WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmentally preferable products

  1. Estimating Preferences for Wood Products with Environmental Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaji Sakagami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical deforestation and forest degradation are serious problems for the global environment; as a result, sustainable forest management and forest certification have become important. In this study, using a choice experiment, we investigated, on the demand side, consumers’ preferences and willingness to pay (WTP for certified wood products that attempt to address public concerns regarding deforestation and forest degradation. Specifically, we investigated how estimates of consumers’ preferences and WTP were influenced by product attributes such as quality, certification, and price. To the authors’ knowledge, few studies of this kind have been conducted, particularly in Japan. The study’s main finding was that Japanese consumers were willing to pay a premium for certified wood products with attributes related to sustainable forest management; most preferred were products with attributes related to preserving biodiversity. These findings indicate that consumers are willing to pay a premium for products that contribute to solving the problems of deforestation and forest degradation.

  2. Not in Your Backyard? Selective Tariff Cuts for Environmentally Preferable Products

    OpenAIRE

    Estelle, Gozlan; Ramos, Maria Priscila

    2007-01-01

    Current negotiations at the WTO’s Committee on Trade and Environment have made it conceivable that WTO members agree on selective tariff cuts for certain Environmentally Preferable Products, in an attempt to combine gains from trade and from cleaner production/consumption. This raises questions on the environmental and welfare implications of trade policy when a close substitute (“environmentally worse") exists. Using a simple partial equilibrium model with two substitutable goods ('green' an...

  3. DEVELOPING A TOOL FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY PREFERABLE PURCHASING

    Science.gov (United States)

    LCA-based guidance was developed by EPA under the Framework for Responsible Environmental Decision Making (FRED) effort to demonstrate how to conduct a relative comparison between product types to determine environmental preferability. It identifies data collection needs and iss...

  4. Preferences in Data Production Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Keith; Brafman, Ronen; Pang, Wanlin

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the data production problem, which consists of transforming a set of (initial) input data into a set of (goal) output data. There are typically many choices among input data and processing algorithms, each leading to significantly different end products. To discriminate among these choices, the planner supports an input language that provides a number of constructs for specifying user preferences over data (and plan) properties. We discuss these preference constructs, how we handle them to guide search, and additional challenges in the area of preference management that this important application domain offers.

  5. Environmental products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This volume in the series of directories of Quebec organizations doing research and development involving biomass-based products or processes focused on environmental products and services. The objective of this, and other directories in the series, was to stimulate interaction, and hence more aggressive development, of products and processes capable of being commercialized, to facilitate interaction between those who possess and those who could utilize biomass resources, and in general, to encourage the development of biomass-based industries. A total of 83 organizations were included in standardized format, describing areas of research interest, principal areas of technological expertise, major equipment, personnel and name and address of contact person. In this volume fields of research interest included environmental audits, waste treatment, biodegradation, composting, oxidation, photodegradation, disinfection and combustion. tabs

  6. Modelling consumers' preferences for Novel Protein Foods and environmental quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, X.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2005-01-01

    We develop a theoretical Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) model that explicitly includes the environmental input in production functions and the consumers' preferences for environmental quality in utility functions. We empirically apply the model to provide some insights into the effects of the

  7. The Vocational Preference Inventory Scores and Environmental Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunce, Joseph T.; Kappes, Bruno Maurice

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocational interest measured by the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and preferences of 175 undergraduates for structured or unstructured environments. Males having clear-cut preferences for structured situations had significantly higher Realistic-Conventional scores than those without…

  8. Food preference for milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Derflerová Brázdová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products constitute an important source of energy and nutrients for humans. Food preferences may significantly influence the actual consumption (and thus nutrition of people at the population level. The objective of the present large-scale survey was to specify current preferences for milk and dairy products with regard to age and sex. The study was conducted across the Moravia region, Czech Republic, on a sample of 451 individuals divided into 4 age groups: children, adolescents, young adults, and elderly people. A graphic scale questionnaire was administered, with respondents rating their degree of preference for each food item by drawing a mark on a 35 mm line. Out of the 115 items in the questionnaire, 11 items represented dairy products. Data was analysed by means of a general linear model using IBM SPSS Statistics software. Preference for milk was lower in the elderly group than the other groups (P P < 0.01. The overall preference for dairy products (21.6 was lower than the average preference for all foods on the list (22.5. The cross-sectional study revealed intergenerational differences in preferences for specific dairy products, which were most marked in case of cream, processed cheese, blue cheese, and buttermilk. The knowledge of these differences might help promote more focused action at the community level directed at increasing the overall consumption of dairy products in the population.

  9. Heterogeneity in Preferences and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Mette

    This paper discusses the determinants of the retirement decision and the implications of retirement on economic well-being. The main contribution of the paper is to formulate the role of individual heterogeneity explicitly. We argue that individual heterogeneity in 1) productivity of market work...... choices of expenditure, household production and leisure for people in and around retirement. The unobserved individual heterogeneity factor is isolated by comparing cross-sectional evidence and panel data estimates of the effects of retirement on consumption and time allocation. Based on cross......-section data, we can identify a difference in consumption due to retirement status, but when the panel nature of the data is exploited, the effect of retirement on consumption is small and insignificant. Moreover, the analyses point at a large positive effect of retirement on household production. Our results...

  10. Farmer preferences and the production strategies of agroforestry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agroforestry projects in Madagascar that promote fruit trees address social and environmental threats to rainforests by reducing farmers' reliance on rice cultivation as long as fruit production is a more economically efficient option. This study aims to understand farmer planting preferences for fruit trees around Ranomafana ...

  11. Consumer preference mapping for rice product concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Chaveesuk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries is decreasing constantly, but American and European citizens are eating more rice nowadays. A preference study among consumers was carried out with the aim of determining new rice product characteristics in order to support export of Thai

  12. Consumer behaviour and preferences for aquaculture products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Scholderer, Joachim; Verbeke, Wim

    composition, still little is known about the effect this has on consumer preferences and product choices. In connection with the SEAFOODplus project CONSUMERSURVEY, which aims at explaining seafood consumption, a major survey has been carried out in five European countries in order to achieve more knowledge...... about consumer preferences and choice in relation to fish in general as well as preferences for farmed and wild fish. Questionnaires were sent to a representative sample of consumers in 5 European countries: Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Poland and Spain, and a total of 4786 valid questionnaires were...... returned and analysed. Results show that there is widespread confusion regarding whether fish is wild or farmed. The data disclose large discrepancies in reported total fish consumption frequency as shown in Table 1 and reported consumption of wild and farmed fish as shown in table 2. From the total sample...

  13. The MaSe decision support system: Development of an integrated information system for the selection of environmentally preferable materials and products in the building process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, Sigrid Melby

    2003-07-01

    New building regulations and increased focus on building related environmental burdens have created a need for guidance to design more sustainable buildings. The main objective in this thesis is to develop a decision support system, to guide decision-makers to a better selection of building materials and products, based on environmental prioritisation. The system is focused on building materials and products, but the structure of the system can be adapted to other types of decision problems. No tool is found that satisfy the identified needs for a material selection system. By studying existing methods, however important information and possible solutions are gathered, that partly could be used in a new tool. Key decision makers with respect to material and product selection are the client, the architects, the technical consultants, and the contractors when they decide on specific brands. The user of the MaSe system first identifies the materials acceptable in the specific project, based on the technical requirements. These pre-selected materials are then scored and ranked through the procedures in the MaSe system. The alternative ranking is then the basis for the selection of construction elements, materials or products. Seeing the building and real estate industry as a part of our society, it is clear that the use of material resources and pollution are areas that need improvement. The MaSe system includes environmental aspects under the headlines Resources, Ecology and Human health. When selecting building materials, factors like recycling and reuse needs to be considered. Renewability, energy and waste are other aspects included in the Resource area. Toxic substances are clearly important when it comes to building materials. Factors to be included under the headline Ecology are global warming, acidification, and photochemical oxidant formation. The emissions of toxics to air, water and soil will have effect on human health. Aspects that should be included in

  14. Personal traits underlying environmental preferences: a discrete choice experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Soliño

    Full Text Available Personality plays a role in human behavior, and thus can influence consumer decisions on environmental goods and services. This paper analyses the influence of the big five personality dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness in a discrete choice experiment dealing with preferences for the development of an environmental program for forest management in Spain. For this purpose, a reduced version of the Big Five Inventory survey (the BFI-10 is implemented. Results show a positive effect of openness and extraversion and a negative effect of agreeableness and neuroticism in consumers' preferences for this environmental program. Moreover, results from a latent class model show that personal traits help to explain preference heterogeneity.

  15. Environmentally Preferable Coatings for Structural Steel Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described a the "launch support and infrastructure modernization program" in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of environmentally friendly corrosion resistant coatings for launch facilities and ground support equipment. The focus of the project is corrosion resistance and survivability with the goal to reduce the amount of maintenance required to preserve the performance of launch facilities while reducing mission risk. Number of facilities/structures with metallic structural and non-structural components in a highly corrosive environment. Metals require periodic maintenance activity to guard against the insidious effects of corrosion and thus ensure that structures meet or exceed design or performance life. The standard practice for protecting metallic substrates in atmospheric environments is the application of corrosion protective coating system.

  16. Environmental catastrophes under time-inconsistent preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michielsen, T.

    2013-02-15

    I analyze optimal natural resource use in an intergenerational model with the risk of a catastrophe. Each generation maximizes a weighted sum of discounted utility (positive) and the probability that a catastrophe will occur at any point in the future (negative). The model generates time inconsistency as generations disagree on the relative weights on utility and catastrophe prevention. As a consequence, future generations emit too much from the current generation's perspective and a dynamic game ensues. I consider a sequence of models. When the environmental problem is related to a scarce exhaustible resource, early generations have an incentive to reduce emissions in Markov equilibrium in order to enhance the ecosystem's resilience to future emissions. When the pollutant is expected to become obsolete in the near future, early generations may however increase their emissions if this reduces future emissions. When polluting inputs are abundant and expected to remain essential, the catastrophe becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy and the degree of concern for catastrophe prevention has limited or even no effect on equilibrium behaviour.

  17. Variations analysis of the Society's preference structure regarding environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel S, Enrique; Zambrano B, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    Society's preference structure regarding environmental issues is understood as the relative importance the society gives to various topics that collectively conform the environmental issues. Based on the hypothesis that this structure behavior and its definition vary with time, proposals are presented related to the concepts and a working plan allowing performing the structure's dynamic analysis. A method is described to gather information based on the systematic reading of a nation wide newspaper during a period time. A comparison is done between the resulting structure and several aspects as the environmental legislation, government plans and summits and environmental milestones

  18. Environmental attitudes and preference for wetland conservation in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Suziana Binti

    2017-01-01

    components. A handful of responses in Class 4 were respondents more likely to be in the ‘Risk of overuse’ group and less likely to be ‘Anthropocentric’. The result suggests that natural resource managers need to evaluate people's concerns over environmental protection to understand potentially conflicting...... the influence of environmental attitude on preference and the willingness to pay (WTP) for wetland conservation. The study reported here employs a discrete choice experiment to investigate household's WTP for a set of wetland attributes. A scale-adjusted latent class (SALC) model is applied to identify a latent...... preference structure combining choice attributes with attitude measures derived from the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). We identified four NEP components in the respondent population to integrate with SALC model, and this revealed four latent classes and two scale classes which varied in their preferences...

  19. Essays on preference formation and home production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of the evolution of consumer brand preference under incomplete information and the effect of time on consumer purchase behavior. The first essay studies the evolution of consumer brand

  20. Quantifying effects of convenience and product packaging on consumer preferences and market share of seafood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Peschel, Anne; Grebitus, Carola

    2013-01-01

    ,718 Australian oyster consumers participated in an online choice experiment with visual product stimuli to simulate their choice of ready-packaged oysters in a retail store. Considering preference heterogeneity respondents’ choices were analysed with a scale adjusted latent class model and six different consumer...... serving suggestions were assessed in a choice experiment. The impact of product packaging and preparation convenience on consumer choice were analysed relative to the traditional demand factors of price, region of origin, oyster species, health, environmental and quality claims. A total of 1...... a minor influence on consumer choice. Consumer differences in price sensitivity and preferences for species and different oyster accompaniments provide scope for consumer oriented product differentiation with the potential to increase oyster demand and healthy seafood consumption....

  1. FRAMEWORK FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION-MAKING, FRED: A TOOL FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY-PREFERABLE PURCHASING

    Science.gov (United States)

    In support of the Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Program of the US EPA, the Systems Analysis Branch has developed a decision-making tool based on life cycle assessment. This tool, the Framework for Responsible Environmental Decision-making or FRED streamlines LCA by choosi...

  2. Consumer preferences for maize products in urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Hugo; Kimenju, Simon Chege

    2012-06-01

    New maize varieties have been biofortified with provitamin A, mainly a-carotene, which renders the grain yellow or orange. Unfortunately, many African consumers prefer white maize. The maize consumption patterns in Africa are, however, not known. To determine which maize products African consumers prefer to purchase and which maize preparations they prefer to eat. A survey of 600 consumers was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya, at three types of maize outlets: posho mills (small hammer mills), kiosks, and supermarkets. Clients of posho mills had lower incomes and less education than those of kiosks and supermarkets. The preferred maize product of the posho-mill clients was artisanal maize meal; the preferred product of the others was industrial maize meal. Maize is the preferred staple for lunch and dinner, eaten as a stiff porridge (ugali), followed by boiled maize and beans (githeri), regardless of socioeconomic background. For breakfast, only half the consumers prefer maize, mostly as a soft porridge (uji). This proportion is higher in low-income groups. Consumers show a strong preference for white maize over yellow, mostly for its organoleptic characteristics, and show less interest in biofortified maize. Maize is the major food staple in Nairobi, mostly eaten in a few distinct preparations. For biofortified yellow maize to be accepted, a strong public awareness campaign to inform consumers is needed, based on a sensory evaluation and the mass media, in particular on radio in the local language.

  3. The Consistency of Consumer's Stated Preference and Revealed Preference : Evidence from Agricultural Product Market in China

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Qing; Zhou, Hui; Nanseki, Teruaki; Wang, Jimin; 南石, 晃明

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consistency of consumer's stated preference (SP) and revealed preference (RP) for fresh certified pork by using Beijing urban residents' questionnaire survey data in December 2010. It models the factors of the consistency of SP–RP and calculates the marginal effect coefficients. The results indicate that these factors of whether consumer's household have children under 18 years old, consumer's knowledge about certified products and searching frequency about food qualit...

  4. Environmental Management in Product Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    between existing resources, norms and values and external pressures for environmental management (second section). A model for the types of corporate network relations that need to be mapped and understood in order to analyze and/or develop environmental management in a product chain (third section......The chapter aims at giving background to companies, consultants, governmental regulators, NGOs etc. for the analysis and planning of environmental management in specific product chains through: A framework for understanding environmental management in product chains as shaped by the interaction......). An overview of examples from our own research and from literature of the type and the role of environmental issues and initiatives in product chains (fourth section). A typology for characterizing corporate strategies as part of environmental management in product chains and characterizing those competencies...

  5. Environmental flow assessments in estuaries related to preference of phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. F.; Sun, T.; Zhao, R.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an approach to assess environmental flows in estuaries related to preference of phytoplankton considering the complex relationship between hydrological modification and biomass in ecosystems. As a first step, a relationship was established between biomass requirements for organisms of primary and higher nutritional levels based on the principle of nutritional energy flow of ecosystem. Then, diagnostic pigments were employed to represent phytoplankton community biomass, which indicated competition between two groups of phytoplankton in the biochemistry process. Considering empirical relationships between diagnostic pigments and critical environmental factors, responses of biomass to river discharges were established based on a convection-diffusion model by simulating distributions of critical environmental factors under action of river discharges and tide currents. Consequently, environmental flows could be recommended for different requirements of fish biomass. In the case study in the Yellow River estuary, May and October were identified as critical months for fish reproduction and growth during dry years. Artificial hydrological regulation strategies should carefully consider the temporal variations of natural flow regime, especially for a high-amplitude flood pulse, which may cause negative effects on phytoplankton groups and higher organism biomass.

  6. Environmental tools in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Jørgensen, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    A precondition for design of environmentally friendly products is that the design team has access to methods and tools supporting the introduction of environmental criteria in product development. A large Danish program, EDIP, is being carried out by the Institute for Product Development, Technical...... University of Denmark, in cooperation with 5 major Danish companies aiming at the development and testing of such tools. These tools are presented in this paper...

  7. Environmental management in product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Forman, Marianne; Hansen, Anne Grethe

    of environmental initiatives, a number of recommendations for governmental regulation, which can support the further diffusion of environmental management in product chains, are developed. Furthermore, the report describes a number of theoretical perspectives from sociology of technology, organisation theory......This report presents the analyses of the shaping, implementation and embedding of eight types of environmental initiatives in product chains. The analyses focus on • the role of the type of product and branch, of the size of the companies and of governmental regulation • the focus...... of the environmental concerns and the reductions in environmental impact • organisational changes which have been part of the embedding of the initiatives The analyses are based on 25 cases from national and international product chains involving one or more Danish companies. Based on the analyses of the eight types...

  8. PREFER: a European service providing forest fire management support products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftychidis, George; Laneve, Giovanni; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Sebastian Lopez, Ana; Lourenco, Louciano; Clandillon, Stephen; Tampellini, Lucia; Hirn, Barbara; Diagourtas, Dimitris; Leventakis, George

    2015-06-01

    PREFER is a Copernicus project of the EC-FP7 program which aims developing spatial information products that may support fire prevention and burned areas restoration decisions and establish a relevant web-based regional service for making these products available to fire management stakeholders. The service focuses to the Mediterranean region, where fire risk is high and damages from wildfires are quite important, and develop its products for pilot areas located in Spain, Portugal, Italy, France and Greece. PREFER aims to allow fire managers to have access to online resources, which shall facilitate fire prevention measures, fire hazard and risk assessment, estimation of fire impact and damages caused by wildfire as well as support monitoring of post-fire regeneration and vegetation recovery. It makes use of a variety of products delivered by space borne sensors and develop seasonal and daily products using multi-payload, multi-scale and multi-temporal analysis of EO data. The PREFER Service portfolio consists of two main suite of products. The first refers to mapping products for supporting decisions concerning the Preparedness/Prevention Phase (ISP Service). The service delivers Fuel, Hazard and Fire risk maps for this purpose. Furthermore the PREFER portfolio includes Post-fire vegetation recovery, burn scar maps, damage severity and 3D fire damage assessment products in order to support relative assessments required in context of the Recovery/Reconstruction Phase (ISR Service) of fire management.

  9. Investigating Consumer Preferences towards Sustainability in Product Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This research-oriented thesis investigates to which extent German consumers consider the sustainability aspect of a product package as their main factor in preferring a product. The research was conducted based on a comparison between two specific smoothies from the Company A and Company B brands. Company A smoothies are packed in glass bottles, whereas Company B smoothies are sold in plastic bottles. For the scope of the thesis, sustainable product packaging was defined regarding its contrib...

  10. 43 CFR 46.425 - Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... alternative in an environmental impact statement. 46.425 Section 46.425 Public Lands: Interior Office of the... Impact Statements § 46.425 Identification of the preferred alternative in an environmental impact statement. (a) Unless another law prohibits the expression of a preference, the draft environmental impact...

  11. Regional differences of consumer preferences when shopping for regional products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Kalábová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents partial results of a research on consumer preferences when shopping for groceries. It is focused on regional products and consumer preferences in relation to the country of origin of food products. The main objective of this paper is to find the existence of spatial relationships between spatial deployment of regional products and consumer preferences for regional products. It will be necessary to create a data model for monitoring the deployment of regional products and also a data model for tracking important indicators of consumer behavior in all regions of the Czech Republic. The results are based on questionnaire survey that was conducted within the period from October 2010 to January 2011 on a sample of 3767 respondents from the Czech Republic, via both online questionnaires and their printed version. For the data collection the questionnaire system ReLa, developed by the Department of Marketing and Trade at Faculty of Business and Economics at Mendel University in Brno, was used. Data was processed with statistical software STATISTICA (ver. 10. Spatial visualisation was processed with GIS software ArcGIS (ver. 10.1. Preferences for food of Czech origin were analysed in relation to identification criteria. The research results show that the origin of food has an important role in consumer purchase decision-making. There is no significant difference in importance of this factor based on gender of consumers, however, we could prove moderate dependence on respondent’s occupation, education and age. We could also experience regional differences in levels of preferences of local products or products of Czech origin in regard of 14 regions of the Czech Republic. χ2 (N = 3767 = 245.25; p < 0.001. Value of Pearson’s coefficient of contingency is 0.334.

  12. Estimating customer preferences for new pricing products. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goett, A.A.

    1998-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a review of various methods to analyze customer preferences for electric service pricing products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different techniques for analyzing preferences for electric service and pricing products in a competitive retail electricity market. In this market, competing providers will offer a variety of electric services under different price structures, and customers will face the decision of choosing a single electric service provider and pricing plan. The service and price characteristics that utilities offer will largely determine their market shares and profitability. Understanding preferences will be critical to quantifying the effects of service and pricing attributes on market share and profitability in the deregulated retail electricity market

  13. Environmental costs of meat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to address two questions: First, what is the real cost of meat to society if taking into account the environmental costs arising throughout the product life cycle; and second, whether and how the environmental costs related to meat production can be reduced. In addressing the issues...... to be the main contributor to the costs (55%), followed by global warming (21%) and respiratory inorganics (18%). A viable option combining improvement measures in three aspects: feed use, manure management, and manure utilization, reduces the environmental costs by a factor of 1.4. This results in an equal size......, we use pig meat production in the EU as a case study. The environmental costs of meat are displayed first as characterized results at different midpoint categories e.g. global warming, nature occupation, acidification, eutrophication, ecotoxicity, etc., and then aggregated into a single score using...

  14. Changeability of consumer preferences concerning the methods of fruit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Czernyszewicz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper was to establish and compare consumer preferences concerning the methods of fruit production (traditional or organic ones in the years 2001, 2003 and 2006 and the relations between the preferences and the socio-economic and demographic features of the consumers. The analysis was conducted on the basis of the data from surveys carried out among the inhabitants of Lublin. Results of those surveys point out that certain features of the consumers such as the sex, incomes and the family type significantly differentiated preferences concerning the method of fruit production. Increased incomes were connected with greater acceptance of the organic method, and their decrease was related to greater frequency of indicating the conventional method. Interest in the method of production, while buying the fruit was significantly higher among men than among women. Declaring the willingness to pay more for organic fruit was also correlated with the consumers’ sex. Besides, in 2006 it was not too strongly related to the incomes of the respondents. In the years 2001 and 2006 changeability of preferences con-cerning the willingness to pay a higher price for organic fruit and no change in the interest in the technology of fruit production while purchasing the fruit were shown.

  15. Qualitative Measurement of Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Among Federal Employees in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Environmentally Preferable Purchasing (EPP) program is mandated by Executive Order 13101 to green the federal government. This was a study to determine federal attitudes.

  16. Environmental impacts on technical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The interaction between an object and its environment is examined by methods of environment simulation. With regard to possible synergisms, technical considerations and holistic thinking are essential. Environmental simulation is mainly concerned with questions of ability to function and the service life of technical products in their environment. The environmental simulation is used to discover cause/effect mechanisms in ageing and weathering processes. Questions of artificial ageing and speeded up time tests play a great part here. (orig.) [de

  17. STUDENTS’ PREFERENCES TOWARD CORRECTIVE FEEDBACKS ON STUDENTS’ ORAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rinda fitriana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed on revealing students’ preference on types of corrective feedback given by their English teacher as well as their reason. The study was conducted in a vocational school in Samarinda. Data collection was done by means of observation, interview and questionnaire. The observation was done for three meetings each in two different level of English proficiency classes (high and low and ten students from the observed classes were interviewed. Moreover, the questionnaires were administered to 196 out of 385 students from all classes of twelfth grade. Furthermore, the result of this study revealed that the students preferred to have Explicit, Meta-Linguistic Clue and Elicitation corrective feedback. However, there was mismatch between students’ preference on the expected type corrective feedback (Explicit and the teacher’s corrective feedback (Recast. The students’ preference on explicit corrective feedback was based on the reason that it provided answer and explanation on the correct version of the corrected oral production. The students’ preference on Meta-linguistic Clue and Elicitation corrective feedback were because these feedbacks activated their knowledge and generated students’ thinking to discover the correct version.

  18. A Community-Based Social Marketing Campaign at Pacific University Oregon: Recycling, Paper Reduction, and Environmentally Preferable Purchasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elaine J.; Fieselman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to design a community-based social marketing (CBSM) campaign to foster sustainable behavior change in paper reduction, commingled recycling, and purchasing environmentally preferred products (EPP) with faculty and staff at Pacific University Oregon. Design/methodology/approach: A CBSM campaign was developed…

  19. Consumer preferences for food product quality attributes from Swedish agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Frykblom, Peter; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2005-06-01

    This paper employs a choice experiment to obtain consumer preferences and willingness to pay for food product quality attributes currently not available in Sweden. Data were obtained from a large mail survey and estimated with a random parameter logit model. We found evidence for intraproduct differences in consumer preferences for identical attributes, as well as interproduct discrepancies in ranking of attributes. Furthermore, we found evidence of a market failure relating to the potential use of genetically modified animal fodder. Finally, we found support for the idea that a cheap-talk script can alleviate problems of external validity of choice experiments. Our results are useful in forming product differentiation strategies within the food industry, as well as for the formation of food policy.

  20. Environmental risk concern and preferences for energy-saving measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, W; Steg, L.; Vlek, C.A.J.

    It is often assumed that higher environmental concern goes with more positive attitudes toward environmental management strategies and more environmentally friendly behavior. Cultural theory argues this relationship is more complex. Cultural theory distinguishes four ways of life, involving distinct

  1. Charcoal production and environmental degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosier, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the environmental impacts of continued tree harvesting for charcoal production to supply the urban areas in Tanzania. Woodlands appear to recover relatively well following harvesting for charcoal production. Selective harvesting, where the high quality, low cost fuel production species and specimens are culled first from a piece of land, serves to maintain the viability of the woodlands resource while providing charcoal. This recovery period can be prolonged through any number of human induced activities, such as heavy grazing, multiple burns and extended cultivation periods. At the same time, post-harvest management techniques, such as coppice management, sprout protection and fertilization, can also improve the ability of woodlands to recover following harvesting. The environmental history of a given area determines why certain areas continue to be strong suppliers of woodfuel while others are not. For example, Shinyanga started from a low productivity base and has been degraded by successive waves of tree harvesting compounded by heavy grazing pressure. It is this multiple complex of pressures over a long period of time on land which is intrinsically of low productivity, and not the harvesting of woodlands for fuels, which has led to the environmental degradation in these areas. (author)

  2. The development of environmental productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Schröder, Sascha T.

    the environmental productivity of individual generator units based on a panel data set for the period 1998 to 2011 that includes virtually all fuel-fired generator units in Denmark. We further decompose total productivity into technical efficiency, best practice ratio, and scale efficiency and use a global...... Malmquist index to calculate the yearly changes. By applying time series clustering, we can identify high, middle, and low performance groups of generator units in a dynamic setting. Our results indicate that the sectoral productivity only slightly increased over the fourteen years. Furthermore, we find...... that there is no overall high achiever group, but that the ranking, although time consistent, varies between the different productivity measures. However, we identify steam turbines and combustion engines for combined heat and power production as potential high performers, while combustion engines that only produce...

  3. Consumer preferences in respect of processed fruit and berry products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribova N. А.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays fruits, berries and processed products are an indispensable component of the human diet throughout the year. Frozen fruits and berries are widely distributed on the Russian market and are part of the food industry worldwide. Frozen products become popular among consumers for home use due to the minimal cooking time. Consumer evaluation is the most relevant and significant for identifying preferences and evaluating quality products in Russian markets. In this regard, a qualitative analysis of marketing research has been carried out and preferences have been identified according to which criteria consumers buy quick-frozen products. Some methods of sensory analysis have been used (consumer evaluation, the profile method, and pairwise comparison method. The dominant factor in choosing a brand of quick-frozen products is the combination of an acceptable price and quality, and to a lesser extent, the recommendation of acquaintances, the type of packaging and advertising of products. The research is aimed at identifying organoleptic properties that affect the consumer evaluation of the quality of frozen, thawed grapes in comparison with the reference product. Fruits and berries freeze for hours and even minutes, but are stored for a long time. The problem arises in rehydration – the return of the product to its original state, close to fresh natural raw material. The main goal of the research is aimed at identifying some rational method of defrosting, corresponding to organoleptic and consumer properties. With the help of organoleptic evaluation the best ways of defrosting have been identified – the microwave oven and the freezer. These methods allow obtaining thawed foods with the finest quality and identical to natural raw materials. The storage time after defrosting has been revealed: in the microwave oven – 60 min; at the room temperature – 80 min; in the coldstore – 100 min. The obtained information can be useful for consumers

  4. Polluting Production - Environmentally Sound Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Kocsis

    2002-01-01

    With the determination of principal parameters of producing and pollution abatement technologies, this paper quantifies abatement and external costs at the social optimum and analyses the dynamic relationship between technological development and the above-mentioned costs. With the partial analysis of parameters, the paper presents the impacts on the level of pollution and external costs of extensive and intensive environmental protection, market demand change and product fees, and not enviro...

  5. The effects of current and expected future income on stated preferences for environmental improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Lundhede, Thomas; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2013-01-01

    We formulate and test the hypothesis that expectations regarding changes in future income influences the WTP for environmental goods. For valuation of environmental goods in forests and other habitats in Denmark, we find that both current income and expected changes in future income are significant...... determinants for preferences. The effect of income on WTP seems to be caused by changes in preferences for environmental attributes rather than by marginal utility of income. The results suggest that to evaluate the distributional impacts of environmental improvements, researchers need a better measure...

  6. Environmental impact of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidgate, David

    1992-01-01

    Care of the environment is set to be one of the growth industries of the 1990s. Unfortunately, information as to the effect current life styles are having on the environment and, therefore, what remedial action is necessary, varies from the full to the non-existent and, worst of all, from the misleading to the incorrect. For various reasons, some aspects of technology have received greater attention from the media and environmental pressure groups than others. Energy production and conversion technologies, of course, are very much in this category. Indeed, the problem in these areas is not lack of information but a positive surfeit. (author)

  7. Voluntary Tools Of The Environmental Oriented Product Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusko Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally oriented product policy is in general determined by the relationships between its aims – subjects – objects - tools. It is based on the integrated approach to the product life cycle, which anticipates an enormous amount of information. It has to solve the questions of the international trade as well as the rules of the International Trade Organization. New forms of preventive environmental strategies and especially Green Marketing are being introduced helping to solve environmental problems and environmental motivation of producers. Many producers face great attention of the public regarding their approach to the environment. Despite the fact that the customers buy products fairly prudently and their behaviour is markedly affected by prices, a particular part of the population prefers the products that do not burden the environment. This brings about a situation, in which the producers within their mutual competition and in relation to customers are enforced to behave responsibly.

  8. Voluntary Tools Of The Environmental Oriented Product Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusko, Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Environmentally oriented product policy is in general determined by the relationships between its aims - subjects - objects - tools. It is based on the integrated approach to the product life cycle, which anticipates an enormous amount of information. It has to solve the questions of the international trade as well as the rules of the International Trade Organization. New forms of preventive environmental strategies and especially Green Marketing are being introduced helping to solve environmental problems and environmental motivation of producers. Many producers face great attention of the public regarding their approach to the environment. Despite the fact that the customers buy products fairly prudently and their behaviour is markedly affected by prices, a particular part of the population prefers the products that do not burden the environment. This brings about a situation, in which the producers within their mutual competition and in relation to customers are enforced to behave responsibly.

  9. Analysis of skin conductance response during evaluation of preferences for cosmetic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Hideki; Hirao, Naoyasu

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed skin conductance response (SCR) as a psychophysiological index to evaluate affective aspects of consumer preferences for cosmetic products. To examine the test-retest reliability of association between preferences and SCR, we asked 33 female volunteers to complete two experimental sessions approximately 1 year apart. The participants indicated their preferences in a typical paired comparison task by choosing the better option from a combination of two products among four products. We measured anticipatory SCR prior to expressions of the preferences. We found that the mean amplitude of the SCR elicited by the preferred products was significantly larger than that elicited by the non-preferred products. The participants' preferences and corresponding SCR patterns were well preserved at the second session 1 year later. Our results supported cumulating findings that SCR is a useful index of consumer preferences that has future potential, both in laboratory and marketing settings. PMID:25709593

  10. Sunscreen Product Performance and Other Determinants of Consumer Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuai; Kwa, Michael; Agarwal, Ashwin; Rademaker, Alfred; Kundu, Roopal V

    2016-08-01

    Sunscreen use is a modifiable behavior that can help reduce the risk for skin cancer, prevent sunburns, mitigate photoaging, and treat photosensitive dermatoses. A better understanding of consumer sunscreen preferences would inform dermatologists in their own recommendations. To determine the characteristics and the most commonly cited positive and negative features of highly rated sunscreens described by consumers. The top 1 percentile of sunscreen products on Amazon.com as of December 2015 was selected according to average consumer review (≥4 stars) and the highest number of consumer reviews. Descriptive data for each product were collected from the product page and manufacturer claims. The top 5 "most helpful" reviews (positive and critical) were analyzed and coded by a consensus qualitative coding scheme, which included positive and negative descriptors in 6 major categories according to consumer comments: affordability, cosmetic elegance, separate ratings, product ingredients, product performance, and skin compatibility. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to determine whether characteristics of each product (eg, American Academy of Dermatology [AAD] criteria, sun protection factor [SPF], or vehicle) could be used to predict price per ounce. The number (percentage) of comments categorized by major themes and subthemes was determined. Illustrative consumer comments were also collected. There were 6500 products categorized as sunscreens in the Amazon.com, online catalog. Of the 65 products evaluated, the median price per ounce was $3.32 (range, $0.68-$23.47). Of products, 40% (26 of 65) did not adhere to AAD guidelines (broad spectrum, SPF ≥30, and water resistant) for sunscreens. Vehicles, AAD, and sunscreen type predicted a higher price per ounce. Cosmetic elegance was the most cited positive feature (198 of 325 [61%] comments) followed by product performance (146 of 325 [45%] comments) and skin type compatibility (78 of 325 [24%] comments). In this

  11. Stated environmental preferences in a Romanian rural community

    OpenAIRE

    Toma, Luiza; Mathijs, Erik

    2004-01-01

    This article uses random utility theory to analyse the economic and environmental trade-offs at farm level in a Romanian rural area confronting water pollution on the basis of survey data. To underline the impact of socio-economic variables in the decision-making process at farm level as regards environmental choices, a binary logit model is estimated that includes socio-economic variables in addition to the attributes in the choice set. The study shows that heterogeneity in tastes is partial...

  12. Visualising the environmental appearance of audio products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stilma, M. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Stevels, A. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)]|[Philips Consumer Electronics, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Christiaans, H.; Kandachar, P. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    Can environmental friendliness be communicated by the design style and appearance of products? (such as form, colour, style or material)? Consumers are interested in buying environmental products and design styles might be used as communicative tools. However, current 'green' products show something else. Environmental aspects are chiefly promoted by marketing programs based on technical items like the use of materials, hazardous substances, energy consumption, etc. By a qualitative and exploratory research the environmental design styles according to consumers' opinions were analysed with larger audio products as case study. Visible distinctive differences can be identified between the most and the least environmental rated products. A 'Green flagship', which claims to be environmentally orientated, wasn't recognised as such by consumers. And women and men perceive environmental friendliness in another way. From this research can be concluded that more attention is needed to visualise the good technical environmental performance of products. (orig.)

  13. Fixed Costs and the Product Market Treatment of Preference Minorities

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Berry; Alon Eizenberg; Joel Waldfogel

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that, in the presence of substantial fixed costs, markets offer preference majorities more variety than preference minorities. This fact alone, however, does not demonstrate the market outcome is in any way biased against preference minorities. In this paper, we clarify the sense in which the market outcome may in fact be biased against preference minorities, and we provide some conditions for such bias to occur. We then estimate the degree of bias in a particular indust...

  14. Investigating the impact of environmental attitude on the decision to purchase a green product with the mediating role of environmental concern and care for green products

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeilpour Majid; Bahmiary Elahe

    2017-01-01

    The intention to purchase green products is the tendency of a person who prefers to purchase a product with optimal environmental characteristics rather than usual products. Nowadays, the environment is very important and maintaining it is a vital issue for all groups of people, whether in the customer's position or in the distributor’s position. However, in spite of the increased environmental awareness among consumers and encouragements made by producers for them to buy green products, we r...

  15. Effects of product\\'s warranty on customers\\' preferences: empirical findings on reverse logistics models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsalan Najmi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: IT products are now becoming the part of every one's life. Since Pakistan didn't manufacture IT products, so the customers had to purchase the products that are available in the markets. During such purchase, customers not only gave preference to brand or price or both but they also consider its warranty so that they are secured with the post purchase risks. Methods: This study was aimed to identify the impact of the warranty on customers' preferences towards brand and price. A conceptual framework was made on the basis of available literature and then data was collected. It was collected from 298 respondents through survey questionnaire and after applying Factor Analysis, One Way MANOVA was applied on the factors. Results and conclusions: The study found that the product's warranty has a significant impact on preferences towards brand, concern for price and price intentions whereas the impact on willingness to pay was found insignificant. The results conclude that Pakistani customers need a branded IT product on competitive prices, which give more in less along with the warranty so that they can enjoy the same quality of the product for a period of time whereas, they are not willing to pay any additional amount for the product just because of Warranty.

  16. Gender Differences in Preschoolers' and Kindergartners' Artistic Production and Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyatzis, Chris J.; Eades, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Examined sex differences in preschoolers' and kindergartners' art generation and preference. First, researchers assessed gender stereotypicality in their drawings and preferences for pictures. Both sexes drew somewhat gender stereotypical pictures. Next, when choosing coloring book pictures to color, boys chose masculine and girls chose feminine…

  17. A model for consumers' preferences for Novel Protein Foods and environmental quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, van E.C.; Zhu, X.

    2005-01-01

    We develop an environmental Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) model, which includes the economic functions of the environment, to investigate the impacts of consumers' preference changes towards the enhanced consumption of Novel Protein Foods (NPFs) and towards a higher willingness to pay for

  18. Environmental Pollution Control Policy-Making: An Analysis of Elite Perceptions and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1974-01-01

    This article is based on an analysis of the perceptions and preferences of elite groups concerning environmental pollution control policy making. Results showed that although the groups agreed that present methods were inadequate, they were, nevertheless, unable to agree upon the nature of a future policy-making system. (MA)

  19. Environmental costs of fossil fuel energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, A.; Trebeschi, C.

    1997-01-01

    The costs of environmental impacts caused by fossil fuel energy production are external to the energy economy and normally they are not reflected in energy prices. To determine the environmental costs associated with an energy source a detailed analysis of all environmental impacts of the complete energy cycle is required. The economic evaluation of environmental damages is presented caused by atmospheric emissions produced by fossil fuel combustion for different uses. Considering the emission factors of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, dust and carbon dioxide and the economic evaluation of their environmental damages reported in literature, a range of environmental costs associated with different fossil fuels and technologies is presented. A comparison of environmental costs resulting from atmospheric emissions produced by fossil-fuel combustion for energy production shows that natural gas has a significantly higher environmental value than other fossil fuels. (R.P.)

  20. The value of environmental self-identity : The relationship between biospheric values, environmental self-identity and environmental preferences, intentions and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, Ellen; Steg, Linda; Keizer, Kees

    Biospheric values and environmental self-identities are considered to be important antecedents of environmental preferences, intentions, and behaviour. Although various authors suggest a relationship between values and self-identity, this has rarely been studied empirically. This paper aimed to

  1. Whatever the customer wants, the customer gets? Exploring the gap between consumer preferences and default electricity products in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaenzig, Josef; Heinzle, Stefanie Lena; Wüstenhagen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, residential customers can choose their preferred provider and select among a variety of different electricity products, including green power options. Successful product design and marketing strategies for green electricity may provide electricity providers with a competitive advantage, while at the same time contributing to energy policy objectives. This requires, however, a thorough understanding of customer preferences. We investigate the relative importance of different product attributes in creating customer value, and find that price and electricity mix are the two most important attributes. The German electricity customers we surveyed in 2009 expressed an implicit willingness to pay a premium of about 16% for electricity from renewable sources. We conclude that consumers are willing to pay a significant price premium for an upgrade from the current default electricity mix in Germany to a more environmentally friendly default electricity mix, and discuss implications for marketing strategy and energy policy. Our findings are based on a dataset of 4968 experimental choices made by 414 German residential consumers, collected in a stated preference survey. - Highlights: ► Study is based on 4968 experimental choices made by 414 German retail consumers. ► Apart from price, the electricity mix is the most important product attribute. ► Majority of consumers prefer nuclear-free electricity. ► Respondents are willing to pay a premium for green electricity. ► German default electricity mix does not correspond to current customer preferences.

  2. Agri‐environmental Policies to Meet Consumer Preferences in Japan: An Economic‐Biophysical Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Uetake

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Promoting environmentally friendly farming products is crucial to meeting consumer demand. Although governments implement policy measures to improve the environmental performance of the agriculture sector, theirimpacts are difficult to assess. This study analyses the performance of agri‐environmental policies in Japan, by using the OECD’s policy impact model and reference level framework. In particular, it identifies the environmental impacts of three simulated agri‐environmental policies based on farms’ characteristics. The results suggest that a policy mix of regulation and an incentive payment would reduce environmental impacts, suggesting that targeted approaches could improve the cost‐effectiveness of agri‐environmental policies.

  3. Differences in environmental preferences towards cycling for transport among adults: a latent class analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieze Mertens

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing cycling for transport can contribute to improve public health among adults. Micro-environmental factors (i.e. small-scaled street-setting features may play an important role in affecting the street’s appeal to cycle for transport. Understanding about the interplay between individuals and their physical environment is important to establish tailored environmental interventions. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine whether specific subgroups exist based on similarities in micro-environmental preferences to cycle for transport. Methods Responses of 1950 middle-aged adults (45–65 years on a series of choice tasks depicting potential cycling routes with manipulated photographs yielded three subgroups with different micro-environmental preferences using latent class analysis. Results Although latent class analysis revealed three different subgroups in the middle-aged adult population based on their environmental preferences, results indicated that cycle path type (i.e. a good separated cycle path is the most important environmental factor for all participants and certainly for individuals who did not cycle for transport. Furthermore, only negligible differences were found between the importances of the other micro-environmental factors (i.e. traffic density, evenness of the cycle path, maintenance, vegetation and speed limits regarding the two at risk subgroups and that providing a speed bump obviously has the least impact on the street’s appeal to cycle for transport. Conclusions Results from the current study indicate that only negligible differences were found between the three subgroups. Therefore, it might be suggested that tailored environmental interventions are not required in this research context.

  4. Differences in environmental preferences towards cycling for transport among adults: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Lieze; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Ghekiere, Ariane; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Van de Weghe, Nico; Van Dyck, Delfien

    2016-08-12

    Increasing cycling for transport can contribute to improve public health among adults. Micro-environmental factors (i.e. small-scaled street-setting features) may play an important role in affecting the street's appeal to cycle for transport. Understanding about the interplay between individuals and their physical environment is important to establish tailored environmental interventions. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine whether specific subgroups exist based on similarities in micro-environmental preferences to cycle for transport. Responses of 1950 middle-aged adults (45-65 years) on a series of choice tasks depicting potential cycling routes with manipulated photographs yielded three subgroups with different micro-environmental preferences using latent class analysis. Although latent class analysis revealed three different subgroups in the middle-aged adult population based on their environmental preferences, results indicated that cycle path type (i.e. a good separated cycle path) is the most important environmental factor for all participants and certainly for individuals who did not cycle for transport. Furthermore, only negligible differences were found between the importances of the other micro-environmental factors (i.e. traffic density, evenness of the cycle path, maintenance, vegetation and speed limits) regarding the two at risk subgroups and that providing a speed bump obviously has the least impact on the street's appeal to cycle for transport. Results from the current study indicate that only negligible differences were found between the three subgroups. Therefore, it might be suggested that tailored environmental interventions are not required in this research context.

  5. Environmental improvement through product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.; Bey, Niki

    Companies in Denmark and abroad are working increasingly to reduce human impacts on the environment and nature. At the same time there must still be a large focus on the creation of value for customers and consumers. This development gives rise to a huge potential for Danish companies, to create ...... Environmental Protection Agency’s company funding scheme. We hope you will be inspired!...

  6. Consumer Preferences for Public and Private Sector Certifications for Beef Products in the United States and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Bryan J.; Bailey, DeeVon; Hunnicutt, Lynn; Ward, Ruby A.

    2003-01-01

    Focus groups and street surveys are used in the US and the UK to determine consumer perceptions of the ability of different agencies, associations, and groups to certify beef products for quality, food safety, animal welfare, social responsibility, and environmental responsibility. US consumers see the role of the federal government primarily as assuring food safety but desire the private sector to make other types of certifications. UK consumers prefer the private sector to assure food safet...

  7. Combining product attributes with recommendation and shopping location attributes to assess consumer preferences for insect-based food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    into consumers' preferences for termite-based food products (TBFPs) using data from a choice experiment survey in Kenya. A novel feature of this paper is that it investigates the combined effects of product-related and contextual attributes, as well as consumer attitudes on preferences for TBFPs. In addition......, the paper focuses on the extent to which preferences may be affected depending on the meal formats, i.e. whether the termites are introduced either as whole insects or as a processed component in a typical daily meal. The results suggest that consumers prefer TBFPs with high nutritional value and especially...... when they are recommended by officials. Results further indicate that affirmative recommendations are particularly important for the processed TBFP, and consumers prefer to buy this type of product in kiosks or supermarkets than at local marketplaces. Despite a considerable degree of preference...

  8. Environmental Management Initiatives in Product Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forman, Marianne; Hansen, Anne Grethe; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    The Environmental Council for Cleaner Products in 2000-2001 initiated a collection of experience from the environmental co-operation in 25 product chains. This collection of experience was to elucidate the concrete co-operation between suppliers, enterprises and purchasers, to go through tools...... and to report on opportunities and barriers for environmental efforts in the entire product chain. This paper aims at giving a comprehensive analysis of the experiences, on the basis of the reporting of the 25 companies and their supply chains (reported by Ettrup and Bauer in 2002. The 25 case studies have been...

  9. Barbie or Betty? Preschool children's preference for branded products and evidence for gender-linked differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Karen J; Nash, Avril

    2003-08-01

    Children in the United Kingdom watch more television and are exposed to more advertising than children in any other European country. This article investigates the extent to which preschool children (aged 4-5 years) prefer brands advertised on television. Seventy-five children were interviewed and given a choice task in which they had to select the product, from eight pairs each comprising a branded and nonbranded product, that children of their own age and gender preferred. Products included popular drinks, snacks, toys, breakfast cereals, and sportswear. Nonbranded control products were carefully selected as close perceptual matches for the branded advertised products. Yet, on 68% of occasions, children chose the branded, advertised product in preference to the nonbranded product. This preference was reliably higher for girls (78%) than boys (58%). Gender-linked differences are discussed in relation to socialization theory and to girls' greater verbal ability and emotional sensitivity.

  10. Does race matters in consumers' stated preferences for water and carbon footprints labelled food products? Insights from black and white South Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Sekyere, Enoch; Jordaan, Henry

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, governments, policy-makers, and managers of private food companies and agribusinesses are interested in understanding how consumers will react to environmentally sustainable attributes and information on food product labels. This study examines consumers' stated preferences for water and carbon footprints labelled food products from the viewpoint of black and white South Africans. Discrete choice experimental data was collected from black and white consumers to possibly assess cross-ethnic variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable products. Two widely purchased livestock products were chosen for the choice experiment. We found that consumers' preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes vary significantly between black and white South Africans. Our findings revealed that there are profound heterogeneous consumer segments within black and white respondents. The heterogeneity within both sub-samples is better explained at the segment level, rather than at individual level. For both product categories, the findings revealed that there are more distinct consumer segments among black respondents, relative to white respondents. The black respondents consist of water sustainability advocates, carbon reduction advocates, keen environmentalist and environmental neutrals. The white respondents entail keen environmentalist, environmental cynics, and environmental neutrals. The inherent significant variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes across segments and racial groups would help in formulating feasible, and segment-specific environmental sustainability policies and marketing strategies aimed at changing consumers' attitude towards environmentally sustainable products. Demographic targeting of consumer segments, sustainability awareness and segment-specific educational campaigns meant to enhance subjective and objective knowledge on environmental sustainability are important tools for food companies and

  11. Applying environmental product design to biomedical products research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messelbeck, J; Sutherland, L

    2000-12-01

    The principal themes for the Biomedical Research and the Environment Conference Committee on Environmental Economics in Biomedical Research include the following: healthcare delivery companies and biomedical research organizations, both nonprofit and for-profit, need to improve their environmental performance; suppliers of healthcare products will be called upon to support this need; and improving the environmental profile of healthcare products begins in research and development (R&D). The committee report begins with requirements from regulatory authorities (e.g., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], the U.S. Food and Drug Administration), and the healthcare delivery sector). The 1998 American Hospital Association and EPA Memorandum of Understanding to reduce solid waste and mercury from healthcare facilities is emblematic of these requirements. The dominant message from the requirements discussion is to ensure that R&D organizations do not ignore customer, environmental, and regulatory requirements in the early stages of product development. Several representatives from healthcare products manufacturers presented their companies' approaches to meeting these requirements. They reported on efforts to ensure that their R&D processes are sensitive to the environmental consequences from manufacturing, distributing, using, and disposing of healthcare products. These reports describe representatives' awareness of requirements and the unique approaches their R&D organizations have taken to meet these requirements. All representatives reported that their R&D organizations have embraced environmental product design because it avoids the potential of returning products to R&D to improve the environmental profile. Additionally, several reports detailed cost savings, sustainability benefits, and improvements in environmental manufacturing or redesign, and increased customer satisfaction. Many companies in healthcare delivery are working to improve environmental

  12. Perceptions, Preferences, and Behavior Regarding Energy and Environmental Costs: The Case of Montreal Transport Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayer Daher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Providing travel-related fuel and environmental information to transport users is becoming increasingly relevant. However, the impact of providing such information on users’ travel behavior is yet to be determined. This research examined the perceptions and preferences related to the fuel consumption costs, greenhouse gas (GHG social costs, and health-related air pollution costs, and the influence such information could have on travel behavior. Examining the case of Montreal transport users, the authors conducted a survey in which the respondents were asked general and stated preference questions. The respondents were found to be unaware of the energy and environmental footprints of their travel. Approximately 85% of the respondents were not able to estimate GHG social costs and health-related air pollution costs across different modes. The respondents generally overestimated these costs and they interestingly reported higher environmental costs for public transport (metro compared to cars. They also preferred to receive such information in monetary units, and they were more comfortable in receiving the information through mobile applications over other tools/means. The research also found that fuel and environmental information influence respondents’ travel decisions especially their route choices. Finally, the respondents would be willing to pay an average of 7 Canadian dollars/month in exchange for obtaining the information.

  13. Moderation of genetic and environmental influences on diurnal preference by age in adult twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Nicola L; Watson, Nathaniel F; Buchwald, Dedra; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-03-01

    Diurnal preference changes across the lifespan. However, the mechanisms underlying this age-related shift are poorly understood. The aim of this twin study was to determine the extent to which genetic and environmental influences on diurnal preference are moderated by age. Seven hundred and sixty-eight monozygotic and 674 dizygotic adult twin pairs participating in the University of Washington Twin Registry completed the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire as a measure of diurnal preference. Participants ranged in age from 19 to 93 years (mean = 36.23, SD = 15.54) and were categorized on the basis of age into three groups: younger adulthood (19-35 years, n = 1715 individuals), middle adulthood (36-64 years, n = 1003 individuals) and older adulthood (65+ years, n = 168 individuals). Increasing age was associated with an increasing tendency towards morningness (r = 0.42, p influences for the total sample as well as for each age group separately. Additive genetic influences accounted for 52%[46-57%], and non-shared environmental influences 48%[43-54%], of the total variance in diurnal preference. In comparing univariate genetic models between age groups, the best-fitting model was one in which the parameter estimates for younger adults and older adults were equated, in comparison with middle adulthood. For younger and older adulthood, additive genetic influences accounted for 44%[31-49%] and non-shared environmental influences 56%[49-64%] of variance in diurnal preference, whereas for middle adulthood these estimates were 34%[21-45%] and 66%[55-79%], respectively. Therefore, genetic influences on diurnal preference are attenuated in middle adulthood. Attenuation is likely driven by the increased importance of work and family responsibilities during this life stage, in comparison with younger and older adulthood when these factors may be less influential in determining sleep-wake timing. These findings have implications for studies

  14. Environmental impacts of Proalcool: production and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrini, A.; Nassi, C.D.; Barcellos, P.P.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental impacts caused by the Programa Nacional do Alcool -PROALCOOL - Brazil, are analysed. Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo States are studied, comparing the regional differences. The production and the consumption phases are analysed separately. (L.J.C.)

