WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmentally friendly chemical

  1. Environmentally friendly road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Essawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is a major problem in developing countries like Egypt. Reuse of waste polymers is considered an attractive solution for environmental white pollution and reducing of the costs of road pavement and maintenance. This research aims to prepare environmentally friendly hot mix asphalt (HMA for paving using some industrial wastes as polypropylene and polyester fibers. The solid materials in the mix include normal and highly porous aggregates. 5% and 10% of waste polymers by weight of the asphalt were used to prepare special binders. The samples were tested for their physical properties, chemical properties, aging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results revealed that the prepared HMA using 5% of waste polymer had high performance as compared to the ordinary one and the waste polymer could be used in road construction.

  2. ELECTROLESS NICKEL PLATING ON ABS PLASTIC BY USING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY CHEMICALS

    OpenAIRE

    Uraz, Canan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, electroless nickel (EN) plating onacrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) engineering plastic by usingenvironmentally friendly chemicals were studied. Electroless plating is afundamental step in the metal plating on the plastic. This step makes theplastic conductive and makes it possible to a homogeneous and hard platingwithout using any hazardous and unfriendly chemical such as palladium, tin,etc. In the industry there are many distinct chemical materials both catalystsand activ...

  3. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  4. Development of a method for environmentally friendly chemical peptide synthesis in water using water-dispersible amino acid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukumori Yoshinobu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the vast importance of peptides in biological processes, there is an escalating need for synthetic peptides to be used in a wide variety of applications. However, the consumption of organic solvent is extremely large in chemical peptide syntheses because of the multiple condensation steps in organic solvents. That is, the current synthesis method is not environmentally friendly. From the viewpoint of green sustainable chemistry, we focused on developing an organic solvent-free synthetic method using water, an environmentally friendly solvent. Here we described in-water synthesis technology using water-dispersible protected amino acids.

  5. Computer-Aided Chemical Product Design Framework: Design of High Performance and Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, Lei; Gani, Rafiqul

    properties and needs should carefully be selected for a given heat pump cycle to ensure that an optimum refrigerant is found? How can cycle performance and environmental criteria be integrated at the product design stage and not in post-design analysis? Computer-aided product design methods enable...... the possibility of designing novel molecules, mixtures and blends, such as refrigerants through a systematic framework (Cignitti et al., 2015; Yunus et al., 2014). In this presentation a computer-aided framework is presented for chemical product design through mathematical optimization. Here, molecules, mixtures...... and blends, are systematically designed through a decomposition based solution method. Given a problem definition, computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) problem is defined, which is formulated into a mixed integer nonlinear program (MINLP). The decomposed solution method then sequentially divides the MINLP...

  6. Environmentally Friendly Consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijonen, Satu

    2011-01-01

    on the green consumer: cultural determinism, psycho-socio-demographic determinism and calculative determinism. An explanation of the green consumer in these terms, however, loses sight of the emergence and processuality of consumer behaviour. Process oriented constructionism, by contrast, is useful to recover...... these important aspects. This paper suggests a research agenda focused on socio-material processes and situated actions that lead to the emergence and stabilization of a particular type of consumer behaviour.......Several attempts have been made by academics in the past to explain the so-called ‘environmentally conscious’ consumer. These explanations share an important feature, namely determinism. This paper identifies three different sources of determinism that are distinguished in recent literature...

  7. French adolescents' environmental friendly behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Schleyer-Lindenmann, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Environmental friendly behavior and attitudes have been studied in social sciences since the 1970 with the awakening of an « ecological consciousness ». Psychology has been actively taking part in these studies since then (Maloney & Ward, 1973, Oskamp, 2000, Schmuck & Schultz, 2002). Bronfenbrenner (1979) in his nested system approach, sees the person as seen as a developing entity, in constant interaction with different developing environments. We therefore propose to...

  8. Environment polluting conventional chemical control compared to an environmentally friendly IPM approach for control of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Farooq, Muhammad; Nasim, Wajid; Akram, Waseem; Khan, Fawad Zafar Ahmad; Jaleel, Waqar; Zhu, Xun; Yin, Haichen; Li, Shuzhong; Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh; Jin, Fengliang

    2017-06-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is recognized as a widely distributed destructive insect pest of Brassica worldwide. The management of this pest is a serious issue, and an estimated annual cost of its management has reached approximately US$4 billion. Despite the fact that chemicals are a serious threat to the environment, lots of chemicals are applied for controlling various insect pests especially P. xylostella. An overreliance on chemical control has not only led to the evolution of resistance to insecticides and to a reduction of natural enemies but also has polluted various components of water, air, and soil ecosystem. In the present scenario, there is a need to implement an environmentally friendly integrated pest management (IPM) approach with new management tactics (microbial control, biological control, cultural control, mating disruption, insecticide rotation strategies, and plant resistance) for an alternative to chemical control. The IPM approach is not only economically beneficial but also reduces the environmental and health risks. The present review synthesizes published information on the insecticide resistance against P. xylostella and emphasizes on adopting an alternative environmentally friendly IPM approach for controlling P. xylostella in China.

  9. Environmental friendly energy transport media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Nik, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    Rational self-interest and good environmental citizenship are forcing the development of renewable and environmentally, acceptable working fluids. Fluids that are at least equivalent in performance plus biodegradable have been formulated in Europe and USA rising vegetable oils as base stocks and as innovative additive packages. While much of the research has been made in the field of alternative environmentally, friendly energy, transport media, the thermal stability of vegetable based stock is still a challenging area. This work concentrates more in improving the oxidation stability of the vegetable based stocks. Oven and oil bath test methods were employed in this study. This paper tabled mineral and vegetable oil physical test results and presents thermal stability of oil blends. (Author)

  10. Development of environmentally friendly briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleisa, K.; Lehmann, J.; Verfuss, F.; Simon, G.

    1994-01-01

    The DMT has developed an industrial briquette consisting of about 87% hardcoal, 7% molasses pulp and 6% hydration limestone which meets the requirements of the clean air authority as an environmentally friendly fuel for travelling grate boilers. In extensive tests in a 4.4 MW travelling grate boiler these briquettes with molasses and limestone additives proved to be particularly effective in terms of reducing sulphur dioxide emission in the flue gas. They exhibited good ignition and combustion behaviour as well as a considerable reduction in nitrogen oxide emission. In a large-scale test with 1000 t of briquettes in a 46.5 MW travelling grate furnace it proved possible to confirm the good combustion behaviour and the reduced emission of sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxide in the flue gas. (orig.) [de

  11. The chemical industry - friend to the environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    ''The Chemical Industry - Friend to the Environment?'' was a symposium organised by the North East Region committee of the Industrial Division of the Royal Society of Chemistry. This volume contains typescripts from all the lectures given at the symposium. The general public appreciate the material comforts the Chemical Industry provides, for example textiles, ceramics, steel, speciality chemicals, drugs, prosthetics etc. However, for many their comfort is spoiled by the chemical poisoning of the environment through slag heaps, beaches and countryside littered with non-biodegradable unsightly plastic containers, poor air quality through NO x , CO 2 and chlorofluorocarbon emissions, and of course, nuclear waste. The occasional spillage of hazardous chemicals through road, rail and sea accidents do nothing to improve the Industry's image. The majority of these topics were discussed, though no one presumed to know how to remove the problems entirely but many suggestions were put forward as to how this might be achieved. Of the 13 papers presented three were specifically concerned with recycling of plastics, 9 with the environmental impacts of chemicals and one, which is indexed separately, was concerned with radioactive discharges into the environment from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. (Author)

  12. Environmentally friendly preparation of metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book chapter summarizes the “state of the art” in the exploitation of various environmentally-friendly synthesis approaches, reaction precursors and conditions to manufacture metal and metal oxide nanoparticles for a vast variety of purposes.

  13. Environmentally-friendly practices in hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Mbasera

    2016-06-01

    Research purpose: To determine the environmentally-friendly practices in hotels in Zimbabwe and South Africa and establish the contribution that hotels are making towards mitigation of the negative environmental effects. Motivation for the study: Currently, the world is facing environmental issues, which include global climate change, ozone depletion, pollution, high consumption of resources and increasing amounts of solid waste. Hotels, as part of the tourism industry, exert a significant impact on the environment. While the extent and range of the impact that hotels exert on the environment suggest an urgent need to address this problem, the question that arises is whether hoteliers appreciate the need for environmentally-friendly initiatives in their establishments. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research was carried out in eight hotels that employ the strategy of the case study in the aforementioned countries. Main findings: Currently, no policies for green management exist, although some hotels do engage in some environmentally-friendly practices. Some hotel managers do not implement green management initiatives to mitigate the environmental problems emanating from their hotel operations. Practical and/or managerial implications: This indicates that a gap exists between managers’ awareness of appropriate environmentally-friendly practices for hotels, implying a need for training and increased awareness of green management. Contribution and/or value-add: The results could guide managers in the implementation of environmentally-friendly practices in an effort to mitigate environmental problems facing the present generation.

  14. Evaluation of alternative environmentally friendly matrix solid phase dispersion solid supports for the simultaneous extraction of 15 pesticides of different chemical classes from drinking water treatment sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Karina Lotz; Cerqueira, Maristela Barnes Rodrigues; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2017-09-01

    This study describes the development, optimization and validation of a method for the extraction of 15 pesticides of different chemical classes in drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) by vortex-assisted Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD) with determination by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. It focused on the application of alternative and different solid supports to the extraction step of the MSPD. The main parameters that influenced the extraction were studied in order to obtain better recovery responses. Recoveries ranged from 70 to 120% with RSD below 20% for all analytes. Limits of quantification (LOQ) of the method ranged from 5 to 500 μg kg -1 whereas the analytical curves showed correlation coefficients above 0.997. The method under investigation used low volume of solvent (5 mL), low sample mass (1.5 g) and low mass of chitin (0.5 g), an environmentally friendly support. It has advantages, such as speed, simplicity and low cost material, over other methods. When the method was applied, 4 out of 15 pesticides were detected in the DWTS samples in concentrations below the LOQ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxides gets environmentally-friendly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    for high temperature oxide thermoelectric (TE) modules to become a viable route for power generation, the overall efficiency of these devices must be improved. While most research currently focuses on the enhancement of the thermoelectric properties of the p- and n-type elements of the module, it is also...... necessary to demonstrate a working oxide module and develop stable interconnects with low contact resistance as well as mechanical and the chemical stability. In this presentation I will also show our latest results on the performance of oxide module made of ZnO doped Al (n-type) and CaCoO 349 (p-type) [1...... in realizing cooling devices with high efficiency and low global warming potentials, which are highly desirable for a broad range of applications. The technology relies on the magnetocaloric effect in a solid refrigerant rather than the temperature change that occurs when a gas is compressed. This talk...

  16. Electrochemical Behaviour of Environmentally Friendly Inhibitor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrochemical Behaviour of Environmentally Friendly Inhibitor of Aloe Secundiflora Extract in Corrosion Control of Carbon Steel in Soft Water Media. ... The investigation was performed at different inhibitor concentrations under static and dynamic conditions using a Rotating Disk Electrode (RDE). The impedance and ...

  17. Field Testing of Environmentally Friendly Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Burnett

    2009-05-31

    The Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program addresses new low-impact technology that reduces the footprint of drilling activities, integrates light weight drilling rigs with reduced emission engine packages, addresses on-site waste management, optimizes the systems to fit the needs of a specific development sites and provides stewardship of the environment. In addition, the program includes industry, the public, environmental organizations, and elected officials in a collaboration that addresses concerns on development of unconventional natural gas resources in environmentally sensitive areas. The EFD program provides the fundamentals to result in greater access, reasonable regulatory controls, lower development cost and reduction of the environmental footprint associated with operations for unconventional natural gas. Industry Sponsors have supported the program with significant financial and technical support. This final report compendium is organized into segments corresponding directly with the DOE approved scope of work for the term 2005-2009 (10 Sections). Each specific project is defined by (a) its goals, (b) its deliverable, and (c) its future direction. A web site has been established that contains all of these detailed engineering reports produced with their efforts. The goals of the project are to (1) identify critical enabling technologies for a prototype low-impact drilling system, (2) test the prototype systems in field laboratories, and (3) demonstrate the advanced technology to show how these practices would benefit the environment.

  18. Environmental Friendly Coatings and Corrosion Prevention For Flight Hardware Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz

    2014-01-01

    Identify, test and develop qualification criteria for environmentally friendly corrosion protective coatings and corrosion preventative compounds (CPC's) for flight hardware an ground support equipment.

  19. Making Rice Production More Environmentally-Friendly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated rice production is one of the most essential agricultural activities for sustaining our global population, and at the same time, one of the agricultural sectors considered most eco-unfriendly. This is because it consumes a larger share of available freshwater resources, competing with varied ecosystems as well as other economic sectors; its paddy fields are responsible for significant emission of greenhouse gases; and the reliance on chemical fertilizers and various agrochemicals contributes to pollution of soils and water systems. These stresses on soils, hydrology and atmosphere are actually not necessary for rice production, which can be increased by modifying agronomic practices though more agroecologically-sound management practices. These, combined under the rubric of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, can reduce requirements of irrigation water, chemical fertilizer and agrochemicals while increasing paddy yields and farmer’s net incomes. Here we discuss how irrigated rice production can be made more eco-friendly for the benefit of farmers, consumers and the environment. This is achieved by introducing practices that improve the growth and functioning of rice plants’ root systems and enhance the abundance, diversity and activity of beneficial soil organisms that live around plant roots and within the plants themselves as symbiotic endophytes.

  20. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeña-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Ortí, Fortunato; Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO 2 emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR&TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NO x, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power management

  1. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapena-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Orti, Fortunato [Boeing Research and Technology Europe Ltd., Environmental Technologies, C/ Canada Real de las Merinas 1-3, Building 4, 4th floor, Madrid 28042 (Spain); Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro [Intelligent Energy Ltd., The Innovation Centre, Epinal Way, Loughborough LE11 3EH (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    One of the crucial challenges of the aviation industry in upcoming years is to reduce emissions not only in the vicinity of airfields but also in cruise. Amongst other transport methods, airplanes emissions count for 3% of the CO{sub 2} emissions. Initiatives to reduce this include not only investing in more fuel-efficient aircrafts or adapting existing ones to make them more efficient (e.g. by fitting fuel-saving winglets), but also more actively researching novel propulsion systems that incorporate environmentally friendly technologies. The Boeing Company through its European subsidiary, Boeing Research and Technology Europe (BR and TE) in collaboration with industry partners throughout Europe is working towards this goal by studying the possible application of advanced batteries and fuel-cell systems in aeronautical applications. One example is the development of a small manned two-seater prototype airplane powered only by proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell stacks, which runs on compressed hydrogen gas as fuel and pressurized air as oxidant, and Li-ion batteries. The efficient all composite motorglider is an all electric prototype airplane which does not produce any of the noxious engine exhaust by-products, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide or NOx, that can contribute to climate change and adversely affect local air quality. Water and heat are the only exhaust products. The main objective is to demonstrate for the first time in aviation history a straight level manned flight with fuel-cells as the only power source. For this purpose, the original engine of a super Dimona HK36TTC glider from Diamond Aircraft Industries (Austria) was replaced by a hybrid power system, which feeds a brushless dc electrical motor that rotates a variable pitch propeller. Amongst the many technical challenges encountered when developing this test platform are maintaining the weight and balance of the aircraft, designing the thermal management system and the power

  2. Environmentally-friendly product development: methods and tools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abele, Eberhard; Anderl, R; Birkhofer, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    ... to assess a product's environmental effects. Fig. 1. Vision of Environment as a key target for product development vvi Preface Product related environmental issues are getting more and more political and public awareness. Development of environmentally friendly products has become an action item for both, politics and industry (UNFCCC 1997). Energy...

  3. The Danish technology foresight on environmentally friendly agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    A premise that is necessary for agriculture to develop into an environmentally friendly direction is that research is undertaken into environmentally friendly technologies and methods and how they can be brought into use. There is a need for a prioritised research effort that focuses on those...... without any plan or with some thought. Therefore the National Forest and Nature Agency in Denmark initiated the Green Technological foresight on environmentally friendly agriculture with the aim of examining the agricultural environmental challenges and suggesting technological and structural solutions....... problems which are related to minimising environmental problems affected by the agricultural production’s negative influence on the surroundings, improving animal welfare and finding new ways and products for agriculture. Future directions of agriculture can derive with or without dialogue; it can occur...

  4. Environmental/chemical thesaurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, C.R.; Dailey, N.S.; Jordan, A.C.; Miller, K.C.; Owens, E.T.; Rickert, L.W.

    1978-06-01

    The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus approaches scientific language control problems from a multidisciplinary view. The Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI) was used as a base for the present thesaurus. The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, used as its source of new terms those major terms found in 13 Environmental Protection Agency data bases. The scope of this thesaurus includes not only environmental and biomedical sciences, but also the physical sciences with emphasis placed on chemistry. Specific chemical compounds are not included; only classes of chemicals are given. To adhere to this level of classification, drugs and pesticides are identified by class rather than by specific chemical name. An attempt was also made to expand the areas of sociology and economics. Terminology dealing with law, demography, and geography was expanded. Proper names of languages and races were excluded. Geographic terms were expanded to include proper names for oceans, continents, major lakes, rivers, and islands. Political divisions were added to allow for proper names of countries and states. With such a broad scope, terminology for specific sciences does not provide for indexing to the lowest levels in plant, animal, or chemical classifications

  5. Environmental/chemical thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, C.R.; Dailey, N.S.; Jordan, A.C.; Miller, K.C.; Owens, E.T.; Rickert, L.W.

    1978-06-01

    The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus approaches scientific language control problems from a multidisciplinary view. The Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI) was used as a base for the present thesaurus. The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, used as its source of new terms those major terms found in 13 Environmental Protection Agency data bases. The scope of this thesaurus includes not only environmental and biomedical sciences, but also the physical sciences with emphasis placed on chemistry. Specific chemical compounds are not included; only classes of chemicals are given. To adhere to this level of classification, drugs and pesticides are identified by class rather than by specific chemical name. An attempt was also made to expand the areas of sociology and economics. Terminology dealing with law, demography, and geography was expanded. Proper names of languages and races were excluded. Geographic terms were expanded to include proper names for oceans, continents, major lakes, rivers, and islands. Political divisions were added to allow for proper names of countries and states. With such a broad scope, terminology for specific sciences does not provide for indexing to the lowest levels in plant, animal, or chemical classifications.

  6. Design of environmentally friendly products using indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Bey, Niki

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements of product designers towards methods for environmental evaluation; it argues that indicators can be used for rough environmental evaluations and it presents experiences made with the indicator-based Oil Point Method (OPM). This method is illustrated by means...

  7. Fiscal 1994 survey report. Survey of environmentally friendly chemical process (Ecochemistry); 1994 nendo kankyo ni yasashii kagaku hanno process (ecochemistry) ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Processes that contain latent environmental problems are the massive generation of wastes (inorganic salt, acid catalyst, base catalyst, and huge quantities of wastewater), handling of dangerous substances (use of hydrogen fluoride, use of phosgene, and use of substances whose discharge is legally controlled), processes which consume much energy (circulation of quantities of raw materials, use of quantities of solvents, separation of products with difficulties, use of high pressure, and multiple stage reaction), and processes which are expected to use resources now remaining unexploited. As an element technology for the solution of problems, there is the development of a solid redox catalyst for liquid phase oxidation. As compared with a liquid phase homogeneous catalyst, it discharges less inorganic wastes, facilitates the separation, recovery, and treatment of inorganic salts, corrodes structural materials less, and is thermally stable. An alkane partial oxidation catalyst when developed will achieve more energy conservation than an alkene oxidation catalyst. In relation to acid/base reaction, the zeolite catalyst will be improved and ultrastrong acids and ultrastrong bases will be developed, and these will reduce wastes, mitigate corrosion, and facilitate product separation. The development of a process is also expected which will avoid the use of toxic phosgene. (NEDO)

  8. Risk from environmental chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, E [Environmental Health Directorate, Health Protection Branch, Health and Welfare Canada, Ontario

    1982-01-01

    The elements of risk assessment, namely risk identification, risk estimation, risk evaluation and risk management, are described with respect to the control of environmental chemicals. The methodology of risk estimation is outlined and examples given of its application to regulatory decision-making for a number of chemicals in Canada. Finally, the extent and limitations of the process of risk evaluation are considered together with the need to recognize the importance of the public's perception of the level of risk.

  9. Consumer Purchase Behaviour Toward Environmentally Friendly Products in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Udo, Miyako

    2007-01-01

    This study considers consumer purchase behaviour toward environmentally friendly products in Japan and focuses on factors which can influence environmentally responsible purchase decision making. The modified theory of planned behaviour based on previous research in the area of environmentally responsible purchase behaviour and ethical purchase decision making is applied to examine factors affecting the purchase decision making and key findings from the present study are highlighted. It can b...

  10. Environmentally Friendly Concept in Spatial Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Taryono

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial order of a region include purpose of structure and interrelatedness of spatial order which as a unity of development mechanism. Spatial order can’t be part from law basic that is UUD’45 and GBHN, in order to the management can be integrated and keep the environment. Spatial order also take note of physical factor and non physical factor. Physical factor consist of soil, water, flora, and fauna. Non physical factors consist of environment, social, economic, and soon. The principle of arrangement of spatial order in a region include national region, regional and local, and a region as an administrative baoundary, that is local government authority, like province, district, subdistrict, and village. The effort for spatial ordering of the environment, for example ordering resource, arrangement of allocation and location, arrangement of environmental aesthetic  and arrangement of environmental quality.

  11. Environmental-friendly wool fabric finishing by some water plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmelcerović Miodrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, environmental-friendly finishing of wool fabric were processed with several water extract plants, such as hibiscus, St. John's wort, and marigold. The plant extracts have good basis in the commercial dyeing of wool, for garment and carpet industry. At the same time, the environmental-friendly finishing by water extracts plants shows very good fastness of the antimicrobial properties and coloration of wool fabric. From an ecological viewpoint, the substitution of chemical dyes with "natural products" may represent not only a strategy to reduce risk and pollutants but also an opportunity for new markets and new businesses, which can expend involving of ecology in trade policy.

  12. Environmentally Friendly Pretreatment for Department of Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    Develop an environmentally friendly pretreatment system for multi-material Department of Defense applications ― Free of hexavalent chromium (Cr6...Zn phosphate and chrome wash primer •Two Zirconium pretreatment variations passed the 336 hr and 1000 hr B-117 outlined per MIL-DTL-53022 or MIL

  13. Testing of environmentally friendly lubricants for sheet metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Olsson, David Dam; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2005-01-01

    the authors have especially been involved in the development of a system of test methods for sheet metal forming and in testing of friction and limits of lubrication of new, environmentally friendly lubricants. An overview of the developed tests is presented together with selected results....

  14. Green technological foresight on environmental friendly agriculture: Executive summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, K.; Christensen, S.; Jørgensen, U.

    2005-01-01

    Risø and the co-operators have on behalf of the Forest and Nature Agency completed a technological foresight on environmentally friendly agriculture based on green technologies. A technological foresight is a systematic dialogue on how one prepares forfuture challenges, which have not yet manifes...

  15. Membranes for Environmentally Friendly Energy Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuezhong; Hägg, May-Britt

    2012-01-01

    Membrane separation systems require no or very little chemicals compared to standard unit operations. They are also easy to scale up, energy efficient, and already widely used in various gas and liquid separation processes. Different types of membranes such as common polymers, microporous organic polymers, fixed-site-carrier membranes, mixed matrix membranes, carbon membranes as well as inorganic membranes have been investigated for CO2 capture/removal and other energy processes in the last two decades. The aim of this work is to review the membrane systems applied in different energy processes, such as post-combustion, pre-combustion, oxyfuel combustion, natural gas sweetening, biogas upgrading, hydrogen production, volatile organic compounds (VOC) recovery and pressure retarded osmosis for power generation. Although different membranes could probably be used in a specific separation process, choosing a suitable membrane material will mainly depend on the membrane permeance and selectivity, process conditions (e.g., operating pressure, temperature) and the impurities in a gas stream (such as SO2, NOx, H2S, etc.). Moreover, process design and the challenges relevant to a membrane system are also being discussed to illustrate the membrane process feasibility for a specific application based on process simulation and economic cost estimation. PMID:24958426

  16. Membranes for Environmentally Friendly Energy Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhong He

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane separation systems require no or very little chemicals compared to standard unit operations. They are also easy to scale up, energy efficient, and already widely used in various gas and liquid separation processes. Different types of membranes such as common polymers, microporous organic polymers, fixed-site-carrier membranes, mixed matrix membranes, carbon membranes as well as inorganic membranes have been investigated for CO2 capture/removal and other energy processes in the last two decades. The aim of this work is to review the membrane systems applied in different energy processes, such as post-combustion, pre-combustion, oxyfuel combustion, natural gas sweetening, biogas upgrading, hydrogen production, volatile organic compounds (VOC recovery and pressure retarded osmosis for power generation. Although different membranes could probably be used in a specific separation process, choosing a suitable membrane material will mainly depend on the membrane permeance and selectivity, process conditions (e.g., operating pressure, temperature and the impurities in a gas stream (such as SO2, NOx, H2S, etc.. Moreover, process design and the challenges relevant to a membrane system are also being discussed to illustrate the membrane process feasibility for a specific application based on process simulation and economic cost estimation.

  17. Water-soluble resist for environmentally friendly lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qinghuang; Simpson, Logan L.; Steinhaeusler, Thomas; Wilder, Michelle; Willson, C. Grant; Havard, Jennifer M.; Frechet, Jean M. J.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes an 'environmentally friendly,' water castable, water developable photoresist system. The chemically amplified negative-tone resist system consists of three water-soluble components: a polymer, poly(methyl acrylamidoglycolate methyl ether), [poly(MAGME)]; a photoacid generator, dimethyl dihydroxyphenylsulfonium triflate and a crosslinker, butanediol. Poly(MAGME) was synthesized by solution free radical polymerization. In the three-component resist system, the acid generated by photolysis of the photoacid generator catalyzes the crosslinking of poly(MAGME) in the exposed regions during post-exposure baking, thus rendering the exposed regions insoluble in water. Negative tone relief images are obtained by developing with pure water. The resist is able to resolve 1 micrometer line/space features (1:1 aspect ratio) with an exposure dose of 100 mJ/cm2 at 248 nm. The resist can be used to generate etched copper relief images on printed circuit boards using aqueous sodium persulfate as the etchant. The crosslinking mechanism has been investigated by model compound studies using 13C NMR. These studies have revealed that the acid catalyzed reaction of the poly(MAGME) with butanediol proceeds via both transesterification and transacetalization (transaminalization) reactions at low temperatures, and also via transamidation at high temperatures.

  18. Effective and Environmentally Friendly Nickel Coating on the Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Škugor Rončević

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The low density and good mechanical properties make magnesium and its alloys attractive construction materials in the electronics, automotive, and aerospace industry, together with application in medicine due to their biocompatibility. Magnesium AZ91D alloy is an alloy with a high content of aluminum, whose mechanical properties overshadow the low corrosion resistance caused by the composition of the alloy and the existence of two phases: α magnesium matrix and β magnesium aluminum intermetallic compound. To improve the corrosion resistance, it is necessary to find an effective protection method for the alloy surface. Knowing and predicting electrochemical processes is an essential for the design and optimization of protective coatings on magnesium and its alloys. In this work, the formations of nickel protective coatings on the magnesium AZ91D alloy surface by electrodeposition and chemical deposition, are presented. For this purpose, environmentally friendly electrolytes were used. The corrosion resistance of the protected alloy was determined in chloride medium using appropriate electrochemical techniques. Characterization of the surface was performed with highly sophisticated surface-analytical methods.

  19. Biodegradation performance of environmentally-friendly insulating oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; He, Yan; Cai, Shengwei; Chen, Cheng; Wen, Gang; Wang, Feipeng; Fan, Fan; Wan, Chunxiang; Wu, Liya; Liu, Ruitong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, biodegradation performance of rapeseed insulating oil (RDB) and FR3 insulating oil (FR3) was studied by means of ready biodegradation method which was performed with Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 301B. For comparison, the biodegradation behaviour of 25# mineral insulating oil was also characterized with the same method. The testing results shown that the biodegradation degree of rapeseed insulating oil, FR3 insulating oil and 25# mineral insulating oil was 95.8%, 98.9% and 38.4% respectively. Following the “new chemical risk assessment guidelines” (HJ/T 154 - 2004), which illustrates the methods used to identify and assess the process safety hazards inherent. The guidelines can draw that the two vegetable insulating oils, i.e. rapeseed insulating oil and FR3 insulating oil are easily biodegradable. Therefore, the both can be classified as environmentally-friendly insulating oil. As expected, 25# mineral insulating oil is hardly biodegradable. The main reason is that 25# mineral insulating oil consists of isoalkanes, cyclanes and a few arenes, which has few unsaturated bonds. Biodegradation of rapeseed insulating oil and FR3 insulating oil also remain some difference. Biodegradation mechanism of vegetable insulating oil was revealed from the perspective of hydrolysis kinetics.

