape alterations now greatly affect selection regimes for most organisms. How animals and plants can adapt to these altered environments via contemporary evolution is thus of strong interest. We discuss how...... for selection and establishing clear links between genetic and environmental change. We then review a few exemplary studies that explore adaptive responses to climate change in Drosophila, selective responses to hunting and fishing, and contemporary evolution in Daphnia using resurrected resting eggs. We...

  9. Understanding Attitudes and Pro-Environmental Behaviors in a Chilean Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás C. Bronfman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection and restoration are some of the major challenges faced by our society. To address this problem, it is fundamental to understand pro-environmental behaviors in the population, as well as the factors that determine them. There are, however, very few studies conducted in Latin America that are focused in understanding the environmental behavior of its citizens. The main goal of this research was to study the environmental behaviors of a Chilean community and identify the factors that determine them. To that end, a diverse set of environmental behaviors (power and water conservation, environmentally-aware consumer behavior, biodiversity protection, rational automobile use and ecological waste management and sociodemographic and attitudinal factors—based on the VBN model—were evaluated. Survey data was obtained from a statistically representative sample (N = 1537 in Santiago, Chile. Our results suggest that several participants displayed tendencies that favor more responsible environmental behaviors, with high environmental concern, and demonstrating their ample awareness of the consequences of failing to protect the environment. Nevertheless, the highest average scores of environmental behavior were related to low cost behaviors and those that imposed the fewest behavioral restrictions. In global terms, we concluded that the youngest subjects in the lowest socioeconomic group obtained the lowest scores across the pro-environmental behavior spectrum.

  10. Macroecology of Environmental Change Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard

    . The connection of these findings to global warming warrant further investigation, but has the potential to change our perspective of climate change as a destabilizing factor in wildlife communities at large spatial scales. The potential for cold- and warm-adapted species to coexist during climate warming......Human induced changes in the earth system, such as anthropogenic climate change, cause loss of biodiversity that feed back as food, health and environmental challenges for human society. Climate change is one of the main threats to biodiversity and human society due to its global manifestation...... with climate change being proposed as one of the causes. The chapter investigates the evidence for recent increases in tropical precipitation and primary productivity to cause a recovery in migrant populations. It presents novel evidence for two dichotomies in the effect of such “re-greening”. Over yearly time...

  11. Students' Environmental Responsibility and Their Willingness to Pay for Green Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaran, Sharmin; Celik, Bilge Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore environmental attitudes and how such attitudes, when combined with a specific cost, can affect environmental behavior. Environmental attitudes are important to study due to the rising belief by building occupants that they are owed safe, healthy, environmentally responsible, and comfortable living…

  12. An extension of consumer environmental behavior research among expatriates

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuian, Shahid N.; Amyx, Douglas A.; Shamma, Hamad M.

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of research has explored different configurations of consumer environmental beliefs, attitudes, and values, and their influence on consumer environmental behavior. It is essential that a more comprehensive understanding of what lies at the root of consumer environmental beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviors be developed. This study aims to address some of the limitations in the current literature by theorizing and examining a consumer environmental behavior model that includes th...

  13. Exposure-response relationships for environmental use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the following exposure-response relationships that can be used for assessing the impact of environmental noise: • Lden - annoyance relationships from the EU Position Paper on exposure-response relationships for transportation noise annoyance (EC-WG/2 2002; Env.

  14. Operational Flexibility Responses to Environmental Uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Kent D.

    1994-01-01

    This study develops and tests a behavioral model of organizational changes in operational flexibility. Regression results using an international data set provide strong support for the general proposition that uncertainties associated with different environmental components--poitical, government policy, macroeconomic, competitive, input and product demand uncertainties--have different implications for firm internal, locational, and supploer flexibility. Slack acts as a buffer attenuating, a...

  15. Environmental enrichment delays pup-induced maternal behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Phyllis E; Gervais, Kristen J

    2011-05-01

    Adult, virgin rats do not spontaneously display maternal behavior when exposed to foster pups. However, continuous daily exposure of the female to foster pups for about 5-7 days can induce a set of maternal behaviors similar to those shown by postpartum dams. Induction latencies depend upon a number of factors, including the stress and anxiety levels of the female. The goal of this study was to attempt to mitigate the likely stressfulness of being singly housed during testing by enriching the rat's home cage environment and to determine if the concomitant environmental change would alter the latency to express maternal behavior. In addition, the effect of varying the number of test pups used for testing was examined. Two groups of virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were first tested on the elevated plus maze after 1 week of exposure to either control (standard housing) or enriched conditions. One week later, maternal behavior testing began using one or three pups. Upon completion of maternal behavior testing, plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined following a mild stressor. The data indicate that enrichment tends to increase anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze. In addition, enrichment delayed the onset of maternal behavior irrespective of the number of test pups. There were no effects of environmental enrichment on plasma corticosterone levels following exposure to a stressor. These results indicate that what is considered a modestly enriched environment delays the expression of pup-oriented responses and does not apparently reduce stress or improve performance on all behavioral tasks. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cellular responses to environmental DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the conference entitled Cellular Responses to Environmental DNA Damage held in Banff,Alberta December 1--6, 1991. The conference addresses various aspects of DNA repair in sessions titled DNA repair; Basic Mechanisms; Lesions; Systems; Inducible Responses; Mutagenesis; Human Population Response Heterogeneity; Intragenomic DNA Repair Heterogeneity; DNA Repair Gene Cloning; Aging; Human Genetic Disease; and Carcinogenesis. Individual papers are represented as abstracts of about one page in length.

  17. Transforming Environmental Knowledge into Behavior: The Mediating Role of Environmental Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmi, Nurit; Arnon, Sara; Orion, Nir

    2015-01-01

    The present study was based on the premise that environmental knowledge can drive environmental behavior only if it arouses environmental emotions. Using a structural equations modeling approach, we tested the direct, as well as the indirect (mediated) effects of knowledge on behavior and assessed the mediating role of environmental emotions. We…

  18. Responsible leader behavior in health sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, Beaufort

    2017-02-06

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to expand attention to responsible leader behavior in the world's health sectors by explaining how this concept applies to health sectors, considering why health sector leaders should behave responsibly, reviewing how they can do so, and asserting potential impact through an applied example. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a viewpoint, reflecting conceptualizations rooted in leadership literature which are then specifically applied to health sectors. A definition of responsible leader behavior is affirmed and applied specifically in health sectors. Conceptualizations and viewpoints about practice of responsible leader behavior in health sectors and potential consequences are then discussed and asserted. Findings Leadership failures and debacles found in health, but more so in other sectors, have led leadership researchers to offer insights, many of them empirical, into the challenges of leadership especially by more clearly delineating responsible leader behavior. Practical implications Much of what has been learned in the research about responsible leader behavior offers pathways for health sector leaders to more fully practice responsible leadership. Social implications This paper asserts and provides a supporting example that greater levels of responsible leader behavior in health sectors hold potentially important societal benefits. Originality/value This paper is the first to apply emerging conceptualizations and early empirical findings about responsible leader behavior specifically to leaders in health sectors.

  19. Incident Command System - Environmental Unit responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S. O.

    1997-01-01

    The Incident Command System (ICS) for crisis management, used for response to oil spills by the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company throughout its facilities, including the Trans Alaska Pipeline and the Valdez Marine Terminal, was described. Special attention was given to the Environmental Unit within the ICS which functions as a primary support unit for the Incident Operations Section. Details of the Unit's function were provided. These include the collection, evaluation and dissemination of information on all environmental issues concerning the crisis, provision of advice and direction on environmental aspects, and up-front agency interaction. A checklist of tasks is included. 7 refs

  20. Relationships among social and environmental responsibility and business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Soriana Sitnikov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of an economy can be achieved through socially responsible behavior of companies in both the balanced development of labour and environmental protection as well as in responsible consumption of non-renewable resources. This paper aims to highlight the impact of the implementation of quality management systems on increasing responsibility for companies on sustainable management of human and natural resources. First, we perform a quantitative analysis to determine the effects of the adoption of ISO 14000 on the evolution of greenhouse gases. Secondly, we take a qualitative research on the impact of the adoption of ISO 26000 as a national standard. Based on three essential factors of production (labour, nature and capital we propose a model of sustainable development based on the three pillars: social responsibility, environmental protection and business

  1. Environmental mineralogy - Understanding element behavior in ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown Jr, G.E.; Calas, G.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental Mineralogy has developed over the past decade in response to the recognition that minerals are linked in many important ways with the global ecosystem. Minerals are the main repositories of the chemical elements in Earth's crust and thus are the main sources of elements needed for the development of civilization, contaminant and pollutant elements that impact global and local ecosystems, and elements that are essential plant nutrients. These elements are released from minerals through natural processes, such as chemical weathering, and anthropogenic activities, such as mining and energy production, agriculture and industrial activities, and careless waste disposal. Minerals also play key roles in the biogeochemical cycling of the elements, sequestering elements and releasing them as the primary minerals in crustal rocks undergo various structural and compositional transformations in response to physical, chemical, and biological processes that produce secondary minerals and soils. These processes have resulted in the release of toxic elements such as arsenic in groundwater aquifers, which is having a major impact on the health of millions of people in South and Southeast Asia. The interfaces between mineral surfaces and aqueous solutions are the locations of most chemical reactions that control the composition of the natural environment, including the composition of natural waters. The nuclear fuel cycle, from uranium mining to the disposition of high-level nuclear waste, is also intimately related to minerals. A fundamental understanding of these processes requires molecular-scale information about minerals, their bulk structures and properties such as solubility, their surfaces, and their interactions with aqueous solutions, atmospheric and soil gases, natural organic matter, and biological organisms. Gaining this understanding is further complicated by the presence of natural, incidental, and manufactured nano-particles in the environment, which

  2. Immune Response in Mussels To Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Stephen C.; Facher, Evan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of mussels in measuring the extent of chemical contamination and its variation in different coastal regions. Presents an experiment to introduce students to immune response and the effects of environmental pollution on marine organisms. Contains 14 references. (JRH)

  3. Improving ecological response monitoring of environmental flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alison J; Gawne, Ben; Beesley, Leah; Koehn, John D; Nielsen, Daryl L; Price, Amina

    2015-05-01

    Environmental flows are now an important restoration technique in flow-degraded rivers, and with the increasing public scrutiny of their effectiveness and value, the importance of undertaking scientifically robust monitoring is now even more critical. Many existing environmental flow monitoring programs have poorly defined objectives, nonjustified indicator choices, weak experimental designs, poor statistical strength, and often focus on outcomes from a single event. These negative attributes make them difficult to learn from. We provide practical recommendations that aim to improve the performance, scientific robustness, and defensibility of environmental flow monitoring programs. We draw on the literature and knowledge gained from working with stakeholders and managers to design, implement, and monitor a range of environmental flow types. We recommend that (1) environmental flow monitoring programs should be implemented within an adaptive management framework; (2) objectives of environmental flow programs should be well defined, attainable, and based on an agreed conceptual understanding of the system; (3) program and intervention targets should be attainable, measurable, and inform program objectives; (4) intervention monitoring programs should improve our understanding of flow-ecological responses and related conceptual models; (5) indicator selection should be based on conceptual models, objectives, and prioritization approaches; (6) appropriate monitoring designs and statistical tools should be used to measure and determine ecological response; (7) responses should be measured within timeframes that are relevant to the indicator(s); (8) watering events should be treated as replicates of a larger experiment; (9) environmental flow outcomes should be reported using a standard suite of metadata. Incorporating these attributes into future monitoring programs should ensure their outcomes are transferable and measured with high scientific credibility.

  4. Improving Ecological Response Monitoring of Environmental Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alison J.; Gawne, Ben; Beesley, Leah; Koehn, John D.; Nielsen, Daryl L.; Price, Amina

    2015-05-01

    Environmental flows are now an important restoration technique in flow-degraded rivers, and with the increasing public scrutiny of their effectiveness and value, the importance of undertaking scientifically robust monitoring is now even more critical. Many existing environmental flow monitoring programs have poorly defined objectives, nonjustified indicator choices, weak experimental designs, poor statistical strength, and often focus on outcomes from a single event. These negative attributes make them difficult to learn from. We provide practical recommendations that aim to improve the performance, scientific robustness, and defensibility of environmental flow monitoring programs. We draw on the literature and knowledge gained from working with stakeholders and managers to design, implement, and monitor a range of environmental flow types. We recommend that (1) environmental flow monitoring programs should be implemented within an adaptive management framework; (2) objectives of environmental flow programs should be well defined, attainable, and based on an agreed conceptual understanding of the system; (3) program and intervention targets should be attainable, measurable, and inform program objectives; (4) intervention monitoring programs should improve our understanding of flow-ecological responses and related conceptual models; (5) indicator selection should be based on conceptual models, objectives, and prioritization approaches; (6) appropriate monitoring designs and statistical tools should be used to measure and determine ecological response; (7) responses should be measured within timeframes that are relevant to the indicator(s); (8) watering events should be treated as replicates of a larger experiment; (9) environmental flow outcomes should be reported using a standard suite of metadata. Incorporating these attributes into future monitoring programs should ensure their outcomes are transferable and measured with high scientific credibility.

  5. Civil legal responsibility for environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia's EU accession process has actualised the need to harmonise our legislation with the common legal regulations of the European community of nations. The accelerated economic growth produces environmental challenges associated with harmful emissions. This paper gives an account of international declarations, conventions, directives and other state and civil society instruments of legal protection against the environmental damage. A special focus is placed on our positive legislation and enforcement of legal regulations in ensuring the civil legal responsibility, i.e. prevention of the occurrence of damage and indemnification for the damage caused.

  6. Caring about Tomorrow: Future Orientation, Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmi, Nurit

    2013-01-01

    Almost any pro-environmental behavior arouses a temporal conflict, as protecting long-term interests requires the sacrifice of short-term ones. Similarly, many health promoting behaviors may involve present discomfort for the sake of future well-being. In both contexts, health or environmental, developed future orientation (FO) is required to…

  7. Variables That Influence the Environmental Behavior of Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Anat; Orion, Nir; Leshem, Yossi

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on understanding the factors that encourage adults' environmental behavior. This mixed approach methodology study used 10 Likert type questionnaires to collect data about nine cognitive and affective components that might influence environmental behavior. The qualitative data was collected through open questions and interviews.…

  8. Environmental attitudes, knowledge, intentions and behaviors among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Debra Siegel; Strube, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    College students (N = 90) reported their pro-environment behaviors as well as their pro-environment intentions, their explicit and implicit attitudes about the environment, and their knowledge about environmental issues. Intentions and knowledge significantly and independently predicted behavior. Environmental knowledge was not significantly related to attitudes. Implicit and explicit attitudes were significantly but only moderately related. Only explicit attitudes, however, were strongly related to intentions, and intentions completely mediated the influence of explicit attitudes on behavior. Men were found to be more knowledgeable than women about environmental issues; older students had more favorable implicit and explicit environmental attitudes. This research suggests that knowledge about the environment and explicit attitudes influence behavior through different pathways, which may have implications for interventions seeking to increase environmentally friendly behavior.

  9. Responsibility for health: personal, social, and environmental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, D B

    2007-08-01

    Most of the discussion in bioethics and health policy concerning social responsibility for health has focused on society's obligation to provide access to healthcare. While ensuring access to healthcare is an important social responsibility, societies can promote health in many other ways, such as through sanitation, pollution control, food and drug safety, health education, disease surveillance, urban planning and occupational health. Greater attention should be paid to strategies for health promotion other than access to healthcare, such as environmental and public health and health research.

  10. Features of legal mechanism environmental responsibility of citizens in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Шинкарьов

    2015-05-01

    assigned by the Constitution and the current environmental legislation; 2 the ability to voluntarily adhere to legal prohibitions; 3 in good faith execute obligations in living activities. Paper objective. The main forms of implementing the environmental responsibilities by  citizens are analyzed; the factors influencing them are defined. It was studied general theoretical understanding of the stages, as well as forms of the implementation of rules of law. Traditionally among the last there are: compliance and execution. A special form of implementation is application. Whereas the compliance - is the first and foremost (universal form by which all subjects of public relations execute their obligations (both active and passive. The implementation of environmental responsibilities of citizens in the form of the compliance is a good behavior, which is characterized by passive confinement of persons (or inaction on the infringement of the rules and bars which are set by regulations of the environmental       legislation.  The execution is expressed in commission of  actions provided  for by law by the subject. This is implementation of binding rules, however, the responsibilities are contained not only in the regulatory legal acts, but also in the contracts and individual documents. The application as a special form of the law implementation differs from the compliance and the execution that it is carried out by non-citizens, but only by those public authorities that are entitled to do so by law. The application of the law - it is an action of qualified government authorities or local authorities, which by law is delegated the right to apply ecological and legal regulations in order to implement the relevant environmental requirements, rules and prohibitions and they are provided if necessary (in case of violation mechanism of state coercion. Paper main body. It is noted that the legal arrangement for implementing environmental responsibilities is to be in: a the

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN AND GREEN PURCHASING BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Kasim Tatic; Merima Cinjarevic

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to establish the relationship between environmental concern and consumers’ green purchasing behavior. A survey instrument was developed that used scales to measure general environmental beliefs (HEP-NEP general environmental beliefs questions) and consumer’s intention to buy environmental friendly products. Data were collected from a convenient (non-probability sampling method) sample of 150 consumers in the Sarajevo region. The results indicated that significant pos...

  12. From Environmental Awareness to Environmental Responsibility: Towards a Stewardship Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoogun, Ajayi C.; Egbonyi, Etuki E.; Onnoghen, Usang N.

    2016-01-01

    The period of environmentalism heightened environmental concern and subsequently the emergence of Environmental Education (EE) that is anchored on awareness. It is thought that an increase in environmental awareness will reverse the misuse of the environment and its resources. Four decades after the international call for Environmental Education,…

  13. Entrepreneur environment management behavior evaluation method derived from environmental economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Hou, Xilin; Xi, Fengru

    2013-12-01

    Evaluation system can encourage and guide entrepreneurs, and impel them to perform well in environment management. An evaluation method based on advantage structure is established. It is used to analyze entrepreneur environment management behavior in China. Entrepreneur environment management behavior evaluation index system is constructed based on empirical research. Evaluation method of entrepreneurs is put forward, from the point of objective programming-theory to alert entrepreneurs concerned to think much of it, which means to take minimized objective function as comprehensive evaluation result and identify disadvantage structure pattern. Application research shows that overall behavior of Chinese entrepreneurs environmental management are good, specially, environment strategic behavior are best, environmental management behavior are second, cultural behavior ranks last. Application results show the efficiency and feasibility of this method. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Corporate environmental strategy and responsiveness to external stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, Geerten

    1997-01-01

    Paper to be presented at the 13th EGOS Colloquium "Organisational Responses to Radical Environmental Changes", Budapest University of Economic Sciences, Budapest, July 3-5, 1997. Sub-theme 6: Responses to the Environmental Challenge in Organisation Studies.

  15. The mechanisms for social and environmentally responsible agricultural land use

    OpenAIRE

    Ye. Mishenin; I. Yarova

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with arguments that the most effective mechanism for greening use of land resources is to increase the level of social and environmental responsibility. The mechanisms for social and environmentally responsible agricultural land use are formed.

  16. Beliefs and environmental behavior: the moderating effect of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Luzón, Maria Carmen; Calvo-Salguero, Antonia; Salinas, Jose Maria

    2014-12-01

    Recent decades have seen a proliferation of studies aiming to explain how pro-environmental behavior is shaped by attitudes, values and beliefs. In this study, we have included an aspect in our analysis that has been rarely touched upon until now, that is, the intelligent use of emotions as a possible component of pro-environmental behavior. We applied the Trait Meta Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24) and the New Environmental Paradigm scale to a sample of 184 male and female undergraduate students. We also carried out correlation and hierarchical regression analyses of blocks. The results show the interaction effects of the system of environmental beliefs and the dimensions of emotional intelligence on glass recycling attitudes, intentions and behavior. The results are discussed from the perspective of research on how the management of emotions guides thought and behavior. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Anticipating the Environmental Impacts and Behavioral Drivers of Deep Decarbonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is seeking regular and early career applications proposing research that will contribute to an improved ability to understand and anticipate the public health and environmental impacts and behavioral drivers of significant changes in energy consumption

  18. A Comparative Study of Canadian and Taiwanese Grade 5 Children's Environmental Behaviors, Attitudes, Concerns, Emotional Dispositions, and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Ping; Yore, Larry D.

    This study explored the cultural influences on children's self-reported environmental actions, perceptions, and understandings; investigated the relationships among the behavioral, affective, cognitive, and demographic variables; and developed models of children's responsible environmental behavior (Huang, 2001). The cross-cultural comparison…

  19. The Interplay among Environmental Attitudes, Pro-Environmental Behavior, Social Identity, and Pro-Environmental Institutional Climate. A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Gabriele; Albanesi, Cinzia; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    By using a panel design in a sample of 298 undergraduate/master students at an Italian public university, the present study aimed to test longitudinally the interplay among environmental attitudes, pro-environmental behavior, social identity, and pro-environmental institutional climate. The relationships were tested with cross-lagged analysis…

  20. WAEA Keynote Address Behavioral Environmental Economics: Money Pumps & Nudges

    OpenAIRE

    Shogren, Jason F.

    2012-01-01

    Herein we explore how money pumps from rational choice theory and nudges from behavioral economics work toward helping create better environmental policy. We examine the role of money pumps in environmental policy, and whether policymakers can use nudges to "supercharge" incentives. We summarize insight that has emerged from both camps in the areas of conflict/cooperation and mechanism design.

  1. Measurement and determinants of environmentally significant consumer behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gatersleben, B.C.M.; Steg, L.; Vlek, C.A.J.

    Measures of proenvironmental behavior in psychological studies do not always reflect the actual environmental impact of a person or household. Therefore, the results of these studies provide little insight into variables that could be helpful in reducing household environmental impact. In this

  2. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...... for REM sleep behavior disorder....

  3. Pro-environmental behavior: rational choice meets moral motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Rama Mohana R; Howarth, Richard B; Borsuk, Mark E

    2010-01-01

    The determinants of individual behaviors that provide shared environmental benefits are a longstanding theme in social science research. Alternative behavioral models yield markedly different predictions and policy recommendations. This paper reviews and compares the literatures from two disciplines that appear to be moving toward a degree of convergence. In social psychology, moral theories of pro-environmental behavior have focused on the influence of personal moral norms while recognizing that external factors, such as costs and incentives, ultimately limit the strength of the norm-behavior relationship. Rational choice models, such as the theory of planned behavior in social psychology and the theories of voluntary provision of public goods in economics, have sought to incorporate the effects of personal norms and to measure their importance in explaining behaviors, such as recycling and the demand for green products. This paper explores the relationship between these approaches and their implications for the theory and practice of ecological economics.

  4. Individual and environmental influences on adolescent eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; French, Simone

    2002-03-01

    Food choices of adolescents are not consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Food intakes tend to be low in fruits, vegetables, and calcium-rich foods and high in fat. Skipping meals is also a concern among adolescents, especially girls. Factors influencing eating behaviors of adolescents need to be better understood to develop effective nutrition interventions to change eating behaviors. This article presents a conceptual model based on social cognitive theory and an ecological perspective for understanding factors that influence adolescent eating behaviors and food choices. In this model, adolescent eating behavior is conceptualized as a function of individual and environmental influences. Four levels of influence are described: individual or intrapersonal influences (eg, psychosocial, biological); social environmental or interpersonal (eg, family and peers); physical environmental or community settings (eg, schools, fast food outlets, convenience stores); and macrosystem or societal (eg, mass media, marketing and advertising, social and cultural norms).

  5. Safe and Responsible Online Behaviors for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hsien L. Chen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet makes new learning opportunities possible for children by offering vast amount of resources and powerful communication means Oftentimes, the Internet is the first resource children choose for information seeking. Other than schoolwork related resources,the Internet. contains unlimited interesting and entertaining information for children. As going online becomes a favorite pastime for millions of children,teachers and parents need to caution children about the negative side of the Internet. They need to teach children online safety and responsibility, and further,monitor their online behaviors. The article, first, discusses the possible threats to childrens online safety, including potential sex offenders, pornographic materials,and unethical marketing tactics aimed at children. Then, it addresses unethical and irresponsible behaviors, such as plagiarism, spamming, and hacking, which are committed or may be committed by children. Finally, the article explains how teachers and parents can help children become responsible and ethical Internet users.

  6. Dynamism of Stimuli-Responsive Nanohybrids: Environmental Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Plazas-Tuttle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterial science and design have shifted from generating single passive nanoparticles to more complex and adaptive multi-component nanohybrids. These adaptive nanohybrids (ANHs are designed to simultaneously perform multiple functions, while actively responding to the surrounding environment. ANHs are engineered for use as drug delivery carriers, in tissue-engineered templates and scaffolds, adaptive clothing, smart surface coatings, electrical switches and in platforms for diversified functional applications. Such ANHs are composed of carbonaceous, metallic or polymeric materials with stimuli-responsive soft-layer coatings that enable them to perform such switchable functions. Since ANHs are engineered to dynamically transform under different exposure environments, evaluating their environmental behavior will likely require new approaches. Literature on polymer science has established a knowledge core on stimuli-responsive materials. However, translation of such knowledge to environmental health and safety (EHS of these ANHs has not yet been realized. It is critical to investigate and categorize the potential hazards of ANHs, because exposure in an unintended or shifting environment could present uncertainty in EHS. This article presents a perspective on EHS evaluation of ANHs, proposes a principle to facilitate their identification for environmental evaluation, outlines a stimuli-based classification for ANHs and discusses emerging properties and dynamic aspects for systematic EHS evaluation.

  7. Home Environmental and Behavioral Risk Indices for Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeanette; Ennis, Chelsea R; Hart, Sara A; Mikolajewski, Amy J; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this study was to identify home environmental and temperament/behavior variables that best predict standardized reading comprehension scores among school-aged children. Data from 269 children aged 9-16 ( M = 12.08; SD = 1.62) were used in discriminant function analyses to create the Home and Behavior indices. Family income was controlled in each index. The final Home and Behavior models each classified around 75% of cases correctly (reading comprehension at grade level vs. not). Each index was then used to predict other outcomes related to reading. Results showed that Home and/or Behavior accounted for 4-7% of the variance in reading fluency and spelling and 20-35% of the variance in parent-rated problems in math, social anxiety, and other dimensions. These metrics show promise as environmental and temperament/behavior risk scores that could be used to predict and potentially screen for further assessment of reading related problems.

  8. Environmental Enrichment Effect on Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolites and Captive Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carlyle Mendes; de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini; Guimarães, Marcelo Alcino de Barros Vaz; Young, Robert John

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is a technique that may reduce the stress of nonhuman animals in captivity. Stress may interfere with normal behavioral expression and affect cognitive decision making. Noninvasive hormonal studies can provide important information about the stress statuses of animals. This study evaluated the effectiveness of different environmental enrichment treatments in the diminution of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (stress indicators) of three captive maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). Correlations of the fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels with expressed behaviors were also determined. Results showed that environmental enrichment reduced fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels. Furthermore, interspecific and foraging enrichment items were most effective in reducing stress in two of the three wolves. No definite pattern was found between behavioral and physiological responses to stress. In conclusion, these behavioral and physiological data showed that maned wolves responded positively from an animal well being perspective to the enrichment items presented.

  9. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Scoping Review of Observational Studies Examining Relationships between Environmental Behaviors and Health Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Hutchinson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Individual lifestyles are key drivers of both environmental change and chronic disease. We undertook a scoping review of peer-reviewed studies which examined associations between environmental and health behaviors of individuals in high-income countries. We searched EconLit, Medline, BIOSIS and the Social Science Citation Index. A total of 136 studies were included. The majority were USA-based cross-sectional studies using self-reported measures. Most of the evidence related to travel behavior, particularly active travel (walking and cycling and physical activity (92 studies or sedentary behaviors (19 studies. Associations of public transport use with physical activity were examined in 18 studies, and with sedentary behavior in one study. Four studies examined associations between car use and physical activity. A small number included other environmental behaviors (food-related behaviors (n = 14, including organic food, locally-sourced food and plate waste and other health behaviors ((n = 20 smoking, dietary intake, alcohol. These results suggest that research on individual environmental and health behaviors consists largely of studies examining associations between travel mode and levels of physical activity. There appears to be less research on associations between other behaviors with environmental and health impacts, and very few longitudinal studies in any domain.

  11. Environmental behavior and analysis of agricultural sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Corey M; Woodrow, James E; Seiber, James N

    2015-11-01

    Sulfur has been widely used for centuries as a staple for pest and disease management in agriculture. Presently, it is the largest-volume pesticide in use worldwide. This review describes the sources and recovery methods for sulfur, its allotropic forms and properties and its agricultural uses, including development and potential advantages of nanosulfur as a fungicide. Chemical and microbial reactivity, interactions in soil and water and analytical methods for determination in environmental samples and foodstuffs, including inexpensive analytical methods for sulfur residues in wine, beer and other food/beverage substrates, will be reviewed. The toxicology of sulfur towards humans and agriculturally important fungi is included, with some restrictions on use to promote safety. The review concludes with areas for which more research is warranted. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Emotional responses to behavioral economic incentives for health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan J; Prast, Henriëtte M

    2018-03-05

    Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals do not get their prize but receive feedback on what their forgone earnings would have been. This counterfactual feedback should provoke anticipated regret and increase commitment to health goals. We explored which emotions were actually expected upon missing out on a prize due to unsuccessful weight loss and which incentive-characteristics influence their likelihood and intensity. Participants reported their expected emotional response after missing out on a prize in one of 12 randomly presented incentive-scenarios, which varied in incentive type, incentive size and deadline distance. Participants primarily reported feeling disappointment, followed by regret. Regret was expected most when losing a lottery prize (vs. a fixed incentive) and intensified with prize size. Multiple features of the participant and the lottery incentive increase the occurrence and intensity of regret. As such, our findings can be helpful in designing behavioral economic incentives that leverage emotions to support health behavior change.

  13. The Microbiome-Gut-Behavior Axis: Crosstalk Between the Gut Microbiome and Oligodendrocytes Modulates Behavioral Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntranos, Achilles; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2018-01-01

    Environmental and dietary stimuli have always been implicated in brain development and behavioral responses. The gut, being the major portal of communication with the external environment, has recently been brought to the forefront of this interaction with the establishment of a gut-brain axis in health and disease. Moreover, recent breakthroughs in germ-free and antibiotic-treated mice have demonstrated the significant impact of the microbiome in modulating behavioral responses in mice and have established a more specific microbiome-gut-behavior axis. One of the mechanisms by which this axis affects social behavior is by regulating myelination at the prefrontal cortex, an important site for complex cognitive behavior planning and decision-making. The prefrontal cortex exhibits late myelination of its axonal projections that could extend into the third decade of life in humans, which make it susceptible to external influences, such as microbial metabolites. Changes in the gut microbiome were shown to alter the composition of the microbial metabolome affecting highly permeable bioactive compounds, such as p-cresol, which could impair oligodendrocyte differentiation. Dysregulated myelination in the prefrontal cortex is then able to affect behavioral responses in mice, shifting them towards social isolation. The reduced social interactions could then limit microbial exchange, which could otherwise pose a threat to the survival of the existing microbial community in the host and, thus, provide an evolutionary advantage to the specific microbial community. In this review, we will analyze the microbiome-gut-behavior axis, describe the interactions between the gut microbiome and oligodendrocytes and highlight their role in the modulation of social behavior.

  14. Environmental competence : the interplay between connection with nature and environmental knowledge in promoting ecological behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roczen, N.

    2011-01-01

    The ultimate goal of environmental education is to advance people’s ecological performance, and not only to pass on knowledge. To be able to promote people's ecological behavior, the preceding abilities and dispositions have to be identified. In this dissertation, we conceptualize environmental

  15. Exploring Environmental Identity and Behavioral Change in an Environmental Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2013-01-01

    This ethnographic study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States investigates the process of change in students' environmental identity and proenvironmental behaviors during an Environmental Science course. The study explores how sociocultural factors, such as students' background, social interactions, and classroom structures,…

  16. Environmental Protection Agency Award Recipient Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itemized Award Phase information. Information about the Recipient's Responsibilities Upon Notification of the Award, The EPA Project Officer Responsibilities, and EPA Grant Specialists Responsibilities.

  17. Firm behavior, environmental externalities and public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Earnest Markell, IV

    This dissertation consists of three essays which examine environmental policy, employer mandates and energy consumption. The essays explore how firms respond to government policies such as environmental regulation and employer mandates. Understanding how firms adjust to government policies is crucial to law makers attempting to design optimal policies that maximize net benefits to society. The first essay, titled Who Loses under Power Plant Cap-and-Trade Programs tests how a major cap-and-trade program, known as the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), affected labor markets in the region where it was implemented. The cap-and-trade program dramatically decreased levels of NOx emissions and added substantial costs to energy producers. Using a triple-differences approach that takes advantage of the geographic and time variation of the program as well as variation in industry energy-intensity levels, I examine how employment dynamics changed in manufacturing industries whose production process requires high levels of energy. After accounting for a variety of flexible state, county and industry trends, I find that employment in the manufacturing sector dropped by 1.7% as a result of the NBP. Young workers experienced the largest employment declines and earnings of newly hired workers fell after the regulation began. Employment declines are shown to have occurred primarily through decreased hiring rates rather than increased separation rates, thus mitigating the impact on incumbent workers. The second essay, titled Evaluating Workplace Mandates with Flows versus Stocks: An Application to California Paid Family Leave uses an underexploited data set to examine the impact of the California Paid Family Leave program on employment outcomes for young women. Most papers on mandated benefits examine labor outcomes by looking at earnings and employment levels of all workers. Examining these levels will be imprecise if the impacts of the program develop over time and firms are wary

  18. The dark side of ISO 14001: The symbolic environmental behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ferrón Vílchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the academic research on ISO 14001 has focused on analyzing the benefits of its adoption. However, this international standard has also received some criticism, particularly in respect of the adoption of ISO 14001 when not accompanied by significant improvements in environmental performance. This study analyzes the relationship between the symbolic environmental behavior and the adoption of ISO 14001. In so doing, it uses binary logistic regression to analyze an international sample of 1961 manufacturing facilities that each employs more than 50 people. The results indicate that the higher the symbolic environmental performance of the firm, the greater the probability of adopting ISO 14001.

  19. The relationship between Corporate Environmental Responsibility, employees’ biospheric values and pro-environmental behaviour at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruepert, Angela Maria; Keizer, Kees; Steg, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Many organizations strive for Corporate Environmental Responsibility (CER). This can make organizational processes and procedures more pro-environmental, but does it also promote employees’ pro-environmental behaviour? We reason that CER can encourage employees to act pro-environmentally at work by

  20. Environmental behavior of technetium-99 and iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, T.R.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental behavior of technetium-99 and iodine-129 was once thought to be similar, particularly with respect to their soil solubility and biological interactions. Over the past several years, the comparative behavior of these two anions has been studied with respect to their fate in natural environments (both aquatic and terrestrial). The mechanisms studied include physical, chemical and biological parameters that account for differences in soil behavior, cycling between soil and/or air to vegetation, adsorption and metabolism in plants, and their availability and fate following ingestion by animals

  1. The Main Drivers of Environmentally Responsible Behaviour in Lithuanian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Preserving environmental and natural resources is one of the most important challenges for ensuring the sustainability of well-being over time. One can notice that measuring of environmental indicators related to environmentally responsible behaviour is complicated and demanding task. It is also important to define the main drivers of environmentally responsible development. The objective of this paper is to provide comparatives analysis of indicators of environmentally responsible behaviour in the Baltic States by comparing and assessing them in terms of the EU-28 average and to present the main drivers of environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuania. Environmentally responsible behaviour is related to resource and energy savings, use of renewable energy sources, waste sorting and recycling, wastewater disposal etc. Comparative assessment of environmentally responsible behaviour indicators in the Baltic States indicated that all these indicators are bellow the EU-average, except the use of renewable energy sources. The main drivers of consumption behaviour in Lithuania were assessed by applying households surveys in order to define the major issues of concern and to develop relevant policies targeting these issues. Age, gender, education, and income of Lithuanian residents do not have impact on environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuanian households (energy saving, buying energy efficient electric appliances, willingness to pay electricity from renewable energy sources use of biofuels. Only environmental awareness has impact on energy saving behaviour at home and use of biofuels in cars and waste recycle.

  2. Science and Mathematics Teacher Candidates' Environmental Knowledge, Awareness, Behavior and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumusak, Ahmet; Sargin, Seyid Ahmet; Baltaci, Furkan; Kelani, Raphael R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure science and mathematics teacher candidates' environmental knowledge level, awareness, behavior and environmental attitudes. Four instruments comprising Environmental Sensitivity Scale, environmental Behavior Scale, Environmental Attitudes Scale and Environmental Knowledge Test were administered to a total…

  3. Normative, gain and hedonic goal frames guiding environmental behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses new developments about goal-dependent framing and multiple goal frames (sometimes also called "multiple motives"), which are highly relevant for understanding environmental behavior. We introduce goal-framing theory, which postulates that goals "frame" the way people process

  4. Impact of Hydrophobic Pollutants' Behavior on Occupational and Environmental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijeoma Kanu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the influence of hydrophobic pollutant behavior on environmental hazards and risks. The definition and examples of hydrophobic pollutants are given as a guide to better understand the sources of release and the media of dispersion in the environment. The properties and behavior of hydrophobic pollutants are described and their influence on environmental hazard and risk is reviewed and evaluated. The overall outcome of the assessment and evaluation showed that all hydrophobic pollutants are hazardous and risky to all organisms, including man. Their risk effects are due to their inherent persistence, bioaccumulation potential, environmental mobility, and reactivity. Their hazardous effects on organisms occur at varying spatial and temporal degrees of emissions, toxicities, exposures, and concentrations.

  5. Environmental variation and population responses to global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawson, Callum R.; Vindenes, Yngvild; Bailey, Liam; van de Pol, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Species' responses to environmental changes such as global warming are affected not only by trends in mean conditions, but also by natural and human-induced environmental fluctuations. Methods are needed to predict how such environmental variation affects ecological and evolutionary processes, in

  6. Environmental reference of enterprises social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara K. Zuzek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some considerations to take over the realm of entrepreneurial responsibility for the environment. It discusses the concept of ecological trends responsibility. Evidence indicates inclusion of small and medium-sized enterprises in the area of responsibility. Business responsibilities towards the environment as a basis for making voluntary commitments are presented.

  7. Effects of Environmental Variables on Eating Behavior in Rats: a Conceptual and Historical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Jesús Díaz-Reséndiz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to show the effects of environmental variableson the eating behavior in rats. The eating behavior and its relatedvariables have been analyzed since a variety of perspectives. The presentreview included studies in which rats were used as subjects and the totalfood intake or any operant response related to obtaining food was registered.Two variables, inter access-to-food interval and access-to-food duration, aresuggested as possible integrating variables given that both are common tomany experimental procedures. These variables set the occasion for developingan animal experimental model that includes cases related to eatinghuman behavior such as anorexia or bulimia.

  8. Environmental effects on the ontogeny of exploratory and escape behaviors of Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M M; Galet, B G

    1982-03-01

    Mongolian gerbils reared in standard laboratory cages and gerbils reared in cages containing a burrowlike shelter did not differ in their rate of development of escape responses to sudden visual stimulation. The presence of shelter in the rearing environment did, however, markedly slow the development of adult-like patterns of exploration. Reduced exposure to illumination, experienced by shelter-reared subjects, proved responsible for this retardation of development. The effect of shelter-rearing on the development of exploratory behavior is interpreted as demonstrating an environmentally induced maintenance of an adaptive juvenile pattern of behavior.

  9. Competition, predation and species responses to environmental change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Lin; Kulczychi, A. [Rutgers Univ., Cook College, Dept. of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Despite much effort over the past decade on the ecological consequences of global warming, ecologists still have little understanding of the importance of interspecific interactions in species responses to environmental change. Models predict that predation should mitigate species responses to environmental change, and that interspecific competition should aggravate species responses to environmental change. To test this prediction, we studied how predation and competition affected the responses of two ciliates, Colpidiumstriatum and Parameciumtetraurelia, to temperature change in laboratory microcosms. We found that neither predation nor competition altered the responses of Colpidiumstratum to temperature change, and that competition but not predation altered the responses of Paramecium tetraurelia to temperature change. Asymmetric interactions and temperature-dependent interactions may have contributed to the disparity between model predictions and experimental results. Our results suggest that models ignoring inherent complexities in ecological communities may be inadequate in forecasting species responses to environmental change. (au)

  10. Moderating Effects of Trust on Environmentally Significant Behavior in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Gin Moon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To treat environmental problems and to seek sustainable development, voluntary and cooperative efforts, which is really against the traditional mentality with the emphasis on the individual competitive optimization, became the key to maintain the sustainability of complex social and ecological systems. To understand the cooperative and voluntary individual’s environmentally significant behavior (ESB, this paper focuses on the role of trust, and assesses the effect of trust on the relationship between existing factors and ESB. A structural equation model (SEM is constructed to estimate the moderating effects of trust on ESB in Korea. We found that people with a negative view on strict environmental regulations do not exhibit ESB and thus nudge policies could be much more effective than the forceful measure. It is noteworthy that public private partnership, as a kind of optimal trust, should be more promoted in the environmental protection policies.