  15. Design of environmentally friendly products using indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Bey, Niki

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements of product designers towards methods for environmental evaluation; it argues that indicators can be used for rough environmental evaluations and it presents experiences made with the indicator-based Oil Point Method (OPM). This method is illustrated by means...

  16. Environmental interactions of cement-based products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florea, M.V.A.; Schmidt, W.; Msinjili, N.S.

    2016-01-01

    The environmental interactions of concrete and other cement-based products encompasses both the influence of such materials on their environment, as well as the effects of the environment on the materials in time. There are a number of ways in which the environmental impact of concrete can be

  17. Environmental innovations in the product chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    2003-01-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of different positions within innovation and network theory, and on that basis a framework is developed and discussed in relation to environmental innovations.The paper also highlights how enterprises within two different trades in the Danish food industry have made...... environmental innovations related to their processes and products....

  18. product chain collaboration and environmental innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Mosgaard, Mette

    2004-01-01

    The paper  builds upon a case study from a number of electronic companies in Denmark and describes from an organisational perspective how organisations make environmental innovations in the product chain.......The paper  builds upon a case study from a number of electronic companies in Denmark and describes from an organisational perspective how organisations make environmental innovations in the product chain....

  19. Environmental innovations in the product chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    2004-01-01

    The article gives an overview of different positions within innovation and network theory, and highlights how enterprises within the organic dairy industry and fish processing industry have made environmental innovations related to their processes and products.......The article gives an overview of different positions within innovation and network theory, and highlights how enterprises within the organic dairy industry and fish processing industry have made environmental innovations related to their processes and products....

  20. Product personality and its influence on consumer preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, P.; Schoormans, J.P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Beyond their functional utility products have a symbolic meaning. Parts of this symbolic meaning are accounted for by concepts like brand personality and product-user image, which describe the symbolic meaning associated with the brand or product class. However, the physical product also

  1. Streamlining environmental product declarations: a stage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Elisabeth; Lefebvre, Louis A.; Talbot, Stephane; Le Hen, Gael

    2001-02-01

    General public environmental awareness and education is increasing, therefore stimulating the demand for reliable, objective and comparable information about products' environmental performances. The recently published standard series ISO 14040 and ISO 14025 are normalizing the preparation of Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) containing comprehensive information relevant to a product's environmental impact during its life cycle. So far, only a few environmentally leading manufacturing organizations have experimented the preparation of EPDs (mostly from Europe), demonstrating its great potential as a marketing weapon. However the preparation of EPDs is a complex process, requiring collection and analysis of massive amounts of information coming from disparate sources (suppliers, sub-contractors, etc.). In a foreseeable future, the streamlining of the EPD preparation process will require product manufacturers to adapt their information systems (ERP, MES, SCADA) in order to make them capable of gathering, and transmitting the appropriate environmental information. It also requires strong functional integration all along the product supply chain in order to ensure that all the information is made available in a standardized and timely manner. The goal of the present paper is two fold: first to propose a transitional model towards green supply chain management and EPD preparation; second to identify key technologies and methodologies allowing to streamline the EPD process and subsequently the transition toward sustainable product development

  2. Environmental Sustainability Analysis of Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Michael Zwicky; Birkved, Morten

    Due to their generally positive carbon dioxide balance, biofuels are seen as one of the energy carriers in a more sustainable future transportation energy system, but how good is their environmental sustainability, and where lie the main potentials for improvement of their sustainability? Questions...... like these require a life cycle perspective on the biofuel - from the cradle (production of the agricultural feedstock) to the grave (use as fuel). An environmental life cycle assessment is performed on biodiesel to compare different production schemes including chemical and enzymatic esterification...... with the use of methanol or ethanol. The life cycle assessment includes all processes needed for the production, distribution and use of the biodiesel (the product system), and it includes all relevant environmental impacts from the product system, ranging from global impacts like climate change and loss...

  3. Energy and environmental implications of copper production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvardo, Sergio [Chile Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Santiago (Chile); Maldonado, Pedro; Jaques, Ivan [Chile Univ., Energy Research Program, Santiago (Chile)

    1999-04-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector. It is highly energy-intensive, ranking third in specific energy consumption (SEC) among the five major basic metals (aluminum, copper, iron, lead and zinc) and poses important environmental hazards. We examine the large discrepancy between theoretical (from thermodynamics) and actual (from empirical data) SECs and then describe relevant environmental issues, focusing on the most significant energy-related environmental impacts of primary copper production with emphasis on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. An example of GHG energy-related abatement that concurrently improves energy use is presented. (Author)

  4. Environmental consequences of energy production: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    The Seventeenth Annual Illinois Energy conference entitled Environmental consequences of Energy Production was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 19-20, 1989. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on the technical, economic and institutional issues surrounding energy production and related environmental problems. The conference program was developed by a planning committee which included Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. The conference included presentations on four major topic areas. The issue areas were: urban pollution: where are we now and what needs to be done in the future; the acid rain problem: implications of proposed federal legislation on the Midwest; global warming: an update on the scientific debate; and strategies to minimize environmental damage. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual presentations. (FL)

  5. Environmental emergency in the oil production and oil products transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Čopan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the experience of the environmental emergency response in the case of accidental leakages of oil or oil products into the environment. The gained experience is demonstrated on four different sites where the remediation of contaminated soil / groundwater and emergency response were carried out by the Czech environmental company DEKONTA a.s.

  6. Green electronics manufacturing creating environmental sensible products

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, John X

    2012-01-01

    Going ""green"" is becoming a major component of the mission for electronics manufacturers worldwide. While this goal seems simplistic, it poses daunting dilemmas. Yet, to compete effectively in the global economy, manufacturers must take the initiative to drive this crucial movement. Green Electronics Manufacturing: Creating Environmental Sensible Products provides you with a complete reference to design, develop, build, and install an electronic product with special consideration for the product's environmental impacts during its whole life cycle. The author discusses how to integrate the st

  7. Environmental aspects of decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are the focus of considerable interest because they do not place future generations at risk; the development of cogeneration has been favorably received on the whole because it uses energy that would otherwise be lost. Difficulties are sometimes encountered in the development of small-scale hydroelectric facilities (older facilities negative aspects, over production impression in France, etc.). Environmental protection regulations do not distinguish between centralized and decentralized electricity production, but between large and small production facilities

  8. Marketing strategies and consumer preferences for fertilizers and soils from organic residues of biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlin, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to show marketing possibilities for fermentation products and to generate sepcific recommendations for potential producers and marketers of fermentation products. Since the marketing of fermenting products is largely unexplored and a research gap, this project was launched with an exploratory phase. After the exploratory phase, private gardeners were identified as a promising customer group. Knowledge about the preferences of private gardeners when purchasing soil and fertilizer are crucial for the market success of processed fermentation products. In order to fathom the decision-making behavior of this potential customer group, personal interviews were conducted with private gardeners. These results enable potential producers and marketers of fermentation products to create a product that is in demand on the market because it meets the needs of potential consumers. The personal preferences, however, can be very different, for which reason a segmentation into different groups with similar preferences is made. [de

  9. Panel data nonparametric estimation of production risk and risk preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Henningsen, Arne

    approaches for obtaining firm-specific measures of risk attitudes. We found that Polish dairy farmers are risk averse regarding production risk and price uncertainty. According to our results, Polish dairy farmers perceive the production risk as being more significant than the risk related to output price......We apply nonparametric panel data kernel regression to investigate production risk, out-put price uncertainty, and risk attitudes of Polish dairy farms based on a firm-level unbalanced panel data set that covers the period 2004–2010. We compare different model specifications and different...

  10. Relationship between meanings, emotions, product preferences and personal values. Application to ceramic tile floorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agost, María-Jesús; Vergara, Margarita

    2014-07-01

    This work aims to validate a conceptual framework which establishes the main relationships between subjective elements in human-product interaction, such as meanings, emotions, product preferences, and personal values. The study analyzes the relationships between meanings and emotions, and between these and preferences, as well as the influence of personal values on such relationships. The study was applied to ceramic tile floorings. A questionnaire with images of a neutral room with different ceramic tile floorings was designed and distributed via the web. Results from the study suggest that both meanings and emotions must be taken into account in the generation of product preferences. The meanings given to the product can cause the generation of emotions, and both types of subjective impressions give rise to product preferences. Personal reference values influence these relationships between subjective impressions and product preferences. As a consequence, not only target customers' demographic data but specifically their values and criteria must be taken into account from the beginning of the development process. The specific results of this paper can be used directly by ceramic tile designers, who can better adjust product design (and the subjective impressions elicited) to the target market. Consequently, the chance of product success is reinforced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. NPOESS Environmental Data Record (EDR) Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, R.; Grant, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Algorithms and Data Products (A&DP) organization is responsible for the algorithms that produce the EDRs, including their quality aspects. Together, IDPS and A&DP must support the calibration, validation, and data quality improvement initiatives of the NPOESS program to ensure the production of atmospheric and environmental products that meet strict requirements for accuracy and precision. In support of this activity, A&DP and IDPS continually updates the estimated performance of the NPOESS system with respect to both latency and data quality, using the latest operational implementation of the data processing software and information from instrument test activities. This presentation will illustrate and describe the processing chains that create the data products, as well as describe the

  12. Environmental influences on mate preferences as assessed by a scenario manipulation experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzoli, Daniele; Moretto, Francesco; Monti, Aura; Tocci, Ornella; Roberts, S Craig; Tommasi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Many evolutionary psychology studies have addressed the topic of mate preferences, focusing particularly on gender and cultural differences. However, the extent to which situational and environmental variables might affect mate preferences has been comparatively neglected. We tested 288 participants in order to investigate the perceived relative importance of six traits of an ideal partner (wealth, dominance, intelligence, height, kindness, attractiveness) under four different hypothetical scenarios (status quo/nowadays, violence/post-nuclear, poverty/resource exhaustion, prosperity/global well-being). An equal number of participants (36 women, 36 men) was allotted to each scenario; each was asked to allocate 120 points across the six traits according to their perceived value. Overall, intelligence was the trait to which participants assigned most importance, followed by kindness and attractiveness, and then by wealth, dominance and height. Men appraised attractiveness as more valuable than women. Scenario strongly influenced the relative importance attributed to traits, the main finding being that wealth and dominance were more valued in the poverty and post-nuclear scenarios, respectively, compared to the other scenarios. Scenario manipulation generally had similar effects in both sexes, but women appeared particularly prone to trade off other traits for dominance in the violence scenario, and men particularly prone to trade off other traits for wealth in the poverty scenario. Our results are in line with other correlational studies of situational variables and mate preferences, and represent strong evidence of a causal relationship of environmental factors on specific mate preferences, corroborating the notion of an evolved plasticity to current ecological conditions. A control experiment seems to suggest that our scenarios can be considered as realistic descriptions of the intended ecological conditions.

  13. Environmental influences on mate preferences as assessed by a scenario manipulation experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Marzoli

    Full Text Available Many evolutionary psychology studies have addressed the topic of mate preferences, focusing particularly on gender and cultural differences. However, the extent to which situational and environmental variables might affect mate preferences has been comparatively neglected. We tested 288 participants in order to investigate the perceived relative importance of six traits of an ideal partner (wealth, dominance, intelligence, height, kindness, attractiveness under four different hypothetical scenarios (status quo/nowadays, violence/post-nuclear, poverty/resource exhaustion, prosperity/global well-being. An equal number of participants (36 women, 36 men was allotted to each scenario; each was asked to allocate 120 points across the six traits according to their perceived value. Overall, intelligence was the trait to which participants assigned most importance, followed by kindness and attractiveness, and then by wealth, dominance and height. Men appraised attractiveness as more valuable than women. Scenario strongly influenced the relative importance attributed to traits, the main finding being that wealth and dominance were more valued in the poverty and post-nuclear scenarios, respectively, compared to the other scenarios. Scenario manipulation generally had similar effects in both sexes, but women appeared particularly prone to trade off other traits for dominance in the violence scenario, and men particularly prone to trade off other traits for wealth in the poverty scenario. Our results are in line with other correlational studies of situational variables and mate preferences, and represent strong evidence of a causal relationship of environmental factors on specific mate preferences, corroborating the notion of an evolved plasticity to current ecological conditions. A control experiment seems to suggest that our scenarios can be considered as realistic descriptions of the intended ecological conditions.

  14. Recent diversification of a marine genus (Tursiops spp.) Tracks habitat preference and environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moura, Andre E.; Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel; Mouatt, Julia Thidamarth Vilstrup

    2013-01-01

    in diversification was also seen for dates after the last glacial maximum. Together these data suggest the tracking of habitat preference during geographic expansions, followed by transition points reflecting habitat shifts, which were likely associated with periods of environmental change....

  15. The Comparative Analysis of Senior and Non-Senior Package Holiday Travelers' Tourism Product Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Johann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism products are systemic products which offer multiple value to tourists in multiple aspects to satisfy their needs, however, tourists' preferences vary in terms of travelers' characteristics. The current study attempts to analyse senior and non-senior package holiday travelers' preferences with respect to tourism product attributes. The surveyed sample of 463 tourists spent their holiday on the coach tours in Poland in 2013. The main implication of this research for tourism product managers is that they have to focus on providing tourists with well suited packages and position appropriately by selecting suitable communication strategies for selected target segments.

  16. NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) Environmental Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Smith, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will contribute the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the restructured National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). As such, the Joint Polar Satellite System replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the ground processing component of both POES and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) replacement, known as the Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS), managed by the Department of Defense (DoD). The Joint Polar Satellite System satellite will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for the Joint Polar Satellite System is known as the Common Ground System (JPSS CGS), and consists of a Command, Control, and Communications Segment (C3S) and the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). Both are developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS). The Interface Data Processing Segment will process Joint Polar Satellite System and Defense Weather Satellite System satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Department of Defense processing centers operated by the United States government. The Interface Data Processing Segment will process Environmental Data Records beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System and Defense Weather Satellite System programs. Under the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental

  17. Consumer preferences for household water treatment products in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Christine; Yang, Jui-Chen; Patil, Sumeet R; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Wood, Siri; Goodyear, Lorelei; Gonzalez, Juan Marcos

    2012-08-01

    Over 5 billion people worldwide are exposed to unsafe water. Given the obstacles to ensuring sustainable improvements in water supply infrastructure and the unhygienic handling of water after collection, household water treatment and storage (HWTS) products have been viewed as important mechanisms for increasing access to safe water. Although studies have shown that HWTS technologies can reduce the likelihood of diarrheal illness by about 30%, levels of adoption and continued use remain low. An understanding of household preferences for HWTS products can be used to create demand through effective product positioning and social marketing, and ultimately improve and ensure commercial sustainability and scalability of these products. However, there has been little systematic research on consumer preferences for HWTS products. This paper reports the results of the first state-of-the-art conjoint analysis study of HWTS products. In 2008, we conducted a conjoint analysis survey of a representative sample of households in Andhra Pradesh (AP), India to elicit and quantify household preferences for commercial HWTS products. Controlling for attribute non-attendance in an error components mixed logit model, the study results indicate that the most important features to respondents, in terms of the effect on utility, were the type of product, followed by the extent to which the product removes pathogens, the retail outlet and, the time required to treat 10 L. Holding all other product attributes constant, filters were preferred to combination products and chemical additives. Department stores and weekly markets were the most favorable sales outlets, followed by mobile salespeople. In general, households do not prefer to purchase HWTS products at local shops. Our results can inform the types of products and sales outlets that are likely to be successful in commercial HWTS markets in AP, as well as the influence of different pricing and financing strategies on product demand

  18. How Preference Markets Assist New Product Idea Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauto, Giancarlo; Valentin, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to examine the different heuristics adopted by a crowd and a management committee to evaluate new product proposals, and whether, in assessing the value of proposals, they emphasize different features. Design/methodology/approach: – The study takes a quanti...

  19. Preference for goat meat and milk products consumption in Bauchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very few people were involved in the consumption of goat milk and milk products, with the highest percentage coming from respondents who consume goat milk only on certain occasions. In general, the study indicated that goat meat is well cherished, while milk from goats is unpopular in the state. Since goat milk is known ...

  20. Technology diffusion, product differentiation and environmental subsidies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinty, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Economics; Vries, F.P. de [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Law and Economics

    2007-07-01

    Technological change is often seen as the promising device that will mitigate or solve environmental problems. Policy intervention that spurs the development, adoption and diffusion of new, environmentally benign technologies therefore holds great appear for environmental authorities. Policymakers have various instruments at their disposal to affect technological diffusion, ranging from direct regulation (command-and-control strategies) to market-based instruments, such as taxes, subsidies and tradable pollution permits. This paper examines environmental subsidies as a technology diffusion policy. The authors apply evolutionary game theory to explore the relationship between subsidies for clean technology, the diffusion of that technology and the degree of product differentiation in an imperfectly competitive market. They show that the subsidy succeeds in reducing environmental damage only when the substitution effect (the reduction in pollution associated with the clean technology) exceeds the output effect (the extent that the subsidy increases output). When the substitution effect does dominate, environmental damage decreases monotonically during the diffusion process. The extent of diffusion (the degree to which clean technolgy replaces dirty) and the likelihood that the substitution effect will dominate both decrease with the extent of product differentiation. Finally, the subsidy for clean technology will spill over to the remaining dirty producers increasing their profit as well.

  1. Environmental considerations in energy crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranney, J.W.; Mann, L.K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary attempt to provide information on the probable environmental effects of energy crop production relative to other potential uses of the land. While dedicated energy crop production is anticipated to occur primarily on land currently in agricultural production, some pastureland and forestland with a high potential for conversion to agricultural production may be utilized. Experimental results suggest that chemical use on energy crops will be lower than on most row crops and that land producing energy crops should experience less erosion than land producing row crops. Long-term site productivity should not be a major issue if macro-and micro-fertilizers are added as needed and nutrient-conserving production techniques are used. (Author)

  2. Enhancing the economic value and consumer preferences of commercial mondol stingray (Himantura gerardi) leather creative products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahubawa, L.; Pertiwiningrum, A.; Rahmadian, Y.

    2018-03-01

    The research objectives were to design, assess the economic value and consumer preference level of stingray leather products. The research method included a product design, analysis of economic value and consumer preferences. Mondol stingray (Himantura gerardi) leather, with a length of 50 cm and width of 30 cm, were processed into ID card wallet, man and women’s wallet and key holder. The number of respondents involved to analyze the preference level is 75 respondents (students, lecturers and employees of Universitas Gadjah Mada). Indicators of consumer preferences were model, color, price and purchasing power. The price of ID card wallet is Rp. 450,000; women wallet is Rp. 650,000 and a key holder is Rp. 300,000. Consumer preferences on ID card wallet were as follow: 84 % stated very interesting model; 83 % stated very interesting color; 61 % stated cheap and 53 % had enough. Consumer preferences of women’s wallet were as follow: 81 % stated very interesting model; 84 % stated very interesting color; 56 % stated cheap and 57 % had enough. Consumer preferences on key holder were as follow: 49 % stated interesting model; 72 % stated very interesting color; 61 % stated cheap and 57 % had enough.

  3. Product-related Environmental Performance Indicators: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issa, Isabela I.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecodesign is a proactive environmental management approach employed in the product development process (PDP) which aims to minimize the environmental impacts caused during products’ life-cycle, improving its environmental performance. The establishment of measurable environmental performance...

  4. Sensory characteristics of different cod products related to consumer preferences and attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Green-Petersen, Ditte

    2009-01-01

    countries tasted and scored the cod products on a 9-point hedonic scale. In addition information on the consumers attitudes, motives/barriers and fish purchase behaviour was collected. The aim was to investigate how sensory quality corresponded to consumers liking of different cod products and to study...... to fish consumption, attitudes and preferences of the eight cod products. However, it was demonstrated that within each country, different segments of consumers existed with different preferences, motives/barriers and demographic background. The results indicated various potential to increase fish...

  5. Investigating the impact of environmental attitude on the decision to purchase a green product with the mediating role of environmental concern and care for green products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeilpour Majid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The intention to purchase green products is the tendency of a person who prefers to purchase a product with optimal environmental characteristics rather than usual products. Nowadays, the environment is very important and maintaining it is a vital issue for all groups of people, whether in the customer's position or in the distributor’s position. However, in spite of the increased environmental awareness among consumers and encouragements made by producers for them to buy green products, we require further investigation in this area in order to increase green purchasing among different group of people. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of the environmental attitude on the decision to purchase a green product with the mediating role of environmental concerns and care for green products. This research is an applied research, and correlational-descriptive in terms of data analysis. The research population includes consumers from Bushehr city, sampled based on availability. In this research, 300 questionnaires were distributed among consumers. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The findings of this research showed that the environmental attitude of customers has significant and positive impact on caring for green products and environmental concerns. In addition, environmental concerns and care for green products have a significant and positive impact on green purchasing decision.

  6. Influence of Cartoon Media Characters on Children's Attention to and Preference for Food and Beverage Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Andrew D; Graham, Dan J; Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Roberto, Christina A

    2017-02-01

    Over-consuming unhealthful foods and beverages contributes to pediatric obesity and associated diseases. Food marketing influences children's food preferences, choices, and intake. To examine whether adding licensed media characters to healthful food/beverage packages increases children's attention to and preference for these products. We hypothesized that children prefer less- (vs more-) healthful foods, and pay greater attention to and preferentially select products with (vs without) media characters regardless of nutritional quality. We also hypothesized that children prefer more-healthful products when characters are present over less-healthful products without characters. On a computer, participants viewed food/beverage pairs of more-healthful and less-healthful versions of similar products. The same products were shown with and without licensed characters on the packaging. An eye-tracking camera monitored participant gaze, and participants chose which product they preferred from each of 60 pairs. Six- to 9-year-old children (n=149; mean age=7.36, standard deviation=1.12) recruited from the Twin Cities, MN, area in 2012-2013. Visual attention and product choice. Attention to products was compared using paired-samples t tests, and product choice was analyzed with single-sample t tests. Analyses of variance were conducted to test for interaction effects of specific characters and child sex and age. Children paid more attention to products with characters and preferred less-healthful products. Contrary to our prediction, children chose products without characters approximately 62% of the time. Children's choices significantly differed based on age, sex, and the specific cartoon character displayed, with characters in this study being preferred by younger boys. Results suggest that putting licensed media characters on more-healthful food/beverage products might not encourage all children to make healthier food choices, but could increase selection of healthy foods

  7. The role of interdisciplinary collaboration for stated preference methods to value marine environmental goods and ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börger, Tobias; Bohnke-Henrichs, Anne; Hattam, Caroline; Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Schasfoort, Femke; Austen, Melanie C.

    2018-01-01

    With the increasing use of environmental valuation methods in coastal, marine and deep-sea settings, there is a growing need for the collaboration of natural scientists and environmental economists. Stated preference valuation methods in particular need to be based on sound natural science

  8. Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for value-added chicken product attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Michel, Lorelei; Anders, Sven; Wismer, Wendy V

    2011-10-01

    A growing demand for convenient and ready-to-eat products has increased poultry processors' interest in developing consumer-oriented value-added chicken products. In this study, a conjoint analysis survey of 276 chicken consumers in Edmonton was conducted during the summer of 2009 to assess the importance of the chicken part, production method, processing method, storage method, the presence of added flavor, and cooking method on consumer preferences for different value-added chicken product attributes. Estimates of consumer willingness to pay (WTP) premium prices for different combinations of value-added chicken attributes were also determined. Participants'"ideal" chicken product was a refrigerated product made with free-range chicken breast, produced with no additives or preservatives and no added flavor, which could be oven heated or pan heated. Half of all participants on average were willing to pay 30% more for a value-added chicken product over the price of a conventional product. Overall, young consumers, individuals who shop at Farmers' Markets and those who prefer free-range or organic products were more likely to pay a premium for value-added chicken products. As expected, consumers' WTP was affected negatively by product price. Combined knowledge of consumer product attribute preferences and consumer WTP for value-added chicken products can help the poultry industry design innovative value-added chicken products. Practical Application:  An optimum combination of product attributes desired by consumers for the development of a new value-added chicken product, as well as the WTP for this product, have been identified in this study. This information is relevant to the poultry industry to enhance consumer satisfaction of future value-added chicken products and provide the tools for future profit growth. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Environmental impacts from Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    This dissertation presents an assessment of the environmental impacts from Danish fish products in a life cycle perspective (from sea to table). The assessment is carried out in three steps ? and includes a MECO analysis, a quantitative LCA and a qualitative LCA. The results are used to discuss...... current environmental policies addressing the fishery, landing and auction, the fish processing industry, wholesale, transport, retail, and use.It is concluded that considerable improvement potentials exist in the fishing stage, which also represents the largest environmental impact potential compared....... It is suggested that passive and semi-active fishing methods such as Danish seine, purse seine, gillnet and long line represent a significant improvement potential compared to trawl. And it is shown that the energy consumption can be reduced with a factor 15 by substituting beam trawl with Danish seine...

  10. Analysis of the Preferences for a New Convenient Seafood Product: Empirical Application for Spain and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Dopico, Domingo Calvo; Olsen, Svein Ottar; Tudoran, Alina

    2007-01-01

    Fish and seafood products represent a very healthy food, low in saturated fats and offer an excellent source of protein essential for our health. However, very often, consumer behaviour would seem to infer that seafood products do not rank particularly highly in terms of preference, this being due to the perception of various physical and psychological costs, which represent barriers to consumption. Consequently, there is an opportunity to develop new tailor-made seafood products more adapted...

  11. Consumer preferences for sustainable aquaculture products: Evidence from in-depth interviews, think aloud protocols and choice experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risius, Antje; Janssen, Meike; Hamm, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    Fish from aquaculture is becoming more important for human consumption. Sustainable aquaculture procedures were developed as an alternative to overcome the negative environmental impacts of conventional aquaculture procedures and wild fisheries. The objective of this contribution is to determine what consumers expect from sustainable aquaculture and whether they prefer sustainable aquaculture products. A combination of qualitative research methods, with think aloud protocols and in-depth interviews, as well as quantitative methods, using choice experiments and face-to-face interviews, was applied. Data was collected in three different cities of Germany. Results revealed that sustainable aquaculture was associated with natural, traditional, local, and small scale production systems with high animal welfare standards. Overall, participants paid a lot of attention to the declaration of origin; in particular fish products from Germany and Denmark were preferred along with local products. Frequently used sustainability claims for aquaculture products were mostly criticized as being imprecise by the participants of the qualitative study; even though two claims tested in the choice experiments had a significant positive impact on the choice of purchase. Similarly, existing aquaculture-specific labels for certified sustainable aquaculture had an impact on the buying decision, but were not well recognized and even less trusted. Overall, consumers had a positive attitude towards sustainable aquaculture. However, communication measures and labelling schemes should be improved to increase consumer acceptance and make a decisive impact on consumers' buying behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental technologies of woody crop production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S. Zalesny Jr.; John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; Gary S. Ba??uelos; Richard A. Hallett; Amir Hass; Craig M. Stange; James H. Perdue; Timothy M. Young; David R. Coyle; William L. Headlee

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion, loss of productivity potential, biodiversity loss, water shortage, and soil and water pollution are ongoing processes that decrease or degrade provisioning (e.g., biomass, freshwater) and regulating (e.g., carbon sequestration, soil quality) ecosystem services. Therefore, developing environmental technologies that maximize these services is essential for...

  13. A Methodology to Model Environmental Preferences of EPT Taxa in the Machangara River Basin (Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Jerves-Cobo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rivers have been frequently assessed based on the presence of the Ephemeroptera— Plecoptera—Trichoptera (EPT taxa in order to determine the water quality status and develop conservation programs. This research evaluates the abiotic preferences of three families of the EPT taxa Baetidae, Leptoceridae and Perlidae in the Machangara River Basin located in the southern Andes of Ecuador. With this objective, using generalized linear models (GLMs, we analyzed the relation between the probability of occurrence of these pollution-sensitive macroinvertebrates families and physicochemical water quality conditions. The explanatory variables of the constructed GLMs differed substantially among the taxa, as did the preference range of the common predictors. In total, eight variables had a substantial influence on the outcomes of the three models. For choosing the best predictors of each studied taxa and for evaluation of the accuracy of its models, the Akaike information criterion (AIC was used. The results indicated that the GLMs can be applied to predict either the presence or the absence of the invertebrate taxa and moreover, to clarify the relation to the environmental conditions of the stream. In this manner, these modeling tools can help to determine key variables for river restoration and protection management.

  14. EEG Spectral Dynamics of Video Commercials: Impact of the Narrative on the Branding Product Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Regina W Y; Chang, Yu-Ching; Chuang, Shang-Wen

    2016-11-07

    Neuromarketing has become popular and received a lot of attention. The quality of video commercials and the product information they convey to consumers is a hotly debated topic among advertising agencies and product advertisers. This study explored the impact of advertising narrative and the frequency of branding product exposures on the preference for the commercial and the branding product. We performed electroencephalography (EEG) experiments on 30 subjects while they watched video commercials. The behavioral data indicated that commercials with a structured narrative and containing multiple exposures of the branding products had a positive impact on the preference for the commercial and the branding product. The EEG spectral dynamics showed that the narratives of video commercials resulted in higher theta power of the left frontal, bilateral occipital region, and higher gamma power of the limbic system. The narratives also induced significant cognitive integration-related beta and gamma power of the bilateral temporal regions and the parietal region. It is worth noting that the video commercials with a single exposure of the branding products would be indicators of attention. These new findings suggest that the presence of a narrative structure in video commercials has a critical impact on the preference for branding products.

  15. EEG Spectral Dynamics of Video Commercials: Impact of the Narrative on the Branding Product Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Regina W. Y.; Chang, Yu-Ching; Chuang, Shang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Neuromarketing has become popular and received a lot of attention. The quality of video commercials and the product information they convey to consumers is a hotly debated topic among advertising agencies and product advertisers. This study explored the impact of advertising narrative and the frequency of branding product exposures on the preference for the commercial and the branding product. We performed electroencephalography (EEG) experiments on 30 subjects while they watched video commercials. The behavioral data indicated that commercials with a structured narrative and containing multiple exposures of the branding products had a positive impact on the preference for the commercial and the branding product. The EEG spectral dynamics showed that the narratives of video commercials resulted in higher theta power of the left frontal, bilateral occipital region, and higher gamma power of the limbic system. The narratives also induced significant cognitive integration-related beta and gamma power of the bilateral temporal regions and the parietal region. It is worth noting that the video commercials with a single exposure of the branding products would be indicators of attention. These new findings suggest that the presence of a narrative structure in video commercials has a critical impact on the preference for branding products. PMID:27819348

  16. Environmental impacts of cultured meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira

    2011-07-15

    Cultured meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro using tissue engineering techniques) is being developed as a potentially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that production of 1000 kg cultured meat requires 26-33 GJ energy, 367-521 m(3) water, 190-230 m(2) land, and emits 1900-2240 kg CO(2)-eq GHG emissions. In comparison to conventionally produced European meat, cultured meat involves approximately 7-45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78-96% lower GHG emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82-96% lower water use depending on the product compared. Despite high uncertainty, it is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat.

  17. Environmentally-friendly product development: methods and tools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abele, Eberhard; Anderl, R; Birkhofer, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    ... to assess a product's environmental effects. Fig. 1. Vision of Environment as a key target for product development vvi Preface Product related environmental issues are getting more and more political and public awareness. Development of environmentally friendly products has become an action item for both, politics and industry (UNFCCC 1997). Energy...

  18. Cross-Cultural Investigation of Consumers’ Generations Attitudes Towards Purchase of Environmentally Friendly Products in Apparel Retail

    OpenAIRE

    Dabija Dan-Cristian; Chebeň Juraj; Lančarič Drahoslav

    2017-01-01

    Recent changes of the environment and in the society have altered consumers’ preferences and brought new concerns among local communities regarding environmental protection and organizations responsibility, the adoption of environmentally friendly strategies, as well as offering more sustainable products. Consumers tend to select retailers based on their focus on environmental friendly products and on various “green” strategies regarding waste disposal, package recycling, etc. This study aims...

  19. Investigating preferences for dynamic electricity tariffs: The effect of environmental and system benefit disclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buryk, Stephen; Mead, Doug; Mourato, Susana; Torriti, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic electricity pricing can produce efficiency gains in the electricity sector and help achieve energy policy goals such as increasing electric system reliability and supporting renewable energy deployment. Retail electric companies can offer dynamic pricing to residential electricity customers via smart meter-enabled tariffs that proxy the cost to procure electricity on the wholesale market. Current investments in the smart metering necessary to implement dynamic tariffs show policy makers’ resolve for enabling responsive demand and realizing its benefits. However, despite these benefits and the potential bill savings these tariffs can offer, adoption among residential customers remains at low levels. Using a choice experiment approach, this paper seeks to determine whether disclosing the environmental and system benefits of dynamic tariffs to residential customers can increase adoption. Although sampling and design issues preclude wide generalization, we found that our environmentally conscious respondents reduced their required discount to switch to dynamic tariffs around 10% in response to higher awareness of environmental and system benefits. The perception that shifting usage is easy to do also had a significant impact, indicating the potential importance of enabling technology. Perhaps the targeted communication strategy employed by this study is one way to increase adoption and achieve policy goals. - Highlights: • We evaluate preferences for domestic dynamic electricity tariffs in the US and EU. • We use an online choice experiment approach with two dynamic tariff options. • People are more likely to switch if shown environmental and system benefits. • People are more likely to switch if they find shifting demand easy to do. • Our results imply the importance of targeted communication and enabling technology

  20. Environmental protection: Streamlining petroleum exploration and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The petroleum industry is inherently subject to a tremendous degree of volatility through fluctuation in world market prices and vagaries of world politics. A more recent stressful demand on the existing domestic petroleum exploration and production system has been the burgeoning number of environmental regulations imposed on this segment of the industry. Prudent and acceptable oil-field practices must now include agency-regulated environmental protection measures. Many independent producers are unfamiliar not only with the regulatory agencies, but also with the jargon and ambiguities, of regulations that very widely from state to state. Whereas some companies perceive only the restrictions and added cost of regulatory compliance, other companies have sought to optimize benefits while minimizing financial burdens by approaching this modern necessity more creatively, thereby discovering numerous means to become even more competitive. The domestic oil field of the 1990s will be increasingly affected by environmental regulation and public opinion. A number of companies have taken a proactive position on environmental issues. Industry examples include Louisiana Land and Exploration Company's history of wetlands conservation and Chevron's SMART (Save Money and Reduce Toxics). The future of the quality of life of this nation, and indeed the planet as a whole, lies in our capability to deal concurrently with the issues of a petroleum-based economy while protecting the natural environment that sustains life

  1. The impact of information on consumer preferences for different animal food production methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2009-01-01

    The motivation for the present study is to understand food choice in relation to animal food production and to study how preferences are influenced by information. To do this, we carried out a choice experiment. In the analysis, we focus on chickens reared indoors and outdoors and chicken labelled...

  2. An Application of Conjoint Analysis to Consumer Preference for Beverage Products in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Olateju Oyatoye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Conjoint analysis is a technique for establishing the relative importance of different attributes in the provision of a good or a service. In this study, conjoint analysis was applied to characterize beverage product preferences for customers. information during buyer-seller purchasing decision interactions. It identify the influence certain consumers preferences have on beverage purchasing behavior. Using focus group discussion, major attributes were specified. The attributes were then used to generate a plan card using the orthogonal array method. A conjoint based survey using 29 ranked beverages attributes formed the basis of the questionnaires that were randomly administered to 200 purchasers. of beverages drinks between January and March 2013 to specify their preferences. Conjoint analysis was used and the result indicates that the preference range that would deliver the most utility for beverage consumers include products attributes such as reduced price (- 0.478, cylindrical package (-5.822, moderately dissolving beverage granule (-1.833 and taste (- 0.333. The findings conclude that producer need to take the issue of packaging serious in production by ensuring that their product is packaged in cylindrical container which will attract optimum attention of consumers thereby leading to profitability in the long run.

  3. Consumers’ acceptance and preferences for nutrition-modified and functional dairy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bimbo, Francesco; Bonanno, Alessandro; Nocella, Giuseppe; Viscecchia, Rosaria; Nardone, Gianluca; Devitiis, De Biagia; Carlucci, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    This systematic literature review collects and summarizes research on consumer acceptance and preferences for nutrition-modified and functional dairy products, to reconcile, and expand upon, the findings of previous studies. We find that female consumers show high acceptance for some functional

  4. Functional and organic eggs as an alternative to conventional production: a conjoint analysis of consumers' preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesías, Francisco J; Martínez-Carrasco, Federico; Martínez, José M; Gaspar, Paula

    2011-02-01

    In the current context of growing consumer demand for foodstuffs that are healthy and safe and that are obtained in a manner respectful to the welfare of animals, the analysis of consumer preferences towards attributes of this type takes on particular importance. These trends are especially clear in the case of the consumption of eggs because of their strong negative association with cholesterol levels and their extremely intensive systems of production. The introduction of variants that are more in harmony with current consumer demands represents an interesting market alternative. The present study was aimed at investigating the preferences of Spanish consumers for these alternative types of egg that are entering the market. The survey was conducted with 361 consumers from October 2007 to March 2008. The conjoint analysis allowed us to estimate the relative importance of the main attributes that affect consumer preferences for eggs and to distinguish segments of consumers with similar preference profiles. It was found that price is the most important attribute determining consumer preferences, followed by the hens' feed and their rearing conditions. It was also found that only some groups of consumers are willing to pay the premium necessary for alternative methods of production. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Peat 2003. Production, use, environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report discusses the use of peat for energy production and other purposes, laws and other regulations affecting peat production and use, environmental impact, market situation and international statistics regarding peat production. In Sweden, the extraction and use of peat for energy production is regulated by several laws. Harvesting concessions must be approved by the county council. All combustion plants must be reported, or verified by regional or central authorities, depending on the size of the plant. Most important in this process is to verify the maximum emission levels permitted for sulphur, nitrogen oxides, particles, etc. Since 1991, a law on municipal energy planning requires descriptions of environmental consequences. Thus, environmental considerations must govern energy planning. Energy taxation in Sweden was changed in 1993. At present, the sulphur tax on fuel peat amounts to SEK 30 per kg of sulphur. Nitrogen oxides are also subject to a tax of SEK 40 per emitted kg. For peat, energy and environmental taxes total SEK 0.02 per kWh, excluding VAT. Peat harvesting for the production of energy aroused interest in the early 1980s as a consequence of the increased energy prices. In 2003, about 2,628,000 cubic metres of fuel peat were harvested in Sweden. The fuel peat is used mainly for production of hot water in district heating plants. In 2003, the total use of fuel peat amounted to 4,0 TWh. In addition to fuel peat, about 1,825,000 cubic metres of peat litter (mainly for horticultural use) was produced. In 2003, imports amounted to 382,3000 metric tons or 1.3 million cubic metres of peat. Exports amounted to 103,000 metric tons, consisting primarily of peat for horticultural use. The peat market in Sweden is divided into the energy market and the cultivation market. Political decisions regarding combustion taxes have a great impact on the competitive advantages of different fuels. The major competitors to peat are coal, oil, and renewable energy

  6. Brand Evaluation and Consumers' Preference towards Pioneer and Follower Brands: Empirical Study on Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SP Syahlani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aims of this research were to identify brand recall as well as to analyze consumers’ attitude and consumers’ preference toward pioneer and follower brands on processed dairy product. One hundred and fifty housewives were engaged as respondents in this research. The techniques used in the data analysis were non parametric two related sample test, one sample t-test and independent sample t-test. The result indicated that each of the product category, the percentage of the pioneer brand preference was higher than follower brand, namely Ultra Milk (87.30%, Yakult (94.70%, Anlene (93.30% and Kraft (98.70%. The result showed that from 150 respondents were able to correctly recall Ultra Milk (66.70%, Yakult (86.70%, Anlene (82.70% and Kraft (96.00% as the pioneer brand on each product category. Furthermore, the results showed that the average consumer attitudes were higher toward the pioneer brands than the follower brands. The result also indicated that consumers preferred pioneer brands than follower brands for the same flavour, quality and price. The result led to conclusion that consumers retrieved or recalled pioneer brands more correctly than follower brands. Moreover, consumers had a more favourable attitude to pioneer brands than to follower brands, in which consumers preferred to purchase the pioneer brands products to those of the follower brands concerning the farm-manufactured products of UHT milk, pro-biotic milk, high-calcium milk and cheese. Key Words: brand retrieval, brand recall, attitudes, preference

  7. HEDONIC PREFERENCES AND UTILITARIAN JUSTIFICATIONS AT THE INTRODUCTION OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Jose Montero Arruda Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast technological upgrading attracts the development of new products in the market, converging into multiples uses and accesses, which has been presentedin the literature of new product development and systems integration. Due to their confront, this research places its study focus on the determinants of consumer preference for high technology product launch. The hedonic / social utility of the all-in-one products has a priority in utilitarian factors. The main objective of this work is to evaluate which factors influence the consumer preference of high technology users, using the Apple´s tablet (iPad as a research object to identify how its use decision is made. In this article, anetnographic study was carried out about the iPad consumer behavior, interpreting their needs through their experiences described in American websites for the discussion of the product. These sites present comments about the process of choice, preference and use of the iPad. The websites have also been used to collect the textual database which is coded, interpreted and presented through the description of how current and potential consumers use the analyzed product.

  8. Environmental Priorities In Strategic Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, M; Poole, S.; Sweatman, A.

    2000-01-01

    -design framework consisting of analyse, report, prioritize and improve steps, at both strategic and operational levels. Tests the framework by application in an Electrolux subsidiary producing vacuum cleaners, tabulates LCA results for one product and its constituents and components. Concludes that prioritizing......Reports progress of the Design for Environmental Decision Support (DEEDS) project, gives the project's aim as the development of appropriate tools and methods for eco-design for use in the electrical/electronics sector. Bases development of the tools and methods on the results of a survey of 19...

  9. The Role of Extrinsic Product Cues in Consumers’ Preferences and Purchase Intentions: Mediating and Moderating Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aayed Qasem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to investigate the roles of several information-cues setting on consumers' purchase intention by highlighting the intervening roles of brand preferences and the moderating roles of social factors. This study was conducted in Yemen, as a representative of consumers from less-developed countries. A multistage cluster-sampling was employed. A total of 600 questionnaires were distributed. This study found that in high-involvement products, consumers used three-way extrinsic cues interaction as indicators for brand quality. This suggests that there is an intervening role of brand preferences which enhances the purchase intention according to consumers' roles and status.

  10. Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Organic agriculture addresses the public demand to diminish environmental pollution of agricultural production. Until now, however, only few studies tried to determine the integrated environmental impact of conventional versus organic production using life cycle assessment (LCA). The aim of this

  11. Do photobionts influence the ecology of lichens? A case study of environmental preferences in symbiotic green alga Asterochloris (Trebouxiophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peksa, Ondřej; Skaloud, Pavel

    2011-09-01

    The distribution patterns of symbiotic algae are thought to be conferred mainly by their hosts, however, they may originate in algal environmental requirements as well. In lichens, predominantly terrestrial associations of fungi with algae or cyanobacteria, the ecological preferences of photobionts have not been directly studied so far. Here, we examine the putative environmental requirements in lichenized alga Asterochloris, and search for the existence of ecological guilds in Asterochloris-associating lichens. Therefore, the presence of phylogenetic signal in several environmental traits was tested. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated set of internal transcribed spacer rDNA and actin type I intron sequences from photobionts associated with lichens of the genera Lepraria and Stereocaulon (Stereocaulaceae, Ascomycota) revealed 13 moderately to well-resolved clades. Photobionts from particular algal clades were found to be associated with taxonomically different, but ecologically similar lichens. The rain and sun exposure were the most significant environmental factor, clearly distinguishing the Asterochloris lineages. The photobionts from ombrophobic and ombrophilic lichens were clustered in completely distinct clades. Moreover, two photobiont taxa were obviously differentiated based on their substrate and climatic preferences. Our study, thus reveals that the photobiont, generally the subsidiary member of the symbiotic lichen association, could exhibit clear preferences for environmental factors. These algal preferences may limit the ecological niches available to lichens and lead to the existence of specific lichen guilds. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Environmental Performance of Kettle Production: Product Life Cycle Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowski, Andrzej; Zych, Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    The main objective of this paper is to compare the environmental impact caused by two different types of water boiling processes. The aim was achieved thanks to product life cycle assessment (LCA) conducted for stovetop and electric kettles. A literature review was carried out. A research model was worked out on the basis of data available in literature as well as additional experiments. In order to have a better opportunity to compare LCA results with reviewed literature, eco-indicator 99 assessment method was chosen. The functional unit included production, usage and waste disposal of each product (according to from cradle to grave approach) where the main function is boiling 3360 l of water during 4-year period of time. A very detailed life cycle inventory was carried out. The mass of components was determined with accuracy of three decimal places (0.001 g). The majority of environmental impact is caused by electricity or natural gas consumption during usage stage: 92% in case of the electric and kettle and 99% in case of stovetop one. Assembly stage contributed in 7% and 0.8% respectively. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses took into consideration various waste scenario patterns as well as demand for transport. Environmental impact turned out to be strongly sensitive to a chosen pattern of energy delivery (electricity mix) which determined final comparison results. Basing on LCA results, some improvements of products were suggested. The boiling time optimization was pointed out for electric kettle's efficiency improvement. Obtained results can be used by manufacturers in order to improve their eco-effectiveness. Moreover, conclusions following the research part can influence the future choices of home appliances users.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF KETTLE PRODUCTION: PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej MARCINKOWSKI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to compare the environmental impact caused by two different types of water boiling processes. The aim was achieved thanks to product life cycle assessment (LCA conducted for stovetop and electric kettles. A literature review was carried out. A research model was worked out on the basis of data available in literature as well as additional experiments. In order to have a better opportunity to compare LCA results with reviewed literature, eco-indicator 99 assessment method was chosen. The functional unit included production, usage and waste disposal of each product (according to from cradle to grave approach where the main function is boiling 3360 l of water during 4- year period of time. A very detailed life cycle inventory was carried out. The mass of components was determined with accuracy of three decimal places (0.001 g. The majority of environmental impact is caused by electricity or natural gas consumption during usage stage: 92% in case of the electric and kettle and 99% in case of stovetop one. Assembly stage contributed in 7% and 0.8% respectively. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses took into consideration various waste sce-nario patterns as well as demand for transport. Environmental impact turned out to be strongly sensitive to a chosen pattern of energy delivery (electricity mix which determined final comparison results. Basing on LCA results, some im-provements of products were suggested. The boiling time optimization was pointed out for electric kettle's efficiency improvement. Obtained results can be used by manufacturers in order to improve their eco-effectiveness. Moreover, conclusions following the research part can influence the future choices of home appliances users.

  14. Environmental assessment of electrochromic glazing production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrrakou, E.; Papaefthimiou, S.; Yianoulis, P.

    2005-01-01

    The life cycle analysis method was used to determine the environmental impacts associated with the production of an electrochromic (EC) glazing (called ECD). This paper describes the inventory analysis for all the basic materials used during the manufacture of the ECD, i.e. K-Glass, tungsten oxide (WO 3 ), poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA), propylene carbonate (PC), lithium perchlorate (LiClO 4 ) and acetic silicone sealant. K-Glass, PC and PMMA account for the 98% of the total device mass and the CO 2 emissions during their production processes are 810 g. The total embodied energy was estimated to be 49 MJ/ECD, with 32.1 MJ/unit of them derived from the K-Glass. The comparison of the total embodied energies of the ECD and various insulating glass units concluded that mass-produced EC glazings could easily compete with them in terms of environmental performance, anticipating cost attenuation and overall thermal and optical behavior. The above analysis could be implemented for the reduction of the embodied energy of the ECD life cycle, since it is proposed as an energy saving device. (Author)

  15. Recreational preferences of urban teenagers: the influence of cultural and environmental attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. Peterson

    1977-01-01

    The study tests the hypothesis that the recreational preferences of urban teenagers differ with age, sex, ethnicity, and measurable attributes of activity and environment. Photos of activities are used to measure preferences, and the photos are scaled for content by a detailed appraisal. The results show that sex and ethnicity modify the preference process, and that...

  16. The role of interdisciplinary collaboration for stated preference methods to value marine environmental goods and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börger, Tobias; Böhnke-Henrichs, Anne; Hattam, Caroline; Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Schasfoort, Femke; Austen, Melanie C.

    2018-02-01

    With the increasing use of environmental valuation methods in coastal, marine and deep-sea settings, there is a growing need for the collaboration of natural scientists and environmental economists. Stated preference valuation methods in particular need to be based on sound natural science information and translate such information to be used in social surveys. This paper uses three applications to make explicit the flow of information between different disciplines in the preparation and implementation of stated preference studies. One approach for facilitating this flow is to increase knowledge and understanding of natural scientists on these methods. To address this, this paper highlights key opportunities and pitfalls and demonstrates those in the context of three case studies. It therefore provides guidance on stated preference valuation for natural scientists rather than for economists.

  17. Scuba diving & underwater cultural resources: differences in environmental beliefs, ascriptions of responsibility, and management preferences based on level of development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon L. Todd; Tiffany Cooper; Alan R. Graefe

    2001-01-01

    This study examined SCUBA divers' level of development in relationship to environmental beliefs, ascriptions of responsibility, and management preferences concerning the use and management of New York's Great Lakes' underwater cultural resources. More than 850 New York State divers were surveyed during the fall of 1999, ranging from novices to experts...

  18. Aquatic environmental DNA detects seasonal fish abundance and habitat preference in an urban estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Y Stoeckle

    Full Text Available The difficulty of censusing marine animal populations hampers effective ocean management. Analyzing water for DNA traces shed by organisms may aid assessment. Here we tested aquatic environmental DNA (eDNA as an indicator of fish presence in the lower Hudson River estuary. A checklist of local marine fish and their relative abundance was prepared by compiling 12 traditional surveys conducted between 1988-2015. To improve eDNA identification success, 31 specimens representing 18 marine fish species were sequenced for two mitochondrial gene regions, boosting coverage of the 12S eDNA target sequence to 80% of local taxa. We collected 76 one-liter shoreline surface water samples at two contrasting estuary locations over six months beginning in January 2016. eDNA was amplified with vertebrate-specific 12S primers. Bioinformatic analysis of amplified DNA, using a reference library of GenBank and our newly generated 12S sequences, detected most (81% locally abundant or common species and relatively few (23% uncommon taxa, and corresponded to seasonal presence and habitat preference as determined by traditional surveys. Approximately 2% of fish reads were commonly consumed species that are rare or absent in local waters, consistent with wastewater input. Freshwater species were rarely detected despite Hudson River inflow. These results support further exploration and suggest eDNA will facilitate fine-scale geographic and temporal mapping of marine fish populations at relatively low cost.

  19. When the reaper becomes a salesman: The influence of terror management on product preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Tom van Bommel; Cormac O’Dwyer; Tim W. M. Zuidgeest; Fenna H. Poletiek

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigates how consumer choice is affected by Terror Management Theory’s proposition of Mortality Salience increasing one’s cultural worldview defense and self-esteem striving. The study builds empirically upon prior theorizing by Arndt, Solomon, Kasser and Sheldon (2004). During an experiment, we manipulated Mortality Salience and measured product preferences for conspicuousness and familiarity. Participants primed with death were more likely to choose conspicuous ...

  20. A Study on Factors Influencing Muslim’s Consumers Preferences Towards Takaful Products In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamarul Ariffin Mansor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the enactment of the Takaful Act 1984, Malaysia’s Takaful industry has been achieving momentum and increasingly recognized as a significant contributor to Malaysia’s overall Islamic financial system. Hence, for continuing future progress in financial industry’s rapid development, Malaysian government through Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM, invites financial institution across the world to establish Takaful and re-takaful operations in Malaysia to conduct foreign currency business. Nowadays, Muslim’s consumers have the option to choose either Takaful or conventional insurance product. In addition, based on the nature of Takaful product descriptions, it has a higher preference since it is Syariah compliant which align with the Islamic regulation. However, the concept of Takaful is still vague to many people even to the Muslim because there is no proper explanation to educate them on lot of hidden advantages of it. Therefore, this study investigates the causal relationship between consumer awareness, perception and religiosity towards Muslim’s consumer preferences on Takaful product. Primary data were collected through series of questions in a questionnaire that were distributed among Muslim’s Takaful customers of selected Takaful agencies. Analysis on the collected data was performed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and structural equation modelling (SEM using lavaan package in R software. A CFA result show fit indices that met the recommended values criteria. In addition, the path analysis in SEM reports that two out of three independent variables are significant contributors to Muslim’s customers’ preferences towards Takaful.