  20. Environmentally friendly, high-performance generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmari, A.

    2003-01-01

    The project developer, owner, and operator of the new 45 MWth BFB-based cogeneration plant in Iisalmi is Termia Oy, part of the Atro Group (formerly Savon Voima Oy). Fired on peat and wood waste and handed over to the customer in November 2002, the plant's electrical output is sold to the parent company and heat locally to customers in Iisalmi. When the construction decision was made, one of the main objectives was to utilise as high a level of indigenous fuels (peat and biomass) as possible, at a high level of efficiency. An environmental impact analysis was carried out, taking into account the impact of various fuels and emissions in terms of combustion and logistics. One main benefit of the type of plant ultimately selected was that the bulk of the fuel can be supplied from the surrounding area. This is very important in terms of fuel supply security and local employment. The government provided a EUR 2.7 million grant for the project, equivalent to 13% of the total EUR 21 million investment budget. Before the plant was built, Termia used approximately 95 GWh of indigenous fuels annually. Today, this figure is 220 GWh. The main fuel used is milled peat. Up to 30% green chips from logging residues can be used. Recycled waste fuel can cover up to 3% of the total fuel requirement

  1. Natural gas: an environmental-friendly solution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeire, J.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1970, the portion of natural gas in energy consumption in Western-Europe has grown by 6 percent per year on the average. About 20 percent of the energy demand in Western-Europe is now covered by natural gas. It is forecasted that this growth will continue at a rate of 2 percent per year until 2010. The natural gas consumption will increase from 325 billion cubic metres in 1993 to 450 billion cubic metres per year in 2010. For the coming 10 to 15 years, the natural gas demand is covered by long-term contracts with gas producing countries. From 2010 on, additional contracts, covering 70 to 120 billion cubic metres per year are required. A shift in geographic distribution of countries from which natural gas will be imported by Western-European countries is expected, which implies high investments and additional costs for transport and distribution of natural gas. Due to its qualities with respect to environmental impact, yield, availability, and advanced technology, natural gas is the energy vector of the 21 first century. (A.S.)

  2. Environmentally friendly disinfectant: Production, disinfectant action and efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čekerevac Milan I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver is a known disinfectant from ancient times, and it has been widely used for various purposes: for food and water disinfection, curing of wounds and as a universal antibiotic for a wide spectrum of diseases - until the Second World War and the discovery of penicillin. Until recently, it was assumed that silver, being a heavy metal, was toxic for humans and living beings. However, the newest research provides facts that the usage of silver, even for drinking water disinfection, is benign if it is added in small concentrations (in parts per billion. It has been shown in the newer scientific and technical literature that silver in colloidal form is a powerful (secondary disinfectant for drinking water, that it can be effectively used for the disinfection of water containers including swimming pools, installations in food industry, medicine, etc. Particularly, it has been shown that colloidal silver combined with hydrogen peroxide shows synergism having strong bactericidal and antiviral effects. The combination can be successfully used as a disinfectant in agriculture, food production and medicine. The original electrochemical process of production, the mechanism of physical-chemical reactions in that process and the mechanism of the antiseptic affect of the environmentally friendly disinfectant, based on the synergism of colloidal silver and hydrogen peroxide and the activity of electrochemically activated water, is shown. The starting solution was anolyte, obtained in electrochemical activation by water electrolysis of a highly diluted solution of K-tartarate in demineralized water (5.5-1CT4 M. The problem of electrolysis of very dilute aqueous solutions in membrane cells was particularly treated. It was shown that the efficiency of the electrolysis depends on the competition between the two processes: the rates of the processes of hydrogen and oxygen generation at the electrodes and the process of diffusion of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions

  3. Environmentally Friendly Luxury Hotel : case: Grand Palace Hotel, Riga, Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Losanwe, Ieva

    2013-01-01

    Chemical pollution, loss of biodiversity, ecological and other to environmental issues addressing words are often heard in todays’ society. Sustainability and especially its environmental aspect are growing trend. Environmental sustainability is considerable issues as well in tourism industry. Hotels can decrease their negative impact on environment by following and implementing environmentally sustainable practices at their business. Any step towards sustainability benefits both the environm...

  4. A Summary of Environmentally Friendly Turbine Design Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odeh, Mufeed [United States Geological Survey - BRD, Turners Falls, MA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program (AHTS) was created in 1994 by the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Hydropower Research Foundation. The Program’s main goal is to develop “environmentally friendly” hydropower turbines. The Program’s first accomplishment was the development of conceptual designs of new environmentally friendly turbines. In order to do so, two contractors were competitively selected. The ARL/NREC team of engineers and biologists provided a conceptual design for a new turbine runner*. The new runner has the potential to generate hydroelectricity at close to 90% efficiency. The Voith team produced new fish-friendly design criteria for Kaplan and Francis turbines that can be incorporated in units during rehabilitation projects or in new hydroelectric facilities**. These include the use of advanced plant operation, minimum gap runners, placement of wicket gates behind stay vanes, among others. The Voith team will also provide design criteria on aerating Francis turbines to increase dissolved oxygen content. Detailed reviews of the available literature on fish mortality studies, causation of injuries to fish, and available biological design criteria that would assist in the design of fish-friendly turbines were performed. This review identified a need for more biological studies in order to develop performance criteria to assist turbine manufacturers in designing a more fish-friendly turbine.

  5. The environmentally friendly technology for bio fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekers, M.; Danilevics, A.; Guriniece, E.; Gulbis, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Bio fuel production and use have been discussed this time in EC and in Latvia as alternative energy sources. The national resources allow producing liquid fuels - bio diesel and bi oethanol from rape seeds and grain correspondingly. Liquid bio fuels can be recommended especially for auto transport in big towns to reduce the pollution of air. A system for environmentally friendly production of bio fuel from agricultural raw materials has been developed, which permit a complex utilization of byproducts an wastes for obtaining of valuable food-stuffs and industrial products, providing the agricultural production requirements and supporting with local mineral fertilizers. Such a bio fuel production includes the agricultural and industrial productions in a united biotechnological system. Production objects of system interact: the products, by-products and wastes from one object are used as raw materials, auxiliary materials or heat carriers in other system's objects. This integrated agro-industrial production system would allow the production of feeds and chemical products, along with bio fuels. In this work, a model of a system for a conventional administrative rural region is presented, exemplified with the case of Latvia. The model is developed for three forms of bio fuel production, i.e. ethanol, bio diesel and biogas as local energy source. Bio diesel is produced using ethanol as transesterifying agent of rape-seed oil fatty acids. This bio diesel is a blend of rape-seed oil fatty acid ethyl esters (REE) and consists solely from renewable raw materials. The capacity of distillery of system is 40 million litters per year and bio diesel 35000 ton. Important for agriculture is protein reach press cakes the byproduct from bio diesel production (66000 t/y). This byproduct can be exported as well. Biogas reactors of system can be used for utilization of wastes from town if necessary. Recommended bio system occupates up to 150.000 ha of agriculture lands

  6. Printed environmentally friendly supercapacitors with ionic liquid electrolytes on paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, F.; Keskinen, J.; Remonen, T.; von Hertzen, L.; Jansson, E.; Tappura, K.; Zhang, Y.; Wilén, C.-E.; Österbacka, R.

    2014-12-01

    Environmentally friendly supercapacitors are fabricated using commercial grade aluminum coated paper as a substrate and symmetrical activated carbon electrodes as large area electrodes. Different choline chloride-based eutectic solvents are used as electrolyte. These are inexpensive, environmentally friendly and have a larger operating window compared to that of water electrolytes. As the entire device is printed and the materials used are inexpensive, both small- and large-area power sources can be fabricated to be used in cheap, disposable and recyclable devices. Supercapacitors with different eutectic solvents are measured using cyclic charge-discharge and impedance spectroscopy measurements and compared to one widely used and one "green" imidazolium ionic liquid; EMIM:TFSI and EcoEng 212™, respectively. A mixture of ethylene glycol and choline chloride, Glyceline™, show the highest capacitance and power densities of the electrolytes being tested, including the imidazolium alternatives.

  7. Environmentally Friendly Cleaners for Removing Tar from Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    treatment plants that handle phosphate type solu- tions. The terms used by commercial vendors such as environmentally friendly, all natural, green, and...solvents used in relation to diesel fuel, and the procedure can also rank solvents quantitatively. Sacco (2004) has studied the blending of two plant ...other bituminous materials from industrial equipment surfaces. The composition is a mixture of a carrier monocyclic monoterpene and a nonionic

  8. Application of Green Environmentally Friendly Materials in Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jixia Li

    2017-01-01

    With social development, requirements on the spiritual and material life have increased. However, some environmental issues appear, for example, in food packaging. Application of environment-friendly materials in food packaging has been more and more attractive. This study analyses the characteristics of degradable food packaging material and the existing problems, proposes the manufacturing of food packaging with poly(lactic acid)/nanocrystalline cellulose composite material, tests its therm...

  9. Why acting environmentally-friendly feels good: Exploring the role of self-image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie A Venhoeven

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that engagement in environmentally-friendly behavior can feel good. Current explanations for such a link do not focus on the nature of environmentally-friendly behavior itself, but rather propose well-being is more or less a side-benefit; behaviors that benefit environmental quality (e.g. spending one’s money on people rather than products also tend to make us feel good. We propose that the moral nature of environmentally-friendly behavior itself may elicit positive emotions as well, because engaging in this behavior can signal one is an environmentally-friendly and thus a good person. Our results show that engagement in environmentally-friendly behavior can indeed affect how people see themselves: participants saw themselves as being more environmentally-friendly when they engaged in more environmentally-friendly behavior (Study 1. Furthermore, environmentally-friendly behavior resulted in a more positive self-image, more strongly when it was voluntarily engaged in, compared to when it was driven by situational constraints (Study 2. In turn, the more environmentally-friendly (Study 1 and positive (Study 2 people saw themselves, the better they felt about acting environmentally-friendly. Together, these results suggest that the specific self-signal that ensues from engaging in environmentally-friendly behavior can explain why environmentally-friendly actions may elicit a good feeling.

  10. Application of Green Environmentally Friendly Materials in Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixia Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With social development, requirements on the spiritual and material life have increased. However, some environmental issues appear, for example, in food packaging. Application of environment-friendly materials in food packaging has been more and more attractive. This study analyses the characteristics of degradable food packaging material and the existing problems, proposes the manufacturing of food packaging with poly(lactic acid/nanocrystalline cellulose composite material, tests its thermal and mechanical properties, and applies it to the design of food packaging. The results demonstrate that the thermal and mechanical properties of the material could satisfy the requirements of food packaging and that the material is applicable to the design of food packaging in the future. This work provides a reference for the application of green, environment-friendly materials in the design of food packaging.

  11. A Study on the establishment of environmental friendly taxation system II - concentrated on calculation of environmental friendly subsidy and taxation reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan; Lim, Hyun Jung [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Establishing an environmental friendly taxation system, designing to have a sustainable development and environmental conservation simultaneously, is an important problem to be solved. Following the study on calculation of water and energy subsidy in previous year, the amount of environmental unfriendly subsidy in transportation and agriculture was calculated. Based on the introduction plan of new environmental tax, such as carbon tax and product share, a scheme of environmental friendly taxation reform was proposed. 48 refs., 5 figs., 88 tabs.

  12. Extrusion: An environmentally friendly process for PEMFC membrane elaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J.-Y.; Iojoiu, C.; Marechal, M. [LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS-INPG-UJF, ENSEEG, BP 75, F-38402, Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Chabert, F.; El Kissi, N. [Rheologie, UMR 5520 CNRS-INPG-UJF, ENSHMG, BP 53, F-38041, Grenoble (France); Salomon, J.; Mercier, R. [LMOPS UMR CNRS 5041, BP 24, F-69390 Vernaison (France); Piffard, Y. [CNRS Universite de Nantes, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, UMR 6502, BP 32229, F-44322, Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Galiano, H. [CEA, Le Ripault Research Center, BP 16, F-37260, Monts (France)

    2007-12-31

    The paper deals with the use of extrusion to process PEMFC filled and unfilled membranes. Several routes including the sulfonation of filled and unfilled extruded membranes and the extrusion of filled and unfilled ionomers are reported. Thanks to the use of selected water-soluble aid process plasticizers, acid and alkaline forms of sulfonated polyethersulfone were, for the first time, successfully extruded. The extrusion process did not lead to any degradation of the ionomer performances. Decreasing the membrane cost while using environmentally friendly elaboration conditions, it should be helpful to an industrial production. In addition, avoiding filler sedimentation it should allow homogeneous composite membranes to be obtained. (author)

  13. Environmentally friendly joining of tubes by their ends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Carlos M.A.; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Alves, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an environmentally friendly joining process for connecting tubes by their ends that has the potential to replace current solutions based on fastened, crimped, welded, brazed or adhesive bonded joints. The process is based on a new type of tubular lap joint produced by local...... of deformation and the process feasibility window, and destructive testing to establish the working limits of tubular lap joints under different type of loading conditions. Results demonstrate that the proposed joining process is a flexible and cost-effective technology for connecting tubes by their ends...

  14. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  15. Graphene oxide-loaded shortening as an environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid with high thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vongsetskul Thammasit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide-loaded shortening (GOS, an environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid with high thermal conductivity, was successfully prepared by mixing graphene oxide (GO with a shortening. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that GO particles, prepared by the modified Hummer’s method, dispersed well in the shortening. In addition, the latent heat of GOS decreased while their viscosity and thermal conductivity increased with increasing the amount of loaded GO. The thermal conductivity of the GOS with 4% GO was higher than that of pure shortening of ca. three times, from 0.1751 to 0.6022 W/mK, and increased with increasing temperature. The GOS started to be degraded at ca. 360°C. After being heated and cooled at 100°C for 100 cycles, its viscosity slightly decreased and no chemical degradation was observed. Therefore, the prepared GOS is potentially used as environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid at high temperature.

  16. Characterization of Encapsulated Corrosion Inhibitors for Environmentally Friendly Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, B. P.; Calle, L. M.; Zhang, X.; Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Johnsey, M. N.; Montgomery, E. L.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Surma, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center's Corrosion Technology Lab at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, U.S.A. has been developing multifunctional smart coatings based on the microencapsulation of environmentally friendly corrosion indicators, inhibitors and self-healing agents. This allows the incorporation of autonomous corrosion control functionalities, such as corrosion detection and inhibition as well as the self-healing of mechanical damage, into coatings. This paper presents technical details on the characterization of inhibitor-containing particles and their corrosion inhibitive effects using electrochemical and mass loss methods. Three organic environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated in organic microparticles that are compatible with desired coatings. The release of the inhibitors from the microparticles in basic solution was studied. Fast release, for immediate corrosion protection, as well as long-term release for continued protection, was observed. The inhibition efficacy of the inhibitors, incorporated directly and in microparticles, on carbon steel was evaluated. Polarization curves and mass loss measurements showed that, in the case of 2MBT, its corrosion inhibition effectiveness was greater when it was delivered from microparticles.

  17. Environmentally friendly use of non-coal ashes in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbing, C

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish Thermal Engineering Research Institute (Värmeforsk) initiated an applied research program "Environmentally friendly use of non-coal ashes", in 2002. The program aims at increasing knowledge on the by-products of energy production and their application. The goal of formulating technical and environmental guidelines and assessments is a major point of the program, which is supported by about forty authorities and private organisations. The programme has been divided into four areas: recycling of ashes to forests, geotechnical applications, use in landfilling, and environmental aspects and chemistry. Among all results obtained, the following progress is shown: *Evidence for the positive effects of spreading ashes on forest growth. *A proposal for environmental guidelines on the utilisation of ashes in construction. *A handbook for using non-coal fly ashes in unpaved roads. *Technical and environmental assessments of MSWI bottom ashes in road construction. *Development of the use of ashes with municipal wastewater sludge as a cover for landfills and mine tailings. *Use of ashes from bio-fuels in concrete and replacement of cement in stoop mining. *A method to classify those by-products from combustion that have mirror entries in the EWC as a hazardous or non-hazardous compound. The Ash Programme has also made it possible to increase knowledge on ashes as valuable materials, on quality assurance and on markets for recovered materials.

  18. Ionic Liquids: An Environmentally Friendly Media for Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorapur, Yogesh R.; Chi, Dae Yoon

    2006-01-01

    Ionic liquids are alternative reaction media of increasing interest and are regarded as an eco-friendly alternatives, of potential use in place of the volatile organic solvents typically used in current chemical processing methods. They are emerging as the smart and excellent solvents, which are made of positive and negative ions that they are liquids near room temperature. The nucleophilic substitution reaction is one of the important method for inserting functional groups into a carbon skeleton. Many nucleophilic substitution reactions have been found with enhanced reactivity and selectivity in ionic liquid. In this review, some recent interesting results of nucleophilic substitution reactions such as hydroxylations, ether cleavages, carbon-X (X = carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine) bond forming reactions, and ring opening of epoxides in ionic liquids are discussed

  19. Radioecological implementation of 'environmental friendly' materials alumosilicate origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovic, M.; Milojkovic, J.; Grubisic, M.; Iles, D.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of modern civilization is radionuclide contamination of soil, especially in Serbia.There was NATO aggression when were used munitions with depleted uranium, and after that waste material was deposed on the inhabited and mostly fertile soil. Having in mind that not all activities have been taken that would permanently eliminate the consequences of this radionuclide, means that entering depleted uranium in the food chain is a real danger now. Solving this problem requires a holistic approach including the application of safe and effective 'environmental friendly' materials that are economical, locally available and easily applicable. Our investigations have included testing the efficiency of natural and modified with domestic origin aluminosilicate materials, zeolite, phosphate, bentonite and diatomite for in situ remediation of soil. (author) [sr

  20. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Ergen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of age. The results show that environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems are all meaningful factors in environmentally friendly buying behavior. It was found that the most explanatory variables are environmental activism for proactive environmentally friendly buying behavior and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems for optional environmentally friendly buying behavior. The study is significant since it will offer insights for green marketing experts who especially target specific segments as activists, voluntary simplifiers or green consumers in Turkey.

  1. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Ergen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of age. The results show that environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems are all meaningful factors in environmentally friendly buying behavior. It was found that the most explanatory variables are environmental activism for proactive environmentally friendly buying behavior and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems for optional environmentally friendly buying behavior. The study is significant since it will offer insights for green marketing experts who especially target specific segments as activists, voluntary simplifiers or green consumers in Turkey.

  2. Melon oil methyl ester: an environmentally friendly fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Fasogbon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Demand for energy is growing across the globe due to the direct relationship between the well-being and prosperity of people and energy usage. However, meeting this growing energy demand in a safe and environmentally friendly manner is a key challenge. To this end, methyl esters (biodiesels have been and are being widely investigated as alternatives to fossil fuels in compression ignition engines. In this study, melon (Colocynthis Citrullus Lanatus oil was used to synthesize biodiesel (methyl ester using the transesterification method in the presence of a sodium hydroxide promoter. The emissions profile of the biodiesel was investigated by setting up a single-cylinder four-stroke air-cooled CI engine connected to a TD115-hydraulic dynamometer and an Eclipse Flue Gas Analyzer (FGA with model number EGA4 flue gas analyzer. The engine was run at engine speeds of 675, 1200 and 1900rpm for biodiesel/diesel blends at 21°C on a volume basis of 0/100(B0, 10/90(B10, 20/80(B20, 30/70(B30, 40/60(B40 and 50/50(B50. The test showed a downward trend in the emissions profile of the biodiesel, with remarkable reductions of about 55% in the dangerous-carbon monoxide exhaust gas pollutant and 33.3% in the unfriendly SOX from 100% diesel to B30-biodiesel concentration. Increasing the speed from 675 to 1200 and then to 1900 rpm also afforded further reductions in CO and SOX exhaust emissions. NOX however increased marginally by 2.1% from the same 100% diesel to the B30-biodiesel composition. Based on the remarkable reduction in CO and SOX and the marginal increase in NOX as the concentration of the biodiesel increased in the blends, the study concludes that melon oil methyl ester is an environmentally friendly fuel.

  3. Why Acting Environmentally-Friendly Feels Good : Exploring the Role of Self-Image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venhoeven, Leonie A.; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that engagement in environmentally-friendly behavior can feel good. Current explanations for such a link do not focus on the nature of environmentally-friendly behavior itself, but rather propose well-being is more or less a side-benefit; behaviors that benefit environmental

  4. University of Illinois FRIENDS Children’s Environmental Health Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The FRIENDS Children's Environmental Health Center at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, was established in 2001 to investigate the interactive effects of...

  5. Sacrificial amphiphiles: Eco-friendly chemical herders as oil spill mitigation chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deeksha; Sarker, Bivas; Thadikaran, Keith; John, Vijay; Maldarelli, Charles; John, George

    2015-06-01

    Crude oil spills are a major threat to marine biota and the environment. When light crude oil spills on water, it forms a thin layer that is difficult to clean by any methods of oil spill response. Under these circumstances, a special type of amphiphile termed as "chemical herder" is sprayed onto the water surrounding the spilled oil. The amphiphile forms a monomolecular layer on the water surface, reducing the air-sea surface tension and causing the oil slick to retract into a thick mass that can be burnt in situ. The current best-known chemical herders are chemically stable and nonbiodegradable, and hence remain in the marine ecosystem for years. We architect an eco-friendly, sacrificial, and effective green herder derived from the plant-based small-molecule phytol, which is abundant in the marine environment, as an alternative to the current chemical herders. Phytol consists of a regularly branched chain of isoprene units that form the hydrophobe of the amphiphile; the chain is esterified to cationic groups to form the polar group. The ester linkage is proximal to an allyl bond in phytol, which facilitates the hydrolysis of the amphiphile after adsorption to the sea surface into the phytol hydrophobic tail, which along with the unhydrolyzed herder, remains on the surface to maintain herding action, and the cationic group, which dissolves into the water column. Eventual degradation of the phytol tail and dilution of the cation make these sacrificial amphiphiles eco-friendly. The herding behavior of phytol-based amphiphiles is evaluated as a function of time, temperature, and water salinity to examine their versatility under different conditions, ranging from ice-cold water to hot water. The green chemical herder retracted oil slicks by up to ~500, 700, and 2500% at 5°, 20°, and 35°C, respectively, during the first 10 min of the experiment, which is on a par with the current best chemical herders in practice.

  6. Ukrainian realities of labeling of environmentally friendly products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Tsaruk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The basis of life of any society is a safe environment that is not only the guarantee of welfare and quality of life, but also the guarantee of the further development of human civilization. That is why in the modern world the issue of the preservation of the natural environment is of special actuality. The gradual awareness by humanity of new threats (high degree of concentration of harmful industries; high level of resource and energy consumption; lack of modern environmental technologies; slow but inevitable degradation of the gene pool of a population due to the consumption of poor quality and in most cases harmful products, etc. forced the society to seek new approaches to socio-economic development and environmental management. One of such approaches is the introduction of ecological and organic labeling. Marking is a source of information about the purity, safety and quality of the products offered in the market; effective information mechanism, which is a kind of quality mark for the offered products. The current practice of ecological and organic labeling aimed at the increase of level consumer's awareness and the changing models of purchasing behavior in the direction of environmental protection. The feature of most marking systems of environmentally friendly and safe products is the obligation of compliance with the established requirements used by producers of raw materials and technologies taking into account their potential environmental impact. Labeling of ecologically clean and safe products is reducing the negative impact on the environment and on the human's health. It is the consequence of changes in the economic environment, namely: the improvement of socio-ethical requirements to production; the increasing level of integration of producers and service providers; the customer's satisfaction in varieties of products; globalization of economic space; reduction of time for development, standardization and production. Labeling is

  7. Designing advanced materials by environmental friendly plasma electrolytic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, I.; Valeca, M.; Rusu, O.; Coaca, E.; Marin, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the CANDU-PHWR nuclear reactors, Zr-2.5Nb coated with a black adherent oxide film of 1 to 2 μm in thickness is currently used for the manufacture of pressure tubes. The black oxide thin film has corrosion protective properties. However, it can be damaged during the regular refueling process, thus causing hydrogen/oxygen ingression. Therefore, an enhanced wear and corrosion resistance coating is needed. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is an anodic electrochemical treatment, both cost-effective and environmentally friendly, widely used in the formation of a protective oxide film on the metal surface to enhance wear and corrosion resistance as well as prolonging component lifetime. The state of the art reveals that PEO method is suitable for improving the wear resistance of Zr-2.5Nb alloy. Few studies are performed in this field and thus, it is necessary to conduct a more detailed insight study on the processing parameters for PEO treatment. By understanding the influence of process parameters, such as electrolyte temperature and electrolyte composition, we can find the way to obtain a coating with improved mechanical and corrosion properties on zirconium alloys. (authors)

  8. Design of environmentally friendly calcium sulfate-based building materials : towards an improved indoor air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses the performance based design and development of an environmentally friendly calcium sulfate-based indoor building product towards an improved indoor air quality. Here "environmental friendly" is referred to the environment related subjects including: (1) the selection of raw

  9. Transport-related lifestyle and environmentally-friendly travel mode choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2018-01-01

    . Finally, a multivariate GLM analysis reveals that three behavioral tendencies of importance for transport-related environmental impacts vary significantly and substantially between lifestyle segments: vehicle ownership, everyday travel-mode choice and environmentally-friendly transport innovativeness...

  10. New environmentally-friendly antimicrobials and biocides from Andean and Mexican biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cespedes, Carlos L; Alarcon, Julio; Aqueveque, Pedro M; Lobo, Tatiana; Becerra, Julio; Balbontin, Cristian; Avila, Jose G; Kubo, Isao; Seigler, David S

    2015-10-01

    Persistent application of pesticides often leads to accumulation in the environment and to the development of resistance in various organisms. These chemicals frequently degrade slowly and have the potential to bio-accumulate across the food chain and in top predators. Cancer and neuronal damage at genomic and proteomic levels have been linked to exposure to pesticides in humans. These negative effects encourage search for new sources of biopesticides that are more "environmentally-friendly" to the environment and human health. Many plant or fungal compounds have significant biological activity associated with the presence of secondary metabolites. Plant biotechnology and new molecular methods offer ways to understand regulation and to improve production of secondary metabolites of interest. Naturally occurring crop protection chemicals offer new approaches for pest management by providing new sources of biologically active natural products with biodegradability, low mammalian toxicity and environmentally-friendly qualities. Latin America is one of the world's most biodiverse regions and provide a previously unsuspected reservoir of new and potentially useful molecules. Phytochemicals from a number of families of plants and fungi from the southern Andes and from Mexico have now been evaluated. Andean basidiomycetes are also a great source of scientifically new compounds that are interesting and potentially useful. Use of biopesticides is an important component of integrated pest management (IPM) and can improve the risks and benefits of production of many crops all over the world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of Environmental-friendly Technology for a Paint Industry Wastewater Plant in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin YAPICIOĞLU

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Paint manufacturing process has several unfavorable aspects to the environment in Turkey. One of these impacts is wastewater treatment. Paint wastewater contains huge amounts of toxic chemical substances, bio refractory compounds, pigments and microorganisms. So, advanced treatment requirement is available to dispose of colour, microorganisms and chemical oxygen demand (COD. The high organic content of wastewater causes serious environmental challenges and contamination for the living organisms and the ecosystem in the receiver media unless it is treated adequately. In this context, the treatment process to be implemented should be preferred in such a way as to give the least damage to the environment. In this study, three treatment scenarios that contain electrocoagulation (Scenario-1, Fenton process (Scenario-2 and membrane distillation (Scenario-3 have been created for wastewater treatment facility of a paint industry in Turkey. For three scenarios, environmental impact assessment has been carried out with Fine-Kinney method. It is aimed to choose best environmental technology before investment. The evaluation results revealed that Scenario-2 has the less environmental impacts that total impact value is 556. Scenario-1 has the highest total impact value as 756, relatively. Total impact value related to Scenario-3 is 637. According to the evaluation results, Fenton process is the best environmental-friendly treatment technology for wastewater treatment of a paint industry in Turkey.

  12. A Survey on Turkish Elementary School Students' Environmental Friendly Behaviours and Associated Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Elvan; Ertepinar, Hamide; Tekkaya, Ceren; Yilmaz, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated elementary school students' environmental knowledge and attitudes, the effects of sociodemographic variables on environmental knowledge and attitudes, and how self-reported environmentally friendly behaviour is related to environmental knowledge, behavioural intentions, environmental affects, and the students' locus of…

  13. Introduction of Microbial Biopolymers in Soil Treatment for Future Environmentally-Friendly and Sustainable Geotechnical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Chang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil treatment and improvement is commonly performed in the field of geotechnical engineering. Methods and materials to achieve this such as soil stabilization and mixing with cementitious binders have been utilized in engineered soil applications since the beginning of human civilization. Demand for environment-friendly and sustainable alternatives is currently rising. Since cement, the most commonly applied and effective soil treatment material, is responsible for heavy greenhouse gas emissions, alternatives such as geosynthetics, chemical polymers, geopolymers, microbial induction, and biopolymers are being actively studied. This study provides an overall review of the recent applications of biopolymers in geotechnical engineering. Biopolymers are microbially induced polymers that are high-tensile, innocuous, and eco-friendly. Soil–biopolymer interactions and related soil strengthening mechanisms are discussed in the context of recent experimental and microscopic studies. In addition, the economic feasibility of biopolymer implementation in the field is analyzed in comparison to ordinary cement, from environmental perspectives. Findings from this study demonstrate that biopolymers have strong potential to replace cement as a soil treatment material within the context of environment-friendly construction and development. Moreover, continuing research is suggested to ensure performance in terms of practical implementation, reliability, and durability of in situ biopolymer applications for geotechnical engineering purposes.