  11. Goal inferences about robot behavior : goal inferences and human response behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broers, H.A.T.; Ham, J.R.C.; Broeders, R.; De Silva, P.; Okada, M.

    2014-01-01

    This explorative research focused on the goal inferences human observers draw based on a robot's behavior, and the extent to which those inferences predict people's behavior in response to that robot. Results show that different robot behaviors cause different response behavior from people.

  12. Plant transcriptomics and responses to environmental stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atta-ur-Rehman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12 Campus, Islamabad 25000, Pakistan; Stress Physiology Lab Department of Botany, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, India; Centre for Environmental Research, Near East University, 33010, Lefkosha, Turkish Republic ...

  13. Developmental and environmental responsibilities of the "Rechtsstaat"

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    definition relates to human activity in a very general and all-embracing manner. It is an ethical principle which is not based upon a binding legal source or on actual ... new dimension when it comes to planning and the calculation of costs.7 ... of no avail to look for a direct contribution to a solution for environmental protection.

  14. Developmental and environmental responsibilities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In no circumstances can the state legalize the ecological aspect, for this will presuppose state interference in the economic system, therefore violation a principle of the Rechsstaat. Environmental protection could thus easily be misused as the basis for allowing the state to directly manipulate the economic process. The state ...

  15. Environmentally Responsible Trade and Its Importance for Sustainable Forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Maxymets

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the environmental component of trade, primarily foreign trade, which concerns the interests of many countries. It examines the reciprocal influence of foreign trade and the environment. The author defines environmentally responsible trade and formulates its main principles. She examines the development of trade in forest products globally and in Ukraine and evaluates the impact of different trade restrictions on the condition of forests and the forestry industry. Indicators of the efficiency of foreign trade from the economic and environmental perspectives are proposed. Underlining the need for enterprises to switch over to environmentally responsible trade, the author proposes instruments to achieve this end.

  16. Normative, gain and hedonic goal frames guiding environmental behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Steg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses new developments about goal-dependent framing and multiple goal frames (sometimes also called "multiple motives"), which are highly relevant for understanding environmental behavior. We introduce goal-framing theory, which postulates that goals "frame" the way people process information and act upon it. Three goal frames are distinguished: a hedonic, gain, and normative goal frame. In general, multiple goals are active at any given time, which may (or may not) be compat...

  17. Green consumption and pro-environmental behaviors in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Viciunaite, Viktorija

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is dedicated to finding out how to encourage an increase in green consumption and pro-environmental behaviors. The analysis was based on both qualitative and quantitative data, collected in Kaunas, Lithuania. The quantitative analysis was based on data collected from 112 surveys; the information gathered from the surveys was used for a logistic regression in order to find predictors of green consumption and for Pearson’s chi-square tests to see if the differences between green and ...

  18. Sensory Systems and Environmental Change on Behavior during Social Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bierbower

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of environmental conditions for transmitting sensory cues and the ability of crayfish to utilize olfaction and vision were examined in regards to social interactive behavior. The duration and intensity of interactions were examined for conspecific crayfish with different sensory abilities. Normally, vision and chemosensory have roles in agonistic communication of Procambarus clarkii; however, for the blind cave crayfish (Orconectes australis packardi, that lack visual capabilities, olfaction is assumed to be the primary sensory modality. To test this, we paired conspecifics in water and out of water in the presence and absence of white light to examine interactive behaviors when these various sensory modalities are altered. For sighted crayfish, in white light, interactions occurred and escalated; however, when the water was removed, interactions and aggressiveness decreased, but, there was an increase in visual displays out of the water. The loss of olfaction abilities for blind cave and sighted crayfish produced fewer social interactions. The importance of environmental conditions is illustrated for social interactions among sighted and blind crayfish. Importantly, this study shows the relevance in the ecological arena in nature for species survival and how environmental changes disrupt innate behaviors.

  19. STIMULATING SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION THROUGH SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL BUSINESS BEHAVIOR: AN STUDY IN WALMART BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minelle Enéas da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Under a market dynamic current, increasingly new behaviors of business are required in relation to the social and environmental aspects. Thus, considering the emergence of a new consumption paradigm, this paper aims to identify how a social and environmental behavior of Wal-Mart Brazil can be stimulating an effective sustainable consumption in the supermarket retail. According to this idea, this research had a qualitative approach and was conducted by a case of study, in which we identified that with an incorporation of responsible practices exist a stimulus to sustainable consumption in the retail studied, in order to a new behavior in the company. For this, we can identify that was necessary a set of social interactions that contribute with a different perspective.

  20. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Ergen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of age. The results show that environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems are all meaningful factors in environmentally friendly buying behavior. It was found that the most explanatory variables are environmental activism for proactive environmentally friendly buying behavior and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems for optional environmentally friendly buying behavior. The study is significant since it will offer insights for green marketing experts who especially target specific segments as activists, voluntary simplifiers or green consumers in Turkey.

  1. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Ergen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of age. The results show that environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems are all meaningful factors in environmentally friendly buying behavior. It was found that the most explanatory variables are environmental activism for proactive environmentally friendly buying behavior and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems for optional environmentally friendly buying behavior. The study is significant since it will offer insights for green marketing experts who especially target specific segments as activists, voluntary simplifiers or green consumers in Turkey.

  2. Pivotal behavior as the mediator of the relationship between parental responsiveness and children's symbolic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Hao; Lin, Chu-Sui; Mahoney, Gerald; Cheng, Shu-Fen; Chang, Shu-Hui

    2017-08-01

    Previous research with parents and children with developmental disabilities indicated that the relationship between mothers' responsive style of interaction and children's rate of development was mediated by the simultaneous relationship between mothers' responsiveness and children's social engagement, or pivotal behavior. In this study, we attempted to determine whether children's pivotal behavior might also mediate the relationship between responsiveness and child development in a sample of 165 typically developing toddlers and their Taiwanese parents. Child development was assessed with a parent report measure of children's symbolic behavior. Parental responsiveness and children's pivotal behavior were assessed from observations of parent-child play. Results indicated that parental responsiveness was correlated with children's pivotal behavior, and that both of these variables were correlated with children's symbolic behavior. Structural equation models indicated that the relationship between responsiveness and children's symbolic behavior was fully mediated by children's pivotal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Metaphor, Architectural Design, and Environmental Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Muller

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Value-laden articulations of the task of the architect guide manners of working - the concerns, inspirations and procedures given priority. Architectural practices in turn determine the nature of the physical constructs that result. If architects are contributing to environmental degradation by designing buildings that are inefficient and unhealthy, and a pressing need exists to advance more life enhancing, sustaining practices, then perhaps environmentally concerned architects ought not only work towards the creation of better performing, more resourceful building assemblies, but also to engage in basic reflection as to how design problems are expressed and the environmental receptivity such expressions reveal. By tracing the lineage binding utterance to practice to making, we might come to recognize that even subtle shifts in articulation can alter outcomes dramatically. Through such newfound awareness, we are open and encouraged to reexamine the architect’s role, to new descriptions of architecture, and to the possibility of deeper attunement and constructive engagement with our world. In their recent edited anthology on sustainable architectures, Simon Guy and Steven Moore suggest “while we might support and even encourage critical engagement with abstract theory about environmentalism, we are not interested in simply playing language games.” Although word play should not be the sole focus of our efforts, in a profession so reliant on effective communication, we should not underestimate the facility of language as constitutive of meaning. This paper explores metaphors as one potentially transformative means by which designers come to understand and describe the works they undertake. It examines the role of metaphors as agents of innovation, capable of heightening awareness of attributes often overlooked or undervalued, yet perhaps of critical significance given the particularities of a design problem seeking explication. This paper

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY MODEL BASED ON ISO 14000 MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina SITNIKOV

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide corporations, as well as their stakeholders, are more conscious of the need for environmental management, SR behaviour, and sustainable growth and development. International Standards are becoming more significant for corporations to work towards common environmental management practices. ISO 14001 is the first and the broadest standard intended at a more responsible approach of corporations and the world’s most acknowledged framework for environmental management systems that assists corporations to better manage the effect of their activities on the environment. This article aims to study ISO 14001 implementation and its effects on the environmental responsibility. A model will be built, which covers the environmental management system, the components of organizational culture, being able to influence environmental standards implementation.

  5. Appeals to consumer responsibility and improving structural conditions as means to promote sustainable consumer behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    for their acts or (b) structural conditions determined by governments? In field experiments with large samples of ordinary consumers, the behavioral effects of perceptions of responsibility/personal moral norms and of altering an important structural condition are quantified by measuring a relevant behavior......-developed public transit service. The results suggest that there is often more to gain from changing structural conditions to be more facilitating for the desired behavior than from a campaign targeting consumer feelings of responsibility.......Environmental policy-makers increasingly emphasize consumers' responsibility for environmental side effects of their acts, but is this justified? This paper investigates which is the most important limiting factor for sustainable consumption: (a) the extent to which consumers assume responsibility...

  6. Modeling adaptive and non-adaptive responses to environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coulson, Tim; Kendall, Bruce E; Barthold, Julia A.

    2017-01-01

    , with plastic responses being either adaptive or non-adaptive. We develop an approach that links quantitative genetic theory with data-driven structured models to allow prediction of population responses to environmental change via plasticity and adaptive evolution. After introducing general new theory, we...... construct a number of example models to demonstrate that evolutionary responses to environmental change over the short-term will be considerably slower than plastic responses, and that the rate of adaptive evolution to a new environment depends upon whether plastic responses are adaptive or non-adaptive....... Parameterization of the models we develop requires information on genetic and phenotypic variation and demography that will not always be available, meaning that simpler models will often be required to predict responses to environmental change. We consequently develop a method to examine whether the full...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY MODEL BASED ON ISO 14000 MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina SITNIKOV

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide corporations, as well as their stakeholders, are more conscious of the need for environmental management, SR behaviour, and sustainable growth and development. International Standards are becoming more significant for corporations to work towards common environmental management practices. ISO 14001 is the first and the broadest standard intended at a more responsible approach of corporations and the world’s most acknowledged framework for environmental management systems that assist...

  8. Social Environmental Correlates of Health Behaviors in a Faith-Based Policy and Environmental Change Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermstad, April; Honeycutt, Sally; Flemming, Shauna StClair; Carvalho, Michelle L; Hodge, Tarccara; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle C; Arriola, Kimberly R Jacob

    2018-03-01

    Diet and physical activity are behavioral risk factors for many chronic diseases, which are among the most common health conditions in the United States. Yet most Americans fall short of meeting established dietary and physical activity guidelines. Faith-based organizations as settings for health promotion interventions can affect members at multiple levels of the social ecological model. The present study investigated whether change in the church social environment was associated with healthier behavior at church and in general at 1-year follow-up. Six churches received mini-grants and technical assistance for 1 year to support policy and environmental changes for healthy eating (HE) and physical activity (PA). Socioenvironmental (social support and social norms) and behavioral (HE and PA at church and in general) outcomes were derived from baseline and 1-year follow-up church member surveys ( n = 258). Three of six churches demonstrated significant improvements in all three socioenvironmental aspects of HE. Two of five churches exhibited significant socioenvironmental improvements for PA at follow-up. Church social environmental changes were related to health behaviors at church and in general ( p Change in social support for HE, social support for PA, and social norms for PA were each associated with three church-based and general behavioral outcomes. Social norms for healthy eating were related to two general behavior outcomes and social norms for unhealthy eating to one general behavioral outcome. Study findings demonstrate that socioenvironmental characteristics are essential to multilevel interventions and merit consideration in designing policy and environmental change interventions.

  9. Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®), Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) is a web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) tool that assists both emergency responders and...

  10. Response planning and environmental risk analysis, state of Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundlach, E.R.; Marben, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Alaska Dept. of Environmental Conservation (ADEC), a multitasked study was undertaken to determine the relative risk of noncrude oil transport (including marine and freshwater), the status of spill response capability in the state, and the need and most appropriate locations for siting spill response deposits. The project used multidisciplinary transport and environmental data analyzed in a geographic information system (GIS) to enable various scenarios and data changes to be easily visualized. The evaluation concerned (a) designation of significant environmental risk areas, (b) environmentally sensitive areas and fish and wildlife likely to be affected, (c) the level of response capability appropriate for protecting the environment, (d) the adequacy of current capabilities for noncrude vessels, (e) the feasibility of establishing one or more response cooperatives for use by multiple carriers, and (f) other steps that could be taken to reduce the risk of a spill and facilitate control and cleanup

  11. Canada's Fashion Industry--Can It Be Environmentally Responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Kim; Capjack, Linda

    1993-01-01

    Consumers must realize how vital the fur industry is to Canada, and those within the industry must educate consumers about both sides of the environmental story. The Canadian textile and apparel industries also must take a proactive role in promoting environmentally responsible actions. (JOW)

  12. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2006-01-01

    is carried out based on a survey of residents of Denmark. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally responsible behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source separating compostable kitchen waste, and using public transportation for work...... of correlation between norm constructs and between norms and behaviour vary between behaviours. Hence, respondents seem to apply different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours....

  13. The Stepwise Behavioral Responses: Behavioral Adjustment of the Chinese Rare Minnow (Gobiocypris rarus in the Exposure of Carbamate Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongming Ren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to illustrate the behavioral regulation in environmental stress, the behavioral responses of the Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus to arprocarb, carbofuran, and oxamyl were analyzed with an online monitoring system. The Self-Organizing Map (SOM was used to define the patterns of the behavioral data obtained from treatments at concentrations of 0.1 toxic unit (TU, 1 TU, 2 TU, 5 TU, 10 TU, and 20 TU and a control. In certain cases, differences among the carbamate pesticides (CPs tested were observed. The profiles of behavioral strength (BS in SOM varied according to the concentration used. The time of the first significant decrease of the BS varied inversely with the CP concentrations. The results suggested that the behavioral regulation in the stepwise behavioral responses (SBR was evident. The primary movement behaviors shown by the SBR model included no effect, stimulation, acclimation, adjustment (readjustment, and toxic effect, especially at the lower concentrations. However, higher stress (10 TU and 20 TU might limit the function of the behavioral adjustment produced by the intrinsic response mechanisms. It was concluded that SBR, which were affected by both the concentration and the exposure time, could be used as a suitable indicator in the ecotoxicological risk assessment of CPs.

  14. The effects of environmental resource and security on aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Henry Kin Shing; Chow, Tak Sang

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to different environments has been reported to change aggressive behavior, but previous research did not consider the underlying elements that caused such an effect. Based on previous work on environmental perception, we examined the role of environmental resource and security in altering aggression level. In three experiments, participants were exposed to environments that varied in resource (High vs. Low) and security (High vs. Low) levels, after which aggression was measured. The environments were presented through visual priming (Experiments 1-2) and a first-person gameplay (Experiment 3). We observed a consistent resource-security interaction effect on aggression, operationalized as the level of noise blast (Experiment 1) and number of unpleasant pictures (Experiments 2-3) delivered to strangers by the participants. High resource levels associated with higher aggression in insecure conditions, but lower aggression in secure conditions. The findings suggest that the adaptive value of aggression varies under different environmental constraints. Implications are discussed in terms of the effects of adverse environments on aggression, and the nature's effects on social behavior. Aggr. Behav. 43:304-314, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Development and Examination of Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Bijen FİLİZ; Gıyasettin DEMİRHAN

    2018-01-01

    In this study, “Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale (PSRB-S)” was developed in order to determine students’ responsibility behaviors in accordance with “Personal and Social Responsibility” model developed by Don Hellison and students’ personal and social responsibility levels were examined in terms of gender, age and years of sport practice through this scale. Pertaining to personal and social dimension of responsibility, four-category Likert type trial scale consisting of 52 i...

  16. Environmental Enrichment Ameliorates Behavioral Impairments Modeling Schizophrenia in Mice Lacking Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Emma L; McOmish, Caitlin E; Buret, Laetitia S; Van den Buuse, Maarten; Hannan, Anthony J

    2015-07-01

    Schizophrenia arises from a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Abnormalities in glutamatergic signaling have been proposed to underlie the emergence of symptoms, in light of various lines of evidence, including the psychotomimetic effects of NMDA receptor antagonists. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) has also been implicated in the disorder, and has been shown to physically interact with NMDA receptors. To clarify the role of mGlu5-dependent behavioral expression by environmental factors, we assessed mGlu5 knockout (KO) mice after exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) or reared under standard conditions. The mGlu5 KO mice showed reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI), long-term memory deficits, and spontaneous locomotor hyperactivity, which were all attenuated by EE. Examining the cellular impact of genetic and environmental manipulation, we show that EE significantly increased pyramidal cell dendritic branching and BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus of wild-type mice; however, mGlu5 KO mice were resistant to these alterations, suggesting that mGlu5 is critical to these responses. A selective effect of EE on the behavioral response to the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 in mGlu5 KO mice was seen. MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion was further potentiated in enriched mGlu5 KO mice and treatment with MK-801 reinstated PPI disruption in EE mGlu5 KO mice only, a response that is absent under standard housing conditions. Together, these results demonstrate an important role for mGlu5 in environmental modulation of schizophrenia-related behavioral impairments. Furthermore, this role of the mGlu5 receptor is mediated by interaction with NMDA receptor function, which may inform development of novel therapeutics.

  17. Perceived community environmental influences on eating behaviors: A Photovoice analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace I J

    2016-12-01

    People's perceptions of local food environments influence their abilities to eat healthily. PhotoVoice participants from four communities in Alberta, Canada took pictures of barriers and opportunities for healthy eating and shared their stories in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. Using a socioecological framework, emergent themes were organized by type and size of environment. Findings show that, while availability and access to food outlets influence healthy eating practices, these factors may be eclipsed by other non-physical environmental considerations, such as food regulations and socio-cultural preferences. This study identifies a set of meta-themes that summarize and illustrate the interrelationships between environmental attributes, people's perceptions, and eating behaviors: a) availability and accessibility are interrelated and only part of the healthy eating equation; b) local food is synonymous with healthy eating; c) local food places for healthy eating help define community identity; d) communal dining (commensality) does not necessarily mean healthy eating; e) rewarding an achievement or celebrating special occasions with highly processed foods is socially accepted; f) food costs seemed to be driving forces in food decisions; g) macro-environmental influences are latent in food decisions. Recognizing the interrelationship among multiple environmental factors may help efforts to design effective community-based interventions and address knowledge gaps on how sociocultural, economic, and political environments intersect with physical worlds. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental behavior and effects of technetium-99 and iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, T.R.; Schreckhise, R.G.; Wildung, R.E.; Cadwell, L.L.; McFadden, K.M.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this program is to define the environmental behavior of 99 Tc and 129 I, two long-lived radioactive by-products of the nuclear fuel cycle that have received little study. The specific objectives are to (1) determine the soil physicochemical and microbiological factors and physiological parameters that govern the mobility and bioavailability of different chemical forms of 99 Tc and 129 I in terrestrial and aquatic environments and (2) validate and measure food web transport in selected field locations

  19. An Introduction to Item Response Theory for Health Behavior Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Russell T.; McKyer, E. J. Lisako; Smith, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To introduce item response theory (IRT) to health behavior researchers by contrasting it with classical test theory and providing an example of IRT in health behavior. Method: Demonstrate IRT by fitting the 2PL model to substance-use survey data from the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior questionnaire (n = 1343 adolescents). Results: An…

  20. Play Initiating Behaviors and Responses in Red Colobus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Red colobus monkeys are playful primates, making them an important species in which to study animal play. The author examines play behaviors and responses in the species for its play initiation events, age differences in initiating frequency and initiating behavior, and the types of social play that result from specific initiating behaviors. Out…

  1. Emotional responses to behavioral economic incentives for health behavior change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S.; Mathijssen, Jolanda J.P.; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan J.; Prast, Henriëtte M.

    2018-01-01

    Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals

  2. Emotional Responses to Behavioral Economic Incentives for Health Behavior Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Swaluw, Koen; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Mathijssen, Jolanda; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Polder, Johan; Prast, Henriette

    2018-01-01

    Many people aim to change their lifestyle, but have trouble acting on their intentions. Behavioral economic incentives and related emotions can support commitment to personal health goals, but the related emotions remain unexplored. In a regret lottery, winners who do not attain their health goals

  3. Behavioral Response Research Evaluation Workshop (BRREW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Len Thomas & Catriona Harris Centre for Research into Ecological and Environmental Modelling (CREEM) University of St Andrews St Andrews , UK...Specifically Dr. Hans Slabbekoorn (University of Leiden), Professor Vincent Janik (University of St Andrews ) and Professor Douglas Wartzok (Florida

  4. Corporate environmental responsibility – a key determinant of corporate reputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina GĂNESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the trend of the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate reputation by focusing on a study of the European automotive sector. The starting point of our research is content analysis of the sustainability or social responsibility reports published in 2010, 2011, and 2012 by 13 businesses operating in the European automotive industry. Content analysis was carried out in order to identify the indicators used to assess corporate environmental responsibility. The methodology aimed to produce an evaluation model for corporate environmental responsibility based on the following variables reported by companies: carbon dioxide emissions, water consumption, energy consumption, and amount of waste. Corporate reputation of sampled organizations was assessed based on content analysis of the 2010, 2011, and 2012 reports of the Reputation Institute. We applied the correlation of panel data and emphasised the fact that high levels of corporate environmental responsibility sustain high levels of corporate reputation. The study highlights the theoretical considerations that support this relationship. As companies become increasingly accountable, the methodology described in our study can be developed in further research by using other variables to measure corporate environmental responsibility.

  5. Immigrant Children Promoting Environmental Care: Enhancing Learning, Agency and Integration through Culturally-Responsive Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet-Cohen, Natasha; Reilly, Rosemary C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of culturally-responsive environmental education to engage immigrant early adolescents. Our study suggests that environmental involvement can become a means and an end for children to bridge their school and home in agential ways. Drawing from a multi-phase study involving focus groups with children, parents, and…

  6. Predicting People's Environmental Behaviour: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Model of Responsible Environmental Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Long

    2012-01-01

    Using different measures of self-reported and other-reported environmental behaviour (EB), two important theoretical models explaining EB--Hines, Hungerford and Tomera's model of responsible environmental behaviour (REB) and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB)--were compared regarding the fit between model and data, predictive ability,…

  7. Blocking Avoidance and Escape Responses: Relations With Clinically Relevant Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Bubna Popovitz

    Full Text Available Abstract: The current study aims to evaluate the possible effects of interrupting problematic clinically relevant behaviors on the percentage of these responses and of clinical improvement-related responses. Two clients were treated with Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP, alternating two conditions (ABAB. On condition A, procedures to the therapist consisted of responding to the clinical improvement responses, and to description of outside of therapeutic setting behaviors, but therapists were advised to ignore problem behaviors emitted in session. During condition B, therapists followed the same procedures, but they were oriented to block (interrupt problematic responses emitted in session. Results suggest increase in the percentage of problem behaviors during condition B. Results are discussed, highlighting the viability of planning the contingent response the therapist emits to clinically relevant behaviors.

  8. Developing environmental marketing strategies in the framework of forest sector enterprises social responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    V.T. Polovska

    2012-01-01

    The approaches and methods of social responsibility implementation for developing environmental marketing strategies are examined, environmental marketing objectives for adopting social responsibility in forest sector are determined, principles of socially responsible environmental marketing are formulated.

  9. Corporate Environmental Responsibility in Demand Networks (summary section only)

    OpenAIRE

    Kovács, Gyöngyi

    2006-01-01

    Research on corporate responsibility has traditionally focused on the responsibilities of companies within their corporate boundaries only. Yet this view is challenged today as more and more companies face the situation in which the environmental and social performance of their suppliers, distributors, industry or other associated partners impacts on their sales performance and brand equity. Simultaneously, policy-makers have taken up the discussion on corporate responsibility from the perspe...

  10. Environmental Aspects of Social Responsibility of Public Sector Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Hawrysz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to determining social responsibility policies that affect the market and social actors, certain governments also set objectives related to their internal activity. For example, one of the activities of the German government is to implement the concept of social responsibility into public institutions. In the Netherlands, one of the government tasks is to set an example for responsible practices (government as a role model. The aim of this paper is to examine firstly whether public sector entities set an example for responsible practices, especially with regard to respect for the environment, and secondly, whether public sector organizations in Poland significantly differ from organizations abroad in terms of their practices in the field of environmental protection. A questionnaire was a basis for data collection. The questionnaires were distributed to representatives of deliberately selected public sector organizations located primarily in Europe. The study was conducted in 2012–2013 on a group of 220 public sector organizations (102 Polish and 118 other European. The paper presents only the selected part of research. Public sector organizations in Poland do not have internal mechanisms of environmental responsibility. There is a significant discrepancy between the state of the environmental responsibility of organizations located in Poland and abroad. Obtained results show that public sector organizations, those in Poland in particular, are making their first steps in developing internal environmental responsibility.

  11. Everyday stress response targets in the science of behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joshua M; Sliwinski, Martin J; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Scott, Stacey B; Conroy, David E; Lanza, Stephanie T; Marcusson-Clavertz, David; Kim, Jinhyuk; Stawski, Robert S; Stoney, Catherine M; Buxton, Orfeu M; Sciamanna, Christopher N; Green, Paige M; Almeida, David M

    2018-02-01

    Stress is an established risk factor for negative health outcomes, and responses to everyday stress can interfere with health behaviors such as exercise and sleep. In accordance with the Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program, we apply an experimental medicine approach to identifying stress response targets, developing stress response assays, intervening upon these targets, and testing intervention effectiveness. We evaluate an ecologically valid, within-person approach to measuring the deleterious effects of everyday stress on physical activity and sleep patterns, examining multiple stress response components (i.e., stress reactivity, stress recovery, and stress pile-up) as indexed by two key response indicators (negative affect and perseverative cognition). Our everyday stress response assay thus measures multiple malleable stress response targets that putatively shape daily health behaviors (physical activity and sleep). We hypothesize that larger reactivity, incomplete recovery, and more frequent stress responses (pile-up) will negatively impact health behavior enactment in daily life. We will identify stress-related reactivity, recovery, and response in the indicators using coordinated analyses across multiple naturalistic studies. These results are the basis for developing a new stress assay and replicating the initial findings in a new sample. This approach will advance our understanding of how specific aspects of everyday stress responses influence health behaviors, and can be used to develop and test an innovative ambulatory intervention for stress reduction in daily life to enhance health behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental Stress Responses and Biological Interactions Investigated in the Drosophila Model System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, Michael

    on their ability to respond on a behavioral, physiological, morphological and/or evolutionary level according to the environmental cues. At the same time, if populations are small and fragmented, and have limited gene flow, environmental change and environmental stress might interact with intrinsic genetic stress...... such as inbreeding and genetic drift, which can exacerbate the effects of one or more environmental stresses. Furthermore, inbred populations often have low genetic variation that might constrain evolutionary responses to rapidly changing environments. This thesis investigates how, and to what extent, insect model......When organisms are faced with changes in their environment, they are forced to respond, if they are to maintain optimal function. Especially ectotherms must deal with environmental changes in e.g. temperature on a regular basis, and thus their survival and reproductive success depend...

  13. [Effects of community identity and topophilia on environmentally-conscious behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonami, Hiroshi; Kato, Junzo

    2009-04-01

    This study classified environmentally-conscious behaviors of residents (n = 335) along Lake Biwa as a common goods into personal and group behavioral intentions, and examined the determinants of these intentions. Identification with the community was a social identity, and differed from attachment to Lake Biwa, which was defined as topophilia. The results indicated that group behavior was affected by topophilia, while personal behavior was influenced by general attitudes about the environmental problems of the lake and evaluations of the cost for the behavior. Community identity had a significant effect on both personal and group behavior. Rational or emotional decision making processes resulted in two different types of environmentally-conscious behaviors.

  14. Investigating Factors Affecting Environmental Behavior of Urban Residents: A Case Study in Tehran City- Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil Kalantari; Hossein S.   Fami; Ali Asadi; H. M. Mohammadi

    2007-01-01

    Environmental problems such as air and water pollution, urban garbage and climate changes in urban areas are the results of human behavior. Only change in human behavior can reduce these environmental problems. Thus studying attitude and behavior of people is a precondition to change this situation. So the main objective of this study was to find out individual and social factors affecting environmental behavior of urban citizens. To achieve this objective a conceptual framework derived out f...

  15. Behavioral Responses Of Fish To A Current-Based Hydrokinetic Turbine Under Mutlipe Operational Conditions: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grippo, Mark A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shen, Haixue [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Zydlewski, Gayle [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Rao, Shivanesh [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Goodwin, Andy [United States Army Engineer R & D Center, Vicksburg, MI (United States)

    2017-02-01

    There is significant interest in the interaction of aquatic organisms with current-based marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies. Determining the potential impacts of MHK devices on fish behavior is critical to addressing the environmental concerns that could act as barriers to the permitting and deployment of MHK devices. To address these concerns, we use field monitoring and fish behavior models to characterize the behavioral responses of fish to MHK turbines and infer potential stimuli that may have elicited the observed behavioral changes.

  16. Responsible Tourism: Environmental Actions in Russian Hotel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lumpina, Lolita

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to examine the responsible tourism topic, to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the environmental practices in Russian hotel industry and to investigate the reasons and values to follow the environmentally-friendly programs. The thesis includes theoretical and empirical parts. The theoretical section is based on the special literature, studies, researches, articles and online sources. The theoretical part will be divided into two primal headings: re...

  17. Environmentally Responsible Trade and Its Importance for Sustainable Forestry

    OpenAIRE

    Olena Maxymets

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the environmental component of trade, primarily foreign trade, which concerns the interests of many countries. It examines the reciprocal influence of foreign trade and the environment. The author defines environmentally responsible trade and formulates its main principles. She examines the development of trade in forest products globally and in Ukraine and evaluates the impact of different trade restrictions on the condition of forests and the forestry industry. Indic...

  18. Genetic variability of environmental sensitivity revealed by phenotypic variation in body weight and (its correlations to physiological and behavioral traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Lallias

    Full Text Available Adaptive phenotypic plasticity is a key component of the ability of organisms to cope with changing environmental conditions. Fish have been shown to exhibit a substantial level of phenotypic plasticity in response to abiotic and biotic factors. In the present study, we investigate the link between environmental sensitivity assessed globally (revealed by phenotypic variation in body weight and more targeted physiological and behavioral indicators that are generally used to assess the sensitivity of a fish to environmental stressors. We took advantage of original biological material, the rainbow trout isogenic lines, which allowed the disentangling of the genetic and environmental parts of the phenotypic variance. Ten lines were characterized for the changes of body weight variability (weight measurements taken every month during 18 months, the plasma cortisol response to confinement stress (3 challenges and a set of selected behavioral indicators. This study unambiguously demonstrated the existence of genetic determinism of environmental sensitivity, with some lines being particularly sensitive to environmental fluctuations and others rather insensitive. Correlations between coefficient of variation (CV for body weight and behavioral and physiological traits were observed. This confirmed that CV for body weight could be used as an indicator of environmental sensitivity. As the relationship between indicators (CV weight, risk-taking, exploration and cortisol was shown to be likely depending on the nature and intensity of the stressor, the joint use of several indicators should help to investigate the biological complexity of environmental sensitivity.

  19. Children's Behavior Responses to TV Food Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy-Hepburn, Katherine; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Two preliminary studies of children's responses to TV advertisements demonstrate the complexity of responses and indicate the need for research conducted within a multidisciplinary framework. The use of the entire family as the unit of analysis is suggested. (Author/RH)

  20. Effects of environmental enrichment and paradoxical sleep deprivation on open-field behavior of amphetamine-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushiro, Daniela Fukue; Calzavara, Mariana Bendlin; Trombin, Thaís Fernanda; Lopez, Giorgia Batlle; Abílio, Vanessa Costhek; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2007-11-23

    Environmental enrichment or paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) has been shown to modify some responses elicited by drugs of abuse. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of environmental enrichment and PSD, conducted separately or in association, on open-field behavior elicited by amphetamine (AMP) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to live in either an enriched environmental condition (EC) or a standard environmental condition (SC) for 12 months since weaning. Some of the EC and SC mice were sleep deprived for 48 h, while others were maintained in their home-cages. Immediately after PSD or home-cage stay, the animals received an ip injection of saline, 2.5 mg/kg AMP or 5.0 mg/kg AMP. Fifteen minutes later, their open-field behavior was quantified. Whereas PSD enhanced total and peripheral locomotor activity of acutely AMP-treated mice, environmental enrichment presented only a trend toward enhancement. When PSD and environmental enrichment were combined, an increase in the total and peripheral locomotion frequencies of AMP-treated animals, similar to that observed after PSD, was revealed. In addition, PSD, environmental enrichment or their combination did not modify the effects of AMP on the other open-field behavioral parameters that were analyzed. The present findings demonstrate that some (but not all) of the behavioral effects caused by AMP acute administration can be similarly and specifically enhanced by both environmental enrichment and PSD in C57BL/6 mice.

  1. Relationships among Sensory Responsiveness, Anxiety, and Ritual Behaviors in Children with and without Atypical Sensory Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Bar-Shalita, Tami; Mansour, Hanin; Dar, Reuven

    2017-08-01

    To explore relationships between sensory responsiveness, anxiety, and ritual behaviors in boys with typical and atypical sensory responsiveness. Forty-eight boys, ages 5-9 participated in the study (28 boys with atypical sensory responsiveness and 20 controls). Atypical sensory responsiveness was defined as a score of ≤154 on the Short Sensory Profile. Parents completed the Sensory Profile, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, and the Childhood Routines Inventory. Children with atypical sensory responsiveness had significantly higher levels of anxiety and a higher frequency of ritual behaviors than controls. Atypical sensory responsiveness was significantly related to both anxiety and ritual behaviors, with anxiety mediating the relationship between sensory modulation and ritual behaviors. The findings elucidate the potential consequences of atypical sensory responsiveness and could support the notion that ritual behaviors develop as a coping mechanism in response to anxiety stemming from primary difficulty in modulating sensory input.

  2. Adaptive Feeding behavior and functional responses in pelagic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Saiz, Enrico; Tiselius, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Zooplankton may modify their feeding behavior in response to prey availability and presence of predators with implications to populations of both predators and prey. Optimal foraging theory predicts that such responses result in a type II functional response for passive foragers and a type III re...

  3. Stability and change: Stress responses and the shaping of behavioral phenotypes over the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael B; Kaiser, Sylvia; Tiedtke, Tobias; Sachser, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, maternal signals conveyed via influences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity may shape behavior of the young to be better adapted for prevailing environmental conditions. However, the mother's influence extends beyond classic stress response systems. In guinea pigs, several hours (h) of separation from the mother activates not only the HPA axis, but also the innate immune system, which effects immediate behavioral change, as well as modifies behavioral responsiveness in the future. Moreover, the presence of the mother potently suppresses the behavioral consequences of this innate immune activation. These findings raise the possibility that long-term adaptive behavioral change can be mediated by the mother's influence on immune-related activity of her pups. Furthermore, the impact of social partners on physiological stress responses and their behavioral outcomes are not limited to the infantile period. A particularly crucial period for social development in male guinea pigs is that surrounding the attainment of sexual maturation. At this time, social interactions with adults can dramatically affect circulating cortisol concentrations and social behavior in ways that appear to prepare the male to best cope in its likely future social environment. Despite such multiple social influences on the behavior of guinea pigs at different ages, inter-individual differences in the magnitude of the cortisol response remain surprisingly stable over most of the life span. Together, it appears that throughout the life span, physiological stress responses may be regulated by social stimuli. These influences are hypothesized to adjust behavior for predicted environmental conditions. In addition, stable individual differences might provide a means of facilitating adaptation to less predictable conditions.

  4. Social Behavior, Prolactin and the Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Cunnick, 3. E., Fowler, H. and Rabin, B. S. Pavlovian conditioning of shock-induced suppression of lymphocyte reactivity: Acquisition, extinction, and...1988) produced by electric shock can be conditioned to environmental stimuli such that the presentation of such stimuli in the absence of shock... drugs which induce anxiety suppress many immunological indices. It should be noted that a benzodiazepine antagonist and naloxone given in the absence of

  5. The behavior of Kevlar fibers under environmental-stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark Charles

    There are a myriad of mechanisms by which polymers can degrade and fail. It is therefore important to understand the physical mechanics, chemistry, their interactions, and kinetics. This pursuit becomes more than just "academic" because these mechanisms might just change with service conditions (i.e. environment and loading). If one does not understand these processes from the molecular to macroscopic scale it would be exceedingly difficult to gain information from accelerated testing because the mechanisms just might change from one condition to another. The purpose of this study was to probe these processes on scales ranging from molecular to macroscopic in environmental stress conditions. This study reports the results of environmental-stress degradation of Kevlar 49 fibers. The environmental agent of focus was the ubiquitous air pollutant complex NOsb{x}. Other materials and environments were investigated to a lesser extent for purposes of comparison. Mechanical property (i.e., short-term strength, modulus, and creep lifetime) degradation was examined using single fiber, yarn, and epoxy coated yarn (composite) specimens under environmental-stress conditions. Optical and scanning electron microscopes were employed to examine and compare the appearance of fracture features resulting from the various testing conditions. Atomic force microscopy augmented these studies with detailed topographical mappings and measures of the fracture surface frictional and modulus properties. Molecular processes (i.e., chain scission and other mechanical-chemical reactions) were probed by measures of changes in viscosity average molecular weight and the infrared spectra. It was demonstrated that environmental-stress degradation effects do occur in the Kevlar-NOsb{x} gas system. Strength decay in environmentally exposed unloaded fibers was demonstrated and a synergistic response in creep reduced fiber lifetimes by three orders of magnitude at moderate loadings. That is to say, the

  6. Practical aspects of the environmental behavior of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittel, Robert; Patti, Francois.

    1976-12-01

    Mercury is to be found in the natural environment; yet at very low concentrations it can be toxic for living beings, especially higher animals and man. Its behavior in the physical environment and food chains is highly different according as alkyl compounds are to be found or not. The changes between the various chemical forms of mercury under the dependence of environmental conditions - and especially microbiological life - make it difficult to appreciate the hazards resulting from mercury releases. In spite of the many basic investigations, and on account of the difficulties stated above, the practical aspects of mercury transfers from the production source to man show a number of gaps, except for marine chains. Anyhow, the chief transfers of mercury seem to be: direct atmospheric transfer by inhalation, indirect atmospheric transfer by deposit on certain plants, marine food chains, and perhaps transfer resulting from the use and valorization of wastes [fr

  7. Eating beyond metabolic need: how environmental cues influence feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alexander W

    2013-02-01

    Animals use current, past, and projected future states of the organism and the world in a finely tuned system to control ingestion. They must not only deal effectively with current nutrient deficiencies, but also manage energy resources to meet future needs, all within the constraints of the mechanisms of metabolism. Many recent approaches to understanding the control of ingestive behavior distinguish between homeostatic mechanisms concerned with energy balance, and hedonic and incentive processes based on palatability and reward characteristics of food. In this review, I consider how learning about environmental cues influences homeostatic and hedonic brain signals, which may lead to increases in the affective taste properties of food and desire to over consume. Understanding these mechanisms may be critical for elucidating the etiology of the obesity epidemic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Photon energy response of an aluminum oxide TLD environmental dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsher, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    Because of aluminum oxide's significant advantage in sensitivity (about a factor of 30) over LiF, minimal fading characteristics and ease of processing, aluminum oxide thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDS) are being phased in at Los alamos for environmental monitoring of photon radiation. The new environmental dosimeter design consists of a polyethylene holder, about 0. 5 cm thick, loaded with a stack of four aluminum oxide TLD chips, each 1 mm thick and 5 mm in diameter. As part of the initial evaluation of the new design, the photon energy response of the dosimeter was calculated over the range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. Specific goals of the analysis included the determination of individual chip response in the stack, assessment of the response variation due to TLD material (i.e., LiF versus A1 2 O 3 ), and the effect of copper filtration in flattening the response

  9. The Sensorial Effect: Dynamics of Emotion in Pro-Environmental Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipolito, Joana

    2011-01-01

    In this article, sensorial effects are introduced as emotional stimuli for shaping environmentally significant behaviors. This research provides a link between sensorial effect as ubiquitous environmental behavior feedback and the effect of sensorial stimuli on emotions that trigger individuals' pro-environment behavior. A case study of using…

  10. Extended Producer Responsibility and corporate performance: Effects of environmental regulation and environmental strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Benhong; Tu, Yu; Elahi, Ehsan; Wei, Guo

    2018-07-15

    While contemporary manufacturing technologies stimulate the industrial revolution and promote the rapidly changing global economy, it has caused enormous environmental negative externalities and managing the industrial waste remains a primary challenge, especially for fast developing countries such as China. Though existing studies explored the influence of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) legislations on environmental externalities, only fewer researches aimed at policy issues. Particularly, the relationship among environmental regulations, environmental strategies and corporate performance in the EPR system has not been deeply investigated. To fill this gap, this research will focus to assess the economic aspect and environmental performance associated with the environmental regulations and strategies. For this purpose, 208 cross-sectional questionnaires were administered with three major high-pollution industries, electrical and electronic, automobile and lead-acid storage battery industries. To accomplish this study objective, we employ a two-step approach: firstly, validity tests for environmental regulation and environmental strategy along with the corporate performance are performed by the factor analysis method, and secondly, the structural equation model is utilized to test the study hypotheses. Results reveal that command and control (CAC) and market-based incentive (MBI) environmental regulations are significantly impacting on the reactive environmental strategy (RES); however, the proactive environmental strategy (PES) only has a significant relationship with MBI regulation. On the other hand, RES only has a significant relationship with the enterprises economics performance, while PES has a statistically significant relationship with both economic and environmental performance of enterprises. Therefore, the central government and its local offices are strongly urged to coordinate the industries by making, implementing and monitoring necessary and

  11. Environmental Assessment for the NASA First Response Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    NASA intends to construct a First Response Facility for integrated emergency response and health management. This facility will consolidate the Stennis Space Center fire department, medical clinic, security operations, emergency operations and the energy management and control center. The alternative considered is the "No Action Alternative". The proposed action will correct existing operational weaknesses and enhance capabilities to respond to medical emergencies and mitigate any other possible threats. Environmental impacts include are emissions, wetlands disturbance, solid waste generation, and storm water control.