  1. Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-12-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight.

  2. Marketing research of consumer preferences in juice products market in Kemerovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Kiseleva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, studies on juice products market in Kemerovo, preferences of Kemerovo residents buying juice products were conducted. With the help of the data obtained, the characteristics of juice products market in Kemerovo with the identification of the main suppliers of products were given. The object of the study in thiswork was the residents of Kemerovo. The purpose of the work was to study juice products market in Kemerovo, to investigate the preferences of Kemerovo residents buying juice products. The objectives of this work werethe following: characteristics of juice products market in Kemerovo, determining of the potential of the juice products market, analysis of the division of the market between producers, processing of the data obtained concerning the state of the juice products market in Kemerovo. The survey method was used to study the goals. Questioning is a method of collecting primary material in the form of a written survey of a large number of respondents to collect information on the state of certain aspects of the process under study. The questionnaire can cover a wide range of people, which makes it possible to minimize atypical manifestations, while personal contact with the respondent is not necessary. Another important advantage of the method is the convenience of performing mathematical processing of questionnaires. According to the processed questionnaires, advice of recommendation character, which is not mandatory for use, was given to the producers of juice products. Taking these recommendations into account, the manufacturer will be able to determine the characteristic and inherent features of the juice market in Kemerovo. Kemerovo residents were asked to answer a number of questions. The survey was conducted anonymously. The answers are informative and will be used for further study.

  3. Island-specific preferences of tourists for environmental features: implications of climate change for tourism dependent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uyarra, M.C.; Cote, I.M. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Conservation; Gill, J.A. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences; Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Norwich (United Kingdom); Tinch, R.T. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences; Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Viner, D. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Climate Research Unit; Watkinson, A.R. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Conservation; East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences

    2005-03-15

    Climate change may affect important environmental components of holiday destinations, which might have repercussions for tourism-dependent economies. This study documents the importance of environmental attributes in determining the choice and holiday enjoyment of tourists visiting Bonaire and Barbados, two Caribbean islands with markedly different tourism markets and infrastructure. Three hundred and sixteen and 338 participants from Bonaire and Barbados, respectively, completed standardized questionnaires. Warm temperatures, clear waters and low health risks were the most important environmental features determining holiday destination choice. However, tourists in Bonaire thereafter prioritized marine wildlife attributes (i.e. coral and fish diversity and abundance) over other environmental features, whereas tourists in Barbados exhibited stronger preferences for terrestrial features, particularly beach characteristics. The willingness of tourists to revisit these islands was strongly linked to the state of the preferred environmental attributes. More than 80% of tourists in Bonaire and Barbados would be unwilling to return for the same holiday price in the event, respectively, of coral bleaching as a result of elevated sea surface temperatures and reduced beach area as a result of sea level rise. Climate change might have a significant impact on Caribbean tourism economy through alteration of environmental features important to destination selection. Island-specific management strategies, such as focusing resources on the protection of key marine or terrestrial features, may provide a means of reducing the environmental and economic impacts of climate change. (author)

  4. INVESTIGATION OF BRAND NAME-COUNTRY OF ORIGIN PREFERENCE IN FOUR DIFFERENT PRODUCT GROUPS WITH RESPECT TO CONSPICUOUS CONSUMPTION TENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Doğan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine different preferences for brand name–country of origin shaped in line with levels of conspicuous consumption tendency and to determine Turkish consumers’ preferences for brand name–country of origin combinations in different product groups. The study was conducted in Eskisehir (Turkey with a sample of 413 people chosen through convenience sampling. The study data were collected with a questionnaire and face-face-to interviews. The participants’ preferences for brand name-country of origin combinations were determined separately based on four different product groups(hedonic, utilitarian, durable and non-durable. The study showed that, for all the four product groups, the participants preferred the products with a Turkish brand name and Turkey as the country of origin most, followed by the products with a French brand name and France as the country of origin. This finding suggests that, with respect to the four product groups in the study, Turkish consumers preferred domestic products over foreign products. Also, the participants who preferred French brand name-France as the country of origin for the hedonic product, French brand name-Turkey as the country of origin for the utilitarian product, French brand name-Turkey as the country of origin for the durable product and French brand name-France as the country of origin for the non-durable product were found to have highest tendency of conspicuous consumption in the corresponding product groups. In other words, as the level of conspicuous consumption increased, the participants tended to prefer French brand name-France as the country of origin for the hedonic product, French brand name-Turkey as the country of origin for the utilitarian product, French brand name-Turkey as the country of origin for the durable product and French brand name-France as the country of origin for the non-durable product.

  5. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic ...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  6. Reward and vocal production: song-associated place preference in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riters, Lauren V; Stevenson, Sharon A

    2012-05-15

    Vocal production is crucial for successful social interactions in multiple species. Reward can strongly influence behavior; however, the extent to which reward systems influence vocal behavior is unknown. In songbirds, singing occurs in different contexts. It can be spontaneous and undirected (e.g., song produced alone or as part of a large flock) or directed towards a conspecific (e.g., song used to attract a mate or influence a competitor). In this study, we developed a conditioned place preference paradigm to measure reward associated with different types of singing behavior in two songbird species. Both male zebra finches and European starlings developed a preference for a chamber associated with production of undirected song, suggesting that the production of undirected song is tightly coupled to intrinsic reward. In contrast, neither starlings nor zebra finches developed a place preference in association with directed song; however, male starlings singing directed song that failed to attract a female developed a place aversion. Unsuccessful contact calling behavior was also associated with a place aversion. These findings suggest that directed vocal behavior is not tightly linked to intrinsic reward but may be externally reinforced by social interactions. Data across two species thus support the hypothesis that the production of undirected but not directed song is tightly coupled to intrinsic reward. This study is the first to identify song-associated reward and suggests that reward associated with vocal production differs depending upon the context in which communication occurs. The findings have implications for understanding what motivates animals to engage in social behaviors and ways in which distinct reward mechanisms function to direct socially appropriate behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Perception of the environmental impacts of current and alternative modes of pig production by stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jean; van der Werf, Hayo M G

    2003-08-01

    The current industrial pig production model is in crisis, due to its association with environmental pollution, doubtful product quality and lack of animal well-being. In Bretagne (France), a region of intensive pig production, a survey of seven stakeholder groups concerned with pig production was conducted, as part of a research programme dedicated to the assessment of the environmental impact of different modes of pig production. A very large majority of pig producers (93%) and their suppliers (100%) considers pig farms as an asset for the region, whereas a majority of scientists (58%), activists (78%) and consumers (54%) sees it as a handicap. Differences among stakeholder groups are minor with respect to the perceived importance of environmental and social issues. Stakeholders agree on the relative level of responsibility of pig farms with respect to specific problems. For all groups unpleasant odours and water quality come first with respect to responsibility, for most groups soil quality comes second, followed by product safety and air quality. For a future improved mode of pig production, 76% of pig producers and their suppliers prefer to adapt the current model, for all other groups the majority prefers an alternative model. While pig producers and their suppliers prefer a slurry-based housing system, all other groups prefer a straw-based system. Pig producers see the slurry-based system as technically superior and associate the straw-based system with poor working conditions, whereas consumers associate the slurry-based system in the first place with poor water quality and associate the straw-based system with less pollution. These results will be of use in the research programme on the environmental impact of modes of pig production, as they indicate the environmental impacts to be considered and their relative importance. The results will also help in deciding which options should be assessed. It is concluded that the poor image of the current pig

  8. Consumer preferences and demand for insect-based food products in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen

    2017-01-01

    in developing countries. Due to these benefits, stakeholders in the food sector have recently focused on establishing the insect production sector. Nevertheless, there are a number of issues that need to be investigated before the production is fully optimized. This thesis investigates consumer demand in terms...... of consumers' preferences and willingness-topay (WTP) for insect-based food products in Kenya. It does this by focusing on the association of consumers' psychological orientations, contextual attributes, tasting experience and peer influence with consumers' choice behavior. A further focus is an investigation...... of the impacts of value elicitation methods in terms of hypothetical and nonhypothetical market scenarios on consumers' WTP for the insect-based food products. Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are employed to collect data in field settings. The data is then analyzed using the state-of-the-art choice modeling...

  9. Consumer preference, behavior and perception about meat and meat products: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-I-Furnols, Maria; Guerrero, Luis

    2014-11-01

    Meat and meat products currently represent an important source of protein in the human diet, and their quality varies according to intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that can sometimes be shaped to make a product more desirable. Because consumers are the final step in the production chain, it is useful to identify which factors affect their behavioral patterns. This would allow the meat sector to better satisfy consumer expectations, demands and needs. This paper focuses on features that might influence consumer behavior, preferences and their perception of meat and meat products with respect to psychological, sensory and marketing aspects. This multidisciplinary approach includes evaluating psychological issues such as attitudes, beliefs, and expectations; sensory properties such as appearance, texture, flavor and odor; and marketing-related aspects such as price and brand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Women's gambling behaviour, product preferences, and perceptions of product harm: differences by age and gambling risk status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Simone; Thomas, Samantha L; Randle, Melanie; Bestman, Amy; Pitt, Hannah; Cowlishaw, Sean; Daube, Mike

    2018-04-24

    Women's participation in, and harm from gambling, is steadily increasing. There has been very limited research to investigate how gambling behaviour, product preferences, and perceptions of gambling harm may vary across subgroups of women. This study surveyed a convenience sample of 509 women from Victoria and New South Wales, Australia. Women were asked a range of questions about their socio-demographic characteristics and gambling behaviour. Focusing on four gambling products in Australia-casino gambling, electronic gambling machines (EGMs), horse betting, and sports betting-women were asked about their frequency of participation, their product preferences, and perceptions of product harms. The sample was segmented a priori according to age and gambling risk status, and differences between groups were identified using Chi-square tests and ANOVAs. Thematic analysis was used to interpret qualitative data. Almost two thirds (n = 324, 63.7%) of women had engaged with one of the four products in the previous 12 months. Compared to other age groups, younger women aged 16-34 years exhibited a higher proportion of problem gambling, gambled more frequently, and across more products. While EGMs were the product gambled on most frequently by women overall, younger women were significantly more likely to bet on sports and gamble at casinos relative to older women. Qualitative data indicated that younger women engaged with gambling products as part of a "night out", "with friends", due to their "ease of access" and perceived "chance of winning big". There were significant differences in the perceptions of the harms associated with horse and sports betting according to age and gambling risk status, with younger women and gamblers perceiving these products as less harmful. This study highlights that there are clear differences in the gambling behaviour, product preferences, and perceptions of product harms between subgroups of women. A gendered approach will enable public

  11. EPD--environmental product declarations for wood products : an application of life cycle information about forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Adam Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Transparent and credible environmental labeling of products is vital for a sustainable future. Ecolabeling shows information on the environmental performance of products, processes, and services. This article focuses on one type of ecolabeling referred to as environmental product declarations (EPDs) that provide environmental impact information based on life cycle...

  12. An environmental generalised Luenberger-Hicks-Moorsteen productivity indicator and an environmental generalised Hicks-Moorsteen productivity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, A

    2015-09-15

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce an environmental generalised productivity indicator and its ratio-based counterpart. The innovative environmental generalised total factor productivity measures inherit the basic structure of both Hicks-Moorsteen productivity index and Luenberger-Hicks-Moorsteen productivity indicator. This methodological contribution shows that these new environmental generalised total factor productivity measures yield the earlier standard Hicks-Moorsteen index and Luenberger-Hicks-Moorsteen indicator, as well as environmental performance index, as special cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Patient preference for a long-acting recombinant FSH product in ovarian hyperstimulation in IVF: a discrete choice experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Wijngaard, L.; Rodijk, I. C. M.; van der Veen, F.; Gooskens-van Erven, M. H. W.; Koks, C. A. M.; Verhoeve, H. R.; Mol, B. W. J.; van Wely, M.; Mochtar, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    What factors or attributes of a long-acting recombinant FSH (rFSH) or daily-administrated rFSH influence women's preferences IVF? Patients' preferences for rFSH products are primary influenced by the attribute 'number of injections', but a low 'number of injections' is exchanged for a high 'number

  14. Participatory assessment of potato production constraints and trait preferences in potato cultivar development in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baptiste Muhinyuza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is the major food and cash crop in the highland regions of Rwanda. However, farmers are not integrated into the potato breeding process. The objectives of this research were to identify farmers’ key potato production constraints and establish preferred traits in potato cultivar development in Rwanda. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA study was conducted through structured survey involving 144 households and 22 focus groups with 258 participants in Musanze, Gicumbi and Nyamagabe districts. The structured survey used a questionnaire administered to farmers to collect information on importance of potatoes and other main crops. While focus groups discussions used matrix scoring of key production constraints and pair-wise ranking of traits. Potato is the most important food and cash crop, followed by maize, beans and wheat. The dominant potato varieties are Kirundo, Cruza, Mabondo and Victoria. The most important potato production constraints are lack of access to credit, lack of high yielding cultivars, insufficient clean seeds and late blight disease. Variety Mabondo is the most tolerant to late blight, followed by Cruza, Kirundo, Kinigi and Rutuku in all the districts. High yield, disease tolerance and high dry matter content are the most important attributes preferred by farmers. Active farmer participation in early breeding stages is critical for a successful potato breeding programme.

  15. Eliciting preferences for waterpipe tobacco smoking using a discrete choice experiment: implications for product regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Maziak, Wasim; Hammond, David; Nakkash, Rima; Islam, Farahnaz; Cheng, Xi; Thrasher, James F

    2015-09-09

    Waterpipe smoking is highly prevalent among university students, and has been increasing in popularity despite mounting evidence showing it is harmful to health. The aim of this study was to measure preferences for waterpipe smoking and determine which product characteristics are most important to smokers. A large university in the Southeastern USA. Adult waterpipe smokers attending the university (N=367). Participants completed an Internet-based discrete choice experiment to reveal their preferences for, and trade-offs between, the attributes of hypothetical waterpipe smoking sessions. Participants were presented with waterpipe lounge menus, each with three fruit-flavoured options and one tobacco flavoured option, in addition to an opt out option. Nicotine content and price were provided for each choice. Participants were randomised to either receive menus with a text-only health-warning message or no message. Multinomial and nested logit models were used to estimate the impact on consumer choice of attributes and between-subject assignment of health warnings respectively. On average, participants preferred fruit-flavoured varieties to tobacco flavour. They were averse to options labelled with higher nicotine content. Females and non-smokers of cigarettes were more likely than their counterparts to prefer flavoured and nicotine-free varieties. Participants exposed to a health warning were more likely to opt out. Fruit-flavoured tobacco and lower nicotine content labels, two strategies widely used by the industry, increase the demand for waterpipe smoking among young adults. Waterpipe-specific regulation should limit the availability of flavoured waterpipe tobacco and require accurate labelling of constituents. Waterpipe-specific tobacco control regulation, along with research to inform policy, is required to curb this emerging public health threat. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  16. Globalization’s unexpected impact on soybean production in South America: linkages between preferences for non-genetically modified crops, eco-certifications, and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Rachael D.; Rueda, Ximena; Lambin, Eric F.

    2013-12-01

    The land use impacts of globalization and of increasing global food and fuel demand depend on the trade relationships that emerge between consuming and producing countries. In the case of soybean production, increasing trade between South American farmers and consumers in Asia and Europe has facilitated soybean expansion in the Amazon, Chaco, and Cerrado biomes. While these telecouplings have been well documented, there is little understanding of how quality preferences influence trade patterns and supply chains, incentivizing or discouraging particular land use practices. In this study we provide empirical evidence that Brazil’s continued production of non-genetically modified (GM) soybeans has increased its competitive advantage in European countries with preferences against GM foods. Brazil’s strong trade relationship with European consumers has facilitated an upgrading of the soybean supply chain. Upgraded soybean supply chains create new conservation opportunities by allowing farmers to differentiate their products based on environmental quality in order to access premiums in niche markets in Europe. These interactions between GM preferences, trade flows, and supply chain structure help to explain why Brazilian soybean farmers have adopted environmental certification programs on a larger scale than Argentinian, Bolivian, Paraguayan, and Uruguayan soybean producers.

  17. Globalization’s unexpected impact on soybean production in South America: linkages between preferences for non-genetically modified crops, eco-certifications, and land use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, Rachael D; Rueda, Ximena; Lambin, Eric F

    2013-01-01

    The land use impacts of globalization and of increasing global food and fuel demand depend on the trade relationships that emerge between consuming and producing countries. In the case of soybean production, increasing trade between South American farmers and consumers in Asia and Europe has facilitated soybean expansion in the Amazon, Chaco, and Cerrado biomes. While these telecouplings have been well documented, there is little understanding of how quality preferences influence trade patterns and supply chains, incentivizing or discouraging particular land use practices. In this study we provide empirical evidence that Brazil’s continued production of non-genetically modified (GM) soybeans has increased its competitive advantage in European countries with preferences against GM foods. Brazil’s strong trade relationship with European consumers has facilitated an upgrading of the soybean supply chain. Upgraded soybean supply chains create new conservation opportunities by allowing farmers to differentiate their products based on environmental quality in order to access premiums in niche markets in Europe. These interactions between GM preferences, trade flows, and supply chain structure help to explain why Brazilian soybean farmers have adopted environmental certification programs on a larger scale than Argentinian, Bolivian, Paraguayan, and Uruguayan soybean producers. (letter)

  18. Exporting environmental products: A small business's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.

    1992-01-01

    If the last year and a half are any indication it would appear that the early 1990's will be to international trade what the early 1980's were to entrepreneurship. Embraced by the popular and business press and encouraged by the administration, exporting has become one of the most talked about topics in business today. As manufacturers, consultants and service providers we are continually told that to survive in the world marketplace we must think globally and compete aggressively. There can be no doubt that export markets, always an interesting sector of business, have become both more important and exciting in recent years. On January 1, 1993 the unified common market of the European Community will officially open for business. Although most of the significant changes in that market have already taken place or been agreed upon, this historic event - creating the single largest market among industrial nations - will undoubtedly have an effect on how we as exporters do business in Europe. The Free Trade Agreement with Canada has been in effect for over two years now and there have been and will continue to be many benefits for us. In developing and newly capitalist countries we can point to Czechoslovakia and Hungary as the first of several potentially lucrative markets. Mexico, in the spotlight due to the new Free Trade initiative, will be a strong new export market in our own backyard. And finally the so called mini-dragons of Southeast Asia cannot be ignored. Whether or not they choose to create a formal trading bloc, their ever increasing foreign reserves should be looked at with hungry, but cautious eyes. In this paper the author identifies a large and ever increasing world of customers beyond our national borders and identifies how those companies and individuals in the environmental products market can benefit greatly

  19. The regional environmental impact of biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a broad overview of the potential environmental impacts of biomass energy from energy crops. The subject is complex because the environmental impact of using biomass for energy must be considered in the context of alternative energy options while the environmental impact of producing biomass from energy crops must be considered in the context of the alternative land-uses. Using biomass-derived energy can reduce greenhouse gas emissions or increase them; growing biomass energy crops can enhance soil fertility or degrade it. Without knowing the context of the biomass energy, one can say little about its specific environmental impacts. The primary focus of this paper is an evaluation of the environmental impacts of growing energy crops. I present an approach for quantitatively evaluating the potential environmental impact of growing energy crops at a regional scale that accounts for the environmental and economic context of the crops. However, to set the stage for this discussion, I begin by comparing the environmental advantages and disadvantages of biomass-derived energy relative to other energy alternatives such as coal, hydropower, nuclear power, oil/gasoline, natural gas and photovoltaics

  20. Sustainable sheep production and consumer preference trends: compatibilities, contradictions, and unresolved dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montossi, F; Font-i-Furnols, M; del Campo, M; San Julián, R; Brito, G; Sañudo, C

    2013-12-01

    There are increasing concerns of society towards the consumption of animal products which have been produced and transformed in a sustainable manner. This trend influences consumer purchasing decision making, particularly in developed countries. On the other hand, in the next years, the pressure to increase the volume and efficiency of meat production will be much higher to cope with the expected unsatisfied demand. At least in part, current and future technologies could contribute to solve this challenge. However, the use of some of these innovations could have a negative effect on consumer preferences. There is no consensus in our society about this dilemma. The objective of this paper is to review the scientific evidence related to these topics and to analyze and discuss the effect of some of the extrinsic and intrinsic factors linked with the sheep industry which could affect the acceptability of lamb meat by consumers. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantifying The Relative Importance Of Phylogeny And Environmental Preferences As Drivers Of Gene Content In Prokaryotic Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier eTamames

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Two complementary forces shape microbial genomes: vertical inheritance of genes by phylogenetic descent, and acquisition of new genes related to adaptation to particular habitats and lifestyles. Quantification of the relative importance of each driving force proved difficult. We determined the contribution of each factor, and identified particular genes or biochemical/cellular processes linked to environmental preferences (i.e., propensity of a taxon to live in particular habitats. Three types of data were confronted: [i] complete genomes, which provide gene content of different taxa; [ii] phylogenetic information, via alignment of 16S rRNA sequences, which allowed determination of the distance between taxa, and [iii] distribution of species in environments via 16S rRNA sampling experiments, reflecting environmental preferences of different taxa. The combination of these three datasets made it possible to describe and quantify the relationships among them. We found that, although phylogenetic descent was responsible for shaping most genomes, a discernible part of the latter was correlated to environmental adaptations. Particular families of genes were identified as environmental markers, as supported by direct studies such as metagenomic sequencing. These genes are likely important for adaptation of bacteria to particular conditions or habitats, such as carbohydrate or glycan metabolism genes being linked to host-associated environments.

  2. Determining the environmental training needs and training preferences of tribal officials on reservations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Jeeta Lakhani

    The problem of this research was to determine the priority environmental management training needs (drinking water, wastewater, and solid waste), classroom training system preferences and related cultural factors of Native American tribal officials with environmental responsibilities living on reservations in the United States. The researcher conducted telephone interviews with 18 tribal officials on reservations in diverse geographic areas of the United States to determine their classroom training preferences. These officials also responded to a mail/fax survey comprised of 28 statements describing their environmental responsibilities in the areas of drinking water, wastewater, and solid waste. Tribal officials indicated how important the statements were according to them on a scale of 1--5 (1 being low importance and 5 being high importance). Tribal officials also indicated their ability to perform in the stated areas on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 being low ability and 5 being high ability). It was found that tribal officials felt they needed training in the areas of: (1) Solid Waste: Awareness of conventional and alternative solid waste management strategies as well as assessing the reservation's need related to solid waste management. (2) Regional or Inter-Governmental Strategies : Working with the federal, and, state governments for enforcing and developing regulations. (3) Drinking water: Assessing the reservation's drinking water needs and awareness of conventional and alternative drinking water systems. (4) Training for environmental staff: Determining and planning training for environmental personnel is another area of need indicated by the responding tribal officials. (5) Wastewater : Assessing the reservations wastewater needs, compliance and liability issues and awareness of alternative and conventional wastewater systems. It was also found that tribal officials preferred: (1) Trainers who were knowledgeable about the subject matter and tribal culture

  3. Preschool children with gender normative and gender non-normative peer preferences: psychosocial and environmental correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; DiDonato, Matthew D; Clary, Laura; Fabes, Richard A; Kreiger, Tyson; Palermo, Francisco; Hanish, Laura

    2012-08-01

    We addressed several issues concerning children who show gender non-normative (GNN) patterns of peer play. First, do young children with GNN peer preferences differ from children with gender normative (GN) peer preferences in problem behaviors? Second, do GNN and GN children differ in sociability and isolation and do they have differential socialization opportunities with externalizing, internalizing, and socially competent peers? We employed a Bayesian approach for classifying children as GNN based on their peer preferences as compared to their peers using a sample of Head Start preschool children from a large Southwestern city (N = 257; 53 % boys; M age = 51 months; 66 % Mexican American). To calculate socialization opportunities, we assessed affiliation to each child in the class and weighted that by each peer's characteristics to determine the exposure that each child had to different kinds of peers. GN children of both sexes interacted more with same-sex peers, which may limit learning of different styles of interaction. As compared to GN children, GNN children exhibited more engagement in other-sex activities and with other-sex play partners and GNN children experienced somewhat fewer peer interactions, but did not differ on problem behaviors or social competence. Boys with GNN peer preferences had increased exposure to peers with problem behaviors. GNN girls experienced little exposure to peers with problem behaviors, but they also had little exposure to socially competent peers, which may reduce learning social skills from peers. Implications of these findings for future socialization and development will be discussed.

  4. Hands on or hands off? Disgust sensitivity and preference for environmental education activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Bixler; Myron F. Floyd

    1999-01-01

    Detailed descriptions of barriers to enviromuental education (EE) can provide opportunities for educators to foresee potential problems in programs. High disgust sensitivity is an intrapersonal barrier that constrains preference for learning opportunities involving manipulation of some organic materials. Middle school students in Texas (N = 450)...

  5. Environmental Management in Danish transnational textile product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Hendriksen, Kåre

    2010-01-01

    on capacity building at the suppliers in developing countries, while other companies seem to focus the complex activities at domestic suppliers. Two new facilitating actors in environmental management in product chains were identified. Research limitations and implications The focus on one sector in one......Purpose The purpose is to analyse environmental responsibility of companies from industrialized countries when they source materials and products in countries with less environmental protection. Methodology The article is a study of corporate environmental management in the Danish textile...... have a practice without environmental initiatives. Dominating types of initiatives are cleaner technology, environmental management systems and cleaner products. Driving forces are governmental regulation, customer demands, market expectations and protection of corporate brands. Some companies focus...

  6. Environmental sustainability assessment of palm biodiesel production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2012-01-01

    The study assesses the environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production systems in Thailand by focusing on their energy efficiency and environmental impact potentials. The Net Energy Balance (NEB) and Renewability indicate energy gain for palm biodiesel and its co-products as compared to fossil energy inputs. In addition, life cycle assessment also reveals lower values of environmental impact potentials of biodiesel as compared to conventional diesel. For example, palm biodiesel can provide greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. Nitrogen-fertilizer production and application in the plantation and the air emissions from the ponds treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) are found to be the major environmental aspects. However, the energy and environmental performances depend on various factors such as the management efficiency of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and POME and the possible land-use change in the future. Recommendations are made for improving environmental performance of palm biodiesel and for securing the long-term availability of crude palm oil supply with a view towards sustainable palm biodiesel production. -- Highlights: ► Environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production in Thailand is assessed. ► Palm biodiesel can provide GHG reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. ► Net energy ratio and renewability of palm biodiesel both range between 2 and 4. ► Efficient use of by-products in the value chain enhances environmental benefits.

  7. Do we care about sustainability? An analysis of time sensitivity of social preferences under environmental time-persistent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccioli, Michela; Hanley, Nick; Torres, Cati; Font, Antoni Riera

    2016-07-15

    Environmental cost-benefit analysis has traditionally assumed that the value of benefits is sensitive to their timing and that outcomes are valued higher, the sooner in time they occur following implementation of a project or policy. Though, this assumption might have important implications especially for the social desirability of interventions aiming at counteracting time-persistent environmental problems, whose impacts occur in the long- and very long-term, respectively involving the present and future generations. This study analyzes the time sensitivity of social preferences for preservation policies of adaptation to climate change stresses. Results show that stated preferences are time insensitive, due to sustainability issues: individuals show insignificant differences in benefits they can experience within their own lifetimes compared to those which occur in the longer term, and which will instead be enjoyed by future generations. Whilst these results may be specific to the experimental design employed here, they do raise interesting questions regarding choices over time-persistent environmental problems, particularly in terms of the desirability of interventions which produce longer-term benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Making environmental assessments of biomass production systems comparable worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Markus A; Seppelt, Ralf; Priess, Joerg A; Witing, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Global demand for agricultural and forestry products fundamentally affects regional land-use change associated with environmental impacts (EIs) such as erosion. In contrast to aggregated global metrics such as greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, local/regional EIs of different agricultural and forestry production regions need methods which enable worldwide EI comparisons. The key aspect is to control environmental heterogeneity to reveal man-made differences of EIs between production regions. Environmental heterogeneity is the variation in biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. In the present study, we used three approaches to control environmental heterogeneity: (i) environmental stratification, (ii) potential natural vegetation (PNV), and (iii) regional environmental thresholds to compare EIs of solid biomass production. We compared production regions of managed forests and plantation forests in subtropical (Satilla watershed, Southeastern US), tropical (Rufiji basin, Tanzania), and temperate (Mulde watershed, Central Germany) climates. All approaches supported the comparison of the EIs of different land-use classes between and within production regions. They also standardized the different EIs for a comparison between the EI categories. The EIs for different land-use classes within a production region decreased with increasing degree of naturalness (forest, plantation forestry, and cropland). PNV was the most reliable approach, but lacked feasibility and relevance. The PNV approach explicitly included most of the factors that drive environmental heterogeneity in contrast to the stratification and threshold approaches. The stratification approach allows consistent global application due to available data. Regional environmental thresholds only included arbitrarily selected aspects of environmental heterogeneity; they are only available for few EIs. Especially, the PNV and stratification approaches are options to compare regional EIs of biomass or crop production

  9. Can green consumerism replace environmental regulation? A differentiated-products example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Clas [Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7013, S-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    This paper assumes that consumers are willing to pay an extra premium for a good if it has a low impact on the environment. We examine if a little dose of such idealistic behavior has a large impact on the market equilibrium, and to what extent it can replace the environmental regulation. The analysis is carried out in a model with product differentiation, where consumers differ in their preferences for product quality. Consumers' willingness to pay the environmental premium may be uniformly or non-uniformly distributed. Green consumerism will only be modestly influential in both cases, despite the fact that product differentiation leads to relaxed competition and increased profits, and thereby creates leverage.

  10. Can green consumerism replace environmental regulation? A differentiated-products example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Clas

    2004-01-01

    This paper assumes that consumers are willing to pay an extra premium for a good if it has a low impact on the environment. We examine if a little dose of such idealistic behavior has a large impact on the market equilibrium, and to what extent it can replace the environmental regulation. The analysis is carried out in a model with product differentiation, where consumers differ in their preferences for product quality. Consumers' willingness to pay the environmental premium may be uniformly or non-uniformly distributed. Green consumerism will only be modestly influential in both cases, despite the fact that product differentiation leads to relaxed competition and increased profits, and thereby creates leverage

  11. Comparative Analysis of Environmental Impacts of Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that environmental impacts exerted by manufactured products throughout their entire life cycle are major aspects to be considered, alongside their functional features and cost-effectiveness. One of the available methods to evaluate environmental impacts is known to as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method.The study summarises the reports from the literature on the subject of environmental impact assessment. In conclusions, the authorsindicate the need for assessing the environmental impact of cast products made from conventional and newly introduced alloys.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Environmental Impacts of Selected Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedoryszyn A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate that environmental impacts exerted by manufactured products throughout their entire life cycle are major aspects to be considered, alongside their functional features and cost-effectiveness. One of the available methods to evaluate environmental impacts is known to as the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method. The study summarises the reports from the literature on the subject of environmental impact assessment. In conclusions, the authors indicate the need for assessing the environmental impact of cast products made from conventional and newly introduced alloys.

  13. Environmental improvement through product development - in Japanese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.; Bey, Niki

    Companies in Denmark and abroad are working increasingly to reduce human impacts on the environment and nature. At the same time there must still be a large focus on the creation of value for customers and consumers. This development gives rise to a huge potential for Danish companies, to create ...... Environmental Protection Agency’s company funding scheme. We hope you will be inspired!...

  14. Immersive Virtual Environment Technology to Supplement Environmental Perception, Preference and Behavior Research: A Review with Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan W

    2015-09-11

    Immersive virtual environment (IVE) technology offers a wide range of potential benefits to research focused on understanding how individuals perceive and respond to built and natural environments. In an effort to broaden awareness and use of IVE technology in perception, preference and behavior research, this review paper describes how IVE technology can be used to complement more traditional methods commonly applied in public health research. The paper also describes a relatively simple workflow for creating and displaying 360° virtual environments of built and natural settings and presents two freely-available and customizable applications that scientists from a variety of disciplines, including public health, can use to advance their research into human preferences, perceptions and behaviors related to built and natural settings.

  15. Microalgae for biofuels production and environmental applications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review presents the current classification of biofuels, with special focus on microalgae and their applicability for the production of biodiesel. The paper considered issues related with the processing and culturing of microalgae, for not only those that are involved in biofuel production, but as well as the possibility of their ...

  16. Assessment of the use of two commercially available environmental enrichments by laboratory mice by preference testing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo, P.L. van; Blom, H.J.; Meijer, M.K.; Baumans, V.

    2005-01-01

    In the field of biomedical research, the demand for standardization of environmental enrichment for laboratory animals is growing. For laboratory mice, a wide variety of environmental enrichment items are commercially available. Most of these comply with the demands for standardization, hygiene and

  17. Preschool Children with Gender Normative and Gender Non-Normative Peer Preferences: Psychosocial and Environmental Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Matthew D.; Clary, Laura; Fabes, Richard A.; Kreiger, Tyson; Palermo, Francisco; Hanish, Laura

    2013-01-01

    We addressed several issues concerning children who show gender non-normative (GNN) patterns of peer play. First, do young children with GNN peer preferences differ from children with gender normative (GN) peer preferences in problem behaviors? Second, do GNN and GN children differ in sociability and isolation and do they have differential socialization opportunities with externalizing, internalizing, and socially competent peers? We employed a Bayesian approach for classifying children as GNN based on their peer preferences as compared to their peers using a sample of Head Start preschool children from a large Southwestern city (N = 257; 53% boys; M age = 51 months; 66% Mexican American). To calculate socialization opportunities, we assessed affiliation to each child in the class and weighted that by each peer’s characteristics to determine the exposure that each child had to different kinds of peers. GN children of both sexes interacted more with same-sex peers, which may limit learning of different styles of interaction. As compared to GN children, GNN children exhibited more engagement in other-sex activities and with other-sex play partners and GNN children experienced somewhat fewer peer interactions, but did not differ on problem behaviors or social competence. Boys with GNN peer preferences had increased exposure to peers with problem behaviors. GNN girls experienced little exposure to peers with problem behaviors, but they also had little exposure to socially competent peers, which may reduce learning social skills from peers. Implications of these findings for future socialization and development will be discussed. PMID:22528037

  18. 50% off or buy one get one free? Frame preference as a function of consumable nature in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Sun, Yan; Wang, Yong

    2007-08-01

    Previous studies on how framing differentially affects consumer perceptions of value from equivalent deals indicate that perceptions of deal value from price-saving versus extra-product promotions are moderated by the stock-up characteristic of the category. In this study, the authors explored the relationship between stock-up characteristic and frame preference and the influence of the consumable nature of goods on frame preference. An experiment involving 223 student participants showed that consumable nature, but not stock-up characteristic, affected frame preference. The authors discuss the implications of this finding for the study of information framing and how it impacts consumer judgment and decision making.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: DUST SUPPRESSANT PRODUCTS: SYNTECH PRODUCTS CORPORATION'S PETROTAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust suppressant products used to control particulate emissions from unpaved roads are among the technologies evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center, part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification (ET...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: DUST SUPPRESSANT PRODUCTS: SYNTECH PRODUCTS CORPORATION'S TECHSUPPRESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust suppressant products used to control particulate emissions from unpaved roads are among the technologies evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Verification Center, part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Technology Verification (ET...

  1. Farmers’ knowledge, use and preferences of parasitic weed management strategies in rain-fed rice production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tippe, Dennis E.; Rodenburg, Jonne; Schut, Marc; Ast, van Aad; Kayeke, Juma; Bastiaans, Lammert

    2017-01-01

    Rain-fed rice production in sub-Saharan Africa is often hampered by parasitic weeds. This study assessed farmers’ awareness, use, preference and adoption criteria of parasitic weed management practices in rain-fed rice production environments in Tanzania. Surveys and workshops were organized in

  2. Strategic environmental assessment for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Amongst the approaches that have developed to improve environmental protection within the energy sector, strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has received relatively little attention. This is despite its potential to overcome some of the shortcomings associated with project-level assessment by intervening at higher levels of energy system planning. In this article, a review is presented of the extent to which SEA has been adopted and otherwise promoted in strategic energy planning processes in a wide range of countries throughout the world (with an emphasis on European Union nations). In this regard, the growing importance of regulatory compliance is underlined, especially within the EU, with a particular focus upon the application of SEA to grid systems. The case of the Belgian transmission system is described, illustrating a proactive approach to SEA. But the difficulties inherent in introducing SEA to an increasingly fragmented and liberalised sector are also drawn out, leading to suggestions by which these difficulties may be addressed.

  3. "Worse but ours", or "better but theirs"? The role of Implicit Consumer Ethnocentrism(ICE in product preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Agnieszka Maison

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project was to investigate whether consumer ethnocentrism is purely conscious mechanism based on ideology, as suggested by Shimp and Sharma (1987, or rather is an automatic, unconscious process. The aim of the project was an introduction of the Implicit Consumer Ethnocentrism (ICE concept, measured by the Implicit Association Test (IAT. The goal of the four studies conducted was to investigate the following issues: (a whether ICE – an automatic mechanism underlying the preference for local products over foreign – this could be observed next to the more ideologically based classic consumer ethnocentrism; (b what happens when the consumer’s automatic preference for local products (ICE is confronted by objective evidence of the superiority of foreign products or by the inferiority of local products. It was assumed that Implicit Consumer Ethnocentrism could be reduced when foreign products were associated with a higher level of competence than local products, and this could explain the preference for foreign products over local often observed in less developed countries. In study 1 the ICE for different product categories of existing brands was tested, and in study 2 the ICE was measured in the context of nonexistent brands. Both studies showed a strong in-group brand preference and confirmed the existence of new phenomena – Implicit Consumer Ethnocentrism. The results of study 3 and 4 again indicated a strong, automatic in-group brand favoritism effect as measured by IAT – participants preferred local brands over foreign. However, the inclusion of well-known foreign brands associated with high competence reduced the IAT effect (in-group preference.

  4. "Worse but Ours," or "Better but Theirs?" - The Role of Implicit Consumer Ethnocentrism (ICE) in Product Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maison, Dominika; Maliszewski, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project was to investigate whether consumer ethnocentrism is purely conscious mechanism based on ideology, as suggested by Shimp and Sharma (1987), or rather is an automatic, unconscious process. The aim of the project was an introduction of the Implicit Consumer Ethnocentrism (ICE) concept, measured by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The goal of the four studies conducted was to investigate the following issues: (a) whether ICE - an automatic mechanism underlying the preference for local products over foreign - this could be observed next to the more ideologically based classic consumer ethnocentrism; (b) what happens when the consumer's automatic preference for local products (ICE) is confronted by objective evidence of the superiority of foreign products or by the inferiority of local products. It was assumed that ICE could be reduced when foreign products were associated with a higher level of competence than local products, and this could explain the preference for foreign products over local often observed in less developed countries. In study 1 the ICE for different product categories of existing brands was tested, and in study 2 the ICE was measured in the context of non-existent brands. Both studies showed a strong in-group brand preference and confirmed the existence of new phenomena - ICE. The results of studies 3 and 4 again indicated a strong, automatic in-group brand favoritism effect as measured by IAT - participants preferred local brands over foreign. However, the inclusion of well-known foreign brands associated with high competence reduced the IAT effect (in-group preference).

  5. Consumer knowledge, preference, and perceived quality of dried tomato products in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owureku-Asare, Mavis; Ambrose, R P Kingsly; Oduro, Ibok; Tortoe, Charles; Saalia, Firibu K

    2017-05-01

    Postharvest losses (PHL) are incurred in the tomato value chain in Ghana and solar drying of tomato is a promising technology for reducing the loss. However, there are concerns on the usage, functionality and sensory appeal of the dried products to consumers, compounded with the lack of information and research on dried tomato processing in Ghana. A survey was carried out by administering semistructured questionnaires to 395 randomly selected and willing respondents in the Accra Metropolis. Information was obtained on the socioeconomic profile, consumption pattern, knowledge, and acceptance of tomato processing technologies and assessment of quality attributes important to consumers. Most consumers (74%) preferred tomato powder that is conveniently packaged to retain the characteristic intense taste and the flavor using Friedman's rank mean procedure. The study indicated that consumers were more concerned about good manufacturing practices during the production of solar-dried tomato (48.8%) rather than the quality attributes (8.6%). These findings indicate the need for safe solar drying procedures in order to increase consumer acceptability of solar-dried tomato products in Ghana.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN TO ATTITUDE TOWARDS GREEN PRODUCTS: EVIDENCES FROM INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Danish Kirmani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship of environmental concern of consumers with their attitude towards green products and also to identify the predictors of environmental concern. The data was generated from a researcher controlled sample of graduate and post-graduate students enrolled in educational institutions located in the national capital of India (New Delhi and surrounding areas popularly known as National Capital Region (NCR. The data generated was analysed employing Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. The study findings indicate that environmental concern has a significant and positive influence on attitude towards green products. Collectivism and eco-literacy emerged as predictors of the environmental concern of consumers. The findings of this study are expected to enhance the understanding of marketers of the role played by variables such as religiosity, collectivism, eco-literacy, and environmental concern in formation of attitude of consumers towards green products.

  7. Assessment of environmental external effects in the production of energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    A project in Denmark has been carried out with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The energy production technologies that will be reported in this paper are wind power and a conventional coal fired plant. In the project the environm......A project in Denmark has been carried out with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The energy production technologies that will be reported in this paper are wind power and a conventional coal fired plant. In the project...... the environmental damages for the energy production technologies are compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized....

  8. Consumer Purchase Behaviour Toward Environmentally Friendly Products in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Udo, Miyako

    2007-01-01

    This study considers consumer purchase behaviour toward environmentally friendly products in Japan and focuses on factors which can influence environmentally responsible purchase decision making. The modified theory of planned behaviour based on previous research in the area of environmentally responsible purchase behaviour and ethical purchase decision making is applied to examine factors affecting the purchase decision making and key findings from the present study are highlighted. It can b...

  9. Oil and Gas Production, Environmental Health and Livelihood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil and Gas Production, Environmental Health and Livelihood Vulnerability in the West Coast of Ghana. ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... Respondents' level of education significantly influences their level of knowledge about ...

  10. Environmental implications of accelerated gasohol production: preliminary assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of increasing US production of fuel ethanol by 330 million gallons per year in the 1980 to 1981 time frame in order to substitute gasohol for 10% of the unleaded gasoline consumed in the United States. Alternate biomass feedstocks are examined and corn is selected as the most logical feedstock, based on its availability and cost. Three corn conversion processes that could be used to attain the desired 1980 to 1981 production are identified; fermentation plants that use a feedstock of starch and wastes from an adjacent corn refining plants are found to have environmental and economic advantages. No insurmountable environmental problems can be achieved using current technology; the capital and operating costs of this control are estimated. If ethanol production is increased substantially after 1981, the environmentally acceptable use or disposal of stillage, a liquid by-product of fermentation, could become a serious problem.

  11. Consumers' Preferences for a Local Food Product: The Case of a New Carnaroli Rice Product in Lombardy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzi, Giovanni; Ventura, Vera; Ratti, Sabrina; Balzaretti, Claudia

    2017-04-13

    Italy, with a cultivated area of 218,000 ha, is a European leader of rice production. In particular Lombardy region accounts for 40% of total rice cultivation and the case study in object accounts for 3.2% of Lombardy total rice area (2773 ha). Starting from 2012, through a regional project titled Buono, Sano e Vicino (good, healthy and close), Riso e Rane rural district supported local rice farmers in developing innovation in rice production and promoting an alternative supply chain to increase farmers bargaining power and promote new market strategies. More specifically, the innovation introduced is a new biotech method for variety certification, named DNA controllato (DNA tested). In the first step of the project, the attention was focused on an Italian traditional variety of rice: Carnaroli rice. Thanks to a commercial agreement with one of the most important large retailers in Lombardy, the Riso e Rane rice is offered for sale both in the traditional and wholegrain version. In this context, this work aims to evaluate the determinants of consumer's quality perception of this product, through a preference study of the commercial rice package. Preliminary results reveal that consumers perceive information about origin, local food-system and tradition more easily than DNA tested certification. In conclusion, this work contributes to evaluate the role of bio economy applications to the food sector and offers new insights for the debate about the relationships between tradition and innovation.

  12. Consumers’ preferences for a local food product: the case of a new Carnaroli rice product in Lombardy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ferrazzi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Italy, with a cultivated area of 218,000 ha, is a European leader of rice production. In particular Lombardy region accounts for 40% of total rice cultivation and the case study in object accounts for 3.2% of Lombardy total rice area (2773 ha. Starting from 2012, through a regional project titled Buono, Sano e Vicino (good, healthy and close, Riso e Rane rural district supported local rice farmers in developing innovation in rice production and promoting an alternative supply chain to increase farmers bargaining power and promote new market strategies. More specifically, the innovation introduced is a new biotech method for variety certification, named DNA controllato (DNA tested. In the first step of the project, the attention was focused on an Italian traditional variety of rice: Carnaroli rice. Thanks to a commercial agreement with one of the most important large retailers in Lombardy, the Riso e Rane rice is offered for sale both in the traditional and wholegrain version. In this context, this work aims to evaluate the determinants of consumer’s quality perception of this product, through a preference study of the commercial rice package. Preliminary results reveal that consumers perceive information about origin, local food-system and tradition more easily than DNA tested certification. In conclusion, this work contributes to evaluate the role of bio economy applications to the food sector and offers new insights for the debate about the relationships between tradition and innovation.

  13. The environmental and cost implications of solar energy preferences in Renewable Portfolio Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novacheck, Joshua; Johnson, Jeremiah X.

    2015-01-01

    Many state-level Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) include preferences for solar generation, with goals of increasing the generation diversity, reducing solar costs, and encouraging local solar industries. Depending on their policy design, these preferences can impact the RPS program costs and emissions reduction. This study evaluates the impact of these policies on costs and emissions, coupling an economic dispatch model with optimized renewable site selection. Three policy designs of an increased RPS in Michigan are investigated: (1) 20% Solar Carve-Out, (2) 5% Distributed Generation Solar Carve-Out, and (3) 3× Solar Multiplier. The 20% Solar Carve-Out scenario was found to increase RPS costs 28%, while the 5% Distributed Generation Solar Carve-Out increased costs by 34%. Both of these solar preferences had minimal impact on total emissions. The 3× Solar Multiplier decreases total RPS program costs by 39%, but adds less than half of the total renewable generation of the other cases, significantly increasing emissions of CO_2, NO_x, and SO_2 relative to an RPS without the solar credit multiplier. Sensitivity analysis of the installed cost of solar and the natural gas price finds small changes in the results of the Carve-Out cases, with a larger impact on the 3× Solar Multiplier. - Highlights: • A unit commitment and economic dispatch model is used to assess Renewable Portfolio Standard expansion. • The impact of solar carve-outs and multipliers on costs and benefits of Renewable Portfolio Standards are analyzed. • Solar carve-outs increase costs and have minimal impact on emissions. • The solar multiplier decreases total renewable energy expansion. • The multiplier decreases the emissions reduction potential of the Renewable Portfolio Standard.

  14. Environmental and Social Management System Implementation Handbook : Crop Production

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2014-01-01

    This Handbook is intended to be a practical guide to help companies in the crop production industry develop and implement an environmental and social management system, which should help to improve overall operations. If a company has existing management systems for quality or health and safety, this Handbook will help to expand them to include environmental and social performance. Sectio...

  15. Carbon and environmental footprinting of global biofuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Geoff P.; Seth, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon and environmental footprints associated with the global production of biofuels have been computed from a baseline of 2007-2009 out until 2019. Estimates of future global biofuel production were adopted from OECD-FAO and related projections. In order to determine the footprints associated with these (essentially 'first generation') biofuel resources, the overall environmental footprint was disaggregated into bioproductive land, built land, carbon, embodied energy, materials and wast...

  16. Clean production and design of products - Complex system and environmental politics of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, M.

    1999-01-01

    The orientation of the environmental problem in sustainable terms, especially in the industrialized economies, a new profile in the last years has found. In these economies, the search of a clean production franked by a coherent politics of products and the contribution of the design of products, it have given to the environmental speech a new dimension. With the present text it is sought to respond to the necessity of exploring in Colombia this topic that has a decisive paper inside the instruments of protection of the environment cooperating to improve the quality of life in other latitudes. At the moment the theoretical foundations around the development of products play a important role in the different lines of applied investigation carried out by these countries, especially in the mark of a politics of sustainable development. In spite of the importance of this factor in the industrialized countries where the capacity of integration of a coordinated administration is of great meaning, in Colombia, particularly, the relationship between development and design of products with industry, investigation and political of development and, for our case with a clean production, it is characterized by the scarce insert and attention of this discipline

  17. Consumer Preferences, Product Characteristics, and Potentially Allergenic Ingredients in Best-selling Moisturizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuai; Kwa, Michael; Lohman, Mary E; Evers-Meltzer, Rachel; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2017-11-01

    , $0.35-$0.91). Lotions (median, $0.49; IQR, $0.31-0.68) were statistically less expensive per ounce than butters (median, $1.20; IQR, $0.76-$1.63), creams (median, $0.80; IQR, $0.69-$1.25) and oils (median, $1.30; IQR, $0.64-$2.43). For products with a claim of "fragrance free," 18 (45%) had at least 1 fragrance cross-reactor or botanical ingredient. Products without any ingredients in the NACDG (median, $0.83; IQR, $0.47-$1.69) were not statistically more expensive per ounce than products with 1 or more allergens (median, $0.60; IQR, $0.35-$1.06). Best-selling moisturizers vary widely by price and product characteristics. Given the lack of readily available comparison data on moisturizer efficacy, dermatologists should balance consumer preference, price, and allergenicity in their recommendations.

  18. Food production and environmental hazards in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, M.; Iqbal, M.M.; Shah, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    Agriculture is a profession, which is open to natural conditions and intense human activity. This has brought it in direct interface with the environment. The activities related to agriculture can have favorable as well as unfavorable influence on environment. Pressure of burgeoning population is demanding increased production from agriculture to feed and clothe the teeming millions. This has resulted in excessive use of soil, fertilizers and pesticides. This paper describe the effect of these productive resources on environment and human health. Agriculture is a complex phenomenon. It is open both on natural conditions and to intense human activity. Cyclones, floods, hailstorm, cold, heat and heavy rains all affect agriculture and so do the man-made activities especially those related to expanding industrial production. This has brought agriculture in direct interface with the environment. Agriculture exerts both favorable and unfavorable consequences on environment. The plants absorb carbon dioxide and act as filters to purify polluting aerial substances. Growing of crops itself brings pleasant changes in microclimate and to aesthetics. On the other hand, effluents of all kinds; sewage, industrial, farmyard, domestics are dumped onto the soil surface, which pollute water bodies and affect crop quality. Agricultural chemicals used to increase production can get into air, soil and water and pose serious threat to environment. In Pakistan, agriculture is the mainstay of national economy. It is accorded second priority after defense. Its share in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is 24%, it contributes by 35% to export earnings, employs 51% of the labour force and provides livelihood to 70% of rural population. Increased pressure of burgeoning population is, however, demanding more output from agriculture to feed and clothe the teeming millions. The productive resources on the other hand are limited and are rapidly shrinking. This has led to excessive use of soil

  19. Cleaner production - a tool for sustainable environmental development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Batool, S.