  14. Environmentally Friendly Coating Technology for Autonomous Corrosion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.; Jolley, Scott T.; Pearman, Benjamin P.; Zhang, Xuejun; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Gillis, Mathew; Blanton, Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    This work concerns the development of environmentally friendly encapsulation technology, specifically designed to incorporate corrosion indicators, inhibitors, and self-healing agents into a coating, in such a way that the delivery of the indicators and inhibitors is triggered by the corrosion process, and the delivery of self-healing agents is triggered by mechanical damage to the coating. Encapsulation of the active corrosion control ingredients allows the incorporation of desired autonomous corrosion control functions such as: early corrosion detection, hidden corrosion detection, corrosion inhibition, and self-healing of mechanical damage into a coating. The technology offers the versatility needed to include one or several corrosion control functions into the same coating.The development of the encapsulation technology has progressed from the initial proof-of-concept work, in which a corrosion indicator was encapsulated into an oil-core (hydrophobic) microcapsule and shown to be delivered autonomously, under simulated corrosion conditions, to a sophisticated portfolio of micro carriers (organic, inorganic, and hybrid) that can be used to deliver a wide range of active corrosion ingredients at a rate that can be adjusted to offer immediate as well as long-term corrosion control. The micro carriers have been incorporated into different coating formulas to test and optimize the autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing functions of the coatings. This paper provides an overview of progress made to date and highlights recent technical developments, such as improved corrosion detection sensitivity, inhibitor test results in various types of coatings, and highly effective self-healing coatings based on green chemistry.

  15. Comparative analysis of thermally activated, environmentally friendly cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Y.; Metchop, L.; Frantzis, A.; Phelan, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares the relative performances of three different thermally activated, environmentally friendly cooling systems, e.g. a silica-gel-water adsorption system, a LiBr-H 2 O absorption system and a desiccant air system. The adsorption and absorption systems in the current study employ water as the refrigerant, while the desiccant system cools atmospheric air directly. Each of these systems can be utilized at relatively low heat source temperatures such as achieved by flat plate solar collectors, but it is unclear which of these systems is best suited to what range of heat source temperature. Our study explores answers to this question by generating quantitative results comparing their relative thermal performance, i.e. COP and refrigeration capacity, and a qualitative comparison based on the size, maturity of technology, safe operation etc. In order to provide a fair comparison between the fundamentally different systems, a UA (overall heat transfer coefficient multiplied by the heat transfer area) value of 1.0 kW deg. C -1 is considered for the heat exchanger that transfers heat from the supplied hot water. Furthermore, to compare systems of similar size, the mass of silica-gel in the adsorption and desiccant systems and the mass of LiBr-H 2 O solution in the absorption system were specified such that each system provides the same amount of refrigeration (8.0 kW) at a source temperature of 90 deg. C. It is found that the absorption and adsorption cooling systems have a higher refrigeration capacity at heat source temperatures below 90 deg. C, while the desiccant air system outperforms the others at temperatures above 90 deg. C

  16. Environmentally friendly polymer nanocomposites: types, processing and properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sinha Ray, S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of eco-friendly polymeric materials with balanced properties has become a subject of research attention due to concerns with increasing global-warming, carbon-emission, and limited natural resources. Nano...

  17. Environmentally-Friendly Geopolymeric Binders Made with Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Portland cement (PC) is the ubiquitous binding material for constructions works. It is a big contributor to global warming and climate change since its production is responsible for 5-10 % of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Half of this emission arises from the calcination of calcareous raw materials and half from kiln fuel burning and cement clinker grinding. Recently there have been efforts to develop alternative binders with lower greenhouse gas emissions. One such class of binders is geopolymers, formed by activating natural or waste materials with suitable alkaline or acidic solutions. These binders use natural or industrial waste raw materials with a very low CO2 footprint from grinding of the starting materials, and some from the production of the activating chemicals. The total CO2 emissions from carefully formulated mixtures can be as low as 1/10th - 1/5th of those of PC concrete mixtures with comparable properties. While use of industrial wastes as raw materials is environmentally preferable, the variability of their chemical compositions over time renders their use difficult. Use of natural materials depletes resources but can have more consistent properties and can be more easily accepted. Silica sand is a natural material containing very high amounts of quartz. Silica fume is a very fine waste from silicon metal production that is mostly non-crystalline silica. This study describes the use of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions to yield mortars with mechanical properties comparable to those of portland cement mortars and with better chemical and thermal durability. Strength gain is slower than with PC mixtures at room temperature but adequate ultimate strength can be achieved with curing at slightly elevated temperatures in less than 24 h. The consistency of the chemical compositions of these materials and their abundance in several large, developing countries makes silica attractive for producing sustainable concretes with reduced carbon

  18. Environmental chemicals and thyroid function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Main, Katharina M; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To overview the effects of endocrine disrupters on thyroid function. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in recent years have revealed thyroid-disrupting properties of many environmentally abundant chemicals. Of special concern is the exposure of pregnant women and infants, as thyroid...

  19. Conventional, Partially Converted and Environmentally Friendly Farming in South Korea: Profitability and Factors Affecting Farmers’ Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saem Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available While organic farming is well established in Europe a nd USA, it is still catching up in Asian countries. The government of South Korea has implemented environmentally friendly farming that encompasses organic farming. Despite the promotion of environmentally friendly farming, it still has a low share in South Korea and partially converted farming has emerged in some districts of South Korea. However, the partially converted farming has not yet been investigated by the government. Thus, our study implemented a financial analysis to compare the annual costs and net returns of conventional, partially converted and environmentally friendly farming in Gangwon Province. The result showed that environmentally friendly farming was more profitable with respect to farm net returns. To find out the factors affecting the adoption of environmentally friendly farming, multinomial logistic regression was implemented. The findings revealed that education and subsidy positively and significantly influenced the probability of farmers’ choice on partially converted and environmentally friendly farming. Farm size had a negative and significant relationship with only environmentally friendly farming. This study will contribute to future policy establishment for sustainable agriculture as recommended by improving the quality of fertilizers, suggesting the additional investigation associated with partially converted farmers.

  20. Development of environmental-friendly wire and cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Keiji

    1996-01-01

    The electron beam technology has been used in many industrial fields as a method of conventional polymer modification or optimum processability. The main industrial fields of radiation crosslinking are wire and cable, heat shrinkable tubings, plastic foams, precuring of tires, floppy disk curing, foods packaging films, and so on. The radiation crosslinking of wire and cable was started in 1961 in Japan and 15 wire and cable companies are now using electron beam accelerators for production or R and D. The dominant characteristics of crosslinking of insulation materials are application at high temperature, good oil and chemical resistibility and high mechanical properties. These radiation crosslinking wire and cable are applied widely in electronics equipments and automobiles. Recently, electronics manufacturers have indicated deep concern over the effects on the environment. Wire and cable also are required to be applicable for environmental preservation. (J.P.N.)

  1. Research program for environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. Follow-up project for simplified desulfurizers (Weifang Chemical Industry Works); Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system donyu shien jigyo. Kan`i datsuryu setsubi ni kakawaru follow up jigyo (Weifang kakosho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    To suppress the emission of environmental pollutants from coal utilization in China and to contribute to stable security of Japan`s energy, demonstration of clean coal technology and consolidation of diffusion base to be introduced into China have been promoted. Demonstration program for diffusing simplified desulfurizers has been promoted. For accelerating the achievement, experts of desulfurizers were delegated to Weifang Chemical Industry Works, to support the program. Exhaust gas is introduced from boiler via water spray dust remover, suction fan and centralized stack into absorption tower of the simplified wet-type desulfurizer. In the ascending process, the exhaust gas contacts with absorbent, to remove SO2 and dust. The absorbent is blasted up through the spray nozzle. The absorbent is oxidized by the air into sulfate ion in the liquid chamber at the lower part of tower, and neutralized by hydrated lime to form gypsum. Through the continuous operation for two years, understandings were remarkably increased. However, good treatment of the tax system is required for further diffusion. Though there are no problems for ordinary start and stop, emergency operation is insufficient. There are some problems in the maintenance due to the delay of finding failures. 16 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Child-Friendly Cities: A Place for Active Citizenship in Geographical and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Judith

    2010-01-01

    This research was designed to investigate innovative practices associated with child-friendly cities initiatives in the United Kingdom and Italy and how civics and citizenship initiatives are being applied into practical programmes of exploration and learning in geography and environmental education. The Child-Friendly Cities Initiative (CFCI) of…

  3. Environmental chemicals and thyroid function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2006-01-01

    . There is substantial evidence that polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and furans cause hypothyroidism in exposed animals and that environmentally occurring doses affect human thyroid homeostasis. Similarly, flame retardants reduce peripheral thyroid hormone (TH) levels in rodents, but human studies are scarce. Studies...... also indicate thyroid-disruptive properties of phthalates, but the effect of certain phthalates seems to be stimulative on TH production, contrary to most other groups of chemicals. Thyroid disruption may be caused by a variety of mechanisms, as different chemicals interfere with the hypothalamic...

  4. Bio-based fillers for environmentally friendly composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokhothu, Thabang H

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of bio-based fillers as alternative replacement for synthetic fillers has been dictated by increasing ecological concerns as well as depleting petroleum resources. The other aspect is a growing need for eco-friendly, renewable...

  5. Environmentally friendly preparation of pectins from agricultural byproducts and their structural/rheological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Bockki; Lim, Jongbin; Ko, Sanghoon; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Suyong

    2011-02-01

    Apple pomace which is the main waste of fruit juice industry was utilized to extract pectins in an environmentally friendly way, which was then compared with chemically-extracted pectins. The water-based extraction with combined physical and enzymatic treatments produced pectins with 693.2 mg g(-1) galacturonic acid and 4.6% yield, which were less than those of chemically-extracted pectins. Chemically-extracted pectins exhibited lower degree of esterification (58%) than the pectin samples obtained by physical/enzymatic treatments (69%), which were also confirmed by FT-IR analysis. When subjected to steady-shear rheological conditions, both pectin solutions were shown to have shear-thinning properties. However, decreased viscosity was observed in the pectins extracted by combined physical/enzymatic methods which could be mainly attributed to the presence of more methyl esters, thus limiting polymer chain interactions. Moreover, the pectins which were extracted by combined physical/enzymatic treatments, showed less elastic properties under high shear rate conditions, compared to the chemically-extracted pectins. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Impact of Individual Attitudinal and Organisational Variables on Workplace Environmentally Friendly Behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Manika, D; Wells, VK; Gregory-Smith, D; Gentry, M

    2015-01-01

    Although research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) has grown steadily, little research has focused on CSR at the individual level. In addition, research on the role of environmental friendly organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) within CSR initiatives is scarce. In response to this gap and recent calls for further research on both individual and organizational variables of employees' environmentally friendly, or green, behaviors, this article sheds light on the influence of thes...

  7. Functionalization and Dispersion of Carbon Nanomaterials Using an Environmentally Friendly Ultrasonicated Ozonolysis Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Eudora S Y; Mathys, Gary I; Brack, Narelle; Thostenson, Erik T; Rider, Andrew N

    2017-05-30

    Functionalization of carbon nanomaterials is often a critical step that facilitates their integration into larger material systems and devices. In the as-received form, carbon nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), may contain large agglomerates. Both agglomerates and impurities will diminish the benefits of the unique electrical and mechanical properties offered when CNTs or GNPs are incorporated into polymers or composite material systems. Whilst a variety of methods exist to functionalize carbon nanomaterials and to create stable dispersions, many the processes use harsh chemicals, organic solvents, or surfactants, which are environmentally unfriendly and may increase the processing burden when isolating the nanomaterials for subsequent use. The current research details the use of an alternative, environmentally friendly technique for functionalizing CNTs and GNPs. It produces stable, aqueous dispersions free of harmful chemicals. Both CNTs and GNPs can be added to water at concentrations up to 5 g/L and can be recirculated through a high-powered ultrasonic cell. The simultaneous injection of ozone into the cell progressively oxidizes the carbon nanomaterials, and the combined ultrasonication breaks down agglomerates and immediately exposes fresh material for functionalization. The prepared dispersions are ideally suited for the deposition of thin films onto solid substrates using electrophoretic deposition (EPD). CNTs and GNPs from the aqueous dispersions can be readily used to coat carbon- and glass-reinforcing fibers using EPD for the preparation of hierarchical composite materials.

  8. An easy and environmentally-friendly approach to superamphiphobicity of aluminum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, R. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Hu, Y.M., E-mail: yongmaohu@163.com [College of Engineering, Dali University, Dali 671003 (China); Wang, L.; Li, Zh.H.; Shen, T. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Zhu, Y., E-mail: zhuyan@kmust.edu.cn [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Xiang, J.Zh., E-mail: jzhxiang@ynu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved via an approach of chemical etching and low surface energy material modification. • The process of chemical etching and hot water bathing were optimized to obtain desirable hierarchical micro/nanoscale structures. • The surface morphology, chemistry and wetting properties of the as-prepared aluminum surfaces were characterized and discussed. • The mechanical robustness and chemical stability of the as-prepared superamphiphobic Al surfaces were tested and evaluated. - Abstract: Superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved via an easy and environmentally-friendly approach. Aqueous mixed solution of 0.7 M CuSO{sub 4} and 1 M NaCl was used to etch polished Al surfaces to fabricate a rough morphology distributed with microscale step-like pits. The uniformly distributed nanoscale petals covered on the microscale pits were obtained by subsequent 96 °C hot deionized water bathing for 13 min. Thus, the hierarchical micro/nanometer scale roughness was formed which provided the structural basic of superamphiphobic Al surfaces. By 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluorodecyl-triethoxysilane (PFDTS) derivatization, desirable superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved with the highest static contact angles of 162° for water, 156° for peanut oil, respectively. Meanwhile, the sliding angles were lower than 10° for both water and peanut oil droplets. The as-prepared Al surfaces were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and optical contact angle measurements. The FE-SEM images of as-prepared Al surfaces showed a hierarchical micro/nanometer scale morphology. XPS analyses demonstrated the PFDTS derivitization on Al surfaces. The superamphiphobic Al surfaces presented good mechanical durability and chemical stability which have a wide range of applications in fields such as self-cleaning, anti-icing, anti

  9. An easy and environmentally-friendly approach to superamphiphobicity of aluminum surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, R.; Hu, Y.M.; Wang, L.; Li, Zh.H.; Shen, T.; Zhu, Y.; Xiang, J.Zh.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved via an approach of chemical etching and low surface energy material modification. • The process of chemical etching and hot water bathing were optimized to obtain desirable hierarchical micro/nanoscale structures. • The surface morphology, chemistry and wetting properties of the as-prepared aluminum surfaces were characterized and discussed. • The mechanical robustness and chemical stability of the as-prepared superamphiphobic Al surfaces were tested and evaluated. - Abstract: Superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved via an easy and environmentally-friendly approach. Aqueous mixed solution of 0.7 M CuSO 4 and 1 M NaCl was used to etch polished Al surfaces to fabricate a rough morphology distributed with microscale step-like pits. The uniformly distributed nanoscale petals covered on the microscale pits were obtained by subsequent 96 °C hot deionized water bathing for 13 min. Thus, the hierarchical micro/nanometer scale roughness was formed which provided the structural basic of superamphiphobic Al surfaces. By 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluorodecyl-triethoxysilane (PFDTS) derivatization, desirable superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved with the highest static contact angles of 162° for water, 156° for peanut oil, respectively. Meanwhile, the sliding angles were lower than 10° for both water and peanut oil droplets. The as-prepared Al surfaces were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and optical contact angle measurements. The FE-SEM images of as-prepared Al surfaces showed a hierarchical micro/nanometer scale morphology. XPS analyses demonstrated the PFDTS derivitization on Al surfaces. The superamphiphobic Al surfaces presented good mechanical durability and chemical stability which have a wide range of applications in fields such as self-cleaning, anti-icing, anti-corrosion, oil

  10. Environmentally Friendly Anticorrosion Coating for High Strength Fasteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    electroplated coatings followed by a hexavalent chrome rinse. The environmental and health hazards associated with cadmium and hexavalent chromium are...have been used with cadmium (Cd) electroplated coatings, followed by a hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) rinse. The environmental and human health hazards...followed by a hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) rinse. The environmental and human health hazards associated with both cadmium and chromates are well

  11. Simple gases to replace non-environmentally friendly polymer foaming agents. A thermodynamic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolier, Jean-Pierre E.; Randzio, Stanislaw L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The PVT-vibrating wire technique and PVT-scanning transitiometry. ► Polymer swelling with measured gas sorption and gas–polymer interaction energies. ► Experimental measurements up to 373 K and 100 MPa. ► Hydrostatic and plasticization effects under high pressure gas and induced T g -shifts. ► Thermodynamic study of the (gas + polymer) systems polystyrene with CO 2 , N 2 , and freons. - Abstract: Foaming constitutes one of the most important industrial activities in polymer engineering to produce efficient thermal insulating materials. In particular, rigid insulating boards are produced worldwide on a large scale using blowing agents which eventually are released in the environment where they adversely impact the natural friendly stratospheric ozone layer. Concomitantly, the chemicals used as blowing agents contribute to the creation of the unfriendly tropospheric ozone layer generating the disastrous green house effect around our planet. The traditional foaming intermediates currently named freons, like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) currently used as blowing agents as well as the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) often considered as alternative blowing agents, must be banned from industrial processes and new (friendly) foaming agents have to be suggested and evaluated in terms of both easy engineering and environmental neutrality. Undoubtedly thermodynamics plays a major role in assessing the effective capability of those chemicals. Some CFCs still accepted and other possible simple gases like carbon dioxide and nitrogen have been considered. The in-depth thermodynamic investigation has been made possible thanks to new experimental developments to determine gas solubility in polymers and associated swelling as well as the thermodynamic properties of (gas + polymer) systems, including the thermophysical properties of polymers under gas sorption. Pertinent data have been generated for such properties over extended T and p ranges.

  12. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ahu Ergen; Filiz Bozkurt; Caner Giray

    2016-01-01

    The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of ...

  13. Environmentally friendly inhibition of pathogenic bacteria and algae propagation due phthalocyanine agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rihova Ambrozova, J.; Bezdekova, E.; Louckova, E.; Nekovarova, J.

    2007-01-01

    From 2004, in the laboratory of The Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague is being solved the project FT-TA/034 'Environmentally friendly inhibition of pathogenic bacteria and algae propagation in the circulatory cooling systems of nuclear power stations and in other similar technological facilities' to determine effects of phthalocyanine agents. The project bearer is VUOS, Inc. in Rybitvi (Research Institute for Organic Synthesis Inc.), where are the new phthalocyanines synthesized. The aimed goal of the research is environmentally friendly liquidation of bacteria and algae by means of photodynamic generated singlet oxygen through impact of solar radiation in the circulation cooling waters of various technical and technological systems. The principle of the problem outlined is the applying of phthalocyanine agents on samples of pure bacterial, anabaenas and algae cultures to estimate the inhibition effect on the organism exposed. In the course of solution, it is assumed that in such way conducted inhibition of bacteria, anabaenas and algae as well of their proliferation would replace routinely used bactericidal and algicidal preparations, which demand permanent dosing into circulating waters or perhaps from time to time an application of shocking doses. The particular algicidal and bactericidal agents represents in this case in situ emerging singlet oxygen, that is harmless to water biocenoses and whose presence in the water is no reason to ban the outflow of waters treated in such a way into water streams. The goal should be also a direct estimation of the effect those agents on cooling waters samples e. g. from the nuclear power plant systems. The purpose of the tests performance is also elimination of filamentous green algae, emerging in the systems cooling towers. The applied preparations are not toxic and do not burden the living environment, they contain no substances interacting with surface materials of structures in the circulatory cooling circuit

  14. An easy and environmentally-friendly approach to superamphiphobicity of aluminum surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, R.; Hu, Y. M.; Wang, L.; Li, Zh. H.; Shen, T.; Zhu, Y.; Xiang, J. Zh.

    2017-04-01

    Superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved via an easy and environmentally-friendly approach. Aqueous mixed solution of 0.7 M CuSO4 and 1 M NaCl was used to etch polished Al surfaces to fabricate a rough morphology distributed with microscale step-like pits. The uniformly distributed nanoscale petals covered on the microscale pits were obtained by subsequent 96 °C hot deionized water bathing for 13 min. Thus, the hierarchical micro/nanometer scale roughness was formed which provided the structural basic of superamphiphobic Al surfaces. By 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-Perfluorodecyl-triethoxysilane (PFDTS) derivatization, desirable superamphiphobic Al surfaces were achieved with the highest static contact angles of 162° for water, 156° for peanut oil, respectively. Meanwhile, the sliding angles were lower than 10° for both water and peanut oil droplets. The as-prepared Al surfaces were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and optical contact angle measurements. The FE-SEM images of as-prepared Al surfaces showed a hierarchical micro/nanometer scale morphology. XPS analyses demonstrated the PFDTS derivitization on Al surfaces. The superamphiphobic Al surfaces presented good mechanical durability and chemical stability which have a wide range of applications in fields such as self-cleaning, anti-icing, anti-corrosion, oil transportation, energy harvesting, microfluidics, and so forth. The approach reported in this paper may easily realize the industrial production of superamphiphobic Al surfaces owing to the advantage of facile, low cost and environmentally-friendly.

  15. Environmentally friendly cellulose-based polyelectrolytes in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenda, Kinga; Arnold, Julien; Gamelas, José A F; Rasteiro, Maria G

    2017-09-01

    Natural-based polyelectrolytes (PELs), with all the advantages coming from being produced from renewable and biodegradable sources, are a potential solution for the removal of dyes from wastewater. In this work, surplus Eucalyptus bleached cellulose fibres from a paper mill were modified to increase the charge and solubility of cellulose. First, reactive aldehyde groups were introduced in the cellulose backbone by periodate oxidation of cellulose. Further modification with alkylammonium produced positively charged cellulose-based PELs. The final products were characterized by several analytical techniques. The PEL with the highest substitution degree of cationic groups was evaluated for its performance in decolouration processes, bentonite being used as aid. This was found to be effective for colour removal of either anionic or cationic dyes. Bio-PELs can thus be considered as very favourable eco-friendly flocculation agents for decolouration of harsh effluents from several industries, considering their biodegradable nature and thus the ability to produce less sludge.

  16. Teaching Ecology to Children of Preschool Education to Instill Environmentally Friendly Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Eduarda; Cruz, Catarina; Pitarma, Rui

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study analyzes the results of a pedagogical and didactic experiment which was focused on the problem of teaching environmentally-friendly behaviours to young kindergarten children. It is essential to awaken children's curiosity and desire to know more about environmental issues in their regions so that children develop their own…

  17. The Behavior of Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Preventative Compounds in an Aggressive Coastal Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Eliza L.; Calle, Luz Marina; Curran Jerome C.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The shift to use environmentally friendly technologies throughout future space-related launch programs prompted a study aimed at replacing current petroleum and solvent-based Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) with environmentally friendly alternatives. The work in this paper focused on the identification and evaluation of environmentally friendly CPCs for use in protecting flight hardware and ground support equipment from atmospheric corrosion. The CPCs, while a temporary protective coating, must survive in the aggressive coastal marine environment that exists throughout the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The different protection behaviors of fifteen different soft film CPCs, both common petroleum-based and newer environmentally friendly types, were evaluated on various steel and aluminum substrates. The CPC and substrate systems were subjected to atmospheric testing at the Kennedy Space Center's Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site, as well as cyclic accelerated corrosion testing. Each CPC also underwent physical characterization and launch-related compatibility testing . The initial results for the fifteen CPC systems are reported : Key words: corrosion preventive compound, CPC, spaceport, environmentally friendly, atmospheric exposure, marine, carbon steel, aluminum alloy, galvanic corrosion, wire on bolt.

  18. Using mine waste mud to produce environmentally friendly new binders

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Gomes, J. P. Castro; Jalali, Said

    2007-01-01

    It is now accepted that new binders, such as alkali-activated binders, are needed to replace portland cement for enhanced environmental and durability performance. Alkali-activated binders have emerged as an alternative to (ordinary portland cement ) OPC binders, which seem to have superior durability and environmental impact.This paper reports results of a research project on the development of an alkali-activated binders using mineral waste mud from the Panasqueira tungsten mine in Portugal...

  19. Characterization of eco-friendly fluorescent nanoparticle-doped tracers for environmental sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauro, Flavia; Rapiti, Emiliano; Al-Sharab, Jafar F.; Ubertini, Lucio; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Particle tracers are extensively used in quantitative flow visualization and environmental sensing. In this paper, we provide a thorough characterization of the novel eco-friendly fluorescent particle tracers formulated in Tauro et al. (AIP Adv 3(3): 032108, 2013). The tracers are synthesized from natural beeswax and are functionalized by encapsulating nontoxic fluorophore nanoparticles in the beads’ matrix through an inexpensive thermal procedure. Visibility and durability studies are conducted through a wide array of techniques to investigate the tracers’ surface morphological microfeatures, crystal nature and size, chemical composition, fluorophore incorporation into the beeswax matrix, and fluorescence response under severe settings resembling exposure to natural environments. Our findings demonstrate that fluorescent nanoparticles ranging from 1.51 to 3.73 nm are homogeneously distributed in the superficial layer (12 nm) of the tracers. In addition, fluorescence emissions are observed up to 26 days of continuous exposure of the tracers to high energy radiation. To demonstrate the particles’ use in environmental flow sensing, a set of proof of concept outdoor tests are conducted, in which image analysis tools are utilized for detecting the fluorescent tracers. Experimental results suggest that fluorescent microparticles deployed in high flow-rate flows (2 m/s) and under direct sunlight can be sensed through commercially available cameras (frame rate set to 30 Hz)

  20. Environmental friendly method for the extraction of coir fibre and isolation of nanofibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Eldho; Deepa, B; Pothen, L A; Cintil, J; Thomas, S; John, M J; Anandjiwala, R; Narine, S S

    2013-02-15

    The objective of this work was to develop an environmental friendly method for the effective utilization of coir fibre by adopting steam pre-treatment. The retting of the coconut bunch makes strong environmental problems which can be avoided by this method. Chemical characterization of the fibre during each processing stages confirmed the increase of cellulose content from raw (40%) to final steam treated fibres (93%). Morphological and dynamic light scattering analyses of the fibres at different processing stages revealed that the isolation of cellulose nano fibres occur in the final step of the process as an aqueous suspension. FT-IR and XRD analysis demonstrated that the treatments lead to the gradual removal of lignin and hemicelluloses from the fibres. The existence of strong lignin-cellulose complex in the raw coir fibre is proved by its enhanced thermal stability. Steam explosion has been proved to be a green method to expand the application areas of coir fibre. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Earning capacity of environmentally friendly companies and social responsible investing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerk, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Firms on Dow Jones Sustainability Index yield over time the same return as the ''ordinary'' firms on the Dow Jones World Stock Index. There are several investment funds today that deal in shares with selected companies having a high environmental or ethical profile. This is Social Responsible Investing (SRI). When the Norwegian company Storebrand Kapitalforvaltning selects companies for SRI, they exclude immediately nuclear power stations, tobacco factories and manufacturers of land mines. In addition to the same return on invested capital, both investors and society get an environmental profit. The firms analysed and selected by Storebrand for SRI contributes significantly less negative environmental effects than the other firms, typically 33% less to the global heating and have on average 53% less toxic emissions and 45% less water consumption

  2. Development of environmentally friendly messages to promote longer durations of breastfeeding for already breastfeeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Amanda E

    2015-01-01

    Durations of breastfeeding activity in the United States fall short of established recommendations by leading public health institutions. In response to this problem, this study sought to develop environmentally friendly messages to promote continued breastfeeding for moms already breastfeeding in order to help them reach recommended breastfeeding durations. Messages were successfully cultivated to encourage moms already breastfeeding to meet recommended breastfeeding durations. In addition, this study cultivated strategies by which to use environmentally friendly messages to urge mothers who still need to decide whether to breastfeed or formula feed to breastfeed, although this was not the purpose of the research. Avenues for future communication-based breastfeeding research were also elucidated. The Elaboration Likelihood Model serves as useful theory to assess the role of environmentally friendly messages in the promotion of continued breastfeeding.