  12. Corporate environmental responsibility – a key determinant of corporate reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Ganescu; Laura Dindire

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to determine the trend of the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate reputation by focusing on a study of the European automotive sector. The starting point of our research is content analysis of the sustainability or social responsibility reports published in 2010, 2011, and 2012 by 13 businesses operating in the European automotive industry. Content analysis was carried out in order to identify the indicators used to assess corporate enviro...

  13. Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates of Sedentary Behaviors in Spanish Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aznar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate children’s psychosocial and environmental factors associated with sedentary behavior (SB. Method. The study involved a total of 420 children (mean 9.2 years; 52.9% girls from the community of Madrid, Spain. SB and physical activity (PA were objectively measured using accelerometers. TV viewing and potential correlates were assessed by questionnaire. Mixed-model regression analysis, adjusted for clustering within school locations, evaluated the relation of each independent variable with SBs. Results. Girls showed higher levels of SB than boys, whereas boys reported more TV viewing (p<.001 in all cases. Regression analysis showed that MVPA levels were negatively related to objective SB measurement in both boys and girls (p<.001. Parent and friend support to PA were negatively associated with SB on weekdays in boys and girls, respectively (p<.05. In the boys’ group, parental professional level was a positive predictor of SB on weekend days (p=.011. Boys with more positive neighborhood perceptions spent less time watching TV (p<.001, whereas mother’s leisure-time PA level was a negative correlate of TV viewing in girls’ group (p<.01. Conclusion. Different psychosocial and environmental correlates of SB were identified. Present findings are promising targets for interventions to improve children’s health.

  14. Behavioural responses to human-induced environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomainen, Ulla; Candolin, Ulrika

    2011-08-01

    The initial response of individuals to human-induced environmental change is often behavioural. This can improve the performance of individuals under sudden, large-scale perturbations and maintain viable populations. The response can also give additional time for genetic changes to arise and, hence, facilitate adaptation to new conditions. On the other hand, maladaptive responses, which reduce individual fitness, may occur when individuals encounter conditions that the population has not experienced during its evolutionary history, which can decrease population viability. A growing number of studies find human disturbances to induce behavioural responses, both directly and by altering factors that influence fitness. Common causes of behavioural responses are changes in the transmission of information, the concentration of endocrine disrupters, the availability of resources, the possibility of dispersal, and the abundance of interacting species. Frequent responses are alterations in habitat choice, movements, foraging, social behaviour and reproductive behaviour. Behavioural responses depend on the genetically determined reaction norm of the individuals, which evolves over generations. Populations first respond with individual behavioural plasticity, whereafter changes may arise through innovations and the social transmission of behavioural patterns within and across generations, and, finally, by evolution of the behavioural response over generations. Only a restricted number of species show behavioural adaptations that make them thrive in severely disturbed environments. Hence, rapid human-induced disturbances often decrease the diversity of native species, while facilitating the spread of invasive species with highly plastic behaviours. Consequently, behavioural responses to human-induced environmental change can have profound effects on the distribution, adaptation, speciation and extinction of populations and, hence, on biodiversity. A better understanding of

  15. Corporate social responsible costs in the environmental area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Boria-Reverter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To know how the application of environmental politicies facilitates the identification of unknown costs and their next reaction. Moreover we try to determine, if these costs have a connection with the different environmental strategies, which are used. Design/methodology/approach: An empiric study was done through a telephonic survey all over Spain in 2012. The idea was to obtain a representative sample. From 943 companies, the survey was answered by 141 of them. Findings and Originality/value: It is shown the relationship between the costs behavior, knowledge of the unknown and hidden costs with the environmental strategies. Research limitations/implications: To dispose a bigger sample, this allowed us to obtain results in relationship with sectors type and to verify the result for regions. Practical implications: The organizations can be aware of costs reaction, depending on their action in the environmental area. Originality/value: Environmental politicies in the CSR field facilitate unknown or hidden costs detection and they allow their evaluation and the decisions about them. The obtained improvements can revert to the society due to the development of environmental politicies and they offer a competitive advantage for the company.

  16. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S.; Swing, S.P.; Gross, T.S.; Davis, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box and toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box and toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n = 16) found that plasma

  17. Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S; Swing, S P; Gross, T S; Davis, J K

    1999-01-01

    No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box & toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box & toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n=16) found that plasma cortisol

  18. Facilitating Comprehension, Connection and Commitment to Environmentally Responsible Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Given the increased awareness of the negative effects the building industry has on the environment, designs produced without considering sustainability of the planet can no longer be accepted. Although the concepts of sustainability and environmental responsibility are not new to the field of interior design, a review of the literature reveals…

  19. On the Personal, Social and Environmental... A Response to Alistair ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Response to Alistair Chadwick's Viewpoint Responding to Destructive Interpersonal Interactions: A way forward for School-Based Environmental Educators. ... ago, at the Earth Summit and the advent of South Africa's democracy, there were great efforts to help us understand ecological issues in relation to social issues.

  20. Moral Responsibility for Environmental Problems : Individual or Institutional?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahlquist, J.N.

    2008-01-01

    The actions performed by individuals, as consumers and citizens, have aggregate negative consequences for the environment. The question asked in this paper is to what extent it is reasonable to hold individuals and institutions responsible for environmental problems. A distinction is made between

  1. Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Environmental Performance, and Tax Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia Sari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the influence of the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure and environmental performance on the level of tax aggressiveness. This study took a sample of non-financial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2009-2012. This study shows that the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure has significant negative effect towards the tax aggressiveness. It means the higher the level of the CSR disclosure, the lower the company’s tax aggressiveness. This study also proves that good environmental performance will strengthen the negative effect of CSR disclosure on tax aggressiveness. The assessment of environmental performance is conducted by the Ministry of Environment as independent party. It means that the higher the score of company’s environmental performance, the higher the commitment to pay taxes. This study supports the view that more socially responsible corporations are likely to be less tax aggressive.

  2. Behavioral Theory and Culture Special Issue: Authors' Response to Commentaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, Rena J.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to commentaries that focus on the "Behavioral Constructs and Culture in Cancer Screening" (3Cs) study. The 3Cs study had an unremarkable beginning, with two colleagues discussing their frustration over the narrow range of behavioral theories and the limited guidance the theories offered for a study…

  3. Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

  4. THE IMPACTS OF PHILANTHROPY RESPONSIBILITY AND ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITY TOWARD CUSTOMER PURCHASE BEHAVIOR AND CUSTOMER LOYALTY

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawati Chrisjatmiko; Danthy Margareth

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the impact of philanthropy responsibility and ethical responsibility towards customer purchase behavior and customer loyalty on fast food restaurants. The research was conducted by using quantitative research design and hypothetical testing to explore philanthropic responsibility, ethical responsibility, customer purchase behavior, and customer loyalty variables. Samples were taken from 186 respondents of employee population in Jakarta. Structural eq...

  5. Workshop: Corporate Environmental Behavior and the Effectiveness of Government Interventions (2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2 day workshop co-sponsored by EPA's National Center for Environmental Economics and National Center for Environmental Research on results from Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants and other projects related to the understanding of corporate behavior.

  6. Cetacean Social Behavioral Response to Sonar Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    likely a social response which anticipates against potential loss of social cohesion, which may be induced by masking of their communication signals...Discrimination of fast click series produced by Risso’s dolphins for echolocation or communication . Wensveen P. et al (in review). The effectiveness of ramp...up of naval sonar to reduce sound levels received by marine mammals : experimental tests with humpback whales. Kvadsheim et al. (2015). The 3S2

  7. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ahu Ergen; Filiz Bozkurt; Caner Giray

    2016-01-01

    The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of ...

  8. Elevated-CO2 Response of Stomata and Its Dependence on Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Jiang, Yanling; Jia, Bingrui; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Stomata control the flow of gases between plants and the atmosphere. This review is centered on stomatal responses to elevated CO2 concentration and considers other key environmental factors and underlying mechanisms at multiple levels. First, an outline of general responses in stomatal conductance under elevated CO2 is presented. Second, stomatal density response, its development, and the trade-off with leaf growth under elevated CO2 conditions are depicted. Third, the molecular mechanism regulating guard cell movement at elevated CO2 is suggested. Finally, the interactive effects of elevated CO2 with other factors critical to stomatal behavior are reviewed. It may be useful to better understand how stomata respond to elevated CO2 levels while considering other key environmental factors and mechanisms, including molecular mechanism, biochemical processes, and ecophysiological regulation. This understanding may provide profound new insights into how plants cope with climate change. PMID:27242858

  9. Environmental aspects of contingency planning and spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S.O.

    1993-01-01

    Alyeska Pipeline Service Company has implemented an incident command system (ICS) for crisis management within the company for response to spills at all company facilities including the Valdez Marine Terminal. The system is also used by Alyeska acting as the initial response contractor for TAPS laden tankers within Prince William Sound. During the past three years, Alyeska has undertaken a complete review of the spill prevention and response plans for these areas. This poster session focuses on the environmental aspects of the response planning efforts. Information is available on contingency planning updates in the areas of dispersant use, burning as a response tool, bioremediation of marine oil spills, waste management, permitting, coastal resource and sensitive habitat data base, and wildlife protection and management. All of these subjects are addressed in the resource documents (RD) supplementing the contingency plans. The RD revisions have been a coordinated effort, involving operators, agencies, and the public through the citizen advisory group

  10. Exposing government response action contractors to environmental tort liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Government contractors, particularly those involved with hazardous waste response action activities, are encountering increased risks for environmental tort liabilities. Contracts often include tasks and work assignments requiring the management of industrial, chemical, nuclear or mining wastes, spent fuels, munitions or other toxic substances. Contractors exposure to liability for damages results directly from the environmental laws and regulations pursuant to which the Government has contracted them to respond. Additionally, contractors may be exposed to common law liability under such dogmas as nuisance, trespass and strict liability in tort

  11. Human Behavior and Environmental Sustainability: promoting a pro-environmental behavior by harnessing the social, psychological and physical influences of the built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusafieh, Shaden; Razem, Maiss

    2017-11-01

    Recently, technological advancements in the sustainable design field have allowed us to reduce the ecological impact of the built environment, to reduce consumption of non-renewable resources, to create healthy environments and in some cases may even rehabilitate the ecosystem. Nevertheless, several studies have been carried out showing that sustainable technology does not automatically lead to environmentally friendly behaviors in its users. Various environmental problems threaten environmental sustainability and many of these problems are rooted in human behavior. Unfortunately, there is a lack in studies which take into consideration the human behavior influences within a sustainable built environment. We believe that the built environment should be used to support human goals and requirements, but at the same time we should consider it as a context in which human values and behaviors are cultivated. This research aimed to help in promoting environmental sustainability by using architectural design in changing relevant human behavior toward an environmentally friendly behavior. In order to achieve this, the research adopted Environment-centered Approach to gain more acute perspective into the relationship between the physical environment and human behavior, focusing on social, psychological and physical influences of the built environment. It appears that environmental psychology's merits have high potential in changing behavior within the built environment. The research provides a systematic approach for selecting, assessing, evaluating the behaviors to be changed and the factors that determine them. Furthermore, this approach helps in choosing the best interventions that could be applied in built environment to encourage such a sustainable behavior. This study tried to construct an agenda for further researches to find particular architectural design elements and strategies that we can harness to develop a pro-environment human behavior.

  12. Simulation of salt behavior using in situ response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    The time-dependent nonlinear structural behavior in a salt formation around the openings can be obtained by either performing computational analysis of measuring in situ responses. However, analysis using laboratory test data may often deviate from the actual in situ conditions and geomechanical instruments can provide information only up to the time when the measurements were taken. A method has been suggested for simulating the salt behavior by utilizing the steady-state portion of in situ response history. Governing equations for computational analysis were normalized to the creep constant, the equations were solved, and the analytical response history was then computed in terms of normalized time. By synchronizing the response history obtained from the analysis to the one measured at the site, the creep constant was determined. Then the structural response of the salt was computed. This paper presents an improved method for simulating the salt behavior. In this method, the governing equations are normalized to the creep function, which represents the transient and the steady-state creep behavior. Both the transient and the steady-state portions of in situ response history are used in determining the creep function. Finally, a nonlinear mapping process relating the normalized and real time domains determines the behavior of the salt

  13. Environmental Protection Theme at Discourses of Corporative Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Rodrigues Leite da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper views and discusses discourses on social responsibility in organizations and their use of the environmental theme. We suppose that strategies are used to disseminate some discourses concerning these matters. The ambiguities of themes within organizations point to a fragmented discourse (Fineman, 1996, revealing practices of openness and dissimulation. The theoretical discussion starts with the theme of social responsibility, confronting it with an environmental theme and discusses discourses with ambiguities of organizational practice stemming from two themes. At the end, a case study of Antena completes the discussion. Data was collected with documental research and semi-structured interviews. We made use of Discourse Analysis methodology (Fiorin, 1989. In conclusion, the concern with social responsibility and its environmental thematic lie within the organization. It is found in the discourse and actions at a high administration level including managers and a high number of technical workers. The silence about the limits of this responsibility is fulfilled by a technical workers group that reveals dissimulation when openness menaces some objectives.

  14. Evaluation of the Children's Environmental Health Network's environmental stewardship checklist responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilden, Robyn; McElroy, Katie; Friedmann, Erika; Witherspoon, Nsedu Obot; Paul, Hester

    2015-03-01

    Children are subject to multiple hazards on a daily basis, including in child care facilities. Research has shown that children in the child care setting may be exposed to lead, radon, pesticides, and multiple chemicals that are associated with known or suspected adverse health effects. The authors' study used an existing environmental health endorsement program to describe current practices of child care facilities as related to environmental health and safety. The facilities varied greatly in size and were located mainly in the U.S. with a few from Canada and Australia. A few checklist items had nearly a 100% positive response rate; however, some of the items had more than 10% of the facilities answer "false" or "don't know." Although many areas exist in which these sampled child care facilities are being environmentally responsible, further education is needed, particularly as related to the use of wall-to-wall carpeting, radon testing, aerosols, and air fresheners.

  15. Sex dimorphic behaviors as markers of neuroendocrine disruption by environmental chemicals: the case of chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerosi, A; Ricceri, L; Tait, S; Calamandrei, G

    2012-12-01

    The complexity of the neuroendocrine level of investigation requires the assessment of behavioral patterns that extend beyond the reproductive functions, which are age- and sex-specific in rodents, described by defined clusters of behavioral items regulated by genetic, hormonal, and epigenetic factors. The study of social behavior in laboratory rodents reveals sex-dimorphic effects of environmental chemicals that may be undetected either by a traditional neurotoxicological approach or referring to the classical definition of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Here we review data on the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure to the non-persistent organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos, whose neurotoxic activity at low doses is currently a matter of concern for children's health. In mice exposed to chlorpyrifos in utero and/or in early development social/emotional responses are differently affected in the two sexes in parallel with sex-dependent interference on hypothalamic neuroendocrine pathways regulating social behaviors (vasopressin, oxytocin, and steroid regulated systems). Through the analysis of complex sex-dimorphic behavioral patterns we show that neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting activities of CPF overlap. This widely diffused organophosphorus pesticide might thus be considered as a neuroendocrine disruptor possibly representing a risk factor for sex-biased neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Earning capacity of environmentally friendly companies and social responsible investing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerk, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Firms on Dow Jones Sustainability Index yield over time the same return as the ''ordinary'' firms on the Dow Jones World Stock Index. There are several investment funds today that deal in shares with selected companies having a high environmental or ethical profile. This is Social Responsible Investing (SRI). When the Norwegian company Storebrand Kapitalforvaltning selects companies for SRI, they exclude immediately nuclear power stations, tobacco factories and manufacturers of land mines. In addition to the same return on invested capital, both investors and society get an environmental profit. The firms analysed and selected by Storebrand for SRI contributes significantly less negative environmental effects than the other firms, typically 33% less to the global heating and have on average 53% less toxic emissions and 45% less water consumption

  17. The role of service-learning in college students' environmental literacy: Content knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singletary, Joanna Lynn Bush

    This study evaluated the relationship of environmental service-learning on environmental literacy in undergraduates. The subjects were 36 undergraduates at a small liberal arts university enrolled in an environmental biology course. To determine the role of environmental service-learning on college students' environmental knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and environmental literacy, this study utilized concurrent mixed methods approach for qualitative and quantitative analysis. A quasi-experimental repeated measures approach was the design of the quantitative component of the study. Data were collected on attitude, behavior, and content knowledge aspects of environmental literacy as measured by the Environmental Literacy Survey (Kibert, 2000). Hypotheses were tested by independent samples ttests and repeated measures ANOVA. Repeated measures ANOVA conducted on participants' three subscales scores for the Environmental Literacy Survey (attitude, behavior, and knowledge) indicated that students who participated in environmental service-learning scored statistically significantly higher than those that did not initially participate in service-learning. Qualitative data collected in the form of journal reflections and portfolios were evaluated for themes of environmental attitudes or affective statements, environmentally positive behaviors and skills, and ecological content. Quantitative and qualitative data support the positive role of environmental service-learning in the development of environmental literacy in undergraduate students.

  18. THE IMPACTS OF PHILANTHROPY RESPONSIBILITY AND ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITY TOWARD CUSTOMER PURCHASE BEHAVIOR AND CUSTOMER LOYALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawati Chrisjatmiko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze the impact of philanthropy responsibility and ethical responsibility towards customer purchase behavior and customer loyalty on fast food restaurants. The research was conducted by using quantitative research design and hypothetical testing to explore philanthropic responsibility, ethical responsibility, customer purchase behavior, and customer loyalty variables. Samples were taken from 186 respondents of employee population in Jakarta. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. Research result showed the positive and significant impact of philanthropic responsibility towards customer purchase behavior. On contrary, there was no positive ethical responsibility impact found towards customer purchase behavior. These findings are supported by the fact that the majority of consumers purchased fast food base on impulsive buying and not driven by the fast food restaurants ethically responsible behavior. However, the research does show a positive and significant impact of customer purchase behavior on customer loyalty. Further research recommendation should be taken from more respondents in a broader population area. Companies are suggested to approach a strategic and relevant caused-related marketing and caused promotions in relation to philanthropy responsibility to increase customer purchase behavior.

  19. Mindful Climate Action: Health and Environmental Co-Benefits from Mindfulness-Based Behavioral Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Barrett

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gases from human activities are causing climate change, creating risks for people around the globe. Behaviors involving transportation, diet, energy use, and purchasing drive greenhouse gas emissions, but are also related to health and well-being, providing opportunity for co-benefits. Replacing shorter automobile trips with walking or cycling, or eating plants rather than animals, for example, may increase personal health, while also reducing environmental impact. Mindfulness-based practices have been shown to enhance a variety of health outcomes, but have not been adapted towards environmental purposes. We designed the Mindful Climate Action (MCA curriculum to help people improve their health while simultaneously lowering their carbon footprints. Combining mindfulness-based practices with the Stages of Change theory, the MCA program aims to: (1 improve personal health and well-being; (2 decrease energy use; (3 reduce automobile use; (4 increase active transport; (5 shift diet towards plant-based foods; and (6 reduce unnecessary purchasing. Mindfulness practices will foster attentional awareness, openness, and response flexibility, supporting positive behavior change. We plan to test MCA in a randomized controlled trial, with rigorous assessment of targeted outcomes. Our long-term goal is to refine and adapt the MCA program to a variety of audiences, in order to enhance public health and environmental sustainability.

  20. The impact of Environmental Factors on Impulse Buying Behavior Using the Mehrabian and Russell’s Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel GRAA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at highlighting the impact of environmental factors on the impulse buying behavior of Algerian shopper using a Stimulus and response model. In this paper, it is identified and explored how factors related to the environment of purchase and emotional states may influence various dimensions of such kind of behavior at food stores in Algeria’ west. According to the results; consumer's emotions cannot be a mediating factor in the impulse purchase process. The results indicate that seller guidance has a significant impact on the impulse buying. We have concluded also that perceived human crowding influence positively the behavior of Algerian shoppers, whereas the time pressure was not approved.

  1. Environmental education as a catalyst for behavior change: a study of the effects of Coastwatch Magazine on subscriber environmental knowledge and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Graefe; Hans Vogelsong

    2008-01-01

    Environmental degradation resulting from human habits and behaviors has become an increasingly important issue in contemporary society. One organization working to encourage coastal environmental sustainability is North Carolina Sea Grant, which publishes the educational magazine Coastwatch. It is NC Sea Grant's desire that coast-related...

  2. The effect of outdoor environmental education on in-class behaviors of sixth, seventh and eighth grade students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, Albert R.

    Does the natural environment enhance positive human behaviors, behaviors which meet societal expectations? If that is the case, at what level of our social development does exposure and involvement with nature become a prerequisite? This study sought to discover an answer to the first question through examination of a small public school sample. The second will have to await future study. Public schools, while making some token response to the rising environmental consciousness, have failed or completely ignored environmental education. This study focuses on using the natural environment as a classroom with an environmental education curriculum. The control was academic grades before the environmental education class. The independent variable was academic grades after environmental education. Comparisons of academic conduct grades between classes taken before and after environmental education were made. Three environmental education classes comprising ninety students were evaluated. The mean of all classes was calculated. Results indicate that there is a positive behavioral correlation between environment education and academic classes. However, there were many uncontrolled variables which necessitate further study. One example is the arbitrary standard among teachers for evaluating conduct grades. Conduct grades can also be subjective. In further studies, a standardized tool for evaluating conduct grades would be essential.

  3. Disrupted expected value signaling in youth with disruptive behavior disorders to environmental reinforcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stuart F; Fowler, Katherine A; Sinclair, Stephen; Schechter, Julia C; Majestic, Catherine M; Pine, Daniel S; Blair, R James

    2014-05-01

    Youth with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), including conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), have difficulties in reinforcement-based decision making, the neural basis of which is poorly understood. Studies examining decision making in youth with DBD have revealed reduced reward responses within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex/orbitofrontal cortex (vmPFC/OFC), increased responses to unexpected punishment within the vmPFC and striatum, and reduced use of expected value information in the anterior insula cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex during the avoidance of suboptimal choices. Previous work has used only monetary reinforcement. The current study examined whether dysfunction in youth with DBD during decision making extended to environmental reinforcers. A total of 30 youth (15 healthy youth and 15 youth with DBD) completed a novel reinforcement-learning paradigm using environmental reinforcers (physical threat images, e.g., striking snake image; contamination threat images, e.g., rotting food; appetitive images, e.g., puppies) while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behaviorally, healthy youth were significantly more likely to avoid physical threat, but not contamination threat, stimuli than youth with DBD. Imaging results revealed that youth with DBD showed significantly reduced use of expected value information in the bilateral caudate, thalamus, and posterior cingulate cortex during the avoidance of suboptimal responses. The current data suggest that youth with DBD show deficits to environmental reinforcers similar to the deficits seen to monetary reinforcers. Importantly, this deficit was unrelated to callous-unemotional (CU) traits, suggesting that caudate impairment may be a common deficit across youth with DBD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Response diversity determines the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akira S; Furukawa, Takuya; Sasaki, Takehiro

    2013-05-01

    A growing body of evidence highlights the importance of biodiversity for ecosystem stability and the maintenance of optimal ecosystem functionality. Conservation measures are thus essential to safeguard the ecosystem services that biodiversity provides and human society needs. Current anthropogenic threats may lead to detrimental (and perhaps irreversible) ecosystem degradation, providing strong motivation to evaluate the response of ecological communities to various anthropogenic pressures. In particular, ecosystem functions that sustain key ecosystem services should be identified and prioritized for conservation action. Traditional diversity measures (e.g. 'species richness') may not adequately capture the aspects of biodiversity most relevant to ecosystem stability and functionality, but several new concepts may be more appropriate. These include 'response diversity', describing the variation of responses to environmental change among species of a particular community. Response diversity may also be a key determinant of ecosystem resilience in the face of anthropogenic pressures and environmental uncertainty. However, current understanding of response diversity is poor, and we see an urgent need to disentangle the conceptual strands that pervade studies of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Our review clarifies the links between response diversity and the maintenance of ecosystem functionality by focusing on the insurance hypothesis of biodiversity and the concept of functional redundancy. We provide a conceptual model to describe how loss of response diversity may cause ecosystem degradation through decreased ecosystem resilience. We explicitly explain how response diversity contributes to functional compensation and to spatio-temporal complementarity among species, leading to long-term maintenance of ecosystem multifunctionality. Recent quantitative studies suggest that traditional diversity measures may often be uncoupled from

  5. The effect of (negative) emotion on pro-environmental behavior : an application of the theory of planned behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    With climate change becoming ever-present as a huge environmental issue for the modern era to address, pro-environmental behavior (PEB) is becoming an increasingly relevant area. There seems to be a divergence between how different actors try and encourage PEB when using emotion as the motivational tool. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore this effect of (negative) emotion on decision making. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used as the theoretical framework, with the primar...

  6. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Responses to Environmental Change: Insights from Terrestrial Paleoecological Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, A. W. R.; Mackay, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    Current understanding of ecological behaviour indicates that systems can experience sudden and abrupt changes in state, driven either by a large external change in environmental conditions (extrinsically forced), or the result of a set local feedbacks and site-specific interactions (intrinsically mediated responses). Responses mediated by intrinsic processes are notoriously diffi- cult to predict, they can occur as slow environmental variables gradually erode the resilience of the system eventually resulting in threshold transitions between alternative stable states. Finding ways to identify, model and predict such complex ecosystem behavior has been identified as a priority research challenge for both ecology and paleoecology. The paleoecological record can play a role in understanding the processes behind abrupt ecological change because it enables the reconstruction of processes occurring over decadal-centennial timescales or longer. Therefore, paleoecological data can be used to identify the existence of ecological thresholds and to investigate the environmental processes that can lead to loss of resilience and abrupt transitions between alternate states. In addition, incidences of abrupt vegetation changes in the past can serve as palaeoecological model systems; analogues of abrupt dynamics which can be used to test theories surrounding ecological responses to climate change. Here, I present examples from a range of terrestrial ecosystems (Holocene environmental changes from a coastal lagoon in the Galapagos Islands; Northern European vegetation changes since the last deglaciation; the North American hemlock decline) demonstrating evidence of abrupt ecosystem change. For each system I present a set of statistical techniques tailored to distin- guish between extrinsic versus intrinsically mediated ecological responses. Examples are provided from both single sites (i.e. landscape scale) and multiple sites (regional-continental scale). These techniques provide a

  7. The perceived impact of a university outdoor education program on students' environmental behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather Boland; Paul Heintzman

    2010-01-01

    Outdoor educators often seek to design programs that influence participants' daily lifestyles, especially environmental behaviors. Research on the impact of outdoor education programs on environmental behaviors has typically focused on schoolchildren and teenagers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived impact of a university outdoor education...

  8. The Relationship between University Students' Environmental Identity, Decision-Making Process, and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Allison

    2018-01-01

    Environmental education scholars have argued for the need to focus on identity as a more predictive factor than attitude of individuals' environmental behavior. We examine individuals' decision-making as a mediating process between identity and behavior. University undergraduates (N = 299) were surveyed, with a select sub-sample interviewed. As…

  9. Reducing threats in conversations about environmental behavior change: The positive impact of Motivational Interviewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klonek, F.E.; Güntner, A.V.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Kauffeld, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation

  10. Mean or green : Which values can promote stable pro-environmental behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda

    In most cases, pro-environmental behavior does not maximize individual interests, but mainly benefits other people or the environment. We propose that although acting on the basis of egoistic considerations may result in pro-environmental behavior, altruistic and biospheric considerations provide

  11. Direct Measures in Environmental Education Evaluation: Behavioral Intentions versus Observable Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Camilo; Shavelson, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The objective of many environmental education programs is to promote pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors in students. However, evaluation of these programs has focused on asking participants what they think (attitudes) and what they do (behaviors) regarding the environment problems through self-report questionnaires and interviews. These…

  12. Context and strain-dependent behavioral response to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baum Amber E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study posed the question whether strain differences in stress-reactivity lead to differential behavioral responses in two different tests of anxiety. Strain differences in anxiety-measures are known, but strain differences in the behavioral responses to acute prior stress are not well characterized. Methods We studied male Fisher 344 (F344 and Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats basally and immediately after one hour restraint stress. To distinguish between the effects of novelty and prior stress, we also investigated behavior after repeated exposure to the test chamber. Two behavioral tests were explored; the elevated plus maze (EPM and the open field (OFT, both of which are thought to measure activity, exploration and anxiety-like behaviors. Additionally, rearing, a voluntary behavior, and grooming, a relatively automatic, stress-responsive stereotyped behavior were measured in both tests. Results Prior exposure to the test environment increased anxiety-related measures regardless of prior stress, reflecting context-dependent learning process in both tests and strains. Activity decreased in response to repeated testing in both tests and both strains, but prior stress decreased activity only in the OFT which was reversed by repeated testing. Prior stress decreased anxiety-related measures in the EPM, only in F344s, while in the OFT, stress led to increased freezing mainly in WKYs. Conclusion Data suggest that differences in stressfulness of these tests predict the behavior of the two strains of animals according to their stress-reactivity and coping style, but that repeated testing can overcome some of these differences.

  13. Limited transcriptional responses of Rickettsia rickettsii exposed to environmental stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon W Ellison

    Full Text Available Rickettsiae are strict obligate intracellular pathogens that alternate between arthropod and mammalian hosts in a zoonotic cycle. Typically, pathogenic bacteria that cycle between environmental sources and mammalian hosts adapt to the respective environments by coordinately regulating gene expression such that genes essential for survival and virulence are expressed only upon infection of mammals. Temperature is a common environmental signal for upregulation of virulence gene expression although other factors may also play a role. We examined the transcriptional responses of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, to a variety of environmental signals expected to be encountered during its life cycle. R. rickettsii exposed to differences in growth temperature (25 degrees C vs. 37 degrees C, iron limitation, and host cell species displayed nominal changes in gene expression under any of these conditions with only 0, 5, or 7 genes, respectively, changing more than 3-fold in expression levels. R. rickettsii is not totally devoid of ability to respond to temperature shifts as cold shock (37 degrees C vs. 4 degrees C induced a change greater than 3-fold in up to 56 genes. Rickettsiae continuously occupy a relatively stable environment which is the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Because of their obligate intracellular character, rickettsiae are believed to be undergoing reductive evolution to a minimal genome. We propose that their relatively constant environmental niche has led to a minimal requirement for R. rickettsii to respond to environmental changes with a consequent deletion of non-essential transcriptional response regulators. A minimal number of predicted transcriptional regulators in the R. rickettsii genome is consistent with this hypothesis.

  14. Influence of environmental enrichment on the behavior and physiology of mice infected by Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Maria Moreira da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Enriched environments normally increase behavioral repertoires and diminish the expression of abnormal behaviors and stress-related physiological problems in animals. Although it has been shown that experimental animals infected with microorganisms can modify their behaviors and physiology, few studies have evaluated how environmental enrichment affects these parameters. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental enrichment on the behavior and physiology of confined mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. METHODS: The behaviors of 20 T. cruzi-infected mice and 20 non-infected mice were recorded during three treatments: baseline, enrichment, and post-enrichment. Behavioral data were collected using scan sampling with instantaneous recording of behavior every 30s, totaling 360h. Plasma TNF, CCL2, and IL-10 levels and parasitemia were also evaluated in infected enriched/non-enriched mice. Behavioral data were evaluated by Friedman’s test and physiological data by one-way ANOVA and area under the curve (AUC analysis. RESULTS: Results showed that environmental enrichment significantly increased exploratory behaviors and diminished inactivity. The use of environmental enrichment did not diminish circulating levels of TNF and IL-10 but diminished circulating levels of CCL2 and parasitemia. CONCLUSIONS: Positive behavioral and physiological effects of environmental enrichment were observed in mice living in enriched cages. Thus, environmental enrichment improved the welfare of these animals.

  15. Reappraising social insect behavior through aversive responsiveness and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Edith; Carcaud, Julie; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Giurfa, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The success of social insects can be in part attributed to their division of labor, which has been explained by a response threshold model. This model posits that individuals differ in their response thresholds to task-associated stimuli, so that individuals with lower thresholds specialize in this task. This model is at odds with findings on honeybee behavior as nectar and pollen foragers exhibit different responsiveness to sucrose, with nectar foragers having higher response thresholds to sucrose concentration. Moreover, it has been suggested that sucrose responsiveness correlates with responsiveness to most if not all other stimuli. If this is the case, explaining task specialization and the origins of division of labor on the basis of differences in response thresholds is difficult. To compare responsiveness to stimuli presenting clear-cut differences in hedonic value and behavioral contexts, we measured appetitive and aversive responsiveness in the same bees in the laboratory. We quantified proboscis extension responses to increasing sucrose concentrations and sting extension responses to electric shocks of increasing voltage. We analyzed the relationship between aversive responsiveness and aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, and determined how this relationship relates to division of labor. Sucrose and shock responsiveness measured in the same bees did not correlate, thus suggesting that they correspond to independent behavioral syndromes, a foraging and a defensive one. Bees which were more responsive to shock learned and memorized better aversive associations. Finally, guards were less responsive than nectar foragers to electric shocks, exhibiting higher tolerance to low voltage shocks. Consequently, foragers, which are more sensitive, were the ones learning and memorizing better in aversive conditioning. Our results constitute the first integrative study on how aversive responsiveness affects learning, memory and social

  16. Reappraising social insect behavior through aversive responsiveness and learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Roussel

    Full Text Available The success of social insects can be in part attributed to their division of labor, which has been explained by a response threshold model. This model posits that individuals differ in their response thresholds to task-associated stimuli, so that individuals with lower thresholds specialize in this task. This model is at odds with findings on honeybee behavior as nectar and pollen foragers exhibit different responsiveness to sucrose, with nectar foragers having higher response thresholds to sucrose concentration. Moreover, it has been suggested that sucrose responsiveness correlates with responsiveness to most if not all other stimuli. If this is the case, explaining task specialization and the origins of division of labor on the basis of differences in response thresholds is difficult.To compare responsiveness to stimuli presenting clear-cut differences in hedonic value and behavioral contexts, we measured appetitive and aversive responsiveness in the same bees in the laboratory. We quantified proboscis extension responses to increasing sucrose concentrations and sting extension responses to electric shocks of increasing voltage. We analyzed the relationship between aversive responsiveness and aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, and determined how this relationship relates to division of labor.Sucrose and shock responsiveness measured in the same bees did not correlate, thus suggesting that they correspond to independent behavioral syndromes, a foraging and a defensive one. Bees which were more responsive to shock learned and memorized better aversive associations. Finally, guards were less responsive than nectar foragers to electric shocks, exhibiting higher tolerance to low voltage shocks. Consequently, foragers, which are more sensitive, were the ones learning and memorizing better in aversive conditioning.Our results constitute the first integrative study on how aversive responsiveness affects learning, memory and

  17. Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project Environmental Impact Statement Environmental Impact Report. Final: Comments and Responses to Comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    This document is the Comments and Responses to Comments volume of the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report prepared for the proposed Telephone Flat Geothermal Development Project (Final EIS/EIR). This volume of the Final EIS/EIR provides copies of the written comments received on the Draft EIS/EIR and the leady agency responses to those comments in conformance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA).

  18. Millennial Generation and Environmental Sustainability: The Role of Social Media in the Consumer Purchasing Behavior for Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Sogari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the coming years, social media technology will have a crucial role in environmental involvement and in encouraging sustainable behaviors in the wine industry. Sustainable development is becoming a crucial topic for many consumers. Also, in the wine industry much research has been carried out to decrease the environmental impact, with a particular focus on renewable energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, pesticides reduction, water and waste management, biodiversity, soil and landscape preservation. In recent years, social media technologies have gained increased attention for their potential to amplify environmental concerns and encourage sustainable behaviors among people. This study aims to study the role of social media in the consumer purchasing behavior for wine between the millennial and non-millennial generations. A total sample of 2597 Italian wine consumer responses were collected and a structured questionnaire was used to test our hypothesis. The main results show that the greater the import the consumer places on the product/process dimension of environmental sustainability, the higher the self-selection in market segments. This is true for both millennials and non-millennials. The results show the power of social media to increase sustainability awareness and consecutively influence the consumer’s buying behavior for wine (higher price segment. From a marketing perspective, companies should improve their capacity to share and communicate their environmental activities through social media.

  19. Effectiveness Of Implementation Of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) In The Environmental Law Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Irwansyah; Gianto; Andi Syahwia

    2016-01-01

    Development in Indonesia refers to the concept of sustainable development (sustainable development ) and responsibility for the environment . Companies have a social responsibility to social and environmental consequences of environmental damage that caused . Implementation of corporate social responsibility ( Cooperate Social Responsibility ) is an important part in the framework part of the enforcement of environmental law . Implementation of CSR growing rapidly , including in Indonesia . T...

  20. Imagining Change: An Integrative Approach toward Explaining the Motivational Role of Mental Imagery in Pro-environmental Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomsma, Christine; Pahl, Sabine; Andrade, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and other long-term environmental issues are often perceived as abstract and difficult to imagine. The images a person associates with environmental change, i.e., a person’s environmental mental images, can be influenced by the visual information they come across in the public domain. This paper reviews the literature on this topic across social, environmental, and cognitive psychology, and the wider social sciences; thereby responding to a call for more critical investigations into people’s responses to visual information. By integrating the literature we come to a better understanding of the lack in vivid and concrete environmental mental imagery reported by the public, the link between environmental mental images and goals, and how affectively charged external images could help in making mental imagery less abstract. Preliminary research reports on the development of a new measure of environmental mental imagery and three tests of the relationship between environmental mental imagery, pro-environmental goals and behavior. Furthermore, the paper provides a program of research, drawing upon approaches from different disciplines, to set out the next steps needed to examine how and why we should encourage the public to imagine environmental change. PMID:27909415

  1. Using Motivational Interviewing to reduce threats in conversations about environmental behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Klonek, Florian E.; G?ntner, Amelie V.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT), threats can harm individuals’ self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting c...

  2. Reducing threats in conversations about environmental behavior change: The positive impact of Motivational Interviewing

    OpenAIRE

    Klonek, F.E.; Güntner, A.V.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Kauffeld, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT), threats can harm individuals’ self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting c...