    2005-01-01

    Industrial Development and Production with no regard for environmental impacts creates water and air pollution, soil degradation, and large-scale global impacts such as acid rain, global warming and ozone depletion. To create more sustainable methods of industrial production, there needs to be a shift in attitudes away from control towards pollution prevention and management. Cleaner Production (CP) refers to a management process that seeks out and eliminates the causes of pollution, waste generation and resource consumption at their source through input reductions or substitutions, pollution prevention, internal recycling and more efficient production technology and processes for sustainable environmental development. The objective of cleaner production is to avoid generating pollution in the first place, which frequently cuts costs, reduces risks associated with liability, and identifies new market opportunities. Introducing cleaner production has become a goal to improve the competitiveness through increased eco-efficiency. CP is a business strategy for enhancing productivity and environmental performance for overall socio-economic development. The environmental and economic benefits can only be achieved by implementing cleaner production tools. The CP assessment methodology is used to systematically identify and evaluate the waste minimization opportunities and facilitate their implementation in industries. It refers to how goods and services are produced with the minimum environmental impact under present technological and economic limits. CP shares characteristics with many environmental management tools such as Environmental Assessment or Design for Environment by including them among the technological options for reducing material and energy intensiveness in production, as well as facilitating ruse trough remanufacturing and recycling. It is thus an extension of the total quality management process. The CP program has been successfully implemented in

  20. Customers' preferences with regard to attributes of electric power products; Kundenpraeferenzen fuer leistungsrelevante Attribute von Stromprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhalter, Andreas; Kaenzig, Josef; Wuestenhagen, Rolf [Univ. St. Gallen (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Wirtschaft und Oekologie

    2009-06-15

    This article addresses whether standard electricity products in Switzerland meet the preferences of private customers. To determine customers' preferred electricity product we conducted an online survey with choice experiments implying 9420 choice decisions by 628 respondents in Switzerland. Using hierarchical Bayes estimation we determined customer preferences and the importance of individual product attributes in product choice. This procedure makes it possible to calculate part worth utilities for product attributes and to derive customers' implicit willingness to pay. The ''electricity mix'' had the most important influence on choice decisions, followed by ''monthly electricity costs'' and the ''location of the electricity generation''. The current Swiss electricity mix which consists of mainly nuclear and hydro power was only rated second to last in a comparison of five alternative mixes. Customers clearly prefer electricity mixes containing green energy. Findings of this study reveal strategic options for product design, positioning, and marketing for a liberalized electricity market. (orig.)

  1. Energy production for environmental issues in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ibrahim; Arman, Hasan; Halil Demirel, Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Due to the diversification efforts of energy sources, use of natural gas that was newly introduced into Turkish economy, has been growing rapidly. Turkey has large reserves of coal, particularly of lignite. The proven lignite reserves are 8.0 billion tons. The estimated total possible reserves are 30 billion tons. Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. It is expected that the demand for electric energy in Turkey will be 580 billion kWh by the year 2020. Turkey's electric energy demand is growing about 6-8% yearly due to fast economic growing. This paper deals with energy demand and consumption for environmental issues in Turkey.

  2. Sustainable Industrial Production – undergraduate course on methods and tools in industry’s environmental work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    assessment and eco-design, process integration and pinch analysis, and finally a case study of own preference. All project work is done on real industry projects, and the project team gets close encounter with the companies and constructive critique during their work allowing them to incorporate the critique......The course aims at teaching key methods and tools for industry’s environmental work. It focuses on operational tools targeted for environmental improvements at various levels of intervention: the product, the production, the process and the emission. At these intervention levels, engineering...... disciplines are taught within the areas of: Management and planning, System description and inventory, Analysis and assessment, and Design & construction. The student is given the overview and holistic understanding of existing methods and tools and their field of application. Some methods and tools...

  3. Making Rice Production More Environmentally-Friendly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated rice production is one of the most essential agricultural activities for sustaining our global population, and at the same time, one of the agricultural sectors considered most eco-unfriendly. This is because it consumes a larger share of available freshwater resources, competing with varied ecosystems as well as other economic sectors; its paddy fields are responsible for significant emission of greenhouse gases; and the reliance on chemical fertilizers and various agrochemicals contributes to pollution of soils and water systems. These stresses on soils, hydrology and atmosphere are actually not necessary for rice production, which can be increased by modifying agronomic practices though more agroecologically-sound management practices. These, combined under the rubric of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, can reduce requirements of irrigation water, chemical fertilizer and agrochemicals while increasing paddy yields and farmer’s net incomes. Here we discuss how irrigated rice production can be made more eco-friendly for the benefit of farmers, consumers and the environment. This is achieved by introducing practices that improve the growth and functioning of rice plants’ root systems and enhance the abundance, diversity and activity of beneficial soil organisms that live around plant roots and within the plants themselves as symbiotic endophytes.

  4. The Deployment of Product-Related Environmental Legislation into Product Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela C. A. Pigosso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental legislation is increasingly changing its focus from manufacturing-oriented to product-oriented instruments. Compliance with product-related environmental legislation is achieved by the incorporation of environmental requirements into the early phases of the product development process (PDP. Nevertheless, the deployment of product-related environmental legislation into product requirements is still a challenge. This study followed an inductive approach to propose a guideline to support the identification, analysis and deployment of product requirements based on product-related environmental legislation. The guideline is composed of nine steps, clustered into three groups according to their main objective: (A identification of environmental product-related legislation; (B identification of legislative topics to be considered for the deployment of requirements; and (C creation and validation of product requirements. The product requirements deployed are to be considered during the PDP. The guideline was evaluated in an expert consultation in a large manufacturing company, suggesting that it can be used to support the systematization and deployment of product-related environmental requirements.

  5. PRINCIPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT IN THE LIFECYCLE OF PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kulczycka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims of the European Commission (EC activities is to introduce uniform rules for the environmental performance assessment based on the life cycle assessment method (LCA, which can be widely used e.g. in eco-labeling, assessment of goods, services, technology, etc. Therefore, from 1 November 2013 the European Commission implemented a pilot phase of the project on developing common methods for measuring the environmental performance of the product and organisation, aims to develop guidance documents in this field. The pilot phase includes development of the Category Rules relating to the calculation, verification and communication for environmental footprint of the 25 categories of products and two organizations. Therefore, the article presents the principle of environmental performance based on life cycle assessment in relation to the objectives of the proposed methodology of environmental footprint.

  6. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the environmental survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), conducted June 16 through 27, 1986. The survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the FMPC. The survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at FMPC, and interviews with site personnel. The survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its onsite activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE national laboratory or a support contractor. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the FMPC Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the FMPC survey. 41 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. Environmental control technology in petroleum drilling and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtanowicz, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental control technology (ECT) is process integrated and relates mainly to pollution prevention and risk assessment. Mechanisms of environmental impact in petroleum drilling, well completion and production, include the generation of waste, induction of toxicity or the creation of pathways for pollutant migration. The identification and evaluation of these mechanisms constitute two parts of the scope of ECT. A third part is the development of new techniques to comply with environmental requirements without prejudicing productivity. The basic concepts of the ECT approach are presented in this chapter. The approach is then used to analyse oilfield drilling and production processes. Environmental control components developed in these technologies are described. These include: the control of the volume and toxicity of drilling fluids; source separation technology in produced water cleaning; subsurface injection of oilfield waste slurries; containment technology in the integrity of petroleum wells; subsurface reduction of produced water; oilfield pit closure technology. (37 figures; 26 tables; 227 references) (UK)

  8. Medical Isotopes Production Project: Molybdenum-99 and related isotopes: Environmental Impact Statement, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides environmental and technical information concerning the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) proposal to establish a domestic source to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and related medical isotopes (iodine-131, xenon-133 and iodine-125). Mo-99, a radioactive isotope of the element molybdenum, decays to form metastable technetium-99 (Tc-99m), a radioactive isotope used thousands of times daily in medical diagnostic procedures in the U.S. Currently, all Mo-99 used in the U.S. is obtained from a single Canadian source. DOE is pursuing the Medical Isotopes Production Project in order to ensure that a reliable supply of Mo-99 is available to the U.S. medical community. Under DOE's preferred alternative, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Annular Core Research Reactor and Hot Cell Facility at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) would be used for production of the medical isotopes. In addition to the preferred alternative, three other reasonable alternatives and a no action alternative are analyzed in detail. The sites for the three reasonable alternatives are LANL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The analyses in this EIS indicate no significant difference in the potential environmental impacts among the alternatives. Each of the alternatives would use essentially the same technology for the production of the medical isotopes. Minor differences in environmental impacts among alternatives relate to the extent of activity necessary to modify and restart (as necessary) existing reactors and hot cell facilities at each of the sites, the quantities, of low-level radioactive waste generated, how such waste would be managed, and the length of time needed for initial and full production capacity

  9. Improved Methods for Production Manufacturing Processes in Environmentally Benign Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Yan Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available How to design a production process with low carbon emissions and low environmental impact as well as high manufacturing performance is a key factor in the success of low-carbon production. It is important to address concerns about climate change for the large carbon emission source manufacturing industries because of their high energy consumption and environmental impact during the manufacturing stage of the production life cycle. In this paper, methodology for determining a production process is developed. This methodology integrates process determination from three different levels: new production processing, selected production processing and batch production processing. This approach is taken within a manufacturing enterprise based on prior research. The methodology is aimed at providing decision support for implementing Environmentally Benign Manufacturing (EBM and low-carbon production to improve the environmental performance of the manufacturing industry. At the first level, a decision-making model for new production processes based on the Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm (GSAA is presented. The decision-making model considers not only the traditional factors, such as time, quality and cost, but also energy and resource consumption and environmental impact, which are different from the traditional methods. At the second level, a methodology is developed based on an IPO (Input-Process-Output model that integrates assessments of resource consumption and environmental impact in terms of a materials balance principle for batch production processes. At the third level, based on the above two levels, a method for determining production processes that focus on low-carbon production is developed based on case-based reasoning, expert systems and feature technology for designing the process flow of a new component. Through the above three levels, a method for determining the production process to identify, quantify, assess, and optimize the

  10. Milk and Dairy Products Consumers Behavior and Preferences in Vojvodina – Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Gavojdian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the current research was to evaluate milk and dairy derived consumer’s behaviour and preferences in Vojvodina (Central Banat District from the Republic of Serbia, in order to be able to further formulate advice and strategies to farmers, farm-advisors and policy makers, to help improve the overall farmer’s competiveness and increase the economic returns of dairy enterprises. Data was collected following questionnaire based-interviews, between January and June 2016. There were 76 persons who answered a face-to-face interview, and had to answer to a 15 questions based questionnaire, all respondents were from Vojvodina (Central Banat District, Republic of Serbia. The main five categories of products purchased were pasteurized milk (11.33%, yogurts (23.44%, sour cream (18.75%, butter (10.55% and cheeses (21.48%. The least dairy derived products categories purchased and consumed were UHT milk (4.30%, refrigerated milk (3.91%, raw milk (5.86% and frozen milk (0.00%. The most important selection criterions of the surveyed consumers were ‘freshness’ (21.72%, expiring date (13.64%, taste characteristics (10.10%, price/quality ratio (13.13% and nutritive value (16.16%.  Results of the current study should be taken into consideration by both farmers and dairy factories, in order to possible identify niche markets, in order to add value to the food chain and improve their economic returns by producing and selling products that have among higher demands from consumers.

  11. Sustainable Algal Energy Production and Environmental Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, William E. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2012-07-14

    Overall, our results confirm that wild algal species sequester a wide range of organic and metal contaminants and excess nutrients (PAHs, trace metals, and nutrients) from natural waters, and suggest parameters that could be useful in predicting uptake rates for algae growing on an algal floway or other algal growth systems in the environment or in industrial processes. The implication for various fuel production processes differ with the detailed unit operations involved, and these results will be of use in the developing of scaling experiments for various types of engineering process designs.

  12. Biomass feedstock production systems: economic and environmental benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Coleman; John A. Stanturf

    2006-01-01

    The time is ripe for expanding bioenergy production capacity and developing a bio-based economy. Modern society has created unprecedented demands for energy and chemical products that are predominately based on geologic sources. However, there is a growing consensus that constraints on the supply of petroleum and the negative environmental consequences of burning...

  13. Environmental and production rights futures: a new booming market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    1996-01-01

    Governments or supranational organizations have begun to introduce environmental rights (such as sulfur dioxide or chlorofluorocarbon rights) and production rights (such as milk and fishery rights) to better link production process costs and results. The authors show that the characteristics of

  14. A Study on the Preferences of Consumers of Halal - Certified Products A Case Study of İstanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Özdemir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, consumer’s demographic characteristics, the attitude of halal food and religious life styles aimed to investigate whether there is a significant relationship between preference of halal certified products. The target population of the study is the markets costumers, products are sold is halal certified in İstanbul. The sample of the study is 400 costumers over the age of 18, who agreed to participate in the study. The data collection technique used in the survey technique. Frequency distribution analysis of the data, descriptive statistic, t–test, one-factor analysis of variance and Pearson correlation matrix tests were used for analysis of the data. Of the analyzed demographic variables, gender and income level was found significant difference between religious life style. Marital status, job –carrier and income was a found significant difference between the attitude of halal food. Marital status, job –carrier, income and education was found significant difference between the preference of the halal-certified product. Also there are weak significant relationship between religious life styles and the attitude of halal food, there are very weak significant relationship between religious life styles and preference of halal certified products and there are weak significant relationship between the attitude of halal food and preference of halal certified products

  15. Impact of Environmental Factors on the Regulation of Cyanotoxin Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, Thangavelu; Ki, Jang-Seu

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are capable of thriving in almost all environments. Recent changes in climatic conditions due to increased human activities favor the occurrence and severity of harmful cyanobacterial bloom all over the world. Knowledge of the regulation of cyanotoxins by the various environmental factors is essential for effective management of toxic cyanobacterial bloom. In recent years, progress in the field of molecular mechanisms involved in cyanotoxin production has paved the way for assessing the role of various factors on the cyanotoxin production. In this review, we present an overview of the influence of various environmental factors on the production of major group of cyanotoxins, including microcystins, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxins and saxitoxins. PMID:24967641

  16. Nano-enabled environmental products and technologies - opportunities and drawbacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Christensen, Frans; Brinch, Anna; Kjølholt, Jesper

    The project aims to investigate the benefits for health and environment that the use of nanomaterials in products and technologies may have. More specifically, the project provides an overview of the most relevant nano-enabled environmental technologies, different types of products and technologies...... on the (Danish) market, as well as products and technologies, which are still in R&D and it will provide a qualitative overview of health and environmental pros and cons of these technologies. The project has focused on technologies applied in: 1) purification of water and wastewater, 2) remediation of soil...

  17. Modes of environmental management in transnational product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jørgensen, Ulrik; Hendriksen, Kåre

    2007-01-01

    opportunities by being present in the country where the sourcing takes place. The paper discusses different modes of environmental management in such transnational product chains based on a number of cases, and explores the links to the business strategy of the companies and national and international......Many companies in industrialised countries are outsourcing production or sourcing materials and products in countries with lower environmental protection than the companies’ countries of origin. The background is access to special materials and/or lower costs, but some times also the market...

  18. Effects of Grazing Abandoned Grassland on Herbage Production and Utilization, and Sheep Preference and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvard Steinshamn

    2018-05-01

    grazing compared to common farm practice. In autumn, sheep preferred to graze areas grazed by sheep during summer. Re-introduction of grazing stimulated forage production, and extended spring grazing improved performance in lambs. This study has quantified the value of abandoned grassland as a feed resource.

  19. Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSwain, Berah

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

  20. Using stated preferences to estimate the environmental benefits of using biodiesel fuel in diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanty, Pierre Wilner; Hitzhusen, Frederick J.

    2007-01-01

    Using biodiesel fuel to reduce emissions from diesel engines is an area of increasing interest. Many environmental benefits associated with biodiesel are not traded in markets and their estimation requires economic valuation methods applied to non-market goods and services. This paper presents the results of a contingent valuation survey conducted in 2006 in two Ohio regions to estimate willingness to pay for air pollution reduction arising from using biodiesel fuel in diesel engines. The dou...

  1. Product reformulation in the context of nutritional warning labels: Exploration of consumer preferences towards food concepts in three food categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Curutchet, María Rosa; Antúnez, Lucía; Machín, Leandro; Vidal, Leticia; Giménez, Ana

    2018-05-01

    The reformulation of the food products available in the marketplace to improve their nutritional quality has been identified as one of the most cost-effective policies for controlling the global obesity pandemic. Front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling is one of the strategies that has been suggested to encourage the food industry to reformulate their products. However, the extent to which certain FOP labels can encourage product reformulation is dependent on consumer reaction. The aim of the present work was to assess consumers' perception towards product reformulation in the context of the implementation of nutritional warnings, an interpretive FOP nutrition labelling scheme. Three product categories were selected as target products: bread, cream cheese and yogurt, each associated with high content of one target nutrient. For each category, six packages were designed using a 3 × 2 experimental design with the following variables: product version (regular, nutrient-reduced and nutrient-free) and brand (market leader and non-market leader). A total 306 Uruguayan participants completed a choice experiment with 18 choice sets. Reformulated products without nutritional warnings were preferred by participants compared to regular products with nutritional warnings. No apparent preference for products reformulated into nutrient-reduced or nutrient-free product versions was found, although differences depended on the product category and the specific reformulation strategy. Preference for reformulated products without nutritional warnings was more pronounced for non-market leaders. Results from the present work suggest that reformulation of foods in the context of the implementation of nutritional warnings holds potential to encourage consumers to make more healthful food choices and to cause a reduction of their intake of nutrients associated with non-communicable diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lumber attributes, characteristics, and species preferences as indicated by secondary wood products firms in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Joseph. Roos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate selected lumber attributes, species preferences, and lumber use properties among secondary wood manufacturers in the United States. Our sample included producers of kitchen cabinets, furniture, doors, windows, and molded products who attended regional and national wood manufacturing events. More than 51% of respondents had...

  3. Preference Evaluation System for Construction Products Using QFD-TOPSIS Logic by Considering Trade-Off Technical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeho Cho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the feasibility of quality function deployment, technique for the order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (QFD-TOPSIS in presenting user preferences for multiple alternatives, such as construction technologies, products, systems, and design solutions, with trade-off technical characteristics (TC. The original QFD as house of quality (HOQ defines the requirements and features as subjective matrix relations, which cause interpretations to vary across users and limit its industrial applications. QFD-TOPSIS is a new model that combines the benefits of QFD with those of TOPSIS, maintains the subjectivity and objectivity evaluation of the technical characteristics (TC, and rates the preferences by considering users’ individual propensity for requirements. In addition, QFD-TOPSIS rates the preferences through the reciprocal compensation effects of trade-off TC and filters unsuitable alternatives with predefined restrictive conditions. Trade-off refers to conflicts and/or contradictions between attributes, often arising in multicriteria decision-making. Users or project stakeholder groups define the priorities of trade-off TC that directly influence product preferences and decision-making. In the present study, we have developed a Web system based on the QFD-TOPSIS logic and tested its operation to verify its industrial applicability and viability for automatic quality evaluation.

  4. Trends in public perceptions and preferences on energy and environmental policy: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.C.

    1993-03-01

    This is a summary of a report that presents selected results from a secondary analysis of public opinion surveys, taken at the national and state/local levels, relevant to energy and environmental policy choices. The data base used in the analysis includes about 2,000 items from nearly 600 separate surveys conducted between 1979 and 1992. Answers to word-for-word questions were traced over time, permitting trend analysis. Patterns of response were also identified for findings from similarly worded survey items. The analysis identifies changes in public opinion concerning energy during the past 10 to 15 years.

  5. Trends in public perceptions and preferences on energy and environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.C.

    1993-02-01

    This report presents selected results from a secondary analysis of public opinion surveys, taken at the national and state/local levels, relevant to energy and environmental policy choices. The data base used in the analysis includes about 2000 items from nearly 600 separate surveys conducted between 1979 and 1992. Answers to word-for-word questions were traced over time, permitting trend analysis. Patterns of response were also identified for findings from similarly worded survey items. The analysis identifies changes in public opinion concerning energy during the past 10 to 15 years.

  6. Impact of Alternative Environmental Flow Prescriptions on Hydropower Production and Fish Habitat Suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellarin, A.; Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.; Galeati, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities along streams and rivers are increasingly recognized to be a major concern for fluvial ecosystems. The management of water resources, by means of e.g. flow diversions and dams, for industrial, agricultural, water-supply, hydropower production and flood protection purposes induces significant changes to the natural streamflow regime of a river. Indeed, the river flow regime is known to be a major abiotic factor influencing fluvial ecosystems. An established approach aimed at preserving the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species relies on the definition of minimum streamflow requirements (i.e., environmental flows) downstream of dams and diversion structures. Such environmental flows are normally identified through methodologies that have an empirical nature and may not be representative of local ecological and hydraulic conditions. While the effect of imposing a minimum discharge release is easily predictable in terms of e.g. loss of hydropower production, the advantages in terms of species preferences are often poorly understood and seldom assessed. To analyze the interactions between flow releases and the behaviour and distribution of fluvial species (i.e., from periphyton, to benthic invertebrate and fish), one may use a habitat suitability curve, which is a fundamental tool capable of describing species preferences influenced by any generic environmental variable. The outcomes of a real case study applied to several Italian rivers, located in the Marche administrative district in Central Italy (∽10000km2), in which we quantitatively assess the effects of alternative environmental flow scenarios on the existing hydropower network and on two fish species that are quite abundant in the study area (i.e., Leuciscus cephalus cabeda and Barbus barbus plebejus), will be presented and discussed. The proposed analysis, which can be easily adapted to different riparian habitats and hydrological contexts, is a useful tool to guide the

  7. Environmental pressures from European consumption and production. A study in integrated environmental and economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D. [Copenhagen Resource Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Fernandez, J.A.; Wittmer, D. [Wuppertal Institute, Wuppertal (Germany); Gravgaerd Pedersen, O. [Statistics Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); European Topic Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    Environmental pressures from European consumption and production shows how economic and environmental data can be integrated to analyse environmental performance and material efficiency of whole economies as well as their individual elements. The analyses presented in the report provide policy makers with a tool to target economic incentives and information campaigns, encouraging a shift to more sustainable production and consumption patterns in order to reduce Europe's global footprint. The report discusses two analytical approaches. The production-based method considers direct environmental pressures caused by European industries and service providers - for example, the extraction of material resources by the mining and quarrying sector, air pollutants from power stations, greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture and so on. The consumption-based method focuses on the indirect environmental pressures caused by European consumers. In this approach, the direct production-related pressures are attributed to broad groups of products and services, also taking into account pressures that are embodied in goods imported into the EU. Using Environmentally Extended Input Output Analysis (EE-IOA) it is possible to estimate the environmental pressures ultimately generated by individual product groups and also by European consumption as a whole. Four types of environmental pressures are considered by the report: raw material use, greenhouse gas emissions, acidifying air emissions, and air pollutants leading to harmful ground-level ozone. However, the method has the potential to assess many other types of environmental pressure including land use, water use, waste generation and energy use. Thanks to the conceptual consistency between the system of national economic accounts and environmental accounts, data on environmental pressures is directly comparable to economic expenditure. Policy makers can thus see which sectors have been most successful in decoupling

  8. Patient preference for a long-acting recombinant FSH product in ovarian hyperstimulation in IVF: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaard, L; Rodijk, I C M; van der Veen, F; Gooskens-van Erven, M H W; Koks, C A M; Verhoeve, H R; Mol, B W J; van Wely, M; Mochtar, M H

    2015-02-01

    What factors or attributes of a long-acting recombinant FSH (rFSH) or daily-administrated rFSH influence women's preferences IVF? Patients' preferences for rFSH products are primary influenced by the attribute 'number of injections', but a low 'number of injections' is exchanged for a high 'number of injections' at a 6.2% decrease in 'risk of cycle cancellation due to low response' and at a 4.5% decrease in 'chance of OHSS'. Injections of long-acting rFSH have been claimed to be preferred over daily-administrated rFSH injections, but patient preference studies to underpin this assumption have not been performed. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was created to assess women's preference for long-acting or daily-administrated rFSH under varying attributes of efficiency, safety and burden. The selected attributes were the 'total number of injections', 'chance of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)' and the 'risk of cycle cancellation due to low response'. Questionnaires were handed out during information gathering sessions in one academic hospital and two teaching hospitals in The Netherlands between April 2011 and April 2012. Women at the start of their first IVF treatment were asked to participate in this patient preference study. Participation was voluntary. We analysed the data by using mixed logit models to estimate the utility of each attribute. Questionnaires (n = 125) were handed out with a response rate of 77% (97/125). Four respondents did not complete the questionnaire. Hence, there were 93 questionnaires available for analysis. All attributes significantly influenced women's preference. Overall, the lower 'number of injections' was preferred above the higher 'number of injections' (mean coefficient 1.25; P lower 'number of injections' for a higher 'number of injections' when gaining a 6.2% reduction in 'cycle cancellation due to low response', or a 4.5% reduction in 'chance of OHSS'. The generalizability of this DCE is limited in time-span. Women may

  9. Biomass power production in Amazonia: Environmentally sound, economically productive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddle, D.B. [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Washington, DC (United States); Hollomon, J.B. [Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    With the support of the US Agency for International Development, the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) is assisting their utility counterparts in Bolivia to improve electric service in the country`s rural population. In remote areas, the cost of extending transmission lines to small communities is prohibitive, and diesel generators represent an expensive alternative, especially for baseload power. This has led to serious consideration of electric generating systems using locally available renewable resources, including biomass, hydro, wind, and solar energy. A project has recently been initiated in Riberalta, in the Amazonian region of Bolivia, to convert waste Brazil nut shells and sawmill residues to electricity. Working in tandem with diesel generators, the biomass-fired plant will produce base-load power in an integrated system that will be able to provide reliable and affordable electricity to the city. The project will allow the local rural electric cooperative to lower the price of electricity by nearly forty percent, enable the local Brazil nut industry to increase its level of mechanization, and reduce the environmental impacts of dumping waste shells around the city and in an adjacent river. The project is representative of others that will be funded in the future by NRECA/AID.

  10. Random preferences towards bioenergy environmental externalities: a case study of woody biomass based electricity in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres Susaeta; Pankaj Lal; Janaki Alavalapati; Evan Mercer

    2011-01-01

    This paper contrasts alternate methodological approaches of investigating public preferences, the random parameter logit (RPL) where tastes and preferences of respondents are assumed to be heterogeneous and the conditional logit (CL) approach where tastes and preferences remain fixed for individuals. We conducted a choice experiment to assess preferences for woody...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN TO ATTITUDE TOWARDS GREEN PRODUCTS: EVIDENCES FROM INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Danish Kirmani; Mohammed Naved Khan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship of environmental concern of consumers with their attitude towards green products and also to identify the predictors of environmental concern. The data was generated from a researcher controlled sample of graduate and post-graduate students enrolled in educational institutions located in the national capital of India (New Delhi) and surrounding areas popularly known as National Capital Region (NCR). The data generated was analysed em...

  12. The relation between product innovation and strategic environmental goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstlberger, Wolfgang; Pedrosa, Alex; Atlason, Reynir Smari

    2017-01-01

    Innovation management in manufacturing firms including its environmental dimension is currently on top of the political agenda of the European Union. Existing studies only provide limited findings in this research field. By using cross-sectional data, this study investigates firms’ internal capab...... Policies (IPPs). IPPs combine the support of product innovations in general and environmental innovations in particular. Future research could apply mixed-method studies in single or multiple countries which combine different types of data....

  13. Environmental impact assessment of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Lovarelli, Daniela; Tedesco, Doriana; Pretolani, Roberto; Ferrante, Valentina

    2018-09-01

    On-farm production of hay and high-protein-content feed has several advantages such as diversification of on-farm cultivated crops, reduction of off-farm feed concentrates transported over long distances and a reduction in runoff during the winter season if grown crops are perennial. Among those crops cultivated for high-protein-content feed, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most important in the Italian context. Nevertheless, up to now, only a few studies have assessed the environmental performance of alfalfa hay production. In this study, using the Life Cycle Assessment approach, the environmental impact of alfalfa hay production in Northern Italy was analyzed. More in detail, two production practices (without and with irrigation) were compared. The results show that alfalfa hay production in irrigated fields has a better environmental performance compared to non-irrigated production, mainly because of the yield increase achieved with irrigation. In particular, for the Climate Change impact category, the impact is equal to 84.54 and 80.21kgCO 2 /t of hay for the scenario without and with irrigation, respectively. However, for two impact categories (Ozone Depletion and Human Toxicity-No Cancer Effect), the impact of irrigation completely offsets the yield increase, and the cultivation practice without irrigation shows the best environmental performance. For both scenarios, the mechanization of harvest is the main environmental hotspot, mostly due to fuel consumption and related combustion emissions. Wide differences were highlighted by comparing the two scenarios with the Ecoinvent process of alfalfa hay production; these differences are mostly due to the cultivation practice and, in particular, to the more intensive fertilization in Swiss production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing the Environmental Performance of Integrated Ethanol and Biogas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Michael; Svensson, Niclas; Fonseca, Jorge (Linkoeping Univ., Environmental Technology and Management, Linkoeping (Sweden)), e-mail: michael.martin@liu.se

    2011-06-15

    As the production of biofuels continues to expand worldwide, criticism about, e.g. the energy output versus input and the competition with food has been questioned. However, biofuels may be optimized to increase the environmental performance through the concepts of industrial symbiosis. This paper offers a quantification of the environmental performance of industrial symbiosis in the biofuel industry through integration of biogas and ethanol processes using a life cycle approach. Results show that although increasing integration is assumed to produce environmental benefits in industrial symbiosis, not all impact categories have achieved this and the results depend upon the allocation methods chosen

  15. Environmental sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2009-01-01

    Bio-ethanol is playing an important role in renewable energy for transport according to Thai government policy. This study aims to evaluate the energy efficiency and renewability of bio-ethanol system and identify the current significant environmental risks and availability of feedstocks in Thailand. Four of the seven existing ethanol plants contributing 53% of the total ethanol fuel production in Thailand have been assessed by the net energy balance method and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A renewability and net energy ratio portfolio has been used to indicate whether existing bio-ethanol production systems have net energy gain and could help reduce dependency on fossil energy. In addition, LCA has been conducted to identify and evaluate the environmental hotspots of 'cradle to gate' bio-ethanol production. The results show that there are significant differences of energy and environmental performance among the four existing production systems even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, feedstock transportion, fuel used in ethanol plants, operation practices and technology of ethanol conversion and waste management practices. Recommendations for improving the overall energy and environmental performance of the bio-ethanol system are suggested in order to direct the bio-ethanol industry in Thailand towards environmental sustainability.

  16. Environmentally Sustainable Construction Products and Materials – Assessment of release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Margareta; Laine-Yliijoki, Jutta; Järnström, helena

    The construction sector consumes yearly about half of all natural resourcesextracted in Europe and their transformation into building products has huge energy demands. Therefore the focus of today’s environmental policy is on the building end-of-life scenarios and material efficiency. Here waste...... hardly any construction product is designed keeping recycling/reuse in mind, the “Design for theEnvironment” -concept is one of the key steps towards increased recycling and reuse and thereby towards minimal environmental impacts. This project has been carried out by VTT with cooperation with the Danish...

  17. Life Cycle Environmental Impact Assessment of Local Wine Production and Consumption in Texas: Using LCA to Inspire Environmental Improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Poupart, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    The future viability of wine production is directly linked to its environmental impacts and conditions in which it is required to operate. The environmental impacts related to the production of a food product are directly influenced by the amount of materials, energy, waste and the emissions the product releases throughout the products life cycle. A life cycle assessment (LCA) provides a framework that can identify a food products relative environmental impacts and provides insights into the ...

  18. How can we improve the environmental sustainability of poultry production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Ilkka; Kyriazakis, Ilias

    2016-08-01

    The review presents results of recent life cycle assessment studies aiming to quantify and improve the environmental performance of UK poultry production systems, including broiler meat, egg and turkey meat production. Although poultry production has been found to be relatively environmentally friendly compared with the production of other livestock commodities, it still contributes to environmental impacts, such as global warming, eutrophication and acidification. Amongst different sub-processes, feed production and transport contributes about 70 % to the global warming potential of poultry systems, whereas manure management contributes about 40-60 % to their eutrophication potential and acidification potential, respectively. All these impacts can be reduced by improving the feed efficiency, either by changing the birds through genetic selection or by making the feed more digestible (e.g. by using additives such as enzymes). However, although genetic selection has the potential to reduce the resources needed for broiler production (including feed consumption), the changing need of certain feed ingredients, most notably protein sources as a result of changes in bird requirements may limit the benefits of this strategy. The use of alternative feed ingredients, such as locally grown protein crops and agricultural by-products, as a replacement of South American grown soya, can potentially also lead to improvements in several environmental impact categories, as long as such feeding strategies have no negative effect on bird performance. Other management options, such as improving poultry housing and new strategies for manure management have also the potential to further improve the environmental sustainability of the poultry industries in Europe.

  19. Emerging sustainable/green cleaning products: health and environmental risks

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, Mehmet Cihan; Işik, Ercan; Ulu, Ali Emre

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable development aims to bring a new perspective to our lives without compromising customer needs and quality. Along with sustainable development many innovative solutions came out. One of them is sustainable green cleaning products and techniques. Today, emissions from conventional cleaning products may cause severe health and environmental issues. Especially sick building syndromes such as eye, skin and respiratory irritations are main health effects of them. They may also contrib...

  20. Parameters for assessing the aquatic environmental impact of cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, N A; Brohem, C A; Canavez, A D P M; Oliveira, C F S; Kruger, O; Lorencini, M; Carvalho, C M

    2018-05-01

    The cosmetic industry's growing concern about the impact of its supply chain on the environment, sustainability of raw materials, and biodiversity increases the need to ensure that the final product has a lower environmental impact. The objective of this review is to summarize and compare the information available from international organizations and legislation regarding the main criteria used to assess raw materials for aquatic toxicity, as well as the most suitable alternative methods for obtaining assessment parameters. Using the literature available in databases, a review of the scientific literature and international legislation, this work discusses and compares the parameters established by international organizations such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Cradle to Cradle (C2C), as well as European legislation, namely, European Regulation 1272/2008, for assessing environmental impact. Defining the ecotoxicity parameters of the main classes of raw materials in rinse-off cosmetic products can enable the development of products that are more environmentally sustainable, prioritizing substances with less environmental impact. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ukrainian realities of labeling of environmentally friendly products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Tsaruk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The basis of life of any society is a safe environment that is not only the guarantee of welfare and quality of life, but also the guarantee of the further development of human civilization. That is why in the modern world the issue of the preservation of the natural environment is of special actuality. The gradual awareness by humanity of new threats (high degree of concentration of harmful industries; high level of resource and energy consumption; lack of modern environmental technologies; slow but inevitable degradation of the gene pool of a population due to the consumption of poor quality and in most cases harmful products, etc. forced the society to seek new approaches to socio-economic development and environmental management. One of such approaches is the introduction of ecological and organic labeling. Marking is a source of information about the purity, safety and quality of the products offered in the market; effective information mechanism, which is a kind of quality mark for the offered products. The current practice of ecological and organic labeling aimed at the increase of level consumer's awareness and the changing models of purchasing behavior in the direction of environmental protection. The feature of most marking systems of environmentally friendly and safe products is the obligation of compliance with the established requirements used by producers of raw materials and technologies taking into account their potential environmental impact. Labeling of ecologically clean and safe products is reducing the negative impact on the environment and on the human's health. It is the consequence of changes in the economic environment, namely: the improvement of socio-ethical requirements to production; the increasing level of integration of producers and service providers; the customer's satisfaction in varieties of products; globalization of economic space; reduction of time for development, standardization and production. Labeling is

  2. Environmental impacts the of production and use of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Snežana; Veljković, Milan

    2018-01-01

    Biodiesel as renewable, environmental friendly, less toxic, and biodegradable is an attractive alternative to fossil fuels and is produced mainly from vegetable oils and animal fats. It is expected, globally, that the use of renewable biofuels, in general, will increase rapidly in the near future. The growing biodiesel production and usage have encouraged assessment of its impact on the environment. The present paper reviews various aspects of biodiesel production using commercial processing technology and biodiesel use through evaluation and analysis of the studies concerning environmental impacts of biodiesel. As a general conclusion, it can be said that biodiesel has the potential to offer a series of perceived benefits such as political, economical, and agricultural, as well as environmental (due to its biodegradability, less toxicity, renewability) and health (greenhouse gas-saving, less harmful exhaust emissions).

  3. Stated product formulation preferences for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among women in the VOICE-D (MTN-003D) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecke, Ellen H; Cheng, Helen; Woeber, Kubashni; Nakyanzi, Teopista; Mudekunye-Mahaka, Imelda C; van der Straten, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) requires consistent and correct product use, thus a deeper understanding of women's stated product formulation preferences, and the correlates of those preferences, can help guide future research. VOICE-D (MTN-003D), a qualitative ancillary study conducted after the VOICE trial, retrospectively explored participants' tablet and gel use, as well as their preferences for other potential PrEP product formulations. We conducted an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data from VOICE-D participants. During in-depth interviews, women were presented with pictures and descriptions of eight potential PrEP product formulations, including the oral tablet and vaginal gel tested in VOICE, and asked to discuss which product formulations they would prefer to use and why. Seven of the original product formulations displayed were combined into preferred product formulation categories based on exploratory factor and latent class analyses. We examined demographic and behavioural correlates of these preferred product formulation categories. In-depth interviews with participants were conducted, coded, and analysed for themes related to product preference. Of the 68 female participants who completed in-depth interviews (22 South Africa, 24 Zimbabwe, 22 Uganda), median age was 28 (range 21-41), 81% were HIV negative, and 49% were married or living with a partner. Four preferred product formulation categories were identified via exploratory factor analysis: 1) oral tablets; 2) vaginal gel; 3) injectable, implant, or vaginal ring; and 4) vaginal film or suppository. A majority of women (81%) expressed a preference for product formulations included in category 3. Characteristics significantly associated with each preferred product category differed. Attributes described by participants as being important in a preferred product formulation included duration of activity, ease of use, route of administration, clinic- versus self

  4. Environmental system analysis of tomato production in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify the most important sources of greenhouse gases, acidifying and eutrophying compounds associated with tomato production in Ghana and identify options to reduce the environmental impacts. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) methodology was used in the analysis (Cradle to gate approach).

  5. Influence of some environmental factors on maize productivity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temperature, humidity and direction of the prevailing wind are parts of significant environmental factors, which have greater impact on crop productivity, especially with the recent global climate change. These were researched into on maize seeds planted at three different furrow orientations on the field; Or. 900, Or. 600 and ...

  6. Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

  7. Tire Production and Pollution Control. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit was developed to introduce secondary students to the many facets of a typical, large manufacturing plant - the Topeka Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company - in an effort to increase awareness of sound environmental practices in industry. Its five major foci include the production of tires and quality control procedures; applications of…

  8. Uranium production and environmental restoration at Priargunsky Centre (Russian Federation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatalov, V.V.; Boitsov, A.V.; Nikolsky, A.L.; Chernigov, V.G.; Ovseichuk, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    The state enterprise 'Priargunsky Mining and Chemical Production Association' (PPGHO) is the only active uranium production centre in Russia in last decade. Mining has been operated since 1968 by two open pits and four underground mines. It is based on resources of 19 volcanic-type deposits of Streltsovsk U-ore region situated at the area of 150 km 2 . Milling and processing has been carried out since 1974 at the local hydrometallurgical plant. Since the mid 1980s, limited amount of uranium is produced by heap and block leaching methods. High level of total production marks PPGHO as one of the outstanding uranium production centers worldwide. Significant amount of solid, liquid and gas wastes have been generated for more than 30 years. The principal environmental contamination comes from waste rock piles, mine water and tailing ponds. Liquid waste seepage through tailing pond bed can essentially contaminate underground waters. The principal environmental remediation activities are: waste rock dumps and open pits rehabilitation; waste rock utilization for industrial needs; heap and block leaching mining development, strengthening dam bodies and construction intercepting wells below the tailing pond dam, hydrogeological monitoring, upgrade of mine water treatment unit. Waste is being managed by the environmental service team of PPGHO. Environmental restoration activities, including rehabilitation of the territories and waste utilization, are implemented gradually in line with decommissioning of enterprise's particular facilities. (author)

  9. Green Shoots: Environmental Sustainability and Contemporary Film Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victory, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the emerging phenomenon of ‘green filmmaking’ in film production, whereby the process of filmmaking is conducted with a view to minimising environmental impact. Establishing the motivations behind green filmmaking and surveying a range of international developments in this area, sustainability initiatives are identified and considered as a means of environmentally-sustainable economic development for the film sector. After identifying challenges of consumption habits to be overcome by the film industry worldwide, recent and current initiatives are highlighted from within the international film industry and one is specifically explored in more detail: the emerging role of a designated crew member or ‘eco-manager’ to oversee environmental initiatives on-set. The paper then concludes on a range of brief policy proposals for the film sector following on from analysis of existing film industry policy towards environmental sustainability.

  10. The shaping of environmental concern in product chains: analysing Danish case studies on environmental aspects in product chain relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forman, Marianne; Hansen, Anne Grethe; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    indirect demand for greening activities. The analysis shows the co-construction of environmental concerns and demands, companies’ environmental practices and technological developments, and their stabilisation in the supply chain. The case studies also point to how the greening of frontrunners might make...... the systems of production, consumption, knowledge and regulation are discussed. The role of boundary objects is discussed with eco-labelling as case. The role of and the impact on the product chain relations are analysed as part of these mechanisms. From the case studies, green innovations in the product...... chain, which the case company represents, are identified. Direct customer and regulatory demands, as well as indirect societal and regulatory demands are mapped, and their role for product chain greening analysed. The case studies point to the importance of customer demand, regulation and potentially...

  11. Evaluation of Environmental Quality Productive Ecosystem Guayas (Ecuador).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Wilson; Pardo, Francisco; Sanfeliu, Teófilo; Carrera, Gloria; Jordan, Manuel; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2015-04-01

    Natural resources are deteriorating very rapidly in the Gulf of Guayaquil and the area of influence in the Guayas Basin due to human activity. Specific problems are generated by the mismanagement of the aquaculture industry affecting the traditional agricultural sectors: rice, banana, sugarcane, cocoa, coffee, and soya also studied, and by human and industrial settlements. The development of industrial activities such as aquaculture (shrimp building for shrimp farming in ponds) and agriculture, have increasingly contributed to the generation of waste, degrading and potentially toxic elements in high concentrations, which can have adverse effects on organisms in the ecosystems, in the health of the population and damage the ecological and environmental balance. The productive Guayas ecosystem, consists of three interrelated ecosystems, the Gulf of Guayaquil, the Guayas River estuary and the Guayas Basin buffer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the environmental quality of the productive Guayas ecosystem (Ecuador), through operational and specific objectives: 1) Draw up the transition coastal zone in the Gulf of Guayaquil, 2) Set temporal spatial variability of soil salinity in wetlands rice, Lower Guayas Basin, 3) evaluate the heavy metals in wetland rice in the Lower Basin of Guayas. The physical and chemical parameters of the soils have been studied. These are indicators of environmental quality. The multivariate statistical method showed the relations of similarities and dissimilarities between variables and parameter studies as stable. Moreover, the boundaries of coastal transition areas, temporal spatial variability of soil salinity and heavy metals in rice cultivation in the Lower Basin of Guayas were researched. The sequential studies included and discussed represent a broad framework of fundamental issues that has been valued as a basic component of the productive Guayas ecosystem. They are determinants of the environmental quality of the Guayas

  12. Integration of environmental approaches to strategy of production enterprises - environmentally oriented quality of production

    OpenAIRE

    Michalíková Frantika; Maras Michal; Floreková ¼ubica

    2001-01-01

    In the paper there are presented system approaches, applied in Slovak transformed production enterprises, which solve questions of closing the so called industrial cycle from the side of the wastes' producers. The production quality is connected not only with the technological chain itself and with outputs from it - the utility product, but also with the load of the life environment.The presented possibilities of the liquidation of solid energetic waste fly ashes represent a an overview of ...

  13. Optical And Environmental Properties Of NCAP Glazing Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Konynenburg, Peter; Wipfler, Richard T.; Smith, Jerry L.

    1989-07-01

    The first large area, commercially available, electrically-controllable glazing products sold under the tradename VARILITETM are based on a new liquid crystal film technology called NCAP. The glazing products can be switched in milliseconds between a highly translucent state (for privacy and glare control) to a transparent state (for high visibility) with the application of an AC voltage. The optical and environmental properties are demonstrated to meet the general requirements for architectural glazing use. The first qualified indoor product is described in detail.

  14. Consumer preferences regarding the introduction of new organic products. The case of the Mediterranean sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauracher, C; Tempesta, T; Vecchiato, D

    2013-04-01

    The introduction of new products on the market poses several challenges; in particular, whether the characteristics of the proposed product will be judged positively by potential consumers. This paper analyses the preferences of consumers regarding the introduction on the Italian market of a new product: organic Mediterranean sea bass. The aim of this study is to assess the importance given by consumers to four main characteristics of sea bass (country of origin, size, production method - organic or conventional - and price) so as to be able to formulate marketing strategies. We applied a choice experiment (CE) in order to define not only the ordinal ranking of preferences but also the willingness to pay (WTP) for the key characteristics of the newly-introduced product. We found that consumers show a higher WTP for the sea bass country of origin than for the breeding method used. Our results suggest that while organic aquaculture might be a new and important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication, either from a public policy or commercial perspective, and labelling/certification are not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by the final consumers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of gender and product design on farmers' preferences for weather-indexed crop insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Sonia; Krupnik, Timothy J; Rossi, Frederick; Khanam, Fahmida

    2016-05-01

    Theoretically, weather-index insurance is an effective risk reduction option for small-scale farmers in low income countries. Renewed policy and donor emphasis on bridging gender gaps in development also emphasizes the potential social safety net benefits that weather-index insurance could bring to women farmers who are disproportionately vulnerable to climate change risk and have low adaptive capacity. To date, no quantitative studies have experimentally explored weather-index insurance preferences through a gender lens, and little information exists regarding gender-specific preferences for (and constraints to) smallholder investment in agricultural weather-index insurance. This study responds to this gap, and advances the understanding of preference heterogeneity for weather-index insurance by analysing data collected from 433 male and female farmers living on a climate change vulnerable coastal island in Bangladesh, where an increasing number of farmers are adopting maize as a potentially remunerative, but high-risk cash crop. We implemented a choice experiment designed to investigate farmers' valuations for, and trade-offs among, the key attributes of a hypothetical maize crop weather-index insurance program that offered different options for bundling insurance with financial saving mechanisms. Our results reveal significant insurance aversion among female farmers, irrespective of the attributes of the insurance scheme. Heterogeneity in insurance choices could however not be explained by differences in men's and women's risk and time preferences, or agency in making agriculturally related decisions. Rather, gendered differences in farmers' level of trust in insurance institutions and financial literacy were the key factors driving the heterogeneous preferences observed between men and women. Efforts to fulfill gender equity mandates in climate-smart agricultural development programs that rely on weather-index insurance as a risk-abatement tool are therefore

  16. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-García, Sara; Moreira, Ma. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2012-01-01

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. -- Highlights: ► The identification of the environmental implications of the production and use of eucalyptus based ethanol was carried out. ► Eucalyptus is a Spanish common and abundant fast-growing short

  17. The association between hemispheric specialization for language production and for spatial attention depends on left-hand preference strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Laure; Petit, Laurent; Mellet, Emmanuel; Jobard, Gaël; Crivello, Fabrice; Joliot, Marc; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization for language production and spatial attention and their relationships with manual preference strength (MPS) were assessed in a sample of 293 healthy volunteers, including 151 left-handers, using fMRI during covert sentence production (PROD) and line bisection judgment (LBJ) tasks, as compared to high- and low-level reference tasks. At the group level, we found the expected complementary hemispheric specialization (HS) with leftward asymmetries for PROD within frontal and temporal regions and rightward asymmetries for LBJ within frontal and posterior occipito-parieto-temporal regions. Individual hemispheric (HLI) and regional (frontal and occipital) lateralization indices (LI) were then calculated on the activation maps for PROD and LBJ. We found a correlation between the degree of rightward cerebral asymmetry and the leftward behavioral attentional bias recorded during LBJ task. This correlation was found when LBJ-LI was computed over the hemispheres, in the frontal lobes, but not in the occipital lobes. We then investigated whether language production and spatial attention cerebral lateralization relate to each other, and whether manual preference was a variable that impacted the complementary HS of these functions. No correlation was found between spatial and language LIs in the majority of our sample of participants, including right-handers with a strong right-hand preference (sRH, n=97) and mixed-handers (MH, n=97), indicating that these functions lateralized independently. By contrast, in the group of left-handers with a strong left-hand preference (sLH, n= 99), a negative correlation was found between language and spatial lateralization. This negative correlation was found when LBJ-LI and PROD-LI were computed over the hemispheres, in the frontal lobes and between the occipital lobes for LBJ and the frontal lobes for PROD. These findings underline the importance to include sLH in the study sample to reveal the underlying mechanisms of

  18. Ceramic production during changing environmental/climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, Daniela B.; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.

    2015-04-01

    Ceramics, with regard to their status as largely everlasting everyday object as well as on the basis of their chronological sensitivity, reflect despite their simplicity the technological level of a culture and therefore also, directly or indirectly, the adaptability of a culture with respect to environmental and/or climatic changes. For that reason the question arises, if it is possible to identify changes in production techniques and raw material sources for ceramic production, as a response to environmental change, e.g. climate change. This paper will present results of a research about Paracas Culture (800 - 200 BC), southern Peru. Through several investigations (e.g. Schittek et al., 2014; Eitel and Mächtle, 2009) it is well known that during Paracas period changes in climate and environmental conditions take place. As a consequence, settlement patterns shifted several times through the various stages of Paracas time. Ceramics from three different sites (Jauranga, Cutamalla, Collanco) and temporal phases of the Paracas period are detailed archaeometric, geochemical and mineralogical characterized, e.g. Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and ICP-MS analyses. The aim of this research is to resolve potential differences in the chemical composition of the Paracas ceramics in space and time and to compare the data with the data sets of pre-Columbian environmental conditions. Thus influences of changing environmental conditions on human societies and their cultural conditions will be discussed. References Eitel, B. and Mächtle, B. 2009. Man and Environment in the eastern Atacama Desert (Southern Peru): Holocene climate changes and their impact on pre-Columbian cultures. In: Reindel, M. & Wagner, G. A. (eds.) New Technologies for Archaeology. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Schittek, K., Mächtle, B., Schäbitz, F., Forbriger, M., Wennrich, V., Reindel, M., and Eitel, B.. Holocene environmental changes in the highlands of the southern Peruvian Andes (14° S) and their

  19. Increasing carbon and material productivity through environmental tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekins, Paul; Pollitt, Hector; Summerton, Philip; Chewpreecha, Unnada

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tax reform (ETR), a shift in taxation towards environmental taxes, has been implemented on a small scale in a number of European countries. This paper first gives a short review of the literature about ETR. An Appendix briefly describes the model used for a modelling exercise to explore, through scenarios with low and high international energy prices, the implications of a large-scale ETR in the European Union, sufficient to reach the EU's emission reduction targets for 2020. The paper then reports the results of the exercise. The ETR results in increased carbon and materials, but reduced labour, productivity, with the emission reductions distributed across all sectors as a reduction in the demand for all fossil fuels. There are also small GDP increases for most, but not all, EU countries for all the scenarios, and for the EU as a whole. Both the environmental and macroeconomic outcomes are better with low than with high energy prices, because the former both increases the scale of the ETR required to reach the targets, and reduces the outflow of foreign exchange to pay for energy imports. ETR emerges from the exercise as an attractive and cost-effective policy for environmental improvement. - Highlights: ► European experience with environmental tax reform (ETR) is reviewed. ► Scenarios which meet EU carbon emission targets are modelled. ► The ETR results in increased carbon and materials, but reduced labour, productivity. ► There are small GDP increases for most, but not all, EU countries. ► ETR emerges as an attractive and cost-effective environmental policy.