  3. Environmentally Friendly Phthalocyanine Catalysts for Water Decontamination - Non Photocatalytic Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusoň, Petr; Drobek, M.; Zsigmond, A.; Baranyi, J.; Bata, P.; Zárubová, Š.; Kalaji, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 91, 3-4 (2009), s. 605-609 ISSN 0926-3373 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD203/03/H140; GA AV ČR KAN400720701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : phthalocyanines * phenol * chlorophenols Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 5.252, year: 2009

  4. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D of the environmentally friendly type production technology - high functional chemical synthesis bioreactor; 1999 nendo kankyo chowagata seisan gijutsu (kokino kagaku gosei bioreactor) kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The R and D were carried out of 'high functional chemical synthesis bioreactor' which makes use of the reaction mechanism of the living organism composed under normal temperature/normal pressure, and the FY 1999 results were summed up. In the development of the element technology to control appearance of bacteria and animal cells, a reactor assessment system to produce the combined transferrin was constructed using the recombined cells which were bred by introducing the integrated vector. By this assessment system, the target value of material productivity was achieved. As to the multiple stage enzyme reaction control breeding technology, the colon bacillus into which 6 kinds of genes in relation to the reaction from hydroxypyruvaldehyde dehydrogenase to cysteine were integrated was incubated, and the appearance of all the enzymes was achieved. In the technology development of a bioreactor system, the production of 1 unit/mg protein of enzyme in 24 hours was achieved using the continuous two step incubation system. Further, to assess the material productivity of the recombined colibacillus, study of conditions of cysteine production was made using the fixed fungus body, and cysteine productivity of 11.3g/l was successfully achieved. (NEDO)

  5. Joint Test Protocol: Environmentally Friendly Zirconium Oxide Pretreatment Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    and compliance issues associated with the use of zinc phosphate and chromate/ chrome containing conversion coatings while maintaining military...safety, and occupational health risks associated with the use of zinc phosphate and chromate/ chrome -containing conversion coatings. There is a need to...zirconium-based pretreatment will be shown to be both environmentally acceptable (no hazardous air pollutants or heavy metals such as hexavalent chromium

  6. Pre-Service Teacher Opinions about Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package Developed to Raise Environmental Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candan, Sevcan; Erten, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package developed in order to raise environmental awareness in pre-service teachers and enable them to be an example of an eco-friendly teacher for their future students, and the responses about Eco-Friendly Person Activity Package were investigated. The study was conducted on 75…

  7. Will biomass be the environmentally friendly fuel of the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.O.; Scrase, J.I.

    1998-01-01

    Many influential organisations foresee biomass playing a key role in a future, more sustainable, global energy supply matrix. Countries such as Austria, Brazil, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, India, the USA and the UK are actively encouraging the use of biomass for energy, and pushing forward the development of the necessary knowledge and technology for modern biomass energy systems. There is a growing consensus that renewable energy must progressively displace the use of fossil fuels, with fears of global climate change adding urgency to this need. Among the available types of renewable energy biomass is unique in its ability to provide solid, liquid and gaseous fuels which can be stored and transported. The potential resource for bioenergy is large, especially in forest-rich nations, in richer countries where there is a surplus of agricultural land, and in many low latitude countries where high biomass yields are possible. Therefore we expect biomass to be an important fuel of the future, but this cannot be taken for granted. The systems adopted must demonstrate clear environmental and social benefits relative to alternatives if the potential is to be realised. These benefits are not inherent to biomass energy, but depend on site- and fuel cycle-specific factors. Life-cycle analysis and evaluation of external costs are important means for assessing the social and environmental pros and cons of bioenergy systems. (author)

  8. Environmentally friendly properties of vegetable oil methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gateau Paul

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements were carried out on Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters (VOME or FAME answering the most recent specifications. The products tested are RME (Rapeseed oil Methyl Ester, ERME (Erucic Rapeseed oil Methyl Esters, SME (Sunflower oil Methyl Esters, and HOSME (High Oleic Sunflower oil Methyl Esters. They contain more than 99.5% of fatty acid mono esters. The compositions are given. VOME are not volatile and they are not easily flammable. They are not soluble in water and they are biodegradable. According to the methods implemented for the determination of the German classification of substances hazardous to waters WGK, they are not toxic on mammals and unlike diesel fuel they are not toxic on fish, daphnia, algae and bacteria. The RME is not either toxic for shrimps. According to tests on rabbits, RME and SME are not irritating for the skin and the eyes. VOME display particularly attractive environmental properties.

  9. The demand for environmentally friendly packaging in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    1996-01-01

    . First, buying behaviour was observed and salient reasons for the choice were registered. Secondly, respondents were interviewed in-depth in order to uncover all attributes that mattered to them, and the why. Thirdly, the relative importance of a few of the crucial attributes for buying intentions....... A person always buying the same brand and variety need not consider every aspect of the purchase. Hence, the non-salience of environmental packaging attributes and the non-concerned buying can partly be explained by habitual shopping. 6. The in-depth interview showed that many more attributes than were...... salient in the shopping situation influence the value of a cream cheese to the consumer. The point of departure of the in-depth interviews was a triadic sorting of four varieties of cre cheese with highly different packaging, among which was one of glass. The clear differentiation between packaging types...

  10. Development and application of an environmentally friendly ductile alkali-activated composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nedeljkovic, M.; Lukovic, M.; van Breugel, K.; Hordijk, D.A.; Ye, G.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a development of a ductile alkali-activated fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) based composite as an environmentally friendly material for structural concrete application. For this purpose, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibres and sand aggregate were

  11. Possible consequences of changing to a more environmental-friendly steel production in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstad, Julie Riise

    2005-01-01

    China is the world's biggest steel producer, the world's biggest steel consumer and the world's biggest polluter. The superpower is forced to change its steel production in a more environmental-friendly way, but necessary measures will be expensive; moreover, they will have consequences far past China's borders. The possible effects are elaborated in the article (ml)

  12. Clean and Selective Catalytic C-H alkylation of Alkenes with Environmental friendly Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert; Vummaleti, Sai V. C.; Polo, Alfonso; Cavallo, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Bearing the alkylation of alkene substrates using alcohol as solvent, catalysed by the cationic Ru-based catalyst [(C6H6)(PCy3)(CO)RuH]+, DFT calculations have been carried out to get mechanistic insights of such an environmental friendly reaction

  13. An environmentally friendly procedure to obtain flavonoids from Brazilian citrus waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellete, Barbara S.; Ramin, Luize Z.; Porto, Deyvid; Ribeiro, Alany I.; Forim, Moacir R.; Zuin, Vânia G.; Fernandes, João B.; Silva, Maria Fátima G.F., E-mail: barbarabellete@gmail.com [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2018-05-01

    Currently, most food waste is used as animal feed and this process does not take advantage of the available chemical composition. A Brazilian example is the citrus fruit processing wastes (CFPW), which have begun to draw attention due to their biological importance. In order to access the main compounds of this matrix, an efficient and environmentally friendly procedure was tested. From this extract, flavonoids as naringenin, hesperitin, chrysoeriol, sinensetin, 3,5,6,7,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone, nobiletin, 5-methoxysalvigenin, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone, 3,5,6,7,4'-pentamethoxyflavone and isosakuranetin were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and liquid chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR). This study describes the potential use of citrus waste as a source of biologically active compounds. The extraction method proposed for this work was not expensive and the flavonoids were obtained in large amounts, thus, this extraction method is being developed using pilot plant scale-up techniques and will soon be available to the industry at a low cost. (author)

  14. An environmentally friendly procedure to obtain flavonoids from Brazilian citrus waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellete, Barbara S.; Ramin, Luize Z.; Porto, Deyvid; Ribeiro, Alany I.; Forim, Moacir R.; Zuin, Vânia G.; Fernandes, João B.; Silva, Maria Fátima G.F.

    2018-01-01

    Currently, most food waste is used as animal feed and this process does not take advantage of the available chemical composition. A Brazilian example is the citrus fruit processing wastes (CFPW), which have begun to draw attention due to their biological importance. In order to access the main compounds of this matrix, an efficient and environmentally friendly procedure was tested. From this extract, flavonoids as naringenin, hesperitin, chrysoeriol, sinensetin, 3,5,6,7,3',4'-hexamethoxyflavone, nobiletin, 5-methoxysalvigenin, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone, 3,5,6,7,4'-pentamethoxyflavone and isosakuranetin were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and liquid chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR). This study describes the potential use of citrus waste as a source of biologically active compounds. The extraction method proposed for this work was not expensive and the flavonoids were obtained in large amounts, thus, this extraction method is being developed using pilot plant scale-up techniques and will soon be available to the industry at a low cost. (author)

  15. Mosquito Traps: An Innovative, Environmentally Friendly Technique to Control Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Poulin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We tested the use of mosquito traps as an alternative to spraying insecticide in Camargue (France following the significant impacts observed on the non-target fauna through Bti persistence and trophic perturbations. In a village of 600 inhabitants, 16 Techno Bam traps emitting CO2 and using octenol lures were set from April to November 2016. Trap performance was estimated at 70% overall based on mosquitoes landing on human bait in areas with and without traps. The reduction of Ochlerotatus caspius and Oc. detritus, the two species targeted by Bti spraying, was, respectively, 74% and 98%. Traps were less efficient against Anopheles hyrcanus (46%, which was more attracted by lactic acid than octenol lures based on previous tests. Nearly 300,000 mosquitoes from nine species were captured, with large variations among traps, emphasizing that trap performance is also influenced by surrounding factors. Environmental impact, based on the proportion of non-target insects captured, was mostly limited to small chironomids attracted by street lights. The breeding success of a house martin colony was not significantly affected by trap use, in contrast to Bti spraying. Our experiment confirms that the deployment of mosquito traps can offer a cost-effective alternative to Bti spraying for protecting local populations from mosquito nuisance in sensitive natural areas.

  16. Enhanced propellant performance via environmentally friendly curable surface coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning

    2017-06-01

    chemical compatibility, will be presented. The 30 mm gun demonstration firing data at hot, cold, and ambient temperatures will also be presented.

  17. Pricing of environmental friendly herbicides appropriate for sustainable agriculture, A case study: wheat farmers in Khorasan Razavi province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghorbani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of wheat farmers’ personal preferences towards environmental issues and weed types is important in pricing bioherbicides for sustainable weed management and could consequently be a fundamental guide to agricultural authorities and policy-makers. In the present study, a survey was carried out by using data collected from 180 wheat farmers of Korasan Razavi province during 2008, together with hedonic pricing method. The role of environmental qualitative factors and weed type on pricing environmental-friendly herbicides on the basis of “willingness to pay” was studied. Results from the estimation of hedonic pricing method indicated that reduction of water pollution, human health risk, farmers information about negative effects of chemical herbicides and the virtual variable of weed type had significant effects on pricing environmental friendly herbicides. Variables of soil pollution and weed perenniality had no significant effects on pricing herbicide applicable to sustainable agricultural systems. Based on the results of this study, possibilities of using bioherbicide or less pollutant herbicides and also the rate of farmers willingness to pay for alternatives in the region are important factors recommended for additional studies

  18. Radiation processing for environmental-friendly industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majali, A.B.; Sabharwal, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Isotope Division of BARC is equipped with a 2-MeV electron beam (EB) accelerator and a 70,000 Ci Cobalt-60 source: these are mainly utilized to develop technologies of interest to our industries and needs. These include development of polyethylene 'O' rings having dimensional stability above the melting point, radiation degradation of PTFE and enhancement of colour in diamonds. The viscose rayon industry is an important industry in India. This industry faces stiff regulations from environmental pollution control agencies primarily due to the emission of toxic sulphur containing gases, and is in search of ways to reduce the pollution levels associated with the process. The irradiation of cellulose with ionizing radiation results in cellulose activation and reduction in the degree of polymerization (DP). There is a keen interest in utilizing radiation technology in viscose rayon production. We have utilized the 2-MeV electron beam accelerator for reducing the degree of polymerization (DP) of paper pulp. Laboratory scale tests have been carried out to standardize the conditions for processing of pulp having desired degree of polymerization. Our studies show that the use of irradiated pulp can significantly reduce the consumption of CS 2 and be beneficial in reducing pollution associated with the process. An electron-beam irradiation based process has been developed to convert the PTFE waste into a low molecular weight (1x10 4 -1x10 5 ) PTFE powder that can be easily processed into a fine micropowder having industrial demand. Even carbon or metal filled PTFE has been recycled using this process. The conventional method of crosslinking linear polymers by thermo-clinical method leads to the formation of homogeneously crosslinked materials which are extremely slow for industrial applications. Electron beam irradiation has been used to create inhomogeneous crosslinking of a temperature-sensitive polymer- poly(vinyl methyl ether)(PVME) so as to produce a fast response

  19. Rehabilitation of Problem Soils Through Environmental Friendly Technologies-I: Effect of Sabins and Farmyard Manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, Mirza B.; Ziaeldin, Mohammad S.; Mahler, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental problem due to land degradation in the developing countries have been a matter of great cocern for the decades. The rehabilitation of problem land has been through many chemical means and engineering approaches, that have resulted in enhancing the gravity and the magnitude of problems. The present studies were undertaken to examine the role of environmental friendly practices to address the salinity issue. the effect of organic manuring (green manure and farmyard manure) or rice was investigated in a field study on a saline-sodic soil of the Saline Agriculture Research Station, Sadhuke, Pakistan. Sesbania was grown as a green manuring crop for two months and then incorporated into soil. farmyard manure (FYM) was applied at the rate of 0, 5, 10 and 20/ha before the sowing of Sesbania. Rice,Cv. Basmati 385 was used as the indicator/test crop. Results revealed that both paddy and straw yields were significantly improved by the application of sesbina and FYM. Green manure with sesbina improved the paddy and straw yields by 15.4% and 14.5% respectively. Productive tillers were also increased by the application of FYM but difference were not significant between 10 and 20ha/ of FYM application. FYM application also improved the paddy and straw yield significantly. The incrase in paddy yield due to application of 5, 10 and 20/ha of FYM were 6.8%, 24.4% and 37.6% over control, respectively. Nitrogen and phosphprus utilizationn by rice were also significantly improved with the application of green manure. Nitrogen uptake by rice was incresed by 17.8% and that of phosphorus by 21.9% with the green manuring. Nitrogen uptake was significantlty increased by the application of different rates of FYM. Also phosphorus uptake was increased significantly with the application of FYM. (author)

  20. Incentives for environmentally friendly vehicles. A report from the Environment and Health Protection Administration in Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksson, Cecilia; Paedam, S. [Inregia AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-11-01

    This report deals with incentives for environmentally friendly vehicles. The report includes a description of the current status of these vehicles in Sweden, Stockholm County Council, and the City of Stockholm. A forecast of possible development of zero and low emission vehicles is carried out. The major obstacles which currently hinder a market for these vehicles are noted. In order to determine market readiness and factors which affect these firms' purchase of vehicles, interviews were carried out with private firms. This analysis indicates that institutional barriers in Sweden hinder zero and low emission vehicles, with laws and tax policies which offer conflicting signals. To follow international developments, these obstacles must be reduced. Therefore, it is important that Stockholm works to create a positive climate for environmentally friendly vehicles. This means that it is important that the policies recommended in this report are implemented with adequate intensity. Because knowledge about zero and low emission vehicles is limited, there is a need to produce factual information. Information can be spread to a larger group, but it is more cost effective to reach a group which is most likely to accept environmentally friendly vehicles. This could include companies with environmental profiles, or those who drive and use company cars. To increase the effectiveness of this information campaign, we suggest that the City also maintain a demonstration fleet with loaner cars for companies who wish to test these vehicles in daily operation before deciding whether or not to purchase them. The incentive package recommended for Stockholm includes offering parking rebates to various groups who park in the city centre; residents , commercial vehicles, and temporary visitors. For equity reasons, all groups should in practice be offered the rebate. To increase the positive effect of the incentive, environmentally friendly vehicles should also be allowed to drive in

  1. Environmentally friendly synthesis of highly monodisperse biocompatible gold nanoparticles with urchin-like shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lehui; Ai, Kelong; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2008-02-05

    We report a facile and environmentally friendly strategy for high-yield synthesis of highly monodisperse gold nanoparticles with urchin-like shape. A simple protein, gelatin, was first used for the control over shape and orientation of the gold nanoparticles. These nanoparticles, ready to use for biological systems, are promising in the optical imaging-based disease diagnostics and therapy because of their tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity.

  2. Decision-Making Tool for Cost-Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Wood Mobilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Matevž Triplat; Peter Prislan; Nike Krajnc

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: With development of forest management technologies, the efficiency of wood production was significantly improved, and thus the impact on forests has changed as well. The article presents a practical decision-making tool for selection of most suitable harvesting system, considering given terrain as well as expected soil conditions on harvesting sites. The decision-making tool should support cost-efficient and environmentally friendly mobilisation of wood. Materials a...

  3. Evaluation of environmentally friendly products for control of fungal diseases of grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Schilder, A.M.C.; Gillett, J.M.; Sysak, R.W.; Wise, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Various environmentally friendly products were tested for efficacy in controlling powdery mildew, downy mildew, black rot, Phomopsis, and Botrytis bunch rot in grapes over several years. The products tested were: JMS stylet oil (paraffinic oil), Serenade (Bacillus subtilis), Croplife (citrus and coconut extract) + Plant food (foliar fertilizer), Armicarb (potassium bicarbonate), Elexa (chitosan), Milsana (giant knotweed extract), and AQ10 (Ampelomyces quisqua/is). JMS Stylet Oil, Armicarb, Se...

  4. Production of environmentally friendly aerated concrete with required construction and operational properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkach Evgeniya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these studies is to justify the feasibility of recycling different types of industrial waste instead of conventional expensive raw materials in production of environmentally friendly aerated concrete with required construction and operational properties. The impact of wastes from various industries on the environmental condition of affected areas, as well as the results of their environmental assessment were analyzed to determine whether these wastes could be used in production of high-performance building materials. The assessment of industrial wastes in aerated concrete production suggests that industrial wastes of hazard class IV can be recycled to produce aerated concrete. An environmentally friendly method for large-scale waste recycling, including a two-step environmentally sustainable mechanism, was developed. The basic quality indicators of the modified aerated concrete proved that the environmental safety could be enhanced by strengthening the structure, increasing its uniformity and improving thermal insulation properties. The modified non-autoclaved aerated concrete products with improved physical and operational properties were developed. They have the following properties: density – D700; class of concrete – B3.5; thermal transmittance coefficient – 0.143 W/(m·°C; frost resistance – F75.

  5. Cross-Cultural Investigation of Consumers’ Generations Attitudes Towards Purchase of Environmentally Friendly Products in Apparel Retail

    OpenAIRE

    Dabija Dan-Cristian; Chebeň Juraj; Lančarič Drahoslav

    2017-01-01

    Recent changes of the environment and in the society have altered consumers’ preferences and brought new concerns among local communities regarding environmental protection and organizations responsibility, the adoption of environmentally friendly strategies, as well as offering more sustainable products. Consumers tend to select retailers based on their focus on environmental friendly products and on various “green” strategies regarding waste disposal, package recycling, etc. This study aims...

  6. Environmental friendly anodizing of AZ91D magnesium alloy in alkaline borate-benzoate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yan [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Chemistry, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741000 (China); Wei Zhongling [Magnesium Technology Co., Ltd., Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jiaxing 314051 (China); Yang Fuwei [Department of Chemistry, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741000 (China); Zhang Zhao, E-mail: eaglezzy@zjuem.zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Key Laboratory for Light Alloy Materials Technology, Jiaxing 314051 (China)

    2011-06-02

    Highlights: > Environmental friendly PEO technology for AZ91 magnesium alloy is developed. > NaBz is used as new additive and it is low-cost and environmental friendly. > The effect of NaBz additive on the properties of the anodized film was studied. > Anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance is obtained. > The forming mechanism of anodized film in the presence of NaBz is approached. - Abstract: A kind of environmental friendly anodizing routine for AZ91D magnesium alloy, based on an alkaline borate-sodium benzoate electrolyte (NaBz) was studied. The effect of NaBz on the properties of the anodized film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results showed that the anodizing process, surface morphology, thickness, phase structure and corrosion resistance of the anodized film were strongly dependent on the concentration of NaBz. In the presence of adequate NaBz, a thick, compact and smoothing anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance was produced. Moreover, the forming mechanism of the anodized film in the presence of NaBz additive was also approached, which was a suppression of arc discharge process by the adsorption of Bz{sup -} on the surface of magnesium alloy substrate.

  7. Environmental friendly anodizing of AZ91D magnesium alloy in alkaline borate-benzoate electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Wei Zhongling; Yang Fuwei; Zhang Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Environmental friendly PEO technology for AZ91 magnesium alloy is developed. → NaBz is used as new additive and it is low-cost and environmental friendly. → The effect of NaBz additive on the properties of the anodized film was studied. → Anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance is obtained. → The forming mechanism of anodized film in the presence of NaBz is approached. - Abstract: A kind of environmental friendly anodizing routine for AZ91D magnesium alloy, based on an alkaline borate-sodium benzoate electrolyte (NaBz) was studied. The effect of NaBz on the properties of the anodized film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results showed that the anodizing process, surface morphology, thickness, phase structure and corrosion resistance of the anodized film were strongly dependent on the concentration of NaBz. In the presence of adequate NaBz, a thick, compact and smoothing anodized film with excellent corrosion resistance was produced. Moreover, the forming mechanism of the anodized film in the presence of NaBz additive was also approached, which was a suppression of arc discharge process by the adsorption of Bz - on the surface of magnesium alloy substrate.

  8. Geochemical induced degradation of environmental chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parlar, H

    1984-09-01

    Attempts to correlate the concentration of organic chemicals in the environment with their production figures have resulted in a large deficit; this includes environmental chemicals such as chlorinated hydrocarbons. It has been assumed that analytical errors accounted for this deficit. Another explanation, however, allows for reactions of compounds under biotic and abiotic conditions. Because of the biostability of many organic chemicals biological transformation mechanisms can bring about slight change only. By contrast, abiotic environmental factors such as the UV-irradiation or decomposition on natural surfaces contribute considerably to the transformation of this substance class. An investigation of such abiotic charges of organic chemicals must therefore pay particular attention to dynamic and catalytic effects primarily attributable to the respective molecular state and interactions with the environment. This paper deals with the photoinduced reactions of organic substances adsorbed on natural surfaces and their significance for the degradability of environmental chemicals.

  9. Environmental chemical exposures and human epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dong; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Every year more than 13 million deaths worldwide are due to environmental pollutants, and approximately 24% of diseases are caused by environmental exposures that might be averted through preventive measures. Rapidly growing evidence has linked environmental pollutants with epigenetic variations, including changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Environ mental chemicals and epigenetic changes All of these mechanisms are likely to play important roles in disease aetiology, and their modifications due to environmental pollutants might provide further understanding of disease aetiology, as well as biomarkers reflecting exposures to environmental pollutants and/or predicting the risk of future disease. We summarize the findings on epigenetic alterations related to environmental chemical exposures, and propose mechanisms of action by means of which the exposures may cause such epigenetic changes. We discuss opportunities, challenges and future directions for future epidemiology research in environmental epigenomics. Future investigations are needed to solve methodological and practical challenges, including uncertainties about stability over time of epigenomic changes induced by the environment, tissue specificity of epigenetic alterations, validation of laboratory methods, and adaptation of bioinformatic and biostatistical methods to high-throughput epigenomics. In addition, there are numerous reports of epigenetic modifications arising following exposure to environmental toxicants, but most have not been directly linked to disease endpoints. To complete our discussion, we also briefly summarize the diseases that have been linked to environmental chemicals-related epigenetic changes. PMID:22253299

  10. Environmentally benign chemical synthesis and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, K.G.

    1992-01-01

    A new era of university-industry-government partnership is required to address the intertwined problems of industrial economic competitiveness and environmental quality. Chemicals that go up the stacks and down the drains are simultaneously a serious detriment to the environment, a waste of natural resources, and a threat to industrial profitability. Recently, the NSF Divisions of Chemistry and chemical and Thermal Systems have joined with the Council for Chemical research in a new grant program to reduce pollution at the source by underwriting research aimed at environmentally benign chemical synthesis and processing. Part of a broader NSF initiative on environmental science research, this new program serves as a model for university-industry-government joint action and technology transfer. Other features of this program and related activities will be described in this paper

  11. Prioritizing Environmental Chemicals for Obesity and Diabetes ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Diabetes and obesity are major threats to public health in the US and abroad. Understanding the role chemicals in our environment play in the development of these conditions is an emerging issue in environmental health, although identifying and prioritizing chemicals for testing beyond those already implicated in the literature is a challenge. This review is intended to help researchers generate hypotheses about chemicals potentially contributing to diabetes and obesity-related health outcomes by summarizing relevant findings from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS) program. Objectives: To develop new hypotheses around environmental chemicals of potential interest for diabetes- or obesity-related outcomes using high throughput screening data. Methods: Identify ToxCast assay targets relevant to several biological processes related to diabetes and obesity (insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue, pancreatic islet and beta cell function, adipocyte dierentiation, and feeding behavior) and present chemical screening data against those assay targets to identify chemicals of potential interest. Discussion: Results of this screening-level analysis suggest that the spectrum of environmental chemicals to consider in research related to diabetes and obesity is much broader than indicated from research papers and reviews published in the peer-reviewed literature. Testing of hypotheses based on ToxCast data will a

  12. Environmental impact assessment and eco-friendly decision-making in civil structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Hyo; Choi, Moon-Seock; Mha, Ho-Seong; Joung, Jung-Yeun

    2013-09-15

    This study develops two useful procedures in performing an environmental-impact assessment. One is the advanced life-cycle assessment (LCA) method, which effectively tracks the flow of materials and considers the recycling and demolition of a civil structure. The other is an eco-friendly decision-making procedure, which may effectively apply when determining the prototype of a civil structure. The advanced LCA method differs from traditional LCA procedure, as it classifies the input material prior to the impact assessment. Classification work is performed to establish independent life-cycle stages for each material. The processes of recycling and demolition are appropriately added to the life-cycle stages. The impact assessment is performed separately for the materials, and results are aggregated at the end of the analysis. The eco-friendly decision-making procedure enables designers to choose an economical, and environmentally friendly, alternative during the planning phase of the construction project. This procedure rationally amalgamates economical value and environmental effects into a single indicator. The life cycle cost (LCC) of a structure can be analysed by using conventional LCC tools, whereas the environmental impact is estimated by LCA. The results from LCC and LCA are then integrated by using either a CO2 conversion method or an analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The CO2 conversion method presents the result as a monetary value, whereas the AHP presents the result as a non-dimensional value. A practical example using a steel box girder bridge and a pre-stressed concrete (PSC) box-girder bridge is also given in order to aid the understanding of the presented procedure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Replacement of petroleum based hydraulic fluids with renewable and environmental friendly resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Sani Wan Nik; Noraini Ali

    2000-01-01

    Rational self-interest and good environmental citizenship are forcing the development of renewable and environmentally acceptable hydraulic fluids. Fluids that are at least equivalent in performance plus biodegradable have been formulated in Europe and USA using vegetable oils as base stocks for innovative additive packages. While many of the differences in using vegetable based stocks in place of mineral oils have been adapted to by straightforward formulating changes, the oxidation stability of vegetable-based stock is still a challenging area. This work initiates the investigation in Malaysia in the use of environmentally friendly resource to replace partially the petroleum based hydraulic fluid. The study concentrates more in improving the oxidation stability of the vegetable based stocks. (Author)

  14. Environmentally friendly health care food services: a survey of beliefs, behaviours, and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Elisa D; Garcia, Alicia C

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing global interest in sustainability and the environment. A hospital/health care food service facility consumes large amounts of resources; therefore, efficiencies in operation can address sustainability. Beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours about environmentally friendly practices in hospital/health care food services were explored in this study. Questionnaires addressed environmentally friendly initiatives in building and equipment, waste management, food, and non-food procurement issues. The 68 participants included hospital food service managers, clinical dietitians, dietary aides, food technicians, and senior management. Data analysis included correlation analysis and descriptive statistics. Average scores for beliefs were high in building and equipment (90%), waste management (94%), and non-food procurement (87%), and lower in food-related initiatives (61%) such as buying locally, buying organic foods, buying sustainable fish products, and reducing animal proteins. Average positive scores for behaviours were positively correlated with beliefs (waste management, p=0.001; food, p=0.000; non-food procurement, p=0.002). Average positive scores for attitude in terms of implementing the initiatives in health care were 74% for building and equipment, 81% for waste management, 70% for non-food procurement, and 36% for food. The difference in food-related beliefs, behaviours, and attitudes suggests the need for education on environmental impacts of food choices. Research is recommended to determine facilitators and barriers to the implementation of green strategies in health care. As food experts, dietitians can lead changes in education, practice, and policy development.

  15. Aqueous hybrid ion batteries - An environmentally friendly alternative for stationary energy storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jens F.; Weil, Marcel

    2017-10-01

    Aqueous hybrid ion batteries (AHIB) are being promoted as an environmentally friendly alternative to existing stationary battery technologies. However, no quantification of their potential environmental impacts has yet been done. This paper presents a prospective life cycle assessment of an AHIB module and compares its performance with lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries in two different stationary energy storage applications. The findings show that the claim of being an environmentally friendly technology can only be supported with some major limitations. While the AHIB uses abundant and non-toxic materials, it has a very low energy density and requires increased amounts of material for providing a given storage capacity. Per kWh of battery, results comparable to those of the alternative lithium- or sodium-ion batteries are obtained, but significantly higher impacts under global warming and ozone depletion aspects. The comparable high cycle life of the AHIB compensates this partially, requiring less battery replacements over the lifetime of the application. On the other hand, its internal inefficiencies are higher, what becomes the dominating factor when charging majorly fossil based electricity, making AHIB unattractive for this type of applications.