  3. The Environmental Responsibility of the World’s Largest Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszawska Bożena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability transition is changing the role and function of banks, specially their products and services also in relation to stakeholders. Banks are one of the main actors supporting the transition to sustainable economy. The purpose of this study is to emphasise the role of world’s largest banks in that process. Banks are slowly responding to the new demand of sustainability and responsibility, and they try to align with it. The paper is based on an overview of the world’s five largest banks that employ corporate social responsibility (CSR reporting standards, together with detailed enumeration of pro-environmental activities included in the reports. The first section of this paper presents the most popular approaches to the problem at hand, as reported in professional literature. Section two presents the characteristics of the CSR actions in banks. The third section discusses the environmental actions of the biggest banks in Global Reporting Initiative (GRI reporting the most popular standard for reporting non-financial information. And the last part of the paper presents the conclusions resulting from the article. The research was conducted using a variety of sources, such as scientific articles, statistical data, CSR reports of the world’s largest banks, as well reporting principles and standard disclosures. The basic method used in the process of writing was a critical analysis of literature and reports concerning the CSR reporting standards, environmental responsibilities of different kinds of entities, as well as own observations based on special reports of banks. In the article, also the analysis of financial market data, induction method and comparison method have been used. The main conclusions of the analysis of the CSR reports disclosed by the world’s largest banks confirm all three of the theses presented in the article. The findings suggest that the banks under study can be regarded as environmentally responsible

  4. Behavioral responses of three lemur species to different food enrichment devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Morgan E; Shapiro, Hannah G; Ehmke, Erin E

    2018-05-01

    Environmental enrichment is a tool used to promote the welfare and well-being of captive animals by encouraging the display of species-specific behaviors and reducing the stress or boredom induced by captive environments. Lemurs are highly endangered, yet few studies have analyzed the behavioral impacts of enrichment on captive populations. We studied the impacts of two novel enrichment devices on three lemur species (ring-tailed lemurs [Lemur catta], red-ruffed lemurs [Varecia rubra], and Coquerel's sifaka [Propithecus coquereli]) to determine both the overall and species-specific impacts of enrichment on lemur behavior. We recorded lemur behavior using the continuous sampling method to obtain behavior duration and analyzed our results using ANOVA Repeated Measures. Results showed enrichment effectiveness differed for each species and that different enrichment devices had varying impacts on lemur behavior across all species. We attributed the differences in species-specific responses to the unique locomotor patterns and methods of diet acquisition of each species, and the variances in behavioral responses across all species to the characteristics of each device. Our study highlights the importance of species-specific enrichment and encourages further research in this field in order to maximize the positive effects of enrichment, which in turn has the potential to affect the overall well-being of captive populations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Environmental Correlates of Gambling Behavior in Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwire, Emerson M.; Whelan, James P.; Meyers, Andrew W.; Murray, David M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study considered the relation between adolescent gambling behavior and the perceived environment, the component of Jessor and Jessor's (1977) Problem Behavior Theory that assesses the ways that adolescents perceive the attitudes and behaviors of parents and peers. The predominantly African-American sample included 188 sophomores from…

  6. Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojun Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In China, environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs play an important supervisory role to address ecological issues together with government regulation and enterprise implementation. This study examines the effect of ENGO presence on corporate environmental responsibility (CER performance, along with internal factors as covariate variables. With a sample of 677 enterprises, it operationalizes the independent variable in terms of the number of ENGOs within certain distances from each enterprise, and the dependent variable based on the corporate social responsibility report using the specific criteria in the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI sustainability reporting guidelines. The results of Tobit regression analyses indicate that ENGO presence is conducive to CER performance, and asset size, power concentration, and industry type also make differences. The findings suggest that ENGOs are helpful in solving environment issues by bridging the gap between private and public sectors. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  7. Intraspecific variation shapes community-level behavioral responses to urbanization in spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahirel, Maxime; Dierick, Jasper; De Cock, Maarten; Bonte, Dries

    2017-09-01

    Urban areas are an extreme example of human-changed environments, exposing organisms to multiple and strong selection pressures. Adaptive behavioral responses are thought to play a major role in animals' success or failure in such new environments. Approaches based on functional traits have proven especially valuable to understand how species communities respond to environmental gradients. Until recently, they have, however, often ignored the potential consequences of intraspecific trait variation (ITV). When ITV is prevalent, it may highly impact ecological processes and resilience against stressors. This may be especially relevant in animals, in which behavioral traits can be altered very flexibly at the individual level to track environmental changes. We investigated how species turnover and ITV influenced community-level behavioral responses in a set of 62 sites of varying levels of urbanization, using orb web spiders and their webs as models of foraging behavior. ITV alone explained around one-third of the total trait variation observed among communities. Spider web structure changed according to urbanization, in ways that increase the capture efficiency of webs in a context of smaller urban prey. These trait shifts were partly mediated by species turnover, but ITV increased their magnitude, potentially helping to buffer the effects of environmental changes on communities. The importance of ITV varied depending on traits and on the spatial scale at which urbanization was considered. Despite being neglected from community-level analyses in animals, our results highlight the importance of accounting for intraspecific trait variation to fully understand trait responses to (human-induced) environmental changes and their impact on ecosystem functioning. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  8. Measuring the impact of informal science education in zoos on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Christopher David

    Despite the emphasis in modern zoos and aquaria on conservation and environmental education, we know very little about what people learn in these settings, and even less about how they learn it. Research on informal learning in settings such as zoos has suffered from a lack of theory, with few connections being made to theories of learning in formal settings, or to theories regarding the nature of the educational goals. This dissertation consists of three parts: the development and analysis of a test instrument designed to measure constructs of environmental learning in zoos; the application of the test instrument along with qualitative data collection in an evaluation designed to measure the effectiveness of a zoo's education programs; and the analysis of individually matched pre- and post-test data to examine how environmental learning takes place, with respect to the constructivist view of learning, as well as theories of environmental learning and the barriers to pro-environmental behavior. The test instrument consisted of 40 items split into four scales: environmental knowledge, attitudes toward the environment, support for conservation, and environmentally responsible behavior. A model-driven approach was used to develop the instrument, which was analyzed using Item Response Theory and the Rasch dichotomous measurement model. After removal of two items with extremely high difficulty, the instrument was found to be unidimensional and sufficiently reliable. The results of the IRT analyses are interpreted with respect to a modern validity framework. The evaluation portion of this study applied this test instrument to measuring the impact of zoo education programs on 750 fourth through seventh grade students. Qualitative data was collected from program observations and teacher surveys, and a comparison was also made between programs that took place at the zoo, and those that took place in the school classroom, thereby asking questions regarding the role of

  9. A metabolomic study of fipronil for the anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish larvae at environmentally relevant levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cui; Qian, Yi; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Quan; Li, Zhuoyu; Zhao, Meirong

    2016-01-01

    Field residue of fipronil can interfere with the physiological characters of the domesticated fish; thus, lethal dose test and the general biomarker cannot delineate the low-level situation. Manipulating by video track, we observed an anxiety-like behavior including high speed and abnormal photoperiod accommodation after exposure to fipronil at environmental typical dose in zebrafish larvae. Examining the unbiased metabolomic profiles, we found perturbation in several metabolic pathways, including the increased contents of fatty acids and glycerol and the decreased levels of the glycine, serine, and branched amino acid. We presumed that observed enhanced fatty acid utility was in response to increase energy demands caused by anxiety like behavior. Additionally, the body burden of neurotransmitter such as glycine and L-glutamate may concurrently stimulate the swimming behavior. The insight of this study showed that integral perturbation such as metabolism helps us to further understand the risk to aquatic fish at the environmentally relevant levels. - Highlights: • Fipronil increased the swimming speed at 10 μg/L to zebrafish larvae. • Accommodation to light–dark photoperiod switch was disturbed by fipronil. • Metabolomics indicated an increase energy availability for anxiety-like behavior. • Anxiety-like behavior induced by fipronil may attribute to neurotransmitter changes. - Zebrafish larvae exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of fipronil display anxiety like behavior that may attribute to observed changes in energy utilization and neurotransmitter disturbances.

  10. Modeling individuals’ cognitive and affective responses in spatial learning behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Q.; Arentze, T.A.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Janssens, D.; Wets, G.; Lo, H.P.; Leung, Stephen C.H.; Tan, Susanna M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Activity-based analysis has slowly shifted gear from analysis of daily activity patterns to analysis and modeling of dynamic activity-travel patterns. In this paper, we describe a dynamic model that is concerned with simulating cognitive and affective responses in spatial learning behavior for a

  11. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, C.C.B.M.; Visser, E.K.; Broek, van den J.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six

  12. Behavioral responses of broilers to different gaseous atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritzen, M.A.; Lambooij, E.; Hillebrand, S.J.W.; Lankhaar, J.A.C.; Pieterse, C.

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the differences in behavioral response of broilers when they come into contact for the first time with gas mixtures that can be used for stunning. The six test groups were divided into four experimental groups that were exposed to gas mixtures used for stunning

  13. Consistency in behavior of the CEO regarding corporate social responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elving, W.J.L.; Kartal, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - When corporations adopt a corporate social responsibility (CSR) program and use and name it in their external communications, their members should act in line with CSR. The purpose of this paper is to present an experiment in which the consistent or inconsistent behavior of a CEO was

  14. Workplace mobbing: How the victim's coping behavior influences bystander responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Roelie; Bos, Arjan E R; Pouwelse, Mieneke; van Dam, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Victims of workplace mobbing show diverse coping behavior. We investigated the impact of this behavior on bystander cognitions, emotions, and helping toward the victim, integrating coping literature with attribution theory. Adult part-time university students (N = 161) working at various organizations participated in a study with a 3(Coping: approach/avoidance/neutral) × 2(Gender Victim: male/female) × 2(Gender Bystander: male/female) design. Victims showing approach (vs. avoidance) coping were considered to be more self-reliant and less responsible for the continuation of the mobbing, and they elicited less anger. Continuation responsibility and self-reliance mediated the relationship between the victim's coping behavior and bystanders' helping intentions. Female (vs. male) participants reported more sympathy for the victim and greater willingness to help, and female (vs. male) victims elicited less anger. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. Satiety responsiveness and eating behavior among Chilean adolescents and the role of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, M; Hoyos, V; Martinez, S M; Lozoff, B; Castillo, M; Burrows, R; Blanco, E; Gahagan, S

    2014-04-01

    To determine patterns of satiety responsiveness and its relationship to eating in the absence of hunger (EAH), in a cohort of adolescents. We also assessed whether sex, body mass index and duration of breastfeeding, during infancy, predicted satiety responsiveness and eating behavior at 16 years. Adolescents (n=576) from a longitudinal cohort, which began as an iron deficiency anemia preventive trial, participated in an unlimited breakfast after an overnight fast, and reported satiety response on a visual analog scale after the meal, followed by an EAH procedure. Height, weight and body composition were measured before breakfast. Latent profile analysis generated profiles that captured individual differences in satiety responsiveness. Multivariable regressions, adjusted for potential confounders, evaluated the association between: (1) satiety responsiveness and EAH, and (2) breastfeeding in infancy, satiety responsiveness and EAH in adolescence. Participants were on average 16.7-year old, 48% female, 37% overweight/obese and 76% were breastfed as the sole source of milk for eat during the EAH procedure (odds ratio (OR)=2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.8-3.6). Being breastfed for meal, we found varied satiety responses, which related to EAH. Furthermore, shorter breastfeeding duration was associated with poorer satiety response and higher consumption during an EAH procedure. Understanding if breastfeeding influences the development of satiety responsiveness and eating behavior may be important in an era characterized by abundant calorie-dense foods and a plethora of environmental cues promoting consumption.

  16. Are there shared environmental influences on adolescent behavior? Evidence from a study of adoptive siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Jacob P; McGue, Matt; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2009-09-01

    The failure to identify specific non-shared environmental influences on behavior coupled with the belief that shared environmental factors contribute minimally to individual differences in behavior has led to the concern that major environmental determinants of behavior may be idiosyncratic, and therefore undetectable. We used data on adoptive (N = 246) and biologically related (N = 130) same-sex sibling pairs (mean ages = 16.1 years older sibling; 13.8 years younger sibling) from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS) to determine whether non-idiosyncratic environmental factors shared by siblings contributed to individual differences in a diverse set of behavioral outcomes. Evidence for shared environmental influence was sought for eight composite measures covering a wide array of adolescent functioning: Academic Achievement, Total IQ, Substance Use Disorders, Externalizing Disorders, Internalizing Disorders, Peer Groups, Disinhibited Personality, and Negative Emotionality. For six of eight composites, significant shared environmental effects, accounting for 14-22% of the variance, were observed for these same-sex sibling pairs. These findings support the use of adoptive sibling designs to directly estimate shared environmental effects and implicate the existence of systematic environmental influences on behavior that are potentially detectable.

  17. Development and Examination of Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijen FİLİZ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, “Personal and Social Responsibility Behaviors Scale (PSRB-S” was developed in order to determine students’ responsibility behaviors in accordance with “Personal and Social Responsibility” model developed by Don Hellison and students’ personal and social responsibility levels were examined in terms of gender, age and years of sport practice through this scale. Pertaining to personal and social dimension of responsibility, four-category Likert type trial scale consisting of 52 items and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA were applied to 330 high-school students. Items that did not apply as a result of the analysis were omitted from 52-item trial scale and the scale was reduced to 14 items. A final scale consisting of two factors was created. Obtained scale was applied to different 250 high-school students for Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. It has been determined that EFA and CFA results of two-factor PSRB-S and reliability and validity of internal consistency coefficients are at an acceptable level. It was not detected a significance difference in total scores of athlete students’ responsibility behaviors in terms of gender and age variables while there were significant difference in their total scores of years of sport practice.

  18. PRO-ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIORS IN THE HOUSEHOLD AND HOLIDAY SETTING. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY AMONG BRASOV CITIZENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA-NICOLETA Untaru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to investigate Brasov citizens’ pro-environmental behavior both in their household and holiday setting. In this sense, we conducted a qualitative research using the in-depth interview method on a 13 respondent sample which included self-declared environmentally friendly residents from the city of Brasov, Romania. Among them, six respondents are members of ecological NGOs and can be considered environmental activists. The interview guide was structured in two sections. First, we considered respondents' pro-environmental behaviors, the description of their activities, aimed at protecting the environment, as well as the tools and resources developed by public authorities in order to facilitate and stimulate citizens’ involvement in environmental protection. The second section was focused on the description of respondents’ last holiday, the choice of tourism destination, transportation, accommodation unit and activities in the destination; respondents’ pro-environmental behaviors; and the tools and instruments developed by local public authorities or hoteliers in order to facilitate tourists’ environmentally friendly behavior. The results of the present study outline the fact that respondents’ involvement in environmentally friendly activities is identical, or almost identical, in both household and holiday setting. For the environmental activists, such a behavior is difficult to change, even in a holiday setting, where environmental protection is one the individuals ‘priority’. The outcomes of our research can be used by both tourist services providers in order to adapt their offer to consumers’ pro-environmental behavior and local authorities who can identify the actions which have to be undertaken in order to facilitate such behavior.

  19. Sea Ice Microorganisms: Environmental Constraints and Extracellular Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody W. Deming

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Inherent to sea ice, like other high latitude environments, is the strong seasonality driven by changes in insolation throughout the year. Sea-ice organisms are exposed to shifting, sometimes limiting, conditions of temperature and salinity. An array of adaptations to survive these and other challenges has been acquired by those organisms that inhabit the ice. One key adaptive response is the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, which play multiple roles in the entrapment, retention and survival of microorganisms in sea ice. In this concept paper we consider two main areas of sea-ice microbiology: the physico-chemical properties that define sea ice as a microbial habitat, imparting particular advantages and limits; and extracellular responses elicited in microbial inhabitants as they exploit or survive these conditions. Emphasis is placed on protective strategies used in the face of fluctuating and extreme environmental conditions in sea ice. Gaps in knowledge and testable hypotheses are identified for future research.

  20. Plastic response by a small cervid to supplemental feeding in winter across a wide environmental gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ossi, F.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hebblewhite, M.; Morellet, N.; Ranc, N.; Sandfort, R.; Kroeschel, M.; Kjellander, P.; Mysterud, A.; Linnell, J. D. C.; Heurich, M.; Soennichsen, L.; Šustr, Pavel; Berger, A.; Rocca, M.; Urbano, F.; Cagnacci, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2017), č. článku e01629. ISSN 2150-8925 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : deer capreolus-capreolus * white-tailed deer * home-range size * moose alces-alces * roe deer * climate-change * habitat selection * red deer * seasonal migration * snow-cover * artificial feeding * climate behavioral responses * climate change * roe deer * winter severity * ungulate management Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.490, year: 2016

  1. Effects of messages emphasizing environmental determinants of obesity on intentions to engage in diet and exercise behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Roh, Sungjong; Shapiro, Michael A; Kim, Hye Kyung

    2013-12-12

    Reducing rates of obesity will require interventions that influence both individual decisions and environmental factors through changes in public policy. Previous work indicates that messages emphasizing environmental determinants increases support for public policies, but some suspect this strategy may undermine motivation to engage in diet and exercise. Study 1 involved 485 adults recruited from a shopping mall in New York. Study 2 involved 718 adult members of a Web-based national panel of US adults. Respondents in both studies were randomly assigned to read a story that emphasized environmental determinants of health or a control condition. The stories varied in the extent to which they described the story character as taking personal responsibility for weight management. Logistic regression and ordered logit models were used to test for differences in intentions to engage in diet and exercise behaviors based on which story the participant read. Analyses were also performed separately by participants' weight status. In both studies, messages that acknowledged personal responsibility while emphasizing environmental causes of obesity increased intentions to engage in healthy behavior for at least 1 weight status group. Emphasizing factors outside of personal control appears to enhance rather than undermine motivations to engage in healthy diet and exercise behavior.

  2. Proteome Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Response to Environmental Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Thomas E.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Yang, Xiaohua; Nicora, Carrie D.; Camp, David G.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-11-02

    We examined global changes in protein expression in the B31 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, in response to two environmental cues (pH and temperature) chosen for their reported similarity to those encountered at different stages of the organism’s life cycle. Multidimensional nano-liquid chromatographic separations coupled with tandem mass spectrometry were used to examine the array of proteins (i.e., the proteome) of B. burgdorferi for different pH and temperature culture conditions. Changes in pH and temperature elicited in vitro adaptations of this spirochete known to cause Lyme disease and led to alterations in protein expression that are associated with increased microbial pathogenesis. We identified 1031 proteins that represent 59% of the annotated genome of B. burgdorferi and elucidated a core proteome of 414 proteins that were present in all environmental conditions investigated. Observed changes in protein abundances indicated varied replicon usage, as well as proteome functional distributions between the in vitro cell culture conditions. Surprisingly, the pH and temperature conditions that mimicked B. burgdorferi residing in the gut of a fed tick showed a marked reduction in protein diversity. Additionally, the results provide us with leading candidates for exploring how B. burgdorferi adapts to and is able to survive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and lay a foundation for planned in situ studies of B. burgdorferi isolated from the tick midgut and infected animals.

  3. Plant responses to environmental stresses-from gene to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanger, Mohammad Abass; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Ashraf, Muhammad; Alyemeni, Mohammed Nasser; Wijaya, Leonard; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2017-07-01

    Increasing global population, urbanization and industrialization are increasing the rate of conversion of arable land into wasteland. Supplying food to an ever-increasing population is one of the biggest challenges that agriculturalists and plant scientists are currently confronting. Environmental stresses make this situation even graver. Despite the induction of several tolerance mechanisms, sensitive plants often fail to survive under environmental extremes. New technological approaches are imperative. Conventional breeding methods have a limited potential to improve plant genomes against environmental stress. Recently, genetic engineering has contributed enormously to the development of genetically modified varieties of different crops such as cotton, maize, rice, canola and soybean. The identification of stress-responsive genes and their subsequent introgression or overexpression within sensitive crop species are now being widely carried out by plant scientists. Engineering of important tolerance pathways, like antioxidant enzymes, osmolyte accumulation, membrane-localized transporters for efficient compartmentation of deleterious ions and accumulation of essential elements and resistance against pests or pathogens is also an area that has been intensively researched. In this review, the role of biotechnology and its successes, prospects and challenges in developing stress-tolerant crop cultivars are discussed.

  4. Response of international shipping to the current environmental challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popek Marzenna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The international shipping industry directly facilitates the growth of the world trade, economic development and improvement of the global living standards. As the world economy and population continue to expand, the volume of maritime trade is expected to increase significantly as well. Maritime transport already contributes significantly to the three pillars of sustainable development – social, environmental and economic. Maritime transportation is generally considered environmental friendly when compared to other transportation means, especially if the energy efficiency is measured per tonne transported/per mile. Nevertheless, emissions from the growing maritime transport sector represent a significant and growing source of air pollution. One of future goals in international shipping is to reduce CO2 emissions. The International Maritime Organization is the United agency responsible for the protection of the environment from the impact of maritime transport. All parts of shipping industry are examining a number of ways to reduce CO2 emissions, which are primarily linked to reducing fuel consumption. The paper identifies the main areas that should be addressed if maritime sustainable development is to be achieved. It presents analysis of activities focused on environmentally friendly solutions as a form of IMO support for realization of the strategy of sustainable development.

  5. An environmental BeO-OSL dosimeter for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woda, Clemens; Kaiser, Jan Christian; Urso, Laura; Greiter, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented to use measurements of localized absorbed dose in inner cities for production of high resolution maps of the radioactive contamination following a nuclear emergency or radiological attack. The doses are derived from luminescent detectors pre-fixed at places of high importance (e.g. public squares). For such an environmental dosimeter, BeO is used, which can be read out using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). A suitable casing of black Perspex has been developed to give a sufficiently accurate estimate of the air kerma value at the detector position. The dosimeter is characterized according to light tightness, dose response and angular photon energy dependence. A short overview of the approach for map production is also given. - Highlights: ► An inexpensive, environmentally stable BeO based OSL dosimeter has been developed for emergency response. ► The detector enables fast readouts and shows highly favorable dosimetric properties. ► A conceptual design is described to produce maps of radioactive contamination from localized dose measurements in urban areas.

  6. A towel less: social norms enhance pro-environmental behavior in hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Gerhard; Loew, Kristina; Steffgen, Georges

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that normative appeals to engage in environmentally friendly behavior were most effective when they were accompanied by a provincial norm (e.g., when norms matched individuals' immediate situational circumstances). Analyzing hotel guests' towel-use during their stay, the current study tests whether messages employing provincial norms were more effective in reducing towel-use than standard environmental messages. In line with previous findings, guests of two hotels used significantly fewer towels when provincial normative appeals--rather than standard environmental messages--were communicated. These findings corroborate to the body of research demonstrating the power of social norms on environmental behavior.

  7. Pathological Imitative Behavior and Response Preparation in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankinas, Denisas; Melynyte, Sigita; Siurkute, Aldona; Dapsys, Kastytis

    2017-08-01

    Pathological imitative behavior (ehopraxia) is occasionally observed in schizophrenia patients. However, only a severe form of echopraxia can be detected with the help of a direct observation. Therefore, our goal was to study a latent form of pathological imitative behavior in this disorder, which is indicated by an increase of imitative tendencies. In our study, 14 schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy subjects were employed in two tasks: (a) in an imitative task they had to copy a hand action seen on a screen; (b) in a counter-imitative task they had to make a different movement (which involves an inhibition of prepotent imitative tendency that is impaired in case of pathological imitative behavior). Imitative tendencies were assessed by an interference score - a difference between counter-imitative and imitative response parameters. We also studied a response preparation in both groups by employing precueing probabilistic information. Our results revealed that schizophrenia patients were able to employ probabilistic information to prepare properly not only the imitative, but also the counter-imitative responses, the same as the healthy subjects did. Nevertheless, we detected increased prepotent imitative tendencies in schizophrenia patients, what indicates the latent pathological imitative behavior in case of this disorder. The obtained results suggest that in the case of schizophrenia problems with pathological imitative behavior more likely occurred in executive rather than in the preparatory stage of response. Our findings can help to detect a latent echopraxia in schizophrenia patients that cannot be revealed by direct observation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Environmental correlates of active travel behavior of children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the participation of children in walking and bicycling for transportation, school, and various leisure purposes, and the relation with social and physical environmental characteristics and sociodemographics. Detailed individual travel data, including all walking and bicycling

  9. Wastes behavior and environmental impacts, researches and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labeyrie, J.; Chateau, L.; Gin, St.

    2001-01-01

    The wastes management policy takes into account more and more often the environmental impacts mastership. This evolution is particularly appreciable when the wastes directly interact with the environment: storage, utilization for roads construction and so on. In this context the ADEME organized the 8 june 2000 a colloquium to present the new evaluation methods and tools, to describe the regulations and to identify the research programs needed for this environmental policy. Eleven papers are presented. (A.L.B.)

  10. Corporate Social Responsibility and its Impact on Purchasing Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Grigoryan, Lusine

    2015-01-01

    The awareness and concern regarding social and environmental issues is growing among representatives of the business sector and they cannot eliminate the impact that they have. Corporate Social Responsibility is a complex strategy to govern the whole process of doing business. The objective of the Diploma Thesis is to prepare comprehensive analysis of current CSR practices in the Czech Republic and find out what type of impact the socially responsible practices of a company can have on a cust...

  11. Anchoring novel molecular biomarker responses to traditional responses in fish exposed to environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Patricia; Pacheco, Mario; Lourdes Pereira, M.; Mendo, Sonia; Rotchell, Jeanette M.

    2010-01-01

    The responses of Dicentrarchus labrax and Liza aurata to aquatic pollution were assessed in a contaminated coastal lagoon, using both traditional and novel biomarkers combined. DNA damage, assessed by comet assay, was higher in both fish species from the contaminated sites, whereas levels of cytochrome P450 1A1 gene expression were not significantly altered. The liver histopathological analysis also revealed significant lesions in fish from contaminated sites. Alterations in ras and xpf genes were analysed and additional pollutant-responsive genes were identified. While no alterations were found in ras gene, a downregulation of xpf gene was observed in D. labrax from a contaminated site. Suppression subtractive hybridization applied to D. labrax collected at a contaminated site, revealed altered expression in genes involved in energy metabolism, immune system activity and antioxidant response. The approach and results reported herein demonstrate the utility of anchoring traditional biomarker responses alongside novel biomarker responses. - Novel molecular biomarkers of aquatic environmental contamination in fish.

  12. Environmental Behavior and Gender: An Emerging Area of Concern for Environmental Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellari, Maria; Skanavis, Constantina

    2013-01-01

    Ecofeminism suggests that women are more active than men regarding environmental issues for a variety of social, cultural, and biological reasons. In support to these arguments, women predominate within the overall grassroots of the Environmental Justice movement. However, claims have been made that environmental education theory and research are…

  13. The Effects of Mothers' Educational Levels on University Students' Environmental Protection Commitments and Environmental Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraçli, Sinan; Yilmaz, Veysel; Arslan, Talha

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: The damage caused by recent environmental problems has led to increased environmental concerns and the development of environment-friendly consumption behaviours in almost every society. Environment-friendly consumption involves the consideration of environmental benefits by minimizing any damage done to the environment at all…

  14. Genetics and evolution of function-valued traits: understanding environmentally responsive phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, John R; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Many central questions in ecology and evolutionary biology require characterizing phenotypes that change with time and environmental conditions. Such traits are inherently functions, and new 'function-valued' methods use the order, spacing, and functional nature of the data typically ignored by traditional univariate and multivariate analyses. These rapidly developing methods account for the continuous change in traits of interest in response to other variables, and are superior to traditional summary-based analyses for growth trajectories, morphological shapes, and environmentally sensitive phenotypes. Here, we explain how function-valued methods make flexible use of data and lead to new biological insights. These approaches frequently offer enhanced statistical power, a natural basis of interpretation, and are applicable to many existing data sets. We also illustrate applications of function-valued methods to address ecological, evolutionary, and behavioral hypotheses, and highlight future directions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Leaching behavior of coal combustion products and the environmental implication in road construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    The use of coal fly ash in road base and sub-base applications can provide better properties and performance, and is superior to it being otherwise disposed and becoming a possible environmental liability. Understanding the metal leaching behavior fo...

  16. Leaching behavior of coal combustion products and the environmental implication in road construction : project progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The use of coal fly ash in road base and sub-base applications can provide better properties and performance, and is superior to it being otherwise disposed and becoming a possible environmental liability. Understanding the metal leaching behavior fo...

  17. Hydrate Evolution in Response to Ongoing Environmental Shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Alan [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Natural gas hydrates have the potential to become a vital domestic clean-burning energy source. However, past changes in environmental conditions have caused hydrates to become unstable and trigger both massive submarine landslides and the development of crater-like pockmarks, thereby releasing methane into the overlying seawater and atmosphere, where it acts as a powerful greenhouse gas. This project was designed to fill critical gaps in our understanding of domestic hydrate resources and improve forecasts for their response to environmental shifts. Project work can be separated into three interrelated components, each involving the development of predictive mathematical models. The first project component concerns the role of sediment properties on the development and dissociation of concentrated hydrate anomalies. To this end, we developed numerical models to predict equilibrium solubility of methane in twophase equilibrium with hydrate as a function of measureable porous medium characteristics. The second project component concerned the evolution of hydrate distribution in heterogeneous reservoirs. To this end, we developed numerical models to predict the growth and decay of anomalies in representative physical environments. The third project component concerned the stability of hydrate-bearing slopes under changing environmental conditions. To this end, we developed numerical treatments of pore pressure evolution and consolidation, then used "infinite-slope" analysis to approximate the landslide potential in representative physical environments, and developed a "rate-and-state" frictional formulation to assess the stability of finite slip patches that are hypothesized to develop in response to the dissociation of hydrate anomalies. The increased predictive capabilities that result from this work provide a framework for interpreting field observations of hydrate anomalies in terms of the history of environmental forcing that led to their development. Moreover

  18. AN ENVIRONMENTAL ANTIANDROGEN, VINCLOZOLIN, ALTERS THE ORGANIZATION OF PLAY BEHAVIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT During mammalian sexual differentiation, the androgens, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are critical for the organization of the male phenotype. In rats, play behavior is sexually dimorphic. Administration of exogenous androgens during the perinatal period r...

  19. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Comprehensive Environmentally Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (FTS 896-2609 or Commercial 202/586-2609).

  20. Ethnic variation in environmental belief and behavior: An examination of the new ecological paradigm in a social psychological context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker; H. Ken Cordell

    2004-01-01

    We use national-level data to test a modified version of Stern, Dietz, & Guagnano's causal model of environmental belief and behavior. We focus on ethnic variation for four environmental behaviors: environmental reading, household recycling, environmental group joining, and participation in nature-based outdoor recreation. Blacks and foreign-born Latinos were...

  1. The Connection between Environmental Attitude-Behavior Gap and Other Individual Inconsistencies: A Call for Strengthening Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Ignacio; Puelles, María

    2017-01-01

    What is going on with environmental education, which is currently unable to promote pro-environmental behaviors as effectively as it promotes pro-environmental attitudes? A tentative answer is that the environmental attitude-behavior gap observed in some individuals is just one manifestation of their lack of self-control for maintaining…

  2. The impact of an environmental education program on children's and parents' knowledge, attitudes, motivation and behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Louise M. R.

    1999-11-01

    Developments in the Quebec educational system enabled us to evaluate the impact of a new educational environmental program (EEP) on a group of children enrolled in this program for the first time (i.e., the experimental group). This EEP comprised a formal curriculum and environmental activities. A control group of children was enrolled in schools where environmental issues were confined to the natural sciences subject. The goals of this study were threefold. The first goal was to evaluate the impact of an EEP on children's and parents' ecological knowledge, attitudes, motivation, and behaviors. The second goal was to investigate if a motivational model of ecological behaviors observed in adult populations could be replicated with children. Part of this goal also included the comparison of path analyses results across experimental conditions, independently for children and parents. The third goal was to identify more clearly what specific children's characteristics influenced parents' ecological attitudes and motivation. Included in this goal was the investigation of possible differences in the strength of associations between constructs in paths analyses conducted in the experimental and control groups of parents. Results suggested that children in the experimental group were more likely to ask teachers and parents for ecological information and presented a more self-determined motivational profile. Additional analyses revealed that children enrolled in an EEP performed ecological behaviors less for extrinsic motives. Level of knowledge, other attitudes and behavioral measures did not differ significantly between the two groups. Parents of children in the experimental group reported lower levels of satisfaction towards the environment and were more likely to get information on ecological issues and strategies from children. No other significant differences between groups of parents were found. Path analyses results suggested that parents' perceptions of children

  3. Are cyberbullies less empathic? Adolescents' cyberbullying behavior and empathic responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffgen, Georges; König, Andreas; Pfetsch, Jan; Melzer, André

    2011-11-01

    Meta-analyses confirm a negative relationship between aggressive behavior and empathy, that is, the ability to understand and share the feelings of others. Based on theoretical considerations, it was, therefore, hypothesized that a lack of empathic responsiveness may be characteristic for cyberbullies in particular. In the present study, 2.070 students of Luxembourg secondary schools completed an online survey that included a cyberbullying questionnaire(4) and a novel empathy short scale. According to the main hypothesis, analyses of variances indicated that cyberbullies demonstrated less empathic responsiveness than non-cyberbullies. In addition, cyberbullies were also more afraid of becoming victims of cyberbullying. The findings confirm and substantially extend the research on the relationship between empathy and aggressive behavior. From an educational point of view, the present findings suggest that training of empathy skills might be an important tool to decrease cyberbullying.

  4. IMPLEMENTATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE PRACTICE OF THE MANAGEMENT OF DOMESTIC ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Grishnova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The essence of environmental responsibility as part of CSR is proved in the article. The general evaluation of the most significant environmental problems in Ukraine is given. The lack of interest in environmental protection in domestic business is identified (it’s indicated by the rapid increase in costs of utilities to pay the environmental tax, while the rate of growth of capital and current expenditure on environmental protection is minimal. The estimation of the level of implementation of environmental responsibility in the management practices of leading Ukrainian companies according to their non-financial reports is proved. The evaluation of environmental indicators by the standard GRI in reports of socially responsible companies are performed. The extremely low level of implementation of environmental responsibility in the practice of management of companies – ranking leaders at CSR in Ukraine is determined. The necessity of improving the environmental responsibility at all levels is substantiated.

  5. An examination of the impact of non-formal and informal learning on adult environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digby, Cynthia Louise Barrett

    The purpose of this research is to consider the environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, of adults in Minnesota, and possible factors that influence environmental literacy. Specifically, this study is designed to: (1) measure the environmental literacy of Minnesota adults, (2) explore possible relationships between Minnesota adults, environmental literacy variables and their demographic, non-formal and informal learning, and (3) determine the relative contribution of demographic and learning variables for predicting environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. This research was accomplished by conducting a secondary data analysis of The Third Minnesota Report Card on Environmental Literacy: A Survey of Adult Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior (Murphy & Olson, 2008). Phone interviews were completed between August and November 2007 with one thousand adults throughout Minnesota. Findings indicated that for age, education, and income, there was a weak positive relationship with environmental knowledge, attitude and behavior scores. There was a significant effect for gender and environmental knowledge scores, with males receiving higher environmental knowledge scores than females. There was a significant effect for gender and environmental attitudes, and behavior scores as well, with females receiving slightly higher environmental attitude and behavior scores than males. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, non-formal learning participation appears to be a moderate contributor to both environmental knowledge and environmental behaviors. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, informal learning participation appears to be a slight contributor to environmental attitudes, and a moderate contributor to environmental knowledge and behaviors. Overall, the results of this study suggest that participation

  6. The ethical and socially responsible behavior of the commercial companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mureşan, L.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Romanian society and economy the need to distinguish certain behaviors based on the principles of ethics and social responsibility becomes obvious. The totality of the decisions made by the commercial companies must ensure the observance of the interests of all entities which interact with these. The situation of each commercial company whose decisions are inconsistent with the requirements of ethics and social responsibility will sooner or later be endangered because it affects the interests of others, it means in fact affecting one’s own interests.

  7. Relationships between daily affect and pro-environmental behavior at work : The moderating role of pro-environmental attitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bissing-Olson, Megan J.; Iyer, Aarti; Fielding, Kelly S.; Zacher, Hannes

    Research in organizational psychology has increasingly focused on understanding the determinants of green employee behavior. The present study used a daily diary design to investigate relationships between employees' daily affect, pro-environmental attitude, as well as daily task-related

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY (OPENNESS, CONSCIENTIOUSNESS, EXTRAVERSION, AGREEABLENESS, EMOTIONAL STABILITY) WITH STUDENT’S ENVIRONMENTAL MORAL BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    PURNAMA SARI, ULIS PRATIWI

    2016-01-01

    This aim of this reseach is to find out the relationship between personality with student’s environmental moral behavior, personality consists of five factors (openess, conscietiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and emotional stability) which each of the factors will be sought the relationship with student’s environmental moral behavior. This research used quantitative with survey method, involved 120 samples in Bhineka Tunggal Ika Senior High School. Data were colleted through participant...

  9. Beneficial effects of environmental enrichment on behavior, stress reactivity and synaptophysin/BDNF expression in hippocampus following early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandi, Εvgenia; Kalamari, Aikaterini; Touloumi, Olga; Lagoudaki, Rosa; Nousiopoulou, Evangelia; Simeonidou, Constantina; Spandou, Evangelia; Tata, Despina A

    2018-06-01

    Exposure to environmental enrichment can beneficially influence the behavior and enhance synaptic plasticity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mediated effects of environmental enrichment on postnatal stress-associated impact with regard to behavior, stress reactivity as well as synaptic plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus. Wistar rat pups were submitted to a 3 h maternal separation (MS) protocol during postnatal days 1-21, while another group was left undisturbed. On postnatal day 23, a subgroup from each rearing condition (maternal separation, no-maternal separation) was housed in enriched environmental conditions until postnatal day 65 (6 weeks duration). At approximately three months of age, adult rats underwent behavioral testing to evaluate anxiety (Elevated Plus Maze), locomotion (Open Field Test), spatial learning and memory (Morris Water Maze) as well as non-spatial recognition memory (Novel Object Recognition Test). After completion of behavioral testing, blood samples were taken for evaluation of stress-induced plasma corticosterone using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while immunofluorescence was applied to evaluate hippocampal BDNF and synaptophysin expression in dorsal hippocampus. We found that environmental enrichment protected against the effects of maternal separation as indicated by the lower anxiety levels and the reversal of spatial memory deficits compared to animals housed in standard conditions. These changes were associated with increased BDNF and synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus. Regarding the neuroendocrine response to stress, while exposure to an acute stressor potentiated corticosterone increases in maternally-separated rats, environmental enrichment of these rats prevented this effect. The current study aimed at investigating the compensatory role of enriched environment against the negative outcomes of adverse experiences early in life concurrently on emotional and cognitive

  10. A Method to Test the Effect of Environmental Cues on Mating Behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Jenke A; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2017-07-17

    An individual's sexual drive is influenced by genotype, experience and environmental conditions. How these factors interact to modulate sexual behaviors remains poorly understood. In Drosophila melanogaster, environmental cues, such as food availability, affect mating activity offering a tractable system to investigate the mechanisms modulating sexual behavior. In D. melanogaster, environmental cues are often sensed via the chemosensory gustatory and olfactory systems. Here, we present a method to test the effect of environmental chemical cues on mating behavior. The assay consists of a small mating arena containing food medium and a mating couple. The mating frequency for each couple is continuously monitored for 24 h. Here we present the applicability of this assay to test environmental compounds from an external source through a pressurized air system as well as manipulation of the environmental components directly in the mating arena. The use of a pressurized air system is especially useful to test the effect of very volatile compounds, while manipulating components directly in the mating arena can be of value to ascertain a compound's presence. This assay can be adapted to answer questions about the influence of genetic and environmental cues on mating behavior and fecundity as well as other male and female reproductive behaviors.

  11. Bet-hedging response to environmental variability, an intraspecific comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevoux, Marie; Forcada, Jaume; Barbraud, Christophe; Croxall, John; Weimerskirchi, Henri

    2010-08-01

    A major challenge in ecology is to understand the impact of increased environmental variability on populations and ecosystems. To maximize their fitness in a variable environment, life history theory states that individuals should favor a bet-hedging strategy, involving a reduction of annual breeding performance and an increase in adult survival so that reproduction can be attempted over more years. As a result, evolution toward longer life span is expected to reduce the deleterious effects of extra variability on population growth, and consequently on the trait contributing the most to it (e.g., adult survival in long-lived species). To investigate this, we compared the life histories of two Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) populations breeding at South Georgia (Atlantic Ocean) and Kerguelen (Indian Ocean), the former in an environment nearly three times more variable climatically (e.g., in sea surface temperature) than the latter. As predicted, individuals from South Georgia (in the more variable environment) showed significantly higher annual adult survival (0.959, SE = 0.003) but lower annual reproductive success (0.285 chick per pair, SE = 0.039) than birds from Kerguelen (survival = 0.925, SE = 0.004; breeding success = 0.694, SE = 0.027). In both populations, climatic conditions affected the breeding success and the survival of inexperienced breeders, whereas the survival of experienced breeders was unaffected. The strength of the climatic impact on survival of inexperienced breeders was very similar between the two populations, but the effect on breeding success was positively related to environmental variability. These results provide rare and compelling evidence to support bet-hedging underlying changes in life history traits as an adaptive response to environmental variability.