  20. PGE Production in Southern Africa, Part II: Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Buchspies

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Platinum group elements (PGEs, 6E PGE = Pt + Pd + Rh + Ru + Ir + Au are used in numerous applications that seek to reduce environmental impacts of mobility and energy generation. Consequently, the future demand for PGEs is predicted to increase. Previous studies indicate that environmental impacts of PGE production change over time emphasizing the need of up-to-date data and assessments. In this context, an analysis of environmental aspects of PGE production is needed to support the environmental assessment of technologies using PGEs, to reveal environmental hotspots within the production chain and to identify optimization potential. Therefore, this paper assesses greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, cumulative fossil energy demand (CEDfossil, sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions and water use of primary PGE production in Southern Africa, where most of today’s supply originates from. The analysis shows that in 2015, emissions amounted to 45 t CO2-eq. and 502 kg SO2 per kg 6E PGE in the case GHG and SO2 emissions, respectively. GHG emissions are dominated by emissions from electricity provision contributing more than 90% to the overall GHG emissions. The CEDfossil amounted to 0.60 TJ per kg 6E PGE. A detailed analysis of the CEDfossil reveals that electricity provision based on coal power consumes the most fossil energy carriers among all energy forms. Results show that the emissions are directly related to the electricity demand. Thus, the reduction in the electricity demand presents the major lever to reduce the consumption of fossil energy resources and the emission of GHGs and SO2. In 2015, the water withdrawal amounted to 0.272 million L per kg 6E PGE. Additionally, 0.402 million L of recycled water were used per kg 6E PGE. All assessed indicators except ore grades and production volumes reveal increasing trends in the period from 2010 to 2015. It can be concluded that difficult market conditions (see part I of this paper series and increasing

  1. Environmental impacts and cost estimation for electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the different sources of energy used for electricity production in the view of the impact on environment. Coal, gas, wind energy, nuclear energy and hydro-energy are considered. The comparison of environmental performances requires common methodologies, 2 methodologies have been used ACV (analysis of a complete life cycle) and IPM (impact pathway methodology), both study all the exchanges of a system with the outside. The environmental performance is quantified by a series of parameters which represent the degradation of ecosystems. These parameters are divided into 4 groups: i) impact on public health, ii) impact on staff health, iii) impact on regional environment (agriculture, landscape alteration...) and iv) global impact on environment (greenhouse effect, acid rain, waste production, reduction of resources...). (A.C.)

  2. DETERMINATION OF SOCIAL ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUCCESS OF PRODUCTS:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESEN GÜRBÜZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An Empirical Investigation on the Turkish Food Industry Altough there are studies which evaulate and explain the importance of environmental, social and economic success of a product, it is important to evaluate the considerable success of these three variables together. This paper aims to evaluate economic, social and environmental success of a product all together (but not seperatly by conducting a research.  In this paper for some sample firms operating in the Turkish Food Industry, the variables, which effect the products’ economic, social and enviromental successes, are defined theoretically and the research results are explained investigating if there is a relationship between enviromental, social, economic success criteria and firm size, export, import use of intermediary.

  3. Aspects and environmental impacts associated with the production of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Navas de García

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete plants are important to the economy of a country. However, this industry causes major environmental impacts in each of the steps involved in the manufacturing process of concrete production which are analyzed in this research. In addition, the perception of experts and workers in the area, about the environmental impacts associated with the activity of a producer of concrete was evaluated. The methodology used for the analysis of steps in the production process was as kind documentary. For to evaluate perception of environmental impacts the methodology used was descriptive non experimental, using interviews with workers related to the manufacturing process of the concrete. Among the major identified environmental impacts are dust emissions and improper handling of effluents, hazardous and non-hazardous materials. Among the proposals put forward to address these impacts include: installation of dust collectors, settling tanks, management plans for hazardous and non-hazardous materials, among others. An analysis of the results incorporating the principles of corporate social responsibility for improving or minimizing adverse impacts are detected proposed

  4. Bio-fuels production and the environmental indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Marcos Sebastiao de Paula [Mechanical Engineering Department/Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro - PUC-Rio, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente 225, Gavea, CEP 22453-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Muylaert de Araujo, Maria Silvia [Energy and Environment Planning Program/Federal University of Rio de Janeiro - COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco C, sala 211, Ilha do Fundao, CEP: 21945-970, Caixa Postal: 68501, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    The paper evaluates the role of the bio-fuels production in the transportation sector in the world, for programs of greenhouse gases emissions reductions and sustainable environmental performance. Depending on the methodology used to account for the local pollutant emissions and the global greenhouse gases emissions during the production and consumption of both the fossil and bio-fuels, the results can show huge differences. If it is taken into account a life cycle inventory approach to compare the different fuel sources, these results can present controversies. A comparison study involving the American oil diesel and soybean diesel developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presents CO{sub 2} emissions for the bio-diesel which are almost 20% of the emissions for the oil diesel: 136 g CO{sub 2}/bhp-h for the bio-diesel from soybean and 633 g CO{sub 2}/bhp-h for the oil diesel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory - NREL/SR-580-24089]. Besides that, important local environmental impacts can also make a big difference. The water consumption in the soybean production is much larger in comparison with the water consumption for the diesel production [National Renewable Energy Laboratory - NREL/SR-580-24089]. Brazil has an important role to play in this scenario because of its large experience in bio-fuels production since the seventies, and the country has conditions to produce bio-fuels for attending great part of the world demand in a sustainable pathway. (author)

  5. Identifying consumer preferences for specific beef flavor characteristics in relation to cattle production and postmortem processing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Quinn, T G; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Chapman, P L; Legako, J F; Brooks, J C; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D

    2016-02-01

    Sensory analysis of ground LL samples representing 12 beef product categories was conducted in 3 different regions of the U.S. to identify flavor preferences of beef consumers. Treatments characterized production-related flavor differences associated with USDA grade, cattle type, finishing diet, growth enhancement, and postmortem aging method. Consumers (N=307) rated cooked samples for 12 flavors and overall flavor desirability. Samples were analyzed to determine fatty acid content. Volatile compounds produced by cooking were extracted and quantified. Overall, consumers preferred beef that rated high for beefy/brothy, buttery/beef fat, and sweet flavors and disliked beef with fishy, livery, gamey, and sour flavors. Flavor attributes of samples higher in intramuscular fat with greater amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids and lesser proportions of saturated, odd-chain, omega-3, and trans fatty acids were preferred by consumers. Of the volatiles identified, diacetyl and acetoin were most closely correlated with desirable ratings for overall flavor and dimethyl sulfide was associated with an undesirable sour flavor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Updating of U.S. Wood Product Life-Cycle Assessment Data for Environmental Product Declarations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman; Elaine Oneil; Maureen Puettmann; Ivan Eastin; Indroneil Ganguly

    2014-01-01

    The marketplace has an increasing desire for credible and transparent product eco-labels based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) data, especially involving international trade. Over the past several years, stakeholders in the U.S. wood products industry have developed many such “eco-labels” under the ISO standard of LCA-based environmental product declarations (EPDs). The...

  7. Leading product-related environmental performance indicators: a selection guide and database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issa, Isabela I.; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2015-01-01

    Ecodesign is a proactive environmental management and improvement approach employed in the product development process, which aims to minimize the environmental impacts caused during a product's life cycle and thus improve its environmental performance. The establishment of measurable environmental...... in the selection and application of environmental performance indicators - a more structured approach is still lacking. This paper presents the efforts made to identify and systematize existing leading product-related environmental performance indicators, based on a systematic literature review, and to develop...

  8. Technological challenges for boosting coal production with environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Mrinal K

    2009-07-01

    The global energy requirement has grown at a phenomenon rate and the consumption of primary energy sources has been a very high positive growth. This paper focuses on the consumption of different primary energy sources and it identifies that coal will continue to remain as the prime energy source in foreseeable future. It examines the energy requirement perspective for India and demand of coal as the prime energy source. Economic development and poverty alleviation depend on securing affordable energy sources and Indian coal mining industry offers a bright future for the country's energy security, provided the industry is allowed to develop by supportive government policies and adopts latest technologies for mining. It is an irony that in-spite of having a plentiful reserves, India is not able to jack up coal production to meet its current and future demand. It discusses the strategies to be adopted for growth and meeting the coal demand. But such energy are very much concerned with environmental degradation and must be driven by contemporary managerial acumen addressing environmental and social challenges effectively The paper highlights the emissions of greenhouse gases due to burning of fossil fuels and environmental consequences of global warming and sea-level rise. Technological solutions for environment friendly coal mining and environmental laws for the abatement of environmental degradation are discussed in this paper.

  9. Public preferences for investments in renewable energy production and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noblet, Caroline L.; Teisl, Mario F.; Evans, Keith; Anderson, Mark W.; McCoy, Shannon; Cervone, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the choices citizens make when asked to express willingness to support a proposed energy policy and are then compelled to allocate the program funds to either renewable energy or energy efficiency. In a survey study based on a random sample of residents of the state of Maine, USA, we find that citizens have preferences for specific types of renewable energy but these preferences do not yield significantly different allocation of investment funds between renewable energy and energy efficiency. We find that preferences are generally consistent regardless of presentation of options (i.e. limited ordering effects). Our results also indicate that personal characteristics that are understudied in the energy literature, including promotion/prevention focus and social/fiscal leanings, influence both willingness to support energy policies and also their allocation of fund choices, but in different ways. This suggests the importance of including multiple options in energy policy proposals, and that targeted messages regarding the components of such policies is key for optimal communication. - Highlights: • Support for energy policies depends on the type of renewable energy included. • Citizens chose to allocate more funds to energy efficiency than renewable energies. • Promotion or prevention focus impacts support for policy and allocation decisions. • Social and fiscal leanings impact support and allocation, in different ways.

  10. Feed Materials Production Center annual environmental report for calendar 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, T.A.; Gels, G.L.; Oberjohn, J.S.; Rogers, L.K.

    1990-10-01

    The mission of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) has been to process uranium for United States' defense programs. On July 10, 1989, the FMPC suspended production operations, but remains on standby for certain segments of production. The FMPC also manages the storage of some radioactive and hazardous materials. As part of its operations, the FMPC continuously monitors the environment to determine that it is operating within federal and state standards and guidelines regarding emission of radioactive and nonradioactive materials. Data collected from the FMPC monitoring program are used to calculate estimates of radiation dose for residents due to FMPC operations. For 1989, the estimate of dose through the air pathway, excluding radon, indicated that people in the area were exposed to less than 6% of the DOE guideline established to protect the public from radiation exposure. When radon emissions are included, the dose from FMPC operations during 1989 was less than 22% of the annual background radiation dose in the Greater Cincinnati area. This report is a summary of FMPC's environmental activities and monitoring program for 1989. An Environmental Compliance Self-Assessment presents the FMPC's efforts to comply with environmental regulations through June 1990. 44 refs., 48 figs.

  11. Floating on the margins [Environmental issues for floating production platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimshaw, R.

    1997-01-01

    The main environmental issues challenging oilfield development using floating production platforms in harsh environments such as the Atlantic frontier are discussed. These fall into two broad categories -operating conditions and biological disturbance. Particular combinations of wind and currents can lead to extremely difficult operating conditions through which floating units are expected to maintain production for economic reasons. This imposes stringent conditions on the design and construction of tanker hulls and of risers to enable them to remain connected at all times. Prediction of wind and wave forces is a crucial element of operational and safety planning. Fauna in seabed sediments disturbed by pipeline laying often relocate but some seeding back of colonies may be required in hard rock areas. Migration routes for cetaceans and the feeding grounds of marine birds must be considered and the potential long and short term damage to commercial fisheries through discharges need to be assessed. A significant risk is the interaction of sub-sea facilities and fishing gear and oil spills. Operational and accidental discharges of production chemicals, produced water containing oil, deck drainage and treated sewage, and discharges to air from flaring and utility exhausts are of major environmental concern calling for mitigation and protection measures and contingency plans. Some of the environmental issues associated with decommissioning are reduced by the use of floating platforms but there are global and national regulations governing the process. (UK)

  12. Products and Processes Innovation from the Perspective of Environmental Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Theis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the present scenario of globalization of the economy, the dynamics of the market determines the speed of change in business models, environmental aspects can contribute to the design of technological innovations. Given this perception, the general objective of this research was to investigate how industrial organizations in the metal-mechanic sector, located in the Vale do Rio dos Sinos region, reconcile the product innovation activities and processes, with the structuring principles of environmental management. This economic segment is characterized as one that has the highest rates of innovation and greater investment in research and development. Data were collected through a survey research with managers of 159 companies of the analysis unit. Evidence collected provided the realization that innovations tend to be adjustments made to the legal provisions that require the mitigation of environmental impacts in the production process, especially in reducing pollution and using less toxic assets, which does not generate sufficient stimulus to the development of new products.

  13. THE MARKETING RESEARCH OF MILITARY SERVICE PEOPLE’S CONSUMER PREFERENCES OF DRY PRODUCT PACKAGES AND WAYS OF THEIR IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mardar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the survey of respondents, a marketing research was carried out on military service people’s consumer motivations and benefits for the existing dry product package and ways to improve it, as well as on the attitude towards the consumption of instant cereals. The results of the survey showed that military service people were not satisfied with the existing daily field product package; the majority were not comfortable with the sameness of the assortment, cooking time, inconvenient packaging, and lack of individual flatware. It is found that the most important factors for military service people when choosing instant cereals are taste, composition/safety, nutritional and energy value, and the least important are the shape and design of packaging. The analysis of the responses about the nature of the most common negative body changes resulting from the respondents’ professional activity indicates that the development of instant cereals on the basis of natural components is promising, as these components can prevent fatigue and certain diseases. 68% of the people interviewed are already comfortable with the inclusion of instant cereals with improved consumer properties into the daily field product package, and other consumers’ attitude to them can be significantly improved by explaining to them the benefits of this product. A potential consumer wants to get a product that has a meat and fruit flavor with improved consumer properties, and what is the most important, the product should be tasty, of high quality, and harmless. Military service people will be the main consumers, regardless of their age, occupation, and education.The application of the marketing research on servicemen’s consumer preferences made it possible to identify those consumer preferences that must be taken into account when improving the set of dry products and developing new instant cereals in order to meet the potential consumers’ demand for these products

  14. Integration of environmental approaches to strategy of production enterprises - environmentally oriented quality of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalíková Františka

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper there are presented system approaches, applied in Slovak transformed production enterprises, which solve questions of closing the so called industrial cycle from the side of the wastes' producers. The production quality is connected not only with the technological chain itself and with outputs from it - the utility product, but also with the load of the life environment.The presented possibilities of the liquidation of solid energetic waste – fly ashes – represent a an overview of forms and methods of its utilization. By combusting one kind of coal in various boilers, fly ashes with different physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties originate, with the combustion temperature as a dominant factor. The fly ashes are directly (without influencing its composition applied in civil engineering, mining, metallurgy, waste water cleaning, etc. Their utilization after a separation removal of unwanted components is an economically difficult process. Such a unvaluable component is coal combustion residue, evaluated by the annealing loss (carbon-in-ash loss in fly ashes used for special procedures in civil enginering, e.g. in mortars (maximally 4% of c.a.s. loss or in the porous concrete (4-7% of c.a.s. loss. The building industry processes about 20% of solid energetic waste.

  15. Environmental benefits of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Simone Pereira; Seabra, Joaquim E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Integrated bioenergy systems can favor the sustainability of biofuels. ► We analyzed the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel in Brazil. ► GHG emissions and fossil energy use in the ethanol life cycle would be reduced. ► Socio-economic and other environmental aspects must be analyzed in future works. -- Abstract: The biorefinery of the future will be an integrated complex that makes a variety of products (e.g., biofuels, chemicals, power and protein) from a variety of feedstocks. The objective of this work was to evaluate the environmental benefits, compared to the traditional sugarcane ethanol system, of the integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel through a sugarcane–soybean biorefinery concept in Brazil. The environmental aspects considered here were the fossil energy use and the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions associated with ethanol production. In the Integrated System, soybean would be cultivated in part of the sugarcane reforming areas, which represents ∼17% of the total sugarcane area. Sugarcane and soybean oil would be processed in a combined ethanol–biodiesel plant, which would use only bagasse as fuel. All the demand for utilities of the biodiesel plant would be provided by the distillery. The output products of the combined plant would comprise sugarcane ethanol, soybean biodiesel (which would be used as diesel (B5) substitute in the sugarcane cultivation), bioelectricity and glycerin. The results indicate that the Integrated System can reduce the fossil energy consumption from 75 to 37 kJ/MJ of ethanol, when compared to the traditional system. For GHG emissions, the value would drop from 22.5 to 19.7 g CO 2 eq/MJ of ethanol. This analysis shows that the Integrated System is an important option to contribute to ethanol’s life cycle independence from fossil resources. This is an attractive environmental aspect, but socio-economic (as well as other environmental) aspects should also be analyzed in order to

  16. Environmental stewardship practices of veterinary professionals and educators related to use and disposal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer; Chan, Samuel S; Conway, Flaxen D L; Stone, David

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To document the environmental stewardship practices (decisions and actions regarding use and disposal) of pet and human pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) among pet-owning veterinary-care professionals (practicing veterinarians, veterinary students, and veterinary technicians and trainees) and environmental educators. DESIGN Internet-based cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE 191 pet owners (103 veterinary-care professionals and 88 environmental educators). PROCEDURES Study participants were recruited by means of a 2-part internet survey distributed to veterinary-care professional and environmental educator networks of individuals residing in Washington state, Oregon, and southern California. Survey questions addressed motivators for environmental stewardship practices (ie, decisions and actions regarding use and disposal of pet and human PPCPs). RESULTS Data were collected from 191 respondents; the response rate for individuals who self-selected to opt in was 78% (191/246). Of the 191 respondents, 42 (22%) stored pet pharmaceuticals indefinitely. The most common disposal method was the garbage (88/191 [46%]). Veterinary-care professionals counseled clients infrequently regarding environmental stewardship practices for PPCPs. Fifty-five percent (105/191) of all respondents preferred more environmentally friendly and clinically effective PPCPs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of the present survey emphasized the urgent need for improved educational resources to minimize environmental contamination from improper disposal of PPCPs. Environmental and economic motivations among pet owners in the veterinary-care and education professions indicate further opportunities for outreach and institutional support.

  17. Expanding OPEC production capacity: some legal and environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sahlawi, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    There is general consensus that the global demand for oil will increase in the medium-to-long term. It is predicted that much of this additional demand will be for OPEC oil. Therefore, it will become necessary to expand OPEC production capacity to meet this perceived increase. In recent years, many OPEC countries have launched far-reaching and, in some cases, radical plans to expand their production capacity. However, given the various investment and political constraints faced by the 13 OPEC Members, each country differs markedly in its ability to boost production capacity sufficiently to meet self-imposed targets. In this paper, we examine the importance to the oil market of recent oil supply trends and possible future attempts to build OPEC production capacity, focussing in particular on the legal and environmental issues involved. A review is provided of the legal mechanisms currently evolving in OPEC Countries to encourage investment in their oil industries. In addition, we outline the impact of the environmental movement of OPEC's expansion programmes. (author)

  18. Environmental consequences of different beef production systems in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental consequences of beef meat production in the EU, using a life cycle approach. Four beef production systems were studied - three from intensively reared dairy calves and one from suckler herds. According to the results of the analysis......, the contributions from the production of 1 kg beef meat (slaughter weight) to global warming, acidification, eutrophication, land use and non-renewable energy use were lower for beef from dairy calves than from suckler herds (16.0-19.9 versus 27.3 kg CO2e, 101-173 versus 210 g SO2e, 622-1140 versus 1651 g NO3e, 16.......5-22.7 versus 42.9 m2year, and 41.3-48.2 versus 59.2 MJ, respectively). The breakdown analysis helped identify the key areas in the "cradle to farm gate" beef production system where sustainable management strategies are needed to improve environmental performance. The study also included a sensitivity analysis...

  19. Solar as an environmental product. Thin-film modules. Production processes and their environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wild - Scholten, M.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Schottler, M. [M and W Zander, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The outline of this presentation is as follows: (1) Life-cycle thinking: (a) Establish emissions from the production site; (b) Include emissions from supply and disposal (Indirect Emissions); (c) Establish use of resources from nature; (2) What are the life-cycle impacts and largest contributions?: (a) Energy payback time; (b) Greenhouse gas emissions; (c) Toxic impacts; (d) Others?; (3) How to reduce life-cycle impacts?: (a) Near term objectives as a result of analysis from (2); (b) Long term objectives to reach an ecological optimum.

  20. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, J.L.; Dunn, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO 2 , and reduced emissions of SO 2 , the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO 2 and SO 2 , other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO 2 , with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general, the key elements for

  1. Hydropower Production and Fish Habitat Suitability: Impact and Effectiveness of Environmental Flow Prescriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellarin, A.; Galeati, G.; Ceola, S.; Pugliese, A.; Ventura, M.; Montanari, A.

    2017-12-01

    The anthropogenic alteration of the natural flow regime of a river for hydropower production can significantly modify the processes and functions associated with fluvial ecosystems. In order to preserve the fluvial habitat downstream of dams and diversion structures, environmental flows are commonly defined. Such environmental flows are generally computed from empirical methodologies, which are seldom based on site-specific studies, and may not be representative of local ecological and hydraulic conditions. Here we present the results of a quantitative analysis on the effectiveness of two alternative environmental flow scenarios prescribed in Central Italy (time-invariant experimental and empirically-based flow release versus time-variant hydrogeomorphologically-based flow release) and their impact on hydropower production and fish habitat suitability. The latter is examined by means of several models of habitat suitability curve, which is a well-known approach capable of analysing fluvial species preferences as a function of key eco-hydraulic features, such as water depth, flow velocity and river substrate. The results show an evident loss of hydropower production moving from the time-invariant experimental flow release to the hydrogeomorphological one (nearly 20% at the annual scale). Concerning the effects in terms of fish habitat suitability, our outcomes are less obvious, since they are species- and life stage-specific. The proposed analysis, which can be easily adapted to different riparian habitats and hydrological contexts, is a useful tool to guide the derivation of optimal water resource management strategies in order to ensure both hydropower production and fluvial ecosystem protection.

  2. Customer Perceived Brand Equity in Measuring Consumption Preference towards Local and Imported Products: A serial Studies on Urban and Suburban Level of Indonesia Society in Greater Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study generally aims to analyze how the preferences of Indonesian as a customer in consuming local and imported products. The specific purpose of this study is to confirm measurement tools of the customer perceived brand equity, which are product country image, culture, marketing mix, and product quality. The result of this study indicates that Indonesian consider much about the marketing mix and product quality, while not so much considering culture.The product country image on the other hand gives the opposite effect. It is significantly related but has negative impact to the customer preference. This study is expected to provide insight on factors that contribute to form customer preference, consumption, and behavior in consuming local and imported product. It is expected that this study can bring impact in increasing local product competitiveness so that local and imported product could compete equally.

  3. The environmentally friendly technology for bio fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekers, M.; Danilevics, A.; Guriniece, E.; Gulbis, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Bio fuel production and use have been discussed this time in EC and in Latvia as alternative energy sources. The national resources allow producing liquid fuels - bio diesel and bi oethanol from rape seeds and grain correspondingly. Liquid bio fuels can be recommended especially for auto transport in big towns to reduce the pollution of air. A system for environmentally friendly production of bio fuel from agricultural raw materials has been developed, which permit a complex utilization of byproducts an wastes for obtaining of valuable food-stuffs and industrial products, providing the agricultural production requirements and supporting with local mineral fertilizers. Such a bio fuel production includes the agricultural and industrial productions in a united biotechnological system. Production objects of system interact: the products, by-products and wastes from one object are used as raw materials, auxiliary materials or heat carriers in other system's objects. This integrated agro-industrial production system would allow the production of feeds and chemical products, along with bio fuels. In this work, a model of a system for a conventional administrative rural region is presented, exemplified with the case of Latvia. The model is developed for three forms of bio fuel production, i.e. ethanol, bio diesel and biogas as local energy source. Bio diesel is produced using ethanol as transesterifying agent of rape-seed oil fatty acids. This bio diesel is a blend of rape-seed oil fatty acid ethyl esters (REE) and consists solely from renewable raw materials. The capacity of distillery of system is 40 million litters per year and bio diesel 35000 ton. Important for agriculture is protein reach press cakes the byproduct from bio diesel production (66000 t/y). This byproduct can be exported as well. Biogas reactors of system can be used for utilization of wastes from town if necessary. Recommended bio system occupates up to 150.000 ha of agriculture lands

  4. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.

  5. Cross-Cultural Investigation of Consumers’ Generations Attitudes Towards Purchase of Environmentally Friendly Products in Apparel Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabija Dan-Cristian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent changes of the environment and in the society have altered consumers’ preferences and brought new concerns among local communities regarding environmental protection and organizations responsibility, the adoption of environmentally friendly strategies, as well as offering more sustainable products. Consumers tend to select retailers based on their focus on environmental friendly products and on various “green” strategies regarding waste disposal, package recycling, etc. This study aims to highlight Romanian and Slovak consumers’ attitudes towards purchasing of goods from retailers that strive a clear focus on environmental responsibility and environmental friendly practices in apparel, footwear and sportswear retail. By means of a quantitative research based on a questionnaire administered to consumers of international retail chains with operations in both countries, the authors highlight differences in their perceptions and attitudes for buying green apparel, footwear and sportswear. Whereas Millennials and Gen Xers consumers in Romania and Slovakia believe that international apparel, footwear and sportswear retailers are less concerned about environmentally responsible behavior and the need of selling green products, Baby Boomers are more sensitive to such aspects and carefully select retailers according to their green strategy. This research provides specific findings about attitudes of different consumers’ generations within two emerging European countries (Romania, Slovakia.

  6. Long term energy-related environmental issues of copper production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, S. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Maldonado, P.; Barrios, A.; Jaques, I. [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Energy Research Program

    2002-02-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector of several countries. However, it is highly energy-intensive and poses important environmental hazards. In the case of Chile, the world's largest copper producer (40% of world total), we examine its energy consumption and energy-related environmental implications over a time horizon of 25 years. Concerning the latter, we focus on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, one of the most debated environmental issues. This paper follows up our previous report in which the current situation was analyzed and a particular technical option for improving the energy efficiency and concurrently reducing GHG emissions was discussed. Estimated reference or base (BS) and mitigation (MS) scenarios are developed for the period ending in 2020. The former assesses the energy demand projected in accordance with production forecasts and specific energy consumption patterns (assuming that energy efficiency measures are adopted 'spontaneously') with their resultant GHG emissions, while the latter assumes induced actions intended to reduce emissions by adopting an aggressive policy of efficient energy use. For the year 2020, the main results are: (i) BS, 1214 t of CO{sub 2}/ton of refined copper content (49% lower than in 1994); (ii) MS, 1037 t of CO{sub 2}/t of refined copper content (56% lower than in 1994). CO{sub 2} emissions have been estimated considering both fuel and electricity process requirements. (author)

  7. Long term energy-related environmental issues of copper production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, S.; Maldonado, P.; Barrios, A.; Jaques, I.

    2002-01-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector of several countries. However, it is highly energy-intensive and poses important environmental hazards. In the case of Chile, the world's largest copper producer (40% of world total), we examine its energy consumption and energy-related environmental implications over a time horizon of 25 years. Concerning the latter, we focus on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions, one of the most debated environmental issues. This paper follows up our previous report in which the current situation was analyzed and a particular technical option for improving the energy efficiency and concurrently reducing GHG emissions was discussed. Estimated reference or base (BS) and mitigation (MS) scenarios are developed for the period ending in 2020. The former assesses the energy demand projected in accordance with production forecasts and specific energy consumption patterns (assuming that energy efficiency measures are adopted 'spontaneously') with their resultant GHG emissions, while the latter assumes induced actions intended to reduce emissions by adopting an aggressive policy of efficient energy use. For the year 2020, the main results are: (i) BS, 1214 t of CO 2 /ton of refined copper content (49% lower than in 1994); (ii) MS, 1037 t of CO 2 /t of refined copper content (56% lower than in 1994). CO 2 emissions have been estimated considering both fuel and electricity process requirements. (author)

  8. Environmentally Benign Production of Stretchable and Robust Superhydrophobic Silicone Monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alexander; Surdo, Salvatore; Caputo, Gianvito; Bayer, Ilker S; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2018-01-24

    Superhydrophobic materials hold an enormous potential in sectors as important as aerospace, food industries, or biomedicine. Despite this great promise, the lack of environmentally friendly production methods and limited robustness remain the two most pertinent barriers to the scalability, large-area production, and widespread use of superhydrophobic materials. In this work, highly robust superhydrophobic silicone monoliths are produced through a scalable and environmentally friendly emulsion technique. It is first found that stable and surfactantless water-in-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) emulsions can be formed through mechanical mixing. Increasing the internal phase fraction of the precursor emulsion is found to increase porosity and microtexture of the final monoliths, rendering them superhydrophobic. Silica nanoparticles can also be dispersed in the aqueous internal phase to create micro/nanotextured monoliths, giving further improvements in superhydrophobicity. Due to the elastomeric nature of PDMS, superhydrophobicity can be maintained even while the material is mechanically strained or compressed. In addition, because of their self-similarity, the monoliths show outstanding robustness to knife-scratch, tape-peel, and finger-wipe tests, as well as rigorous sandpaper abrasion. Superhydrophobicity was also unchanged when exposed to adverse environmental conditions including corrosive solutions, UV light, extreme temperatures, and high-energy droplet impact. Finally, important properties for eventual adoption in real-world applications including self-cleaning, stain-repellence, and blood-repellence are demonstrated.

  9. THE USE OF CLUSTER ANALYSIS IN THE RESEARCH ON SHOPPING PREFERENCES REGARDING REGIONAL PRODUCTS FROM LUBELSKIE VOIVODESHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Czeczelewski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An increasing awareness of consumers is reflected in a growing demand for products which are manufactured in a particular way, with unique ingredients, or which are of a particular origin. The analysis of consumers’ preferences makes it possible to define factors which determine the purchase of regional products. The aim of the work was to identify factors which determine the purchase of regional products from Lubelskie Voivodeship on the basis of cluster analysis using Ward’s hierarchical agglomerative clustering method. The research was carried out in 2016 and included 383 individuals. Statistical analysis of results was conducted on the basis of frequency analysis and cluster analysis. According to the respondents, the most frequently purchased regional products included bakery products (47%, dairy products (35.3%, meat (33.3%, and alcoholic beverages (29.4%. Over 53% of the respondents claimed that the prices of regional products are too high, every third person (29.6% concluded that they are reasonable, while slightly over 3% of the respondents said they are low. Television and the Internet as well as close relatives and friends appeared to be the best forms of reaching the client with information concerning regional products when bringing them out on the market. However, the most common places where regional products were purchased were food fairs and festivals. Every second respondent purchased regional products at least once a month. Additionally, it was revealed that the consumers’ income was not a decisive factor when purchasing regional products. Despite financial stability, individuals who could be defined as “rich” in Polish conditions purchased regional products relatively rarely.

  10. Do women and providers value the same features of contraceptive products? Results of a best-worst stated preference experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Edith; Bateson, Deborah; Knox, Stephanie; Haas, Marion; Viney, Rosalie; Street, Deborah; Fiebig, Denzil

    2013-06-01

    To determine how women and physicians rate individual characteristics of contraceptives. Discrete choice experiments are used in health economics to elicit preferences for healthcare products. A choice experiment uses hypothetical scenarios to determine which individual factors influence choice. Women and general practitioners (GPs) were shown individual characteristics of contraceptives, not always matching existing methods, and chose the best and worst features. Two hundred women, mean age 36, 71% using contraception, were presented with descriptions of 16 possible methods and asked to indicate their preference for individual characteristics. One hundred and sixty-two GPs, mostly women, also completed 16 descriptions. Longer duration of action was most favoured by both, followed by lighter periods with less pain or amenorrhoea. The least attractive features for women were heavier and more painful periods, high cost, irregular periods, low efficacy (10% failure) and weight gain of 3 kg. GPs ranked a 10% pregnancy rate as least attractive followed by heavy painful periods and a 5% failure rate. Women and GPs differed in their ranking of contraceptive characteristics. Long duration of use, high efficacy, minimal or no bleeding without pain, were preferred by both. Very undesirable were heavy periods especially with pain, and low efficacy.

  11. Positive mood as a mediator of the relations among musical preference, postconsumption product evaluation, and consumer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ching-I; Tseng, Hsu-Min; Wu, Heng-Hui

    2007-06-01

    This study of how positive mood mediates the influences of musical preference and postconsumption product evaluation on consumer satisfaction focuses specifically on a model in which positive mood fully mediates the influences. The proposed model is compared with two competing models, and a structural equation model is used to test and compare the three theory-driven models. This study sampled 247 students majoring in management at a single university. They had mean age of 23 yr. (SD=2.5). This study used questionnaires to measure subjects' evaluations of a cup of coffee, preference for the music broadcast in the coffee shop, positive mood, and satisfaction after they had the coffee. Analysis indicated that the proposed model outperformed the two competing models in describing the data using chi-square difference tests. Positive mood was identified as a full mediator of the relationship between musical preference and consumer satisfaction. Moreover, the results demonstrate for service managers the importance of creating positive consumer mood.

  12. Environmental protection in exploration and production by AGIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dossena, G.; Di Luise, G.; Ceffa, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides a panorama of environmental protection activities being undertaken by AGIP (Italian General Petroleum Company). The Company has developed a wide-ranging program based on 20 years experience in world-wide on- and off-shore exploration and production. The research studies on technologically innovative on-site waste management, noise abatement and subsidence control and monitoring techniques are co-operative efforts involving the joint participation of national research institutions, universities and leading international petroleum companies. Given the intense oil carrier traffic along Italy's tourism dependent coastlines, one of the key projects is the creation of a national emergency plan to deal with oil spills. AGIP is also actively involved in the training of national and foreign site personnel in environmental protection techniques

  13. Evaluation of indicators to assess the environmental impact of dairy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Current awareness of environmental pollution of animal production in Western Europe has triggered research on development of environmental indicators at farm level. Only when the environmental impact of commercial farms can be quantified effectively, important differences in impact can be

  14. Combustion and environmental performance of clean coal end products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodras, G.; Sakellaropoulos, G. [Centre for Research and Technology, Hellas, Ptolemaidas-Kozanis, Ptolemaida (Greece). Inst. for Solid Fuel Technolgy and Applications]|[Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemical Process Engineering Lab]|[Chemical Process Engineering Research Inst., Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Solid Fuels and Environment; Someus, E. [Thermal Desorption Technology Group (Greece); Grammelis, P.; Amarantos, P.S. [Centre for Research and Technology, Hellas, Ptolemaidas-Kozanis, Ptolemaida (Greece). Inst. for Solid Fuel Technolgy and Applications; Palladas, A.; Basinas, P.; Natas, P.; Prokopidou, M.; Diamantopoulou, I.; Sakellaropoulos, G. [Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemical Process Engineering Lab

    2006-07-01

    Clean and affordable power production is needed in order to achieve sustainable economic development. This paper focused on clean coal technologies in which coal-fired power plants are used in conjunction with large amounts of renewable energy sources to offer a high level of process safety and long term management of all residual operation streams. Thermal Desorption Recycle-Reduce-Reuse Technology (TDT-3R) was described as being a promising solid fuel pretreatment process for clean energy production up to 300 MWe capacities. TDT-3R is based on low temperature carbonisation fuel pre-treatment principles, which produce cleansed anthracite type fuels from coal and other carbonaceous material such as biomass and organic wastes. The combustion efficiency of such clean coals and the environmental performance of the TDT-3R process were investigated in this study via pilot scale tests of clean fuel production. Tests included flue gas emissions monitoring, raw fuel and product characterisation and thermogravimetric tests, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans, and heavy metals analyses, and toxicity tests. Raw material included coal and biomass, such as willow, straw and demolition wood. The fuels were heated in a rotary kiln operating at 550 degrees C under slightly vacuum conditions. Clean coals were tested either alone or in conjunction with biomass fuels in a pilot scale combustion facility at Dresden, Germany. The clean coal samples were shown to have higher fixed carbon and ash content and lower volatiles compared to the respective raw coal samples. The major advantage of the TDT-3R process is the production of fuels with much lower pollutants content. Low nitrogen, sulphur, chlorine and heavy metal contents result in produced fuels that have excellent environmental performance, allow boiler operation in higher temperatures and overall better efficiency. Moreover, the use of clean fuels reduces deposition problems in the combustion chamber due to the

  15. Environmental impacts of chocolate production and consumption in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantas, Antonios; Jeswani, Harish K; Stamford, Laurence; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluates life cycle environmental impacts associated with chocolate products made and consumed in the UK. The paper focuses on three representative chocolate products occupying 90% of the market: 'moulded chocolate', 'chocolate countlines' and 'chocolates in bag'. The impacts were estimated using life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool and following the ReCiPe impact assessment method. The water footprint was also considered. For example, the global warming potential ranges between 2.91 and 4.15 kg CO 2 eq., primary energy demand from 30 to 41 MJ and the water footprint, including water stress, from 31 to 63 l per kilogram of chocolate. The raw materials are the major hotspot across all impact categories for all three product types, followed by the chocolate production process and packaging. The raw material impacts are mainly due to milk powder, cocoa derivatives, sugar and palm oil. The sensitivity analysis shows that the results for global warming potential are sensitive to land-use change (LUC) associated with cocoa production, increasing the impact of the chocolate products by three to four times if LUC is involved. The improvement opportunities targeting the key contributing stages suggest that GWP of chocolates could be reduced by 14%-19%. Chocolate countlines have the highest contribution to the total impacts at the UK level (37%-43%), followed by chocolates in bag (28%-33%). Moulded chocolates and other chocolate confectionary make up the rest of the impacts, with a roughly equal share each. Chocolate consumption in the UK contributes 4.7% to the primary energy consumption and 2.4% to the GHG emissions from the whole food and drink sector. The results of this work will be of interest to policy makers, chocolate producers and consumers, helping them to make more informed decisions towards sustainable production and consumption of chocolate products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing an environmental compliance program for accelerator production of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, R.W.; Roberts, J.S.; Dyer, K.W.; Shedrow, C.B.; Sheetz, S.O.; England, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of an environmental program for a large proposed federal project currently in the preliminary design phase, namely, the accelerator production of tritium (APT) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This project is complicated not only by its size ($3.5 to $4.5 billion) but also by its technical complexity and one-of-a-kind nature. This is further complicated by the fact that government projects are driven by budgets subject to public pressures and annual Congressional fiscal considerations, whereas private companies are driven by profits. The measure of success for a federal project such as the APT is based on level of public support, not profits. Finally, there are not too many equivalent environmental programs that could be used as models, and benchmarking is nearly impossible. Forming an environmental program during the conceptual design phase of this large federal project included the formation of a core environmental working group (EWG). The group has membership from all major project organizations with a charter formally recognized by the project director. The envelope for traditional environmental work for the APT project has been stretched to include teaming with management in the establishment of project goals and direction. The APT EWG was set up organizationally to include several subgroups or teams that do the real work of assessing, establishing the regulatory framework, and then developing a compliance program. Setting aside the organizational difficulties of selecting the right team leads and members, each team was tasked with developing a charter, plan, and schedule. Since then, each team has developed an appropriate level of supporting documentation to address its particular issues and requirements

  17. Evaluation of preservative efficacy in pharmaceutical products: the use of psychrotolerant, low-nutrient preferring microbes in challenge tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, C; Otterholt, E

    2012-10-01

    Preservative efficacy in medicines is typically investigated using challenge tests. In such tests, the product is artificially contaminated with a high concentration of standard bacterial and fungal test strains such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The rate and extent of reductions in inoculum viability over a specified period forms the basis for acceptance/rejection of preservative efficacy. None of the strains named for inclusion in the challenge test outlined in the European Pharmacopoeia are associated with the contamination of high-quality water used in pharmaceutical production. Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria are easily the most common microbes in waters intended for pharmaceutical production. In addition, none of the standard test strain panel prefer low-nutrient, dilute conditions or grow at or around refrigeration temperatures. This is important because the water activity and nutrient content of medicines can vary greatly and medicines are often stored cold. We investigate the relevance of these factors when testing preservative efficacy by including other strains in challenge tests. Psychrotolerant, low-nutrient preferring strains (Beta- and Alphaproteobacteria and a yeast) were isolated from pristine waters. These were compared in challenge tests with C. albicans and P. aeruginosa using different storage temperatures. Pharmaceutical products differing widely in water-content, pH and preservative systems were included in the study. Regardless of the type of medicine tested C. albicans always showed superior survival characteristics to the yeast isolate (Cryptococcus terricola). One of the three screened bacterial strains (a Sphingomonas sp.) survived significantly better than P. aeruginosa in all but one product tested. However, the results for all products taken together cannot easily be explained by reference to this strain's psychrotolerancy or its preference for dilute, low-nutrient environments. This study supports previous work

  18. Energy and environmental implications of novel protein production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwardson, W; Lewis, C W; Slesser, M

    1981-04-01

    The energy requirements of many novel protein production systems are compared with an examination of the relevant environmental implications of these systems. The prospects for single cell protein, leaf protein, fish farming, fish protein concentrate, algal cultivation, and hydroponic plant growth systems are investigated. Single cell protein from carbohydrate substrates, algal protein, and fish protein seem to hold much promise, as they are technologically feasible for near-term implementation and do not require major energy inputs. (2 diagrams, 1 graph, 47 references, 6 tables)

  19. Environmental impacts of precision feeding programs applied in pig production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, I; Hauschild, L; Kipper, M; Pires, P G S; Pomar, C

    2017-12-04

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect that switching from conventional to precision feeding systems during the growing-finishing phase would have on the potential environmental impact of Brazilian pig production. Standard life-cycle assessment procedures were used, with a cradle-to-farm gate boundary. The inputs and outputs of each interface of the life cycle (production of feed ingredients, processing in the feed industry, transportation and animal rearing) were organized in a model. Grain production was independently characterized in the Central-West and South regions of Brazil, whereas the pigs were raised in the South region. Three feeding programs were applied for growing-finishing pigs: conventional phase feeding by group (CON); precision daily feeding by group (PFG) (whole herd fed the same daily adjusted diet); and precision daily feeding by individual (PFI) (diets adjusted daily to match individual nutrient requirements). Raising pigs (1 t pig BW at farm gate) in South Brazil under the CON feeding program using grain cultivated in the same region led to emissions of 1840 kg of CO2-eq, 13.1 kg of PO4-eq and 32.2 kg of SO2-eq. Simulations using grain from the Central-West region showed a greater climate change impact. Compared with the previous scenario, a 17% increase in climate change impact was found when simulating with soybeans produced in Central-West Brazil, whereas a 28% increase was observed when simulating with corn and soybeans from Central-West Brazil. Compared with the CON feeding program, the PFG and PFI programs reduced the potential environmental impact. Applying the PFG program mitigated the potential climate change impact and eutrophication by up to 4%, and acidification impact by up to 3% compared with the CON program. Making a further adjustment by feeding pigs according to their individual nutrient requirements mitigated the potential climate change impact by up to 6% and the potential eutrophication and acidification impact

  20. Golbal Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increased Bioenergy Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace Tyner

    2012-05-30

    The project had three main objectives: to build and incorporate an explicit biomass energy sector within the GTAP analytical framework and data base; to provide an analysis of the impact of renewable fuel standards and other policies in the U.S. and E.U, as well as alternative biofuel policies in other parts of the world, on changes in production, prices, consumption, trade and poverty; and to evaluate environmental impacts of alternative policies for bioenergy development. Progress and outputs related to each objective are reported.

  1. Guidelines for the Deployment of Product-Related Environmental Legislation into Requirements for the Product Development Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraz, Mariana; Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; Teixeira, Cláudia Echevenguá

    2013-01-01

    Environmental legislation is increasingly changing its focus from end-of-pipe approaches to a life cycle perspective. Therefore, manufacturing companies are increasingly identifying the need of deploying and incorporating product-related environmental requirements into the product development...... process. This paper presents twelve guidelines, clustered into three groups, to support companies in the identification, analysis and deployment of product requirements from product-related environmental legislation....

  2. 48 CFR 252.225-7023 - Preference for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7023 Section 252.225-7023 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(a), use the following provision: Requirement for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010) (a) Definitions. Product from Iraq or Afghanistan...

  3. Environmental impact of petroleum products in the soil. Part II: Petroleum products composition and key properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlia, T.

    2001-01-01

    The fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil depends on the chemical-physic properties of each hydrocarbon, as well as on the soil characteristics. The mean composition of various petroleum products, the key chemical compounds and their characteristics are focused in order to outline the environmental behaviour of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil [it

  4. Microalgal biomass production pathways: evaluation of life cycle environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaimes, George G; Khanna, Vikas

    2013-06-20

    Microalgae are touted as an attractive alternative to traditional forms of biomass for biofuel production, due to high productivity, ability to be cultivated on marginal lands, and potential to utilize carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial flue gas. This work examines the fossil energy return on investment (EROIfossil), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and direct Water Demands (WD) of producing dried algal biomass through the cultivation of microalgae in Open Raceway Ponds (ORP) for 21 geographic locations in the contiguous United States (U.S.). For each location, comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed for multiple microalgal biomass production pathways, consisting of a combination of cultivation and harvesting options. Results indicate that the EROIfossil for microalgae biomass vary from 0.38 to 1.08 with life cycle GHG emissions of -46.2 to 48.9 (g CO2 eq/MJ-biomass) and direct WDs of 20.8 to 38.8 (Liters/MJ-biomass) over the range of scenarios analyzed. Further anaylsis reveals that the EROIfossil for production pathways is relatively location invariant, and that algae's life cycle energy balance and GHG impacts are highly dependent on cultivation and harvesting parameters. Contrarily, algae's direct water demands were found to be highly sensitive to geographic location, and thus may be a constraining factor in sustainable algal-derived biofuel production. Additionally, scenarios with promising EROIfossil and GHG emissions profiles are plagued with high technological uncertainty. Given the high variability in microalgae's energy and environmental performance, careful evaluation of the algae-to-fuel supply chain is necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of emerging algal biofuel systems. Alternative production scenarios and technologies may have the potential to reduce the critical demands of biomass production, and should be considered to make algae a viable and more efficient biofuel alternative.

  5. Patient preferences in the treatment of hemophilia A: impact of storage conditions on product choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischer, Bernd; Marino, Renato; Napolitano, Mariasanta

    2018-01-01

    To gain insights into the usage of factor VIII (FVIII) products by patients diagnosed with moderate/severe hemophilia A, and to assess the impact and perceived importance of product storage. In this study, 200 patients diagnosed with moderate or severe hemophilia A across seven countries participated. Data were collected via a 30-minute, face-to-face interview in six countries and via a web-based survey in the seventh country. The questionnaire evaluated the effect of six features associated with FVIII products on the choice of the product; the structure and flow of data collection was designed to eliminate potential bias. Two-thirds of the respondents were using recombinant FVIII products. Only 17% were generally dissatisfied with current FVIII products, whereas >40% of the respondents were dissatisfied with frequency of administration and storage issues when traveling. The majority noted restrictions in their daily activities, particularly travel and sports. Most of them (85%), stored their product in the refrigerator and of these, 88% believed that it should always be stored there. These patients were also less satisfied with the product overall, more concerned about storage temperature, more restricted in daily activities, and spent more time on preparation and injection compared with patients who stored their product at room temperature. Conjoint analysis revealed that origin of FVIII (plasma-derived vs recombinant) was the strongest driver of product choice among all respondents, followed by storage flexibility (temperature), reconstitution device, and administration frequency. In this study, we did not investigate the efficacy and safety of the product. Not refrigerating FVIII products was associated with greater patient satisfaction and less restriction on daily activities. If efficacy and safety are unaffected, then storing FVIII at room temperature might have a positive impact on product choice. Few patients were aware that FVIII can be stored without

  6. Patient preferences in the treatment of hemophilia A: impact of storage conditions on product choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tischer B

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bernd Tischer,1 Renato Marino,2 Mariasanta Napolitano3 1Kantar Health, Munich, Germany; 2Haemophilia and Thrombosis Centre, University Hospital of Bari, Apulia, Italy; 3University of Palermo, Reference Regional Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis Hematology Unit, Palermo, Italy Objectives: To gain insights into the usage of factor VIII (FVIII products by patients diagnosed with moderate/severe hemophilia A, and to assess the impact and perceived importance of product storage.Methods: In this study, 200 patients diagnosed with moderate or severe hemophilia A across seven countries participated. Data were collected via a 30-minute, face-to-face interview in six countries and via a web-based survey in the seventh country. The questionnaire evaluated the effect of six features associated with FVIII products on the choice of the product; the structure and flow of data collection was designed to eliminate potential bias.Results: Two-thirds of the respondents were using recombinant FVIII products. Only 17% were generally dissatisfied with current FVIII products, whereas >40% of the respondents were dissatisfied with frequency of administration and storage issues when traveling. The majority noted restrictions in their daily activities, particularly travel and sports. Most of them (85%, stored their product in the refrigerator and of these, 88% believed that it should always be stored there. These patients were also less satisfied with the product overall, more concerned about storage temperature, more restricted in daily activities, and spent more time on preparation and injection compared with patients who stored their product at room temperature. Conjoint analysis revealed that origin of FVIII (plasma-derived vs recombinant was the strongest driver of product choice among all respondents, followed by storage flexibility (temperature, reconstitution device, and administration frequency. In this study, we did not investigate the efficacy and safety of

  7. Environmental issues of petroleum exploration and production: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Dorsey, Nancy S.

    2005-01-01

    Energy is the lifeblood of our planet Earth, an essential commod- ity that powers the expanding global economy. Starting in the 1950s, oil and natural gas became the main sources of primary energy for the increasing world population, and this dominance is expected to continue for several more decades (Edwards, 1997; Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2004). In the United States, petroleum production started in 1859 when Drake's well was drilled near Titusville, Pennsylvania, and oil and natural gas currently supply approximately 63% of the energy consumption; forecasts indicate that by 2025, their use will increase by about 40% to 28.3 million bbl/day and to 31.4 tcf/yr (EIA, 2004). The clear benefits of petroleum consumption, however, can carry major environmental impacts that may be regional or global in scale, in- cluding air pollution, global climate change, and oil spills. This vol- ume of Environmental Geosciences, covering environmental impacts of petroleum exploration and production, does not address these major impacts directly because air pollution and global warming are issues related primarily to petroleum and coal uses, and major oil spills are generally attributed to marine petroleum transportation, such as the Exxon Valdez's 1989 spill of 260,000 bbl of oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska. Exploration for and production of petroleum, however, have caused local detrimental impacts to soils, surface and groundwa- ters, and ecosystems in the 36 producing states in the United States (Richter and Kreitler, 1993; Kharaka and Hanor, 2003). These im- pacts arose primarily from the improper disposal of some of the large volumes (presently estimated at 20 billion bbl/yr total pro- duced) of saline water produced with oil and gas, from accidental hydrocarbon and produced-water releases, and from abandoned oil wells that were orphaned or not correctly plugged (Kharaka et al., 1995; Veil et al., 2004). Impacts and ground-surface disturbances, in the order

  8. Fact sheet on uranium exploration, mining production and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    During the last 3 years, there has been a dramatic revival and comeback of the uranium industry in the light of the expanding nuclear power programme all over the world. As a result, there has been a boom in uranium exploration, mining and production activities to meet the higher demand of uranium and reduce the gap between uranium demand and uranium supply from mines. In coming years, additional requests for TC, training/workshop and CRPs are expected in the areas of: 1) advanced aerial and ground geophysical techniques for discovery of new deposits which could be deeply buried; 2) investigations of uranium sources in sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic environments; 3) In-Situ leaching (ISL) of uranium deposits; 4) advanced acid/alkali leaching of low, medium and high grade uranium ores and purification of uranium; 5) reclamation of used uranium mines and related environmental protection issues; and 6) uranium supply, demand and market issues. Services provided by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section could be workshops and hands-on field trainings at National and/or Regional levels in mines, mills and sites covering the following activities: uranium exploration involving conventional and advanced geophysical techniques and instruments, advanced drilling equipment and tools, etc.; uranium mining (open-cast and underground), recovery and purification by acid/alkali leaching, In-Situ leaching (ISL), purification by conventional and advanced solvent extraction and ion exchange techniques and concentration of uranium in the form of yellowcake (ammonium diuranate, magnesium diuranate and uranium peroxide); promoting best practices in uranium mining and milling (including tailing pond), covering environmental issues, reclamation of used uranium mines and chemistry of uranium production cycle and ground water and sustainability of uranium production. Member States interested in uranium geology, exploration, mining, milling, purification and environmental issues

  9. Preferences of Informal Carers on Technology Packages to Support Meal Production by People Living with Dementia, Elicited from Personalised AT and ICT Product Brochures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura De Filippis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assistive technology (AT can help support the continued independence of people living with dementia, supported by informal carers. Opinions and preferences of informal carers towards a range of assistive and digital information and communication technologies (ICT to support food purchase and menu selection, including navigation and online shopping, and safe meal-making by individuals living with dementia were investigated. General attitudes and experiences with assistive technologies were first probed by means of a focus group with carers (n = 6, organised through the Alzheimer’s Society in Nottingham, England. A series of AT/ICT product brochures were then produced, describing packages of technologies to enable meal production. Task-specific questions were asked of carers (n = 10 at local Memory Cafés as to the perceived capabilities of each individual for shopping and meal-making. Carers were asked to make pair-wise choices in order to select a personalised brochure and to complete a questionnaire to elicit the practicality, desirability and affordability of specific products and to probe for preferences amongst key features. Opinions on ease-of-use, aesthetics, expected safety-in-use, independence of use and stigma related to the technology packages were also collected. Results showed that carers are able to make detailed choices and express preferences about assistive and digital technologies for the individuals in their care, and customise their enabler package. Most believed that having an enabler package would improve safety. Greater exposure of carers to newer digital products would be beneficial. The brochure method could be employed on consumer websites and by AT assessors.