  16. Gender sensitive education in watershed management to support environmental friendly city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asteria, D.; Budidarmono; Herdiansyah, H.; Ni’mah, N. L.

    2018-03-01

    This study is about gender-sensitive perspective in watershed management education program as one of capacity building for citizens in watershed management with community-based strategy to support environmental friendly cities and security for women from flood disasters. Involving women and increasing women’s active participation in sustainable watershed management is essential in urban area. In global warming and climate change situations, city management should be integrated between social aspect and environmental planning. This study used mix method (concurrent embedded type, with quantitative as primary method) with research type is descriptive-explanatory. The result of this study is education strategies with gender approaches and affirmative action through emancipation approach and local knowledge from women’s experiences can increase women’s participation. Women’s empowerment efforts need integrated intervention and collaboration from government, NGO, and other stakeholders to optimize women’s role in watershed management for support environmental friendly city. The implication of this study is an educational strategy on watershed conservation with gender perspective to offer social engineering alternatives for decision makers to policy of sustainable watershed management in urban area related to flood mitigation efforts.

  17. Environmentally friendly synthesis of organic-soluble silver nanoparticles for printed electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwi Jong; Jun, Byung Ho; Choi, Junrak; Lee, Young Il; Joung, Jaewoo; Oh, Yong Soo

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to synthesize organic-soluble silver nanoparticles in the concentrated organic phase with an environmentally friendly method. The fully organic phase system contains silver acetate as a silver precursor, oleic acid as both a medium and a capping molecule, and tin acetate as a reducing agent. Monodisperse silver nanoparticles with average diameters of ca. 5 nm can be easily synthesized at large scale. Only a small usage of tin acetate ( 90%). Also, it was investigated that the residual tin atom does not exist in the synthesized silver nanoparticles. This implied that tin acetate acts as a reducing catalyst

  18. Isomerization of glucose into fructose by environmentally friendly Fe/β zeolite catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Siquan; Zhang, Lei; Xiao, Kehao; Xia, Haian

    2017-06-29

    Herein, the environmentally friendly Fe/β zeolite for glucose isomerization to fructose in aqueous media was reported for the first time. The effects of various reaction conditions including reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst dosage, etc. on the isomerization reaction over Fe/β zeolite were studied in detail. Under the optimized conditions, yield of fructose higher than 20% were obtained. Moreover, the Fe/β zeolite catalysts were stable and remained constant catalytic activity after five consecutive runs. The possible active Fe species for isomerization of glucose in Fe/β zeolite is also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Selective leaching of Zn from spent alkaline batteries using environmentally friendly approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryam Sadeghi, S; Vanpeteghem, Guillaumme; Neto, Isabel F F; Soares, Helena M V M

    2017-02-01

    The main aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using microwave or ultrasound to assist the efficient and selective leaching of Zn from spent alkaline batteries and compare the results with those obtained using the conventional method. Two different strategies were applied: acid leaching of a washed residue and alkaline leaching of the original residue. In both (acid and alkaline) approaches, the use of microwave- or ultrasound-assisted leaching increased the extraction of Zn compared with the best results obtained using conventional leaching [acid leaching (1.5mol/L H 2 SO 4 , 3h, 80°C), 90% of Zn extracted; alkaline leaching (6mol/L NaOH, 3h, 80°C), 42% of Zn extracted]. With acid leaching, 94% of the Zn was extracted using microwave-assisted leaching (1 cycle, 30s, 1mol/L H 2 SO 4 ), and 92% of the Zn was extracted using ultrasound-assisted leaching (2min, 0.1p, 20% amplitude, 1mol/L H 2 SO 4 ). Ultrasound-assisted leaching resulted in a more selective (Zn/Mn ratio of 5.1) Zn extraction than microwave-assisted leaching (Zn/Mn ratio of 3.5); both processes generated a concentrated Zn solution (⩾18.7g/L) with a purity (83.3% and 77.7%, respectively) that was suitable for electrowinning. With alkaline leaching, microwave- (1 cycle, 3 min, 4mol/L NaOH) and ultrasound-assisted (14min, 0.1p, 20% amplitude, 4mol/L NaOH) leaching extracted about 80% of the Zn and less than 0.01% of the Mn, which resulted in lesser concentrated Zn solutions (approximately 16.5g/L) but with high purity (>99.5%) that was suitable for the recovery of Zn by precipitation. The microwave- and ultrasound-assisted leaching strategies used in this work proved to be efficient and environmentally-friendly approaches for the extraction of Zn from spent alkaline residues since a concentrated Zn solution with adequate purity for subsequent Zn recovery was obtained using significantly decreased leaching times and concentrations of chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. Environmentally friendly ionic liquid-in-water microemulsions for extraction of hydrophilic and lipophilic components from Flos Chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jue; Cao, Jun; Gao, Wen; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2013-10-21

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have numerous chemical applications as environmentally green solvents that are extending into microemulsion applications. In this work, a novel benign IL-in-water microemulsion system modified by an IL surfactant has been proposed for simultaneous extraction of hydrophilic and lipophilic constituents from Flos Chrysanthemi (Chrysanthemum morifolium). Constituents were analyzed by rapid-resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A mixture-design approach was used to optimize the IL surfactant and the IL oil phase in the microemulsion system. Microemulsions consisting of 6.0% 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate, 0.1% 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and 93.9% water offered the acceptable extract efficiency that are comparable to or even better than conventional volatile organic solvents. This assay was fully validated with respect to the linearity of response (r(2) > 0.999 over two orders of magnitude), precision (intra-RSD < 0.49 and inter-day RSD < 2.21), and accuracy (recoveries ranging from 93.73% to 101.84%). The proposed IL-in-water microemulsion method provided an environmentally friendly alternative for efficient extraction of compounds from Flos Chrysanthemi and could be extended to complex environmental and pharmaceutical samples.

  1. Release Properties and Electrochemical Characterization of Encapsulated Corrosion Inhibitors for Environmentally Friendly Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, B. P.; Calle, L. M.; Zhang, X.; Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Johnsey, M. N.; Montgomery, E. L.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Surma, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center's Corrosion Technology Lab at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, U.S.A. has been developing multifunctional smart coatings based on the microencapsulation of environmentally friendly corrosion indicators, inhibitors and self-healing agents. This allows for the incorporation of autonomous corrosion control functionalities, such as corrosion detection and inhibition as well as the self-healing of mechanical damage, into coatings. This paper presents technical details on the characterization of inhibitor-containing particles and their corrosion inhibitive effects using electrochemical and mass loss methods. Three organic environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated in organic microparticles that are compatible with desired coatings. The total inhibitor content and the release of one of the inhibitors from the microparticles in basic solution was measured. Particles with inhibitor contents of up 60 wt% were synthesized. Fast release, for immediate corrosion protection, as well as long-term release for continued protection, was observed. The inhibition efficacy of the inhibitors, both as the pure materials and in microparticles, on carbon steel was evaluated. Polarization curves and mass loss measurements showed that, in the case of 2MBT, its corrosion inhibition effectiveness was greater when it was delivered from microparticles.

  2. Perceived quality, perceived risk and customer trust affecting customer loyalty of environmentally friendly electronics products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalinthorn Marakanon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, industrial business competition causes producers to be aware of quality, price, and variety in developing new products to meet the consumers' needs. This research reviewed the literature on green marketing and proposes a new conceptual framework of customer loyalty. It uses four constructs—perceived quality, perceived risk, customer trust, and customer loyalty—in the context of environmentally friendly electronics products in Thailand. This research employed an empirical study using the questionnaire survey method to verify the hypotheses. Data were obtained from 420 consumers who bought and used environmentally friendly electronic products, particularly mobile phones, computers, and laptops using a purposive sampling method. The data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and structural equation modeling (SEM. The results showed that perceived risk and customer trust had a direct effect on customer loyalty while perceived quality had an indirect effect on customer loyalty via customer trust. Furthermore, perceived quality had direct effects on perceived risk and customer trust. The results from the final SEM model were used to confirm the proposed relationships among the variables.

  3. Characterization of Encapsulated Corrosion Inhibitors Containing Microparticles for Environmentally Friendly Smart Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Benjamin Pieter; Calle, Luz M.

    2015-01-01

    This poster presents the results obtained from experiments designed to evaluate the release properties, as well as the corrosion inhibition effectiveness, of several encapsulated corrosion inhibitors. Microencapsulation has been used in the development of environmentally friendly multifunctional smart coatings. This technique enables the incorporation of autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition and self-healing functionalities into many commercially available coating systems. Select environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated in organic and inorganic pH-sensitive microparticles and their release in basic solutions was studied. The release rate results showed that the encapsulation can be tailored from fast, for immediate corrosion protection, to slow, which will provide continued long-term corrosion protection. The incorporation of several corrosion inhibitor release profiles into a coating provides effective corrosion protection properties. To investigate the corrosion inhibition efficiency of the encapsulated inhibitors, electrochemical techniques were used to obtain corrosion potential, polarization curve and polarization resistance data. These measurements were performed using the free as well as the encapsulated inhibitors singly or in combinations. Results from these electrochemical tests will be compared to those obtained from weight loss and other accelerated corrosion experiments.

  4. Microbiological Leaching; an Environmentally Friendly and Cost Effective Method for Extraction of Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobeiti-Hasab Mehdi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding a cleaner, environmentally friendly and cost-effective way of metal and mineral extraction has a great importance in today’s world. Using microorganisms in bio-leaching and bio-oxidation process is of great value. From Archaea to bacteria and fungi, microorganisms can play an important role in extraction of metals from mine drainage and un-accessible sources, both in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Optimization of environmental factors such as the temperature, pH and substrate concentration is crucially important to access the optimum extraction of selected metals from an ore or mine drainage. The present paper will review the bio-leaching and bio-oxidation process of minerals with emphasis on the most well-known species of bacterial communities of such ability, through the literature.

  5. Consumer purchase intention towards environmentally friendly vehicles: an empirical investigation in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroz, Rafia; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Akhtar, Rulia; Islam, Md Ashraful; Duasa, Jarita Bt

    2015-10-01

    This paper examines whether attitudes towards electric vehicles (ATEVs), subjective norms (SNs) and perceived behavioural control (PBC) have significant associations with consumer purchase intention (PI) and the purchase behaviour of environmentally friendly vehicles (EFVs). The results from the survey questionnaires are analysed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM). The findings of this paper indicate that ATEV, SN and PBC significantly influence PI. This finding also indicates that environmental consequence and individual preferences do not influence the PI of the respondents. We found that Malaysian car owners are largely unaware of the greenhouse effects on the environment or attach to it little importance, which is reflected in their PI towards EFVs. The outcomes of this study could help policymakers design programmes to influence attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and purchase behaviour to prevent further air pollution and reduce CO2 emissions from the transportation sector.

  6. Toxicity challenges in environmental chemicals: Prediction of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models bridge the gap between in vitro assays and in vivo effects by accounting for the adsorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of xenobiotics, which is especially useful in the assessment of human toxicity. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) serve as a vital tool for the high-throughput prediction of chemical-specific PBPK parameters, such as the fraction of a chemical unbound by plasma protein (Fub). The presented work explores the merit of utilizing experimental pharmaceutical Fub data for the construction of a universal QSAR model, in order to compensate for the limited range of high-quality experimental Fub data for environmentally relevant chemicals, such as pollutants, pesticides, and consumer products. Independent QSAR models were constructed with three machine-learning algorithms, k nearest neighbors (kNN), random forest (RF), and support vector machine (SVM) regression, from a large pharmaceutical training set (~1000) and assessed with independent test sets of pharmaceuticals (~200) and environmentally relevant chemicals in the ToxCast program (~400). Small descriptor sets yielded the optimal balance of model complexity and performance, providing insight into the biochemical factors of plasma protein binding, while preventing over fitting to the training set. Overlaps in chemical space between pharmaceutical and environmental compounds were considered through applicability of do

  7. An environmentally-friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process to recover germanium from coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • An environmental friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process is proposed. • Rare and valuable metal germanium from coal fly ash is recycled. • Residues are not a hazardous material and can be further recycled. • A germanium recovery ratio of 94.64% is obtained in pilot scale experiments. - Abstract: The demand for germanium in the field of semiconductor, electronics, and optical devices is growing rapidly; however, the resources of germanium are scarce worldwide. As a secondary material, coal fly ash could be further recycled to retrieve germanium. Up to now, the conventional processes to recover germanium have two problems as follows: on the one hand, it is difficult to be satisfactory for its economic and environmental effect; on the other hand, the recovery ratio of germanium is not all that could be desired. In this paper, an environmentally-friendly vacuum reduction metallurgical process (VRMP) was proposed to recover germanium from coal fly ash. The results of the laboratory scale experiments indicated that the appropriate parameters were 1173 K and 10 Pa with 10 wt% coke addition for 40 min, and recovery ratio germanium was 93.96%. On the basis of above condition, the pilot scale experiments were utilized to assess the actual effect of VRMP for recovery of germanium with parameter of 1473 K, 1–10 Pa and heating time 40 min, the recovery ratio of germanium reached 94.64%. This process considerably enhances germanium recovery, meanwhile, eliminates much of the water usage and residue secondary pollution compared with other conventional processes.

  8. Comparison of the microbiological quality of environmentally friendly and conventionally grown vegetables sold at retail markets in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Kim, Minju; Kim, Eun-Gyeong; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung

    2014-09-01

    Fresh produce is usually eaten raw without cooking or heating, which may increase the probability of foodborne infection. The microbiological quality of 11 types of fresh, raw vegetables (romaine lettuce, sesame leaves, crown daisy, garlic chives, iceberg lettuce, cabbage, broccoli, leek, chili pepper, capsicum, and zucchini) purchased at retail markets in Iksan, Korea as affected by cultivation method (environmentally friendly vegetables [organic, pesticide-free, and low-pesticide vegetables] and conventionally grown vegetables) and harvest season was determined. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were not detected in all samples of vegetables tested. Aerobic mesophiles (>6 log cfu/g) were detected in environmentally friendly romaine lettuce and crown daisy and environmentally friendly and conventionally grown garlic chives, which also contained coliforms (>3 log cfu/g). Sesame leaf and crown daisy (regardless of cultivation method), as well as conventionally grown romaine lettuce and leek, contained >1 log cfu/g of E. coli. The overall microbiological quality of environmentally friendly and conventionally grown vegetables was not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, there were seasonal effects on populations of coliforms and generic E. coli on vegetables. The greatest numbers of microorganisms were isolated from environmentally friendly or conventionally grown vegetables purchased in winter. The vegetables, regardless of cultivation method or season, should be subjected to appropriate antimicrobial treatment to enhance their microbial safety. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Priority Environmental Chemical Contaminants in Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; Iamiceli, Annalaura; di Domenico, Alessandro

    Generally, foods of animal origin play an important role in determining the exposure of human beings to contaminants of both biological and chemical origins (Ropkins & Beck, 2002; Lievaart et al., 2005). A potentially large number of chemicals could be considered, several of them deserving a particular attention due to their occurrence (contaminations levels and frequencies) and intake scenarios reflecting the differences existing in the economical, environmental, social and ecological contexts in which the “from-farm-to-fork” activities related to meat production are carried out (FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization, 2008).

  10. Molybdenum Dichalcogenides for Environmental Chemical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Zappa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available 2D transition metal dichalcogenides are attracting a strong interest following the popularity of graphene and other carbon-based materials. In the field of chemical sensors, they offer some interesting features that could potentially overcome the limitation of graphene and metal oxides, such as the possibility of operating at room temperature. Molybdenum-based dichalcogenides in particular are among the most studied materials, thanks to their facile preparation techniques and promising performances. The present review summarizes the advances in the exploitation of these MoX2 materials as chemical sensors for the detection of typical environmental pollutants, such as NO2, NH3, CO and volatile organic compounds.

  11. Investigations on an environment friendly chemical reaction process (eco-chemistry). 2; Kankyo ni yasashii kagaku hanno process (eko chemistry) ni kansuru chosa. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In order to structure a chemical reaction process that does not discharge a large amount of waste by-products or harmful chemical substances, or so-called environment friendly process, investigations and discussions were given based on the results derived in the previous fiscal year. A proposal was made to reduce environmental load on development of oxidized and dehydrogenated catalysts that can produce selectively ethylene, propylene and isobutylene in an oxidation process. In liquid phase oxidation, redox-based oxidation and solid catalyzation of automatic oxidation reaction were enumerated. In acid base catalyst reaction, development of ultra strong solid acid was described to structure no pollution discharging process. In the fine chemical and pharmaceutical fields, the optical active substance method and the position-selective aromatics displacement reaction were evaluated to reduce environmental load. A questionnaire survey performed on major chemical corporations inside and outside the country revealed the following processes as the ones that can cause hidden environmental problems: processes discharging large amount of wastes, processes treating dangerous materials, and processes consuming large amount of energy. Development of catalysts is important that can realize high yield, high selectivity and reactions under mild conditions as a future environment harmonizing chemical process. 117 refs., 23 figs., 22 tabs.

  12. Corrosion-Activated Micro-Containers for Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Protective Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, J. W.; Zhang, X.; Johnsey, M. N.; Pearman, B. P.; Jolley, S. T.; Calle, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    This work concerns the development of environmentally friendly encapsulation technology, specifically designed to incorporate corrosion indicators, inhibitors, and self-healing agents into a coating, in such a way that the delivery of the indicators and inhibitors is triggered by the corrosion process, and the delivery of self-healing agents is triggered by mechanical damage to the coating. Encapsulation of the active corrosion control ingredients allows the incorporation of desired autonomous corrosion control functions such as: early corrosion detection, hidden corrosion detection, corrosion inhibition, and self-healing of mechanical damage into a coating. The technology offers the versatility needed to include one or several corrosion control functions into the same coating.The development of the encapsulation technology has progressed from the initial proof-of-concept work, in which a corrosion indicator was encapsulated into an oil-core (hydrophobic) microcapsule and shown to be delivered autonomously, under simulated corrosion conditions, to a sophisticated portfolio of micro carriers (organic, inorganic, and hybrid) that can be used to deliver a wide range of active corrosion ingredients at a rate that can be adjusted to offer immediate as well as long-term corrosion control. The micro carriers have been incorporated into different coating formulas to test and optimize the autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition, and self-healing functions of the coatings. This paper provides an overview of progress made to date and highlights recent technical developments, such as improved corrosion detection sensitivity, inhibitor test results in various types of coatings, and highly effective self-healing coatings based on green chemistry. The NASA Kennedy Space Centers Corrosion Technology Lab at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, U.S.A. has been developing multifunctional smart coatings based on the microencapsulation of environmentally friendly corrosion

  13. Multimedia environmental chemical partitioning from molecular information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Izacar; Grifoll, Jordi; Giralt, Francesc; Rallo, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The prospect of assessing the environmental distribution of chemicals directly from their molecular information was analyzed. Multimedia chemical partitioning of 455 chemicals, expressed in dimensionless compartmental mass ratios, was predicted by SimpleBox 3, a Level III Fugacity model, together with the propagation of reported uncertainty for key physicochemical and transport properties, and degradation rates. Chemicals, some registered in priority lists, were selected according to the availability of experimental property data to minimize the influence of predicted information in model development. Chemicals were emitted in air or water in a fixed geographical scenario representing the Netherlands and characterized by five compartments (air, water, sediments, soil and vegetation). Quantitative structure-fate relationship (QSFR) models to predict mass ratios in different compartments were developed with support vector regression algorithms. A set of molecular descriptors, including the molecular weight and 38 counts of molecular constituents were adopted to characterize the chemical space. Out of the 455 chemicals, 375 were used for training and testing the QSFR models, while 80 were excluded from model development and were used as an external validation set. Training and test chemicals were selected and the domain of applicability (DOA) of the QSFRs established by means of self-organizing maps according to structural similarity. Best results were obtained with QSFR models developed for chemicals belonging to either the class [C] and [C; O], or the class with at least one heteroatom different than oxygen in the structure. These two class-specific models, with respectively 146 and 229 chemicals, showed a predictive squared coefficient of q 2 ≥ 0.90 both for air and water, which respectively dropped to q 2 ∼ 0.70 and 0.40 for outlying chemicals. Prediction errors were of the same order of magnitude as the deviations associated to the uncertainty of the

  14. Environmental protection, a task of chemical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlachter, H

    1980-12-01

    The environmental burden in air and water in Germany is surveyed. The terms 'eco-unobjectionable technology' and 'disposal technology' are then considered with the aid of examples. These are fundamental chemical engineering approaches for reducing or eliminating environmental burdens due to industrial production processes. 'Eco-unobjectionable processes' are those in which undesired pollutants are not even formed, i.e. when possible emissions are eliminated at source. If this is only partly possible, or impossible, then disposal measures are adopted. This means removal of unavoidable pollutants from waste gases and waste water, and the disposal of other wastes.

  15. An Environmentally Friendly, Cost-Effective Determination of Lead in Environmental Samples Using Anodic Stripping Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldcamp, Michael J.; Underwood, Melinda N.; Cloud, Joshua L.; Harshman, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with heavy metals such as lead presents many health risks. Simple, effective, and field-portable methods for the measurement of toxic metals in environmental samples are vital tools for evaluating the risks that these contaminants pose. This article describes the use of new developments in anodic stripping…

  16. Causes of Climate and Environmental Changes: The Need for Environmental-Friendly Education Policy in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwoala, H. N. L.

    2015-01-01

    Man cannot naturally be detached from his environment. From time to time, changes in climate and environmental conditions occur as a result of natural and human factors. Obviously, the natural factors are almost beyond human control. But, the human factors are to a very large extent under human control. Thus, this paper tried to discover natural…

  17. Eco-friendly synthesis of metal dichalcogenides nanosheets and their environmental remediation potential driven by visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashish Kumar; Lakshmi, K. V.; Huang, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Exfoliated transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as WS2 and MoS2 have shown exciting potential for energy storage, catalysis and optoelectronics. So far, solution based methods for scalable production of few-layer TMDs usually involve the use of organic solvents or dangerous chemicals. Here, we report an eco-friendly method for facile synthesis of few-layer WS2 and MoS2 nanosheets using dilute aqueous solution of household detergent. Short time sonication of varying amount of bulk samples in soapy water was used to scale up the production of nanosheets. Thermal stability, optical absorption and Raman spectra of as-synthesized WS2 and MoS2 nanosheets are in close agreement with those from other synthesis techniques. Efficient photocatalytic activity of TMDs nanosheets was demonstrated by decomposing Brilliant Green dye in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. Our study shows the great potential of TMDs nanosheets for environmental remediation by degrading toxic industrial chemicals in wastewater using sunlight. PMID:26503125

  18. Effective recovery of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) biopolymer from Cupriavidus necator using a novel and environmentally friendly solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Tao; Cazeneuve, Stacy; Wen, Zhiyou; Wu, Lei; Wang, Tong

    2016-05-01

    This work demonstrates a significant advance in bioprocessing for a high-melting lipid polymer. A novel and environmental friendly solvent mixture, acetone/ethanol/propylene carbonate (A/E/P, 1:1:1 v/v/v) was identified for extracting poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), a high-value biopolymer, from Cupriavidus necator. A set of solubility curves of PHB in various solvents was established. PHB recovery of 85% and purity of 92% were obtained from defatted dry biomass (DDB) using A/E/P. This solvent mixture is compatible with water, and from non-defatted wet biomass, PHB recovery of 83% and purity of 90% were achieved. Water and hexane were evaluated as anti-solvents to assist PHB precipitation, and hexane improved recovery of PHB from biomass to 92% and the purity to 93%. A scale-up extraction and separation reactor was designed, built and successfully tested. Properties of PHB recovered were not significantly affected by the extraction solvent and conditions, as shown by average molecular weight (1.4 × 10(6) ) and melting point (175.2°C) not being different from PHB extracted using chloroform. Therefore, this biorenewable solvent system was effective and versatile for extracting PHB biopolymers. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:678-685, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Eco-friendly synthesis of metal dichalcogenides nanosheets and their environmental remediation potential driven by visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashish Kumar; Lakshmi, K. V.; Huang, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Exfoliated transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) such as WS2 and MoS2 have shown exciting potential for energy storage, catalysis and optoelectronics. So far, solution based methods for scalable production of few-layer TMDs usually involve the use of organic solvents or dangerous chemicals. Here, we report an eco-friendly method for facile synthesis of few-layer WS2 and MoS2 nanosheets using dilute aqueous solution of household detergent. Short time sonication of varying amount of bulk samples in soapy water was used to scale up the production of nanosheets. Thermal stability, optical absorption and Raman spectra of as-synthesized WS2 and MoS2 nanosheets are in close agreement with those from other synthesis techniques. Efficient photocatalytic activity of TMDs nanosheets was demonstrated by decomposing Brilliant Green dye in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. Our study shows the great potential of TMDs nanosheets for environmental remediation by degrading toxic industrial chemicals in wastewater using sunlight.

  20. Microsynthesis of C-14 labelled environmental chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attar, A.; Bieniek, D.; Klein, W.; Korte, F.

    1982-01-01

    Intention of these studies was to produce C-14 labelled environmental chemicals by means of optimizing the reaction conditions of any individual known synthesis step and to reduce the portion of not usable side-products to a minimum. By means of appropriate working techniques it was possible to largely avoid losses during preparation analysis (extraction, evaporation of diluting solutions, dehydration of reaction products etc.). (orig./HBr) [de

  1. Slip flow coefficient analysis in water hydraulics gear pump for environmental friendly application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof, A A; Wasbari, F; Zakaria, M S; Ibrahim, M Q

    2013-01-01

    Water hydraulics is the sustainable option in developing fluid power systems with environmental friendly approach. Therefore, an investigation on water-based external gear pump application is being conducted, as a low cost solution in the shifting effort of using water, instead of traditional oil hydraulics in fluid power application. As the gear pump is affected by fluid viscosity, an evaluation has been conducted on the slip flow coefficient, in order to understand to what extent the spur gear pump can be used with water-based hydraulic fluid. In this paper, the results of a simulated study of variable-speed fixed displacement gear pump are presented. The slip flow coefficient varies from rotational speed of 250 RPM to 3500 RPM, and provides volumetric efficiency ranges from 9 % to 97% accordingly

  2. Natural cork agglomerate employed as an environmentally friendly solution for quiet sandwich composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargianis, James; Kim, Hyung-ick; Suhr, Jonghwan

    2012-01-01

    Carbon fiber-synthetic foam core sandwich composites are widely used for many structural applications due to their superior mechanical performance and low weight. Unfortunately these structures typically have very poor acoustic performance. There is increasingly growing demand in mitigating this noise issue in sandwich composite structures. This study shows that marrying carbon fiber composites with natural cork in a sandwich structure provides a synergistic effect yielding a noise-free sandwich composite structure without the sacrifice of mechanical performance or weight. Moreover the cork-core sandwich composites boast a 250% improvement in damping performance, providing increased durability and lifetime operation. Additionally as the world seeks environmentally friendly materials, the harvesting of cork is a natural, renewable process which reduces subsequent carbon footprints. Such a transition from synthetic foam cores to natural cork cores could provide unprecedented improvements in acoustic and vibrational performance in applications such as aircraft cabins or wind turbine blades.

  3. Geothermal and Trigeneration Systems as Innovative and EnvironmentallyFriendly Solutions for Telecommunication Plant Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Trotta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a model-based analysis of innovative cooling systems, to be deployed in telecommunication (TLC plants in consideration of their size, geographical location and typology (e.g. central Offices or data-centers. Environmentally friendly systems, such as geothermal heat pumps and trigeneration plants, were considered. The trade-off between the investment and operating costs was first analyzed, followed by a comparative evaluation of economic savings achievable via each candidate solution with respect to reference benchmarks, here represented by traditional air-water heat pump and conventional interaction with electrical grid. In this way, a preliminary macroscopic assessment of the best solutions was accomplished, according to the different scenarios (i.e. small or big TLC plant under investigation. A more detailed analysis, concerning the comparison between traditional and geothermal systems, was specifically carried out to evaluate savings as a function of the external temperature and, consequently, of geographical location.

  4. Environmentally-friendly lithium recycling from a spent organic li-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Stéven; Brandell, Daniel; Edström, Kristina

    2014-10-01

    A simple and straightforward method using non-polluting solvents and a single thermal treatment step at moderate temperature was investigated as an environmentally-friendly process to recycle lithium from organic electrode materials for secondary lithium batteries. This method, highly dependent on the choice of electrolyte, gives up to 99% of sustained capacity for the recycled materials used in a second life-cycle battery when compared with the original. The best results were obtained using a dimethyl carbonate/lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl) imide electrolyte that does not decompose in presence of water. The process implies a thermal decomposition step at a moderate temperature of the extracted organic material into lithium carbonate, which is then used as a lithiation agent for the preparation of fresh electrode material without loss of lithium. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. An environmentally-friendly fluorescent method for quantification of lipid contents in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severo Poli, Jandora; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2014-01-01

    lipid and the calibration curve showed linearity (R2 = 0.994) between 0.50 and 25 mg/L. Compared with traditional gravimetric analysis, the developed method is much faster and uses less organic solvents. Lipid contents determined by fluorescence and gravimetry were the same for some strains......This study aimed at developing an efficient, fast and environmentally-friendly method to quantify neutral lipid contents in yeast. After optimising the fluorescence instrument parameters and influence of organic solvent concentrations, a new method to quantify neutral lipids in yeast based......, but for other strains the lipid contents determined by fluorescence were less. This new method will therefore be suitable for fast screening purposes....