  12. Solar Sail Material Performance Property Response to Space Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehls, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted to a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two, if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (Ll) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager and the L1 Diamond. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar[TM], Teonex[TM], and CPl (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were

  13. Behavioral responses of silverback gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) to videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Margaret A; Leighty, Katherine A; Kuhar, Christopher W; Bettinger, Tamara L

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of video presentations on the behavior of 4 silverback, western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). On each of 5 occasions, gorillas viewed 6 types of videos (blue screen, humans, an all-male or mixed-sex group engaged in low activity, and an all-male or mixed-sex group engaged in agonistic behavior). The study recorded behavioral responses and watching rates. All gorillas preferred dynamic over static videos; 3 watched videos depicting gorillas significantly more than those depicting humans. Among the gorilla videos, the gorillas clearly preferred watching the mixed-sex group engaged in agonistic behavior; yet, this did not lead to an increase in aggression or behavior indicating agitation. Further, habituation to videos depicting gorillas did not occur. This supports the effectiveness of this form of enrichment, particularly for a nonhuman animal needing to be separated temporarily due to illness, shipment quarantine, social restructuring, or exhibit modification. Copyright © The Walt Disney Company®

  14. Microevolution of European temperate oaks in response to environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This review reconstructs microevolutionary processes that allowed long-lived species as temperate oaks (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) to cope with climate change since the last glacial maximum, by assembling insights from complementary synchronic and allochronic approaches. Paleobotanical and genetic investigations show that oaks migrated at larger velocities than expected, thanks to long-distance rare events and most likely human interferences. Hybridization was a key mechanism accelerating migration and enhancing species succession. Common garden experiments and genome wide association studies demonstrated that diversifying selection across large environmental gradients contributed to rapid local adaptation. Finally the review explores how lessons taken from past evolutionary scenarios may help to predict future responses of oaks to ongoing climate change. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  15. Environmental Responses to Carbon Mitigation through Geological Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Alfred [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Bromenshenk, Jerry [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2013-08-30

    In summary, this DOE EPSCoR project is contributing to the study of carbon mitigation through geological storage. Both deep and shallow subsurface research needs are being addressed through research directed at improved understanding of environmental responses associated with large scale injection of CO2 into geologic formations. The research plan has two interrelated research objectives. Objective 1: Determine the influence of CO2-related injection of fluids on pore structure, material properties, and microbial activity in rock cores from potential geological carbon sequestration sites. Objective 2: Determine the Effects of CO2 leakage on shallow subsurface ecosystems (microbial and plant) using field experiments from an outdoor field testing facility.

  16. Responsibility to Nature? Hans Jonas and Environmental Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wolsing

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the philosopher Hans Jonas’s idea of an environmental ethics. Through an outline of the development of man’s relation to nature from Greek antiquity to the present it is argued that science and technology in modernity favour a relation of exploitation which is partly the cause of fatal climate changes. Through Jonas’s philosophical notion of an ontology of man as an alternative to classical dualism and by means of a turn to an ontological interpretation of Kant’s categorical imperative, it is argued that mankind has a responsibility to both coming generations and to the biosphere as a whole. Not only does this ontological shift from philosophy of mind to an ontology of man transcend dualism in philosophy, it throws a new critical light on the technological development and suggests a new way of considering man’s place in the cosmos.

  17. CORPORATE SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE SERVICE SECTOR: A CASE STUDY FROM TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Akdemir Omur, Gokce; Ozbebek Tunc, Aysegul; Nemli Caliskan, Esra

    2012-01-01

    As the world is rapidly approaching its limits in terms of both environmental and social problems, businesses are increasingly expected to attend to issues of socially and environmentally responsible performance. In addition that demands for heightened levels of corporate social and environmental responsibility are being pressed through regulatory initiatives in many countries, corporations at the same time are realizing that being environmentally and socially responsible makes good business ...

  18. Consumer segmentation based on the level of environmental responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ham

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Doubtless, there is an environmentally responsible segment of consumers in the market. However, with an increasing number of suppliers entering the green market, it is no longer sufficient to be aware of this fact. What is needed now are complex strategies of segmentation, targeting and positioning. The aim of this paper was to provide a theoretical framework for understanding the key concepts related to the green consumer segment and to help create a clearer picture of Croatia’s green consumers by gathering secondary data from the available literature, previous research and primary data from own research. Primary research was conducted by means of a structured questionnaire on a sample of 552 respondents. The questionnaire was divided into three parts, each measuring, respectively, attitudes, knowledge and activities undertaken. After the segmentation (three segments: green, neutral and brown consumers, a chi-square test was used in an attempt to prove statistically significant differences when comparing the given segment structure with the respondents’ demographic characteristics. The results of this research describe the average green consumer in the Republic of Croatia as a person who is 55 and older, with higher or university education, who is married, who responds to the advertising claims about eco-friendliness of products and is influenced by those claims, who occasionally or frequently makes purchasing decisions and shows readiness to pay a 20 percent mark-up for an environmentally friendly product.

  19. The Roles of Attitudinal and Personality Variables in the Prediction of Environmental Behavior and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuthnot, Jack

    1977-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among selected attitudinal and personality characteristics, attitudes toward environmental problems, and environmental knowledge and behavioral commitment of two diverse samples: 85 users of a recycling center and 60 conservative church members. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to determine the best…

  20. Nonlinear response and avalanche behavior in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, B.; Samwer, K.

    2017-08-01

    The response to different stress amplitudes at temperatures below the glass transition temperature is analyzed by mechanical oscillatory excitation of Pd40Ni40P20 metallic glass samples in single cantilever bending geometry. While low amplitude oscillatory excitations are commonly used in mechanical spectroscopy to probe the relaxation spectrum, in this work the response to comparably high amplitudes is investigated. The strain response of the material is well below the critical yield stress even for highest stress amplitudes, implying the expectation of a linear relation between stress and strain according to Hooke's Law. However, a deviation from the linear behavior is evident, which is analyzed in terms of temperature dependence and influence of the applied stress amplitude by two different approaches of evaluation. The nonlinear approach is based on a nonlinear expansion of the stress-strain-relation, assuming an intrinsic nonlinear character of the shear or elastic modulus. The degree of nonlinearity is extracted by a period-by-period Fourier-analysis and connected to nonlinear coefficients, describing the intensity of nonlinearity at the fundamental and higher harmonic frequencies. The characteristic timescale to adapt to a significant change in stress amplitude in terms of a recovery timescale to a steady state value is connected to the structural relaxation time of the material, suggesting a connection between the observed nonlinearity and primary relaxation processes. The second approach of evaluation is termed the incremental analysis and relates the observed response behavior to avalanches, which occur due to the activation and correlation of local microstructural rearrangements. These rearrangements are connected with shear transformation zones and correspond to localized plastic events, which are superimposed on the linear response behavior of the material.

  1. The Pupillary Orienting Response Predicts Adaptive Behavioral Adjustment after Errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Murphy

    Full Text Available Reaction time (RT is commonly observed to slow down after an error. This post-error slowing (PES has been thought to arise from the strategic adoption of a more cautious response mode following deployment of cognitive control. Recently, an alternative account has suggested that PES results from interference due to an error-evoked orienting response. We investigated whether error-related orienting may in fact be a pre-cursor to adaptive post-error behavioral adjustment when the orienting response resolves before subsequent trial onset. We measured pupil dilation, a prototypical measure of autonomic orienting, during performance of a choice RT task with long inter-stimulus intervals, and found that the trial-by-trial magnitude of the error-evoked pupil response positively predicted both PES magnitude and the likelihood that the following response would be correct. These combined findings suggest that the magnitude of the error-related orienting response predicts an adaptive change of response strategy following errors, and thereby promote a reconciliation of the orienting and adaptive control accounts of PES.

  2. The role of the Drosophila lateral horn in olfactory information processing and behavioral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultzhaus, Janna N; Saleem, Sehresh; Iftikhar, Hina; Carney, Ginger E

    2017-04-01

    Animals must rapidly and accurately process environmental information to produce the correct behavioral responses. Reactions to previously encountered as well as to novel but biologically important stimuli are equally important, and one understudied region in the insect brain plays a role in processing both types of stimuli. The lateral horn is a higher order processing center that mainly processes olfactory information and is linked via olfactory projection neurons to another higher order learning center, the mushroom body. This review focuses on the lateral horn of Drosophila where most functional studies have been performed. We discuss connectivity between the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe, and the lateral horn and mushroom body. We also present evidence for the lateral horn playing roles in innate behavioral responses by encoding biological valence to novel odor cues and in learned responses to previously encountered odors by modulating neural activity within the mushroom body. We describe how these processes contribute to acceptance or avoidance of appropriate or inappropriate mates and food, as well as the identification of predators. The lateral horn is a sexually dimorphic and plastic region of the brain that modulates other regions of the brain to ensure that insects produce rapid and effective behavioral responses to both novel and learned stimuli, yet multiple gaps exist in our knowledge of this important center. We anticipate that future studies on olfactory processing, learning, and innate behavioral responses will include the lateral horn in their examinations, leading to a more comprehensive understanding of olfactory information relay and resulting behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Designing interruptive behaviors of a public environmental monitoring robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, V.; de Vries, R.; Alvito, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports ongoing research to inform the design of a social robot to monitor levels of pollutant gasses in the air. Next to licensed environmental agents and immobile chemical sensors, mobile technologies such as robotic agents are needed to collect complaints and smell descriptions from

  4. Chemical approaches to understanding the environmental behavior of Pu, Np, and Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: speciation behavior of Pu, Np, and Tc; thermodynamic and radiochemical behavior; sorption studies with soils; Pu oxidation states in fresh water; Np oxidation states in soils; effect of oxidation state of Tc on environmental transport predictions; and thermodynamic calculations of Tc speciation

  5. A Systematic Review of Environmental Correlates of Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Oenema, A.; Ferreira, I.; Wendel-Vos, W.; Giskes, K.; van Lenthe, F.; Brug, J.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the role the environment plays in shaping the dietary behavior of youth, particularly in the context of obesity prevention. An overview of environmental factors associated with obesity-related dietary behaviors among youth is needed to inform the development of interventions. A systematic review of observational…

  6. [A twin study on genetic and environmental factors of adolescents violence behaviors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenfen; Fu, Yixiao; Hu, Xiaomei; Wang, Yingcheng; Deng, Wei; Li, Tao; Ma, Xingshun

    2015-11-01

    To explore the influence of genetic and environmental factors on adolescents violence behaviors. The violence behaviors of 111 twin pairs from Chongqing (aged from 11 to 18 years) were investigated with risk behavior questionnaire-adolescent (RBQ-A). The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) and Stressful Life Event (SLE) and the General Functioning Scale of the MacMaster Family Activity Device (FAD-GFS) were applied to assess their environment factors. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the effects of the additive genetic factors (A), shared environment factors (C) and individual specific environmental factors (E) on the adolescents violence behaviors. The effects of A and E on adolescents violence behaviors were 0.41 (95% CI 0.19-0.58) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.42-0.81) respectively. There were significantly negative correlation between violence behaviors and authoritative-parenting-style (r = -0.140, P parenting-style score (r = 0.133, P parenting education level and occupation. Adolescents violence behaviors were influenced by additive genetic factors and individual specific environmental factors. Environmental plays an important role. It should not been ignored that parental rearing pattern play a role in adolescents violence behaviors.

  7. A systematic review of environmental correlates of obesity-related dietary behaviors in youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. van der Horst (Klazine); A. Oenema (Anke); A. Ferreira (Isabel); G.C.W. Wendel-Vos (Wanda); K. Giskes (Katrina); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); J. Brug (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThere is increasing interest in the role the environment plays in shaping the dietary behavior of youth, particularly in the context of obesity prevention. An overview of environmental factors associated with obesity-related dietary behaviors among youth is needed to inform the

  8. Seeing the Forest as Well as the Trees: General vs. Specific Predictors of Environmental Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmi, Nurit; Arnon, Sara; Orion, Nir

    2015-01-01

    The domain of environmental protection is comprised from many sub-domains as recycling, conserving water, or reducing the consumption of energy. The attitude-behavior gap is partly explained by the gap between the specificity levels of the particular measured behavior and of its antecedent(s). The present study aimed at assessing the effects of…

  9. Copepod behavior response to Burgers' vortex treatments mimicking turbulent eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, D.; Webster, D. R.; Fields, D. M.

    2017-11-01

    Copepods detect hydrodynamic cues in the water by their mechanosensory setae. We expect that copepods sense the flow structure of turbulent eddies in order to evoke behavioral responses that lead to population-scale distribution patterns. In this study, the copepods' response to the Burgers' vortex is examined. The Burgers' vortex is a steady-state solution of three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations that allows us to mimic turbulent vortices at the appropriate scale and eliminate the stochastic nature of turbulence. We generate vortices in the laboratory oriented in the horizontal and vertical directions each with four intensity levels. The objective of including vortex orientation as a parameter in the study is to quantify directional responses that lead to vertical population distribution patterns. The four intensity levels correspond to target vortex characteristics of eddies corresponding to the typical dissipative vortices in isotropic turbulence with mean turbulent dissipation rates in the range of 0.002 to 0.25 cm2/s3. These vortices mimic the characteristics of eddies that copepods most likely encounter in coastal zones. We hypothesize that the response of copepods to hydrodynamic features depends on their sensory architecture and relative orientation with respect to gravity. Tomo-PIV is used to quantify the vortex circulation and axial strain rate for each vortex treatment. Three-dimensional trajectories of the copepod species Calanus finmarchicus are analyzed to examine their swimming kinematics in and around the vortex to quantify the hydrodynamic cues that trigger their behavior.

  10. Condensed Proceedings of the Ad Hoc Committee on Environmental Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancro, Robert

    1972-01-01

    Fourteen leading behavioral scientists explore the relationship between environment and health with a focus on the following question: As we look at health care as people receive it in their communities and the realities of America today, what can we do to improve it?'' Philosophical, scientific issues discussed in round table fashion. (LK)

  11. Practical aspects of the environmental behavior of radiocesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittel, Robert; Daburon, Francois; Madelmont, Claude.

    1977-03-01

    The data directly useful in the field of radiation protection were brought out from the many data available on the behavior of radiocesium from release points to man. The various pathways of the isotopes were considered with a view to quantify their importance. Emphasis is set on some pathways likely to constitute critical pathways on account of dietary habits [fr

  12. The role of environmental shocks in shaping prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duchoslav, Jan

    2017-01-01

    All economic activity requires some degree of cooperation, and the process of economic development involves many social dilemmas. It is therefore crucial to understand how the preferences which guide our behavior vis-à-vis these situations are shaped. The ability and willingness to work for the

  13. The Behavioral Effects of Environmental Enrichment in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-30

    decrease food consumption (Rickards, Job, & Boakes, 1997; Marti, Marti, & Armario , 1994; Zylan & Brown, 1996); exposure to repeated cold stress...Behavior, 71(3-4), 329-333. 108 Marti, O., Marti, J., & Armario , A. (1994). Effects of chronic stress on food intake in rats: influence of

  14. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Media Use and Communication Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirzinger, Ashley E.; Weber, Christopher; Johnson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of scholarly work has explored the motivations behind media consumption and other various communication traits. However, little research has investigated the sources of these motivations and virtually no research considers their potential genetic underpinnings. Drawing on the field of behavior genetics, we use a classical twin design…

  15. Environmental values, ethics, and depreciative behavior in wildland settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorceta E. Taylor; Patricia L. Winter

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary results were examined from a self-administered questionnaire regarding the relationships between personal values, individual characteristics, and depreciative behaviors. Respondents were queried about socio-demographics, reasons for visiting forest recreation areas, reasons for liking and disliking the forest, activities witnessed while visiting the forest...

  16. Prediction of the relative toxicity of environmental toxins as a function of behavioral and non-behavioral endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to examine the differential effects of behavioral and non-behavioral endpoints on the prediction of the relative toxicity of an environmental toxin. The effects of ionizing radiation were taken as the model for this evaluation. Forty rhesus monkeys were irradiated in groups of four at five different dose levels of high energy neuton and Bremsstrahlung radiations. Measures of behavioral performance, emesis and mortality were taken for each subject in order to test the hypotheses that behavioral indices would be more sensitive to gamma radiation than would physiological indices and that the physiological indices would be more sensitive to neutron radiations than would behavioral indices. The results supported these hypotheses

  17. Assessment of Environmental Intention of Journalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skanavis, Constantina; Sakellari, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of environmental education (EE) is that citizens develop a responsible environmental behavior. Environmental awareness constitutes an important factor for the shaping of a responsible environmental behavior. The mass media can strengthen the degree of environmental awareness of the public, through the dissemination of…

  18. Adolescents' perspectives and food choice behaviors in terms of the environmental impacts of food production practices: application of a psychosocial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette, M M; Contento, I R

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate adolescents' perspectives about the environmental impacts of food production practices and whether these perspectives are related to their food choice. Food choice was operationalized as consumption and purchase of organic foods and locally grown foods. A survey questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of adolescents and analyzed for descriptive information and relationships among variables. Subjects were 651 ethnically diverse, urban and suburban high school senior students in a major metropolitan area. Variables of an Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior were measured including beliefs, attitudes, perceived social influences, motivation to comply, perceived behavioral control, self-identity, perceived responsibility, behavioral intention, and behavior. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used. Surveyed adolescents did not have strong or consistent beliefs or attitudes about the environmental impact of food production practices. Cognitive-motivational processes were at work, however, since their perspectives were significantly correlated with behavioral intentions and food choice behaviors. Behavioral intention was best accounted for by attitudes and perceived social influences (and perceived responsibility for organic food), and behavior was best accounted for by behavioral intentions, beliefs, and perceived social influences (and self-identity for local food). There is a need to make salient to adolescents the environmental impact of food production practices through both cognitive and experiential approaches.

  19. Improving environmental performance through unit-level organizational citizenship behaviors for the environment: A capability perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Elisa; Spitzeck, Heiko

    2016-11-01

    Organizational citizenship behaviors for the environment (OCBEs) are increasingly advocated as a means of complementing formal practices in improving environmental performance. Adopting a capability perspective, we propose that a firm's employee involvement capability translates into environmental performance through the manifestation of unit-level OCBEs, and that this relationship is amplified by a shared vision capability. In a cross-country and multi-industry sample of 170 firms, we find support for our hypotheses, shedding light on contextual determinants of OCBEs, and on how firms may engender a positive relationship between top-down environmental initiatives and bottom-up behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Comparative Investigation of Environmental Behaviors of Gifted Students and Their Peers

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    Gökhan Sontay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to compare gifted and non-gifted students’ behaviors towards environment. The sample of the study consisted of 364 sixth, seventh and eighth graders attending six different middle schools in the city of Amasya and 34 gifted sixth, seventh and eighth graders attending the Amasya Science and Art Center in Turkey. Data was collected through a 12-item “Environmental Behavior Scale (EBS” developed by the researchers. Independent samples t-test was used to compare scores. The findings showed that gifted students were superior to their peers in terms of showing positive environmental behaviors.

  1. Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Madeline H; Slutske, Wendy S; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2011-05-01

    Sex differences in the genetic and environmental influences on childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior were examined in a large community sample of 6,383 adult male, female, and opposite-sex twins. Retrospective reports of childhood conduct disorder (prior to 18 years of age) were obtained when participants were approximately 30 years old, and lifetime reports of adult antisocial behavior (antisocial behavior after 17 years of age) were obtained 8 years later. Results revealed that either the genetic or the shared environmental factors influencing childhood conduct disorder differed for males and females (i.e., a qualitative sex difference), but by adulthood, these sex-specific influences on antisocial behavior were no longer apparent. Further, genetic and environmental influences accounted for proportionally the same amount of variance in antisocial behavior for males and females in childhood and adulthood (i.e., there were no quantitative sex differences). Additionally, the stability of antisocial behavior from childhood to adulthood was slightly greater for males than females. Though familial factors accounted for more of the stability of antisocial behavior for males than females, genetic factors accounted for the majority of the covariation between childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior for both sexes. The genetic influences on adult antisocial behavior overlapped completely with the genetic influences on childhood conduct disorder for both males and females. Implications for future twin and molecular genetic studies are discussed.

  2. role of altruistic behavior, empathetic concern, and social responsibility motivation in blood donation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Whitney Randolph; Schreiber, George B; Guiltinan, Anne; Nass, Catharie; Glynn, Simone A; Wright, David J; Kessler, Debra; Schlumpf, Karen S; Tu, Yongling; Smith, James W; Garratty, George

    2008-01-01

    Blood donation can be described as a prosocial behavior, and donors often cite prosocial reasons such as altruism, empathy, or social responsibility for their willingness to donate. Previous studies have not quantitatively evaluated these characteristics in donors or examined how they relate to donation frequency. As part of a donor motivation study, 12,064 current and lapsed donors answered questions used to create an altruistic behavior, empathetic concern, and social responsibility motivation score for each donor. Analysis of variance was used to compare mean scores by demographics and donor status and to determine the influence of each variable on the mean number of donations in the past 5 years. The mean score for each prosocial characteristic appeared high, with lower scores in male and younger donors. Higher altruistic behavior and social responsibility motivation scores were associated with increased past donation frequency, but the effects were minor. Empathetic concern was not associated with prior donation. The largest differences in prior donations were by age and donor status, with older and current donors having given more frequently. Most blood donors appear to have high levels of the primary prosocial characteristics (altruism, empathy, and social responsibility) commonly thought to be the main motivators for donation, but these factors do not appear to be the ones most strongly related to donation frequency. Traditional donor appeals based on these characteristics may need to be supplemented by approaches that address practical concerns like convenience, community safety, or personal benefit.

  3. Study on Public Flood Risk Cognition and Behavioral Response Based on IEC Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin; Xu, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Guilin; Pan, Shaolin; Mi, Tengfei

    2017-11-01

    In order to disseminate knowledge and information on flood risks in flood-prone areas, raise public awareness of flood risks and reduce possible damage to the public, a questionnaire survey was coducted among 260 residents of nine selected communities in Jiaozhou City to learn the public awareness and behavioral response to flood risks at different early warning levels. IEC key information of flood risk awareness was modified and formulated through group discussions, in-depth individual interviews and on-site observation. The awareness of residents in the project area was enhanced through the public participation, environmental management and flood management training, which plays a very important role in reducing flood losses.

  4. A sustainable building promotes pro-environmental behavior: an observational study on food disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, David W-L; DiGiacomo, Alessandra; Kingstone, Alan

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop a more sustainable society, the wider public will need to increase engagement in pro-environmental behaviors. Psychological research on pro-environmental behaviors has thus far focused on identifying individual factors that promote such behavior, designing interventions based on these factors, and evaluating these interventions. Contextual factors that may also influence behavior at an aggregate level have been largely ignored. In the current study, we test a novel hypothesis--whether simply being in a sustainable building can elicit environmentally sustainable behavior. We find support for our hypothesis: people are significantly more likely to correctly choose the proper disposal bin (garbage, compost, recycling) in a building designed with sustainability in mind compared to a building that was not. Questionnaires reveal that these results are not due to self-selection biases. Our study provides empirical support that one's surroundings can have a profound and positive impact on behavior. It also suggests the opportunity for a new line of research that bridges psychology, design, and policy-making in an attempt to understand how the human environment can be designed and used as a subtle yet powerful tool to encourage and achieve aggregate pro-environmental behavior.

  5. Using Motivational Interviewing to reduce threats in conversations about environmental behavior

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    Florian Erik Klonek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT, threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT, threats can harm individuals’ self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting counter-arguments when presented with environmental behavior change. The current study examines how change recipients respond to threats from change agents in interactions about environmental behavior change. Moreover, we investigate how Motivational Interviewing (MI—an intervention aimed at increasing intrinsic motivation—can reduce threats at both the social and cognitive level. We videotaped 68 dyadic interactions with change agents who either did or did not use MI (control group. We coded agents verbal threats and recipients’ verbal expressions of motivation. Recipients also rated agents’ level of confrontation and empathy (i.e., cognitive reactions. As hypothesized, threats were significantly lower when change agents used MI. Perceived confrontations converged with observable social behavior of change agents in both groups. Moreover, behavioral threats showed a negative association with change recipients’ expressed motivation (i.e., reasons to change. Contrary to our expectations, we found no relation between change agents’ verbal threats and change recipients’ verbally expressed self-defenses (i.e., sustain talk. Our results imply that MI reduces the adverse impact of threats in conversations about environmental behavior change on both the social and cognitive level. We discuss theoretical implications of our study in the context of SAT and SDT and suggest practical implications for environmental change agents in organizations.

  6. Using Motivational Interviewing to reduce threats in conversations about environmental behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonek, Florian E; Güntner, Amelie V; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT), threats can harm individuals' self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting counter-arguments when presented with environmental behavior change. The current study examines how change recipients respond to threats from change agents in interactions about environmental behavior change. Moreover, we investigate how Motivational Interviewing (MI) - an intervention aimed at increasing intrinsic motivation - can reduce threats at both the social and cognitive level. We videotaped 68 dyadic interactions with change agents who either did or did not use MI (control group). We coded agents verbal threats and recipients' verbal expressions of motivation. Recipients also rated agents' level of confrontation and empathy (i.e., cognitive reactions). As hypothesized, threats were significantly lower when change agents used MI. Perceived confrontations converged with observable social behavior of change agents in both groups. Moreover, behavioral threats showed a negative association with change recipients' expressed motivation (i.e., reasons to change). Contrary to our expectations, we found no relation between change agents' verbal threats and change recipients' verbally expressed self-defenses (i.e., sustain talk). Our results imply that MI reduces the adverse impact of threats in conversations about environmental behavior change on both the social and cognitive level. We discuss theoretical implications of our study in the context of SAT and SDT and suggest practical implications for environmental change agents in organizations.

  7. Protective response to technological emergency: risk perception and behavioral intention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Barnes, V.E.

    1986-01-01

    This article examines why, as suggested by the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station (TMI) event, the public is more inclined to evacuate in response to a radiation release than to a natural hazard. During the TMI incident, for example, did authorities present confusing or conflicting information or did the public have an exaggerated perception of radiation risk. Behavioral intention studies are combined with risk perception analyses to ascertain (1) the extent to which intentions to evacuate can be generalized from one sample to another and from one hazard to another, (2) the degree to which behavioral intentions are related to specific dimensions of risk perception, and (3) how public perceptions of risk compare with estimates of risk produced by reactor accident consequence analyses

  8. The ENDORSE study: Research into environmental determinants of obesity related behaviors in Rotterdam schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Looij-Jansen Petra

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children and adolescents are important target groups for prevention of overweight and obesity as overweight is often developed early in life and tracks into adulthood. Research into behaviors related to overweight (energy balance-related behaviors and the personal and environmental determinants of these behaviors is fundamental to inform prevention interventions. In the Netherlands and in other countries systematic research into environmental determinants of energy balance related behaviors in younger adolescents is largely lacking. This protocol paper describes the design, the components and the methods of the ENDORSE study (Environmental Determinants of Obesity in Rotterdam SchoolchildrEn, that aims to identify important individual and environmental determinants of behaviors related to overweight and obesity and the interactions between these determinants among adolescents. Methods The ENDORSE study is a longitudinal study with a two-year follow-up of a cohort of adolescents aged 12–15 years. Data will be collected at baseline (2005/2006 and at two years follow-up (2007/2008. Outcome measures are body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, time spent in physical activity and sedentary behaviors, and soft drink, snack and breakfast consumption. The ENDORSE study consists of two phases, first employing qualitative research methods to inform the development of a theoretical framework to examine important energy balance related behaviors and their determinants, and to inform questionnaire development. Subsequently, the hypothetical relationships between behavioral determinants, energy balance related behaviors and BMI will be tested in a quantitative study combining school-based surveys and measurements of anthropometrical characteristics at baseline and two-year follow-up. Discussion The ENDORSE project is a comprehensive longitudinal study that enables investigation of specific environmental and individual determinants of

  9. Individual and Environmental Factors Influencing Adolescents' Dietary Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosmarijn Verstraeten

    Full Text Available Given the public health importance of improving dietary behavior in chronic disease prevention in low- and middle-income countries it is crucial to understand the factors influencing dietary behavior in these settings. This study tested the validity of a conceptual framework linking individual and environmental factors to dietary behavior among Ecuadorian adolescents aged 10-16 years.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 784 school-going Ecuadorian adolescents in urban and rural Southern Ecuador. Participants provided data on socio-economic status, anthropometry, dietary behavior and its determining factors. The relationships between individual (perceived benefits and barriers, self-efficacy, habit strength, and a better understanding of healthy food and environmental factors (physical environment: accessibility to healthy food; social environment: parental permissiveness and school support, and their association with key components of dietary behavior (fruit and vegetables, sugary drinks, breakfast, and unhealthy snack intake were assessed using structural equation modeling.The conceptual model performed well for each component of eating behavior, indicating acceptable goodness-of-fit for both the measurement and structural models. Models for vegetable intake and unhealthy snacking showed significant and direct effects of individual factors (perceived benefits. For breakfast and sugary drink consumption, there was a direct and positive association with socio-environmental factors (school support and parental permissiveness. Access to healthy food was associated indirectly with all eating behaviors (except for sugary drink intake and this effect operated through socio-environmental (parental permissiveness and school support and individual factors (perceived benefits.Our study demonstrated that key components of adolescents' dietary behaviors are influenced by a complex interplay of individual and environmental factors. The findings indicate

  10. Environmental Behavior of Secondary Education Students: A Case Study at Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatios Ntanos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades, human behavior has been becoming energy alarming towards environmental sustainability. One of the most influential initiatives towards environmental protection and increased environmental consciousness is the solidification of primary and secondary environmental education. The purpose of this paper is to investigate different environmental profiles amongst secondary education students, in light of a multi-parametric analysis that involved the contributive role of school and family towards environmental awareness and participation. By reviewing relevant studies, the benefits offered by environmental education are presented. Accordingly, a questionnaire survey was deployed using a sample of 270 secondary education students, from schools situated in the prefecture of Larissa, central Greece. The statistical methods included factor analysis and cluster analysis. Particularly, four groups of different environmental characteristics are identified and interviewed. Results suggest that most students are environmental affectionate, although there is a need for more solidified environmental education and motivation from out-of-school societal opportunities, such as in the contexts of family and public socialization. The deployed research method and analysis can be proven supportive in adopting and scheduling school environmental programs after an initial identification of the various environmental attitudes among the student population.

  11. Glucocorticoid receptor gene inactivation in dopamine-innervated areas selectively decreases behavioral responses to amphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnaudeau, Sébastien; Dongelmans, Marie-louise; Turiault, Marc; Ambroggi, Frédéric; Delbes, Anne-Sophie; Cansell, Céline; Luquet, Serge; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo; Tronche, François; Barik, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The meso-cortico-limbic system, via dopamine release, encodes the rewarding and reinforcing properties of natural rewards. It is also activated in response to abused substances and is believed to support drug-related behaviors. Dysfunctions of this system lead to several psychiatric conditions including feeding disorders and drug addiction. These disorders are also largely influenced by environmental factors and in particular stress exposure. Stressors activate the corticotrope axis ultimately leading to glucocorticoid hormone (GCs) release. GCs bind the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed including within the meso-cortico-limbic tract. While GR within dopamine-innervated areas drives cocaine's behavioral responses, its implication in responses to other psychostimulants such as amphetamine has never been clearly established. Moreover, while extensive work has been made to uncover the role of this receptor in addicted behaviors, its contribution to the rewarding and reinforcing properties of food has yet to be investigated. Using mouse models carrying GR gene inactivation in either dopamine neurons or in dopamine-innervated areas, we found that GR in dopamine responsive neurons is essential to properly build amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. c-Fos quantification in the nucleus accumbens further confirmed defective neuronal activation following amphetamine injection. These diminished neuronal and behavioral responses to amphetamine may involve alterations in glutamate transmission as suggested by the decreased MK801-elicited hyperlocomotion and by the hyporeactivity to glutamate of a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons. In contrast, GR inactivation did not affect rewarding and reinforcing properties of food suggesting that responding for natural reward under basal conditions is preserved in these mice. PMID:24574986

  12. Glucocorticoid receptor gene inactivation in dopamine-innervated areas selectively decreases behavioral responses to amphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eParnaudeau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The meso-cortico-limbic system, via dopamine release, encodes the rewarding and reinforcing properties of natural rewards. It is also activated in response to abused substances and is believed to support drug-related behaviors. Dysfunctions of this system lead to several psychiatric conditions including feeding disorders and drug addiction. These disorders are also largely influenced by environmental factors and in particular stress exposure. Stressors activate the corticotrope axis ultimately leading to glucocorticoid hormone (GCs release. GCs bind the glucocorticoid receptor (GR a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed including within the meso-cortico-limbic tract. While the GR within dopamine-innervated areas drives cocaine’s behavioral responses, its implication in responses to other psychostimulants such as amphetamine has never been clearly established. Moreover, while extensive work has been made to uncover the role of this receptor in addicted behaviors, its contribution to the rewarding and reinforcing properties of food has yet to be investigated. Using mouse models carrying GR gene inactivation in either dopamine neurons or in dopamine-innervated areas, we found that GR in dopamine responsive neurones is essential to properly build amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. c-Fos quantification in the nucleus accumbens further confirmed defective neuronal activation following amphetamine injection. These diminished neuronal and behavioral responses to amphetamine may involve alterations in glutamate transmission as suggested by the decreased MK801-elicited hyperlocomotion and by the hyporeactivity to glutamate of a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons. In contrast, GR inactivation did not affect rewarding and reinforcing properties of food suggesting that responding for natural reward under basal conditions is preserved in these mice.

  13. Golden Eagle Migratory Behaviors in Response to Arctic Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPoint, S.; Bohrer, G.; Davidson, S. C.; Gurarie, E.; Mahoney, P.; Boelman, N.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how animals adapt to climate change is a conservation priority, particularly in arctic landscapes where these changes are accelerated. Doing so however, remains challenging because animal behavior datasets are typically conducted at site- or population-specific scales and are often short term (e.g., 2-3 years). We have overcome this challenge by compiling a long-term (25 years), large-scale (northwestern North America) dataset of > 0.5 million locations collected via 86 adult-aged golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) fitted with satellite and GPS data loggers. We used mechanistic range shift analyses to identify the locations and dates when each eagle performed a behavioral switch from a stationary phase (e.g., over-wintering or breeding) to migration and vice-versa. We annotated these spatio-temporal data with a suite of environmental data, including: %snow cover, time-to snow cover, time-to greening, air temperature, and wind direction and magnitude. Preliminary generalized additive mixed-models suggest these eagles have performed significant shifts in their departure dates, yet their arrival dates have remained relatively consistent. We will use a survival analysis (e.g., Cox proportional-hazard regression model) to quantify the influence of the environmental variables on these dates. It appears golden eagles migrating across northwestern North America are adapting to changes in the timing and duration of artic winters, by arriving to their northern breeding grounds earlier every spring, presumably to extend their breeding and chick rearing phases. Golden eagles exhibit some resiliency to changes in the arctic climate, but further work is warranted across other taxa and populations.

  14. Outdoor Education and the Development of Environmental Responsibility Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Rita; Biederman, Kobe

    2003-01-01

    Six research studies are reviewed that examine the ability of environmental education programs in schools and resident camps to positively affect the environmental awareness and attitudes of children and adolescents. Outdoor educators must enable students to develop internal locus of control, critical thinking, and environmental action skills.…

  15. Individual variation in paternal responses of virgin male California mice (Peromyscus californicus): behavioral and physiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, T.R.; Korosi, A.; Harris, B.N.; Perea-Rodriguez, J.P.; Saltzman, W.

    2012-01-01

    California mice Peromyscus californicus are a rodent species in which fathers provide extensive paternal care; however, behavioral responses of virgin males toward conspecific neonates vary from paternal behavior to tolerance to infanticide. Indirect evidence suggests that paternal responses might

  16. 77 FR 46091 - Notice of Proposed Administrative Settlement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, As Amended; Anaconda.... SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 122(i) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and... fund up to $420,000 toward a response action by EPA to address releases from the Arimetco heap leach...

  17. Personalities influence spatial responses to environmental fluctuations in wild fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Ríos, David; Réale, Denis; Freitas, Carla; Moland, Even; Olsen, Esben M

    2018-06-11

    1.Although growing evidence supports the idea that animal personality can explain plasticity in response to changes in the social environment, it remains to be tested whether it can explain spatial responses of individuals in the face of natural environmental fluctuations. This is a major challenge in ecology and evolution as spatial dynamics link individual- and population-level processes. 2.In this study we investigated the potential of individual personalities to predict differences in fish behaviour in the wild. Specifically, our goal was to answer if individual differences in plasticity of space use to sea surface temperature could be explained by differences in personality along the reactive-proactive axis. 3.To address this question we first conducted repeated standard laboratory assays (i.e. open-field test, novel object test and mirror-stimulation test) to assess the personality type of 76 wild-caught Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Next, we released the fish back into the sea and monitored their spatial behaviour over large temporal (16 months) and spatial (a whole fjord) scales, using high-resolution acoustic tracking. 4. We demonstrate that 1) cod personality traits are structured into a proactive-reactive syndrome (proactive fish being more bold, exploratory and aggressive), 2) mean depth use of individuals is mainly driven by sea temperature and 3) personality is a significant predictor of home range changes in the wild, where reactive, but not proactive, individuals reduced their home range as sea temperature increased. 5. These findings expand our understanding of the ecological consequences of animal personality and the mechanisms shaping spatial dynamics of animals in nature. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  18. Behavioral Responses to Epidemics in an Online Experiment: Using Virtual Diseases to Study Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frederick; Griffith, Amanda; Cottrell, Allin; Wong, Yue-Ling

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a study we conducted using a simple multiplayer online game that simulates the spread of an infectious disease through a population composed of the players. We use our virtual epidemics game to examine how people respond to epidemics. The analysis shows that people's behavior is responsive to the cost of self-protection, the reported prevalence of disease, and their experiences earlier in the epidemic. Specifically, decreasing the cost of self-protection increases the rate of safe behavior. Higher reported prevalence also raises the likelihood that individuals would engage in self-protection, where the magnitude of this effect depends on how much time has elapsed in the epidemic. Individuals' experiences in terms of how often an infection was acquired when they did not engage in self-protection are another factor that determines whether they will invest in preventive measures later on. All else being equal, individuals who were infected at a higher rate are more likely to engage in self-protective behavior compared to those with a lower rate of infection. Lastly, fixing everything else, people's willingness to engage in safe behavior waxes or wanes over time, depending on the severity of an epidemic: when prevalence is high, people are more likely to adopt self-protective measures as time goes by; when prevalence is low, a ‘self-protection fatigue’ effect sets in whereby individuals are less willing to engage in safe behavior over time. PMID:23326360

  19. Determinants of Consumers’ Pro-Environmental Behavior – Toward an Integrated Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octav-Ionuţ Macovei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at constructing a model which will explain consumers’ pro-environmental behavior by analyzing its direct and indirect predictors. To achieve this, variables from wellestablished models and theories were employed, such as Schwartz’s Norm Activation Theory (NAT, Stern’s Value-belief-norms Theory (VBN and Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. Important variables like perceived behavioral control, normative beliefs, awareness of the consequences of environmental problems, Compatibility with a pro-environmental behaviour, attitude towards a proenvironmental behavior and intention to behave in a pro-environmental manner are considered to be determinants of consumers’ pro-environmental behavior. All these variables were discussed and assembled in an integrated research model which can be validated through a quantitative survey. Each variable was described at a conceptual and operational level, items and scales being proposed for each one The proposed model will offer to organizations a valuable green marketing tool which can be used in the fight for environment protection. The proposed model is unique can be used as a solid based for future research.

  20. Effects of Ambient Environmental Factors on the Stereotypic Behaviors of Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Duan, Hejun; Wang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Stereotypies are commonly observed in zoo animals, and it is necessary to better understand whether ambient environmental factors contribute to stereotypy and how to affect animal welfare in zoo settings. This study investigated the relationships between stereotypic behaviors and environmental factors including ambient temperatures, humidity, light intensity, sound intensity and number of visitors. Seven giant pandas were observed in three indoor enclosures and three outdoor enclosures. Environmental factors were measured for both indoor and outdoor enclosures and the effect they had on stereotypical behaviors was investigated. Our research found that light intensity significantly correlated with all stereotypies behaviors. Higher environmental temperature reduced the duration of pacing but increased the frequency of pacing, the duration and frequency of door-directed, meanwhile the duration of head-toss. However, we found no noticeable effect of humidity on stereotypic behaviors except for the frequency of head-toss. We also found that sound intensity was not correlated with stereotypies. Finally, the growth of visitors was negatively associated with the duration of door-directed. These results demonstrated that various environmental factors can have significant effects on stereotypic behaviors causing the expression of various stereotypies. Thus, stereotypies in zoo animals may not simply represent suboptimal welfare, but rather might be adopted as a means of coping with an aversive environment.

  1. Effects of Ambient Environmental Factors on the Stereotypic Behaviors of Giant Pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Liu

    Full Text Available Stereotypies are commonly observed in zoo animals, and it is necessary to better understand whether ambient environmental factors contribute to stereotypy and how to affect animal welfare in zoo settings. This study investigated the relationships between stereotypic behaviors and environmental factors including ambient temperatures, humidity, light intensity, sound intensity and number of visitors. Seven giant pandas were observed in three indoor enclosures and three outdoor enclosures. Environmental factors were measured for both indoor and outdoor enclosures and the effect they had on stereotypical behaviors was investigated. Our research found that light intensity significantly correlated with all stereotypies behaviors. Higher environmental temperature reduced the duration of pacing but increased the frequency of pacing, the duration and frequency of door-directed, meanwhile the duration of head-toss. However, we found no noticeable effect of humidity on stereotypic behaviors except for the frequency of head-toss. We also found that sound intensity was not correlated with stereotypies. Finally, the growth of visitors was negatively associated with the duration of door-directed. These results demonstrated that various environmental factors can have significant effects on stereotypic behaviors causing the expression of various stereotypies. Thus, stereotypies in zoo animals may not simply represent suboptimal welfare, but rather might be adopted as a means of coping with an aversive environment.