  10. Recycled aggregates in concrete production: engineering properties and environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seddik Meddah Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycled concrete aggregate is considered as the most abundant and used secondary aggregate in concrete production, other types of solid waste are also being used in concrete for specific purposes and to achieve some desired properties. Recycled aggregates and particularly, recycled concrete aggregate substantially affect the properties and mix design of concrete both at fresh and hardened states since it is known by high porosity due to the adhered layer of old mortar on the aggregate which results in a high water absorption of the recycled secondary aggregate. This leads to lower density and strength, and other durability related properties. The use of most recycled aggregate in concrete structures is still limited to low strength and non-structural applications due to important drop in strength and durability performances generated. Embedding recycled aggregates in concrete is now a current practice in many countries to enhance sustainability of concrete industry and reduce its environmental impacts. The present paper discusses the various possible recycled aggregates used in concrete production, their effect on both fresh and hardened properties as well as durability performances. The economic and environmental impacts of partially or fully substituting natural aggregates by secondary recycled aggregates are also discussed.

  11. Environmental effect of constructed wetland as biofuel production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong

    2017-04-01

    Being as a renewable energy, biofuel has attracted worldwide attention. Clean biofuel production is an effective way to mitigate global climate change and energy crisis. Biofuel may offer a promising alternative to fossil fuels, but serious concerns arise about the adverse greenhouse gas consequences from using nitrogen fertilizers. Waste-nitrogen recycling is an attractive idea. Here we advocate a win-win approach to biofuel production which takes advantage of excessive nitrogen in domestic wastewater treated via constructed wetland (CW) in China. This study will carry on environmental effect analysis of CW as a biomass generation system through field surveys and controllable simulated experiments. This study intends to evaluate net energy balance, net greenhouse effect potential and ecosystem service of CW as biomass generation system, and make comparation with traditional wastewater treatment plant and other biofuel production systems. This study can provide a innovation mode in order to solve the dilemma between energy crops competed crops on production land and excessive nitrogen fertilizer of our traditional energy plant production. Data both from our experimental CWs in China and other researches on comparable CWs worldwide showed that the biomass energy yield of CWs can reach 182.3 GJ ha-1 yr-1, which was two to eight times higher than current biofuel-production systems. Energy output from CW was ˜137% greater than energy input for biofuel production. If CWs are designed with specific goal of biofuel production, biofuel production can be greatly enhanced through the optimization of N supply, hydraulic structures, and species selection in CWs. Assuming that 2.0 Tg (1 Tg = 1012 g) waste nitrogen contained in domestic wastewater is treated by CWs, biofuel production can account for 1.2% of national gasoline consumption in China. The proportion would increase to 6.7% if extra nitrogen (9.5 Tg) from industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff was included

  12. Nickel production in Serbia-technological and environmental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kamberović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Demand for nickel is constantly growing due to the versatility of its application, at the first place for stainless steel production. Ore reserves and possibility of nickel production of today’s Serbia and in neighboring countries were thoroughly investigated, and presented work is part of a wider project of sublimation of scientific and professional experience in the field of nickel extractive metallurgy on domestic raw materials. Presented research explores the possibility of high pressure sulfuric acid leaching of Serbian lateritic ores from localities Rudjinci, Ba and Lipovac. All three investigated ore deposits behaved differently both during preparation and during hydrometallurgical treatment. As optimal method for ore preparation proved to be crushing-milling-sieving route, but without possibility of concentrate production. Only for Rudjinci ore deposit achieved leaching efficiency reached satisfactory level of 95%. Within presented paper flow-sheet is proposed for processing high-magnesium laterite ores, with iron and magnesium oxide Both could be recirculated and used again in technological process; MgO for iron precipitation and SO2 for production of leaching agent, sulfuric acid. Final decision on the sustainability of the process will be made according to techno-economic and environmental evaluation. Estimated overall impact of the project implementation on the environment is negative.

  13. Consumer Preference and Attitude Regarding Online Food Products in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Dang, Anh; Xuan Tran, Bach; Tat Nguyen, Cuong; Thi Le, Huong; Thi Do, Hoa; Duc Nguyen, Hinh; Hoang Nguyen, Long; Huu Nguyen, Tu; Thi Mai, Hue; Dinh Tran, Tho; Ngo, Chau; Thi Minh Vu, Thuc; Latkin, Carl A; Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ho, Roger C M

    2018-05-14

    This study aimed to examine: (1) how the Internet has changed consumers food-buying behavior and identify its associated factors; (2) consumers' concern about food safety information of online food products. A cross-sectional study was performed from October to December 2015 in Hanoi-a Vietnamese epicenter of food service. One thousand seven hundred and thirty six (1736) customers were randomly chosen from food establishments of 176 communes. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using structured questionnaires. The majority of participants reported using the Internet to search for food products (81.3%). The most crucial factors influencing food purchases through the Internet were convenience (69.1%) and price (59.3%). Only one-third of participants selected products based on accurate evidence about food safety certification or food origin. The majority of participants were concerned about the expiration date (51.6%), while brand (9.8%) and food licensing information (11.3%) were often neglected. People who were:(1) female, (2) highly influenced by online relationships, and (3) having difficulty in doing usual activities were more likely to look for online food products. These findings produce practical advice to consumers when purchasing their desired food products on the Internet, to online food retailers and to the Government of Vietnam to implement appropriate legislation regarding trading online food products.

  14. Environmental impacts of biomass energy resource production and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, J L; Dunn, S M [DynCorp, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the environmental impacts associated with the production, conversion and utilization of biomass energy resources and compare them with the impacts of conventional fuels. The use of sustainable biomass resources can play an important role in helping developing nations meet their rapidly growing energy needs, while providing significant environmental advantages over the use of fossil fuels. Two of the most important environmental benefits biomass energy offers are reduced net emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, and reduced emissions of SO{sub 2}, the primary contributor to acid rain. The paper also addresses the environmental impacts of supplying a range of specific biomass resources, including forest-based resources, numerous types of biomass residues and energy crops. Some of the benefits offered by the various biomass supplies include support for improved forest management, improved waste management, reduced air emissions (by eliminating the need for open-field burning of residues) and reduced soil erosion (for example, where perennial energy crops are planted on degraded or deforested land). The environmental impacts of a range of biomass conversion technologies are also addressed, including those from the thermochemical processing of biomass (including direct combustion in residential wood stoves and industrial-scale boilers, gasification and pyrolysis); biochemical processing (anaerobic digestion and fermentation); and chemical processing (extraction of organic oils). In addition to reducing CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, other environmental benefits of biomass conversion technologies include the distinctly lower toxicity of the ash compared to coal ash, reduced odours and pathogens from manure, reduced vehicle emissions of CO{sub 2}, with the use of ethanol fuel blends, and reduced particulate and hydrocarbon emissions where biodiesel is used as a substitute for diesel fuel. In general

  15. Lessons from spatial and environmental assessment of energy potentials for Anaerobic Digestion production systems applied to the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierie, F.; Benders, R.M.J.; Bekkering, J.; Gemert, W.J.Th. van; Moll, H.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • There is a substantial gap between bio-energy potential and net energy gain. • For reaching production goals the green gas utilization pathway is preferable. • Environmental sustainability favors the waste management pathway. • Renewable energy production goals and environmental sustainability do not always align. • There is a gap between top–down regulation and actual emission reduction and sustainability. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) can play an important role in achieving the renewable energy goals set within the European Union. Within this article the focus is placed on reaching the Dutch local renewable production goal set for the year 2020 with locally available biomass waste flows, avoiding intensive farming and long transport distances of biomass and energy carriers. The bio-energy yields, efficiency and environmental sustainability are analyzed for five municipalities in the northern part of the Netherlands, using three utilization pathways: green gas production, combined heat and power, and waste management. Literature has indicated that there is sufficient bio-energy potential in local waste streams to reach the aforementioned goal. However, the average useful energy finally produced by the AD production pathway is significantly lower, often due to poor quality biomass and difficult harvesting conditions. Furthermore, of the potential bio-energy input in the three utilization pathways considered in this article, on average: 73% can be extracted as green gas; 57% as heat and power; and 44% as green gas in the waste management pathway. This demonstrates that the Dutch renewable production goal cannot be reached. The green gas utilization pathway is preferable for reaching production goals as it retains the highest amount of energy from the feedstock. However, environmental sustainability favors the waste management pathway as it has a higher overall efficiency, and lower emissions and environmental impacts. The main

  16. Risk aversion, time preference and health production: theory and empirical evidence from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    This paper quantifies the relationship between risk aversion and discount rates on the one hand and height and weight on the other. It studies this link in the context of poor households in Cambodia. Evidence is based on an original dataset that contains both experimental measures of risk taking and impatience along with anthropometric measurements of children and adults. The aim of the paper is to (i) explore the importance of risk and time preferences in explaining undernutrition and (ii) compare the evidence stemming from poor households to strikingly similar findings from industrialized countries. It uses an inter-generational approach to explain observed correlations in adults and children that is inspired by the height premium on labor markets. Parents can invest in the health capital of their child to increase future earnings and their consumption when old: better nutrition during infancy translates into better human capital and better wages, and ultimately better financial means to take care of elderly parents. However this investment is subject to considerable uncertainty, since parents neither perfectly foresee economic conditions when the child starts earning nor fully observe the ability to transform nutritional investments into long-term health capital. As a result, risk taking households have taller and heavier children. Conversely, impatience does not affect child health. In the case of adults, only weight and the body mass index (BMI), but not height, are positively and moderately correlated with risk taking and impatience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental review of natural gas production in Lake Erie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shea, K.

    2002-01-01

    The water of Lake Erie is used as a source of drinking water for Ontario, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Michigan. An environmental review has been conducted to determine the impact of drilling operations on the overall ecology of the lake. Since 1913, 2000 natural gas wells have been drilled in Lake Erie, of which 550 currently produce gas and account for 75 per cent of Ontario's total gas production. 180 wells are shut-in or suspended and the remaining wells have been abandoned. The gas wells are connected to onshore production facilities by approximately 1,600 km of small diameter pipelines that lie buried near shore or on top of the lake bed. Nearly 90 per cent of the in-lake infrastructure is in water depths of more than 20 metres. Talisman Energy is actively involved with the Canadian Coast Guard, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and the Ministry of Natural Resources to ensure cooperation between regulators and off-shore personnel. The environmental assessment of natural gas production in Lake Erie included a review of regulatory and best management practices, a biophysical overview of the lake, and a review of drilling practices, well completions, handling of waste streams, materials management, operations inspections, wastewater discharge, air emissions, and oil spills. It was revealed that for most drilling programs, cuttings are washed and discharged to the Lake. Ongoing testing will determine the impact that this practice has on benthic populations. The drill muds used for drilling operations are water based, environmentally friendly, and re-used between well locations. For completion programs, all well activities are closed circuit operations. Wells are abandoned through plugging with cement, removing wellheads and casing below the lake bottom. There has been a reported volume of about 23,000 litres of spilled product from 1990 to 2001, of which 68 per cent has come from 3 industrial companies that operate near Lake Erie. The offshore gas

  18. Effects of NADH-preferring xylose reductase expression on ethanol production from xylose in xylose-metabolizing recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Haeng; Kodaki, Tsutomu; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2012-04-30

    Efficient conversion of xylose to ethanol is an essential factor for commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol. To minimize production of xylitol, a major by-product in xylose metabolism and concomitantly improve ethanol production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae D452-2 was engineered to overexpress NADH-preferable xylose reductase mutant (XR(MUT)) and NAD⁺-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) from Pichia stipitis and endogenous xylulokinase (XK). In vitro enzyme assay confirmed the functional expression of XR(MUT), XDH and XK in recombinant S. cerevisiae strains. The change of wild type XR to XR(MUT) along with XK overexpression led to reduction of xylitol accumulation in microaerobic culture. More modulation of the xylose metabolism including overexpression of XR(MUT) and transaldolase, and disruption of the chromosomal ALD6 gene encoding aldehyde dehydrogenase (SX6(MUT)) improved the performance of ethanol production from xylose remarkably. Finally, oxygen-limited fermentation of S. cerevisiae SX6(MUT) resulted in 0.64 g l⁻¹ h⁻¹ xylose consumption rate, 0.25 g l⁻¹ h⁻¹ ethanol productivity and 39% ethanol yield based on the xylose consumed, which were 1.8, 4.2 and 2.2 times higher than the corresponding values of recombinant S. cerevisiae expressing XR(MUT), XDH and XK only. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects assessment of firm environmental strategy and customer environmental conscious on green product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Chuang, Li-Min; Chao, Shu-Tsung; Chang, Hsiao-Ping

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine why both parties (industry and consumer market) have mutual interests in protecting the environment but they still are hesitant to act green. The study used two-stage sampling from consumer market to depict ideal green product characteristics and reliable toy companies, and visit these companies for the second sample collection to examine whether the organizational eco-innovation strategy with customer value has a positive effect on green product development. In other words, the customer's benefit is an important factor for new product development strategy for green toys. This research shows that the willingness to buy green toys increases if most people in society buy green toys. This represents that customers are environmentally conscious and care about protecting the environment, or buying green toys is the result of a new economic trend and childhood education. The willingness to buy green toys increases if customers think that green products implies an enhancement on new product development to toy manufacturers. Further, if manufacturers are able to manage the difficulty of cooperation with all parties in the supply chain and difficulties related to production, they are willing to adopt customers' perceived value on green toys for their new product development strategy. It is rare to find academic research discussing the perspectives of both consumers and manufacturers in the same study because the research topic is very broad and many conditions must be considered. This research aims to find the effect of consumer-perceived value and company eco-innovation on green product development.

  20. Mitochondrial Physiology in the Major Arbovirus Vector Aedes aegypti: Substrate Preferences and Sexual Differences Define Respiratory Capacity and Superoxide Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Juliana B. R. Correa; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F.

    2015-01-01

    Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step

  1. Environmental impacts and sustainability of egg production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, H; Gates, R S; Green, A R; Mitloehner, F M; Moore, P A; Wathes, C M

    2011-01-01

    As part of a systemic assessment toward social sustainability of egg production, we have reviewed current knowledge about the environmental impacts of egg production systems and identified topics requiring further research. Currently, we know that 1) high-rise cage houses generally have poorer air quality and emit more ammonia than manure belt (MB) cage houses; 2) manure removal frequency in MB houses greatly affects ammonia emissions; 3) emissions from manure storage are largely affected by storage conditions, including ventilation rate, manure moisture content, air temperature, and stacking profile; 4) more baseline data on air emissions from high-rise and MB houses are being collected in the United States to complement earlier measurements; 5) noncage houses generally have poorer air quality (ammonia and dust levels) than cage houses; 6) noncage houses tend to be colder during cold weather due to a lower stocking density than caged houses, leading to greater feed and fuel energy use; 7) hens in noncage houses are less efficient in resource (feed, energy, and land) utilization, leading to a greater carbon footprint; 8) excessive application of hen manure to cropland can lead to nutrient runoff to water bodies; 9) hen manure on open (free) range may be subject to runoff during rainfall, although quantitative data are lacking; 10) mitigation technologies exist to reduce generation and emission of noxious gases and dust; however, work is needed to evaluate their economic feasibility and optimize design; and 11) dietary modification shows promise for mitigating emissions. Further research is needed on 1) indoor air quality, barn emissions, thermal conditions, and energy use in alternative hen housing systems (1-story floor, aviary, and enriched cage systems), along with conventional housing systems under different production conditions; 2) environmental footprint for different US egg production systems through life cycle assessment; 3) practical means to mitigate air

  2. Sensory characteristics of different cod products related to consumer preferences and attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Green-Petersen, D.; Hyldig, G.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was used to analyse the sensory quality of eight cod products, different with regard to origin (wild/farmed), storage time (short/extended) and storage method (fresh/frozen/packed in modified atmosphere). At the same time, 378 consumers in four European

  3. "It's in Love with You". Communicating Status and Preference with Simple Product Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ditte Hvas; Hepworth, Sam J.; Berg, Kirstine Sonne

    2012-01-01

    In some situations users perceive product movements as an indication of agency. This makes it relevant to gain an understanding of how and why movements communicate attributes related to agency and what impact it has on users. This paper describes an experiment in which users, alone or in pairs, ...

  4. Predictive model for consumer preference of a dried, chip-style persimmon product

    Science.gov (United States)

    The State of California is a major producer of Asian persimmons (Diospyros kaki), however, there is limited availability of persimmons outside of this region and the fruit’s short harvest season. A dried, chip-style product could increase the geographic area and timeframe in which persimmon growers...

  5. Potential Fusion Market for Hydrogen Production Under Environmental Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Potential future hydrogen market and possible applications of fusion were analyzed. Hydrogen is expected as a major energy and fuel mediun for the future, and various processes for hydrogen production can be considered as candidates for the use of fusion energy. In order to significantly contribute to reduction of CO 2 emission, fusion must be deployed in developing countries, and must substitute fossil based energy with synthetic fuel such as hydrogen. Hydrogen production processes will have to evaluated and compared from the aspects of energy efficiency and CO 2 emission. Fusion can provide high temperature heat that is suitable for vapor electrolysis, thermo-chemical water decomposition and steam reforming with biomass waste. That is a possible advantage of fusion over renewables and Light water power reactor. Despite of its technical difficulty, fusion is also expected to have less limitation for siting location in the developing countries. Under environmental constraints, fusion has a chance to be a major primary energy source, and production of hydrogen enhances its contribution, while in 'business as usual', fusion will not be selected in the market. Thus if fusion is to be largely used in the future, meeting socio-economic requirements would be important

  6. Product-oriented environmental management. A study of capability building, stakeholder orientation and continuous improvement regarding products' environmental characteristics in firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bakker, F.G.A.

    2001-01-01

    Companies are increasingly giving attention to the environmental characteristics of their products. This book focuses on the ways in which large, proactive, firms could develop and maintain product-oriented environmental management (POEM), both at the strategic and the operational level. POEM is

  7. Application of preference selection index method for decision making over the design stage of production system life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Attri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of production system shows the progress of production system from the inception to the termination of the system. During each stage, mainly in the design stage, certain strategic decisions have to be taken. These decisions are more complex as the decision makers have to assess a wide range of alternatives based on a set of conflicting criteria. As the decision making process is found to be unstructured, characterized by domain dependent knowledge, there is a need to apply an efficient multi-criteria decision making (MCDM tool to help the decision makers in making correct decisions. This paper explores the application of a novel MCDM method i.e. Preference selection index (PSI method to solve various decision-making problems that are generally encountered in the design stage of production system life cycle. To prove the potentiality, applicability and accuracy of PSI method in solving decision making problem during the design stage of production system life cycle, five examples are cited from the literature and are compared with the results obtained by the past researchers.

  8. Osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 Cells Prefer Glycolysis for ATP Production but Adipocyte-like 3T3-L1 Cells Prefer Oxidative Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, Anyonya R; Gerencser, Akos A; Le, Phuong T; DeMambro, Victoria E; Bornstein, Sheila A; Mookerjee, Shona A; Maridas, David E; Clemmons, David E; Brand, Martin D; Rosen, Clifford J

    2018-06-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are early progenitors that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. We hypothesized that osteoblasts and adipocytes utilize distinct bioenergetic pathways during MSC differentiation. To test this hypothesis, we compared the bioenergetic profiles of preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells and calvarial osteoblasts with preadipocyte 3T3L1 cells, before and after differentiation. Differentiated MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts met adenosine triphosphate (ATP) demand mainly by glycolysis with minimal reserve glycolytic capacity, whereas nondifferentiated cells generated ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. A marked Crabtree effect (acute suppression of respiration by addition of glucose, observed in both MC3T3-E1 and calvarial osteoblasts) and smaller mitochondrial membrane potential in the differentiated osteoblasts, particularly those incubated at high glucose concentrations, indicated a suppression of oxidative phosphorylation compared with nondifferentiated osteoblasts. In contrast, both nondifferentiated and differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes met ATP demand primarily by oxidative phosphorylation despite a large unused reserve glycolytic capacity. In sum, we show that nondifferentiated precursor cells prefer to use oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP; when they differentiate to osteoblasts, they gain a strong preference for glycolytic ATP generation, but when they differentiate to adipocytes, they retain the strong preference for oxidative phosphorylation. Unique metabolic programming in mesenchymal progenitor cells may influence cell fate and ultimately determine the degree of bone formation and/or the development of marrow adiposity. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  9. Meeting report: Initial World Health Organization consultation on herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine preferred product characteristics, March 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Giersing, Birgitte K; Hickling, Julian; Jones, Rebecca; Deal, Carolyn; Kaslow, David C

    2017-12-07

    The development of vaccines against herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an important global goal for sexual and reproductive health. A key priority to advance development of HSV vaccines is the definition of preferred product characteristics (PPCs), which provide strategic guidance on World Health Organization (WHO) preferences for new vaccines, specifically from a low- and middle-income country (LMIC) perspective. To start the PPC process for HSV vaccines, the WHO convened a global stakeholder consultation in March 2017, to define the priority public health needs that should be addressed by HSV vaccines and discuss the key considerations for HSV vaccine PPCs, particularly for LMICs. Meeting participants outlined an initial set of overarching public health goals for HSV vaccines in LMICs, which are: to reduce the acquisition of HIV associated with HSV-2 infection in high HIV-prevalence populations and to reduce the burden of HSV-associated disease, including mortality and morbidity due to neonatal herpes and impacts on sexual and reproductive health. Participants also considered the role of prophylactic versus therapeutic vaccines, whether both HSV-2 and HSV-1 should be targeted, important target populations, and infection and disease endpoints for clinical trials. This article summarizes the main discussions from the consultation. Copyright © 2017.

  10. Product Variety, Consumer Preferences, and Web Technology: Can the Web of Data Reduce Price Competition and Increase Customer Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Martin

    E-Commerce on the basis of current Web technology has created fierce competition with a strong focus on price. Despite a huge variety of offerings and diversity in the individual preferences of consumers, current Web search fosters a very early reduction of the search space to just a few commodity makes and models. As soon as this reduction has taken place, search is reduced to flat price comparison. This is unfortunate for the manufacturers and vendors, because their individual value proposition for a particular customer may get lost in the course of communication over the Web, and it is unfortunate for the customer, because he/she may not get the most utility for the money based on her/his preference function. A key limitation is that consumers cannot search using a consolidated view on all alternative offers across the Web. In this talk, I will (1) analyze the technical effects of products and services search on the Web that cause this mismatch between supply and demand, (2) evaluate how the GoodRelations vocabulary and the current Web of Data movement can improve the situation, (3) give a brief hands-on demonstration, and (4) sketch business models for the various market participants.

  11. Impact of Environmental Regulation on Productivity: Case Studies of Three Industries in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Chalermthanakom, Adisak; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Although fi rms bear the cost of compliance, strict but fl exible environmental regulation may benefi t them by spurring the innovation process. However, the relationship between environmental regulation and productivity is unclear. We calculate productivity growth by using data envelopment analysis; we then conduct regression analysis, using panel data on productivity growth by environmental regulation stringency. A one-year lag of environmental regulation stringency is included in the model...

  12. Do sustainability experienced travellers prefer a more rational communication of the sustainability of a tourism product?

    OpenAIRE

    Wehrli, Roger; Priskin, Julianna; Schaffner, Dorothea; Schwarz, Juerg; Stettler, Juerg

    2013-01-01

    This study examines empirically in four countries which communication style (emotional or rational) is most appropriate to address sustainability experienced travellers. There are only small differences compared to the average tourist. Rational communication elements which explain the sustainability of the product become more important for this specific customer group. However, most emotional communication elements are still more important in most countries, indicating that experienced touris...

  13. Environmental Compliance for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Christine

    1999-10-26

    The Appalachian/Illinois Basin Directors is a group devoted to increasing communication among the state oil and gas regulatory agencies within the Appalachian and Illinois Basin producing region. The group is comprised of representatives from the oil and gas regulatory agencies from states in the basin (Attachment A). The directors met to discuss regulatory issues common to the area, organize workshops and seminars to meet the training needs of agencies dealing with the uniqueness of their producing region and perform other business pertinent to this area of oil and gas producing states. The emphasis of the coordinated work was a wide range of topics related to environmental compliance for natural gas and oil exploration and production.

  14. Financial incentive for the Environmental Quality of Electricity Production (MEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    With the MEP subsidy regulation 'Environmental quality of electricity production' The Dutch minister of Economic Affairs focussed mainly on reaching the policy objective of the EU according to which 9% of all electricity used in the Netherlands should be generated with sustainable sources. According to the opinion of the Dutch Court of Audits not enough attention has been paid to the coherence of the MEP regulation with other policy objectives in the area of sustainability, such as air quality and CO2 reduction. The same goes for the effectiveness and the financial management of the MEP regulation. Moreover, the study, which was carried out by request of the Dutch Lower House, demonstrates that it is still uncertain if the policy objective for 2010 will be reached. The report consists of two parts: part 1: Conclusions, recommendations and administrative reactions, and Part 2: Answering Lower House questions.(mk) [nl

  15. Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

    2008-12-31

    The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD

  16. Impact Assessment and Environmental Evaluation of Various Ammonia Production Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Yusuf; Dincer, Ibrahim; Vezina, Greg; Raso, Frank

    2017-05-01

    In the current study, conventional resources-based ammonia generation routes are comparatively studied through a comprehensive life cycle assessment. The selected ammonia generation options range from mostly used steam methane reforming to partial oxidation of heavy oil. The chosen ammonia synthesis process is the most common commercially available Haber-Bosch process. The essential energy input for the methods are used from various conventional resources such as coal, nuclear, natural gas and heavy oil. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, the environmental impacts of selected methods are identified and quantified from cradle to gate. The life cycle assessment outcomes of the conventional resources based ammonia production routes show that nuclear electrolysis-based ammonia generation method yields the lowest global warming and climate change impacts while the coal-based electrolysis options bring higher environmental problems. The calculated greenhouse gas emission from nuclear-based electrolysis is 0.48 kg CO2 equivalent while it is 13.6 kg CO2 per kg of ammonia for coal-based electrolysis method.

  17. Impact Assessment and Environmental Evaluation of Various Ammonia Production Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Yusuf; Dincer, Ibrahim; Vezina, Greg; Raso, Frank

    2017-05-01

    In the current study, conventional resources-based ammonia generation routes are comparatively studied through a comprehensive life cycle assessment. The selected ammonia generation options range from mostly used steam methane reforming to partial oxidation of heavy oil. The chosen ammonia synthesis process is the most common commercially available Haber-Bosch process. The essential energy input for the methods are used from various conventional resources such as coal, nuclear, natural gas and heavy oil. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, the environmental impacts of selected methods are identified and quantified from cradle to gate. The life cycle assessment outcomes of the conventional resources based ammonia production routes show that nuclear electrolysis-based ammonia generation method yields the lowest global warming and climate change impacts while the coal-based electrolysis options bring higher environmental problems. The calculated greenhouse gas emission from nuclear-based electrolysis is 0.48 kg CO 2 equivalent while it is 13.6 kg CO 2 per kg of ammonia for coal-based electrolysis method.

  18. Consumer preference for chicken breast may be more affected by information on organic production than by product sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, F; Castellini, C; Naspetti, S; Piasentier, E; Girolami, A; Braghieri, A

    2013-03-01

    Conventional chicken from a fast-growing strain (CC), organic chicken from a slow-growing strain (OSG), and organic chicken from a fast-growing strain (OFG) were used to assess descriptive sensory differences between organic and conventional breasts, to verify whether differences were perceived by consumers and to evaluate the effect of information about organic production on liking. A conventional quantitative-descriptive analysis was performed by a trained panel of 10 members on breast slices (1 cm thick) grilled at 300°C. A 150-member consumer panel (from southern, central, and northern Italy) rated CC, OSG, and OFG breasts according to 3 types of evaluation: tasting without information (perceived liking), information without tasting (expected liking), and tasting with information (actual liking). Breasts from different sources were clearly discriminated by the trained panel as meat from CC was perceived more tender than OFG (P consumers for perceived liking. However, consumer expected liking scores were higher for organic than for conventional products (P consumers were not. However, consumer liking was markedly affected by the information given on the organic production system, thus providing a tool to differentiate the product in an increasingly competitive market.

  19. The roles of human values and generalized trust on stated preferences when food is labeled with environmental footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo; Veeman, Michele

    2015-01-01

    (Rokeach 1973), and generalized trust attitudes using a version of the World Values Survey (WVS) / General Social Survey (GSS) standard question on trust. Consumer preferences for footprint-labeled potatoes were elicited by means of an attribute-based stated choice experiment. The results suggest...

  20. Differences between Mobile Learning Environmental Preferences of High School Teachers and Students in Taiwan: A Structural Equation Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chiu-Lin; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technology has been increasingly applied to educational settings in the past decade. Although researchers have attempted to investigate both students' and teachers' preferences regarding mobile learning, few studies have investigated the differences between the two, an understanding of which is important for developing effective mobile…

  1. Environmental remediation with products of fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A.G.

    1999-07-01

    Commercialization of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) technology could be enhanced by increased utilization of FBC products (ash). In the US, coal combustion products (CCP) are not hazardous under RCRA and are regulated as residual waste by the states. The composition of CCP from fluidized beds is primarily determined by the inorganic constituents in coal, the sorbent reaction products and the unreacted sorbent. The combustion system and the inclusion of other fuels may also affect the chemical composition, physical properties and leaching behavior. The alkalinity of the FBC material, residual lime and pozzolanic properties are desirable characteristics for use in soil stabilization and mine reclamation. At reclaimed surface coal mines, placement of CCP is intended to reduce the amount of acid mine drainage (AMD) produced at such sites. Neutralization, inhibition of acid forming bacteria, encapsulation of the pyrite or water diversion are believed to be the mechanisms facilitated by the alkaline material. Comparison of water quality, before and after injection of a grout composed of FBC ash and water indicated small increases in pH and decreases in acidity at discharge points. The concentrations of calcium and magnesium in water samples generally increased compared to background levels. The average concentration of trace elements (arsenic, cobalt, copper, nickel and zinc) was slightly elevated in the injection areas, but in down dip and discharge water samples were comparable to background levels. Over a four year period, the average acidity in the injected area decreased by approximately 30%, a value similar to another site where a mixture of class F fly ash and cement was injected. Although coal mine remediation is a beneficial environmental use of FBC products, its effectiveness may be related to the amount of FBCB used and the method of emplacement.

  2. Environmental remediation with products of fluidized bed combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Commercialization of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) technology could be enhanced by increased utilization of FBC products (ash). In the US, coal combustion products (CCP) are not hazardous under RCRA and are regulated as residual waste by the states. The composition of CCP from fluidized beds is primarily determined by the inorganic constituents in coal, the sorbent reaction products and the unreacted sorbent. The combustion system and the inclusion of other fuels may also affect the chemical composition, physical properties and leaching behavior. The alkalinity of the FBC material, residual lime and pozzolanic properties are desirable characteristics for use in soil stabilization and mine reclamation. At reclaimed surface coal mines, placement of CCP is intended to reduce the amount of acid mine drainage (AMD) produced at such sites. Neutralization, inhibition of acid forming bacteria, encapsulation of the pyrite or water diversion are believed to be the mechanisms facilitated by the alkaline material. Comparison of water quality, before and after injection of a grout composed of FBC ash and water indicated small increases in pH and decreases in acidity at discharge points. The concentrations of calcium and magnesium in water samples generally increased compared to background levels. The average concentration of trace elements (arsenic, cobalt, copper, nickel and zinc) was slightly elevated in the injection areas, but in down dip and discharge water samples were comparable to background levels. Over a four year period, the average acidity in the injected area decreased by approximately 30%, a value similar to another site where a mixture of class F fly ash and cement was injected. Although coal mine remediation is a beneficial environmental use of FBC products, its effectiveness may be related to the amount of FBCB used and the method of emplacement

  3. Increasing Cropping System Diversity Balances Productivity, Profitability and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Adam S.; Hill, Jason D.; Chase, Craig A.; Johanns, Ann M.; Liebman, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and large negative impacts on the environment. We hypothesized that cropping system diversification would promote ecosystem services that would supplement, and eventually displace, synthetic external inputs used to maintain crop productivity. To test this, we conducted a field study from 2003–2011 in Iowa that included three contrasting systems varying in length of crop sequence and inputs. We compared a conventionally managed 2-yr rotation (maize-soybean) that received fertilizers and herbicides at rates comparable to those used on nearby farms with two more diverse cropping systems: a 3-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + red clover) and a 4-yr rotation (maize-soybean-small grain + alfalfa-alfalfa) managed with lower synthetic N fertilizer and herbicide inputs and periodic applications of cattle manure. Grain yields, mass of harvested products, and profit in the more diverse systems were similar to, or greater than, those in the conventional system, despite reductions of agrichemical inputs. Weeds were suppressed effectively in all systems, but freshwater toxicity of the more diverse systems was two orders of magnitude lower than in the conventional system. Results of our study indicate that more diverse cropping systems can use small amounts of synthetic agrichemical inputs as powerful tools with which to tune, rather than drive, agroecosystem performance, while meeting or exceeding the performance of less diverse systems. PMID:23071739

  4. Environmental monitoring and management of contaminated territories for clean product production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.; Bajrasheuskaya, D.; Laberch, J.-C.; Pohu, J.

    2006-01-01

    Current research interests are focussing into two major research problems with immense environmental importance and impact to society. These two areas of interest are (a) the radioactive pollution of an ecosystem and, particularly, the behavior of the radionuclides in soil and the pollution of plants which participate in human's food and (b) the production of municipal solid wastes and the problem of uncontrolled disposal and its negative effects to the environment. (authors)

  5. The modular pebble bed nuclear reactor - the preferred new sustainable energy source for electricity, hydrogen and potable water production?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a joint project of Massachusetts Institute of technology, Nu-Tec Inc. and Proto Power. The elegant simplicity of graphite moderated pebble bed reactor is the basis for the 'generation four' nuclear power plants. High Temperature Gas Cooled (HTGC) nuclear power plant have the potential to become the preferred base load sustainable energy source for the new millennium. The great attraction of these helium cooled 'Generation Four' nuclear plant can be summarised as follows: Factory assembly line production; Modularity and ease of delivery to site; High temperature Brayton Cycle ideally suited for cogeneration of electricity, potable water and hydrogen; Capital and operating costs competitive with hydrocarbon plant; Design is inherently meltdown proof and proliferation resistant

  6. Use of Different Vegetable Products to Increase Preschool-Aged Children's Preference for and Intake of a Target Vegetable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de Victoire W.T.; Graaf, de Kees; Jager, Gerry

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children's low vegetable consumption requires effective strategies to enhance preference for and intake of vegetables. Objective: The study compared three preparation practices for a target vegetable (spinach) on their effectiveness in increasing preschool-aged children's preference

  7. “Worse but Ours,” or “Better but Theirs?” – The Role of Implicit Consumer Ethnocentrism (ICE) in Product Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maison, Dominika; Maliszewski, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project was to investigate whether consumer ethnocentrism is purely conscious mechanism based on ideology, as suggested by Shimp and Sharma (1987), or rather is an automatic, unconscious process. The aim of the project was an introduction of the Implicit Consumer Ethnocentrism (ICE) concept, measured by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The goal of the four studies conducted was to investigate the following issues: (a) whether ICE – an automatic mechanism underlying the preference for local products over foreign – this could be observed next to the more ideologically based classic consumer ethnocentrism; (b) what happens when the consumer’s automatic preference for local products (ICE) is confronted by objective evidence of the superiority of foreign products or by the inferiority of local products. It was assumed that ICE could be reduced when foreign products were associated with a higher level of competence than local products, and this could explain the preference for foreign products over local often observed in less developed countries. In study 1 the ICE for different product categories of existing brands was tested, and in study 2 the ICE was measured in the context of non-existent brands. Both studies showed a strong in-group brand preference and confirmed the existence of new phenomena – ICE. The results of studies 3 and 4 again indicated a strong, automatic in-group brand favoritism effect as measured by IAT – participants preferred local brands over foreign. However, the inclusion of well-known foreign brands associated with high competence reduced the IAT effect (in-group preference). PMID:27920746

  8. The environmental impacts of foamed concrete production and exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsone, E.; Korjakins, A.; Sahmenko, G.; Sinka, M.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a study focusing on the environmental impacts of foamed concrete production and exploitation. CO2 emissions are very important factor for describing durability and sustainability of any building material and its life cycle. The building sector is one of the largest energy-consuming sectors in the world. In this study CO2 emissions are evaluated with regard to three types of energy resources (gas, coal and eco-friendly fuel). The related savings on raw materials are up to 120 t of water per 1000 t of traditionally mixed foamed concrete and up to 350 t of sand per 1000 t of foamed concrete produced with intensive mixing technology. In addition, total reduction of CO2 emissions (up to 60 t per 1000 m3 of material) and total energy saving from introduction of foamed concrete production (depending on the type of fuel) were calculated. In order to analyze the conditions of exploitation, both thermal conductivity and thickness of wall was determined. All obtained and calculated results were compared to those of the commercially produced autoclaved aerated concrete.

  9. Accelerator Production of Tritium Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Input Submittal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.; Greene, G.A.; Boyack, B.E.

    1996-02-01

    The Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling considers several methods for the production of tritium. One of these methods is the Accelerator Production of Tritium. This report summarizes the design characteristics of APT including the accelerator, target/blanket, tritium extraction facility, and the balance of plant. Two spallation targets are considered: (1) a tungsten neutron-source target and (2) a lead neutron-source target. In the tungsten target concept, the neutrons are captured by the circulating He-3, thus producing tritium; in the lead target concept, the tritium is produced by neutron capture by Li-6 in a surrounding lithium-aluminum blanket. This report also provides information to support the PEIS including construction and operational resource needs, waste generation, and potential routine and accidental releases of radioactive material. The focus of the report is on the impacts of a facility that will produce 3/8th of the baseline goal of tritium. However, some information is provided on the impacts of APT facilities that would produce smaller quantities

  10. Integration of landslide susceptibility products in the environmental plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Federica; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Cardinali, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    Landslides are one of the most destructive natural hazard that causes damages to urban area worldwide. The knowledge of where a landslide could occur is essential for the strategic management of the territory and for a good urban planning . In this contest landslide susceptibility zoning (LSZ) is crucial to provide information on the degree to which an area can be affected by future slope movements. Despite landslide susceptibility maps have been prepared extensively during the last decades, there are few examples of application is in the environmental plans (EP). In this work we present a proposal for the integration of the landslide inventory map with the following landslide susceptibility products: (i) landslide susceptibility zonation , (ii) the associated error map and (iii) the susceptibility uncertainty map. Moreover we proposed to incorporate detailed morphological studies for the evaluation of landslide risk associated to local parceling plan. The integration of all this information is crucial for the management of landslide risk in urban expansions forecasts. Municipality, province and regional administration are often not able to support the costs of landslide risk evaluation for extensive areas but should concentrate their financial resources to specific hazardous and unsafe situations defined by the result of the integration of landslide susceptibility products. Zonation and detail morphological analysis should be performed taking into account the existing laws and regulations, and could become a starting point to discuss new regulations for the landslide risk management.

  11. Industry efficiency and total factor productivity growth under resources and environmental constraint in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X H

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity.

  12. Characteristics of environmentally conscious production behaviour in agricultural waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Kormosne-Koch, Krisztina

    2008-01-01

    When measuring environmentally conscious behaviour and determining its variables, focus often lies only on consumers, but environmental conservation requires not only the consumers’ but also the producers’ input. After defining environmentally conscious behaviour, I utilized the market research method to determine how participating in agri-environmental programs and subsidies affects producers’ environmental consciousness and waste management behaviour. The research result indicates tha...

  13. Practical approach to environmental protection in the exploration and production industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmons, L.N.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental protection is a major issue throughout the world. Effective environmental protection techniques exist that are simple, creative, practical, and often cost effective. The cornerstone of cost effective environmental protection is an environmental management system. Various techniques are also available for reducing wastes, minimizing spills, remediating soils, reducing air emissions, and protecting groundwater and surface water in exploration and production operations

  14. Using Remote Sensing Products for Environmental Analysis in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Brito Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Land cover plays a major role in many biogeochemical models that represent processes and connections with terrestrial systems; hence, it is a key component for public decisions in ecosystems management. The advance of remote sensing technology, combined with the emergence of new operational products, offers alternatives to improve the accuracy of environmental monitoring and analysis. This work uses the GLOBCOVER, the Vegetation Continuous Field (VCF, MODIS Fire Radiative Power (FRP and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM remotely sensed databases to analyze the biomass burning distribution, the land use and land cover characteristics and the percent of tree cover in South America during the years 2000 to 2005. Initially, GLOBCOVER was assessed based on VCF product, and subsequently used for quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of the South America fires with the fire radiative power (FRP. The results show that GLOBCOVER has a tendency to overestimate forest classes and to underestimate urban and mangroves areas. The fire quantification based on GLOBCOVER product shows that the highest incidence of fires can be observed in the arc of deforestation, located in the Amazon forest border, with vegetation cover composed mainly of broadleaved evergreen or semi-deciduous forest. A time series analysis of FRP database indicates that biomass burning occurs mainly in areas of broadleaved evergreen or semi-deciduous forest and in Brazilian Cerrado associated with grassland management, agricultural land clearing and with the deforestation of Amazon tropical rainforest. Also, variations in FRP intensity and spread can be attributed to rainfall anomalies, such as in 2004, when South America had a positive anomaly rainfall.

  15. Enhancing Environmental Communication and Products Through Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation discusses two ongoing interdisciplinary case studies that are using qualitative research to design and enhance environmental communication and science products for outreach and decision making purposes. Both cases demonstrate the viability and practical value of qualitative social science methodology, specifically focus group interviews, to better understand the viewpoints of target audiences, improve deliverables, and support project goals. The first case is a NOAA-funded project to conduct process-based modeling to project impact from climate change in general and sea level rise in particular to the natural and built environment. The project spans the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts with concentration on the three National Estuarine Research Reserves. As part of the broader project, four annual focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of coastal resource managers to capture their perspectives and suggestions to better meet their informational and operational needs. The second case is a Florida Sea Grant-funded project that is developing, implementing, and testing a cohesive outreach campaign to promote voluntary careful and responsible recreational boating to help protect sensitive marine life and habitats (especially seagrasses and oyster reefs) in the Mosquito Lagoon. Six focus groups were conducted with a purposive sample of the target audience of boaters to gain insights, feedback, and ideas on the direction of the campaign and design of the messages and products. The campaign materials created include a branded website, Facebook page, mobile app, information packets, brochures, pledge forms, and promotional items. A comparison of these two case studies will be provided and will explain how the qualitative findings were/are being implemented to tailor and refine the respective communication strategies and techniques including the emerging outreach products. The resulting outcomes are messages and tools that are

  16. TESPI (Tool for Environmental Sound Product Innovation): a simplified software tool to support environmentally conscious design in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misceo, Monica; Buonamici, Roberto; Buttol, Patrizia; Naldesi, Luciano; Grimaldi, Filomena; Rinaldi, Caterina

    2004-12-01

    TESPI (Tool for Environmental Sound Product Innovation) is the prototype of a software tool developed within the framework of the "eLCA" project. The project, (www.elca.enea.it)financed by the European Commission, is realising "On line green tools and services for Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs)". The implementation by SMEs of environmental product innovation (as fostered by the European Integrated Product Policy, IPP) needs specific adaptation to their economic model, their knowledge of production and management processes and their relationships with innovation and the environment. In particular, quality and costs are the main driving forces of innovation in European SMEs, and well known barriers exist to the adoption of an environmental approach in the product design. Starting from these considerations, the TESPI tool has been developed to support the first steps of product design taking into account both the quality and the environment. Two main issues have been considered: (i) classic Quality Function Deployment (QFD) can hardly be proposed to SMEs; (ii) the environmental aspects of the product life cycle need to be integrated with the quality approach. TESPI is a user friendly web-based tool, has a training approach and applies to modular products. Users are guided through the investigation of the quality aspects of their product (customer"s needs and requirements fulfilment) and the identification of the key environmental aspects in the product"s life cycle. A simplified check list allows analyzing the environmental performance of the product. Help is available for a better understanding of the analysis criteria. As a result, the significant aspects for the redesign of the product are identified.

  17. Consumers’ Preferences for Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Product Features: A Structured Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Kistler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To inform potential governmental regulations, we aimed to develop a list of electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS product features important to U.S. consumers by age and gender. We employed qualitative data methods. Participants were eligible if they had used an ENDS at least once. Groups were selected by age and gender (young adult group aged 18–25, n = 11; middle-age group aged 26–64, n = 9; and women’s group aged 26–64, n = 9. We conducted five individual older adult interviews (aged 68–80. Participants discussed important ENDS features. We conducted a structured content analysis of the group and interview responses. Of 34 participants, 68% were white and 56% were female. Participants mentioned 12 important ENDS features, including: (1 user experience; (2 social acceptability; (3 cost; (4 health risks/benefits; (5 ease of use; (6 flavors; (7 smoking cessation aid; (8 nicotine content; (9 modifiability; (10 ENDS regulation; (11 bridge between tobacco cigarettes; (12 collectability. The most frequently mentioned ENDS feature was modifiability for young adults, user experience for middle-age and older adults, and flavor for the women’s group. This study identified multiple features important to ENDS consumers. Groups differed in how they viewed various features by age and gender. These results can inform ongoing regulatory efforts.

  18. Examining the Extent of Environmental Compliance Requirements on Mechatronic Products and Their Implementation through Product Lifecycle Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Vukica

    2010-01-01

    The present mixed-methods study examined the opinions of industry practitioners related to the implementation of environmental compliance requirements into design and manufacturing processes of mechatronic and electromechanical products. It focused on the environmental standards for mechatronic and electromechanical products and how Product…

  19. Lessons for South Africa from global trends in environmental labelling of buildings and construction products

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, NL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This chapter examines the international state-of-the-art of environmental labelling of buildings and construction products; and discusses ways in which the emerging South African framework for environmental labelling could benefit from the lessons...

  20. Competing Environmental Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Lyon, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    We study markets in which consumers prefer green products but cannot determine the environmental quality of any given firm's product on their own. A nongovernmental organization (NGO) can establish a voluntary standard and label products that comply with it. Alternatively, industry can create its

  1. Radioactive environmental impact assessment for a production project of titanium dioxide by chlorination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guohua

    2010-01-01

    Based on the analysis of shifting direction of radionuclide in production process and the environmental investigation and monitoring, the radioactive environmental impact from a production project of titanium dioxide by chlorination process has been analyzed and assessed. The result of radioactive environmental investigation shows that values of assessment factors are in the range of environmental radioactive background. The radioactive environmental sensitive spot has been delineated. The results of radioactive environmental prediction show that the additional doses to workers and residents are 0.59 mSv/a and 9.28 × 10-4 mSv/a respectively which are less than the annual dose limits of administration. The radioactive environmental impact of the production project of the titanium dioxide by chlorination process will meet the needs of national regulations and standards if radiation protection and environmental protection measures are implemented and radioactive environmental monitoring are strengthened. (author)

  2. Environmentally friendly disinfectant: Production, disinfectant action and efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čekerevac Milan I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver is a known disinfectant from ancient times, and it has been widely used for various purposes: for food and water disinfection, curing of wounds and as a universal antibiotic for a wide spectrum of diseases - until the Second World War and the discovery of penicillin. Until recently, it was assumed that silver, being a heavy metal, was toxic for humans and living beings. However, the newest research provides facts that the usage of silver, even for drinking water disinfection, is benign if it is added in small concentrations (in parts per billion. It has been shown in the newer scientific and technical literature that silver in colloidal form is a powerful (secondary disinfectant for drinking water, that it can be effectively used for the disinfection of water containers including swimming pools, installations in food industry, medicine, etc. Particularly, it has been shown that colloidal silver combined with hydrogen peroxide shows synergism having strong bactericidal and antiviral effects. The combination can be successfully used as a disinfectant in agriculture, food production and medicine. The original electrochemical process of production, the mechanism of physical-chemical reactions in that process and the mechanism of the antiseptic affect of the environmentally friendly disinfectant, based on the synergism of colloidal silver and hydrogen peroxide and the activity of electrochemically activated water, is shown. The starting solution was anolyte, obtained in electrochemical activation by water electrolysis of a highly diluted solution of K-tartarate in demineralized water (5.5-1CT4 M. The problem of electrolysis of very dilute aqueous solutions in membrane cells was particularly treated. It was shown that the efficiency of the electrolysis depends on the competition between the two processes: the rates of the processes of hydrogen and oxygen generation at the electrodes and the process of diffusion of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions

  3. Progress towards Sustainable Production: Environmental, Economic, and Social Assessments of the Cellulose Nanofiber Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dami Moon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the environmental, economic, and social impacts of the process for producing cellulose nanofibers (CNFs, which are considered to be a valuable sustainable woody biomass feedstock. The greenhouse gas (GHG emissions associated with CNF production are greater than the emissions associated with producing most plastic materials used in vehicle components because the grinding process during CNF production generates significant GHG emissions. The cost of CNF production is also higher than the cost of producing comparable plastics for automotive use because of the high cost of the pulverization process. The sensitivity analysis in this study suggested that GHG emissions and manufacturing costs could be reduced by 19.1–76.4% and 3.6–12.2%, respectively, by improving the energy efficiency of CNF production by two to five times. We compared the potential social risks associated with CNF production between Japan and Vietnam using a product social impact life cycle assessment database. It is desirable to reduce the social risk on the fair salary and child labor, and to improve the safe and healthy living conditions in the local communities that import wood chips harvested in Vietnam.

  4. Ethanol production from xylose by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing protein-engineered NADH-preferring xylose reductase from Pichia stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Seiya; Abu Saleh, Ahmed; Pack, Seung Pil; Annaluru, Narayana; Kodaki, Tsutomu; Makino, Keisuke

    2007-09-01

    A recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain transformed with xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) genes from Pichia stipitis (PsXR and PsXDH, respectively) has the ability to convert xylose to ethanol together with the unfavourable excretion of xylitol, which may be due to intercellular redox imbalance caused by the different coenzyme specificity between NADPH-preferring XR and NAD(+)-dependent XDH. In this study, we focused on the effect(s) of mutated NADH-preferring PsXR in fermentation. The R276H and K270R/N272D mutants were improved 52- and 146-fold, respectively, in the ratio of NADH/NADPH in catalytic efficiency [(k(cat)/K(m) with NADH)/(k(cat)/K(m) with NADPH)] compared with the wild-type (WT), which was due to decrease of k(cat) with NADPH in the R276H mutant and increase of K(m) with NADPH in the K270R/N272D mutant. Furthermore, R276H mutation led to significant thermostabilization in PsXR. The most positive effect on xylose fermentation to ethanol was found by using the Y-R276H strain, expressing PsXR R276H mutant and PsXDH WT: 20 % increase of ethanol production and 52 % decrease of xylitol excretion, compared with the Y-WT strain expressing PsXR WT and PsXDH WT. Measurement of intracellular coenzyme concentrations suggested that maintenance of the of NADPH/NADP(+) and NADH/NAD(+) ratios is important for efficient ethanol fermentation from xylose by recombinant S. cerevisiae.

  5. The green entrepreneur's challenge : The influence of environmental ambition in new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berchicci, L.

    2005-01-01

    Studies dealing with environmental issues in New Product Development have made significant progress explaining how firms can develop greener new products that succeed in the market and Environmental New Product Development (ENPD) has become a wide-spread practice within an increasing number of

  6. Illustrating Environmental Issues by Using the Production-Possibility Frontier: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Nancy; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    The authors develop a new classroom experimental game to illustrate environmental issues by using the production-possibility frontier in an introductory economics course. Waste evolves as a byproduct of the production of widgets. Environmental cleanup is produced by reallocating scarce resources away from the production of the dirty good. In…

  7. Is cumulative fossil energy demand a useful indicator for the environmental performance of products?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, Mark A J; Rombouts, Linda J A; Hellweg, Stefanie; Frischknecht, Rolf; Hendriks, A Jan; Meent, Dik van de; Ragas, Ad M J; Reijnders, Lucas; Struijs, Jaap

    2006-01-01

    The appropriateness of the fossil Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) as an indicator for the environmental performance of products and processes is explored with a regression analysis between the environmental life-cycle impacts and fossil CEDs of 1218 products, divided into the product categories

  8. Environmental and Social Management System Implementation Handbook : Animal Production

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and social responsibility is becoming more and more important in todayapos;s global economy. There are thousands of environmental and social codes and standards in the world today. The codes and standards define the rules and the objectives. But the challenge is in the implementation. An environmental and social management system (ESMS) helps companies to integrate the ru...