  6. THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY POSTHARVEST TREATMENTS ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF STRAWBERRY FRUITS DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivna Štolfa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Proper postharvest storage is an effective way to maintain the quality and nutritional values of fruits. The aim of this study was to determine how environmentally friendly postharvest treatments with salicylic acid solution, colloidal silver solution and ozone, affect the antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. Albion during 7 days of storage at 4°C. The content of ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits were determined spec-trophotometrically. After 7 days of storage in strawberry fruits treated with all three treatments separately, the contents of ascorbic acid were higher than in the control fruits, supporting the usefulness of these treatments for preserving fruit quality and nutritional value during storage. The treatment with salicylic acid solution showed the most beneficial effect during storage causing a significant increase in the content of ascorbic acid, phenols and antioxidant activity at the end of the storage period.

  7. Environmentally friendly chemoselective oxidation of primary aliphatic amines by using a biomimetic electrocatalytic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largeron, Martine; Chiaroni, Angèle; Fleury, Maurice-Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Environmentally friendly oxidation of primary aliphatic amines to imines has been successfully achieved, under metal-free conditions, by the use of diverse electrogenerated o-azaquinone mediators. High catalytic performance, together with high chemoselectivity, were observed with electron-poor o-azaquinone catalysts generated from 2-aminoresorcinol derivatives. Similar to copper amine oxidase enzymes, these mediators exhibited lower reactivity toward alpha-branched primary amines and no reactivity toward secondary amines. In the case of 3,4-aminophenol derivatives lacking a 2-hydroxy group, the generated o-azaquinone species failed to catalyze the oxidation of the amine to the corresponding imine. Further mechanistic considerations allowed a rationalization of the crucial role of the 2-hydroxy group in converting a catalytically inert species into a highly effective biomimetic catalyst.

  8. Application and Development of an Environmentally Friendly Blast Hole Plug for Underground Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghui Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drilling and blasting technology is one of the main methods for pressure relief in deep mining. The traditional method for blasting hole blockage with clay stemming has many problems, which include a large volume of transportation, excess loading time, and high labor intensity. An environmentally friendly blast hole plug was designed and developed. This method is cheap, closely blocks the hole, is quickly loaded, and is convenient for transportation. The impact test on the plug was carried out using an improved split Hopkinson pressure bar test system, and the industrial test was carried out in underground tunnel of coal mine. The tests results showed that, compared with clay stemming, the new method proposed in this paper could prolong the action time of the detonation gas, prevent premature detonation gas emissions, reduce the unit consumption of explosives, improve the utilization ratio, reduce the labor intensity of workers, and improve the effect of rock blasting with low cost of rock breaking.

  9. Environmentally friendly wood preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara, copper and/or boron salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sye Hee; Oh, Sei Chang; Choi, In-gyu; Han, Gyu-seong; Jeong, Han-seob; Kim, Ki-woo; Yoon, Young-ho; Yang, In

    2010-01-01

    Novel biocides, such as copper azole (CuAz) and ammoniacal copper quaternary (ACQ), are extensively used as substitutes for chromate copper arsenate (CCA) in wood preservation. However, the expense of these biocides has necessitated the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly wood preservatives. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness against decaying fungi of the preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara (OK), which is an organic waste produced from the manufacture of tofu, CuCl 2 (CC) and/or Na 2 B 4 O 7 .10H 2 O (B). With the addition of NH 4 OH as a dissociating agent, the addition of OK facilitated the target retention of most of the OK/CC and OK/CC/B preservative formulations in wood blocks. The OK-based wood preservatives (OK-WPs) were stable against hot-water leaching. When compared with control and CC-treated wood blocks, the leached wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations showed excellent decay resistance against both Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum, especially when OK was hydrolyzed by Celluclast at a loading level of 0.1 ml/g. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SEM-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) spectrometry analyses demonstrated that preservative complexes, such as OK-CC and OK-CC-B, existed in the wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations. This study results support the potential application of OK-WPs as environmentally friendly wood preservatives capable of replacing CuAz and ACQ.

  10. Environmentally friendly wood preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara, copper and/or boron salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sye Hee; Oh, Sei Chang [Department of Forest Resources, Daegu University, Gyeongsan 712-714 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, In-gyu [Department of Forest Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Gyu-seong [Department of Wood and Paper Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Han-seob [Department of Forest Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-woo [National Instrumentation Center for Environmental Management, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young-ho [KCI Co. Ltd., Seosan, Chungcheongnam-do 356-874 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, In, E-mail: dahadad2000@yahoo.com [Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Sillim-Dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Novel biocides, such as copper azole (CuAz) and ammoniacal copper quaternary (ACQ), are extensively used as substitutes for chromate copper arsenate (CCA) in wood preservation. However, the expense of these biocides has necessitated the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly wood preservatives. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness against decaying fungi of the preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara (OK), which is an organic waste produced from the manufacture of tofu, CuCl{sub 2} (CC) and/or Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}.10H{sub 2}O (B). With the addition of NH{sub 4}OH as a dissociating agent, the addition of OK facilitated the target retention of most of the OK/CC and OK/CC/B preservative formulations in wood blocks. The OK-based wood preservatives (OK-WPs) were stable against hot-water leaching. When compared with control and CC-treated wood blocks, the leached wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations showed excellent decay resistance against both Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum, especially when OK was hydrolyzed by Celluclast at a loading level of 0.1 ml/g. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SEM-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) spectrometry analyses demonstrated that preservative complexes, such as OK-CC and OK-CC-B, existed in the wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations. This study results support the potential application of OK-WPs as environmentally friendly wood preservatives capable of replacing CuAz and ACQ.

  11. Advanced, Environmentally Friendly Hydroelectric Turbines for the Restoration of Fish and Water Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookshier, P.A.; Cada, G.F.; Flynn, J.V.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sale, M.J.; Sommers, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    Hydroelectric power contributes about 10 percent of the electrical energy generated in the United States, and nearly 20 percent of the worlds electrical energy. The contribution of hydroelectric generation has declined in recent years, often as a consequence of environmental concerns centering around (1) restriction of upstream and downstream fish passage by the dam, and (2) alteration of water quality and river flows by the impoundment. The Advanced Hydropower Turbine System (AHTS) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy is developing turbine technology which would help to maximize global hydropower resources while minimizing adverse environmental effects. Major technical goals for the Program are (1) the reduction of mortality among turbine-passed fish to 2 percent or less, compared to current levels ranging up to 30 percent or greater; and (2) development of aerating turbines that would ensure that water discharged from reservoirs has a dissolved oxygen concentration of at least 6 mg/L. These advanced, environmentally friendly turbines would be suitable both for new hydropower installations and for retrofitting at existing dams. Several new turbine designs that have been he AHTS program are described

  12. Use of natural gas, methanol, and ethanol fuel emulsions as environmentally friendly energy carriers for mobile heat power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanov, V. A.; Lopatin, O. P.

    2017-12-01

    The need for using environmentally friendly energy carriers for mobile heat power plants (HPPs) is grounded. Ecologically friendly sources of energy, such as natural gas as well as renewable methyl and ethyl alcohols, are investigated. In order to develop, determine, and optimize the composition of environmentally friendly energy carriers for an HPP, the latter has been tested when working on diesel fuel (DF), compressed natural gas (CNG), and methanol and ethanol fuel emulsions (MFE, EFE). It has been experimentally established that, for the application of environmentally friendly energy carriers for a 4Ch 11.0/12.5 diesel engine of a mobile fuel and power plant, it is necessary to maintain the following ratio of components when working on CNG: 80% gas and 20% DF primer portion. When working on an alcohol mixture, emulsions of the following composition were used: 25% alcohol (methanol or ethanol), 0.5% detergent-dispersant additive succinimide C-5A, 7% water, and 67.5% DF. When this diesel passed from oil DF to environmentally friendly energy sources, it allowed for the reduction of the content of exhaust gases (EG) (1) when working on CNG with recirculation of exhaust gases (EGR) (recirculation was used to eliminate the increased amount of nitric oxides by using CNG): carbon black by 5.8 times, carbon dioxide by 45.9%, and carbon monoxide by 23.8%; (2) when working on MFE: carbon black by 6.4 times, nitrogen oxides by 29.6%, carbon dioxide by 10.1%, and carbon oxide by 47.6%; (3) when working on EFE: carbon black by 4.8 times; nitrogen oxides by 40.3%, carbon dioxide by 26.6%, and carbon monoxide by 28.6%. The prospects of use of environmentally friendly energy carriers in diesels of mobile HPPs, such as natural gas, ethanol, and methanol, has been determined.

  13. Analysis of Environmental Friendly Library Based on the Satisfaction and Service Quality: study at Library “X”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdiansyah, Herdis; Satriya Utama, Andre; Safruddin; Hidayat, Heri; Gema Zuliana Irawan, Angga; Immanuel Tjandra Muliawan, R.; Mutia Pratiwi, Diana

    2017-10-01

    One of the factor that influenced the development of science is the existence of the library, which in this case is the college libraries. Library, which is located in the college environment, aims to supply collections of literatures to support research activities as well as educational for students of the college. Conceptually, every library now starts to practice environmental principles. For example, “X” library as a central library claims to be an environmental friendly library for practicing environmental friendly management, but the X library has not inserted the satisfaction and service aspect to the users, including whether it is true that environmental friendly process is perceived by library users. Satisfaction can be seen from the comparison between expectations and reality of library users. This paper analyzes the level of library user satisfaction with library services in the campus area and the gap between expectations and reality felt by the library users. The result of the research shows that there is a disparity between the hope of library management, which is sustainable and environmentally friendly with the reality in the management of the library, so that it has not given satisfaction to the users yet. The gap value of satisfaction that has the biggest difference is in the library collection with the value of 1.57; while for the smallest gap value is in the same service to all students with a value of 0.67.

  14. Association and Diffusion of Li(+) in Carboxymethylcellulose Solutions for Environmentally Friendly Li-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalegno, Mosè; Castiglione, Franca; Passarello, Marco; Mele, Andrea; Passerini, Stefano; Raos, Guido

    2016-07-21

    Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) has been proposed as a polymeric binder for electrodes in environmentally friendly Li-ion batteries. Its physical properties and interaction with Li(+) ions in water are interesting not only from the point of view of electrode preparation-processability in water is one of the main reasons for its environmental friendliness-but also for its possible application in aqueous Li-ion batteries. We combine molecular dynamics simulations and variable-time pulsed field gradient spin-echo (PFGSE) NMR spectroscopy to investigate Li(+) transport in CMC-based solutions. Both the simulations and experimental results show that, at concentrations at which Li-CMC has a gel-like consistency, the Li(+) diffusion coefficient is still very close to that in water. These Li(+) ions interact preferentially with the carboxylate groups of CMC, giving rise to a rich variety of coordination patterns. However, the diffusion of Li(+) in these systems is essentially unrestricted, with a fast, nanosecond-scale exchange of the ions between CMC and the aqueous environment. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Research program for an environmentally-friendly coal utilization system in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Feasibility studies are conducted on the introduction of an environmentally-friendly coal utilization system into the Filipino electric power industry, cement industry, and domestic fuel sector. The studies cover the current status of economy and energy in that country, supply and demand of coal, environmental protection and Government's policy, study of the above-said system relative to its application to the fields of electric power industry, cement industry, and domestic fuel sector, and a study about the effective utilization of Filipino domestic coal by the use of the system. Imported coal is used in the electric power industry because of its cost and quality. It is learned after research, however, that domestic coal will be able to compete against imported coal when some technologies are resorted to, such as those pertinent to denitrification in the furnace, novel low-NOx burner, coal pulverization, and combustion diagnosis. As for the treatment of flue gas, it is concluded that the simplified wet lime/gypsum process will be suitable. It is inferred that the CWM (coal-water mixture) process technology will be effective for the utilization of domestic low-grade coal. (NEDO)

  16. Research program for an environmentally-friendly coal utilization system in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Feasibility studies are conducted on the introduction of an environmentally-friendly coal utilization system into the Filipino electric power industry, cement industry, and domestic fuel sector. The studies cover the current status of economy and energy in that country, supply and demand of coal, environmental protection and Government's policy, study of the above-said system relative to its application to the fields of electric power industry, cement industry, and domestic fuel sector, and a study about the effective utilization of Filipino domestic coal by the use of the system. Imported coal is used in the electric power industry because of its cost and quality. It is learned after research, however, that domestic coal will be able to compete against imported coal when some technologies are resorted to, such as those pertinent to denitrification in the furnace, novel low-NOx burner, coal pulverization, and combustion diagnosis. As for the treatment of flue gas, it is concluded that the simplified wet lime/gypsum process will be suitable. It is inferred that the CWM (coal-water mixture) process technology will be effective for the utilization of domestic low-grade coal. (NEDO)

  17. BUMPER: the Bayesian User-friendly Model for Palaeo-Environmental Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Phil; Birks, John; Brooks, Steve; Bush, Mark; Hwang, Grace; Matthews-Bird, Frazer; Valencia, Bryan; van Woesik, Robert

    2017-04-01

    We describe the Bayesian User-friendly Model for Palaeo-Environmental Reconstruction (BUMPER), a Bayesian transfer function for inferring past climate and other environmental variables from microfossil assemblages. The principal motivation for a Bayesian approach is that the palaeoenvironment is treated probabilistically, and can be updated as additional data become available. Bayesian approaches therefore provide a reconstruction-specific quantification of the uncertainty in the data and in the model parameters. BUMPER is fully self-calibrating, straightforward to apply, and computationally fast, requiring 2 seconds to build a 100-taxon model from a 100-site training-set on a standard personal computer. We apply the model's probabilistic framework to generate thousands of artificial training-sets under ideal assumptions. We then use these to demonstrate both the general applicability of the model and the sensitivity of reconstructions to the characteristics of the training-set, considering assemblage richness, taxon tolerances, and the number of training sites. We demonstrate general applicability to real data, considering three different organism types (chironomids, diatoms, pollen) and different reconstructed variables. In all of these applications an identically configured model is used, the only change being the input files that provide the training-set environment and taxon-count data.

  18. A hybrid discrete choice model to assess the effect of awareness and attitude towards environmentally friendly travel modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sottile, Eleonora; Meloni, Italo; Cherchi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    The need to reduce private vehicle use has led to the development of soft measures aimed at re-educating car users through information processes that raise their awareness regarding the benefits of environmentally friendly modes, encouraging them to voluntarily change their mode choice behaviour......&R) instead of their car, we estimated a hybrid mode choice model....

  19. The determinants of household energy demand in rural Beijing: Can environmentally friendly technologies be effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingchao; Kotani, Koji

    2012-01-01

    use transition. ► Renewable technologies accelerate the transition, and improve energy efficiency. ► Renewable technologies contribute to more environmental-friendly energy consumption.

  20. Development and Substantiation of Parameters of Environmentally Friendly Technology for Filling the Vertical Mine Workings with Autoclaved Slag-Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uglyanitca Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmentally friendly technology for filling the vertical mine workings with autoclaved slag-concrete, prefabricated on the surface of the mine is presented in the article; the optimal parameters of filling technology are proposed. The developed technology for filling the abandoned vertical mine workings allows ensuring the environmental safety of the territories adjacent to the abandoned mine, utilizing slag dumps and providing the possibility of shaft recovery, if necessary, with minimal labor and material costs.

  1. Performance Analysis of Solar Combined Ejector-Vapor Compression Cycle Using Environmental Friendly Refrigerants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Kasaeian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new model of a solar combined ejector-vapor compression refrigeration system has been considered. The system is equipped with an internal heat exchanger to enhance the performance of the cycle. The effects of working fluid and operating conditions on the system performance including COP, entrainment ratio (ω, compression ratio (rp and exergy efficiency were investigated. Some working fluids suggested are: R114, R141b, R123, R245fa, R600a, R365mfc, R1234ze(e and R1234ze(z. The results show that R114 and R1234ze(e yield the highest COP and exergy efficiency followed by R123, R245fa, R365mfc, R141b, R152a and R600a. It is noticed that the COP value of the new solar ejector-vapor compression refrigeration cycle is higher than that of the conventional ejector cycle with R1234ze(e for all operating conditions. This paper also demonstrates that R1234ze(e will be a suitable refrigerant in the solar combined ejector-vapor compression refrigeration system, due to its environmental friendly properties and better performance. ABSTRAK: Kajian ini menganalisa model baru sistem penyejukan mampatan gabungan ejektor-wap solar.Sistem ini dilengkapi dengan penukar haba dalaman untuk meningkatkan prestasi kitaran.Kesan bendalir bekerja dan keadaan operasi pada prestasi sistem termasuk COP, nisbah pemerangkapan (ω, nisbah mampatan (rp dan kecekapan eksergi telah disiasat.Beberapa bendalir bekerja yang dicadangkan adalah: R114, R141b, R123, R245fa, R600a, R365mfc, R1234ze(e dan R1234ze(z.Hasil kajian menunjukkan R114 dan R1234ze(e menghasilkan COP dan kecekapan eksergi tertinggi diikuti oleh R123, R245fa, R365mfc, R141b, R152a dan R600a.Didapati nilai COP kitaran penyejukan mampatan bagi ejektor-wap solar baru adalah lebih tinggi daripada kitaran ejektor konvensional dengan R1234ze(e bagi semua keadaan operasi.Kertas kerja ini juga menunjukkan bahawa R1234ze(e boleh menjadi penyejuk yang sesuai dalam sistem penyejukan mampatan gabungan ejektor

  2. Cross-Cultural Investigation of Consumers’ Generations Attitudes Towards Purchase of Environmentally Friendly Products in Apparel Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabija Dan-Cristian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent changes of the environment and in the society have altered consumers’ preferences and brought new concerns among local communities regarding environmental protection and organizations responsibility, the adoption of environmentally friendly strategies, as well as offering more sustainable products. Consumers tend to select retailers based on their focus on environmental friendly products and on various “green” strategies regarding waste disposal, package recycling, etc. This study aims to highlight Romanian and Slovak consumers’ attitudes towards purchasing of goods from retailers that strive a clear focus on environmental responsibility and environmental friendly practices in apparel, footwear and sportswear retail. By means of a quantitative research based on a questionnaire administered to consumers of international retail chains with operations in both countries, the authors highlight differences in their perceptions and attitudes for buying green apparel, footwear and sportswear. Whereas Millennials and Gen Xers consumers in Romania and Slovakia believe that international apparel, footwear and sportswear retailers are less concerned about environmentally responsible behavior and the need of selling green products, Baby Boomers are more sensitive to such aspects and carefully select retailers according to their green strategy. This research provides specific findings about attitudes of different consumers’ generations within two emerging European countries (Romania, Slovakia.

  3. Physical-chemical characteristics of an eco-friendly binder using ternary mixture of industrial wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, Hoang-Anh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the physical-chemical characteristics of paste and mortar with an eco-friendly binder named as SFC cement, produced by a ternary mixture of industrial waste materials of ground granulated blast furnace slag (S, Class F fly ash (FFA, and circulating fluidized bed combustion fly ash (CFA. To trigger the hydration, the CFA, which acted as an alkaline-sulfate activator, was added to the blended mixture of slag and FFA. The water to binder ratio (W/B, curing regime, and FFA addition significantly affected the engineering performances and shrinkage/expansion of the SFC pastes and mortars. The SFC mortars had higher workability than that of ordinary Portland cement (OPC. With similar workability, the SFC mortars had compressive strengths and expansions comparable to OPC mortars. The main hydration products of the hardened SFC cement were ettringite (AFt and C-S-H/C-A-S-H. The transformation of the AFt to the monosulfates was observed as the hydration time increased.Este trabajo estudia las características fisicoquímicas de pastas y morteros con un ligante eco-amigable llamado cemento SFC, producido por una mezcla ternaria de materiales a partir de residuos industriales tales como escorias granuladas de alto horno (S, ceniza volante clase F (FFA, y cenizas volantes de combustión en lecho fluidizado circulante (CFA. Para desencadenar la hidratación, el CFA que actuó como un activador alcalino-sulfato se añadió a la mezcla combinada de escoria y FFA. La relación de agua/ligante (W/B, el tipo de curado, y la adición de FFA afectaron significativamente a las prestaciones mecánicas así como a la retracción/expansión de pastas y morteros de SFC. Los morteros SFC presentaron una trabajabilidad mayor que los correspondientes de cemento de Portland (OPC. Con una trabajabilidad similar, los morteros SFC presentaron resistencias mecánicas y expansión comparables a los morteros de OPC. Los principales productos de hidratación del

  4. Development of environmentally friendly universal controller. Data and materials; 1998 nendo kankyo taio universal controller no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shiryohen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Research and development was carried out for an 'environmentally friendly universal controller (UC)' which would be 'user-friendly and energy-saving' when used with electrical home appliances, and data and materials on them were compiled into this volume. It covers the specifications (Versions 0.6 and 0.51) of a newly developed two-way controller protocol, the specification (Version 0.1) of two-way remote control IrDA-C communication unit hardware, an infrared communication protocol IrDa Control, and the like. It also accommodates information collected through surveys of technological trends as reflected in technical literature, Internet home pages, catalogs, and the like, concerning the user-friendliness of electrical home appliances, remote control, domestic consumption of electric power, and the like. Also covered is the result of surveys of patents involving environmentally friendly UC related technologies, namely, Japanese patents (from applications made in 1979 through disclosures made in 1998) and U.S. patents (registrations made in 1982 and thereafter). Furthermore, it contains the result of surveys of actualities of domestic use conducted for the purpose of clarifying the effect of environmentally friendly UC introduction, how such UCs are being accepted by the public, and the conditions that should be satisfied for their popularization. (NEDO)

  5. Development of environmentally friendly universal controller. Data and materials; 1998 nendo kankyo taio universal controller no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Shiryohen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Research and development was carried out for an 'environmentally friendly universal controller (UC)' which would be 'user-friendly and energy-saving' when used with electrical home appliances, and data and materials on them were compiled into this volume. It covers the specifications (Versions 0.6 and 0.51) of a newly developed two-way controller protocol, the specification (Version 0.1) of two-way remote control IrDA-C communication unit hardware, an infrared communication protocol IrDa Control, and the like. It also accommodates information collected through surveys of technological trends as reflected in technical literature, Internet home pages, catalogs, and the like, concerning the user-friendliness of electrical home appliances, remote control, domestic consumption of electric power, and the like. Also covered is the result of surveys of patents involving environmentally friendly UC related technologies, namely, Japanese patents (from applications made in 1979 through disclosures made in 1998) and U.S. patents (registrations made in 1982 and thereafter). Furthermore, it contains the result of surveys of actualities of domestic use conducted for the purpose of clarifying the effect of environmentally friendly UC introduction, how such UCs are being accepted by the public, and the conditions that should be satisfied for their popularization. (NEDO)

  6. Development of advanced treatment technologies of radio-aqueous waste by an environmental friendly decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Wook; Lee, E. H.; Moon, J. K. and others

    2006-01-15

    This project was aimed at the technology developments of electrode fabrication, electrolytic reactor design and fabrication, electrolytic processes and the analyses of electroytic reaction mechanisms, which were essential elements for the development of electrolytic systems to decompose or teat environmentally- friendly the several salts contained in waste solutions which are to be generated in the fields of nuclear/non-nuclear industries. Major research items carried our in this project were as follows; - Development of technologies to choose and fabricate the anodes and cathodes for the treatments of waste solutions containing nitrogen compounds and organics. - Development of a membrane electrolyzer stacked by mono-polar unit cells with independent series flow path of electrolytes - Development of an electrolyzer with a self-pH adjustment and an electrolytic process for ammonia decomposition by using the electrolyzer - Analysis of electrolytic reaction mechanism of ammonia - Development of an ion exchange membrane electrolyzer with only one discharge of pH-controlled electrolyte solution - Development of electrolytic dechlorination technology for the treatment of chloride molten salt waste salt from pyroprocess. - Development of technologies for treatment of high concentration nitric acid and recovery of waste organic solvent.

  7. Phytofilter - environmental friendly solution for purification of surface plate from urbanized territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchkinova, O.; Shchuckin, I.

    2017-06-01

    Its proved, that phytofilters are environmental friendly solution of problem of purification of surface plate from urbanized territories. Phytofilters answer the nowadays purposes to systems of purification of land drainage. The main problem of it is restrictions, connecter with its use in the conditions of cold temperature. Manufactured a technology and mechanism, which provide a whole-year purification of surface plate and its storage. Experimentally stated optimal makeup of filtering load: peat, zeolite and sand in per cent of volume, which provides defined hydraulic characteristics. Stated sorbate and ion-selective volume of complex filtering load of ordered composition in dynamic conditions. Estimated dependences of exit concentrations of oil products and heavy metals on temperature by filtering through complex filtering load of ordered composition. Defined effectiveness of purification at phytofiltering installation. Fixed an influence of embryophytes on process of phytogeneration and capacity of filtering load. Recommended swamp iris, mace reed and reed grass. Manufactured phytofilter calculation methodology. Calculated economic effect from use of phytofiltration technology in comparison with traditional block-modular installations.

  8. Novel environmentally friendly synthesis of superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles using mechanochemical effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Tomohiro; Kosaka, Kazunori; Watano, Satoru; Yanagida, Takeshi; Kawai, Tomoji

    2010-01-01

    A novel method for synthesizing superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles in water system via coprecipitation under an environmentally friendly condition has been developed. In this method, an almost neutral suspension containing ferrous hydroxide and goethite is used as the starting suspension and subjected to a ball-milling treatment. The product was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The mechanochemical effect generated by the ball-milling treatment promoted the reaction between ferrous hydroxide and goethite even at room temperature, resulting in the formation of homogeneous magnetite nanoparticles. Simultaneously, it also contributed to crystallize the formed magnetite nanoparticles while inhibiting the particle growth. This resulted in the formation of ultrafine magnetite nanoparticles of about 10 nm having a single crystal structure. This method could provide ferromagnetic magnetite nanoparticles with superparamagnetism under the moderate condition without neither heating nor any additives such as surfactant and organic solvent.

  9. Tribological Evaluation of Date Palm Fruit Syrup–A Potential Environmental-Friendly Lubricant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Samad Mohammed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Date palm is one of the most cultivated palms mostly found in the Middle Eastern regions of the world. The date palm fruits are not only nutritionally rich, but also have a good amount of fatty acids such as oleic acid, palmitic acid, and linoleic acids, which have excellent anti-wear and lubricating properties, making it a potentially good candidate to be used as an environmentally-friendly lubricant. This study is a preliminary effort to explore the lubricating properties of date palm fruit syrup by conducting ball-on-disc wear tests on mild steel samples. Different concentrations (50, 75, and 100 vol % of the syrup in water were tested at a normal load of 50 N and a sliding linear speed of 0.1 m/s. Scanning electron microscopy and optical profilometry were used to characterize the wear tracks and estimate the wear rates. 100 vol % date syrup with a viscosity of 16.95 mPa·s showed excellent results by reducing the coefficient of friction of steel-on-steel from 0.6 (dry conditions to a value of ~0.1. The depth of the wear track reduced from ~152 µm (dry conditions to ~11 µm, signifying a considerable reduction in wear.

  10. An environmental friendly electrode and extended cathodic potential window for anodic stripping voltammetry of zinc detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueraning, Anisah; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote; Limbut, Warakorn

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on a novel polyeriochrome black T (poly(EBT) modified electrode for use as an environmentally-friendly electrode material that extends the cathodic potential window and improves the sensitivity and repeatability to detect zinc in industrial wastewater. The poly(EBT) film on the GCE surface was fabricated by electropolymerization. The surface morphology and electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and anodic stripping voltammetry. Under optimal conditions, the poly(EBT)/GCE exhibited a high hydrogen overvoltage (extended cathodic potential window). It provided a high sensitivity, a wide linear range (1.0 to 400.0 μg L −1 ), a low detection limit (0.9 μg L −1 ), had excellent repeatability and good recoveries (95% to 105%). This proposed modified electrode was applied to the determination of zinc in wastewater samples, and the results were consistent with those of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analysis.

  11. PAN-Immobilized PVC-NPOE Membrane for Environmentally Friendly Sensing of Cd(II Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moersilah Moersilah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, cheap and environmentally friendly analytical method of Cd(II in the aqueous system has been developed by immobilization of 1-(2-pyridilazo-2-naphtol (PAN in poly vinyl chloride (PVC matrix and nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE as a plasticizer. Upon contact with Cd(II in solution, the color of sensor membrane changes from dark yellow to dark red, which is due to the formation of Cd(II–PAN complex. The best sensing results were obtained at pH 8.0 and λmax 558 nm. The dimension of the proposed sensor membrane was 0.8 cm x 2 cm with a thickness of 0.05 mm, the volume of sample was 2 mL with the Cd(II concentration range of  0 – 1.2 ppm. The limit of detection of the method was found to be 0.432 + 0.104 ppm, which was reversible. The proposed methods have been applied in the determination of Cd(II in water samples after addition of internal standard.