  2. Corazonin neurons function in sexually dimorphic circuitry that shape behavioral responses to stress in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available All organisms are confronted with dynamic environmental changes that challenge homeostasis, which is the operational definition of stress. Stress produces adaptive behavioral and physiological responses, which, in the Metazoa, are mediated through the actions of various hormones. Based on its associated phenotypes and its expression profiles, a candidate stress hormone in Drosophila is the corazonin neuropeptide. We evaluated the potential roles of corazonin in mediating stress-related changes in target behaviors and physiologies through genetic alteration of corazonin neuronal excitability. Ablation of corazonin neurons confers resistance to metabolic, osmotic, and oxidative stress, as measured by survival. Silencing and activation of corazonin neurons lead to differential lifespan under stress, and these effects showed a strong dependence on sex. Additionally, altered corazonin neuron physiology leads to fundamental differences in locomotor activity, and these effects were also sex-dependent. The dynamics of altered locomotor behavior accompanying stress was likewise altered in flies with altered corazonin neuronal function. We report that corazonin transcript expression is altered under starvation and osmotic stress, and that triglyceride and dopamine levels are equally impacted in corazonin neuronal alterations and these phenotypes similarly show significant sexual dimorphisms. Notably, these sexual dimorphisms map to corazonin neurons. These results underscore the importance of central peptidergic processing within the context of stress and place corazonin signaling as a critical feature of neuroendocrine events that shape stress responses and may underlie the inherent sexual dimorphic differences in stress responses.

  3. Lineage-specific responses of microbial communities to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblut, Nicholas D; Shade, Ashley; Read, Jordan S; McMahon, Katherine D; Whitaker, Rachel J

    2013-01-01

    A great challenge facing microbial ecology is how to define ecologically relevant taxonomic units. To address this challenge, we investigated how changing the definition of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) influences the perception of ecological patterns in microbial communities as they respond to a dramatic environmental change. We used pyrosequenced tags of the bacterial V2 16S rRNA region, as well as clone libraries constructed from the cytochrome oxidase C gene ccoN, to provide additional taxonomic resolution for the common freshwater genus Polynucleobacter. At the most highly resolved taxonomic scale, we show that distinct genotypes associated with the abundant Polynucleobacter lineages exhibit divergent spatial patterns and dramatic changes over time, while the also abundant Actinobacteria OTUs are highly coherent. This clearly demonstrates that different bacterial lineages demand different taxonomic definitions to capture ecological patterns. Based on the temporal distribution of highly resolved taxa in the hypolimnion, we demonstrate that change in the population structure of a single genotype can provide additional insight into the mechanisms of community-level responses. These results highlight the importance and feasibility of examining ecological change in microbial communities across taxonomic scales while also providing valuable insight into the ecological characteristics of ecologically coherent groups in this system.

  4. A Re-Assessment of Factors Associated with Environmental Concern and Behavior Using the 2010 General Social Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Todd P.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The associations between social and psychological influences and environmental attitudes, intentions and behavior have generated considerable interest, both in the fields of environmental behavior and of environmental education. We use the 2010 General Social Survey (GSS) to study these associations and expand the scope of earlier studies by…

  5. Environmental correlates to behavioral health outcomes in Alzheimer's special care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisel, John; Silverstein, Nina M; Hyde, Joan; Levkoff, Sue; Lawton, M Powell; Holmes, William

    2003-10-01

    We systematically measured the associations between environmental design features of nursing home special care units and the incidence of aggression, agitation, social withdrawal, depression, and psychotic problems among persons living there who have Alzheimer's disease or a related disorder. We developed and tested a model of critical health-related environmental design features in settings for people with Alzheimer's disease. We used hierarchical linear modeling statistical techniques to assess associations between seven environmental design features and behavioral health measures for 427 residents in 15 special care units. Behavioral health measures included the Cohen-Mansfield physical agitation, verbal agitation, and aggressive behavior scales, the Multidimensional Observation Scale for Elderly Subjects depression and social withdrawal scales, and BEHAVE-AD (psychotic symptom list) misidentification and paranoid delusions scales. Statistical controls were included for the influence of, among others, cognitive status, need for assistance with activities of daily living, prescription drug use, amount of Alzheimer's staff training, and staff-to-resident ratio. Although hierarchical linear modeling minimizes the risk of Type II-false positive-error, this exploratory study also pays special attention to avoiding Type I error-the failure to recognize possible relationships between behavioral health characteristics and independent variables. We found associations between each behavioral health measure and particular environmental design features, as well as between behavioral health measures and both resident and nonenvironmental facility variables. This research demonstrates the potential that environment has for contributing to the improvement of Alzheimer's symptoms. A balanced combination of pharmacologic, behavioral, and environmental approaches is likely to be most effective in improving the health, behavior, and quality of life of people with Alzheimer

  6. Movement ecology: size-specific behavioral response of an invasive snail to food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Sunny B; Gilliam, James F

    2008-07-01

    Immigration, emigration, migration, and redistribution describe processes that involve movement of individuals. These movements are an essential part of contemporary ecological models, and understanding how movement is affected by biotic and abiotic factors is important for effectively modeling ecological processes that depend on movement. We asked how phenotypic heterogeneity (body size) and environmental heterogeneity (food resource level) affect the movement behavior of an aquatic snail (Tarebia granifera), and whether including these phenotypic and environmental effects improves advection-diffusion models of movement. We postulated various elaborations of the basic advection diffusion model as a priori working hypotheses. To test our hypotheses we measured individual snail movements in experimental streams at high- and low-food resource treatments. Using these experimental movement data, we examined the dependency of model selection on resource level and body size using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC). At low resources, large individuals moved faster than small individuals, producing a platykurtic movement distribution; including size dependency in the model improved model performance. In stark contrast, at high resources, individuals moved upstream together as a wave, and body size differences largely disappeared. The model selection exercise indicated that population heterogeneity is best described by the advection component of movement for this species, because the top-ranked model included size dependency in advection, but not diffusion. Also, all probable models included resource dependency. Thus population and environmental heterogeneities both influence individual movement behaviors and the population-level distribution kernels, and their interaction may drive variation in movement behaviors in terms of both advection rates and diffusion rates. A behaviorally informed modeling framework will integrate the sentient response of individuals in terms of

  7. Rapid behavioral and genomic responses to social opportunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina S Burmeister

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available From primates to bees, social status regulates reproduction. In the cichlid fish Astatotilapia (Haplochromis burtoni, subordinate males have reduced fertility and must become dominant to reproduce. This increase in sexual capacity is orchestrated by neurons in the preoptic area, which enlarge in response to dominance and increase expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1, a peptide critical for reproduction. Using a novel behavioral paradigm, we show for the first time that subordinate males can become dominant within minutes of an opportunity to do so, displaying dramatic changes in body coloration and behavior. We also found that social opportunity induced expression of the immediate-early gene egr-1 in the anterior preoptic area, peaking in regions with high densities of GnRH1 neurons, and not in brain regions that express the related peptides GnRH2 and GnRH3. This genomic response did not occur in stable subordinate or stable dominant males even though stable dominants, like ascending males, displayed dominance behaviors. Moreover, egr-1 in the optic tectum and the cerebellum was similarly induced in all experimental groups, showing that egr-1 induction in the anterior preoptic area of ascending males was specific to this brain region. Because egr-1 codes for a transcription factor important in neural plasticity, induction of egr-1 in the anterior preoptic area by social opportunity could be an early trigger in the molecular cascade that culminates in enhanced fertility and other long-term physiological changes associated with dominance.

  8. Delegation of Authority Under the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) - Decision Memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum concerns how the Office of Enforcement (OE) proposed that two new authorities under the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) be delegated to the Regional Administrators.

  9. Behavioral responses associated with a human-mediated predator shelter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Shannon

    Full Text Available Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana and elk (Cervus elephus in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume--with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk, lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the 'predator shelter hypothesis', suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity.

  10. An approach to consider behavioral plasticity as a source of uncertainty when forecasting species' response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Antonio-Román; Márquez, Ana Luz; Real, Raimundo

    2015-06-01

    The rapid ecological shifts that are occurring due to climate change present major challenges for managers and policymakers and, therefore, are one of the main concerns for environmental modelers and evolutionary biologists. Species distribution models (SDM) are appropriate tools for assessing the relationship between species distribution and environmental conditions, so being customarily used to forecast the biogeographical response of species to climate change. A serious limitation of species distribution models when forecasting the effects of climate change is that they normally assume that species behavior and climatic tolerances will remain constant through time. In this study, we propose a new methodology, based on fuzzy logic, useful for incorporating the potential capacity of species to adapt to new conditions into species distribution models. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to include different behavioral responses of species when predicting the effects of climate change on species distribution. Favorability models offered in this study show two extremes: one considering that the species will not modify its present behavior, and another assuming that the species will take full advantage of the possibilities offered by an increase in environmental favorability. This methodology may mean a more realistic approach to the assessment of the consequences of global change on species' distribution and conservation. Overlooking the potential of species' phenotypical plasticity may under- or overestimate the predicted response of species to changes in environmental drivers and its effects on species distribution. Using this approach, we could reinforce the science behind conservation planning in the current situation of rapid climate change.

  11. Behavior of environmental carbon-14 and tritium in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakura, T.; Kasida, Y.; Inoue, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Arai, K.

    1979-01-01

    The 14 C activity in plants began to rise appreciably above normal in 1957, and the level rose almost linearly with the rate of 7% per year to the level in 1959. Steep increase of the level to a peak in 1963, between 85% and 90% above normal, shows the effect of large scale nuclear explosions through the end of 1962. Liquid scintillation counting was used as a sensitive assay method of 14 C and 3 H. For 14 C determination, the naturally incorporated 14 C into alcohol and essential oils (thymol, menthol and lemongrass oil) and used, and water samples were used for 3 H measurement. The total amount 65 x 10 27 of 14 C atoms has been produced in nuclear tests, and this amount is about 3% of the total amount of 14 C in nature. The 3 H concentration in rivers, streams and ponds decreased exponentially from 600 pCi/l in 1967 to 150 pCi/l in 1972, with the half life of 2.5yr. The difference of the 3 H concentration in surface water according to the sampling locations implies geographical and meteorological variations in fallout 3 H level. It is said conclusively that environmental waters in Japan have not been influenced by the discharge effluent of the facilities with regard to tritium contamination and that tritium content in precipitation still play an important role in reflecting annual variation of tritium concentration to surface waters. (J.P.N.)

  12. Human response to environmental change in the perspective of future, global climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Karl W.

    1983-05-01

    Human response to severe environmental stress is conceived and implemented by individuals, but must be approved by the group. These decisions are made with respect to perceived circumstances. Societies are enmeshed within adaptive systems that provide a matrix of opportunities and constraints for a wide range of potential behavioral variability. Such systems repeatedly readjust to short-term crises, e.g., droughts, but persistent and severe environmental stress may require substantial revision of adaptive strategies. The Sahel drought of 1968-1973 is an example of a brief but severe crisis, recurring along the Saharan margins perhaps once every 30 years. Closer inspection shows links between intensified intertribal warfare and ecological stress in the lower Omo Valley. The decline of the Egyptian New Kingdom during the 12th century B.C., in response to economic stagnation, sociopolitical instability, dynastic weakness, foreign pressures, and poor Nile floods over 50-70 years, represents a more complex and fundamental modification, with systemic simplification lasting 450 years. Such insights can be applied to future, global climatic change due to increasing atmospheric CO 2. Simulation and paleoclimatic experience suggest a drier climate for the North American and Soviet breadbaskets, to threaten world food supplies at a time of maximum demographic pressures and declining resources. Public perception and remedial planning should receive the attention of Quaternary scientists, in order to preempt an involuntary, global, systemic simplification.

  13. Soil gas radon response to environmental and soil physics variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.M.; Chen, C.; Holford, D.

    1991-01-01

    During the last three years a field study of soil gas radon activities conducted at Poamoho, Oahu, has shown that the primary environmental variables that control radon transport in shallow tropical soils are synoptic and diurnal barometric pressure changes and soil moisture levels. Barometric pressure changes drive advective transport and mixing of soil gas with atmospheric air; soil moisture appears to control soil porosity and permeability to enhance or inhibit advective and diffusive radon transport. An advective barrier test/control experiment has shown that advective exchange of soil gas and air may account for a substantial proportion of the radon loss from shallow soils but does not significantly affect radon activities at depths greater than 2.3 m. An irrigation test/control experiment also suggests that, at soil moisture levels approaching field capacity, saturation of soil macroporosity can halt all advective transport of radon and limit diffusive mobility to that occurring in the liquid phase. The results of the authors field study have been used to further refine and extend a numerical model, RN3D, that has been developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories to simulate subsurface transport of radon. The field data have allowed them to accurately simulate the steady state soil gas radon profile at their field site and to track transient radon activities under the influence of barometric pressure changes and in response to changes in soil permeability that result from variations in soil moisture levels. Further work is continuing on the model to enable it to properly account for the relative effects of advective transport of soil gas through cracks and diffusive mobility in the bulk soils

  14. Neural and Environmental Factors Impacting Maternal Behavior Differences in High- versus Low-Novelty Seeking Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Clinton, Sarah M.; Bedrosian, Tracy A.; Abraham, Antony D.; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda

    2010-01-01

    Selective breeding of rats exhibiting differences in novelty-induced locomotion revealed that this trait predicts several differences in emotional behavior. Bred High Responders (bHRs) show exaggerated novelty-induced locomotion, aggression, and psychostimulant self-administration, compared to bred Low Responders (bLRs), which are inhibited and prone to anxiety- and depression-like behavior. Our breeding studies highlight the heritability of the bHR/bLR phenotypes, although environmental fact...

  15. The role of the monoamine oxidase A gene in moderating the response to adversity and associated antisocial behavior: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buades-Rotger M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Macià Buades-Rotger,1,2 David Gallardo-Pujol1,3 1Department of Personality, Faculty of Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; 3Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior (IR3C, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Hereditary factors are increasingly attracting the interest of behavioral scientists and practitioners. Our aim in the present article is to introduce some state-of-the-art topics in behavioral genetics, as well as selected findings in the field, in order to illustrate how genetic makeup can modulate the impact of environmental factors. We focus on the most-studied polymorphism to date for antisocial responses to adversity: the monoamine oxidase A gene. Advances, caveats, and promises of current research are reviewed. We also discuss implications for the use of genetic information in applied settings. Keywords: behavioral genetics, antisocial behaviors, monoamine oxidase A

  16. The criminal law responsibility of officials under environmental criminal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelbauer, W.

    1986-01-01

    The legal application of environmental criminal law has attributed to office-bearers of the environmental administration a determining function in the field of criminal protection of legal objects. Criminal law shall prevent the misuse of official authority. In this connection law has to observe the limits of admissible procedure of the administration. (CW) [de

  17. Environmental psychology: Human responses and relationships to natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present a thorough assessment of environmental psychology as a way to understand relationships between people and natural landscapes, and to describe how this knowledge can be applied to natural resource management. Environmental psychology seeks to clarify how individuals perceive, experience and create meaning in the environment. In...

  18. Response to the additional information request from the Terra Nova Environmental Assessment Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This document provides responses to the questions addressed to the proponents of the Terra Nova Development by the Environmental Assessment Panel. The questions and the responses concern hiring practices, labour relations, environmental and wildlife protection, impacts to the Grand Banks fishing industry, operating practices and the effects on offshore installations should extreme conditions of ice, weather, sea and wind occur simultaneously. References cited in response to individual questions are included following each response. Tabs., figs

  19. 45 CFR 640.5 - Responsibilities and procedures for preparation of an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an environmental impact statement. 640.5 Section 640.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 640.5 Responsibilities and procedures for preparation of an environmental impact statement. (a) If...

  20. Examining the Conflict and Interconnectedness of Young People's Ideas about Environmental Issues, Responsibility and Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Leigh; Harris, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Young people's environmental views are typically conflicted, with little recognition of the links between environmental issues or between environmental responsibility and action. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether young people's understanding of the environment is in conflict or whether they are forming interconnections…

  1. Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for presentation on Characterizing the Leaching Behavior of Coal Combustion Residues using the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) to Inform Future Management Decisions. The abstract is attached.

  2. Asian carp behavior in response to static water gun firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; Gross, Jackson A.; Parsley, Michael J.; Romine, Jason G.; Glover, David C.; Suski, Cory D.; Wagner, Tristany L.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The potential for invasion of Asian carp into the Great Lakes has ecological and socio-economic implications. If they become established, Asian carp are predicted to alter lake ecosystems and impact commercial and recreational fisheries. The Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal is an important biological conduit between the Mississippi River Basin, where invasive Asian carp are abundant, and the Great Lakes. Millions of dollars have been spent to erect an electric barrier defense in the canal to prevent movement of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, but the need for additional fish deterrent technologies to supplement the existing barrier is warranted. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center are examining seismic water gun technology, formerly used in oceanic oil exploration, as a fish deterrent. The goal of the current study is to employ telemetry and sonar monitoring equipment to assess the behavioral response of Asian carp to seismic water guns and the sound energy it generates.

  3. Type A behavior and physiological responsivity in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, K A; Schmied, L; Mitchell, V P; Rixse, A

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the coronary-prone behavior pattern and physiological responses to stress in young women. Thirty-seven women, aged 18-25 yr, were tested; half were studying in nontraditional fields for women, half in traditional. Based on the Jenkins Activity Survey, women in the male-dominated fields of study were more Type A. Subjects were monitored while resting and while solving mental arithmetic problems and visual puzzles; the dependent variables were heart rate, and blood pressure. Comparisons were made based on both the Jenkins Activity Survey and the structured interview, and using both median splits and extreme groups. There were no physiological differences between Types A and B women. Possible methodological issues accounting for the lack of results are considered.

  4. Physiological and behavioral responses to the social environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Physiological and behavioral reactions to the social environment are mediated in nature principally through aggressive interactions, although in some cases other aspects of the environment such as temperature or predators are important. Observations from 1946-50 of changes in populations of rats after alteration of social conditions suggested the hypothesis that changes in birth and mortality rates followed aggressive interactions. The pituitary-adrenal-gonadal mechanism provided a process that could be tested in three types of conditions: laboratory, simulated field, and field. Changes in social environment can result from: seasonal changes in conditions; appearance of transients; habitat changes due to succession; and increase of population. It became apparent from laboratory research that a physiological feedback from aggressive behavior could reduce birth rates and increase mortality rates. Studies in nature showed that a reduction of Norway rat population by 38 percent was followed by a reduction of adrenal weight by 32 percent. Also as the population of rats increased the weight of the adrenals increased. A comprehensive study of woodchucks, started in 1957, showed that the alteration of age composition and the increase in immigration was associated with increased adrenal function. Research by others on lemmings shows that the adrenals at the peak of a population fluctuation are larger and produce more hormones than at the low point. No evidence was obtained to support the hypothesis that genetic selection for aggressive behavior within the population occurs during the increase or decline of a population. The changes occur within an individual. The future of studies of responses to the social environment will require experimental programs in nature that last for a decade or more, long enough to monitor changes in numbers under a variety of conditions

  5. Consideration of the environmental effects on fatigue behavior of austenitic components. Calculation methods and practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seichter, Johannes; Reese, Sven H.; Klucke, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    During the last years environmental effects on the fatigue behavior of nuclear power plant components has worldwide been discussed controversial with respect to the transferability of laboratory data on real components. A publication from Argonne National Laboratory on experimental results concerning environmental effects (air and LWR coolant) on fatigue of austenitic steels included a proposal on calculation methods concerning the lifetime reduction due to environmental effects. This calculation method, i.e. multiplication of the usage factor by a F(en), has been included into the ASME Code, Section III, Division I, as Code Case N-792 (fatigue evaluations including environmental effects). The presented contribution evaluates the practical application of this calculation procedure and demonstrates the determination of the usage factor of an austenitic component under environmental exposure.

  6. A Review on the Environmental Behavior of the Polyoxyethylene Type Nonionic Surfactants Adjuvants in Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KONG Xiang-ji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyoxyethylene type nonionic surfactants such as alkylphenol ethoxylates(APEOs, alcohol ethoxylates(AEOs and alkylamine ethoxylates(ANEOs are typical pesticide adjuvants. Their unique environmental behavior characteristic is reflected in the parameters describing the fate e.g.distribution coefficient, adsorption to soil, degradation and effects of these substances. The major environmental problem related to these compounds is their part metabolites' relatively higher environmental risk. In views of their chemical structure, this paper outlined present knowledge on occurrence, fate and environment effect of the three adjuvants:AEOs, ANEOs and APEOs. The adsorption behaviour of ANEOs in contrast to AEOs was particularly variable and matrix dependent due to the ability of the compound to ionise at environmentally relevant pH. Probably because the compounds exceeded high soil adsorption and were easily degradable which were reflected in the low environmental concentrations generally found in monitoring studies.

  7. Proposers’ Economic Status Affects Behavioral and Neural Responses to Unfairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijie Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic status played an important role in the modulation of economic decision making. The present fMRI study aimed at investigating how economic status modulated behavioral and neural responses to unfairness in a modified Ultimatum Game (UG. During scanning, participants played as responders in the UG, and they were informed of the economic status of proposers before receiving offers. At the behavioral level, higher rejection rates and lower fairness ratings were revealed when proposers were in high economic status than in low economic status. Besides, the most time-consuming decisions tended to occur at lower unfairness level when the proposers were in high (relative to low economic status. At the neural level, stronger activation of left thalamus was revealed when fair offers were proposed by proposers in high rather than in low economic status. Greater activation of right medial prefrontal cortex was revealed during acceptance to unfair offers in high economic status condition rather than in low economic status condition. Taken together, these findings shed light on the significance of proposers’ economic status in responders’ social decision making in UG.

  8. Proactive Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Financial Performance: Evidence from Chinese Energy Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Jiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concerns about environmental issues and the advancement of China’s “going global” strategy, a new issue-proactive corporate social responsibility has emerged. Proactive corporate environmental responsibility refers to business actions that go beyond regulatory requirements for supporting sustainable environmental development. This study examines the role of proactive corporate environmental responsibility on corporate financial performance in the Chinese energy industry by the multi-variables regression analysis of panel data. Using data of 264 firm-year observations from 2009–2014 in the energy industry, the results showed that Proactive corporate environmental responsibility has a positive effect on corporate financial performance passing the endogeneity test. The results also demonstrate that private ownership has stronger promotion on the relationship between proactive corporate environmental responsibility and corporate financial performance. This study helps to increase the body of knowledge about proactive corporate environmental responsibility of the emerging economy, provides insights into the corporate environmental responsibility practice, and government environmental regulation and policy.

  9. Sexual behavior and sex-associated environmental cues activate the mesolimbic system in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Margaret E; Yu, Lei; Coolen, Lique M

    2004-04-01

    The mesolimbic system plays an important role in the regulation of both pathological behaviors such as drug addiction and normal motivated behaviors such as sexual behavior. The present study investigated the mechanism by which this system is endogenously activated during sexual behavior. Specifically, the effects of sexual experience and sex-related environmental cues on the activation of several components of the mesolimbic system were studied. The mesolimbic system consists of a dopaminergic projection from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Previous studies suggest that these neurons are under tonic inhibition by local GABA interneurons, which are in turn modulated by mu opioid receptor (MOR) ligands. To test the hypothesis that opioids are acting in the VTA during sexual behavior, visualization of MOR internalization in VTA was used as a marker for ligand-induced activation of the receptor. Significant increases in MOR internalization were observed following copulation or exposure to sex-related environmental cues. The next goal was to determine if sexual behavior activates dopamine neurons in the VTA, using tyrosine hydroxylase as a marker for dopaminergic neurons and Fos-immunoreactivity as a marker for neuronal activation. Significant increases in the percentage of activated dopaminergic neurons were observed following copulation or exposure to sex-related environmental cues. In addition, mating and sex-related cues activated a large population of nondopaminergic neurons in VTA as well as neurons in both the NAc Core and Shell. Taken together, our results provide functional neuroanatomical evidence that the mesolimbic system is activated by both sexual behavior and exposure to sex-related environmental cues.

  10. 24 CFR 1000.20 - Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities? 1000.20 Section 1000.20 Housing and Urban Development... § 1000.20 Is an Indian tribe required to assume environmental review responsibilities? (a) No. It is an...

  11. Corporate sustainability, social responsibility and environmental management : an introduction to theory and practice with case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri, Mark Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Responsible behaviours are increasingly being embedded into new business models and strategies that are designed to meet environmental, societal and governance deficits. Therefore, the notions of Corporate Sustainability, Social Responsibility and Environmental Management have become very popular among academia as corporations are moving beyond transparency, business ethics and stakeholder engagement. This book provides business students and scholars with a broad analysis on the subject ...

  12. Effects of environmental enrichment on decision-making behavior in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Staay, F.J.; van Zutphen, Johanna A.; de Ridder, Mirjam M.; Nordquist, R.E.

    2017-01-01

    The animal’s emotional state, potentially modulated by environmental conditions, may affect cognitive processes such as interpretation, judgement and decision making behaviour. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is a common method to examine decision making behavior in humans in terms of risk avoidance

  13. The mediated influences of perceived norms on pro-environmental behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    Research on the influence of social norms on pro-environmental behavior often reaches very different conclusions depending on whether the research is experimental or survey based. I propose that the main reason is that survey-based research applying popular social cognitive theories often underes...

  14. Environmentally-assisted cracking behavior of a high level nuclear waste container alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.; Duncan, D.R.

    1987-06-01

    The environmentally assisted cracking behavior of cast American Society for Testing and Materials A27 steel in a simulated groundwater environment was studied using both statically loaded and cyclically loaded specimens. Compared to other aqueous environments, the groundwater environment is relatively nonaggressive, probably because of its high pH and low level of dissolved oxygen. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  15. The Relationship between Parent-Child Conflict and Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: Confirming Shared Environmental Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M.; Rueter, Martha A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have indicated that the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, all available research on this topic (to our knowledge) relies exclusively on parent and/or adolescent informant-reports, both of which are subject to various forms of…

  16. Noise sensitivity: symptoms, health status, illness behavior and co-occurring environmental sensitivities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliatsas, C.; Kamp, I. van; Swart, W.; Hooiveld, M.; Yzermans, J.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence on the symptomatic profile, health status and illness behavior of people with subjective sensitivity to noise is still scarce. Also, it is unknown to what extent noise sensitivity co-occurs with other environmental sensitivities such as multi-chemical sensitivity and

  17. Changing Preschool Children's Attitudes into Behavior towards Selected Environmental Issues: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertürk Kara, Gözde; Aydos, E. Hande; Aydin, Özge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide the transform of attitudes into behavior of 60-72 month of age children continued early childhood education toward environmental issues. Collaborative action research method of qualitative design was used. The whole participants of the study were 60-72 months of age children who were attending in an early…

  18. The Design of Studies to Evaluate Hereditary and Environmental Contributions to the Etiology of Behavioral Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, David

    The introductory discussion focuses on the change in the current scientific climate regarding the role of heredity in the etiology of behavioral disorders. The author and his colleagues embarked on a series of studies, using naturally occurring adoptions as their subject source, to tease apart hereditary and environmental factors thought to be…

  19. The significance of environmental responsibility on airline customers' intention to purchase

    OpenAIRE

    Merilä, Outi

    2015-01-01

    Operating in an energy intensive industry, airlines’ environmental performance is under constant scrutiny of the regulators and authorities. By contrast, it seems that not many airlines have considered gaining competitive advantage in by differentiating as an environmentally responsible carrier. The commissioning company for this Master’s Thesis was Finnair, and the intention of this study was to find out whether factors related to environmental responsibility affect Swedish...

  20. Special Issue: Response of Microbial Communities to Environmental Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Stingl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues such as eutrophication, ocean acidification, sea level rise, saltwater intrusion, increase in carbon dioxide levels, or rise of average global temperatures, among many others, are impacting and changing whole ecosystems [...

  1. Plant transcriptomics and responses to environmental stress: an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Centre for Environmental Research, Near East University, 33010, Lefkosha, Turkish Republic of the Northern Cyprus. 4Department of ...... Transcriptomic analysis of sense and antisense strands of .... 2008 Stem cell transcriptome profiling via.

  2. Special Issue: Response of Microbial Communities to Environmental Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingl, Ulrich

    2018-03-30

    Environmental issues such as eutrophication, ocean acidification, sea level rise, saltwater intrusion, increase in carbon dioxide levels, or rise of average global temperatures, among many others, are impacting and changing whole ecosystems [...].

  3. Determinants of Behavioral Intention to Use South Korean Airline Services: Effects of Service Quality and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunil Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of corporate social responsibility (CSR, it has become an important duty of companies and organizations. In addition, academic and industry researchers have attempted to explore the effects of corporate social responsibility on firm performance. To this end, this study examined how corporate social responsibility and service quality are notably associated with customer satisfaction and behavioral intention to use by employing a structural equation modeling method. A research model with nine constructs was introduced and the findings revealed that economic, social, and environmental responsibility, as well as in-flight service quality, significantly determined customer satisfaction, while there were notable connections between customer satisfaction and behavioral intention to use. However, service quality at airports did not have a significant effect on satisfaction. The practical and theoretical implications of the current study are discussed.

  4. A Social Identity Analysis of Climate Change and Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors: Insights and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Kelly S; Hornsey, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Environmental challenges are often marked by an intergroup dimension. Political conservatives and progressives are divided on their beliefs about climate change, farmers come into conflict with scientists and environmentalists over water allocation or species protection, and communities oppose big business and mining companies that threaten their local environment. These intergroup tensions are reminders of the powerful influence social contexts and group memberships can have on attitudes, beliefs, and actions relating to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this paper, we use social identity theory to help describe and explain these processes. We review literature showing, how conceiving of oneself in terms of a particular social identity influences our environmental attitudes and behaviors, how relations between groups can impact on environmental outcomes, and how the content of social identities can direct group members to act in more or less pro-environmental ways. We discuss the similarities and differences between the social identity approach to these phenomena and related theories, such as cultural cognition theory, the theory of planned behavior, and value-belief-norm theory. Importantly, we also advance social-identity based strategies to foster more sustainable environmental attitudes and behaviors. Although this theoretical approach can provide important insights and potential solutions, more research is needed to build the empirical base, especially in relation to testing social identity solutions.

  5. Environmental concern and cooperative-competitive behavior in a simulated commons dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J M; Bell, P A

    1992-08-01

    Commons-dilemma simulation games are designed to examine behavior associated with preservation and destruction of slowly regenerating natural resources. In Experiment 1, 120 introductory psychology students in the United States were assigned to high- or low-environmental-concern conditions based on a median split of their scores from a pretest. They then played either a points game, in which they selected numerical points from a slowly regenerating pool, or a tree game, in which they harvested trees from a jointly managed forest. After the game, subjects were asked to sign a petition for an environmental cause, to participate in a litter pick-up, and to participate in a recycling drive. Neither environmental concern nor proenvironmental behaviors were related to commons dilemma performance. In Experiment 2, 57 other introductory psychology students were assessed on environmental concern and Machiavellian personality, size of other players' harvesting choices, and other players' altruistic choices, all correlated with subjects' outcomes in the game. Overall, cooperation and competition were more important than environmental concern in predicting behavior in the commons dilemma simulation game.

  6. A Social Identity Analysis of Climate Change and Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors: Insights and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Kelly S.; Hornsey, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental challenges are often marked by an intergroup dimension. Political conservatives and progressives are divided on their beliefs about climate change, farmers come into conflict with scientists and environmentalists over water allocation or species protection, and communities oppose big business and mining companies that threaten their local environment. These intergroup tensions are reminders of the powerful influence social contexts and group memberships can have on attitudes, beliefs, and actions relating to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this paper, we use social identity theory to help describe and explain these processes. We review literature showing, how conceiving of oneself in terms of a particular social identity influences our environmental attitudes and behaviors, how relations between groups can impact on environmental outcomes, and how the content of social identities can direct group members to act in more or less pro-environmental ways. We discuss the similarities and differences between the social identity approach to these phenomena and related theories, such as cultural cognition theory, the theory of planned behavior, and value-belief-norm theory. Importantly, we also advance social-identity based strategies to foster more sustainable environmental attitudes and behaviors. Although this theoretical approach can provide important insights and potential solutions, more research is needed to build the empirical base, especially in relation to testing social identity solutions. PMID:26903924

  7. A social identity analysis of climate change and environmental attitudes and behaviors: Insights and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Shanene Fielding

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental challenges are often marked by an intergroup dimension. Political conservatives and progressives are divided on their beliefs about climate change, farmers come into conflict with scientists and environmentalists over water allocation or species protection, and communities oppose big business and mining companies that threaten their local environment. These intergroup tensions are reminders of the powerful influence social contexts and group memberships can have on attitudes, beliefs, and actions relating to climate change and the environment more broadly. In this paper we use social identity theory to help describe and explain these processes. We review literature showing how conceiving of oneself in terms of a particular social identity influences our environmental attitudes and behaviors, how relations between groups can impact on environmental outcomes, and how the content of social identities can direct group members to act in more or less pro-environmental ways. We discuss the similarities and differences between the social identity approach to these phenomena and related theories such as cultural cognition theory, the theory of planned behavior and value-belief-norm theory. Importantly, we also advance social-identity based strategies to foster more sustainable environmental attitudes and behaviors. Although this theoretical approach can provide important insights and potential solutions, more research is needed to build the empirical base, especially in relation to testing social identity solutions.

  8. An overview of the Environmental Response Team's air surveillance procedures at emergency response activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, R.D.; Campagna, P.R. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (USA))

    The Safety and Air Surveillance Section of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Response Team responds to emergency air releases such as tire fires and explosions. The air surveillance equipment and procedures used by the organization are described, and case studies demonstrating the various emergency response activities are presented. Air response activities include emergency air responses, occupational and human health air responses and remedial air responses. Monitoring and sampling equipment includes photoionization detectors, combustible gas meters, real-time aerosol monitors, personal sampling pumps, and high flow pumps. Case histories presented include disposal of dioxane from a cotton plant, response to oil well fires in Kuwait, disposal of high pressure cylinders in American Samoa, and response to hurricane Hugo. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Effectiveness Of Implementation Of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR In The Environmental Law Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwansyah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Development in Indonesia refers to the concept of sustainable development (sustainable development and responsibility for the environment . Companies have a social responsibility to social and environmental consequences of environmental damage that caused . Implementation of corporate social responsibility ( Cooperate Social Responsibility is an important part in the framework part of the enforcement of environmental law . Implementation of CSR growing rapidly , including in Indonesia . Through Law No. 40 Year 2007 regarding Limited Liability Company , specifically in Article 74, in response to the action of the business world to social and environmental causes damages to society . But in application / CSR implementation will be undertaken by the company is not maximized with implications for the enforcement of environmental law.

  10. Behavioral responses of Pacific lamprey to alarm cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Laurie L.; Hayes, Michael C.; Jackson, Aaron D.; Burke, Brian J.; Moser, Mary L.; Wagner, R. Steven

    2017-01-01

    Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus), an anadromous ectoparasite, faces several challenges during adult migration to spawning grounds. Developing methods to address these challenges is critical to the success of ongoing conservation efforts. The challenges are diverse, and include anthropogenic alterations to the ecosystem resulting in loss of habitat, impassable barriers such as dams, climate change impacts, and altered predator fields. We conducted a behavioral study to understand how adult migrating Pacific lamprey respond to potential alarm cues: White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), human saliva, decayed Pacific lamprey, and river otter (Lontra canadensis). Research has shown that some species of lamprey can be guided to a location using odors and similar cues may be useful as a management tool for Pacific lamprey. Experiments were conducted over 2 nights and measured the number of entries (count) and duration of time spent (occupancy) by adult lamprey in each arm of a two-choice maze. During the first night, no odor was added to test for selection bias between arms. During the second night odor was added to one arm of the maze. Contrary to expectations, lamprey were significantly attracted to the river otter odor in both count and occupancy. No significant differences were found in the response of lamprey to the other three odors. Results from this study indicate that Pacific lamprey do respond to some odors; however, additional tests are necessary to better identify the types of odors and concentrations that elicit a repeatable response.

  11. Sex-specific effects of dietary fatty acids on saliva cortisol and social behavior in guinea pigs under different social environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Matthias; Millesi, Eva; Puehringer-Sturmayr, Verena; Kaplan, Arthur; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Quint, Ruth; Wallner, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Unbalanced dietary intakes of saturated (SFAs) and polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids can profoundly influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and glucocorticoid secretions in relation to behavioral performances. The beneficial effects of higher dietary PUFA intakes and PUFA:SFA ratios may also affect social interactions and social-living per se, where adequate physiological and behavioral responses are essential to cope with unstable social environmental conditions. Effects of diets high in PUFAs or SFAs and a control diet were investigated in male and female guinea pigs after 60 days of supplementation. Plasma fatty acid patterns served as an indicator of the general fatty acid status. HPA-axis activities, determined by measuring saliva cortisol concentrations, social behaviors, and hierarchy ranks were analyzed during group housing of established single-sexed groups and during challenging social confrontations with unfamiliar individuals of the other groups. The plasma PUFA:SFA ratio was highest in PUFA supplemented animals, with female levels significantly exceeding males, and lowest in SFA animals. SFA males and females showed increased saliva cortisol levels and decreased aggressiveness during group housing, while sociopositive behaviors were lowest in PUFA males. Males generally showed higher cortisol increases in response to the challenging social confrontations with unfamiliar individuals than females. While increasing cortisol concentrations were detected in control and PUFA animals, no such effect was found in SFA animals. During social confrontations, PUFA males showed higher levels of agonistic and sociopositive behaviors and also gained higher dominance ranks among males, which was not detected for females. While SFAs seemingly impaired cortisol responses and social behaviors, PUFAs enabled adequate behavioral responses in male individuals under stressful new social environmental conditions. This sex-specific effect was possibly

  12. Conflict between place and response navigation strategies: effects on vicarious trial and error (VTE) behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Brandy; Papale, Andrew; Redish, A David; Markus, Etan J

    2013-02-15

    Navigation can be accomplished through multiple decision-making strategies, using different information-processing computations. A well-studied dichotomy in these decision-making strategies compares hippocampal-dependent "place" and dorsal-lateral striatal-dependent "response" strategies. A place strategy depends on the ability to flexibly respond to environmental cues, while a response strategy depends on the ability to quickly recognize and react to situations with well-learned action-outcome relationships. When rats reach decision points, they sometimes pause and orient toward the potential routes of travel, a process termed vicarious trial and error (VTE). VTE co-occurs with neurophysiological information processing, including sweeps of representation ahead of the animal in the hippocampus and transient representations of reward in the ventral striatum and orbitofrontal cortex. To examine the relationship between VTE and the place/response strategy dichotomy, we analyzed data in which rats were cued to switch between place and response strategies on a plus maze. The configuration of the maze allowed for place and response strategies to work competitively or cooperatively. Animals showed increased VTE on trials entailing competition between navigational systems, linking VTE with deliberative decision-making. Even in a well-learned task, VTE was preferentially exhibited when a spatial selection was required, further linking VTE behavior with decision-making associated with hippocampal processing.