  9. Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonini, D.

    2013-02-15

    To evaluate the environmental and energy performance of bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems life cycle assessment was used in this thesis. This was supported by other tools such as material, substance, energy flow analysis and energy system analysis. The primary objective of this research was to provide a consistent framework for the environmental assessment of innovative bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems including the integration of LCA with other tools (mentioned earlier). The focus was on the following aspects: - Evaluation of potential future energy scenarios for Denmark. This was done by integrating the results of energy system analysis into life cycle assessment scenarios. - Identification of the criticalities of bioenergy systems, particularly in relation to land use changes. - Identification of potentials and criticalities associated with innovative waste refinery technologies. This was done by assessing a specific pilot-plant operated in Copenhagen, Denmark. The waste refining treatment was compared with a number of different state-of-the-art technologies such as incineration, mechanical-biological treatment and landfilling in bioreactor. The results highlighted that production of liquid and solid biofuels from energy crops should be limited when inducing indirect land use changes (iLUC). Solid biofuels for use in combined heat and power plants may perform better than liquid biofuels due to higher energy conversion efficiencies. The iLUC impacts stood out as the most important contributor to the induced GHG emissions within bioenergy systems. Although quantification of these impacts is associated with high uncertainty, an increasing number of studies are documenting the significance of the iLUC impacts in the bioenergy life cycle. With respect to municipal solid waste, state of the art incineration, MBT and waste refining (with associated energy and material recovery processes) may all provide important and comparable GHG emission savings. The waste

  10. Biogas energy production in Ghana: environmental pollution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpabli, C.K.; Gyasi, S.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of biomass fuel conversion options for biogas production at Appolonia in Ghana has demonstrated that the technique is promising not only for solving some of the country's energy and agricultural problems, but as a very useful way of waste treatment which should help improve waste management. Some environmental analyses were made and some of the preliminary results obtained are presented and discussed. There has been considerable decrease in both biochemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand of the effluents compared with the corresponding values obtained for the influents of the three most readily available biomass sources used - human faeces, cow dung and pig dung. Apart from methane (about 54%) and carbon dioxide (about 40%) the biogas produced at Appolonia , according to investigations, using a gas filter analyser and gas chromatography, was found to contain from 1 to 2% hydrogen sulphide which is poisonous. Two other components were detected in the gas but not identified in this present work. (author). 2 figs., 5 tabs., 8 refs

  11. The Environmental Quality – Requirements for the Pro-active Approach of Production Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Stehlíková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The interrelationship and cooperation of the Quality Management System, the Environmental Management System QMS, and Environmental Management System EMS in production enterprises has a very important impact to their performance. The synergic effect of two systems {QMS + EMS} created the so called POEMS Product and the Process Oriented Environmental Management System functioning for the benefit of the Company Profit, Customer Satisfaction, Product Competition, Environment and the Social Responsibility.

  12. Elements in a new sustainable industrial culture - Environmental assessment in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Wenzel, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    In the last few years the environmental focus in the manufacturing industry has shifted from the manufacturing processes to the products themselves, as these are accountable for the environmental impacts in all life cycle phases. The paper describes for 3 industrial cases how a newly developed LCA...... methodology can assist the product developer in development of more environmentally friendly products. Finally, common experience gained will be discussed....

  13. 'Green' preferences as regulatory policy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    We examine here the suggestion that if consumers in sufficient numbers are willing to pay the premium to have power generated using low-emission technologies, tax or permit policies become less necessary or stringent. While there are implementation difficulties with this proposal, our purpose is more fundamental: Can economics make sense of using preferences as a regulatory instrument? If 'green' preferences are exogenously given, to what extent can or should they be regarded as a substitute for other policies? Even with 'green' preferences, production and consumption of polluting goods continue to impose social costs not borne in the market. Moreover, if green preferences are regarded as a policy instrument, the 'no policy' baseline would require a problematic specification of counterfactual 'non-green' preferences. Viewing green preferences as a regulatory policy instrument is conceptually sensible if the benchmark for optimal emissions is based on value judgments apart from the preferences consumers happen to have. If so, optimal environmental protection would be defined by reference to ethical theory, or, even less favorably, by prescriptions from policy advocates who give their own preferences great weight while giving those of the public at large (and the costs they bear) very little consideration. (author)

  14. Medical Isotopes Production Project: Molybdenum-99 and related isotopes - environmental impact statement. Volume II, comment response document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides environmental and technical information concerning the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) proposal to establish a domestic source to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and related isotopes (iodine-131, xenon-133, and iodine-125). Mo-99, a radioactive isotope of the element molybdenum, decays to form metastable technetium-99 (Tc-99m), a radioactive isotope used thousands of times daily in medical diagnostic procedures in the U.S. Currently, all Mo-99 used in the U.S. is obtained from a single Canadian source. DOE is pursuing the Medical Isotopes Production Project in order to ensure that a reliable supply of Mo-99 is available to the U.S. medical community as soon as practicable. Under DOE's preferred alternative, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Annular Core Research Reactor and Hot Cell Facility at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) would be used for production of the medical isotopes. In addition, three other reasonable alternatives and a No Action alternative are analyzed in detail, The sites for these three reasonable alternatives are LANL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The analyses in this EIS indicate no significant difference in the potential environmental impacts among the alternatives. Each of the alternatives would use essentially the same technology for the production of the medical isotopes. Minor differences in environmental impacts among alternatives relate to the extent of activity necessary to modify and restart (as necessary) existing reactors and hot cell facilities at each of the sites, the quantities of low-level radioactive waste generated, how such waste would be managed, and the length of time needed for initial and full production capacity. This document contains comments recieved from meetings held regarding the site selection for isotope production

  15. Does environmental friendliness equal healthiness? Swiss consumers' perception of protein products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarini, Gianna A; Zimmermann, Jasmin; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Food production and consumption have major impacts on the environment. At the same time, changes in human diets worldwide are increasingly leading to health problems. Both issues are highly influenced by consumers' everyday food choices and could be addressed by reducing consumption of meat and other animal products. To promote sustainable food consumption, we need to know how consumers perceive the environmental friendliness and healthiness of food products, on which criteria they base their evaluations of environmental friendliness and healthiness, and how their estimations relate to life cycle assessments and nutrient profiling. We presented 30 protein products, which varied in provenance, production methods, and processing, to 85 participants from Switzerland. They were asked to sort the products once according to their perceived environmental friendliness and once according to their perceived healthiness. The mean distances between the products were compared to the products' life cycle assessments and nutrient profiles. The results showed that perceived environmental friendliness and healthiness are highly correlated. The main predictors of the products' perceived environmental friendliness were product category, presence of an organic label, and provenance; and for perceived healthiness, these predictors were product category, fat content, processing, and presence of an organic label. Environmental friendliness and healthiness estimations were significantly correlated to the life cycle assessments and the nutrient profiles of the products, respectively. Hence, to promote healthy and environmentally friendly food choices, motivators related to environmental friendliness and healthiness could be used in synergy. Awareness about meat's environmental impact should be increased and better information is needed for consumers to make an accurate environmental impact and healthiness assessments of protein products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An integrated approach for a dynamic energy and environmental system analysis of biogas production pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierie, Frank; Liu, Wen; Moll, Henri C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract written to Biogas Science for oral presentation. Regarding a new methodology for determining the energy efficiency, carbon footprint and environmental impact of anaerobic biogas production pathways. Additionally, results are given regarding the impacts of energy crops and waste products

  17. Comparing environmental impacts from insects for feed and food as an alternative to animal production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Hansen, Hanne Helene; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2018-01-01

    This chapter systematically compares and contrasts the known environmental impacts of traditional vertebrate animal production with insect production intended for both food and animal feed. There are major physiological and biological differences between traditional livestock species and insects,...

  18. Environmental benefits of advanced oil and gas exploration and production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-10-01

    THROUGHOUT THE OIL AND GAS LIFE CYCLE, THE INDUSTRY HAS APPLIED AN ARRAY OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE. THIS REPORT FOCUSES SPECIFICALLY ON ADVANCES IN EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION (E&P) OPERATIONS.

  19. Water logging and salinity control for environmentally sustainable crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M.R.; Bhutta, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Irrigation supplies at proper time and adequate quantities are imperative for potential agricultural production under arid and semi-arid climatic conditions. To achieve this goal one of the largest integrated irrigation network was established. Without adequate drainage it resulted in the problems of water logging and salinity. To control these problems a big programme of Salinity Control and Reclamation projects (SCARPs) was initiated during 1960 and 82 such SCARPs have been completed and 9 were in progress up to June, 2002 covering an area of 18.6 ma (7.5 mh) at a cost of Rs.93 billions. Under these projects 12746 tube wells in fresh, 3572 in saline groundwater and 13726 km surface and 12612 km tile pipes covering 6391.7 ha, 160 km interceptor drains have been constructed an area of 0.998 ma (GCA). In addition to this some other measures like on farm water management, canal command project, canal lining, construction of evaporation ponds, establishment of research Inst./Organizations were also taken. Many drainage plans like Master Plan (1963), Northern Regional Plan (1967), Water Sector Investment Plan Study (1990), Right Bank Master Plan (1992), Drainage Sector Environmental Assessment (1993) and National Drainage Programme (1995) were prepared and implemented. The cost of the, phase-I of the National Drainage Programme was 785 million US$. The main activities undertaken were remodeling/extension of existing surface and new drains; rehabilitation/replacement of saline ground water (SGW) tube wells; construction of interceptor drains, reclamation of waterlogged areas through biological drainage and transfer of fresh ground water tube wells to the farmers. The data indicate that all the measures taken have played a significant role in reducing the water logging, salinity/sodicity and have increased the crop production and consequently improved the socio-economic conditions of the peoples especially the farming community. The environment in these areas was also

  20. Effect of spatial distribution of tastants on taste intensity, fluctuation of taste intensity and consumer preference of (semi-)solid food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosca, A.C.; Bult, J.H.F.; Stieger, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Two sensory studies were carried out to compare the taste intensity, the perceived fluctuation of taste intensity and the consumer preference of food products with homogeneous and inhomogeneous distributions of tastants using 2-alternative forced choice tests. The first study evaluated pairs of

  1. Decomposition of Productivity Considering Multi-environmental Pollutants in Chinese Industrial Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Cao, Jing; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to calculate and decompose productivity incorporating multi-environmental pollutants in Chinese industrial sectors from 1992 to 2008. We apply a weighted Russell directional distance model to calculate productivity from both the economic and environmental performance. The main findings are: (1) Chinese industrial sectors increased productivity, with the main contributing factors being labor saving prior to 2000; (2) The main contributing factors for productivity...

  2. Production objectives, trait and breed preferences of farmers keeping N'Dama, Fulani Zebu and crossbred cattle and implications for breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, S A; Markemann, A; Reiber, C; Piepho, H P; Valle Zárate, A

    2017-04-01

    Many local livestock breeds in developing countries are being replaced by exotic breeds, leading to a loss of genetic resources. In southern Mali, for the past two decades, a trend towards increasing crossbreeding between the trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle and the trypano-susceptible Fulani Zebu cattle has been taking place. A survey with 160 farmers owning a cattle herd was carried out in southern Mali to investigate their production objectives, as well as trait and breed preferences and correlated socio-economic determinants in order to understand farmers' breeding decisions and to identify comparative advantages of three breed groups (N'Dama, Fulani Zebu and crossbreds) raised in the study area. Data were analyzed using an exploded logit model. The reasons for raising cattle, as well as trait and breed preferences reflected the multiple objectives of the farmers. Draught power and savings were the most important production objectives. Productive traits were ranked highest; farmers reported large body size as the most preferred trait, followed by fertility, draught ability and milk yield. Crossbreds were the favored breed group. Breed preferences were mainly explained by 'resistance to disease' for N'Dama cattle and 'high market price' for Fulani Zebu and crossbred cattle. Production objectives, trait and breed preferences were mainly influenced by farmer group (local farmers and settled transhumants). Local farmers put comparatively more emphasis on livestock functions linked to crop production such as draught power. They had a higher preference for traction ability as a selection trait and preferred N'Dama over Fulani Zebu cattle. Settled transhumants emphasized milk yield as a selection trait and preferred Fulani Zebu over N'Dama. The results indicate that the trend towards more crossbreeding will continue putting the N'Dama breed under high risk of genetic dilution in southern Mali. The N'Dama cattle remain a valuable breed due to their adaptive traits such as

  3. Exploration and production operations in an environmentally sensitive area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, G.W.; Steele, E.J.; Robalino, J.; Baldwin, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, known locally as the Oriente, is the major oil producing region in Ecuador. The tropical rain forests of the Oriente contain some of the Earth's most biologically diverse and ecologically sensitive areas. In addition, the rain forest is home to several groups of indigenous peoples.When formulating an exploration plan and prior to beginning E and P activities in the Oriente, operators must understand the environmental and sociocultural issues in the region. These concerns are considered throughout the planning process, from project conception to project closure. An environmental management plan is adopted which addresses environmental and sociocultural concerns, minimizes environmental impact, prevents delays, and limits environmental liability

  4. Bridging environmental and financial cost of dairy production: A case study of Irish agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenhao; Holden, Nicholas M

    2018-02-15

    The Irish agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' is a roadmap for sectoral expansion and Irish dairy farming is expected to intensify, which could influence the environmental and economic performance of Irish milk production. Evaluating the total environmental impacts and the real cost of Irish milk production is a key step towards understanding the possibility of sustainable production. This paper addresses two main issues: aggregation of environmental impacts of Irish milk production by monetization, to understand the real cost of Irish milk production, including the environmental costs; and the effect of the agricultural policy 'Food Harvest 2020' on total cost (combining financial cost and environmental cost) of Irish milk production. This study used 2013 Irish dairy farming as a baseline, and defined 'bottom', 'target' and 'optimum' scenarios, according to the change of elementary inputs required to meet agricultural policy ambitions. The study demonstrated that the three monetization methods, Stepwise 2006, Eco-cost 2012 and EPS 2000, could be used for aggregating different environmental impacts into monetary unit, and to provide an insight for evaluating policy related to total environmental performance. The results showed that the total environmental cost of Irish milk production could be greater than the financial cost (up to €0.53/kg energy corrected milk). The dairy expansion policy with improved herbage utilization and fertilizer application could reduce financial cost and minimize the total environmental cost of per unit milk produced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrating environmental impact assessment into new product development and processing-technology selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depping, Verena; Grunow, Martin; Middelaar, van Corina; Dumpler, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Environmental-impact reduction potential is great early in new product development. To exploit this potential, this study evaluates novel combinations of existent processing technologies. Process engineering is combined with an environmental product assessment along the supply chain. In the dairy

  6. Application of Environmental Input-Output Analysis for Corporate and Product Environmental Footprints—Learnings from Three Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Louise Laumann; Høst-Madsen, Niels Karim Høst-Madsen; Schmidt, Jannick H.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of companies are expanding their environmental impact reduction targets and strategies to include their supply chains or whole product life cycles. In this paper, we demonstrate and evaluate an approach, where we used a hybrid Environmental Input-Output (EIO) database...... as a basis for corporate and product environmental footprint accounts, including the entire supply chain. We present three cases, where this approach was applied. Case study 1 describes the creation of total corporate carbon footprint accounts for three Danish regional healthcare organisations. In case study...... a foundation for decision-making within reasonable time and cost, and for companies with a large upstream environmental footprint, the analysis supports advancing their sustainability agenda to include supply chain impacts. However, there are implications when going from screening to implementing the results...

  7. Assessing environmental consequences of using co-products in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.; Mollenhorst, H.; Vries, de J.W.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Kernebeek, van H.R.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The livestock sector has a major impact on the environment. This environmental impact may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products (e.g. beet tails) to livestock, as this transforms inedible products for humans into edible products, e.g. pork or beef. Nevertheless, co-products have different

  8. Assessment of Environmental Stresses for Enhanced Microalgal Biofuel Production – An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Dan; He, Qingfang

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal biofuels are currently considered to be the most promising alternative to future renewable energy source. Microalgae have great potential to produce various biofuels, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Cultivation of biofuel-producing microalgae demands favorable environmental conditions, such as suitable light, temperature, nutrients, salinity, and pH. However, these conditions are not always compatible with the conditions beneficial to biofuel production, because biofuel-related compounds (such as lipids and carbohydrates) tend to accumulate under environmental-stress conditions of light, temperature, nutrient, and salt. This paper presents a brief overview of the effects of environmental conditions on production of microalgal biomass and biofuel, with specific emphasis on how to utilize environmental stresses to improve biofuel productivity. The potential avenues of reaping the benefits of enhanced biofuel production by environmental stresses while maintaining high yields of biomass production have been discussed.

  9. Assessment of environmental stresses for enhanced microalgal biofuel production-an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eCheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biofuels are currently considered to be the most promising alternative to future renewable energy source. Microalgae have great potential to produce various biofuels, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Cultivation of biofuel-producing microalgae demands favorable environmental conditions, such as suitable light, temperature, nutrients, salinity, and pH. However, these conditions are not always compatible with the conditions beneficial to biofuel production, because biofuel-related compounds (such as lipids and carbohydrates tend to accumulate under environmental-stress conditions of light, temperature, nutrient, and salt. This paper presents a brief overview of the effects of environmental conditions on production of microalgal biomass and biofuel, with specific emphasis on how to utilize environmental stresses to improve biofuel productivity. The potential avenues of reaping the benefits of enhanced biofuel production by environmental stresses while maintaining high yields of biomass production have been discussed.

  10. Assessment of Environmental Stresses for Enhanced Microalgal Biofuel Production – An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Dan, E-mail: dxcheng@ualr.edu; He, Qingfang, E-mail: dxcheng@ualr.edu [Department of Applied Science, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2014-07-07

    Microalgal biofuels are currently considered to be the most promising alternative to future renewable energy source. Microalgae have great potential to produce various biofuels, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Cultivation of biofuel-producing microalgae demands favorable environmental conditions, such as suitable light, temperature, nutrients, salinity, and pH. However, these conditions are not always compatible with the conditions beneficial to biofuel production, because biofuel-related compounds (such as lipids and carbohydrates) tend to accumulate under environmental-stress conditions of light, temperature, nutrient, and salt. This paper presents a brief overview of the effects of environmental conditions on production of microalgal biomass and biofuel, with specific emphasis on how to utilize environmental stresses to improve biofuel productivity. The potential avenues of reaping the benefits of enhanced biofuel production by environmental stresses while maintaining high yields of biomass production have been discussed.

  11. Study on environmental impact assessment index system of uranium production base construction plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaochao; Song Liquan

    2008-01-01

    The index system on planning environmental impact assessment of uranium mining base construction is discussed by using the hiberarchy method according to characteristics of uranium production and environmental protection object of planning assessment. The suggested index system is in favor of persistent exploitation of uranium resource and environmental protection in the uranium mining area, and can provide a reference for planning environmental impact assessment of uranium mining base construction in China. (authors)

  12. Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-15

    This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Securitization product design for China's environmental pollution liability insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Chengyi; Addai, Bismark; Pan, Xiaojun; Bo, Pangtuo

    2017-02-01

    The environmental catastrophic accidents in China over the last three decades have triggered implementation of myriad policies by the government to help abate environmental pollution in the country. Consequently, research into environmental pollution liability insurance and how that can stimulate economic growth and the development of financial market in China is worthwhile. This study attempts to design a financial derivative for China's environmental pollution liability insurance to offer strong financial support for significant compensation towards potential catastrophic environmental loss exposures, especially losses from the chemical industry. Assuming the risk-free interest rate is 4%, the market portfolio expected return is 12%; the financial asset beta coefficient is 0.5, by using the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and cash flow analysis; the principal risk bond yields 9.4%, single-period and two-period prices are 103.85 and 111.58, respectively; the principal partial-risk bond yields 10.09%, single-period and two-period prices are 103.85 and 111.58, respectively; and the principal risk-free bond yields 8.94%, single-period and two-period prices are 107.99 and 115.83, respectively. This loss exposure transfer framework transfers the catastrophic risks of environmental pollution from the traditional insurance and reinsurance markets to the capital market. This strengthens the underwriting capacity of environmental pollution liability insurance companies, mitigates the compensation risks of insurers and reinsurers, and provides a new channel to transfer the risks of environmental pollution.

  14. Advance Planning, Programming and Production Control as key Activities Now the Environmental Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Cardoso de Oliveira Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the evolution of Planning, Programming and Control of Production (PPCP as essential activities of the company towards the insertion of environmental education. The approach is based on an exploratory research and a critical bibliographic revision. Two main objectives were established: i a new way of production organization, by considering cleaner production from company utilities to production capacity, technology and outsourcing and ii infrastructure changes related to market attendance and environmental education dissemination. Needs that arise can be grouped as follows: utilities adequacy, cleaner technologies and ecochains implementation; instruction and dissemination of environmental education; and necessity of the adoption of new paradigms.

  15. Environmental impact assessment of biofuel production on contaminated land - Swedish case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Suer, Pascal [Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden); Blom, Sonja [FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Bardos, Paul [r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom); Track, Thomas; Polland, Marcel [DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    area, beyond the contaminated site, that is required by the production of materials and energy for the remediation activities. This area is largely independent of where the crop is grown. Life cycle analysis and carbon footprint both showed that biofuel cultivation is preferable to conventional remediation from an environmental perspective. That is to say, biofuel is a more environmentally friendly way to use the site than the other realistic remediation option in both cases

  16. Environmental impact assessment of biofuel production on contaminated land - Swedish case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson-Skoeld, Yvonne; Suer, Pascal (Swedish Geotechnical Institute, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Blom, Sonja (FB Engineering AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Bardos, Paul (r3 Environmental Technology Ltd, Reading (United Kingdom)); Track, Thomas; Polland, Marcel (DECHEMA e. V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    2009-07-01

    the land area, beyond the contaminated site, that is required by the production of materials and energy for the remediation activities. This area is largely independent of where the crop is grown. Life cycle analysis and carbon footprint both showed that biofuel cultivation is preferable to conventional remediation from an environmental perspective. That is to say, biofuel is a more environmentally friendly way to use the site than the other realistic remediation option in both cases

  17. Quantifying detection performance of a passive low-frequency RFID system in an environmental preference chamber for laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems have been widely used in production livestock systems for identifying, tracing, and registering animals and improving subsidy management. Adaptations have been made to extend RFID technology to animal behavior and welfare research. An RFID system was imp...

  18. Environmental assessment of farm-scaled anaerobic co-digestion for bioenergy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijó, Lucía; González-García, Sara; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic monodigestion and codigestion were compared. • The environmental advantages of suitable waste management were proved. • The use of cereal crops as feedstock improves biogas yield. • Cultivation step implies the most important environmental hotspot. • Digestate management options were evaluated. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the environmental profile of a bioenergy system based on a co-digestion plant using maize silage and pig slurry as substrates. All the processes involved in the production of bioenergy as well as the avoided processes accrued from the biogas production system were evaluated. The results evidenced the environmental importance of the cultivation step and the environmental credits associated to the avoided processes. In addition, this plant was compared with two different plants that digest both substrates separately. The results revealed the environmental benefits of the utilisation of pig slurry due to the absence of environmental burdens associated with its production as well as credits provided when avoiding its conventional management. The results also presented the environmental drawbacks of the utilisation of maize silage due to the environmental burdens related with its production. Accordingly, the anaerobic mono-digestion of maize silage achieved the worst results. The co-digestion of both substrates was ranked in an intermediate position. Additionally, three possible digestate management options were assessed. The results showed the beneficial effect of digestate application as an organic fertiliser, principally on account of environmental credits due to avoided mineral fertilisation. However, digestate application involves important acidifying and eutrophicating emissions

  19. Environmental assessment of farm-scaled anaerobic co-digestion for bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lijó, Lucía, E-mail: lucia.lijo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); González-García, Sara [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bacenetti, Jacopo; Negri, Marco; Fiala, Marco [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Production, Landscape, Agroenergy, University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, María Teresa [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic monodigestion and codigestion were compared. • The environmental advantages of suitable waste management were proved. • The use of cereal crops as feedstock improves biogas yield. • Cultivation step implies the most important environmental hotspot. • Digestate management options were evaluated. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the environmental profile of a bioenergy system based on a co-digestion plant using maize silage and pig slurry as substrates. All the processes involved in the production of bioenergy as well as the avoided processes accrued from the biogas production system were evaluated. The results evidenced the environmental importance of the cultivation step and the environmental credits associated to the avoided processes. In addition, this plant was compared with two different plants that digest both substrates separately. The results revealed the environmental benefits of the utilisation of pig slurry due to the absence of environmental burdens associated with its production as well as credits provided when avoiding its conventional management. The results also presented the environmental drawbacks of the utilisation of maize silage due to the environmental burdens related with its production. Accordingly, the anaerobic mono-digestion of maize silage achieved the worst results. The co-digestion of both substrates was ranked in an intermediate position. Additionally, three possible digestate management options were assessed. The results showed the beneficial effect of digestate application as an organic fertiliser, principally on account of environmental credits due to avoided mineral fertilisation. However, digestate application involves important acidifying and eutrophicating emissions.

  20. Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide

    . To evaluate the environmental and energy performance of bioenergy and wasteto-energy systems life cycle assessment was used in this thesis. This was supported by other tools such as material, substance, energy flow analysis and energy system analysis. The primary objective of this research was to provide...... a consistent framework for the environmental assessment of innovative bioenergy and waste-to-energy systems including the integration of LCA with other tools (mentioned earlier). The focus was on the following aspects: - Evaluation of potential future energy scenarios for Denmark. This was doneby integrating...... assessing the environmental performance of the waste refinery, a detailed knowledge of the waste composition is recommendable as this determines the energy outputs and thereby the assessment results. The benefits offered by the waste refinery compared with incinerators and MBT plants are primarily related...

  1. Model for Environmental Assessment of Industrial Production Systems: A Case Study in a Plastic Manufacturing Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Comunello

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental issue has been discussed sharply in the organizational environment, as consumers, and society in general, have been increasingly concerned about the environment. In this sense, the companies, especially the factories, seek to minimize the environmental impact caused by its production processes through actions that combine the organization's economic interests with environmental concerns. Thus, this article aims to analyze how environmental management of the productive sector is being carried out at Industria Beta Chapecó/SC. Therefore, we developed a qualitative and descriptive research in order to apply the Model for Environmental Assessment of Industrial Production Systems (MAASPI in the production of Industria Beta sector. The results showed the main environmental interventions caused by the production process of the organization, particularly the interventions for the consumption of electricity, plant location and chip storage. As main proposals to minimize negative environmental impacts, we have the installation of translucent tiles in the production environment, a study on energy efficiency, construction of water and soil testing, construction of waste storage terminals and implementation of the pre-selection of the raw material. The realization of the suggested adjustments enables Industria Beta to foresee the legal environmental requirements, to aim for enviromental certifications and seals and to strengthen its image as environment-friendly with collaborators and society in general.

  2. Sustainability, environmental, and safety aspects in the production of biocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank

    Future product design requires sustainbale processes and may with great benefit prtially be based on composites made from agricultural by-products. the EU project Biocomp addressed the manufacturing and the parallel assessment of the world wide sustainability of such an approach as well as the en......Future product design requires sustainbale processes and may with great benefit prtially be based on composites made from agricultural by-products. the EU project Biocomp addressed the manufacturing and the parallel assessment of the world wide sustainability of such an approach as well...

  3. Application of Environmental Input-Output Analysis for Corporate and Product Environmental Footprints—Learnings from Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Laumann Kjaer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of companies are expanding their environmental impact reduction targets and strategies to include their supply chains or whole product life cycles. In this paper, we demonstrate and evaluate an approach, where we used a hybrid Environmental Input-Output (EIO database as a basis for corporate and product environmental footprint accounts, including the entire supply chain. We present three cases, where this approach was applied. Case study 1 describes the creation of total corporate carbon footprint accounts for three Danish regional healthcare organisations. In case study 2, the approach was used as basis for an Environmental Profit and Loss account for the healthcare company, Novo Nordisk A/S. Case study 3 used the approach for life cycle assessment of a tanker ship. We conclude that EIO-based analyses offer a holistic view of environmental performance, provide a foundation for decision-making within reasonable time and cost, and for companies with a large upstream environmental footprint, the analysis supports advancing their sustainability agenda to include supply chain impacts. However, there are implications when going from screening to implementing the results, including how to measure and monitor the effect of the different actions. Thus, future research should include more detailed models to support decision-making.

  4. Product waste in the automotive industry : Technology and environmental management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, Peter; Hond, Frank Den

    1993-01-01

    In this article the changes in technology and industry structure forced by waste management in the automotive industry are explored. The analysis is based on (1) a characterisation of corporate response to environmental issues, and (2) the management of technology applied to the car manufacturing

  5. Environmental Externalities Related to Power Production Technologies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment...

  6. Environmental conditions and primary production in a Sahelian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental descriptors (nutrient, water transparency, temperature ... Nutrient concentrations were low, with high variability (from 0 to 30 µg.l-1 for DIN and from 0 to 18 µg.l-1 for. PO4). The primary ... and permanent interventions of sea water.

  7. Wind, hydro or mixed renewable energy source: Preference for electricity products when the share of renewable energy increases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Haider, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    While the share of renewable energy, especially wind power, increases in the energy mix, the risk of temporary energy shortage increases as well. Thus, it is important to understand consumers' preference for the renewable energy towards the continuous growing renewable energy society. We use a discrete choice experiment to infer consumers' preferences when the share of renewable energy increases. The study results indicate that consumers are generally willing to pay extra for an increasing share of renewable energy, but the renewable energy should come from a mixture of renewable energy sources. We also found that consumers prefer to trade with their current supplier rather than another well-known supplier. This study contributes to the energy portfolio theories and the theory of energy diversification in a consumer perspective. The managerial implications of this study are also discussed. - Highlights: • This paper investigates consumer preference for electricity when the share of renewable energy increases in the energy mix. • A total of 7084 choice sets were completed in the survey. • Consumer prefers a high percentage of mixed renewable energy at an affordable price level when the share of renewable increases. • Current electricity supplier was found to be the most favorable supplier for consumers. • Results had implications on energy regulators/policy makers, electricity retailers and renewable energy investors.

  8. Conditions sufficient for the production of oral cocaine or lidocaine self-administration in preference to water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, J L; Siris, A; Lau, C E

    1996-03-01

    Groups of rats were given a chronic history of drinking cocaine solutions of different concentrations in daily, 3-h schedule induced polydipsia sessions. Animals failed to develop a preference for cocaine solution to concurrently presented water. Schedule-induction conditions were maintained, and the animals were divided into separate groups, drinking either cocaine or lidocaine placed in a highly acceptable vehicle (glucose-saccharin solution). Animals preferred their respective drug solutions to concurrently presented water, and these preferences remained stable after the glucose-saccharin vehicle was gradually faded to water, leaving only cocaine or lidocaine, respectively, in the solution. Thus a stable preference for drug solution to water could be instituted in rats for either cocaine or lidocaine solution (putative reinforcing and nonreinforcing agents, respectively) given an appropriate associative history, with high intakes maintained by schedule-induction. Conditions sufficient for the initiation of an oral preference and high intake for a putatively reinforcing drug cannot be assumed to occur owing to the drug's reinforcing property in the absence of demonstrating the ineffectiveness of an appropriate negative control substance.

  9. Coherence in product-oriented policies and environmental management systems in the car industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla Kornelia; Nielsen, Eskild Holm

    more traditional process-oriented policies and are a challenge for companies. The article presents some of the authors  investigations on how the car industry has dealt with both process-oriented and product-oriented policies. [1] EPR refers to extending producer responsibility for products beyond......Over the last decade, product-oriented policies as Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and Integrated Product Policy (IPP) are more and more recognised as a target for both corporate environmental strategy and government environmental policy. These product-oriented policies are distinct from...

  10. environmental system analysis of tomato production in ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    eutrophying compounds associated with tomato production in Ghana and identify options to reduce the environmen- tal impacts. Life Cycle .... Equation (1). Activities in production that contributed to the emissions were fertiliser application and fuel usage. Table 1 shows activity data for calculation of emission originating from ...

  11. Quantifying the total cost of infrastructure to enable environmentally preferable decisions: the case of urban roadway design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosse, Conrad A; Clarens, Andres F

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to reduce the environmental impacts of transportation infrastructure have generally overlooked many of the efficiencies that can be obtained by considering the relevant engineering and economic aspects as a system. Here, we present a framework for quantifying the burdens of ground transportation in urban settings that incorporates travel time, vehicle fuel and pavement maintenance costs. A Pareto set of bi-directional lane configurations for two-lane roadways yields non-dominated combinations of lane width, bicycle lanes and curb parking. Probabilistic analysis and microsimulation both show dramatic mobility reductions on road segments of insufficient width for heavy vehicles to pass bicycles without encroaching on oncoming traffic. This delay is positively correlated with uphill grades and increasing traffic volumes and inversely proportional to total pavement width. The response is nonlinear with grade and yields mixed uphill/downhill optimal lane configurations. Increasing bicycle mode share is negatively correlated with total costs and emissions for lane configurations allowing motor vehicles to safely pass bicycles, while the opposite is true for configurations that fail to facilitate passing. Spatial impacts on mobility also dictate that curb parking exhibits significant spatial opportunity costs related to the total cost Pareto curve. The proposed framework provides a means to evaluate relatively inexpensive lane reconfiguration options in response to changing modal share and priorities. These results provide quantitative evidence that efforts to reallocate limited pavement space to bicycles, like those being adopted in several US cities, could appreciably reduce costs for all users. (letter)

  12. Quantifying the total cost of infrastructure to enable environmentally preferable decisions: the case of urban roadway design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosse, Conrad A.; Clarens, Andres F.

    2013-03-01

    Efforts to reduce the environmental impacts of transportation infrastructure have generally overlooked many of the efficiencies that can be obtained by considering the relevant engineering and economic aspects as a system. Here, we present a framework for quantifying the burdens of ground transportation in urban settings that incorporates travel time, vehicle fuel and pavement maintenance costs. A Pareto set of bi-directional lane configurations for two-lane roadways yields non-dominated combinations of lane width, bicycle lanes and curb parking. Probabilistic analysis and microsimulation both show dramatic mobility reductions on road segments of insufficient width for heavy vehicles to pass bicycles without encroaching on oncoming traffic. This delay is positively correlated with uphill grades and increasing traffic volumes and inversely proportional to total pavement width. The response is nonlinear with grade and yields mixed uphill/downhill optimal lane configurations. Increasing bicycle mode share is negatively correlated with total costs and emissions for lane configurations allowing motor vehicles to safely pass bicycles, while the opposite is true for configurations that fail to facilitate passing. Spatial impacts on mobility also dictate that curb parking exhibits significant spatial opportunity costs related to the total cost Pareto curve. The proposed framework provides a means to evaluate relatively inexpensive lane reconfiguration options in response to changing modal share and priorities. These results provide quantitative evidence that efforts to reallocate limited pavement space to bicycles, like those being adopted in several US cities, could appreciably reduce costs for all users.

  13. Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-23

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.

  14. Green marketing - How to put an environmental spin on your energy product, service, program or project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines how some smart marketers have quickly picked up on the new consumer interest in protecting the environment, turned it into increased sales and profits and at the same time effectively increased energy conservation. They asked their product developers to improve the environmental benefits of their existing products and to design some new ones. Then they asked their advertising writers to put an environmental spin on their product advertising. Next they made frequent visits to the bank with the increased sales revenues from an expanding market share and at the same time are doing something worthwhile in energy and environmental conservation

  15. Economic factor environmental protection. Productivity of the German environmental and climate protection industry in international competition; Wirtschaftsfaktor Umweltschutz. Leistungsfaehigkeit der deutschen Umwelt- und Klimaschutzwirtschaft im internationalen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Krawczyk, Olaf [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung (NIW), Hannover (Germany); Walz, Rainer; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Frietsch, Rainer [Fraunhofer Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The analysis on the economic factor environment and the German environmental industry on international competition is faced to methodological limits, since the environmental industry does not present itself as an homogeneous sector. The study is organized in the following chapters: introduction - the importance of environmental industry; classification of environmental and climate protection industry; productivity volume and production structure; international competition for potential environmental protection products; environmental protection industry and innovative performance. Integrated environmental solutions are of increasing significance, avoiding emissions and products and production process from beginning on. All known forecast indicate an expansive market development. In addition the rising prices for crude oil may push the search for innovative solutions to substitute fossil energy sources. The environmental industry should look for globally transferable solutions in order to promote global sustainable growth.

  16. 48 CFR 552.238-72 - Identification of Products That Have Environmental Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... buyers to purchase products that are less harmful to the environment, when they are life cycle cost... highlight environmental products under Federal Supply Service schedule contracts in various communications..., and low volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Post-consumer material means a material or finished product...

  17. Tracing distant environmental impacts of agricultural products from a consumer perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastner, Thomas; Kastner, Michael; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2011-01-01

    Globally, trade flows of agricultural products are increasing. While value is typically added along the whole production chain, certain environmental impacts, such as land and water use, biomass appropriation, and soil degradation, are intrinsically linked to where the primary products originate

  18. Life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact assessment of bioethanol production from sweet potato based on different production modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Jia, Chunrong; Wu, Yi; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Lijun; Zhai, Youlong

    2017-01-01

    The bioethanol is playing an increasingly important role in renewable energy in China. Based on the theory of circular economy, integration of different resources by polygeneration is one of the solutions to improve energy efficiency and to reduce environmental impact. In this study, three modes of bioethanol production were selected to evaluate the life cycle energy efficiency and environmental impact of sweet potato-based bioethanol. The results showed that, the net energy ratio was greater than 1 and the value of net energy gain was positive in the three production modes, in which the maximum value appeared in the circular economy mode (CEM). The environment emission mainly occurred to bioethanol conversion unit in the conventional production mode (CPM) and the cogeneration mode (CGM), and eutrophication potential (EP) and global warming potential (GWP) were the most significant environmental impact category. While compared with CPM and CGM, the environmental impact of CEM significantly declined due to increasing recycling, and plant cultivation unit mainly contributed to EP and GWP. And the comprehensive evaluation score of environmental impact decreased by 73.46% and 23.36%. This study showed that CEM was effective in improving energy efficiency, especially in reducing the environmental impact, and it provides a new method for bioethanol production. PMID:28672044

  19. Industry Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth under Resources and Environmental Constraint in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X. H.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity. PMID:23365517

  20. Industry Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth under Resources and Environmental Constraint in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Tao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity.

  1. The environmental impact of nitrogen in field vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeteson, J.J.; Carton, O.T.

    2001-01-01

    Many intensive systems of field vegetable production are not sustainable because they lose excessive amounts of nitrogen (N) to the environment. Processes in the N cycle of agricultural systems include assimilation, mineralization/immobilization, nitrification, denitrification, ammonia

  2. Environmental assessment of different strategies for production of stabilized yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Monclus, Vincent; Pénicaud, Caroline; Perret, Bruno; Fonseca, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Yeast are widely used for producing fermented (bread, beer...) and health benefit (probiotics) products. The production of stable and active yeast involves fermentation, concentration, protection, drying (stabilization) and storage. During the stabilization and storage steps, the cells face numerous stress which may deteriorate functional properties and cause cell death. Different strategies can be used to preserve cell survival, such as changing growth medium for fermentation or adapting pro...

  3. Study of environmental concerns: offshore oil and gas drilling and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R

    1978-01-01

    Material on the environmental concerns associated with offshore drilling and production activities has been synthesized with Department of Fisheries and Environment files on specific projects, these being the primary information source. Recommendations to resolve these concerns have also been provided. Most of the environmental concerns identified in this study are traceable to specific weaknesses in offshore drilling and production procedures and management systems. Hardware weaknesses are seldom of central importance. Areas of concern include the gradual deposition of pollutants from rigs, underwater pipelines and onshore ancillary structures, and the quality of the following: action plans to deal with oil spills, standards for safety and anti-pollution equipment, information provided on the environmental hazards in offshore drilling and production areas, environmental impact assessments, and communication links between those having environmental concerns and expertise (including the public-at-large) and those who make the decisions regarding offshore oil and gas development.

  4. Danish experience with the EDIP tool for environmental design of industrial products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Alting, Leo

    1999-01-01

    Since its publication in, 1996, the Danish method and tools for the environmental design of industrial products (EDIP) have been used in companies in Denmark and abroad, and experience has been gained with a variety of product categories such as electronics, electromechanical products, furniture......, foodstuffs, packaging, textiles, building equipment, energy systems and railway systems. The experience shows that large environmental improvement potentials can be found in all product categories. As a broad average, 30-50% environmental improvement of products have been implemented over few years...... by companies working with the EDIP tools. The paper presents examples from pumps, refrigerator, high pressure cleaners audio/video products, book shelves and moulded cardboards. A questionnaire investigation of the experience with life cycle assessment (LCA) and ecodesign within the Danish pioneer companies...

  5. The effectiveness of three home products in cleaning and disinfection of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli on home environmental surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, N; Brouillette, N; Tenaglia, K; Gore, R; Marshall, J

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate three products for: (i) cleaning effectiveness on two common household surfaces, and (ii) disinfection effectiveness against two common bacteria. Products included conventional ('bleach'), environmentally preferable (EP), do-it-yourself (DIY: distilled white vinegar, club soda, tea tree oil), 24-h old DIY, and individual DIY components in dilution. For cleaning ceramic, no product was effective (≥85% removal of Hucker's soil), however, DIY performed better than EP and bleach. On stainless, only DIY failed to meet the standard. For disinfection, bleach and EP achieved ≥5·00 log10 reductions under all conditions. DIY and components were more active against Escherichia coli than Staphylococcus aureus but only fresh DIY and 50% vinegar achieved ≥5·00 log10 reductions. EP is an effective alternative to bleach. DIY may be an adequate alternative for cleaning ceramic and for household use, where complete elimination of micro-organisms is unnecessary; however, it must be freshly prepared each day. This is the first report of performance of purportedly safer alternatives for both cleaning and disinfection for use in home health care. The EP product and DIY are potential alternatives for some household uses. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Maintaining environmental quality while expanding biomass production: Sub-regional U.S. policy simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egbendewe-Mondzozo, Aklesso; Swinton, Scott M.; Izaurralde, R. César; Manowitz, David H.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates environmental policy effects on ligno-cellulosic biomass production and environmental outcomes using an integrated bioeconomic optimization model. The environmental policy integrated climate (EPIC) model is used to simulate crop yields and environmental indicators in current and future potential bioenergy cropping systems based on weather, topographic and soil data. The crop yield and environmental outcome parameters from EPIC are combined with biomass transport costs and economic parameters in a representative farmer profit-maximizing mathematical optimization model. The model is used to predict the impact of alternative policies on biomass production and environmental outcomes. We find that without environmental policy, rising biomass prices initially trigger production of annual crop residues, resulting in increased greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion, and nutrient losses to surface and ground water. At higher biomass prices, perennial bioenergy crops replace annual crop residues as biomass sources, resulting in lower environmental impacts. Simulations of three environmental policies namely a carbon price, a no-till area subsidy, and a fertilizer tax reveal that only the carbon price policy systematically mitigates environmental impacts. The fertilizer tax is ineffectual and too costly to farmers. The no-till subsidy is effective only at low biomass prices and is too costly to government. - Highlights: ► Bioeconomic optimization model predicts how biomass production affects environment. ► Rising biomass production could impair climate and water quality. ► Environmental protection policies compared as biomass supply grows. ► Carbon price protects the environment cost-effectively as biomass supply expands

  7. Prediction of Hydrolysis Products of Organic Chemicals under Environmental pH Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheminformatics-based software tools can predict the molecular structure of transformation products using a library of transformation reaction schemes. This paper presents the development of such a library for abiotic hydrolysis of organic chemicals under environmentally relevant...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - BAGHOUSE FILTRATION PRODUCTS - TETRATEC PTFE TECHNOLOGIES TETRATEX 8005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghouse filtration products (BFPs) were evaluated by the Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) pilot of the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The performance factor verified was the mean outlet particle concentration for the filter fabric as a function of th...

  9. NUCAPS: NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System Environmental Data Record (EDR) Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of numerous retrieved estimates of hydrological variables and trace gases as Environmental Data Record (EDR) products from the NOAA Unique...

  10. New prospects in EU environmental policies. The Integrated Product Policy (IPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnimeo, G.; Iraldo, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Integrated Product Policy - IPP - is becoming one of the top priorities for the European Commission within the framework of the product-oriented environmental policies. Rather than a new policy, this is an innovative approach aimed at co-originated existing and forthcoming environmental policies, in order to manage in an integrated way and minimise the impacts connected with the whole product life-cycle. The underlying life-cycle guideline requires the management of each phase by considering what happens in all the other phases. What clearly emerges from a research carried out by Iefe Bocconi is, on the one hand, the effectiveness of co-operation and networking between all the actors involved in the product environmental management within the different phases of its life cycle (policy makers, producers, retailers, consumers, NGOs, etc.) and, on the other, the opportunity of developing an integrated management of both environmental policy instruments and corporate management tools [it

  11. Environmental labelling of buildings and construction products: lessons for South Africa from global trends

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, NL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available be informed by life cycle considerations. Environmental labelling in construction takes the form of whole building rating systems and construction product certification programmes. The First Generation building rating systems have to date experienced much...

  12. LIFE CYCLE DESIGN GUIDANCE MANUAL - ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS AND THE PRODUCT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory and the University of Michigan are cooperating in a project to reduce environmental impacts and health risks through product system design. The resulting framework for life cycle design is pr...

  13. To what extent are DFX principles really used when developing environmentally sensitive products?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    1998-01-01

    Research shows that over the past five years, industry has improved its understanding of the need to consider the environmental impacts of its products As a result companies are now beginning to incorporate environmental decisions into their design processes. It has been observed that companies f...

  14. Environmental aspects and renewable energy sources in the production of construction aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, Izabela; Kokoszka, Wanda; Buda-Ożóg, Lidia; Kogut, Janusz; Słowik, Marta

    2017-11-01

    The main activity of open pit mining of aggregates are aggregates' exploitation of natural mineral deposits and its modification in order to obtain high-quality aggregates. The development of aggregate production is conditioned by a number of factors. The most important are: documented material resources, mining and manufacturing capabilities, the need of environmental protection (environmental aspects), the subordination of the plan of spatial development, formal and legal issues, as well as economic and financial aspects. While identifying and assessing the environmental impacts of manufacturing aggregates one may distinguish those environmental aspects that have or may have the greatest magnitude of the impact on the environment as a result of industrial activities. Manufacturers producing aggregates located in the areas covered by the special environmental protection require extra diligence in the conduct of mining activities for preservation of natural resources. The article discusses some main environmental aspects of the production of construction aggregates on the example of one of the largest producers of this material in Subcarpathian province of Poland. Environmental protection in production of aggregates may refer to four aspects: the use of natural resources, having excluded land from agriculture and forestry, land reclamation after exploitation, and use of energy from renewable energy sources. The economic and environmental impact of production volume of aggregates is evaluated by the index information capacity method and the method of graphs.

  15. Environmental assessment tools for the evaluation and improvement of European livestock production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halberg, N.; Werf, H.M.G.; Basset-Mens, C.; Dalgaard, P.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Different types of assessment tools have been developed in Europe with the purpose of determining the environmental impact of various livestock production systems at farm level. The assessment tools differ in terms of which environmental objectives are included and how indicators are constructed and

  16. Environmental perspectives on using cast seaweed for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Christensen, Thomas Budde

    Solrød Municipality, Denmark is working towards building a biogas plant utilizing locally available organic wastes including cast seaweed, which is collected each year, since the local inhabitants see this material as a nuisance. A preliminary study suggested favorable conditions for contstructing...... a mixed substrate biogas plant. Continuously fed reactor experiments showed that the intended mix of substrate including cast seaweed could be used as raw material for a biogas plant in thermophilic operation. The environmental analysis suggests existence of several positive benefits of utilizing cast...

  17. Marketing strategies and consumer preferences for fertilizers and soils from organic residues of biogas production; Vermarktungsstrategien und Konsumentenpraeferenzen fuer Duenger und Erden aus organischen Reststoffen der Biogasproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, Johannes

    2017-07-13

    The aim of this thesis is to show marketing possibilities for fermentation products and to generate sepcific recommendations for potential producers and marketers of fermentation products. Since the marketing of fermenting products is largely unexplored and a research gap, this project was launched with an exploratory phase. After the exploratory phase, private gardeners were identified as a promising customer group. Knowledge about the preferences of private gardeners when purchasing soil and fertilizer are crucial for the market success of processed fermentation products. In order to fathom the decision-making behavior of this potential customer group, personal interviews were conducted with private gardeners. These results enable potential producers and marketers of fermentation products to create a product that is in demand on the market because it meets the needs of potential consumers. The personal preferences, however, can be very different, for which reason a segmentation into different groups with similar preferences is made. [German] Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, Vermarktungsmoeglichkeiten fuer Gaerprodukte aufzuzeigen und konkrete Empfehlungen fuer potenzielle Hersteller und Vermarkter von Gaerprodukten zu generieren. Da die Vermarktung von Gaerprodukten weitestgehend unerforscht ist und eine Forschungsluecke darstellt, wurde dieses Vorhaben mit einer explorativen Phase gestartet. Nach der explorativen Phase wurden Privatgaertner als vielversprechende Kundengruppe identifiziert. Kenntnisse ueber die Praeferenzen von Privatgaertnern beim Kauf von Erden und Duengern sind entscheidend fuer den Markterfolg von aufbereiteten Gaerprodukten. Um das Entscheidungsverhalten dieser potenziellen Kundengruppe naeher zu ergruenden, wurden persoenliche Interviews mit Privatgaertnern durchgefuehrt. Diese Ergebnisse ermoeglichen es potenziellen Herstellern und Vermarktern von Gaerprodukten ein Produkt zu kreieren, das auf dem Markt nachgefragt wird, da es den Wuenschen der

  18. The Development Of Cleaner Production Practices Between Environmental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne; Mohamed, Maketab; Agamuthu, P.

    2003-01-01

    (DANCED), Ministry of Environment and Energy. Small and medium-scale enterprises (SMEs) were targeted within three sectors: Textile, food and electroplating industries. The paper illustrates the change process from the perspective of electroplating SMEs by reviewing the cleaner production options chosen......, presenting figures on the results achieved, and discussing the experiences gained. Reviewing the approach and results of the Centre, as well as the status of cleaner production (CP) in Malaysia, the paper outlines the challenges for national policy making, when moving from promotion by project intervention...... towards sustainable practices in the SME sector at large. The paper draws upon data collection conducted by the research project ‘A Study on Promotion and Implementation of Cleaner Production Practices in Malaysian Industry - Development of a National Program and Action Plan for Promotion of Cleaner...

  19. Good news to use from the environmental front: coal combustion products as an environmental success story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.N. [ISG Resources, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2002-07-01

    ISG Resources in the USA's largest manager and marketer of coal combustion products, involved also in developing new technologies and applications for treatment and use of fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag and FGD by-products. The paper, outlined in a series of 14 overheads, describes the USA's successes and initiatives so far in coal combustion products utilization. Further opportunities for the coal industry were discussed. The industry is encouraged to become involved now in carbon trading mechanisms for fly ash utilization displacing cement production.

  20. UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCT OF CHEESEMAKING AGRIBUSINESS INDUSTRY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD PRODUCTS AND REDUCTION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Becker Rohlfes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The uses of by-products of cheese industry is still not significant in Brazil, since about 15% of liquid whey is used as raw material in food industry technology. The liquid whey has excellent technological properties, making it an alternative to minimize environmental impacts, besides it enables the use of the same nutritional properties in the production of new food products or adding value to the existing ones. The present study aimed to use liquid whey as an ingredient in the formulation of ice cream, hard candies, ham and breads, as well as to evaluate the influence of it in technological characteristics of the products and to quantify the volume of whey used. In order to evaluate the use of liquid whey, the products were developed with partial or total replacement of milk or water by whey, being the substitution accompanied by the determination of centesimal composition, as well as evaluating the visual characteristics of each product. The results show that the preparation of the products under study with substitution of raw milk or water is viable, proving that using liquid whey is a technological possibility of using a by-product considered to be an environmental pollutant. It was concluded that the use of liquid whey in the food industry reduces the environmental impact, since there is a reduction in the volume of whey discharged into the environment.