  12. Environmentally friendly production of charcoal from empty fruit bunches using pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normah Mulop; Mohd Suffian Abdul Rahim

    2000-01-01

    Empty fruit bunches (EFB) from palm oil milling process are classified as palm oil waste. The EFB can be turned into valuable product such as charcoal, which can be processed further to activated carbon in order to solve some of the disposal problems. In this project, raw EFB was converted to charcoal by means of a pilot plant. A burner generating indirect heat controls the temperature of the process. The carbonization process was carried out in the absence of air at various temperatures and durations to find the optimum carbonization parameters. The study shows that the optimum operating, temperature for carbonization of EFB is 500 o C for the duration of 11/2 hours. The average fixed carbon content of the charcoal is 61.08. The high percentage of volatile matter is prevented from escaping into the air by trapping them in a series of cyclones. The double layered cyclones using water as the cooling medium, condense more volatile matter and reduces smoke exhaust. 50.7 % of ,gaseous product is condensed and 49.2 % is emitted to the atmosphere. The result is an environmental friendly pilot plant. (author)

  13. NASA's Beachside Corrosion Test Site and Current Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Control Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard W.; Calle, Luz Marina; Johnston, Frederick; Montgomery, Eliza L.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    NASA began corrosion studies at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in 1966 during the Gemini/Apollo Programs with the evaluation of long-term corrosion protective coatings for carbon steel. KSC's Beachside Corrosion Test Site (BCTS), which has been documented by the American Society of Materials (ASM) as one of the most corrosive, naturally occurring, environments in the world, was established at that time. With the introduction of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the already highly corrosive conditions at the launch pad were rendered even more severe by the acid ic exhaust from the solid rocket boosters. In the years that followed, numerous studies have identified materials, coatings, and maintenance procedures for launch hardware and equipment exposed to the highly corrosive environment at the launch pad. This paper presents a historical overview of over 45 years of corrosion and coating evaluation studies and a description of the BCTS's current capabilities. Additionally, current research and testing programs involving chromium free coatings, environmentally friendly corrosion preventative compounds, and alternates to nitric acid passivation will be discussed.

  14. Clean and Selective Catalytic C-H alkylation of Alkenes with Environmental friendly Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Poater, Albert

    2016-09-14

    Bearing the alkylation of alkene substrates using alcohol as solvent, catalysed by the cationic Ru-based catalyst [(C6H6)(PCy3)(CO)RuH]+, DFT calculations have been carried out to get mechanistic insights of such an environmental friendly reaction. Hard experimental conditions of Yi and coworkers [Science2011, 333, 1613] allow the formation of a C-C bond between indene and ethanol. The predicted mechanism suggests a cationic Ru-alkenyl species once two equivalents of indene interact releasing a molecule of indane subproduct. Then, oxidative addition of the Csingle bondO bond of alcohol to Ru-alkenyl species leads to Ru-alkenyl-alkyl species, followed by the reductive elimination process produces the desired alkylation product and a Ru-hydroxo complex. Finally, vinylic Csingle bondH activation and water elimination regenerates the Ru-alkenyl species. In this paper we present a full description of the complete reaction pathway along with possible alternative pathways, which are predicted to display higher upper barriers. Furthermore, the present study explains the possible reasons for the absence of undesired products such as indene dimer or hydroxylated indene in the experiments.

  15. Technology Application of Environmental Friendly Refrigeration (Green Refrigeration) on Cold Storage for Fishery Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasta, IM; Susila, IDM; Subagia, IWA

    2018-01-01

    The application of refrigeration technology to postharvest fishery products is an very important. Moreover, Indonesia is a tropical region with relatively high temperatures. Fish storage age can be prolonged with a decrease in temperature. Frozen fish can even be stored for several months. Fish freezing means preparing fish for storage in low-temperature cold storage. The working fluid used in cold storage to cool low-temperature chambers and throw heat into high-temperature environments is refrigerant. So far refrigerant used in cold storage is Hydrochloroflourocarbons (HCFC) that is R-22. Chlor is a gas that causes ODP (Ozone Depleting Potential), while Flour is a gas that causes GWP (Global Warming Potential). Government policy began in 2015 to implement Hydrochloroflourocarbons Phase-Out Management Plan. Hydrocarbon (HC) is an alternative substitute for R-22. HC-22 (propane ≥ 99.5%) has several advantages, among others: environmentally friendly, indicated by a zero ODP value, and GWP = 3 (negligible), thermophysical property and good heat transfer characteristics, vapor phase density Which is low, and good solubility with mineral lubricants. The use of HC-22 in cold storage is less than R-22. From the analysis results obtained, cold storage system using HC-22 has better performance and energy consumption is more efficient than the R-22.

  16. Dispersion stability and thermophysical properties of environmentally friendly graphite oil–based nanofluids used in machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As environmentally friendly cutting fluids, vegetable-based oil and ester oil are being more and more widely used in metal cutting industry. However, their cooling and lubricating properties are required to be further improved in order to meet more cooling and lubricating challenges in high-efficiency machining. Nanofluids with enhanced heat carrying and lubricating capabilities seem to give a promising solution. In this article, graphite oil–based nanofluids with LB2000 vegetable-based oil and PriEco6000 unsaturated polyol ester as base fluids were prepared by ultrasonically assisted two-step method, and their dispersion stability and thermophysical properties such as viscosity and thermal conductivity were experimentally and theoretically investigated at different ultrasonication times. The results indicate that graphite-PriEco6000 nanofluid showed better dispersion stability, higher viscosity, and thermal conductivity than graphite-LB2000 nanofluid, which made it more suitable for application in high-efficiency machining as coolant and lubricant. The theoretical classical models showed good agreement with the thermal conductivity values of graphite oil–based nanofluids measured experimentally. However, the deviation between the experimental values of viscosity and the theoretical models was relatively big. New empirical correlations were proposed for predicting the viscosity of graphite oil–based nanofluids at various ultrasonication times.

  17. Decision-Making Tool for Cost-Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Wood Mobilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Triplat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: With development of forest management technologies, the efficiency of wood production was significantly improved, and thus the impact on forests has changed as well. The article presents a practical decision-making tool for selection of most suitable harvesting system, considering given terrain as well as expected soil conditions on harvesting sites. The decision-making tool should support cost-efficient and environmentally friendly mobilisation of wood. Materials and Methods: The presented decision-making tool is based on ground bearing capacities (relevant environmental parameter and nominal ground pressure (harvesting system characteristics. Soil and terrain (slope characteristics were taken into account for selection of the most suitable harvesting system. Three-step methodological approach was suggested, where soil and terrain conditions were defined in first step, while harvesting system were described using wood process charts (“functiogramms” in second step. In final step ecological and technological requirements were matched. Results: To exemplify the three-step methodology, a decision-making tool was prepared for the three selected harvesting systems. The proposed harvesting systems differ in technological, ecological and economic aspects, but each is limited by at least one of the aspect. Conclusions: The decision-making tool in combination with the presented wood process charts (“functiogramms” can simplify and facilitate forest production planning, although it can also be used in case of unforeseen event e.g. changing of soil moisture, machinery failure and insufficient current capacities. Considering the envisaged quantities and types of forest wooden assortments, it is possible to use the decision-making tool for a basic selection of most appropriate harvesting systems. The main idea behind the suggested three step methodological approach is that forest workers can prepare individual decision

  18. Incentives for development and application of environmentally friendly biotechnological products and processes; Anreize fuer die Entwicklung und Anwendung umweltfreundlicher biotechnischer Produkte und Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhein, Hans-Bernhard; Endler, Katharina [Umweltkanzlei Dr. Rhein, Sarstedt (Germany); Ulber, Roland; Muffler, Kai; Mueller, Felix [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Studies assign a tremendous growth potential related to biotechnology. However, the predicted proportion of biotechnological manufactured products in the chemical industry for the year 2010 by 20 % will more likely remain by today's 5 %. The study deals with the question why biotechnological products are currently established at the market in the obvious slow way. Therefore, the current constraints and existing respectively new incentive instruments referring to the white (industrial) biotechnology are analyzed to focus on the promotion of the development and application of environmentally friendly biotechnology products and methods. In addition to a search concerning environmental relevance and further development of white biotechnology, the postulated constraints and incentives as well as new promotions are discussed with the help of expert interviews. On the basis of a preliminary study - after further discussion with experts - concrete proposals on improvements related to an ongoing establishment of biotechnology will be derived. Based on case studies (2nd generation biofuels, polyhydroxybutyrate as biopolymer and phytase as an animal feed additive), the practical effects and specific conditions to incentives, from the perspective of biotechnological processes and environmentally friendly products are investigated. Overall, about 40 activities were recommended, which could be assigned to areas of direct government incentives (tax policy/subsidies, subsidies, education and research policy, basic political conditions, government demand and information policy/consumer intelligence) as well as non-governmental incentives (knowledge transfer and cooperation, organisation-related policy, capital market financing). (orig.)

  19. Incentives for development and application of environmentally friendly biotechnological products and processes; Anreize fuer die Entwicklung und Anwendung umweltfreundlicher biotechnischer Produkte und Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhein, Hans-Bernhard; Endler, Katharina [Umweltkanzlei Dr. Rhein, Sarstedt (Germany); Ulber, Roland; Muffler, Kai; Mueller, Felix [Technische Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Studies assign a tremendous growth potential related to biotechnology. However, the predicted proportion of biotechnological manufactured products in the chemical industry for the year 2010 by 20 % will more likely remain by today's 5 %. The study deals with the question why biotechnological products are currently established at the market in the obvious slow way. Therefore, the current constraints and existing respectively new incentive instruments referring to the white (industrial) biotechnology are analyzed to focus on the promotion of the development and application of environmentally friendly biotechnology products and methods. In addition to a search concerning environmental relevance and further development of white biotechnology, the postulated constraints and incentives as well as new promotions are discussed with the help of expert interviews. On the basis of a preliminary study - after further discussion with experts - concrete proposals on improvements related to an ongoing establishment of biotechnology will be derived. Based on case studies (2nd generation biofuels, polyhydroxybutyrate as biopolymer and phytase as an animal feed additive), the practical effects and specific conditions to incentives, from the perspective of biotechnological processes and environmentally friendly products are investigated. Overall, about 40 activities were recommended, which could be assigned to areas of direct government incentives (tax policy/subsidies, subsidies, education and research policy, basic political conditions, government demand and information policy/consumer intelligence) as well as non-governmental incentives (knowledge transfer and cooperation, organisation-related policy, capital market financing). (orig.)

  20. Hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance of a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Rare and Precious Metals Green Recycling and Extraction, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, Yazhao [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Xiaoming, E-mail: liuxm@ustb.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Rare and Precious Metals Green Recycling and Extraction, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Cementitious material was designed according to [SiO{sub 4}] polymerization degree of raw materials. • The cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag yields excellent physical and mechanical properties. • Amorphous C–A–S–H gel and rod-like ettringite are predominantly responsible for the strength development. • Leaching toxicity and radioactivity tests show the cementitious material is environmentally acceptable. - Abstract: Calcium silicate slag is an alkali leaching waste generated during the process of extracting Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} from high-alumina fly ash. In this research, a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was developed, and its mechanical and physical properties, hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance were investigated. The results show that an optimal design for the cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was determined by the specimen CFSC7 containing 30% calcium silicate slag, 5% high-alumina fly ash, 24% blast furnace slag, 35% clinker and 6% FGD gypsum. This blended system yields excellent physical and mechanical properties, confirming the usefulness of CFSC7. The hydration products of CFSC7 are mostly amorphous C–A–S–H gel, rod-like ettringite and hexagonal-sheet Ca(OH){sub 2} with small amount of zeolite-like minerals such as CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}·4H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}·H{sub 2}O. As the predominant hydration products, rod-like ettringite and amorphous C–A–S–H gel play a positive role in promoting densification of the paste structure, resulting in strength development of CFSC7 in the early hydration process. The leaching toxicity and radioactivity tests results indicate that the developed cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag is environmentally acceptable. This study points out a promising direction for the proper utilization of calcium silicate slag in large quantities.

  1. Road A Chemical Basin: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.; Muska, C.F.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    The Road A Chemical Basin at the Savannah River Plant was closed and backfilled in 1973. It received miscellaneous radioactive and chemical aqueous waste. Four groundwater monitoring wells indicate no elevated levels of analytes in the groundwater. The closure options considered for this waste site are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated. Maximum health risk due to radioactive materials ( 238 U) is about 8.0E-06 excess health effects per year, for the no action option. The no waste removal and closure and waste removal and closure options reduce the calculated risk to about 1.2E-06 and 1.2E-08 HE/yr, respectively. The maximum calculated impact due to noncarcinogenic materials (lead) is 0.54 ADI fraction. The maximum calculated ADI fraction for lead after the period of institutional control is 4.1 E-04 for the reclaimed-farmland pathway for the no action option. Public risk attributable to atmospheric releases of chemical and radioactive constituents is minimal. For all years and options modeled, the noncarcinogenic risks calculated were zero except for the year of excavation, which had an ADI fraction of 1.41E-09. The maximum individual radiological health risk for the waste removal and closure option is small (6.97E-12 HE/yr). The radiological health effects for the no waste removal and closure and no action options are zero. The ecological assessment shows that the effects of any closure activities on river water quality and wildlife would be insignificant. The cost estimates show that the waste removal and closure option is the most expensive ($4,000,000). 41 refs., 13 figs., 41 tabs

  2. Aging in Context: Individual and Environmental Pathways to Aging-Friendly Communities-The 2015 Matthew A. Pollack Award Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharlach, Andrew E

    2017-08-01

    Reflecting the theme of the 2015 Gerontological Society of America (GSA) Annual Scientific Meeting, "Aging as a Lifelong Process," this paper examines intersections between aging processes and their environmental context, develops theory regarding constructive developmental processes and their environmental context, and considers potential implications for conceptualizing and creating aging-friendly communities. The first section examines the primary goals of aging-friendly communities, that is, promoting elder well-being. The second section explores the role of environmental pathways in fostering well-being throughout the lifecourse. The third section presents a new Process Model of Constructive Aging that identifies key developmental processes at the intersection of individual and environmental pathways. The final section considers potential implications for creating aging-friendly communities, including ways in which cities and towns can promote the ability of community members to live fully throughout their lives, and identifies some key conceptual and empirical challenges affecting the future of the field. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Environmental chemical exposures and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Stanley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a hormone-sensitive condition with no single identifiable cause, breast cancer is a major health problem. It is characterized by a wide range of contributing factors and exposures occurring in different combinations and strengths across a lifetime that may be amplified during periods of enhanced developmental susceptibility and impacted by reproductive patterns and behaviours. The vast majority of cases are oestrogen-receptor positive and occur in women with no family history of the disease suggesting that modifiable risk factors are involved. A substantial body of evidence now links oestrogen-positive breast cancer with environmental exposures. Synthetic chemicals capable of oestrogen mimicry are characteristic of industrial development and have been individually and extensively assessed as risk factors for oestrogen-sensitive cancers. Existing breast cancer risk assessment tools do not take such factors into account. In the absence of consensus on causation and in order to better understand the problem of escalating incidence globally, an expanded, integrated approach broadening the inquiry into individual susceptibility breast cancer is proposed. Applying systems thinking to existing data on oestrogen-modulating environmental exposures and other oestrogenic factors characteristic of Westernisation and their interactions in the exposure, encompassing social, behavioural, environmental, hormonal and genetic factors, can assist in understanding cancer risks and the pursuit of prevention strategies. A new conceptual framework based on a broader understanding of the “system” that underlies the development of breast cancer over a period of many years, incorporating the factors known to contribute to breast cancer risk, could provide a new platform from which government and regulators can promulgate enhanced and more effective prevention strategies.

  4. Shrinking the food-print: A qualitative study into consumer perceptions, experiences and attitudes towards healthy and environmentally friendly food behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, A C; Pearson, D; James, S W; Lawrence, M A; Friel, S

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, there is increasing recognition of the importance of multilevel policies and actions that address healthy and environmentally friendly food behaviours. However it is not yet clear which actions are most suitable to support consumers to adopt both behaviours concurrently. To this end, we undertook a qualitative study to assess consumer perceptions, experiences and attitudes towards healthy and environmentally friendly foods and four target behaviours: reducing overconsumption of food beyond energy needs, reducing consumption of low-nutrient energy dense foods, eating less animal- and more plant-derived foods, and reducing food waste. Online in-depth interviews were held with 29 Australian food shoppers representing different levels of involvement with health and environment in daily food choices. The results indicate that compared to health, the relationship between food and the environment is rarely considered by consumers. The four target food behaviours were primarily associated and motivated by an impact on health, except for not wasting foods. Participants had the most positive attitude and highest motivation for eating less processed and packaged foods, mostly to avoid excessive packaging and 'chemicals' in foods. This was followed by the behaviours reducing food waste and overconsumption. Conversely, there was a predominantly negative attitude towards, and low motivation for, eating less animal-derived products and more plant based foods. Overall, consumers found a joined concept of healthy and environmentally friendly foods an acceptable idea. We recommend that health should remain the overarching principle for policies and actions concerned with shifting consumer behaviours, as this personal benefit appears to have a greater potential to support behaviour change. Future consumer focused work could pay attention to framing behavioural messages, providing intermediate behavioural goals, and a multiple target approach to change habitual

  5. A Lithium-Ion Battery with Enhanced Safety Prepared using an Environmentally Friendly Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Franziska; Loeffler, Nicholas; Kim, Guk-Tae; Diemant, Thomas; Behm, R Jürgen; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-06-08

    A new lithium-ion battery chemistry is presented based on a conversion-alloying anode material, a carbon-coated Fe-doped ZnO (TMO-C), and a LiNi1/3 Mn1/3 Co1/3 O2 (NMC) cathode. Both electrodes were fabricated using an environmentally friendly cellulose-based binding agent. The performance of the new lithium-ion battery was evaluated with a conventional, carbonate-based electrolyte (ethylene carbonate:diethyl carbonate-1 m lithium hexafluorophosphate, EC:DEC 1 m LiPF6 ) and an ionic liquid (IL)-based electrolyte (N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-0.2 m lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI), respectively. Galvanostatic charge/discharge tests revealed a reduced rate capability of the TMO-C/Pyr14 TFSI 0.2 m LiTFSI/NMC full-cell compared to the organic electrolyte, but the coulombic efficiency was significantly enhanced. Moreover, the IL-based electrolyte substantially improves the safety of the system due to a higher thermal stability of the formed anodic solid electrolyte interphase and the IL electrolyte itself. While the carbonate-based electrolyte shows sudden degradation reactions, the IL exhibits a slowly increasing heat flow, which does not constitute a serious safety risk. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. MOIRA Software Framework - Integrated User-friendly Shell for The Environmental Decision Support Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, Dmitry; Nordlinder, Sture

    2003-01-01

    MOIRA DSS is a model-based computerised system for the identification of optimal remedial strategies to restore radionuclide contaminated fresh water environment The examples of the questions which decision-maker could address to the system are 'Is lake liming effective in reducing the radiocesium uptake by fish?', C an control of catchment run-off be an effective measure against further redistribution of radionuclides by river?', 'Is sediment removal worthwhile to reduce further contamination of the aquatic environment?'. The MOIRA system could help decision-maker to avoid implementation of inappropriate and expensive countermeasures. MOIRA gives the possibility to predict effeas of implementation of different types of the countermeasures and evaluate both 'ecological' and 'social' effect of the countermeasures. Decision support process using MOIRA DSS can be subdivided to the following steps: Definition of the site-specific environmental and socio-economic parameters using GIS-based data. Unknown site-specific data could be estimated using GIS-based models, default data for the socio-economic parameters, data directly provided by user. Providing data about fallout of the radionuclides. Definition of the time interval for which prognosis will be made. Definition of the alternative strategies of the countermeasures. Evaluation of the sequences of the implementation of the user-defined strategies and 'no actions' strategy using predictive models. Ranking strategies using Multi-Attribute Analysis Module (MAA) Preparation of the recommendations in the form of report. This process requires usage of several computerised tools such as predictive models, multi-attribute analysis software, geographical information system, data base. MOIRA software framework could be used as the basis for the creation of the wide range of the user-friendly and easy-to-learn decision support systems. It can also provide the advanced graphical user interface and data checking system for the

  7. The development of environmental assessment tools to support the creation of dementia friendly care environments: Innovative practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Sarah; Masterson, Abigail; Evans, Simon C

    2017-02-01

    The need for more dementia friendly design in hospitals and other care settings is now widely acknowledged. Working with 26 NHS Trusts in England as part of a Department of Health commissioned programme, The King's Fund developed a set of overarching design principles and an environmental assessment tool for hospital wards in 2012. Following requests from other sectors, additional tools were developed for hospitals, care homes, health centres and housing with care. The tools have proven to be effective in both disseminating the principles of dementia friendly design and in enabling the case to be made for improvements that have a positive effect on patient outcomes and staff morale. This paper reports on the development, use and review of the environmental assessment tools, including further work that is now being taken forward by The Association for Dementia Studies, University of Worcester.

  8. Environmental chemicals and thyroid function: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, M.; Main, K.M.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.

    2009-01-01

    disruption of the developing fetus may have deleterious effects on neurological outcome. Evidence is reviewed for the following groups of chemicals: polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, flame retardants, pesticides, perfluorinated chemicals, phthalates, bisphenol A and ultraviolet filters. Chemicals may exert...

  9. Polystyrene Supported Al(OTf)3: an Environmentally Friendly Heterogeneous Catalyst for Friedel-Crafts Acylation of Aromatic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroujeni, Kaveh Parvanak

    2010-01-01

    Stable and non-hygroscopic polystyrene supported aluminium triflate (Ps-Al(OTf) 3 ), which is prepared easily from cheap and commercially available compounds was found to be an environmentally friendly heterogeneous catalyst for Friedel-Crafts acylation of arenes using acid chlorides in the absence of solvent under mild reaction conditions. The catalyst can be reused up to five times after simple washing with dichloromethane

  10. Energy and environmental challenges to chemical engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    The National Research Council's report, Frontiers in Chemical Engineering, was written four years ago. Three high-priority research areas concerned with energy and the environment were identified in the report: in situ processing, liquid fuels for the future, and responsible management of hazardous wastes. As outlined in the recently released National Energy Strategy, in situ processing is viewed by the Department of Energy (DOE) primarily through its use in enhanced oil recovery, and some research is still funded. Industry, driven by the economics of low oil prices, is doing little research on in situ processing but much more on reservoir characterization, a prerequisite to processing. Research on liquid fuels for the future is driven more by environmental concerns now than by energy security concerns. It appears to be wise policy for the future to try to solve the alternative fuel problem as quickly and simply as possible. Otherwise, the nation will find itself with a costly and complex fuel and vehicle system that may have to be changed again in a generation. For the interim, we should look closely at reformulated gasoline followed by compressed natural gas, if necessary. In the long run, vehicle systems based on electricity seem most promising for the middle of the next century. To deliver this technology we need to capitalize on three new high-priority research areas: batteries, fuel cells, and nuclear power. For chemical engineers, future challenges of a different sort will be added to the technical challenges, among them are explaining to a skeptical public the wisdom of proceeding to design the interim system of alternative fuel(s) and to move expeditiously to a final solution

  11. Assessment of chemical exposures: calculation methods for environmental professionals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daugherty, Jack E

    1997-01-01

    ... on by scientists, businessmen, and policymakers. Assessment of Chemical Exposures: Calculation Methods for Environmental Professionals addresses the expanding scope of exposure assessments in both the workplace and environment...

  12. Development of high melting point, environmentally friendly solders, using the calphad approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chidambaram, Vivek; Hald, John; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2008-01-01

    An attempt has been made using the CALPHAD approach via Thermo-Calc to explore the various possible chemical compositions that adhere to the melting criterion i.e. 270-350 degrees C, required to replace the traditionally used high lead content solders for first level packaging applications. Vario...... tension have also been considered. Special focus has been given to toxicity related issues since the main ideology of looking for an alternative to high lead containing solders is not related to technical issues but due to environmental concerns.......An attempt has been made using the CALPHAD approach via Thermo-Calc to explore the various possible chemical compositions that adhere to the melting criterion i.e. 270-350 degrees C, required to replace the traditionally used high lead content solders for first level packaging applications. Various...... of promising solder alloy candidates. The ternary combinations that satisfied the primary solidification requirement were scrutinized taking into account the commercial interests i.e. availability, cost-effectiveness, recyclability and toxicity issues. Technical issues like manufacturability and surface...

  13. Sulfide ore looping oxidation : an innovative process that is energy efficient and environmentally friendly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, L.F.; Balliett, R.; Mozolic, J.A. [Orchard Material Technology, North Andover, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Many sulphide ore processing methods use different types of roasting technologies. These technologies are generally quite effective, however, they represent significant energy use and environmental cost. This paper discussed and validated the use of a two-step looping oxidation process that effectively removes sulphur while producing materials of adequate purity in an energy efficient and environmentally sound manner. This paper described the process in detail and compared it to existing technologies in the area of energy efficiency, and off-gas treatment energy requirements. Validation of the looping oxidation concept was described and the starting chemistries of each chemical were listed. Thermodynamic modeling was used to determine the temperature at which the reaction should begin and to predict the temperature at which the reaction should be complete. The test apparatus and run conditions were also described. It was concluded that there are several critical stages in the looping process where energy recovery is economically attractive and could easily be directed or converted for other plant operations. All reactions were fast and efficient, allowing for reduced equipment size as well as higher throughput rates. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluids as environmentally-friendly processing solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, J.B.; Davenhall, L.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Pierce, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Physical Organic Chemistry Group; Tiefert, K. [Hewlett-Packard Co., Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The production of integrated circuits involves a number of discrete steps that utilize hazardous or regulated solvents. Environmental, safety and health considerations associated with these chemicals have prompted a search for alternative, more environmentally benign, solvent systems. An emerging technology for conventional solvent replacement is the use of supercritical fluids based on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Supercritical CO{sub 2} (SCCO{sub 2}) is an excellent choice for IC manufacturing processes since it is non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive, and is compatible with all substrate and metallizations systems. Also, conditions of temperature and pressure needed to achieve the supercritical state are easily achievable with existing process equipment. The authors first describe the general properties of supercritical fluids, with particular emphasis on their application as alternative solvents. Next, they review some of the work which has been published involving the use of supercritical fluids, and particularly CO{sub 2}, as they may be applied to the various steps of IC manufacture, including wafer cleaning, thin film deposition, etching, photoresist stripping, and waste treatment. Next, they describe the research work conducted at Los Alamos, on behalf of Hewlett-Packard, on the use of SCCO{sub 2} in a specific step of the IC manufacturing process: the stripping of hard-baked photoresist.

  15. Irradiation as an alternative environmentally friendly method for microbiological decontamination of herbal raw material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragusin, M.; Rotaru, R.

    2000-01-01

    Microbiological contamination of herbal raw materials is a serious problem in the production of therapeutical preparations. A good quality of the product, according to the pharmaceutical requirements may be achieved by applying suitable methods of decontamination. The decontamination treatments should be fast and effective against all microorganisms. It should ensure the decontamination of both packaging and the microorganisms present and must not reduce the sensory and technological qualities of the commodities. Decontamination of herbal raw materials by irradiation is a method by choice. It is because chemical methods are recognized recently as not safe to the consumer. Irradiation, in turn, is technically feasible, very effective and friendly enough to environment process. Under the prevailing production and handling conditions, most herbs contain a large number of microorganisms what is a serious problem in the production of therapeutical preparations. For several years the most widely used methods for decontamination of herbs was fumigation with ethylene oxide or methyl bromide. Both methods today banned in most countries. Irradiation is an alternative and safe method for effective reducing the microbial contamination of herbal raw materials. The following raw materials have been examined: Folium Cynara, Folium Plantago, Flos Chamomillae, Semen Sylibum Marianum and Folium Farfara. The content of biologically active compounds before and after irradiation of the raw materials did not change in a significant degree after irradiation. The dose of radiation for herbals raw materials was 10 kGy. There are two groups of raw materials: - The raw materials designed for preparing granulates, tablets, dragees, capsules, aqueous extracts, infusions, macerations and preparations for external use; - The raw materials assigned for preparing alcoholic preparations, isolated compounds, oil preparations and essential oils. The medical herbs and herbal raw materials before their

  16. Environmentally Friendly Utilization of Wheat Straw Ash in Cement-Based Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazim Ali Memon

    2018-04-01

    600 °C and ground for 120 min was found to be the most effective way to use pozzolanic material in cement-based composites. The addition of WSA in cement-based composites would achieve manifold objectives, i.e., aiding in the production of environmentally friendly concrete, the use of wheat straw as fuel for electricity production, and adding economic value to wheat straw.