  13. Adolescents' behavioral and neural responses to e-cigarette advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yvonnes; Fowler, Carina H; Papa, Vlad B; Lepping, Rebecca J; Brucks, Morgan G; Fox, Andrew T; Martin, Laura E

    2018-03-01

    Although adolescents are a group heavily targeted by the e-cigarette industry, research in cue-reactivity has not previously examined adolescents' behavioral and neural responses to e-cigarette advertising. This study addressed this gap through two experiments. In Experiment One, adult traditional cigarette smokers (n = 41) and non-smokers (n = 41) answered questions about e-cigarette and neutral advertising images. The 40 e-cigarette advertising images that most increased desire to use the product were matched to 40 neutral advertising images with similar content. In Experiment Two, the 80 advertising images selected in Experiment One were presented to adolescents (n = 30) during an functional magnetic resonance imaging brain scan. There was a range of traditional cigarette smoking across the sample with some adolescents engaging in daily smoking and others who had never smoked. Adolescents self-reported that viewing the e-cigarette advertising images increased their desire to smoke. Additionally, all participants regardless of smoking statuses showed significantly greater brain activation to e-cigarette advertisements in areas associated with cognitive control (left middle frontal gyrus), reward (right medial frontal gyrus), visual processing/attention (left lingual gyrus/fusiform gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, left posterior cingulate, left angular gyrus) and memory (right parahippocampus, left insula). Further, an exploratory analysis showed that compared with age-matched non-smokers (n = 7), adolescent smokers (n = 7) displayed significantly greater neural activation to e-cigarette advertising images in the left inferior temporal gyrus/fusiform gyrus, compared with their responses to neutral advertising images. Overall, participants' brain responses to e-cigarette advertisements suggest a need to further investigate the long-run impact of e-cigarette advertising on adolescents. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Genetic and environmental modulation of neurotrophic and anabolic stress response: Counterbalancing forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marcus K; Carpenter, Jennifer; Stone, Michael; Hernandez, Lisa M; Rauh, Mitchell J; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-11-01

    The serotonin transporter genetic variant 5HTTLPR influences activation and feedback control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and has been shown to influence the effect of stressful life events on behavioral health. We recently reported that 5HTTLPR modulates cortisol response in healthy military men exposed to intense stress. Less is known of its combined effects with environmental factors in this context, or of its effect on neuroprotective stress responses. In this follow-up study, we examined the unique and combined effects of 5HTTLPR and prior trauma exposure on neuroprotective (salivary nerve growth factor [sNGF]), anabolic (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEAS] and testosterone), and catabolic (cortisol) stress responses. Ninety-three healthy, active-duty military men were studied before, during, and 24h after a stressful 12-day survival course. Distinct and interactive effects of 5HTTLPR long allele carriage [L] versus homozygous short allele carriage [SS]) and prior trauma exposure (low versus high) were evaluated, after which a priori group comparisons were performed between hypothesized high resilience (L/low) and low resilience (SS/high) groups. For sNGF, L/low produced the greatest sNGF throughout stress exposure while SS/high demonstrated the smallest; L/high and SS/low bisected these two extremes and were nearly identical to each other (i.e., SS/high counterbalancing (additive) forces. Similar patterns were found for DHEAS. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report counterbalancing genetic and environmental effects on novel biomarkers related to resilience in humans exposed to real-world stress. These findings have profound implications for health, performance and training in high-stress occupational settings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Color-pattern evolution in response to environmental stress in butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuki eHiyama

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that butterfly wing color patterns have ecological and behavioral functions that evolved through natural selection. However, particular wing color patterns may physiologically be produced in response to environmental stress without significant function. These patterns would represent an extreme expression of phenotypic plasticity and can eventually be fixed genetically in a population. Here, three such cases in butterflies are concisely reviewed and their possible mechanisms of genetic assimilation are discussed. First, certain modified color pattern of Vanessa indica induced by temperature treatments resembles the natural color patterns of its closely related species of the genus Vanessa (sensu stricto. Second, a different type of color-pattern modification can be induced in Vanessa cardui as a result of a general stress response, which is very similar to the natural color pattern of its sister species Vanessa kershawi. Third, a field observation was reported, together with experimental support, to show that the color-pattern diversity of a regional population of Zizeeria maha increased at the northern range margin of this species in response to temperature stress. In these three cases, modified color patterns are unlikely to have significant functions, and these cases suggest that phenotypic plasticity plays an important role in butterfly wing color-pattern evolution. A neutral or non-functional trait can be assimilated genetically if it is linked, like a parasitic trait, with another functional trait. In addition, it is possible that environmental stress causes epigenetic modifications of genes related to color patterns and that their transgenerational inheritance facilitates the process of genetic assimilation of a neutral or non-functional trait.

  16. Environmental enrichment attenuates behavioral abnormalities in valproic acid-exposed autism model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Hara, Yuta; Ago, Yukio; Takano, Erika; Hasebe, Shigeru; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Toshio; Takuma, Kazuhiro

    2017-08-30

    We recently demonstrated that prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) at embryonic day 12.5 causes autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-like phenotypes such as hypolocomotion, anxiety-like behavior, social deficits and cognitive impairment in mice and that it decreases dendritic spine density in the hippocampal CA1 region. Previous studies show that some abnormal behaviors are improved by environmental enrichment in ASD rodent models, but it is not known whether environmental enrichment improves cognitive impairment. In the present study, we examined the effects of early environmental enrichment on behavioral abnormalities and neuromorphological changes in prenatal VPA-treated mice. We also examined the role of dendritic spine formation and synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus. Mice were housed for 4 weeks from 4 weeks of age under either a standard or enriched environment. Enriched housing was found to increase hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA levels in both control and VPA-exposed mice. Furthermore, in VPA-treated mice, the environmental enrichment improved anxiety-like behavior, social deficits and cognitive impairment, but not hypolocomotion. Prenatal VPA treatment caused loss of dendritic spines in the hippocampal CA1 region and decreases in mRNA levels of postsynaptic density protein-95 and SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 2 in the hippocampus. These hippocampal changes were improved by the enriched housing. These findings suggest that the environmental enrichment improved most ASD-like behaviors including cognitive impairment in the VPA-treated mice by enhancing dendritic spine function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reclamation of environmental liabilities at populated area, an environmental legacy with social responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo V, Jairo; Benalcazar, Fernando L. [EnCanEcuador S.A., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The oil industry in Ecuador has had its own history since the first oil well was drilled in the country's Amazon region on February 16th /1967 and the environmental control of the activity has been evolving over the years. But at the same time it has been leaving traces behind at each one of the locations where a road has been opened, a platform has been build or a pipeline has been laid. Consequently the old practice of covering up spillages with a layer of clay or sand are being discovered today and providing evidence of the foot-print that has been caused to the environment. In the heart of the Ecuadorian Amazon region, where settlements were established on top of old crude spillages, such as Aguas Negras and Paraiso in Canton Cuyabeno, EnCanEcuador, in line with its philosophy of social responsibility and commitment to the environment, took on the restoration of these areas. For that purpose it had to reach an agreement with the communities affected and then temporarily dismantle the houses built in these areas and remove all the contaminated soil until they were sure it was free of hydrocarbons, thus ensuring the public health of these villages and the conservation of the environment. The sites, from which contaminated soil was removed, were then filled with clean soil and their houses rebuilt. During this operation it was possible to recover approximately 3,500 cubic meters of contaminated soil at a cost of $175,000. Land removed from the site was transported to our land farming remediation center, where, through a process of degradation with native bacteria from the zone, the bioremediation of the soil was achieved until it reached TPH limits below the levels regulated by government entities from our country. (author)

  18. Examination of environmentally friendly "green" logistics behavior of managers in the pharmaceutical sector using the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Miray; Şar, Sevgi

    2017-12-11

    Logistics activities play a prominent role in enabling manufacturers, distribution channels, and pharmacies to work in harmony. Nowadays these activities have become increasingly striking in the pharmaceutical industry and seen as a development area for this sector. Additionally, green practices are beginning to be more attracting particularly in decreasing costs and increasing image of pharmaceutical companies. The main objective of this study was modeling green logistics (GL) behavior of the managers in the pharmaceutical sector in the theory of planned behavior (TPB) frame via structural equation modeling (SEM). A measurement tool was developed according to TPB. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine subfactors of GL behavior. In the second step, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted for confirming whether there is a relationship between the observed variables and their underlying latent constructs. Finally, structural equation model was conducted to specify the relationships between latent variables. In the proposed green logistics behavior (GLB) model, the positive effect of environmental attitude towards GL, perceived behavioral control related GL, and subjective norm about GL on intention towards GL were found statistically significant. Nevertheless, the effect of attitude towards costs of GL on intention towards GL was not found statistically significant. Intention towards GL has been found to have a positive statistically significant effect on the GL behavior. Based on the results of this study, it is possible to say that TPB is an appropriate theory for modeling green logistics behavior of managers. This model can be seen as a guide to the companies in the pharmaceutical sector to participate in green logistics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Values determine the (ineffectiveness of informational interventions in promoting pro-environmental behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Willem Bolderdijk

    Full Text Available Informational interventions (e.g., awareness campaigns, carbon footprint calculators are built on the assumption that informing the public about the environmental consequences of their actions should result in increased pro-environmental intentions and behavior. However, empirical support for this reasoning is mixed. In this paper, we argue that informational interventions may succeed in improving people's knowledge about the negative environmental consequences of one's actions, but this knowledge will not gain motivational force if people do not consider protecting the environment an important personal value. In an experiment, we measured individual differences in value priorities, and either presented participants a movie clip that portrayed the negative environmental consequences of using bottled water, or a control movie. As predicted, we found that the environmental movie improved recipients' knowledge of the negative environmental impact of bottled water, but this knowledge only resulted in concomitant changes in intentions and acceptability of related policies among participants who strongly endorsed biospheric (i.e. environmental values, while having no effect on those who care less about the environment. Interestingly, the results suggest that although informational interventions are perhaps not always successful in directly affecting less environmentally-conscious recipients, they could still have beneficial effects, because they make those who strongly care about the environment more inclined to act on their values.

  20. Effect of Environmental Cues on Behavioral Efficacy of Haloperidol, Olanzapine and Clozapine in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Liu, Xinfeng; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that context can powerfully modulate the inhibitory effect of an antipsychotic drug on phencyclidine (PCP)-induced hyperlocomotion (a behavioral test used to evaluate putative antipsychotic drugs). The present study investigated the experimental conditions under which environmental stimuli exert their influence through associative conditioning processes. Experiment 1 examined the extent to which prior antipsychotic treatment in the home cages affected a drug’s ability to inhibit PCP-induced hyperlocomotion in a novel motor activity test apparatus. Five days of repeated haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg, sc) and olanzapine (2.0 mg/kg, sc) treatment in the home cages still potentiated their inhibition of PCP-induced hyperlocomotion (i.e. sensitization) assessed in a new environment, whereas the clozapine (10.0 mg/kg, sc) treatment enhanced the development of clozapine tolerance, indicating a lack of environmental modulation of antipsychotic efficacy. Experiment 2 assessed the impact of different numbers of antipsychotic administrations in either the home environment or test environment (e.g. 4, 2 or 0) on a drug’s ability to inhibit PCP-induced hyperlocomotion. Repeated administration of clozapine (5.0 mg/kg, sc) or olanzapine (1.0 mg/kg, sc) for 4 consecutive days, regardless of where these treatments occurred, caused a similar level of inhibition on PCP-induced hyperlocomotion. However, 4-day haloperidol (0.03 mg/kg, sc) treatment in the test apparatus caused a significant higher inhibition than 4-day home cage treatment. Thus, more exposures to the test environment under the influence of haloperidol (but not clozapine or olanzapine) cause a stronger inhibition than fewer exposures, indicating a strong environmental modulation. Collectively, these findings suggest that prior antipsychotic treatment in one environment could alter later antipsychotic-like response assessed in a different environment under certain test conditions. Therefore

  1. The Relationship between Parent-Child Conflict and Adolescent Antisocial Behavior: Confirming Shared Environmental Mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M.; Rueter, Martha A.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have indicated that the relationship between0020parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior is at least partially shared environmental in origin. However, all available research on this topic (to our knowledge) relies exclusively on parent and/or adolescent informant-reports, both of which are subject to various forms of rater bias. As the presence of significant shared environmental effects has often been attributed to rater bias in the past (Baker, Jacobsen, Raine, Lozano, & Bezdjian, 2007; Bartels et al., 2004; Bartels et al., 2003; Hewitt, Silberg, Neale, & Eaves, 1992), it would be important to confirm that findings of shared environmental mediation persist when even examining (presumably more objective) observer-ratings of these constructs. The current study thus examined the origins of the relationship between parent-child conflict and adolescent acting-out behavior, as measured using both observer-ratings and various informant-reports. Participants included 1,199 adopted and non-adopted adolescents in 610 families from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Results indicated that parent-child conflict consistently predicts acting-out behavior in adopted adolescents, and moreover, that this association is equivalent to that in biologically-related adolescents. Most importantly, these findings did not vary across parent- and adolescent-reported or observer-ratings of parent-child conflict and acting-out behavior. Such findings argue strongly against rater bias as a primary explanation of shared environmental mediation of the association between parent-child conflict and adolescent antisocial behavior. PMID:21484334

  2. Rules of Engagement: Toward an Analysis of Staff Responses to Challenging Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Richard P.; Remington, Bob

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews literature on the responses of direct care staff to challenging behaviors of individuals with mental retardation. The paper constructs a behavior analytic description of the functions of care staff behavior in relation to their clients' challenging behaviors, draws a distinction between contingency-shaped and rule-governed…

  3. Does what you know matter? Investigating the relationship between mental models of climate change and pro-environmental behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the conjecture that environmentally sustainable decisions and behaviors are related to individuals' conceptions of the natural world, in this case climate change; individuals' attitudes towards climate change; and the situations in which these decisions are made. The nature of mental models is an ongoing subject of disagreement. Some argue that mental models are coherent theories, much like scientific theories, that individuals employ systematically when reasoning about the world (Gopnik & Meltzoff, 1998). Others maintain that mental models are cobbled together from fragmented collections of ideas that are only loosely connected and context dependent (Disessa, 1988; Minstrell, 2000). It is likely that individuals sometimes reason about complex phenomena using systematic mental models and at other times reason using knowledge that is organized in fragmented pieces (Steedle & Shavelson, 2009). Thus, in measuring mental models of complex environmental systems, such as climate change, the assumption of systematicity may not be justified. Individuals may apply certain chains of reasoning in some contexts but not in others. The current study hypothesizes that an accurate mental model of climate change enables an individual to make effective evaluative judgments of environmental behavior options. The more an individual's mental model resembles that of an expert, the more consistent, accurate and automatic these judgments become. However, an accurate mental model is not sufficient to change environmental behavior. Real decisions and behaviors are products of a person-situation interaction: an interplay between psychosocial factors (such as knowledge and attitudes) and the situation in which the decision is made. This study investigates the relationship between both psychosocial and situational factors for climate change decisions. Data was collected from 436 adult participants through an online survey. The survey was comprised of

  4. Environmental Enrichments for a Group of Captive Macaws: Low Interaction Does Not Mean Low Behavioral Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Jéssica; Maia, Caroline Marques; Santos, Eliana Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Environmental enrichment has been widely used to improve conditions for nonhuman animals in captivity. However, there is no consensus about the best way to evaluate the success of enrichments. This study evaluated whether the proportion of time spent interacting with enrichments indicated the proportion of overall behavioral changes. Six environmental enrichments were introduced in succession to 16 captive macaws, and interaction of the animals with them as well as the behaviors of the group were recorded before and during the enrichments. All of the enrichments affected the proportions of time spent in different behaviors. Macaws interacted more with certain items (hibiscus and food tree) than with others (a toy or swings and stairs), but introduction of the enrichments that invoked the least interaction caused as many behavioral changes as those that invoked the most. Moreover, feeding behavior was only affected by the enrichment that invoked the least interaction, a change not detected by a general analysis of enrichment effects. In conclusion, little interaction with enrichment does not mean little change in behavior, and the effects of enrichments are more complex than previously considered.

  5. Staphylococcal Bap Proteins Build Amyloid Scaffold Biofilm Matrices in Response to Environmental Signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Taglialegna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are communities of bacteria that grow encased in an extracellular matrix that often contains proteins. The spatial organization and the molecular interactions between matrix scaffold proteins remain in most cases largely unknown. Here, we report that Bap protein of Staphylococcus aureus self-assembles into functional amyloid aggregates to build the biofilm matrix in response to environmental conditions. Specifically, Bap is processed and fragments containing at least the N-terminus of the protein become aggregation-prone and self-assemble into amyloid-like structures under acidic pHs and low concentrations of calcium. The molten globule-like state of Bap fragments is stabilized upon binding of the cation, hindering its self-assembly into amyloid fibers. These findings define a dual function for Bap, first as a sensor and then as a scaffold protein to promote biofilm development under specific environmental conditions. Since the pH-driven multicellular behavior mediated by Bap occurs in coagulase-negative staphylococci and many other bacteria exploit Bap-like proteins to build a biofilm matrix, the mechanism of amyloid-like aggregation described here may be widespread among pathogenic bacteria.

  6. Corporate environmental responsiveness strategies and competitiveness in the North American oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.

    1996-12-31

    An exploratory study was conducted in the Canadian oil and gas industries to build a perspective on the environmental responsive strategies employed by the industry. Based on this study and a detailed review of the literature, hypotheses were formulated regarding organizational determinants of environmental responsiveness strategies and the impact of these strategies on firm performance. The hypotheses were tested through a questionnaire-based comparative survey of multiple informants in the Canadian and U.S. oil and gas industries. Results revealed that environmental responsiveness was influenced by management interpretation of environmental issues as threats or opportunities. Other significant factors noted were company size and resources, and collaborative problem-solving relationships with stockholders seen as spokespersons for the natural environment. Managerial interpretations of environmental issues appeared to be affected by leadership styles, organization design factors such as managerial discretion in decisions on the business/ natural environment interface, and the use of environmental performance indicators in employee control systems. refs., figs.

  7. Corporate environmental responsiveness strategies and competitiveness in the North American oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.

    1996-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted in the Canadian oil and gas industries to build a perspective on the environmental responsive strategies employed by the industry. Based on this study and a detailed review of the literature, hypotheses were formulated regarding organizational determinants of environmental responsiveness strategies and the impact of these strategies on firm performance. The hypotheses were tested through a questionnaire-based comparative survey of multiple informants in the Canadian and U.S. oil and gas industries. Results revealed that environmental responsiveness was influenced by management interpretation of environmental issues as threats or opportunities. Other significant factors noted were company size and resources, and collaborative problem-solving relationships with stockholders seen as spokespersons for the natural environment. Managerial interpretations of environmental issues appeared to be affected by leadership styles, organization design factors such as managerial discretion in decisions on the business/ natural environment interface, and the use of environmental performance indicators in employee control systems. refs., figs

  8. Social responsibility standards and global environmental accountability : a developing country perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanu Murthy, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that accountability, responsibility and governance go hand in hand. Evolving standards is a part of governance. Unless such a global perspective is adopted “Social Responsibility and the implications for Developing Countries”, which is the theme for this workshop, cannot be unraveled. The purpose of this paper is to highlight how Social Responsibility Standards and their relation to environmental sustainability cannot be addressed without relating it to Global Environmental ...

  9. Unexpected Effects of Low Doses of a Neonicotinoid Insecticide on Behavioral Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabhi, Kaouther K.; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

  10. Unexpected effects of low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide on behavioral responses to sex pheromone in a pest insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaouther K Rabhi

    Full Text Available In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress.

  11. Green Consumption Behavior Antecedents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagiaslis, Anastasios; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    The present study adds to the evolving literature on green consumer behavior by examining through statistically robust methods the effect and interrelationships of the key constructs of environmental concern, consumer environmental knowledge, beliefs about biofuels, and behavioral intention (i...... for the environment has a positive and direct impact on environmental knowledge, beliefs, and behavioral intention. Also, demographics determine levels of concern for the environment and environmental knowledge. All constructs associate positively with one another delineating that the interdependencies between them...... are important when accounting for environmental behavior. Future research should validate present results with the use of cross-cultural samples and investigate whether environmental concern increases due to social desirability response bias....

  12. Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility in an Emerging Economy: Through the Lens of Legitimacy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asit Bhattacharyya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to promote Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility (CSER require an understanding of stakeholder attitudes toward enhanced responsibility. However, little is known about current attitudes on this subject, or the determinants of these attitudes. This study presents a survey of the attitudes of Indian managers, toward 18 social and 16 key contemporary environmental management issues. The findings indicate that respondents are concerned about a range of issues surrounding social responsibility. With respect to environmental responsibilities, Indian respondents were also strong in their support, and identified a select few issues to be more important over other environmental factors. Results indicated a positive attitude of Indian managers towards CSER. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA confirmed three distinct social and environmental factors for the respondents and provided a model of managerial attitudes towards CSER.

  13. Factors Promoting Environmental Responsibility in European SMEs: The Effect on Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Sáez-Martínez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing social and political awareness of the importance of developing environmental responsibility at a corporate level. When focusing on issues of responsibility, large companies are frequently perceived to be more responsible for driving climate change and resource depletion. However, small and medium enterprises (SMEs contribute significantly to the use of resources such as material and energy and produce approximately 64% of the pollution in Europe. Drawing on evidence from “The Eurobarometer 381 Survey on SMEs, Resource Efficiency and Green Markets”, we analyze the environmental responsibility of European SMEs, studying their compliance with environmental legislation and how several factors drive environmental orientation among SMEs. Our sample consists of 3647 SMEs operating in 38 countries. Only around a fifth of the firms go beyond environmental regulations, showing the highest levels of environmental responsibility. We conduct OLS regressions to analyze the factors that affect a positive environmental attitude among European SMEs (internal drivers being more significant than external ones and then, to observe the positive effect of environmental responsibility and firm’s experience in offering green services/products on performance, although a conjoint effect was not found. Implications for practitioners, academics, and policy-makers are outlined.

  14. Individual differences in response to positive and negative stimuli: endocannabinoid-based insight on approach and avoidance behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eLaricchiuta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Approach and avoidance behaviors - the primary responses to the environmental stimuli of danger, novelty and reward - are associated with the brain structures that mediate cognitive functionality, reward sensitivity and emotional expression. Individual differences in approach and avoidance behaviors are modulated by the functioning of amygdaloid-hypothalamic-striatal and striatal-cerebellar networks implicated in action and reaction to salient stimuli. The nodes of these networks are strongly interconnected and by acting on them the endocannabinoid and dopaminergic systems increase the intensity of appetitive or defensive motivation. This review analyzes the approach and avoidance behaviors in humans and rodents, addresses neurobiological and neurochemical aspects of these behaviors, and proposes a possible synaptic plasticity mechanism, related to endocannabinoid-dependent long-term potentiation and depression that allows responding to salient positive and negative stimuli.

  15. [Environmental behavior of graphene and its effect on the transport and fate of pollutants in environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wen-Jie; Teng, Ying

    2014-09-01

    Graphene is one of the most popular research topics in carbon nanomaterials. Because of its special physical and chemical properties, graphene will have wide applications. As the production and application amount is increasing, graphene will be inevitably released to the environment, resulting in risks of ecological environment and human health. It is of very vital significance for evaluating environmental risks of graphene scientifically and objectively to understand its environmental behavior and fate and explore its effect on the environmental behaviors of pollutants. This paper reviewed the environmental behavior of graphene, such as colloid properties and its stability in the aqueous environment and its transport through porous media. Additionally, the paper reviewed the effect of graphene on the transport and fate of pollutants. The interactions between graphene and heavy metals or organic compounds were especially discussed. Important topics should be explored including sorption mechanisms, interactions between graphene and soil components, influence of graphene on the transport and bioavailability of pollutants in environment, as well as approaches to quantifying graphene. The review might identify potential new ideas for further research in applications of graphene.

  16. Correlations between environmental factors and wild bee behavior on alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Hongping; Li, Xiaoxia; Song, Yu; Chen, Li; Jin, Liang

    2009-10-01

    To discover the effect of environmental factors on pollinator visitation to flowering Medicago sativa, several field experiments were designed to examine the diurnal movement patterns of wild bee species in the Hexi Corridor of northwestern China. Our study results showed that Megachile abluta, M. spissula, and Xylocopa valga showed unimodal diurnal foraging behavior, whereas Andrena parvula and Anthophora melanognatha showed bimodal diurnal foraging behavior. Correlation analysis indicated that diurnal foraging activities of pollinators were significantly correlated with environmental factors. Correlations of foraging activities versus environmental factors for M. abluta, M. spissula, and X. valga best fit a linear model, whereas those of A. parvula and A. melanognatha best fit a parallel quadratic model. Results of this study indicated that solitary wild bees such as M. abluta, M. spissula, X. valga, A. parvula, and A. melanognatha are potential alfalfa pollinators in the Hexi Corridor. An understanding of the environmental factors that affect the behaviors of different wild bees foraging in alfalfa are basic to the utilization of solitary wild bees in a practical way for increased, or more consistent, pollination of alfalfa for seed production.

  17. Environmental Training Modules. Module 3 - Shipyard Incident Response Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    oxidizing or through fermentation ). • Absorption of oxygen (caused by the vessel itself or the contents stored in it). Shipyard HazMat Technician...environmental effects • May be difficult to find in bulk quantities. • * Dilute acetic acid ( vinegar ) Caustic spills have routinely been neutralized with

  18. Corporate Social Responsibility in Food Manufacturing Companies – Environmental Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of a company’s acceptance and integration of the CSR concept is directly reflected in the fundamental principles of the company. Through the environmental sustainability, a company can make a positive contribution to the society and the natural environment. Competitive and cost pressures are the key drivers of sustainable development in the industry. Today, many international food and drink companies are delivering excellent achievements. The present paper tries to highlight how much are food manufacturing companies committed to caring for the environment as a main component of their CSR strategy. In order to fulfil the defined objectives of the paper, the primary and secondary sources of information were collected and used, as well as there was used the method of interview, using a questionnaire (total number of respondents was 100 food manufacturing companies. In our research the highest percentage of large, SMC and micro companies indicated the reduction of negative operational impacts as the most important commitment of companies in relation to environment. Most large companies invest to installing pollution reducing technology to improve environmental quality (67% and utilizing more environmentally friendly raw materials (51%. These areas indicated the highest percentage as well as for SMC. In the case of large companies there are more visible movements in environmental practices than in micro and small-medium companies.

  19. Hormonal responses of the fish, Cyprinus carpio, to environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... gasoline, batteries, and paint. Environmental pollutants such as metals pose serious risks to many aquatic organisms by changing genetic, .... ties of cortisol and its role in maintaining ion homeostasis. (Sheridan, 1994). Secretion of the steroid hormone cortisol by the interrenal tissue is a characteristic ...

  20. Adaptive responses to environmental changes in Lake Victoria cichlids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijssel, Jacobus Cornelis van (Jacco)

    2014-01-01

    Lake Victoria cichlids show the fastest vertebrate adaptive radiation known which is why they function as a model organism to study evolution. In the past 40 years, Lake Victoria experienced severe environmental changes including the boom of the introduced, predatory Nile perch and eutrophication.

  1. [The relationship of empathic-affective responses toward others' positive affect with prosocial behaviors and aggressive behaviors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Shigeo; Hayama, Daichi; Suzuki, Takashi; Kurazumi, Tomoe; Hagiwara, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Miyuki; Ohuchi, Akiko; Chizuko, Oikawa

    2011-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop and validate the Empathic-Affective Response Scale, and to examine the relationship of empathic-affective responses with prosocial behaviors and aggressive behaviors. Undergraduate students (N = 443) participated in a questionnaire study. The results of factor analysis indicated that empathic-affective responses involved three factors: (a) sharing and good feeling toward others' positive affect, (b) sharing of negative affect and (c) sympathy toward others' negative affect. Correlations with other empathy-related scales and internal consistency suggested that this scale has satisfactory validity and reliability. Cluster analysis revealed that participants were clustered into four groups: high-empathic group, low-empathic group, insufficient positive affective response group and insufficient negative affective response group. Additional analysis showed the frequency of prosocial behaviors in high-empathic group was highest in all groups. On the other hand, the frequency of aggressive behaviors in both insufficient positive affective response group and low-empathic group were higher than others' groups. The results indicated that empathic-affective responses toward positive affect are also very important to predict prosocial behaviors and aggressive behaviors.

  2. Child dental fear and behavior: The role of environmental factors in a hospital cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Suprabha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Information on the origin of dental fear and uncooperative behavior in a child patient is important for behavior management strategy. The effects of environmental factors have been comparatively less studied, especially in an Indian scenario. Objectives: To find the association of (1 age, gender, family characteristics, previous medical, and dental experiences with dental fear and behavior (2 dental fear with dental behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study involving 125 children aged between 7 and 14 years undergoing dental treatment under local anesthesia. The parent completed a questionnaire on family situation, medical history, and past dental experiences of the child. Child′s dental fear was recorded using Children′s Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale and behavior was rated using Frankl Behaviour Rating Scale. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using chi square test and binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Unpleasant experience in dental clinic and age of the child significantly influenced dental behavior. Visited pediatrician in the past one year, prior history of hospital admission, previous visit to dentist, experience at the first dental visit, and age of the child were contributing factors for dental fear. There was also significant association between dental fear levels and behavior. Conclusions: In 7 to 14 year olds, dental fear influences dental behavior, but the factors affecting them are not the same. Although dental fear decreases and dental behavior improves with age, experiences at the previous dental visits seem to influence both dental fear and behavior. Past medical experiences are likely to influence dental fear but not dental behavior.

  3. Environmentally responsive optical microstructured hybrid actuator assemblies and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenberg, Joanna; Aizenberg, Michael; Kim, Philseok

    2016-01-05

    Microstructured hybrid actuator assemblies in which microactuators carrying designed surface properties to be revealed upon actuation are embedded in a layer of responsive materials. The microactuators in a microactuator array reversibly change their configuration in response to a change in the environment without requiring an external power source to switch their optical properties.

  4. Triphasic behavioral response of motor units to submaximal fatiguing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, L J; Howard, J E; McGill, K C

    1990-07-01

    We have measured the firing rate and amplitude of 4551 motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) recorded with concentric needle electrodes from the brachial biceps muscles of 10 healthy young adults before, during, and after 45 minutes of intermittent isometric exercise at 20% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), using an automatic method for decomposition of electromyographic activity (ADEMG). During and after exercise, MUAPs derived from contractions of 30% MVC showed progressive increase in mean firing rate (P less than or equal to .01) and amplitude (P less than or equal to .05). The firing rate increase preceded the rise in mean amplitude, and was evident prior to the development of fatigue, defined as reduction of MVC. Analysis of individual potentials revealed that the increase in firing rate and in amplitude reflected different MUAP subpopulations. A short-term (less than 1 minute) reduction in MUAP firing rates (P less than or equal to .05) was also observed at the onset of each test contraction. These findings suggest that motor units exhibit a triphasic behavioral response to prolonged submaximal exercise: (1) short-term decline and stabilization of onset firing rates, followed by (2) gradual and progressive increase in firing rates and firing variability, and then by (3) recruitment of additional (larger) motor units. The (2) and (3) components presumably compensate for loss of force-generating capacity in the exercising muscle, and give rise jointly to the well-known increase in total surface EMG which accompanies muscle fatigue.

  5. Exploring Environmental Awareness and Behavior among Guests at Hotels That Apply Water-Saving Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Gabarda-Mallorquí

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate guest profiles at a hotel that has created a best-practices water management model to determine how different types of guests contribute to saving water during their stay. To do this, we analyzed levels of environmental awareness and pro-environmental behavior among the guests. Information was gathered through 648 structured surveys with guests at Hotel Samba in the Spanish seaside resort of Lloret de Mar between September 2015 and August 2016. Cluster analysis revealed four profiles of guests with different sociodemographic characteristics and different levels of awareness and proactivity in relation to water conservation. We combined our findings to develop a framework that illustrates how the two dimensions of environmental awareness and pro-environmental behavior are related in this setting. This article provides new insights into how hotel guests’ environmental awareness and engagement can influence a hotel’s water-saving efforts. These insights should help hotel operators to devise new, guest-centered strategies for saving water.

  6. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  7. Relations between Children's Levels of Responsiveness and Resistance, Maternal Interaction Behaviors, and Children's Social Behaviors with Peers in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Daniela; Neitzel, Carin

    2017-01-01

    Children's peer relationships have their origins in family relationships. The present study focuses on the relative importance of children's levels of responsiveness and/or resistance during mother-child interactions and tests a model of the direct and indirect relations between mother interaction behaviors and children's social behaviors with…

  8. Environmental Noise Could Promote Stochastic Local Stability of Behavioral Diversity Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiu-Deng; Li, Cong; Lessard, Sabin; Tao, Yi

    2018-05-01

    In this Letter, we investigate stochastic stability in a two-phenotype evolutionary game model for an infinite, well-mixed population undergoing discrete, nonoverlapping generations. We assume that the fitness of a phenotype is an exponential function of its expected payoff following random pairwise interactions whose outcomes randomly fluctuate with time. We show that the stochastic local stability of a constant interior equilibrium can be promoted by the random environmental noise even if the system may display a complicated nonlinear dynamics. This result provides a new perspective for a better understanding of how environmental fluctuations may contribute to the evolution of behavioral diversity.

  9. Treatment with CRH-1 antagonist antalarmin reduces behavioral and endocrine responses to social stressors in marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey A; Fite, Jeffrey E; Jensen, Heather; Oparowski, Katie; Rukstalis, Michael R; Fix, Holly; Jones, Brenda; Maxwell, Heather; Pacer, Molly; Power, Michael L; Schulkin, Jay

    2007-08-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) has multiple roles in coordinating the behavioral and endocrine responses to a host of environmental challenges, including social stressors. In the present study we evaluated the role of CRH in mediating responses to a moderate social stressor in Wied's black tufted-eared marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii). Male and female marmosets (n=14) were administered antalarmin (a selective CRH-1 receptor antagonist; 50 microg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle in a blind, counterbalanced, crossover design. One hr after treatment, marmosets were separated from long-term pairmates and then housed alone in a novel enclosure for 7 hr. Behavior was recorded during separation and upon reunion with the partner, and urine samples for cortisol assay collected before, during, and after the intervention. Separation from partners elevated urinary cortisol concentrations over baseline for both conditions, but antalarmin treatment reduced the magnitude of the elevation. Antalarmin also lowered rates of behavioral patterns associated with arousal (alarm and "e-e" vocalizations, object manipulate/chew), but had no effect on contact calls, locomotory activity or alertness. Although most patterns of social behavior upon reunion with the partner were not affected by antalarmin, antalarmin-treated marmosets displayed more sexual behavior (mounts and copulations) upon reunion. These data indicate that antagonism of the CRH-1 receptor acts to reduce the magnitude of both endocrine and behavioral responses to a moderate social stressor without causing any overall reduction in alertness or general activity. This supports the hypothesis that CRH, acting through its type 1 receptor, is involved in coordinating the responses to anxiety-producing events. These results further suggest that the marmoset is a useful model for exploration of the role of CRH in mediating the behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to psychosocial stressors, particularly in the context of heterosexual

  10. Environmental novelty and illumination modify ethanol-induced open-field behavioral effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushiro, Daniela F; Benetti, Liliane F; Josino, Fabiana S; Oliveira, Gabriela P; Fernandes, Maiara deM; Saito, Luis P; Uehara, Regina A; Wuo-Silva, Raphael; Oliveira, Camila S; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    Both spontaneous and drug-induced animal behaviors can be modified by exposure to novel stimuli or different levels of environmental illumination. However, research into how these factors specifically impact ethanol (ETH)-induced behavioral effects is currently lacking. We aimed to investigate the effects of these two factors, considered separately or in conjunction, on ETH-induced acute hyperlocomotor effect and its sensitization in adult male Swiss mice. Mice were placed in a novel or familiar open-field under normal light (200 lx) or low light (9 lx) immediately after receiving an ip injection of either 1.8 g/kg ETH or saline (SAL). After 7 days, all animals received an ip challenge injection of 1.8 g/kg ETH, and were placed in the open-field under the same light conditions described above. Novelty increased central locomotion and decreased grooming, while low light increased grooming. Acute ETH administration increased both total and peripheral locomotion and these effects were potentiated by low light. Both low light and novelty were able to facilitate ETH-induced locomotor sensitization, which was detected by the central locomotion parameter. However, there was no synergism between the effects of these two modulating factors on ETH-induced behavioral sensitization. We conclude that both the acute behavioral effects of ETH and behavioral sensitization induced by previous administration of this drug can be critically modified by environmental factors. In addition, our study stresses the importance of using different behavioral parameters to evaluate the interaction between environmental factors and ETH effects. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. THE DEVELOPMENT OF LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR A SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOR FOR BUSINESS OPERATORS IN ROMANIA, MEMBER STATE OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MURESAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Legal responsibility represents an important component of social responsibility, together with ethical responsibility, ecological responsibility, economical responsibility and philanthropic responsibility. The integration of social responsibility into the activity of business operators in the Member states of European Union is pursued at European Union level. The article analyses the opinion of the Brasov city citizens, in the framework of a marketing research performed in 2015, as regards the possibility that legal instruments should influence a socially responsible behavior for public or private business operators. The aspects analysed for business operators in Romania can represent a model for other European Union states as well.

  12. Sex, Age, and Individual Differences in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in Response to Environmental Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holli C. Eskelinen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Application of environmental enrichment, as a means to successfully decrease undesired behaviors (e.g., stereotypic and improve animal welfare, has been documented in a variety of zoological species. However, a dearth of empirical evidence exists concerning age, sex, and individual differences in response to various types of enrichment tools and activities in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus. This study involved a comparative assessment of enrichment participation of three resident, bottlenose dolphin populations, over the course of 17 months, with respect to sex and age class (calf, sub-adult, adult. Enrichment sessions were randomly assigned, conducted, and categorically assessed based on participation during seven, broad based enrichment classes (Object, Ingestible, Human, or a combination of the three. Overall, the proportion of participation in enrichment sessions was high (≥ 0.74, with individual differences in participation noted among the three populations. Sessions involving Humans and/or Ingestible items resulted in a significantly higher mean proportion of participation. Sub-adult and adult males were significantly more likely to participate in enrichment sessions, as well as engage in Human Interaction/Object sessions. Calves participated significantly more than adults or sub-adults across all enrichment classes with no noted differences between males and females. These data can serve as a tool to better understand the intricacies of bottlenose dolphin responses to enrichment in an effort to develop strategic enrichment plans with the goal of improving animal well-being and welfare.

  13. An Examination of the Impact of Non-Formal and Informal Learning on Adult Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digby, Cynthia Louise Barrett

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to consider the environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, of adults in Minnesota, and possible factors that influence environmental literacy. Specifically, this study is designed to: (1) measure the environmental literacy of Minnesota adults, (2) explore possible relationships between Minnesota adults.…

  14. Corporate Social Responsibility in Food Manufacturing Companies – Environmental Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Ľudmila Nagyová; Mária Holienčinová; Ingrida Košičiarová; Tomáš Holota

    2016-01-01

    The degree of a company’s acceptance and integration of the CSR concept is directly reflected in the fundamental principles of the company. Through the environmental sustainability, a company can make a positive contribution to the society and the natural environment. Competitive and cost pressures are the key drivers of sustainable development in the industry. Today, many international food and drink companies are delivering excellent achievements. The present paper tries to highlight how mu...

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure, Environmental Performance, and Tax Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlia Sari; Christine Tjen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the influence of the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure and environmental performance on the level of tax aggressiveness. This study took a sample of non-financial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2009-2012. This study shows that the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure has significant negative effect towards the tax aggressiveness. It means the higher the level of the CSR disclosure, the lower the company’s tax aggressivene...

  16. Transcriptional profiles of Treponema denticola in response to environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian McHardy

    Full Text Available The periodontal pathogen T. denticola resides in a stressful environment rife with challenges, the human oral cavity. Knowledge of the stress response capabilities of this invasive spirochete is currently very limited. Whole genome expression profiles in response to different suspected stresses including heat shock, osmotic downshift, oxygen and blood exposure were examined. Most of the genes predicted to encode conserved heat shock proteins (HSPs were found to be induced under heat and oxygen stress. Several of these HSPs also seem to be important for survival in hypotonic solutions and blood. In addition to HSPs, differential regulation of many genes encoding metabolic proteins, hypothetical proteins, transcriptional regulators and transporters was observed in patterns that could betoken functional associations. In summary, stress responses in T. denticola exhibit many similarities to the corresponding stress responses in other organisms but also employ unique components including the induction of hypothetical proteins.

  17. Psychological and behavioral responses to interval and continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Matthew J; Gibala, Martin J; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2018-05-16

    To compare psychological responses to, and preferences for, moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), and sprint interval training (SIT) among inactive adults; and to investigate the relationships between affect, enjoyment, exercise preferences, and subsequent exercise behavior over a 4-wk follow-up period. Thirty inactive men and women (21.23±3.81 y), inexperienced with HIIT or SIT, completed three trials of cycle ergometer exercise in random order on separate days: MICT (45min continuous; ~70-75% of heart rate maximum (HRmax)); HIIT (10x1 min bouts at ~85-90%HRmax with 1-min recovery periods); and SIT (3x20-s "all-out" sprints with 2-min recovery periods). Perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and arousal were measured throughout the trials and enjoyment was measured post-exercise. Participants rank-ordered the protocols (#1-3) according to preference and logged their exercise over a 4-week follow-up. Despite elevated HR, RPE, and arousal during work periods (psHIIT and SIT, enjoyment and preferences for MICT, HIIT, and SIT were similar (ps>0.05). In-task affect was predictive of post-exercise enjoyment for each type of exercise (rs=0.32 to 0.47; psHIIT and SIT (rss=-0.34 to -0.61; ps0.05), respectively. Over the follow-up, participants completed more MICT (M=6.11±4.12) than SIT sessions (M=1.39±1.85; pHIIT (M=3.54±4.23; p=0.16, d=0.56), and more sessions of HIIT than SIT (p=0.07, d=0.60), differences were not significant. In-task affect predicted the number of sessions of MICT (r=0.40; pHIIT or SIT (ps>0.05). This study provides new evidence that a single session of HIIT and SIT can be as enjoyable and preferable as MICT among inactive individuals and that there may be differences in the exercise affect-behavior relationship between interval and continuous exercise.

  18. Energy and Environmental Drivers of Stress and Conflict in Multi scale Models of Human Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-31

    resolved by the recognition that cities are first and foremost self- organizing social networks embedded in space and enabled by urban infrastructure and...AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 15. SUBJECT TERMS b. ABSTRACT 2. REPORT TYPE 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 5d...Report: Energy and Environmental Drivers of Stress and Conflict in Multi-scale Models of Human Social Behavior The views, opinions and/or findings

  19. The motivational roots of norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    This paper investigates whether norms guiding environmentally desirable behaviour are genuinely internalized and integrated into the person's cognitive and goal structures or just shallowly "introjected" social norms. Internet-based questionnaires were administered to a stratified sample of Danish...... to the studied behaviour differ significantly depending on the strength of their norms and the two types of norms differ in their embeddedness in the person's cognitive structures. The behavioural influence of subjective social norms and expressed reasons and motives is mediated through personal norms...