  1. Physical foundation of the labor theory of value: production and environmental destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obinata, T.

    2005-01-01

    A concept negentropy is introduced to supplement Marx's labor theory of value. The negentropy, that is a less entropy state than the thermal equilibrium state of matter, is a common property of the usefulness of material needs. The production of commodity increases the negentropy of product, but the action raises more environmental entropy than the negentropy of the product. This is environmental damage. In addition the negentropy plays a role of the substance of value and answers the issue about productive and unproductive labor. It is clarified that the origin of surplus value is the negentropy of information

  2. assessment of environmental impacts in comfortable furniture production process using life cycle assessment (LCA technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hejhar abbasi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Furniture industry releases annually a large amount of volatile organic compound to the environment due to the use of adhesives, textiles, paints and coating materials. There are some different methods to measure the load of pollutions and the environmental impacts. Life cycle assessment (LCA is one of the best techniques. LCA is a technique in which all environmental impacts related to a product assessed all over its life cycle, from cradle to grave, and ultimately can be used to improve the production process and to prevent unsuitable environmental impacts. In summary, it can be concluded that the use of this technique is the basis for sustainable development and improving social, economic, and environmental indices. This study focused on the collecting of a comprehensive life cycle inventory data for comfortable furniture in two different production processes (B1 and B2 located in Tehran province, and analyzed the environmental impacts during the production process as gate to gate investigation. The results revealed that emissions in production process B1 were higher than that of production process B2. The reason for this is that basic operations such as sawing and frame assembling along with final operation have been done in the same unit for case B1. Textile production and usage, and polyurethane foam were identified as the main hotspots, respectively. Moreover, the results showed that comfortable furniture production process has the highest effects on ecosystem quality, human health, and resources (fossil fuels and mines, respectively.

  3. Environmental assessment of two different crop systems in terms of biomethane potential production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fusi, Alessandra; Negri, Marco; Guidetti, Riccardo; Fiala, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interest in renewable energy sources has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as required by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Parliament. The production of energy from energy crops appears to be consistent with RED. The environmental impact related to this kind of energy primarily originates from crop cultivation. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental impact of different crop systems for biomass production: single and double crop. The environmental performances of maize and maize plus wheat were assessed from a life cycle perspective. Two alternative scenarios considering different yields, crop management, and climatic conditions, were also addressed. One normal cubic metre of potential methane was chosen as a functional unit. Methane potential production data were obtained through lab experimental tests. For both of the crop systems, the factors that have the greatest influence on the overall environmental burden are: fertilizer emissions, diesel fuel emissions, diesel fuel production, and pesticide production. Notwithstanding the greater level of methane potential production, the double crop system appears to have the worse environmental performance with respect to its single crop counterpart. This result is due to the bigger quantity of inputs needed for the double crop system. Therefore, the greater amount of biomass (silage) obtained through the double crop system is less than proportional to the environmental burden that results from the bigger quantity of inputs requested for double crop. - Highlights: • Environmental impact of two crop systems was evaluated • Biomethane specific production tests were carried out • Alternative scenarios (different yields and crop management) were assessed • Maize single crop obtains the better environmental performance • Critical factors are: fertilizer and diesel fuel emissions and diesel fuel

  4. Environmental assessment of two different crop systems in terms of biomethane potential production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fusi, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.fusi@unimi.it; Negri, Marco; Guidetti, Riccardo; Fiala, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The interest in renewable energy sources has gained great importance in Europe due to the need to reduce fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, as required by the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Parliament. The production of energy from energy crops appears to be consistent with RED. The environmental impact related to this kind of energy primarily originates from crop cultivation. This research aimed to evaluate the environmental impact of different crop systems for biomass production: single and double crop. The environmental performances of maize and maize plus wheat were assessed from a life cycle perspective. Two alternative scenarios considering different yields, crop management, and climatic conditions, were also addressed. One normal cubic metre of potential methane was chosen as a functional unit. Methane potential production data were obtained through lab experimental tests. For both of the crop systems, the factors that have the greatest influence on the overall environmental burden are: fertilizer emissions, diesel fuel emissions, diesel fuel production, and pesticide production. Notwithstanding the greater level of methane potential production, the double crop system appears to have the worse environmental performance with respect to its single crop counterpart. This result is due to the bigger quantity of inputs needed for the double crop system. Therefore, the greater amount of biomass (silage) obtained through the double crop system is less than proportional to the environmental burden that results from the bigger quantity of inputs requested for double crop. - Highlights: • Environmental impact of two crop systems was evaluated • Biomethane specific production tests were carried out • Alternative scenarios (different yields and crop management) were assessed • Maize single crop obtains the better environmental performance • Critical factors are: fertilizer and diesel fuel emissions and diesel fuel

  5. Agro-environmental evaluation of vineyard management using organic farming and integrated plant production systems

    OpenAIRE

    FORGET, D.; LACOMBE, J.; DURAND, A.

    2009-01-01

    Organic farming is often considered to be the most environmentally-friendly crop management system, even if integrated production also aims at decreasing the impact of agriculture on the natural environment. In order to establish references for the agro-environmental evaluation of these two production systems in relation to grape growing, INRA carried out an initial study from 2001 to 2004 at the plot scale. This study focused on two grape varieties (Merlot N and Cabernet Sauvignon) in its Co...

  6. Simplified LCA and matrix methods in identifying the environmental aspects of a product system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Tak; Lee, Jiyong; Ryu, Jiyeon; Kwon, Eunsun

    2005-05-01

    In order to effectively integrate environmental attributes into the product design and development processes, it is crucial to identify the significant environmental aspects related to a product system within a relatively short period of time. In this study, the usefulness of life cycle assessment (LCA) and a matrix method as tools for identifying the key environmental issues of a product system were examined. For this, a simplified LCA (SLCA) method that can be applied to Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) was developed to efficiently identify their significant environmental aspects for eco-design, since a full scale LCA study is usually very detailed, expensive and time-consuming. The environmentally responsible product assessment (ERPA) method, which is one of the matrix methods, was also analyzed. Then, the usefulness of each method in eco-design processes was evaluated and compared using the case studies of the cellular phone and vacuum cleaner systems. It was found that the SLCA and the ERPA methods provided different information but they complemented each other to some extent. The SLCA method generated more information on the inherent environmental characteristics of a product system so that it might be useful for new design/eco-innovation when developing a completely new product or method where environmental considerations play a major role from the beginning. On the other hand, the ERPA method gave more information on the potential for improving a product so that it could be effectively used in eco-redesign which intends to alleviate environmental impacts of an existing product or process.

  7. Transition to Organic Tea Production in the Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam: Economic and Environmental Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Nghia Dai Tran

    2009-01-01

    This study from Vietnam shows that a switch from conventional to organic tea productions would bring real environmental, health and economic benefits for the country's farmers and its society as a whole. In particular, the amount of agrochemical residue and waste produced by tea production would be reduced. Farmers would also be able to enjoy a better livelihood as they could command a premium price for their organic tea products. The study therefore recommends that organic tea production is ...

  8. Genetic and environmental parameters for ewe productivity in Merinos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data of 3272 lambing records collected on 818 ewes born from 689 dams and sired by 371 rams were used in the evaluation of ewe lifetime productivity (total number born, number weaned and total weight weaned). These records were collected from ewes born from 1969 to 1994 and which gave birth during the period ...

  9. Environmental and metabolomic study of antibiotic production by actinomycetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    This thesis may be regarded as a concept work, to see how feasible drug discovery approaches still are. For this, a strain collection was built up consisting of actinomycetes from soil in the Qinling and Himalaya mountains, which were subsequently tested for antibiotic production against multi-drug

  10. Consumer and product-specific characteristics influencing the effect of nutrition, health and risk reduction claims on preferences and purchase behavior - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Johann; Hamm, Ulrich

    2018-08-01

    The research on nutrition, health, and risk reduction claims (NHR claims) shows a lack of consensus as to whether these claims have a positive or negative effect on consumer's preferences and purchase behavior. This issue has been highlighted by many authors. Therefore, a comprehensive literature review was performed to find reasons for contradictory results. First, a theoretical framework was developed which divided the determinants of the effects of NHR claims on consumers' preferences and purchase behavior into consumer and product-specific characteristics. Additionally, a categorization for the different NHR claim types was constructed to make the studies comparable. Afterwards, the scientific literature from the 1980s until May 2017 was scanned and 66 articles were found to be relevant. Consumer-specific characteristics such as nutrition knowledge, health motivation, familiarity, and socio-demographic characteristics were found to influence the NHR claim effect. Important product-specific characteristics were the perceived healthiness of the food product, the interaction between the product and the nutrient in the NHR claim, and the interaction between the claimed benefit and the NHR claim type. The consumer's nutrition knowledge and the product's perceived healthiness were deemed to be the most promising determinants for further investigation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Pro-Environmental Reasoned Action Model for Measuring Citizens’ Intentions regarding Ecolabel Product Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Nadlifatin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecolabel products are one approach towards environmental sustainability. Ecolabel programs have been socialized by governments all over the world to reduce environmental harm caused by the daily life cycles of the products that citizens use. The present study was aimed at measuring citizens’ behavior intention (BI regarding ecolabel product usage. An extended theory of reasoned action (TRA, namely that of pro-environmental reasoned action (PERA, is used as the predictor model. A total of 213 questionnaire data, collected from citizens of Indonesia, was analyzed using structural equation modeling. The analysis results show that the PERA model is able to describe 68% of citizens’ BI regarding ecolabel product usage. The analysis results also reveal that attitude is a key determinant factor. Several practical suggestions based on the results can be used as input for policy makers and company management to consider in their efforts to increase citizens’ BI to use ecolabel products.

  12. Environmental Product Development Combining the Life Cycle Perspective with Chemical Hazard Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askham, Cecilia

    in the design or redesign process. This thesis concerns marrying the life cycle perspective with chemical hazard information, in order to advance the practice of environmental product development, and hence takes further steps towards sustainable development. The need to consider the full value chain...... for the life cycle of products meant that systems theory and systems engineering principles were important in this work. Life cycle assessment methodology was important for assessing environmental impacts for case products. The new European regulation for chemicals (REACH) provided the main driver......Concerns regarding the short- and long-term detrimental effects of chemicals on human health and ecosystems have made the minimisation of chemical hazards a vitally important issue. If sustainable development is to be achieved, environmental efficient products (and product life cycles...

  13. The analysis of consumer preferences residents of Voronezh in respect of products of functional purpose from fruit and berry raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Shchetilina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decade, the negative trend related to the health status of the population. In the structure of power a significant part of the population are violations. According to scientific research Institute of nutrition in our country commonplace latent forms of vitamin deficiency combined with lack of calcium, iron, iodine. With the aim of increasing the production of food products of mass consumption enriched with minerals and vitamins, the use of vegetable raw materials of the Voronezh region is a priority. The human body for normal functioning requires regular consumption of micronutrients. An important role in biological processes in which food is converted into energy, play a micro- and macroelements and vitamins. They provide the protective functions of the body are involved in tissue renewal. However, micronutrients are not synthesized in the body, and water-soluble vitamins, unlike fat-soluble are easily excreted from the body, so they should regularly come directly from food. In the works of foreign and domestic scientists the development of product functionality has received considerable attention. Special contribution study of academicians V. M. Bosnakovski, V. A. Tutelyan, professor B. P. Sukhanov and others In the development of new types of foods must take into account the views of consumers about new products. The paper presents marketing research of the market of Voronezh the survey. The aim of the study was to identify preferences of consumers of functional products. Analyzed socio-demographic profile of respondents the distribution of respondents by education, age of the interviewee, the frequency of consumption by respondents functional products, the preferences of respondents by frequency of consumption depending on the sex of the respondents. The analysis of preferences for specific groups of products, places to purchase products functional purpose, the reasons that motivate respondents to purchase products of functional

  14. International recommendations for managing environmental risk from nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The establishment of any recommendations relating to the control of radiation exposure requires decisions on the management of the associated risk. Those decisions must reflect attitudes towards the acceptable levels of risk for both workers and the public. The environmental impact of nuclear energy principally concerns radiation doses and risks to members of the public. The author shows how the considerations of risk and acceptability are used internationally to set standards for protection. The results differ as between limiting doses for normal operations, for restricting the likelihood of accidents, intervening after an accident, or reducing doses from a chronic exposure situation. It is concluded that there is a coherent pattern in the resulting protection system

  15. Environmental fate and effects of nicotine released during cigarette production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckar, Joel A; Stavanja, Mari S; Harp, Paul R; Yi, Yongsheng; Garner, Charles D; Doi, Jon

    2008-07-01

    A variety of test methods were used to study the gradation, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of nicotine. Studies included determination of the octanol-water partition coefficient, conversion to CO2 in soil and activated sludge, and evaluation of the effects on microbiological and algal inhibition as well as plant germination and root elongation. The partitioning of nicotine between octanol and water indicated that nicotine will not bioaccumulate regardless of the pH of the medium. The aqueous and soil-based biodegradation studies indicated that nicotine is readily biodegradable in both types of media. The microbiological inhibition and aquatic and terrestrial toxicity tests indicated that nicotine has low toxicity. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Toxicity Profiler model, based on the structure of nicotine and the predictive rates of hydroxyl radical and ozone reactions, estimated an atmospheric half-life of less than 5.0 h. Using this value in the Canadian Environmental Modeling Center level III model, the half-life of nicotine was estimated as 3.0 d in water and 0.5 d in soil. This model also estimated nicotine discharge into the environment; nicotine would be expected to be found predominantly in water (93%), followed by soil (4%), air (3%), and sediment (0.4%). Using the estimated nicotine concentrations in water, soil, and sediment and the proper median effective concentrations derived from the algal growth, biomass inhibition, and buttercrunch lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed germination and root elongation studies, hazard quotients of between 10(-7) and 10(-8) were calculated, providing further support for the conclusion that the potential for nicotine toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial species in the environment is extremely low.

  16. Suppression of bremsstrahlung and pair production due to environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer

    1999-01-01

    The environment in which bremsstrahlung and pair creation occurs can strongly affect cross sections for these processes. Because ultrarelativistic electromagnetic interactions involve very small longitudinal momentum transfers, the reactions occur gradually, spread over long distances. During this time, even relatively weak factors can accumulate enough to disrupt the interaction. In the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect, multiple scattering reduces the bremsstrahlung and pair production cross section. This review will discuss this and a variety of other factors that can suppress bremsstrahlung and pair production, as well as related effects involving beamstrahlung and QCD processes. After surveying different theoretical approaches, experimental measurements will be covered. Recent accurate measurements by the SLAC E-146 Collaboration will be highlighted, along with several recent theoretical works relating to the experiment. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  17. Behavior of arsenic in hydrometallurgical zinc production and environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltekov A.B.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of arsenic in zinc sulphide concentrates is particularly harmful, because it creates problems in zinc electrolysis. The main source of arsenic in non-ferrous metallurgy is arsenopyrite (FeAsS. In oxidative roasting of zinc concentrates, FeAsS oxidizes to arsenic oxides (As2O3, As2O5. In this connection a natural FeAsS was examined, and also the distribution of arsenic in the products of the roasting process, the cycle of sulphuric acid obtaining and the leaching of zinc calcine were studied. The arsenic contamination of soils in the vicinity of nonferrous metals smelter KCM SA, Plovdiv, Bulgaria as a result of zinc and lead productions has been studied.

  18. Seibt: Environmental engineering. 4th edition, 1995. Buyer's guide for environmental engineering. Products, suppliers, services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The book lists more than 8,900 enterprises in German-speaking countries and informs the reader about their products and services. A product index with more than 7,000 entries facilitates access to the desired information. For each product, suppliers and producers are liested in the main part of the buyer's guide with their complete address, telephone number, and fax number. In addition, there is an alphabetic list of suppliers and a section on trademarks. The nomenclature according to which the book is structured is continually revised and updated by experts

  19. Recycled aggregates in concrete production: engineering properties and environmental impact

    OpenAIRE

    Seddik Meddah Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Recycled concrete aggregate is considered as the most abundant and used secondary aggregate in concrete production, other types of solid waste are also being used in concrete for specific purposes and to achieve some desired properties. Recycled aggregates and particularly, recycled concrete aggregate substantially affect the properties and mix design of concrete both at fresh and hardened states since it is known by high porosity due to the adhered layer of old mortar on the aggregate which ...

  20. Analysis of RDX and RDX Breakdown Products in Environmental Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felt, Deborah R.; Larson, Steven L.; Wani, Altaf; Davis, Jeffrey L.

    2003-03-26

    The identification and quantification of explosives and their degradation products in soil and natural waters is helpful in the design of remediation technologies, mobility investigations and performing risk assessments. The objective of this study was to develop a method for the determination of the degradation of nitramine compounds, specifically hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The analytical methods developed in this study were based on reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using both C-18 and CN bonded silica columns to eliminate common interferences. Contaminant identification was further confirmed by performing spectral analysis of the compounds upon elution. The proposed method yields good separation of RDX from its degradation products and from other common energetic compounds. Method detection limits for the proposed method ranged from 0.01 to 0.03 mg/L. This method satisfies the need for analytical techniques to monitor the formation and subsequent degradation products of toxic and carcinogenic nitrosyl substituted nitramines.

  1. Household Production and Environmental Kuznets Curves. Examining the Desirability and Feasibility of Substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaff, Alexander S.P.; Chaudhuri, S. [Department of International and Public Affairs, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Nye, Howard L.M. [Department of Economics, Columbia University SIPA, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2004-02-01

    This paper provides a theoretical explanation for the widely debated empirical finding of 'Environmental Kuznets Curves', i.e., U-shaped relationships between per-capita income and indicators of environmental quality. We present a household-production model in which the degradation of environmental quality is a by-product of household activities. Households can not directly purchase environmental quality, but can reduce degradation by substituting more expensive cleaner inputs to production for less costly dirty inputs. If environmental quality is a normal good, one expects substitution towards the less polluting inputs, so that increases in income will increase the quality of the environment. It is shown that this only holds for middle income households. Poorer households spend all income on dirty inputs. When they buy more, as income rises, the pollution also rises. they do not want to substitute, as this would reduce consumption of non-environmental services for environmental amenities that are already abundant. Thus, as income rises from low to middle levels, a U shape can result. Yet an N shape might eventually result, as richer households spend all income on clean inputs. Further substitution possibilities are exhausted. Thus as income rises again pollution rises and environmental quality falls.

  2. Spatial Analysis of Environmental Change Impacts on Wheat Production in Mid-Lower North, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Q.; Williams, M. [Department of Geographical and Environmental Studies, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5005 (Australia); Bryan, BV. [Policy and Economic Research Unit, CSIRO Land and Water, Private Bag 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia, 5064 (Australia); Bellotti, W. [School of Agriculture and Wine, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5371 (Australia)

    2005-09-01

    Three environmental change scenarios (the best scenario, the most likely scenario and the worst scenario) were used by the APSIM (Agricultural Production System sIMulator) Wheat module to study the possible impacts of future environmental change (climate change plus pCO2 change) on wheat production in the Mid-Lower North of South Australia. GIS software was used to manage spatial-climate data and spatial-soil data and to present the results. Study results show that grain yield (kg ha{sup -1}) was adversely affected under the worst environmental change scenario (-100% {approx} -42%) and the most likely environmental change scenario (-58% {approx} -3%). Grain nitrogen content (% N) either increased or decreased depending on the environmental change scenarios used and climate divisions (-25% {approx} +42%). Spatial variability was found for projected impact outcomes within climate divisions indicating the necessity of including the spatial distribution of soil properties in impact assessment.

  3. Can property values capture changes in environmental health risks? Evidence from a stated preference study in Italy and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignet, Dennis; Alberini, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Hedonic models are a common nonmarket valuation technique, but, in practice, results can be affected by omitted variables and whether homebuyers respond to the assumed environmental measure. We undertake an alternative stated preference approach that circumvents these issues. We examine how homeowners in the United Kingdom and Italy value mortality risk reductions by asking them to choose among hypothetical variants of their home that differ in terms of mortality risks from air pollution and price. We find that Italian homeowners hold a value of a statistical life (VSL) of €6.4 million, but U.K. homeowners hold a much lower VSL (€2.1 million). This may be because respondents in the United Kingdom do not perceive air pollution where they live to be as threatening, and actually live in cities with relatively low air pollution. Italian homeowners value a reduction in the risk of dying from cancer more than from other causes, but U.K. respondents do not hold such a premium. Lastly, respondents who face higher baseline risks, due to greater air pollution where they live, hold a higher VSL, particularly in the United Kingdom. In both countries, the VSL is twice as large among individuals who perceive air pollution where they live as high. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. A proposed tool to integrate environmental and economical assessments of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthil, Kumaran D.; Ong, S.K.; Nee, A.Y.C.; Tan, Reginald B.H.

    2003-01-01

    An attempt has been made to interpret the outcomes of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in terms of environmental costs. This attempt ensures the environmental accountability of the products while LCA ensures their eco-friendly nature. Keeping this as an objective, a Life Cycle Environmental Cost Analysis (LCECA) model was developed. This new tool incorporates costing into the LCA practice. This model prescribes a life cycle environmental cost model to estimate and correlate the effects of these costs in all the life cycle stages of the product. The newly developed categories of eco-costs are: costs of effluent treatment/control/disposal, environmental management systems, eco-taxes, rehabilitation, energy and savings of recycling and reuse strategies. The mathematical model of LCECA determines quantitative expressions between the total cost of products and the various eco-costs. The eco-costs of the alternatives are compared with the computational LCECA model. This method enables the environmental as well as the economic assessment of products, which leads to cost-effective, eco-friendly design of products

  5. Views and Preferences for Nicotine Products as an Alternative to Smoking: A Focus Group Study of People Living with Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Meurk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed; however preferences for nicotine products were individual and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusions: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers.

  6. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in environmental waters

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrouzo Lanuza, Marta

    2010-01-01

    En la presente Tesis Doctoral se han desarrollado diferentes métodos analíticos para la determinación de pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) en aguas medioambientales. El término PPCPs engloba todos los fármacos, drogas de abuso, hormonas y los excipientes activos incluidos en productos de uso personal, así como los metabolitos, conjugados y sub-productos de transformación. Los métodos desarrollados han estado basados en extracción en fase sólida o extracción con barras magnéti...

  7. Preferred 11 different job rotation types in automotive company and their effects on productivity, quality and musculoskeletal disorders: comparison between subjective and actual scores by workers' age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, In Sik; Jeong, Byung Yong; Jeong, Ji Hyun

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates workers' favoured rotation types by their age and compares means between subjective and actual scores on productivity, quality and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The subjects of research were 422 assembly line units in Hyundai Motor Company. The survey of 422 units focused on the workers' preference for 11 different rotation types and subjective scores for each type's perceived benefits, both by the workers' age. Then, actual scores on production-related indices were traced over a five-year period. The results suggest that different rotation types lead to different results in productivity, product quality and MSDs. Workers tend to perceive job rotation as a helpful method to enhance satisfaction, productivity and product quality more so than the actual production data suggests. Job rotation was especially effective in preventing MSDs for workers aged under 45, while its effects were not clear for the workers aged 45 years or older. Practitioner's Summary: This research presents appropriate rotation type for different age groups. Taking workers' age into account, administrators can use the paper's outcomes to select and implement the suitable rotation type to attain specific goals such as enhancing productivity, improving product quality or reducing MSDs.

  8. Metabolic and environmental aspects of fusion reactor activation products: niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1977-11-01

    A summary of the metabolic and environmental aspects of niobium is presented. The toxicological symptoms from exposure to niobium are given, along with lethal concentration values for acute and chronic exposures. Existing human data are presented; animal uptake and retention data are analyzed for various routes of administration. Recommended metabolic values are also presented along with comments concerning their use and appropriateness. The natural distribution of niobium is given for freshwater, seawater, and the biosphere. Concentration factors and retention of 95 Nb in the environment are discussed with reference to: plant retention via leaf absorption; plant retention via root uptake; uptake in terrestrial animals from plants; uptake in freshwater organisms; uptake in marine organisms; and movement in soil. Conclusions are drawn regarding needs for future work in these areas. This review was undertaken because niobium is expected to be a key metal in the development of commercial fusion reactors. It is recognized that niobium will likely not be used in the first generation reactors as a structural material but will appear as an alloy in such materials as superconducting wire

  9. Metabolic and environmental aspects of fusion reactor activation products: niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1977-11-01

    A summary of the metabolic and environmental aspects of niobium is presented. The toxicological symptoms from exposure to niobium are given, along with lethal concentration values for acute and chronic exposures. Existing human data are presented; animal uptake and retention data are analyzed for various routes of administration. Recommended metabolic values are also presented along with comments concerning their use and appropriateness. The natural distribution of niobium is given for freshwater, seawater, and the biosphere. Concentration factors and retention of /sup 95/Nb in the environment are discussed with reference to: plant retention via leaf absorption; plant retention via root uptake; uptake in terrestrial animals from plants; uptake in freshwater organisms; uptake in marine organisms; and movement in soil. Conclusions are drawn regarding needs for future work in these areas. This review was undertaken because niobium is expected to be a key metal in the development of commercial fusion reactors. It is recognized that niobium will likely not be used in the first generation reactors as a structural material but will appear as an alloy in such materials as superconducting wire.

  10. Global versus local environmental impacts of grazing and confined beef production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modernel, P.; Astigarraga, L.; Picasso, V.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon footprint is a key indicator of the contribution of food production to climate change and its importance is increasing worldwide. Although it has been used as a sustainability index for assessing production systems, it does not take into account many other biophysical environmental dimensions

  11. Extractant Screening for Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Environmentally Benign Production Routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzyzaniak, A.; Schuur, B.; Sukumaran, M.; Zuilhof, H.; Haan, de A.B.

    2011-01-01

    Fermentation processes offer a promising alternative for the production of chemicals by more environmentally benign routes. However, a major challenge in applying this technology remains the recovery of typically highly hydrophilic products from the complex broth. Here, we report the results of a

  12. Dairy production systems in the United States: Nutrient budgets and environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Across the diversity of US dairy production systems, nutrient management priorities range widely, from feeding regimes to manure handling, storage and application to crop systems. To assess nutrient management and environmental impacts of dairy production systems in the US, we evaluated nutrient bud...

  13. A watershed-based environmental and regulatory data analysis system for the forest products industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Beebe

    2012-01-01

    A watershed-based data analysis system was created as a tool for forest product companies to better understand potential implications from environmental regulations. Also known as the Receiving Water Database (RWDB), this data system was designed with the purpose of assisting companies that own pulp and paper mills, wood product facilities, and commercial timberlands...

  14. Economic and environmental effects of accelerated tariff liberalization in the forest products sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.J. Brooks; J.A. Ferrante; J. Haverkamp; I. Bowles; W. Lange; D. Darr

    2001-01-01

    This study assesses the incremental economic and environmental impacts resulting from changes in the timing and scope of forest products tariff reductions as proposed in the Accelerated Tariff Liberalization (ATL) initiative in forest products. This initiative was proposed for agreement among member countries of the World Trade Organization. The analysis of...

  15. Sustainability evaluation of Sicily's lemon and orange production: an energy, economic and environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, M; D'Amico, M; Celano, G; Palese, A M; Scuderi, A; Di Vita, G; Pappalardo, G; Inglese, P

    2013-10-15

    The island of Sicily has a long standing tradition in citrus growing. We evaluated the sustainability of orange and lemon orchards, under organic and conventional farming, using an energy, environmental and economic analysis of the whole production cycle by using a life cycle assessment approach. These orchard systems differ only in terms of a few of the inputs used and the duration of the various agricultural operations. The quantity of energy consumption in the production cycle was calculated by multiplying the quantity of inputs used by the energy conversion factors drawn from the literature. The production costs were calculated considering all internal costs, including equipment, materials, wages, and costs of working capital. The performance of the two systems (organic and conventional), was compared over a period of fifty years. The results, based on unit surface area (ha) production, prove the stronger sustainability of the organic over the conventional system, both in terms of energy consumption and environmental impact, especially for lemons. The sustainability of organic systems is mainly due to the use of environmentally friendly crop inputs (fertilizers, not use of synthetic products, etc.). In terms of production costs, the conventional management systems were more expensive, and both systems were heavily influenced by wages. In terms of kg of final product, the organic production system showed better environmental and energy performances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Do South African Consumers have an Appetite for an Origin-based Certification System for Meat Products? A Synthesis of Studies on Perceptions, Preferences and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann F. Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Protected Designation of Origin (PDO type certification schemes in countries outside Europe is a recent phenomenon as the philosophy of origin based foods obtains global traction. It is therefore interesting to understand whether consumers in these countries have a similar appreciation for these certification schemes and whether they are willing to pay a premium if the origin of the product is guaranteed. The Karoo Lamb case in South Africa provides an ideal opportunity to explore this question. At the same time the paper illustrates that the results and interpretation of consumer studies are sensitive to the methodology applied. We illustrate this argument by benefitting from a range of consumer studies that was undertaken over a period of five years in order to understand the South African consumers’ perceptions about the Karoo region and their preferences and willingness to pay for the meat product from the Karoo. The studies which we compare and synthesise in this paper used different techniques such as perception analysis; stated preference methods (through a conjoint analysis; and a range of revealed preference methods including, an experimental auction and a retail store experiment. In essence the paper synthesises and compares the results from the different studies and illustrates how different techniques bring different results and conclusions. We then try to establish whether there is consistency in the results across methods to help us getting to a conclusive position on the consumer value of this product. From these results we are able – in a more comprehensive way - to tell whether PDO-type products are likely to be of value to South African consumers.

  17. Production objectives and trait preferences of village poultry producers of Ethiopia: implications for designing breeding schemes utilizing indigenous chicken genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Nigussie; van der Waaij, Liesbeth H; Dessie, Tadelle; van Arendonk, Johan A M

    2010-10-01

    To generate information essential for the implementation of breeding schemes suitable for village poultry producers in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted aimed at defining the socioeconomic characteristics of the production environments in different geographic regions, understanding the important functions of chickens, identifying farmers' choice of chicken breeds and the underlying factors that determine the choice of genetic stock used. The survey included both questionnaire survey and a participatory group discussion. A total of 225 households (45 households from each of five Woredas) were interviewed. The questionnaire was designed to collect data covering general information on village poultry production such as socio-management characteristics, production objectives, population structure, breed choice and trait preferences, market preferences of specific traits, and farmers' selection practices. The participatory farmers' discussions were designed to involve stakeholders in defining the breeding objective "traits" and deriving their relative importance in the production environment based on the different functions of chickens and "traits" identified in the interviews. The results showed that production of eggs for consumption is the principal function of chickens in most regions followed by the use as source of income and meat for home consumption. The production system in all geographic regions studied revealed similar features generally characterized by extensive scavenging management, absence of immunization programs, increased risk of exposure of birds to disease and predators, and reproduction entirely based on uncontrolled natural mating and hatching of eggs using broody hens. Farmers' ratings of indigenous chickens with respect to modern breeds showed the highest significance of the adaptive traits in general, and the superior merits of indigenous chickens to high yielding exotic breeds in particular. Adaptation to the production environment was the most

  18. The environmental suitability of industrial secondary products used as covering materials in landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine-Ylijoki, J.; Wahlstroem, M.; Maekelae, E.

    2001-01-01

    The industrial secondary products and landmasses polluted in a minor way can be used as coverings and sealing materials and also restricted in the ground construction of landfills. By using suitable secondary products, natural materials can be reduced. Substitutes are needed due to the fact that the availability of natural materials is poor in many areas. The presented project is a part of the Streams technology programme financed by Tekes. It includes the development of the measuring methods to study the environmental suitability of industrial secondary products, which will be used as covering materials of landfills. Based on the results, a handbook addressing the environmental suitability procedure will be compiled

  19. Environmental services coupled to food products and brands: food companies interests and on-farm accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempa, Daniela

    2013-09-01

    Much research has been carried out on governmental support of agri environmental measures (AEM). However, little is known about demands on and incentives from the commercial market for environmental contributions of the farmers. The factors farm structures, level of remuneration and legal framework have been thoroughly investigated. However, demands of the food industry for environmentally friendly goods(1) and their effects on farmers' decisions have not yet been analyzed. Leading companies in the food industry have observed an increasing consumer awareness and, due to higher competition, see an additional need to communicate environmental benefits which result from either organic production methods or agri-environmental measures. To address this research deficit, two case studies were carried out. The first case study is a survey aimed at the industrial food producers' demands with regards to the environmental performance of supplying farms. Concurrently, within a second survey farmers were questioned to find out what conditions are required to implement agri-environmental measures beyond cross compliance and document their environmental performance. This article presents the outcomes of the first case study. The results show that food companies have an interest in the documentation of environmental benefits of supplying farms for their marketing strategies. Provision of support by finance or contract-design is also seen as appropriate tool to promote an environmentally friendly production. In turn the food producers' demand and support for documented environmental services can have a positive influence on farmers' decisions for implementation and documentation of these services. Thus, the surveys provide essential findings for further development of documentation strategies for environmental benefits within the supply chain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental Policies, Product Market Regulation and Innovation in Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesta, Lionel; Vona, Francesco; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of policies in favor of innovation in renew- able energy under different levels of competition. Using information regarding renewable energy policies, product market regulation and high-quality green patents for OECD countries since the late 1970's, we develop a pre-sample mean count-data econometric specification that also accounts for the endogeneity of policies. We find that renewable energy policies are significantly more effective in fostering green innovation in countries with deregulated energy markets. We also find that public support for renewable energy is crucial only in the generation of high-quality green patents, whereas competition enhances the generation of green patents irrespective of their quality. (authors)

  1. Environmental life cycle assessment of grain maize production: An analysis of factors causing variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Lieselot; Van Linden, Veerle; De Meester, Steven; Vandecasteele, Bart; Muylle, Hilde; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Nemecek, Thomas; Dewulf, Jo

    2016-05-15

    To meet the growing demand, high yielding, but environmentally sustainable agricultural plant production systems are desired. Today, life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly used to assess the environmental impact of these agricultural systems. However, the impact results are very diverse due to management decisions or local natural conditions. The impact of grain maize is often generalized and an average is taken. Therefore, we studied variation in production systems. Four types of drivers for variability are distinguished: policy, farm management, year-to-year weather variation and innovation. For each driver, scenarios are elaborated using ReCiPe and CEENE (Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment) to assess the environmental footprint. Policy limits fertilisation levels in a soil-specific way. The resource consumption is lower for non-sandy soils than for sandy soils, but entails however more eutrophication. Farm management seems to have less influence on the environmental impact when considering the CEENE only. But farm management choices such as fertiliser type have a large effect on emission-related problems (e.g. eutrophication and acidification). In contrast, year-to-year weather variation results in large differences in the environmental footprint. The difference in impact results between favourable and poor environmental conditions amounts to 19% and 17% in terms of resources and emissions respectively, and irrigation clearly is an unfavourable environmental process. The best environmental performance is obtained by innovation as plant breeding results in a steadily increasing yield over 25 years. Finally, a comparison is made between grain maize production in Flanders and a generically applied dataset, based on Swiss practices. These very different results endorse the importance of using local data to conduct LCA of plant production systems. The results of this study show decision makers and farmers how they can improve the

  2. Production of environmentally friendly aerated concrete with required construction and operational properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkach Evgeniya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these studies is to justify the feasibility of recycling different types of industrial waste instead of conventional expensive raw materials in production of environmentally friendly aerated concrete with required construction and operational properties. The impact of wastes from various industries on the environmental condition of affected areas, as well as the results of their environmental assessment were analyzed to determine whether these wastes could be used in production of high-performance building materials. The assessment of industrial wastes in aerated concrete production suggests that industrial wastes of hazard class IV can be recycled to produce aerated concrete. An environmentally friendly method for large-scale waste recycling, including a two-step environmentally sustainable mechanism, was developed. The basic quality indicators of the modified aerated concrete proved that the environmental safety could be enhanced by strengthening the structure, increasing its uniformity and improving thermal insulation properties. The modified non-autoclaved aerated concrete products with improved physical and operational properties were developed. They have the following properties: density – D700; class of concrete – B3.5; thermal transmittance coefficient – 0.143 W/(m·°C; frost resistance – F75.

  3. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

  4. Environmental impacts of beef production: Review of challenges and perspectives for durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Pierre J; Mottet, Anne; Opio, Carolyn I; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-11-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive contribution to food balances. This contribution is of particular importance in marginal areas, where agro-ecological conditions and weak infrastructures do not offer much alternative. It is also valuable where cattle convert crop residues and by-products into edible products and where they contribute to soil fertility through their impact on nutrients and organic matter cycles. At the same time, environmental sustainability issues are acute. They chiefly relate to the low efficiency of beef cattle in converting natural resources into edible products. Water use, land use, biomass appropriation and greenhouse gas emissions are for example typically higher per unit of edible product in beef systems than in any other livestock systems, even when corrected for nutritional quality. This particularly causes environmental pressure when production systems are specialized towards the delivery of edible products, in large volumes. The paper discusses environmental challenges at global level, recognizing the large diversity of systems. Beef production is faced with a range of additional sustainability challenges, such as changing consumer perceptions, resilience to climate change, animal health and inequities in access to land and water resources. Entry-points for environmental sustainability improvement are discussed within this broader development context. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department's first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department's legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle

  6. Organizing Products with Complements versus Substitutes: Effects on Store Preferences as a Function of Effort and Assortment Perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diehl, K.; Herpen, van E.; Lamberton, C.

    2015-01-01

    Retailers often organize at least part of their assortment by displaying complementary products from different product categories together (e.g., a pair of pants with a shirt) rather than grouping items by product type (e.g., a pair of pants with other pants). However, little is known about how

  7. Research of Environmental and Economic Interactions of Coke And By-Product Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, Vladimir; Kiseleva, Tamara; Bugrova, Svetlana; Muromtseva, Alina; Mikhailova, Yana

    2017-11-01

    The issues of showing relations between environmental and economic indicators (further - environmental and economic interactions) of coke and by-product process are considered in the article. The purpose of the study is to reveal the regularities of the functioning of the local environmental and economic system on the basis of revealed spectrum of environmental and economic interactions. A simplified scheme of the environmental and economic system "coke and by-product process - the environment" was developed. The forms of the investigated environmental-economic interactions were visualized and the selective interpretation of the tightness of the established connection was made. The main result of the work is modeling system of environmental and economic interactions that allows increasing the efficiency of local ecological and economic system management and optimizing the "interests" of an industrial enterprise - the source of negative impact on the environment. The results of the survey can be recommended to government authorities and industrial enterprises with a wide range of negative impact forms to support the adoption of effective management decisions aimed at sustainable environmental and economic development of the region or individual municipalities.

  8. Internalizing environmental costs: A survey of progress in estimating the external environmental costs of electricity production and a review of market-based policies to incorporate them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, J.H.; Helcke, G.

    1991-01-01

    The production of electricity creates environmental insults whose costs are not fully reflected in the prices paid by consumers for electricity services. Failure to incorporate these external costs leads to economically inefficient production and consumption decisions. The present work reviews two related efforts to address this market distortion. The first concerns progress in estimating the uninternalized environmental costs of electricity production. The second concerns market-based approaches to internalizing these costs in electricity production and consumption decisions. 10 tabs.; 41 refs

  9. A surplus production model including environmental effects: Application to the Senegalese white shrimp stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiaw, Modou; Gascuel, Didier; Jouffre, Didier; Thiaw, Omar Thiom

    2009-12-01

    In Senegal, two stocks of white shrimp ( Penaeusnotialis) are intensively exploited, one in the north and another in the south. We used surplus production models including environmental effects to analyse their changes in abundance over the past 10 years and to estimate their Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) and the related fishing effort ( EMSY). First, yearly abundance indices were estimated from commercial statistics using GLM techniques. Then, two environmental indices were alternatively tested in the model: the coastal upwelling intensity from wind speeds provided by the SeaWifs database and the primary production derived from satellite infrared images of chlorophyll a. Models were fitted, with or without the environmental effect, to the 1996-2005 time series. They express stock abundance and catches as functions of the fishing effort and the environmental index (when considered). For the northern stock, fishing effort and abundance fluctuate over the period without any clear trends. The model based on the upwelling index explains 64.9% of the year-to-year variability. It shows that the stock was slightly overexploited in 2002-2003 and is now close to full exploitation. Stock abundance strongly depends on environmental conditions; consequently, the MSY estimate varies from 300 to 900 tons according to the upwelling intensity. For the southern stock, fishing effort has strongly increased over the past 10 years, while abundance has been reduced 4-fold. The environment has a significant effect on abundance but only explains a small part of the year-to-year variability. The best fit is obtained using the primary production index ( R2 = 0.75), and the stock is now significantly overfished regardless of environmental conditions. MSY varies from 1200 to 1800 tons according to environmental conditions. Finally, in northern Senegal, the upwelling is highly variable from year to year and constitutes the major factor determining productivity. In the south, hydrodynamic

  10. REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND COST OF PRODUCTION FOR DRYING FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Erol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the production costs for heat used in drying fruit plants was studied using of local biomass from tree branch pruning. The average annual get 3 t / ha biomass whit energy potential of 37 GJ/ha at a cost of up to 60 €/t. biomass at 10 - 50 mm chopped and dried below 20% can be gasefied with TLUD process characterized by high energy conversion efficiency, stability and safety in operation, emissions of CO and PM very low. TLUD process produces on average and 15% biochar that can be used as fuel or as agricultural amendment to increase fertility and for atmospheric carbon sequestration. There have been experiments simulated by model of USCMER 30/60MGB dryer equipped with two thermal modules TLUD FORTE-40 for apple slices drying heat of the apple prinings. Biomass used and biochar resulting chemical and energy were defined as micro-gasification process TLUD. That can dry 205 kg of apple slices in 6 hours with 74 kg of dry biomass to 10% of that remains and 12.2 kg biochar, biochar with or without 52 kg biomass, which costs € 8.55 or € 5.97, ie 4.3 or 6.1 times cheaper than diesel. On dry ton of sliced apple it can produce 59.6 kg biochar with soil seize -174.8 kg. CO2.

  11. Measuring children's food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annemarie; Kildegaard, Heidi; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if children’s food preferences can be reliable measured by using pictures of foods presented on a computer screen in a conjoint layout.We investigate reproducibility (test–retest) and infer validity by comparison with traditional hedonic evaluations...... juices (tangible products), chosen to span the preference spectrum, were hedonically evaluated for appearance and taste. Finally, an actual product choice was performed by having the children choose between two buns and two juices.Results showed that the computer evaluationswith pictures of foods...... provided reproducible information about the children’s visual food preferences, which were in concordance with both hedonic measures and products choices, and can thus be considered valid....

  12. Fortification of Wheat Bread with Agroindustry By-Products: Statistical Methods for Sensory Preference Evaluation and Correlation with Color and Crumb Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Z E; Pinho, O; Ferreira, I M P L V O

    2017-09-01

    The use of agroindustry by-products (BP) for fortification of wheat bread can be an alternative to waste disposal because BP are appealing sources of dietary fiber. Moreover, it may also contribute to indirect income generation. In this study, sensory, color, and crumb structure properties of breads fortified with fiber rich fraction recovered from four types of agroindustry BP were tested, namely orange (OE), pomegranate (PE), elderberry (EE), and spent yeast (YE). Statistical models for sensory preference evaluation and correlation with color and crumb structure were developed. External preference mapping indicated consumer preferences and enabled selection of the concentrations of BP fibre-rich fraction with best acceptance, namely 7.0% EE, 2.5% OE, 5.0% PE, and 2.5% YE. Data collected from image analysis complemented sensory profile information, whereas multivariate PLS regression provided information on the relationship between "crust color" and "crumb color" and instrumental data. Regression models developed for both sensory attributes presented good fitting (R 2 Y > 0.700) and predictive ability (Q 2 > 0.500), with low RMSE. Crust and crumb a* parameters had a positive influence on "crust color" and "crumb color" models, while crust L* and b* had a negative influence. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Dust control products at Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge, Texas: environmental safety and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Bethany K.; Little, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling fugitive dust while protecting natural resources is a challenge faced by all managers of unpaved roads. Unfortunately, road managers choosing between dust control products often have little objective environmental information to aid their decisions. To address this information gap, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collaborated on a field test of three dust control products with the objectives of (a) evaluating product performance under real-world conditions, (b) verifying the environmental safety of products identified as practically nontoxic in laboratory tests, and (c) testing the feasibility of several environmental monitoring techniques for use in dust control tests. In cooperation with refuge staff and product vendors, three products (one magnesium chloride plus binder, one cellulose, and one synthetic fluid plus binder) were applied in July 2012 to replicated road sections at the Hagerman National Wildlife Refuge in Texas. These sections were monitored periodically for 12 months after application. Product performance was assessed by mobile-mounted particulate-matter meters measuring production of fugitive dust and by observations of road conditions. Environmental safety was evaluated through on-site biological observations and leaching tests with samples of treated aggregate. All products reduced dust and improved surface condition during those 12 months. Planned environmental measurements were not always compatible with day-to-day refuge management actions; this incompatibility highlighted the need for flexible biological monitoring plans. As one of the first field tests of dust suppressants that explicitly incorporated biological endpoints, this effort provides valuable information for improving field tests and for developing laboratory or semifield alternatives.

  14. Using conjoint and cluster analysis in developing new product for micro, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) based on customer preferences (Case study: Lampung province's banana chips)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosasih, Wilson; Salomon, Lithrone Laricha; Hutomo, Reynaldo

    2017-08-01

    This paper discusses the development of new products of Micro, Small and Medium Entreprises (SMEs) to identify what attributes are considered by consumers, as well as combinations of attributes that need to be analyzed into the main preferences of consumers. The purpose of this research is to increase the added value and competitiveness of SMEs through product innovation. The object of this study is banana chips produced by SMEs from the province of Lampung which it considered to be unique souvenirs of the province. The research data were collected by distributing questionnaires in Jakarta which has heterogeneous population, in order to develop banana chip's marketing and increase its market share in Indonesia. Data processing was performed using conjoint analysis and cluster analysis. Segmentation was performed using conjoint analysis based on the importance level of attributes and part-worth of level attributes of each cluster. Finally, characteristics and consumer preferences of each cluster will be a consideration in determining the product development and marketing strategies.

  15. Production structure and international competition position of the German environmental protection economy; Produktionsstruktur und internationale Wettbewerbsposition der deutschen Umweltschutzwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Schasse, Ulrich [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung e.V., Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    There exists a connection between the economic structural orientation and international competitiveness on the one hand as well as the environmental political requirements on the other hand. The environmental protection economy fits quite well the profile that Germany is demanded in the international change. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the production structure and on the international competition position of the German environmental protection economy. The authors report on (a) the production structure and production dynamics of the environmental protection industry; (b) German environmental protection economy in the international comparison; (c) Goods, building works and services for environmental protection in Germany.

  16. Environmental Assessment of Micro/Nano Production in a Life Cycle Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2006-01-01

    demands, which balances or overcompensates the savings. In the Micro/Nano Production area a range of new possibilities arise both within applications, production technology and materials. The Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Management at The Technical University of Denmark has staked...... to a number of knowledge gaps. It may not be known exactly what is the function (or functional unit) or what the technology may substitute and production may still be at an experimental level, raising questions about technology or materials choice. For prospective LCA studies methodologies like “consequential...... understanding of the environment, precaution as a principle and finally, prevention as preferred strategy. When assessing emerging technologies three levels should be considered. First order effects are connected directly to production, use and disposal. Second order are effects from interaction with other...

  17. Guidelines for evaluating the environmental performance of Product/Service-Systems through life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Louise Laumann; Pigosso, Daniela C. A.; McAloone, Tim C.

    2018-01-01

    Product/Service-Systems (PSS) such as integrated solutions, performance-based contracts or sharing systems are often proposed as means to enable improved environmental sustainability. However, PSS are not necessarily environmentally benign compared to conventional systems. Quantitative environmen......Product/Service-Systems (PSS) such as integrated solutions, performance-based contracts or sharing systems are often proposed as means to enable improved environmental sustainability. However, PSS are not necessarily environmentally benign compared to conventional systems. Quantitative....... In this article, we propose a set of guidelines consisting of six steps, which elaborates the LCA process with respect to the specific consideration for PSS assessment. The guidelines were developed based on identified challenges for the application of LCA on PSS, a review of existing LCAs on PSS case studies...

  18. The shaping of environmental impacts from Danish production and consumption of clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Jensen, Charlotte Louise

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses environmental impacts from production and consumption of clothing in Denmark based on 10 business case studies, an ethnographic study of clothing practices among a group of young women, and a statistical analysis of clothing consumption. The environmental strategies and impacts...... are shaped by the businesses' on-going interpretation of external pressures and opportunities, transnational outsourcing of production to newly industrialised countries, changes towards ‘fast fashion’ and lower retail prices. Differences are identified with respect to whether and when companies take...... a need to show environmental commitment publicly. The fast changing fashions and low price strategies encourage increased clothing consumption among young women, unused clothing in their wardrobes and frequent changes of clothing during the week. Concerns about environmental impacts are limited...

  19. Biochemical and Structural Insights into the Preference of Nairoviral DeISGylases for Interferon-Stimulated Gene Product 15 Originating from Certain Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deaton, M. K.; Dzimianski, J. V.; Daczkowski, C. M.; Whitney, G. K.; Mank, N. J.; Parham, M. M.; Bergeron, E.; Pegan, S. D.; Perlman, S.

    2016-07-13

    ABSTRACT

    The regulation of the interferon type I (IFN-I) response has been shown to rely on posttranslational modification by ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like interferon-stimulated gene product 15 (ISG15) to stabilize, or activate, a variety of IFN-I signaling and downstream effector proteins. Unlike Ub, which is almost perfectly conserved among eukaryotes, ISG15 is highly divergent, even among mammals. Since zoonotic viruses rely on viral proteins to recognize, or cleave, ISG15 conjugates in order to evade, or suppress, innate immunity, the impact of ISG15 biodiversity on deISGylating proteases of the ovarian tumor family (vOTU) from nairoviruses was evaluated. The enzymatic activities of vOTUs originating from the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Erve virus, and Nairobi sheep disease virus were tested against ISG15s from humans, mice, shrews, sheep, bats, and camels, which are mammalian species known to be infected by nairoviruses. This along with investigation of binding by isothermal titration calorimetry illustrated significant differences in the abilities of nairovirus deISGylases to accommodate certain species of ISG15. To investigate the molecular underpinnings of species preferences of these vOTUs, a structure was determined to 2.5 Å for a complex of Erve virus vOTU protease and a mouse ISG15 domain. This structure revealed the molecular basis of Erve virus vOTU's preference for ISG15 over Ub and the first structural insight into a nonhuman ISG15. This structure also revealed key interactions, or lack thereof, surrounding three amino acids that may drive a viral deISgylase to prefer an ISG15 from one species over that of another.

    IMPORTANCEViral ovarian tumor domain proteases (vOTUs) are one of the two principal classes of viral proteases observed to reverse posttranslational modification of host proteins by ubiquitin and interferon-stimulated gene product 15 (ISG15), subsequently facilitating downregulation of

  20. Green energy criteria and life cycle assessment in assessing environmental competitiveness of energy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maelkki, H.; Hongisto, M.; Turkulainen, T.; Kuisma, J.; Loikkanen, T.

    1999-01-01

    The liberalisation of energy markets has increased the need to enlarge the information base of fuel chains, to evaluate the environmental quality of energy products transparently and to communicate results in a credible way. The preparedness of energy purchasers, producers and sellers to support energy choices of their customers and to meet the information requirements of various stake holders can be strengthened. The environmental impacts related to energy products are turning into a significant dimension of competitiveness. Possibilities to promote market-driven environmental protection mechanisms and to construct incentives, which cover the whole energy production system exist and can be supported. Knowledge of environmental impacts of various energy products can be increased by means of several supplementary instruments like eco-profiles, environmental labels and life cycle assessments of products. Life cycle assessment forms a systematic basis of information, which supports the environmental communications directed to various stake holders. In this study selected public LCA-studies concerning energy production have been compared, criteria of green energy have been charted and their outlook has been assessed. In addition the development of an LCA- based relative environmental performance indicator system, which supports various transparent comparisons, has been outlined. The mapping of methodological differences of published LCA-studies regarding various energy alternatives proves, that there is differences e.g. in allocation principles, system boundaries, and age of source information and in many other details. These discrepancies should be known, because they also affect the results. That is why the use of available LCA studies as a basis for comparative assertions may be problematic. The renewability of an energy source is a threshold requirement in eco-energy criteria formulated and introduced by Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian nature conservation