  20. FTIR spectroscopic studies of bacterial cellular responses to environmental factors, plant-bacterial interactions and signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Kamnev, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    Modern spectroscopic techniques are highly useful in studying diverse processes in microbial cells related to or incited by environmental factors. Spectroscopic data for whole cells, supramolecular structures or isolated cellular constituents can reflect structural and/or compositional changes occurring in the course of cellular metabolic responses to the effects of pollutants, environmental conditions (stress factors); nutrients, signalling molecules (communication factors), etc. This inform...

  1. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid is required for normal alcohol response behaviors in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Raabe

    Full Text Available Alcohol addiction is a widespread societal problem, for which there are few treatments. There are significant genetic and environmental influences on abuse liability, and understanding these factors will be important for the identification of susceptible individuals and the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, the level of response to alcohol is strongly predictive of subsequent alcohol abuse. Level of response is a combination of counteracting responses to alcohol, the level of sensitivity to the drug and the degree to which tolerance develops during the drug exposure, called acute functional tolerance. We use the simple and well-characterized nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans to model the acute behavioral effects of ethanol to identify genetic and environmental factors that influence level of response to ethanol. Given the strong molecular conservation between the neurobiological machinery of worms and humans, cellular-level effects of ethanol are likely to be conserved. Increasingly, variation in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been implicated in complex neurobiological phenotypes in humans, and we recently found that fatty acid levels modify ethanol responses in worms. Here, we report that 1 eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is required for the development of acute functional tolerance, 2 dietary supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid is sufficient for acute tolerance, and 3 dietary eicosapentaenoic acid can alter the wild-type response to ethanol. These results suggest that genetic variation influencing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels may be important abuse liability loci, and that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may be an important environmental modulator of the behavioral response to ethanol.

  2. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Why Genes Matter for Environmentally-Oriented Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K. Paige

    2013-01-01

    There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and “early” sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically-informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of “quasi-experiment”: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically-informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of gene × environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally-oriented theory and research. PMID:23855958

  3. Environmental tax reform: an assessment of social responses in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinch, J. Peter; Dunne, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Environmental tax reform (ETR) is widely accepted to be a policy with desirable environmental, and other economic effects. The question arises then as to why its implementation has been so patchy. There is a broad literature on the economic impact of ETR, however, there have been very few research efforts devoted to understanding the roles and imperatives of the public, policy makers, businesses and other stakeholders who are addressed by ETR. This paper examines the impediments to ETR in Ireland. Focus groups were formed comprising of members of the general public and these provided a forum for detailed reactions to the ETR concept. Interviews were conducted with policy makers and key business people in an attempt to identify both the patterns of thinking behind ETR and the main obstacles to its introduction. Having presented the results, a theory of the main impediments to ETR is developed. The opinions of the members of the public, the business community and the policy makers highlight a number of issues that need to be addressed in the future design of ETR in Ireland. The principal potential impediments to ETR include: mistrust of the government, implausibility of the policy, means of hypothecation, information asymmetries, the political system, the structure of government, the macroeconomic environment, the impact on competitiveness, inequity between sectors, regressivity, elasticities and the level of the tax, terminology, and the marketing of ETR

  4. Environmental tax reform: an assessment of social responses in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinch, J. Peter; Dunne, Louise [Department of Environmental Studies/Urban Institute of Ireland, University College Dublin, Richview, Clonskeagh, Dublin 14 (Ireland)

    2006-05-15

    Environmental tax reform (ETR) is widely accepted to be a policy with desirable environmental, and other economic effects. The question arises then as to why its implementation has been so patchy. There is a broad literature on the economic impact of ETR, however, there have been very few research efforts devoted to understanding the roles and imperatives of the public, policy makers, businesses and other stakeholders who are addressed by ETR. This paper examines the impediments to ETR in Ireland. Focus groups were formed comprising of members of the general public and these provided a forum for detailed reactions to the ETR concept. Interviews were conducted with policy makers and key business people in an attempt to identify both the patterns of thinking behind ETR and the main obstacles to its introduction. Having presented the results, a theory of the main impediments to ETR is developed. The opinions of the members of the public, the business community and the policy makers highlight a number of issues that need to be addressed in the future design of ETR in Ireland. The principal potential impediments to ETR include: mistrust of the government, implausibility of the policy, means of hypothecation, information asymmetries, the political system, the structure of government, the macroeconomic environment, the impact on competitiveness, inequity between sectors, regressivity, elasticities and the level of the tax, terminology, and the marketing of ETR. (author)

  5. Perceptions, Preferences, and Behavior Regarding Energy and Environmental Costs: The Case of Montreal Transport Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayer Daher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Providing travel-related fuel and environmental information to transport users is becoming increasingly relevant. However, the impact of providing such information on users’ travel behavior is yet to be determined. This research examined the perceptions and preferences related to the fuel consumption costs, greenhouse gas (GHG social costs, and health-related air pollution costs, and the influence such information could have on travel behavior. Examining the case of Montreal transport users, the authors conducted a survey in which the respondents were asked general and stated preference questions. The respondents were found to be unaware of the energy and environmental footprints of their travel. Approximately 85% of the respondents were not able to estimate GHG social costs and health-related air pollution costs across different modes. The respondents generally overestimated these costs and they interestingly reported higher environmental costs for public transport (metro compared to cars. They also preferred to receive such information in monetary units, and they were more comfortable in receiving the information through mobile applications over other tools/means. The research also found that fuel and environmental information influence respondents’ travel decisions especially their route choices. Finally, the respondents would be willing to pay an average of 7 Canadian dollars/month in exchange for obtaining the information.

  6. Doing Good Again? A Multilevel Institutional Perspective on Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Philanthropic Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Qiao; Huang, Song-Qin; Tsai, Sang-Bing

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate philanthropy. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2008 to 2013, this paper examines the role of corporate environmental responsibility in corporate philanthropy and the moderating influence of the institutional environment using multilevel analysis. The results show that corporate eco-friendly events are positively associated with corporate philanthropic strategy to a significant degr...

  7. Quantifying fish swimming behavior in response to acute exposure of aqueous copper using computer assisted video and digital image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D.; Puglis, Holly J.; Little, Edward E.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral responses of aquatic organisms to environmental contaminants can be precursors of other effects such as survival, growth, or reproduction. However, these responses may be subtle, and measurement can be challenging. Using juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) with copper exposures, this paper illustrates techniques used for quantifying behavioral responses using computer assisted video and digital image analysis. In previous studies severe impairments in swimming behavior were observed among early life stage white sturgeon during acute and chronic exposures to copper. Sturgeon behavior was rapidly impaired and to the extent that survival in the field would be jeopardized, as fish would be swept downstream, or readily captured by predators. The objectives of this investigation were to illustrate protocols to quantify swimming activity during a series of acute copper exposures to determine time to effect during early lifestage development, and to understand the significance of these responses relative to survival of these vulnerable early lifestage fish. With mortality being on a time continuum, determining when copper first affects swimming ability helps us to understand the implications for population level effects. The techniques used are readily adaptable to experimental designs with other organisms and stressors.

  8. In 1994, the Minister responsible for Environmental Affairs and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Affairs and Tourism launched a process leading to ... To achieve this, the Chief Director of Marine & Coastal Management (MCM), the authority responsible for ... 1 Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa. ... 3 Rural Research and Development Institute, University of Transkei, Private ...

  9. Manager’s Dilemma: Stockholders’ and Consumers’ Responses to Corporate Environmental Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayag Lal Yadav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal that different stakeholders have different environmental preferences by demonstrating the managers’ dilemma of selecting an appropriate environmental strategy to achieve firms’ corporate goals. It analyzes the effects of firms’ efforts in environmental impact through actual environmental practices and environmental considerations in environmental management on stockholders’ and consumers’ responses by using the Newsweek Green Rankings 2012 for large US-based firms. The study uses the event study methodology and the ordinary least squares multivariate regression model conditioned with relevant firm and industry-specific characteristics. The results indicate that both stockholders and consumers appreciate corporate efforts in reducing environmental damage; however, consumers exhibit a significant and negative response against firms’ environmental management efforts. The conflicting results provide valuable insights into the alignment of environmental efforts for developing core competencies that lead firms toward sustainability. Further, this research makes a valuable contribution to the existing literature and provides guidelines for the formulation of public policies that encourage corporate environmental efforts to ensure simultaneous development of business and society.

  10. Employee-Organization Pro-environmental Values Fit and Pro-environmental Behavior: The Role of Supervisors' Personal Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Liu, Xia; Chen, Hong; Long, Ruyin

    2017-12-18

    This study examines the relationship among the employees-organization pro-environmental values fit (E-O PEVs fit), supervisors' PEVs and employees' pro-environmental behaviors (PEB). Informed by the PEB, organizational values and employee-organization fit literature, we propose and test hypotheses that under egoistic, altruistic and biosphere-value orientations, E-O PEVs fit versus non-fit have significant effects on employees' private-sphere PEB and public-sphere PEB, identifying supervisors' PEVs as a moderator. An empirical investigation indicates that the effect of E-O PEVs fit on employees' private-sphere PEB and public-sphere PEB varies as the value orientation differs. More specifically, under the context of altruistic and biosphere-value orientations, if the organizational PEVs do not match the employees' PEVs, especially when the former exceeds the latter, employees' PEB will rise as the organizational PEVs increase. As for egoistic value orientation, when organizational PEVs exceed employees' PEVs, not only will public-sphere PEB stop decreasing and tend to stabilize, but also private-sphere PEB will rise to a slight degree. Furthermore, compared with altruistic and biospheric values dimensions, supervisors who promote egoistic PEVs will have a more significant effect on the relationship between global E-O PEVs fit and employees' PEB. Finally, we suggest that the goals of an organization and its supervisors need to be combined within the actual situation of Chinese corporations to truly implement corporate green practices by balancing the profit goal and the environmental goal.

  11. Essays on Industry Response to Energy and Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Richard Leonard

    This dissertation consists of three essays on the relationship between firm incentives and energy and environmental policy outcomes. Chapters 1 and 2 study the impact of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the United States oil refining industry. This legislation imposed extensive restrictions on refined petroleum product markets, requiring select end users to purchase new cleaner versions of gasoline and diesel. In Chapter 2, I estimate the static impact of this intervention on refining costs, product prices and consumer welfare. Isolating these effects is complicated by several challenges likely to appear in other regulatory settings, including overlap between regulated and non-regulated markets and deviations from perfect competition. Using a rich database of refinery operations, I estimate a structural model that incorporates each of these dimensions, and then use this cost structure to simulate policy counterfactuals. I find that the policies increased gasoline production costs by 7 cents per gallon and diesel costs by 3 cents per gallon on average, although these costs varied considerably across refineries. As a result of these restrictions, consumers in regulated markets experienced welfare losses on the order of 3.7 billion per year, but this welfare loss was partially offset by gains of 1.5 billion dollars per year among consumers in markets not subject to regulation. The results highlight the importance of accounting for imperfect competition and market spillovers when assessing the cost of environmental regulation. Chapter 2 estimates the sunk costs incurred by United States oil refineries as a result of the low sulfur diesel program. The complex, regionally integrated nature of the industry poses many challenges for estimating these costs. I overcome them by placing the decision to invest in sulfur removal technology within the framework of a two period model and estimate the model using moment inequalities. I find that the regulation induced between 2

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions considered responsible for climate change: Environmental indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialetto, G.; Venanzi, M.; Gaudioso, D.

    1993-09-01

    This paper concerns the more significant environmental indicators related to the emissions of radiatively and chemically/photochemically active trace gases. Reference is made to the preliminary work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and to the proposals made in the framework of the international negotiation on climate change. Aiming to contribute to the definition of a national strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, this paper proposes a possible application of the indicators. The calculation of the indicators is based on the emission estimate performed by ENEA (Italian National Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) for the Report on the State of the Environment edited by the Italian Ministry of the Environment. Finally, the paper suggests an application of such indicators for the international negotiation, in the framework of the Italian proposal for the Convention on climate change

  13. Patterns in response to chronic terrorism threats: A construct of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses among Israeli citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Louck, Keren; Saka, Yael

    2017-10-01

    Israeli citizens are exposed to unpredictable and chronic terrorism threats that significantly jeopardize their personal sense of safety. The purpose of the present study is to present how Israeli discourse is structured with regard to emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to chronic terrorism threats and to understand the range of responses as well as map the risk and protective factors of this existential threat. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with 40 Israeli adults (22 women and 18 men). Qualitative analysis revealed three patterns of responses to ongoing terrorism: emotional, cognitive, and behavioral. Emotional responses include fear, worry, sense of empathy, and detachment. Cognitive responses include situational assessment and pursuit of solutions, the use of traumatic imagining, beliefs in fate and luck, and optimism. Behavioral responses include looking for information, alertness, and habituation. The findings also revealed another response, which combines cognitive and behavioral responses. Some of the responses are innovative and unique to the threat of terrorism. Mapping the responses revealed mental health risk factors, as well as protective factors that can help structure personal and national resilience. These findings have implications on the treatment and prevention of personal and social pathologies, and how to effectively cope with terrorism threats. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Infants' Behaviors as Antecedents and Consequents of Mothers' Responsive and Directive Utterances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masur, Elise Frank; Flynn, Valerie; Lloyd, Carrie A.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate possible influences on and consequences of mothers' speech, specific infant behaviors preceding and following four pragmatic categories of mothers' utterances--responsive utterances, supportive behavioral directives, intrusive behavioral directives, and intrusive attentional directives--were examined longitudinally during dyadic…

  15. Mixture randomized item-response modeling: a smoking behavior validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Gerardus J.A.; Avetisyan, Marianna; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria

    2013-01-01

    Misleading response behavior is expected in medical settings where incriminating behavior is negatively related to the recovery from a disease. In the present study, lung patients feel social and professional pressure concerning smoking and experience questions about smoking behavior as sensitive

  16. Hormone response to bidirectional selection on social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdam, Gro V; Page, Robert E; Fondrk, M Kim; Brent, Colin S

    2010-01-01

    Behavior is a quantitative trait determined by multiple genes. Some of these genes may have effects from early development and onward by influencing hormonal systems that are active during different life-stages leading to complex associations, or suites, of traits. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been used extensively in experiments on the genetic and hormonal control of complex social behavior, but the relationships between their early developmental processes and adult behavioral variation are not well understood. Bidirectional selective breeding on social food-storage behavior produced two honey bee strains, each with several sublines, that differ in an associated suite of anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits found in unselected wild type bees. Using these genotypes, we document strain-specific changes during larval, pupal, and early adult life-stages for the central insect hormones juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids. Strain differences correlate with variation in female reproductive anatomy (ovary size), which can be influenced by JH during development, and with secretion rates of ecdysteroid from the ovaries of adults. Ovary size was previously assigned to the suite of traits of honey bee food-storage behavior. Our findings support that bidirectional selection on honey bee social behavior acted on pleiotropic gene networks. These networks may bias a bee's adult phenotype by endocrine effects on early developmental processes that regulate variation in reproductive traits. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Garbage Gospel: Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain the Role of Religious Institutions in Affecting Pro-Environmental Behavior among Ethnic Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Calvin

    2018-01-01

    This study used Azjen's Theory of Planned Behavior to examine how pro-recycling and pro-environmental messaging delivered by religious leaders affects stated recycling behavior among ethnic minorities. Using data collected from 12 religious institutions in three Ontario, Canada, communities, a promotion and education program was developed to: (1)…

  18. Determinants of pro-environmental consumption. The role of reference groups and routine behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, Heinz; Kuehling, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of pro-environmental consumption, focusing on the role of reference groups and routine behavior. We study the factors that explain whether or not people have installed residential solar energy equipment or have subscribed to green-electricity programs, and the factors that influence the intensity of buying organic food. In addition to demographic characteristics and environmental attitudes, we consider the following categories of determinants: economic and cognitive factors (income, estimated price premium, level of information on environmentally-friendly goods); consumption patterns of reference persons; own consumption patterns in the past. Using a unique data set from a survey conducted in the region of Hanover, Germany, we find the following: (1) Economic and cognitive factors are significant covariates of all three kinds of pro-environmental consumption. Their influence is greatest in the case of green electricity. (2) Consumption patterns of reference persons are significant covariates of all three kinds of pro-environmental consumption. Their influence is greatest in the case of organic food. (3) The intensity of buying organic food is greater the longer people have been consumers of these goods. (author)

  19. The Behavior of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds in an Aggressive Coastal Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The shift to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. The CPCs, while a temporary protective coating, must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different soft film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. The CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing . The initial results for the fifteen CPC systems are reported : Key words: corrosion preventive compound, CPC, spaceport, environmentally friendly, atmospheric exposure, marine, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, galvanic corrosion, wire on bolt.

  20. Noise sensitivity: Symptoms, health status, illness behavior and co-occurring environmental sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baliatsas, Christos, E-mail: c.baliatsas@nivel.nl [Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), Utrecht (Netherlands); Kamp, Irene van, E-mail: irene.van.kamp@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Swart, Wim, E-mail: wim.swart@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Hooiveld, Mariëtte, E-mail: m.hooiveld@nivel.nl [Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), Utrecht (Netherlands); Yzermans, Joris, E-mail: J.Yzermans@nivel.nl [Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research (NIVEL), Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-10-15

    Epidemiological evidence on the symptomatic profile, health status and illness behavior of people with subjective sensitivity to noise is still scarce. Also, it is unknown to what extent noise sensitivity co-occurs with other environmental sensitivities such as multi-chemical sensitivity and sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMF). A cross-sectional study performed in the Netherlands, combining self-administered questionnaires and electronic medical records of non-specific symptoms (NSS) registered by general practitioners (GP) allowed us to explore this further. The study sample consisted of 5806 participants, drawn from 21 general practices. Among participants, 722 (12.5%) responded “absolutely agree” to the statement “I am sensitive to noise”, comprising the high noise-sensitive (HNS) group. Compared to the rest of the sample, people in the HNS group reported significantly higher scores on number and duration of self-reported NSS, increased psychological distress, decreased sleep quality and general health, more negative symptom perceptions and higher prevalence of healthcare contacts, GP-registered NSS and prescriptions for antidepressants and benzodiazepines. These results remained robust after adjustment for demographic, residential and lifestyle characteristics, objectively measured nocturnal noise exposure from road-traffic and GP-registered morbidity. Co-occurrence rates with other environmental sensitivities varied between 9% and 50%. Individuals with self-declared sensitivity to noise are characterized by high prevalence of multiple NSS, poorer health status and increased illness behavior independently of noise exposure levels. Findings support the notion that different types of environmental sensitivities partly overlap. - Highlights: • People with self-reported noise sensitivity experience multiple non-specific symptoms. • They also report comparatively poorer health and increased illness behavior. • Co-occurrence with other

  1. Noise sensitivity: Symptoms, health status, illness behavior and co-occurring environmental sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baliatsas, Christos; Kamp, Irene van; Swart, Wim; Hooiveld, Mariëtte; Yzermans, Joris

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence on the symptomatic profile, health status and illness behavior of people with subjective sensitivity to noise is still scarce. Also, it is unknown to what extent noise sensitivity co-occurs with other environmental sensitivities such as multi-chemical sensitivity and sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMF). A cross-sectional study performed in the Netherlands, combining self-administered questionnaires and electronic medical records of non-specific symptoms (NSS) registered by general practitioners (GP) allowed us to explore this further. The study sample consisted of 5806 participants, drawn from 21 general practices. Among participants, 722 (12.5%) responded “absolutely agree” to the statement “I am sensitive to noise”, comprising the high noise-sensitive (HNS) group. Compared to the rest of the sample, people in the HNS group reported significantly higher scores on number and duration of self-reported NSS, increased psychological distress, decreased sleep quality and general health, more negative symptom perceptions and higher prevalence of healthcare contacts, GP-registered NSS and prescriptions for antidepressants and benzodiazepines. These results remained robust after adjustment for demographic, residential and lifestyle characteristics, objectively measured nocturnal noise exposure from road-traffic and GP-registered morbidity. Co-occurrence rates with other environmental sensitivities varied between 9% and 50%. Individuals with self-declared sensitivity to noise are characterized by high prevalence of multiple NSS, poorer health status and increased illness behavior independently of noise exposure levels. Findings support the notion that different types of environmental sensitivities partly overlap. - Highlights: • People with self-reported noise sensitivity experience multiple non-specific symptoms. • They also report comparatively poorer health and increased illness behavior. • Co-occurrence with other

  2. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  3. Influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses in healthy adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Buqing; Rykova, Marina; Jäger, Gundula; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Matzel, Sandra; Ponomarev, Sergey; Vassilieva, Galina; Nichiporuk, Igor; Choukèr, Alexander

    2015-08-26

    Environmental factors have long been known to influence immune responses. In particular, clinical studies about the association between migration and increased risk of atopy/asthma have provided important information on the role of migration associated large sets of environmental exposures in the development of allergic diseases. However, investigations about environmental effects on immune responses are mostly limited in candidate environmental exposures, such as air pollution. The influences of large sets of environmental exposures on immune responses are still largely unknown. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an opportunity to investigate this topic. Six healthy males lived in a closed habitat simulating a spacecraft for 520 days. When they exited their "spacecraft" after the mission, the scenario was similar to that of migration, involving exposure to a new set of environmental pollutants and allergens. We measured multiple immune parameters with blood samples at chosen time points after the mission. At the early adaptation stage, highly enhanced cytokine responses were observed upon ex vivo antigen stimulations. For cell population frequencies, we found the subjects displayed increased neutrophils. These results may presumably represent the immune changes occurred in healthy humans when migrating, indicating that large sets of environmental exposures may trigger aberrant immune activity.

  4. Genetic and environmental influences on externalizing behavior and alcohol problems in adolescence: A female twin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopik, Valerie S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Waldron, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Genetic and environmental contributions to the observed correlations among DSM-IV ADHD problems [inattentive (INATT) and hyperactive/impulsive (HYP/IMP) behaviors], conduct problems (CDP) and alcohol problems (AlcProb) were examined by fitting multivariate structural equation models to data from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study [N=2892 twins (831 monozygotic pairs, 615 dizygotic pairs)]. Based on results of preliminary regression models, we modified the structural model to jointly estimate (i) the regression of each phenotype on significant familial/prenatal predictors, and (ii) genetic and environmental contributions to the residual variance and covariance. Results suggested that (i) parental risk factors, such as parental alcohol dependence and regular smoking, increase risk for externalizing behavior; (ii) prenatal exposures predicted increased symptomatology for HYP/IMP (smoking during pregnancy), INATT and CDP (prenatal alcohol exposure); (iii) after adjusting for measured familial/prenatal risk factors, genetic influences were significant for HYP/IMP, INATT, and CDP; however, similar to earlier reports, genetic effects on alcohol dependence symptoms were negligible; and (iv) in adolescence, correlated liabilities for conduct and alcohol problems are found in environmental factors common to both phenotypes, while covariation among impulsivity, inattention, and conduct problems is primarily due to genetic influences common to these three behaviors. Thus, while a variety of adolescent problem behaviors are significantly correlated, the structure of that association may differ as a function of phenotype (e.g., comorbid HYP/IMP and CDP vs. comorbid CDP and AlcProb), a finding that could inform different approaches to treatment and prevention. PMID:19341765

  5. Attributions of Responsibility and Blame for Procrastination Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Rahimi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationship between procrastination, delay, blameworthiness, and moral responsibility. Undergraduate students (N = 240 were provided two scenarios in which the reason for inaction (procrastination, delay, the target (self, other, and the outcome (positive, negative were manipulated, and students were asked to rate the moral responsibility and blameworthiness of the agent. Results indicated that individuals who procrastinated were seen as more morally responsible and blameworthy than those who otherwise experienced delay. More specifically, after a negative outcome, procrastination was associated with more moral responsibility, whereas delay was associated with less moral responsibility. After a positive outcome, individuals perceived procrastination as deserving of less moral responsibility, and delays as associated with more moral responsibility. Finally, a three-way interaction showed that participants rated procrastination that resulted in failure as deserving of responsibility when engaged in by others as opposed to oneself.

  6. Attributions of Responsibility and Blame for Procrastination Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Sonia; Hall, Nathan C; Pychyl, Timothy A

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between procrastination, delay, blameworthiness, and moral responsibility. Undergraduate students (N = 240) were provided two scenarios in which the reason for inaction (procrastination, delay), the target (self, other), and the outcome (positive, negative) were manipulated, and students were asked to rate the moral responsibility and blameworthiness of the agent. Results indicated that individuals who procrastinated were seen as more morally responsible and blameworthy than those who experienced delay. More specifically, after a negative outcome, procrastination was associated with more moral responsibility, whereas delay was associated with less moral responsibility. After a positive outcome, individuals perceived procrastination as deserving of less moral responsibility, and delays as associated with more moral responsibility. Finally, a three-way interaction showed that participants rated procrastination that resulted in failure as deserving of responsibility when engaged in by others as opposed to oneself.

  7. Comparing the Effects of Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior and Response-Cost Contingencies on Tics in Youth with Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Matthew R.; Brandt, Bryan C.; Ricketts, Emily J.; Espil, Flint M.; Woods, Douglas W.

    2012-01-01

    Tics are rapid, repetitive, stereotyped movements or vocalizations that arise from neurobiological dysfunction and are influenced by environmental factors. Although persons with tic disorders often experience aversive social reactions in response to tics, little is known about the behavioral effects of such consequences. Along several dimensions,…

  8. Can Environmental Regulations Promote Corporate Environmental Responsibility? Evidence from the Moderated Mediating Effect Model and an Empirical Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benhong Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Stakeholder theory, a moderated mediating effect model is developed to reach the study objective, revealing an important connection that suggests environmental regulations (ERs influence corporate environmental responsibility (CER (Porter Hypothesis. In building the model, the validity of the questionnaire data was analyzed with factor analysis. By employing a two-step approach, a regression analysis is utilized to discuss the mediating effect of altruistic motivation and moderating effect of green innovation, and a structural equation model is used to explore the interactive mechanism of different variables. It is found that altruistic motivation plays a medium role in the relationship between ERs and CER, and green innovation engages a positive coordination in the relationship. The empirical study identifies factors affecting enterprises’ willingness to undertake environmental responsibility, including environment policies, corporate culture, and personal characters among others. It is also revealed that altruistic motivation is conducive to forming a community interests among enterprises and enhancing their resistance to market risks, which explains and corroborates the Stakeholder theory; and the higher the level of green innovation, the more willing enterprises are to implement environmentally friendly operations.

  9. Age- and Wavelength-Dependency of Drosophila Larval Phototaxis and Behavioral Responses to Natural Lighting Conditions

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    Simon G. Sprecher

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Animals use various environmental cues as key determinant for their behavioral decisions. Visual systems are hereby responsible to translate light-dependent stimuli into neuronal encoded information. Even though the larval eyes of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are comparably simple, they comprise two types of photoreceptor neurons (PRs, defined by different Rhodopsin genes expressed. Recent findings support that for light avoidance Rhodopsin5 (Rh5 expressing photoreceptors are crucial, while Rhodopsin6 (Rh6 expressing photoreceptors are dispensable under laboratory conditions. However, it remains debated how animals change light preference during larval live. We show that larval negative phototaxis is age-independent as it persists in larvae from foraging to wandering developmental stages. Moreover, if spectrally different Rhodopsins are employed for the detection of different wavelength of light remains unexplored. We found that negative phototaxis can be elicit by light with wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet (UV to green. This behavior is uniquely mediated by Rh5 expressing photoreceptors, and therefore suggest that this photoreceptor-type is able to perceive UV up to green light. In contrast to laboratory our field experiments revealed that Drosophila larvae uses both types of photoreceptors under natural lighting conditions. All our results, demonstrate that Drosophila larval eyes mediate avoidance of light stimuli with a wide, ecological relevant range of quantity (intensities and quality (wavelengths. Thus, the two photoreceptor-types appear more likely to play a role in different aspects of phototaxis under natural lighting conditions, rather than color discrimination.

  10. Theoretical Prerequisites for the Formation of the Concept of Environmentally Responsible Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kniazieva Tetiana V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the evolution of theoretical approaches to the problems related to the ecological and economic interaction of economic entities and clarify the essential characteristics of the economic component of environmentally responsible marketing. By analyzing, systematizing and summarizing scientific works of domestic and foreign scientists, the evolution of marketing concepts is considered, the views of researchers on the definition of the concepts “social marketing”, “environmental marketing” are systematized. As a result of the research, the advantages and disadvantages of the existing definitions of “green” marketing are highlighted. The main characteristics of the concept “environmentally responsible marketing” are formulated in the context of the concepts of sustainable development and socially responsible marketing. Prospects for further research in this area are: the infrastructure of environmentally responsible marketing; a conceptual justification of the methodology for building an environmentally responsible marketing system; factors and models of modern economic growth with consideration for the environmental factor, etc.

  11. Environmental responsibilities of livestock feeding using trace mineral supplements

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    Daniel Brugger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are essential dietary components for livestock species. However, they also exhibit a strong toxic potential. Therefore, their fluxes through the animal organism are tightly regulated by a complex molecular machinery that controls the rate of absorption from the gut lumen as well as the amount of excretion via faeces, urine and products (e.g., milk in order to maintain an internal equilibrium. When supplemented in doses above the gross requirement trace elements accumulate in urine and faeces and, hence, manure. Thereby, trace element emissions represent a potential threat to the environment. This fact is of particular importance in regard to the widely distributed feeding practice of pharmacological zinc and copper doses for the purpose of performance enhancement. Adverse environmental effects have been described, like impairment of plant production, accumulation in edible animal products and the water supply chain as well as the correlation between increased trace element loads and antimicrobial resistance. In the light of discussions about reducing the allowed upper limits for trace element loads in feed and manure from livestock production in the European Union excessive dosing needs to be critically reconsidered. Moreover, the precision in trace element feeding has to be increased in order to avoid unnecessary supplementation and, thereby, heavy metal emissions from livestock production. Keywords: Trace element, Livestock, Homeostasis, Pharmacological supplementation, Accumulation, Environment

  12. Biomass cogeneration: industry response for energy security and environmental consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacareza-Pacudan, L.; Lacrosse, L.; Pennington, M.; Dale Gonzales, A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass occurs in abundance in the highly agricultural-based countries of South-East Asia. If these are processed in the wood and agro-processing industries, large volumes of residues are generated. The residue are potential sources of energy which the industries can tap through the use of cogeneration systems, in order to meet their own thermal and electrical requirements. This will reduce the industry's dependence on power from the grid and thus increase their own self-sufficiency in terms of energy. Biomass cogeneration brings the environmental, as well as economic benefits to the industries. It makes use of clean and energy-efficient technologies and utilises biomass as fuels which cause less environment al pollution and the greenhouse effect, as against the use of fossil fuels. A particular mill that embarks on biomass cogeneration is also able to realise, among others, income from the export of excess electricity to the grid. Biomass residue if not used for other purposes have negative values as they need to be disposed of. They can, however, be profit-generating as well. (Author)

  13. Behavioral Reactivity Associated With Electronic Monitoring of Environmental Health Interventions--A Cluster Randomized Trial with Water Filters and Cookstoves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A; Tellez-Sanchez, Sarita; Wick, Carson; Kirby, Miles; Zambrano, Laura; Abadie Rosa, Ghislaine; Clasen, Thomas F; Nagel, Corey

    2016-04-05

    Subject reactivity--when research participants change their behavior in response to being observed--has been documented showing the effect of human observers. Electronics sensors are increasingly used to monitor environmental health interventions, but the effect of sensors on behavior has not been assessed. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Rwanda among 170 households (70 blinded to the presence of the sensor, 100 open) testing whether awareness of an electronic monitor would result in a difference in weekly use of household water filters and improved cookstoves over a four-week surveillance period. A 63% increase in number of uses of the water filter per week between the groups was observed in week 1, an average of 4.4 times in the open group and 2.83 times in the blind group, declining in week 4 to an insignificant 55% difference of 2.82 uses in the open, and 1.93 in the blind. There were no significant differences in the number of stove uses per week between the two groups. For both filters and stoves, use decreased in both groups over four-week installation periods. This study suggests behavioral monitoring should attempt to account for reactivity to awareness of electronic monitors that persists for weeks or more.

  14. Perceived Family Cohesion Moderates Environmental Influences on Prosocial Behavior in Nigerian Adolescent Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yoon-Mi; Taylor, Jeanette; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Park, Min-Seo; Haberstick, Brett C

    2017-06-01

    Research shows that perceived family cohesion is positively related to prosocial behavior in adolescents. In this study, we investigated heritability of prosocial behavior (PB) and perceived family cohesion (FC) among Nigerian twins attending public schools in Lagos State, Nigeria (mean age = 14.7 years, SD = 1.7 years), and explored the issue of whether children's perception of cohesive family environment moderated genetic and environmental influences on (PB). The PB scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the FC scale of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III were completed by 2,376 twins (241 monozygotic (MZ) male, 354 MZ female, 440 dizygotic (DZ) male, 553 DZ female, and 788 opposite-sex DZ twins). A general sex-limitation and the bivariate genotype by environment interaction (G×E) models were applied to the data. The general sex-limitation model showed no significant sex differences, indicating that additive genetic and non-shared environmental influences were, 38% (95% CI = 31, 46) and 62% (95% CI = 54, 69) for PB and 33% (95% CI = 24, 40) and 67% (95% CI = 60, 76) for FC in both sexes. These estimates were similar to those found in Western and Asian twin studies to date. The correlation between PB and FC was 0.36. The best-fitting bivariate G×E model indicated that FC significantly moderated non-shared environmental influence unique to PB (E×E interaction). Specifically, non-shared environmental contributions to PB were highest when FC was lowest, and decreased as the levels of FC increased. However, genetic variances in PB were stable across all levels of FC. These findings suggest that FC reduces individual differences in PB by changing non-shared environmental experiences rather than genetic factors in PB.

  15. Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, L L; Davison, K K

    2001-08-01

    Although a large body of research has assessed direct genetic links between parent and child weight status, relatively little research has assessed the extent to which parents (particularly parents who are overweight) select environments that promote overweight among their children. Parents provide food environments for their children's early experiences with food and eating. These family eating environments include parents' own eating behaviors and child-feeding practices. Results of the limited research on behavioral mediators of familial patterns of overweight indicate that parents' own eating behaviors and their parenting practices influence the development of children's eating behaviors, mediating familial patterns of overweight. In particular, parents who are overweight, who have problems controlling their own food intake, or who are concerned about their children's risk for overweight may adopt controlling child-feeding practices in an attempt to prevent overweight in their children. Unfortunately, research reveals that these parental control attempts may interact with genetic predispositions to promote the development of problematic eating styles and childhood overweight. Although the authors have argued that behavioral mediators of family resemblances in weight status, such as parents' disinhibited or binge eating and parenting practices are shaped largely by environmental factors, individual differences in these behaviors also have genetic bases. A primary public health goal should be the development of family-based prevention programs for childhood overweight. The findings reviewed here suggest that effective prevention programs must focus on providing anticipatory guidance on parenting to foster patterns of preference and food selection in children more consistent with healthy diets and promote children's ability to self-regulate intake. Guidance for parents should include information on how children develop patterns of food intake in the family context

  16. Behavioral responses in structured populations pave the way to group optimality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay, Erol; Van Cleve, Jeremy

    2012-02-01

    An unresolved controversy regarding social behaviors is exemplified when natural selection might lead to behaviors that maximize fitness at the social-group level but are costly at the individual level. Except for the special case of groups of clones, we do not have a general understanding of how and when group-optimal behaviors evolve, especially when the behaviors in question are flexible. To address this question, we develop a general model that integrates behavioral plasticity in social interactions with the action of natural selection in structured populations. We find that group-optimal behaviors can evolve, even without clonal groups, if individuals exhibit appropriate behavioral responses to each other's actions. The evolution of such behavioral responses, in turn, is predicated on the nature of the proximate behavioral mechanisms. We model a particular class of proximate mechanisms, prosocial preferences, and find that such preferences evolve to sustain maximum group benefit under certain levels of relatedness and certain ecological conditions. Thus, our model demonstrates the fundamental interplay between behavioral responses and relatedness in determining the course of social evolution. We also highlight the crucial role of proximate mechanisms such as prosocial preferences in the evolution of behavioral responses and in facilitating evolutionary transitions in individuality.

  17. Individual, group, and environmental influences on helping behavior in a social carnivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausband, David E.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Bassing, Sarah B.; Morehouse, Andrea T.; Smith, Douglas W.; Stahler, Daniel R.; Struthers, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Variation in group composition and environment can affect helping behavior in cooperative breeders. Understanding of how group size, traits of individuals within groups, food abundance, and predation risk simultaneously influence helping behavior is limited. We evaluated pup-guarding behavior in gray wolves (Canis lupus) to assess how differences in individuals, groups, and environment affect helping behavior. We used data from 92 GPS-collared wolves in North America (2001–2012) to estimate individual pup-guarding rates. Individuals in groups with low helper-to-pup ratios spent more time guarding young than those in groups with more helpers, an indication of load-lightening. Female helpers guarded more than male helpers, but this relationship weakened as pups grew. Subset analyses including data on helper age and wolf and prey density showed such factors did not significantly influence pup-guarding rates. We show that characteristics of individuals and groups have strong influences on pup-guarding behavior in gray wolves, but environmental factors such as food abundance and predation risk from conspecifics were not influential.

  18. Environmental Enrichment Prevents Methamphetamine-Induced Spatial Memory Deficits and Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Hajheidari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to examine the effect of environmental enrichment during methamphetamine (METH dependency and withdrawal on methamphetamine-induced spatial learning and memory deficits and obsessive-compulsive behavior.Method: Adult male Wistar rats (200 ± 10 g chronically received bi-daily doses of METH (2 mg/kg, sc, with 12 hours intervals for 14 days. Rats reared in standard (SE or enriched environment (EE during the development of dependence on METH and withdrawal. Then, they were tested for spatial learning and memory (the water maze, and obsessive-compulsive behavior as grooming behavior in METH-withdrawn rats.Results: The results revealed that the Sal/EE and METH/EE rats reared in EE spent more time in the target zone on the water maze and displayed significantly increased proximity to the platform compared to their control groups. METH withdrawn rats reared in EE displayed less grooming behavior than METH/SE group.Conclusion: Our findings revealed EE ameliorates METH-induced spatial memory deficits and obsessive-compulsive behavior in rats.

  19. Temporal and environmental patterns of sedentary and active behaviors during adolescents' leisure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Stuart J H; Marshall, Simon J; Gorely, Trish; Cameron, Noel

    2009-01-01

    There is great interest in young people's overweight and obesity. Few data, however, describe when sedentary and physically active behaviors are likely to occur during the day or how these behaviors are related to location. The purpose of this study was to describe sedentary and active leisure-time behaviors of adolescents across the day and setting. Adolescents (male n = 579, female n = 967; aged 13-16 years) completed time-use diaries for three weekdays and one weekend day. At 15 min intervals, participants recorded what they were doing and where they were. TV viewing and sports/exercise peaked at different times in the day, although TV viewing was two to three times more likely to occur than sports/exercise. TV viewing was most likely to occur during the middle to late evening. The playing of computer games was low, particularly for girls. Weekend data showed TV viewing was the most reported activity throughout the day. For boys, "being in the garden" was highly predictive of engaging in sports/exercise, but this declined rapidly with age. Motorized travel to school was reported twice as often as active travel. Momentary assessments of behavior, in conjunction with contemporaneous reports of environmental factors, describe important patterns of leisure-time active and sedentary behaviors in youth.

  20. The Relationships between Environmental Factors and Violent Behaviors in Adolescent Students of Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Razieh; Heidari, Kamal; Davari, Hossein; Espanani, Morteza; Poursalehi, Mojtaba; Naeini, Shokooh Eghtedari; Rastkerdar, Zeinabsadat; Azizi, Amir; Zakizadeh, Mohammadreza

    2014-12-01

    Violence is a global issue that has received considerable attention during recent years. Available research has suggested various factors, mostly family and social factors, to possibly affect violence. As previous studies have not examined the relationship between these factors and violent behaviors in adolescents, this study aimed to assess the relationship between environmental factors and violence in adolescents. This descriptive, correlational research used cluster sampling to select 5500 adolescent students from Isfahan Province (Iran). Data were collected through a 21-item researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was modified according to the relevant experts' opinions and had Cronbach's alpha of 0.82. The collected data were analyzed by applying multiple regression analysis in SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Most participants (89.1%) lived in urban areas and about half (49.8%) of them were female. Linear regression test showed violent behaviors to have significant, inverse relationships with love and affection in the family (β = -0.097; P drama and comedy movies (β = -0.128; P movies (β =0.129; P movies β =0.043; P drama movies) in the family to reduce violent behaviors in adolescents. In contrast, aggressive behaviors in the family, watching crime, police, and action movies were found to increase violent behaviors in adolescents.