  17. Waste management strategy for cost effective and environmentally friendly NPP decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Per Lidar; Arne Larsson [Studsvik Nuclear AB (ndcon partner), Nykoping (Sweden); Niklas Bergh; Gunnar Hedin [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB (ndcon partner), Vasteraas (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    -necks in the process causes increased space requirements and will have negative impact on the project schedule, which increases not only the cost but also the dose exposure to personnel. For these reasons it is critical to create a process that transfers material into conditioned waste ready for disposal as quickly as possible. To a certain extent the decommissioning program should be led by the waste management process. With the objective to reduce time for handling of dismantled material at site and to efficiently and environmental-friendly use waste management methods (clearance for re-use followed by clearance for recycling), the costs for the plant decommissioning could be reduced as well as time needed for performing the decommissioning project. Also, risks for delays would be reduced with a well-defined handling scheme which limits surprises. Delays are a major cost driver for decommissioning projects. (authors)

  18. Waste management strategy for cost effective and environmentally friendly NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Per Lidar; Arne Larsson; Niklas Bergh; Gunnar Hedin

    2013-01-01

    -necks in the process causes increased space requirements and will have negative impact on the project schedule, which increases not only the cost but also the dose exposure to personnel. For these reasons it is critical to create a process that transfers material into conditioned waste ready for disposal as quickly as possible. To a certain extent the decommissioning program should be led by the waste management process. With the objective to reduce time for handling of dismantled material at site and to efficiently and environmental-friendly use waste management methods (clearance for re-use followed by clearance for recycling), the costs for the plant decommissioning could be reduced as well as time needed for performing the decommissioning project. Also, risks for delays would be reduced with a well-defined handling scheme which limits surprises. Delays are a major cost driver for decommissioning projects. (authors)

  19. Chemically-modified graphene sheets as an active layer for eco-friendly metal electroplating on plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Joon-Suk; Hwang, Taeseon; Nam, Gi-Yong; Hong, Jung-Pyo; Bae, Ah-Hyun; Son, Sang-Ik; Lee, Geun-Ho; Sung, Hak kyung; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Koo, Ja Choon; Nam, Jae-Do

    2012-01-01

    Eco-friendly nickel (Ni) electroplating was carried out on a plastic substrate using chemically modified graphene sheets as an active and conductive layer to initiate electroplating without using conventional pre-treatment or electroless metal-seeding processes. A graphene oxide (GO) solution was self-assembled on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film followed by evaporation to give GO layers (thickness around 6.5 μm) on PET (GO/PET) film. Then, the GO/PET film was chemically and thermally reduced to convert the GO layers to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) layers on the PET substrate. The RGO-coated PET (RGO/PET) film showed the sheet resistance of 100 Ω per square. On RGO/PET film, Ni electroplating was conducted under the constant-current condition and the entire surface of the PET film was completely metalized with Ni without any voids.

  20. Environmental chemical mutagens and genetic risks: Lessons from radiation genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, K.

    1996-01-01

    The last three decades have witnessed substantial progress in the development and use of a variety of in vitro and in vivo assay systems for the testing of environmental chemicals which may pose a mutagenic hazard to humans. This is also true of basic studies in chemical mutagenesis on mechanisms, DNA repair, molecular dosimetry, structure-activity relationships, etc. However, the field of quantitative evaluation of genetic risks of environmental chemicals to humans is still in it infancy. This commentary addresses the question of how our experience in estimating genetic risks of exposure to ionizing radiation can be helpful in similar endeavors with environmental chemical mutagens. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Helping people build a better world? Barriers to more environmentally friendly energy production in China: the case of Shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buan, Inga Fritzen

    2008-03-15

    China's rapid industrialization and economic expansion are causing massive environmental damage, with consequences beyond the country's borders, especially due to the use of fossil fuels' effect on climate change. Shell China can contribute to making energy production, if not clean and sustainable, then cleaner and more sustainable by making existing energy production more environmentally friendly; by diversifying and developing alternative energy sources; and by creating precedence influencing others to follow in its footsteps. The first goal of this report is to identify and analyze changes that have happened in the Shell Group since the 1990s when energy companies started their 'greening' processes. These changed happened due to stricter environmental legislation, increased civil society pressure and media scrutiny. Changes on the global and headquarters level in a company do not, however, necessitate similar developments in its national and local level operations. The second goal is thus to analyze to which degree the changes in the Shell Group have had relevance for Shell China and whether barriers in the Chinese context influence its prospects to operate in a more environmentally friendly way. (author). 64 refs

  2. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system in the Philippines; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Philippines ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With relation to the coal of the Philippines, where the expansion of the use of coal as a substitute for petroleum/plant fuel is aimed at, the paper grasped the situation of coal production/development, the trend of coal import and domestic distribution, the coal utilization trend, and environmental problems, and analyzed the situation of coal utilization/spread by industry including the commercial/residential use. The purpose of the survey is to draw up a master plan for the introduction of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. As to the use of environmentally-friendly coal technology which should be adopted to the coal mining industry and commercial/residential sector, cited are the introduction of coal preparation technology and power transmission technology, and the development/spread of briquette as a firewood substituting fuel. In the electric power sector, the problem is the treatment of ash after combustion and the effective use. Relating to the treatment of flue gas, there is no installation at all of desulfurization facilities and denitrification facilities. In the cement industry sector, they wish to return fuel from heavy oil to coal. For it, it is necessary to study dust preventive measures. In the other sectors, coal hasn`t been used very much. An increase in coal demand is not expected also in the future, and big problems concerning coal haven`t occurred. 42 figs., 64 tabs.

  3. Physicochemical characterization of copper slag and alternatives of friendly environmental management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper slags are usually considered a waste and characterized only by the final copper content. Large and increasing quantities are being produced and disposed of by stockpiling near the metallurgical plants. This paper stresses the importance of physico-chemical characterization when considering uses for slags and the possibility of recovering the valuable metals still remaining in this phase. The purpose of this work is to support and encourage a change in the classical perception of slag from a ‘waste’ to a ‘resource’; promote the development of new technologies for treatment to recover residual values and encourage a search for new uses; with the ultimate objective of eliminating slag stockpiles thereby diminishing the environmental impact of smelting operations. Some of the results of experimental laboratory work done by the authors and examples of commercial applications will be shown. A promising future for valorization and utilization of slags is expected and will provide an example when considering the use of all the other large quantities of wastes generated by the mining industry.

  4. Promoting energy-saving and environmentally friendly generation dispatching model in China: Phase development and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Yang, Hongliang

    2013-01-01

    Energy saving and environmental protection are important conditions for the sustainable development of Chinese economy. However current widely used generation scheduling model based on predefined production quota and tariff results in heavy energy consumption and severe environment pollution. From...... 2007, as concerns over energy shortage and environmental pollution, the Chinese authorities introduced the implementation of energy-saving generation dispatching model, which is an important approach to facilitating energy-saving and reduction of pollutant emission. The objective of implementing energy......-saving generation dispatching model is to prioritize the use of renewable energy resources and new power plants with high efficiency without compromising power system security and reliability. This paper analyzes the necessity and feasibility of implementing energy-efficient and environmentally friendly generation...

  5. Choice of organic foods is related to perceived consequences for human health and to environmentally friendly behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Maria K; Arvola, Anne; Hursti, Ulla Kaisa Koivisto; Aberg, Lars; Sjödén, Per-Olow

    2003-04-01

    We designed a questionnaire concerned with attitudes and behaviour towards organic foods, environmentally friendly behaviour (EFB), and perceived consequences of organic food choice in terms of human health, the environment and animal welfare. It was mailed in 1998 to a random nation-wide sample of 2000 Swedish citizens, ages 18-65 years, and 1154 (58%) responded. Self-reported purchase of organic foods was most strongly related to perceived benefit for human health. Performance of EFBs such as refraining from car driving was also a good predictor of purchase frequency. The results indicate that egoistic motives are better predictors of the purchase of organic foods than are altruistic motives.

  6. American Chemical Society, Division of Environmental Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 161 papers of this divisional meeting for the US Department of Energy's Database. Main topics discussed included: acid rain mitigation - liming technologies and environmental considerations; biotechnology for wastewater treatment; environmental chemistry of lakes and reservoirs and pollution prevention and process analytical chemistry

  7. A simple cost-effective and eco-friendly wet chemical process for the fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, Edna; Lakshmi, R.V.; Aruna, S.T., E-mail: aruna_reddy@nal.res.in; Basu, Bharathibai J.

    2013-07-15

    Superhydrophobic surfaces were created on hydrophilic cotton fabrics by a simple wet chemical process. The fabric was immersed in a colloidal suspension of zinc hydroxide followed by subsequent hydrophobization with stearic acid. The wettability of the modified cotton fabric sample was studied by water contact angle (WCA) and water shedding angle (WSA) measurements. The modified cotton fabrics exhibited superhydrophobicity with a WCA of 151° for 8 μL water droplet and a WSA of 5–10° for 40 μL water droplet. The superhydrophobic cotton sample was also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The method is simple, eco-friendly and cost-effective and can be applied to large area of cotton fabric materials. It was shown that superhydrophobicity of the fabric was due to the combined effect of surface roughness imparted by zinc hydroxide and the low surface energy of stearic acid.

  8. A simple cost-effective and eco-friendly wet chemical process for the fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Edna; Lakshmi, R.V.; Aruna, S.T.; Basu, Bharathibai J.

    2013-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces were created on hydrophilic cotton fabrics by a simple wet chemical process. The fabric was immersed in a colloidal suspension of zinc hydroxide followed by subsequent hydrophobization with stearic acid. The wettability of the modified cotton fabric sample was studied by water contact angle (WCA) and water shedding angle (WSA) measurements. The modified cotton fabrics exhibited superhydrophobicity with a WCA of 151° for 8 μL water droplet and a WSA of 5–10° for 40 μL water droplet. The superhydrophobic cotton sample was also characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The method is simple, eco-friendly and cost-effective and can be applied to large area of cotton fabric materials. It was shown that superhydrophobicity of the fabric was due to the combined effect of surface roughness imparted by zinc hydroxide and the low surface energy of stearic acid.

  9. Environmental Chemicals and Human Neurotoxicity: Magnitude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olaleye

    metals such as lead and arsenic in drinking water. This article ..... adequate supply of energy, oxygen and essential nutrients but ... vitamins and minerals such as vitamins C and E balance the ... Chemicals may interact with the DNA molecule ...

  10. A novel, environmentally friendly sodium lauryl ether sulfate-, cocamidopropyl betaine-, cocamide monoethanolamine-containing buffer for MEKC on microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeman, Kurt W; Culbertson, Christopher T

    2008-12-01

    A new buffer has been developed for fast, high-efficiency separations of amino acids by MEKC. This buffer was more environmentally friendly than the most commonly used surfactant-containing buffers for MEKC separations. It used a commercially available dishwashing soap by Seventh Generation (Burlington, VT, USA), which contained three micelle-forming agents. The mixed micelles were composed of sodium lauryl ether sulfate (anionic), cocamidopropyl betaine (zwitterionic), and cocamide monoethanolamine (non-ionic). The optimized buffer contained 5.0% w/w Seventh Generation Free & Clear dishwashing soap, 10 mM sodium borate, and was completely void of organics. The lack of organics and the biodegradability of the surfactant molecules made this buffer more environmentally friendly than typical SDS-containing buffers. This new buffer also had a different selectivity and provided faster separations with higher separation efficiencies than SDS-based buffers. Fast separations of BODIPY FL labeled amino acids yielded peaks with separation efficiencies greater than 100,000 in less than 20 s.

  11. Solution-Processed Environmentally Friendly Ag2S Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells with Broad Spectral Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor A. Öberg

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A facile heat-up synthesis route is used to synthesize environmentally friendly Ag2S colloidal quantum dots (CQDs that are applied as light absorbing material in solid state p-i-n junction solar cell devices. The as-synthesized Ag2S CQDs have an average size of around 3.5 nm and exhibit broad light absorption covering ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared wavelength regions. The solar cell devices are constructed with a device architecture of FTO/TiO2/Ag2S CQDs/hole transport material (HTM /Au using a solution-processed approach. Different HTMs, N2,N2,N2′,N2′,N7,N7,N7′,N7′-octakis(4-methoxyphenyl-9,9′-spirobi(9H-fluorene-2,2′,7,7′ tetramine (spiro-OMeTAD, poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl (P3HT, and poly((2,3-bis(3-octyloxyphenyl-5,8-quinoxalinediyl-2,5-thiophenediyl TQ1 are studied for maximizing the device photovoltaic performance. The solar cell device with P3HT as a hole transport material gives the highest performance and the solar cell exhibit broad spectral absorption. These results indicate that Ag2S CQD have high potential for utilization as environmentally friendly light absorbing materials for solar cell application and that the hole transport material is critical to maximize the solar cell photovoltaic performance.

  12. Development and Pilot Testing of a Bilingual Environmental Health Assessment Tool to Promote Asthma-friendly Childcares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Postma, Julie; Camacho, Ariana Ochoa; Hershberg, Rachel M; Trujilio, Elsa; Tinajera, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Childhood marks the highest risk for allergic sensitization to asthma triggers. Hispanic/Latino children are at higher risk for hospitalization for asthma than non-Hispanic White children. Childcare providers lack knowledge about reducing asthma triggers. The purpose of this paper is to describe a community-based participatory research (CBPR) initiative aimed at developing and pilot testing a bilingual walk-through assessment tool for asthma-friendly childcare environments. Ten Latina mothers of children with asthma living in the Pacific Northwest collaborated with research partners to develop and pilot test a Childcare Environmental Health (CEH) assessment walk-through survey.Results and Lessons Learned: The women innovated the survey with photography and structural examinations of stress and provision of basic needs. The survey tool identified environmental threats to asthma in all three childcares surveyed. Parents are well-positioned to build trust with childcare providers, assess asthma triggers, and recommend practical mitigation strategies.

  13. Human exposure assessment to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Silva, Manori J; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Needham, Larry L

    2006-02-01

    In modern societies, humans may be exposed to a wide spectrum of environmental chemicals. Although the health significance of this exposure for many chemicals is unknown, studies to investigate the prevalence of exposure are warranted because of the chemicals' potential harmful health effects, as often indicated in animal studies. Three tools have been used to assess exposure: exposure history/questionnaire information, environmental monitoring, and biomonitoring (i.e. measuring concentrations of the chemicals, their metabolites, or their adducts in human specimens). We present an overview on the use of biomonitoring in exposure assessment using phthalates, bisphenol A and other environmental phenols, and perfluorinated chemicals as examples. We discuss some factors relevant for interpreting and understanding biomonitoring data, including selection of both biomarkers of exposure and human matrices, and toxicokinetic information. The use of biomonitoring in human risk assessment is not discussed.

  14. Is Formal Environmental Education Friendly to Nature? Environmental Ethics in Science Textbooks for Primary School Pupils in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Beata

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increased interest in ecology, global warming and numerous environmental problems, ecological issues are becoming extremely important in education. Many researchers and thinkers believe that solutions to environmental problems are affected by the environmental ethics adopted. This article identifies which of the three branches of…

  15. Environmental Chemicals and Human Neurotoxicity: Magnitude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olaleye

    altered neurocthemical, electrophysiological or behavioural functions. The adverse effects of neurotoxicity are among the most feared ill health in humans ... chemicals through air, food, or drinking water. The infamous ..... environment can disrupt the neurological control .... that perception and memory gradually fade,.

  16. Integrated studies for automobile wastes management in developing countries; in the concept of environmentally friendly mechanic village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Michael Amamechi; Feng, Huan; Achilike, Kennedy

    2011-07-01

    More cities in developing countries now consider mechanic village (MV) as superior to the city wide auto-workshop practice following the increasing influx of used or waste automobile from industrialized nations. This is because of the numerous advantages of the mechanic village concept as a capacity building, and in poverty alleviation. Nevertheless, mechanic villages are poorly developed with no waste management plan. They are now identified with severe to excessive heavy metal soil pollution, causing ecological and public health hazards. This paper has a wider explanation of what it takes for a mechanic village to be environmentally friendly based on spectroscopic analysis and physical measurements conducted in three MVs. Heavy metal concentrations (mg kg( -1)) above background levels in the upper 100 cm soil profiles of the Okigwe, the Orji, and the Nekede MVs in the Imo River basin collectively range 748-70,606 for Fe; 99-1,090 for Pb; 186-600 for Mn; 102-1,001 for Cu; 8-23 for Cd; 4-27 for Cr; and 3-10 for Ni. The most abundant metals of environmental concerns are Pb, Mn, and Cu, in the order of Pb > Mn > Cu. Three-phase storm water treatment, emission testing, minimum safe farming distance (350 m), extended producer responsibility for disposal or recycling of used motor oil, phyto-remediation using local plants, groundwater monitoring wells, and continuous education of mechanics are recommended. Exporters of waste automobiles to developing countries and the United Nations may assist developing countries in establishing environmentally friendly MVs.

  17. Environmental pollution from new chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.

    1995-01-01

    New chemical pollutants have entered the environment because of industrialisation, urbanization and developments. The new pollutants include polymers, plasticizers, polychlorinated biphenyls, acrylonitriles, detergents, lead, dioxins and pesticides. Investigations showed substational amount of their presence in the environment. Pesticides and polymers can be controlled by using photo sensitizers. Lead pollution in ambient air can be controlled by reducing lead content in the gasoline. Detergents can be controlled by switching over the manufacturing process from ABS to LAS. Dioxins can be controlled by incinerating the chlorinated waste above 1200 C. (author)

  18. An evidential reasoning-based AHP approach for the selection of environmentally-friendly designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NG, C.Y., E-mail: ng.cy@cityu.edu.hk

    2016-11-15

    Due to the stringent environmental regulatory requirements being imposed by cross-national bodies in recent years, manufacturers have to minimize the environmental impact of their products. Among those environmental impact evaluation tools available, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is often employed to quantify the product's environmental impact throughout its entire life cycle. However, owing to the requirements of expert knowledge in environmental science and vast effort for data collection in carrying out LCA, as well as the common absence of complete product information during product development processes, there is a need to develop a more suitable tool for product designers. An evidential reasoning-based approach, which aims at providing a fast-track method to perform design alternative evaluations for non-LCA experts, is therefore introduced as a new initiative to deal with the incomplete or uncertain information. The proposed approach also enables decision makers to quantitatively assess the life cycle phases and design alternatives by comparing their potential environmental impacts, thus effectively and efficiently facilitates the identification of greener designs. A case application is carried out to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach.

  19. Physical and Chemical Environmental Abstraction Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, E.

    2000-01-01

    As directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a), Task 1, an overall conceptualization of the physical and chemical environment (P/CE) in the emplacement drift is documented in this Analysis/Model Report (AMR). Included are the physical components of the engineered barrier system (EBS). The intended use of this descriptive conceptualization is to assist the Performance Assessment Department (PAD) in modeling the physical and chemical environment within a repository drift. It is also intended to assist PAD in providing a more integrated and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction and to answer the key technical issues raised in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). EBS-related features, events, and processes (FEPs) have been assembled and discussed in ''EBS FEPs/Degradation Modes Abstraction'' (CRWMS M and O 2000a). Reference AMRs listed in Section 6 address FEPs that have not been screened out. This conceptualization does not directly address those FEPs. Additional tasks described in the written development plan are recommended for future work in Section 7.3. To achieve the stated purpose, the scope of this document includes: (1) the role of in-drift physical and chemical environments in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) (Section 6.1); (2) the configuration of engineered components (features) and critical locations in drifts (Sections 6.2.1 and 6.3, portions taken from EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction (CRWMS M and O 2000b)); (3) overview and critical locations of processes that can affect P/CE (Section 6.3); (4) couplings and relationships among features and processes in the drifts (Section 6.4); and (5) identities and uses of parameters transmitted to TSPA by some of the reference AMRs (Section 6.5). This AMR originally considered a design with backfill, and is now being updated (REV 00 ICN1) to address

  20. Chemical composition, toxicity and non-target effects of Pinus kesiya essential oil: An eco-friendly and novel larvicide against malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important parasites and pathogens causing death, poverty and social disability worldwide, with special reference to tropical and subtropical countries. The overuse of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors lead to resistance, adverse environmental effects and high operational costs. Therefore, the development of eco-friendly control tools is an important public health challenge. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Pinus kesiya leaf essential oil (EO) was evaluated against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the P. kesiya EO contained 18 compounds. Major constituents were α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene and germacrene D. In acute toxicity assays, the EO showed significant toxicity against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with LC50 values of 52, 57, and 62µg/ml, respectively. Notably, the EO was safer towards several aquatic non-target organisms Anisops bouvieri, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 values ranging from 4135 to 8390µg/ml. Overall, this research adds basic knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides from Pinaceae plants against malaria, dengue and filariasis mosquito vectors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Low-cost, environmentally friendly route for producing CFRP laminates with microfibrillated cellulose interphase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. E. B. Uribe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a cost-effective and eco-friendly method to improve mechanical performance in continuous carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP matrix composites is presented. Unsized fiber fabric preforms are coated with self-assembling sugarcane bagasse microfibrillated cellulose, and undergo vacuum-assisted liquid epoxy resin infusion to produce solid laminates after curing at ambient temperature. Quasi-static tensile, flexural and short beam testing at room temperature indicated that the stiffness, ultimate strength and toughness at ultimate load of the brand-new two-level hierarchical composite are substantially higher than in baseline, unsized fiber-reinforced epoxy laminate. Atomic force microscopy for height and phase imaging, along with scanning electron microscopy for the fracture surface survey, revealed a 400 nm-thick fiber/matrix interphase wherein microfibrillated cellulose exerts strengthening and toughening roles in the hybrid laminate. Market expansion of this class of continuous fiber-reinforced-polymer matrix composites exhibiting remarkable mechanical performance/cost ratios is thus conceivable.

  2. Characterization of RPC operation with new environmental friendly mixtures for LHC application and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, R.; Capeans, M.; Mandelli, B.

    2016-01-01

    The large muon trigger systems based on Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) at the LHC experiments are currently operated with R134a based mixture. Unfortunately R134a is considered a greenhouse gas with high impact on the enviroment and therefore will be subject to regulations aiming in strongly reducing the available quantity on the market. The immediat effects might be instability on the price and incertitude in the product availability. Alternative gases (HFO-1234yf and HFO-1234ze) have been already identified by industry for specific applications as replacement of R134a. Moreover, HFCs similar to the R134a but with lower global warming potential (GWP) are already available (HFC-245fa, HFC-32, HFC-152a). The present contribution describes the results obtained with RPCs operated with new enviromemtal friendly gases. A particular attention has been addressed to the possibility of maintening the current operation conditions (i.e. currently used applied voltage and front-end electronics) in order to be able to use a new mixture for RPC systems even where the common infrastructure (i.e. high voltage and detector components) cannot be replaced for operation at higher applied voltages.

  3. A Two-Wheeled, Self-Balancing Electric Vehicle Used As an Environmentally Friendly Individual Means of Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bździuch, D.; Grzegożek, W.

    2016-09-01

    This paper shows a concept of a model of a two-wheeled self-balancing vehicle with an electric motor drive as an environmentally-friendly personal transporter. The principle of work, modelling of construction and performing a simulation are presented and discussed. The visualization of the designed vehicle was made thanks to using Solid Works a computer-aided design program. The vehicle was modelled as an inverted pendulum. The stability of the mechanism in the equilibrium position was studied. An exemplary steering system was also subjected to the analysis that compared two controllers: PID and LQR which enabled to monitor the balance of the vehicle when the required conditions were fulfilled. Modelling of work of the controllers and the evaluation of the obtained results in required conditions were performed in the MATLAB environment.

  4. Study on environmental friendly national park management plan: concentrated on the support plan for national park residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Ha; Byun, Byoung Seol; Chung, Hoe Seong; Kim, Mi Sook; Kim, Jeong Won; Joo, Yong Joon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    National parks in Korea have been selected for preserving beautiful sceneries of nature or diversity of organisms. Today as the increase of population and industrialization has caused the increase of natural resource demand, it is difficult to preserve all ecosystems equally. Therefore the national park system has established to prevent the damage to an ecosystem or to preserve a region that can be damaged by selecting a valuable area. The objective of this study is to recommend an efficient support plan for national park residents, to induce their activities to be environmental friendly and to preserve an ecosystem in a national park. To achieve this, the similar systems, laws and cases in the advanced countries have compared and reviewed and a support plan for residents appropriate for Korean situation has discussed. 41 refs., 4 figs., 33 tabs.

  5. Note: Fabrication of a fast-response and user-friendly environmental chamber for atomic force microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yanfeng; Hui, Fei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Han, Tingting; Song, Xiaoxue; Pan, Chengbin; Lanza, Mario, E-mail: mlanza@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials, Soochow University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science & Technology, 199 Ren-Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The atomic force microscope is one of the most widespread tools in science, but many suppliers do not provide a competitive solution to make experiments in controlled atmospheres. Here, we provide a solution to this problem by fabricating a fast-response and user-friendly environmental chamber. We corroborate the correct functioning of the chamber by studying the formation of local anodic oxidation on a silicon sample (biased under opposite polarities), an effect that can be suppressed by measuring in a dry nitrogen atmosphere. The usefulness of this chamber goes beyond the example here presented, and it could be used in many other fields of science, including physics, mechanics, microelectronics, nanotechnology, medicine, and biology.

  6. Investigation of environmental friendly Te-free SiSb material for applications of phase-change memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ting; Song Zhitang; Liu Bo; Feng Songlin

    2008-01-01

    Te-free environmental friendly Si x Sb 100−x phase-change materials are investigated. The binary material, which is compatible with the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor manufacturing process, is outstanding in various properties. Si x Sb 100−x shows a much better data retention as compared with Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 . The density change for Si 10 Sb 90 and Si 16 Sb 84 is only about 3% and 3.8%, respectively. The failure times for Si 10 Sb 90 and Si 16 Sb 84 are about 10 3 and 10 6 times longer than that of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 at 110 °C. The crystallization temperature of Si x Sb 100−x increases with silicon content within the material. Si x Sb 100−x materials are good candidates for the phase-change memory applications

  7. Biomonitoring human exposure to environmental carcinogenic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, P.B.; Sepai, O.; Lawrence, R.

    1996-01-01

    A coordinated study was carried out on the development, evaluation and application of biomonitoring procedures for populations exposed to environmental genotoxic pollutants. The procedures used involved both direct measurement of DNA or protein damage (adducts) and assessment of second biological...... spectrometry). The measurement of adducts was focused on those from genotoxicants that result from petrochemical combustion or processing, e.g. low-molecular-weight alkylating agents, PAHs and compounds that cause oxidative DNA damage. Cytogenetic analysis of lymphocytes was undertaken (micronuclei, chromosome...... aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges) and mutation frequency was estimated at a number of loci including the hprt gene and genes involving in cancer development. Blood and urine samples from individuals exposed to urban pollution were collected. Populations exposed through occupational or medical...

  8. Promoting energy-saving and environmentally friendly generation dispatching model in China: Phase development and case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yi; Yang, Hongliang

    2013-01-01

    Energy saving and environmental protection are important conditions for the sustainable development of Chinese economy. However current widely used generation scheduling model based on predefined production quota and tariff results in heavy energy consumption and severe environment pollution. From 2007, as concerns over energy shortage and environmental pollution, the Chinese authorities introduced the implementation of energy-saving generation dispatching model, which is an important approach to facilitating energy-saving and reduction of pollutant emission. The objective of implementing energy-saving generation dispatching model is to prioritize the use of renewable energy resources and new power plants with high efficiency without compromising power system security and reliability. This paper analyzes the necessity and feasibility of implementing energy-efficient and environmentally friendly generation scheduling models in China. The institutional and technical barriers impeding the implementation of energy-saving generation dispatching model are identified. The development of advanced energy-saving generation scheduling models towards competitive market models and phased planning programs are emphasized in this paper. The effectiveness and experience of provinces piloted energy-saving generation dispatching projects are also discussed. - Highlights: ► Introducing problems of current power generation scheduling model in China. ► Discussing necessity of implementing ESGD model and corresponding barriers. ► Proposing phased planning programs for developing ESGD models. ► Discussing the effectiveness and experience of provinces piloted ESGD projects

  9. Current and Future Friends of the Earth: Assessing Cross-National Theories of Environmental Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Stenner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies of public opinion on environmental protection have typically been grounded in Inglehart’s post-materialism thesis, proposing that societal affluence encourages materially-sated publics to look beyond their interests and value the environment. These studies are generally conducted within, or at best across, Western, democratic, industrialized countries. Absence of truly cross-cultural research means the theory’s limitations have gone undetected. This article draws on an exceptionally broad dataset—pooling cross-sectional survey data from 80 countries, each sampled at up to three different points over 15 years—to investigate environmental attitudes. We find that post-materialism provides little account of pro-environment attitudes across diverse cultures, and a far from adequate explanation even in the affluent West. We suggest that unique domestic interests, more than broad value systems, are driving emerging global trends in environmental attitudes. The environment’s future champions may be the far from ‘post-material’ citizens of those developing nations most at risk of real material harm from climate change and environmental degradation.

  10. Organic Food Perception: Fad, or Healthy and Environmentally Friendly? A Case on Romanian Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacinia Crina Petrescu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to explore consumers’ perceptions of organic food and examine whether organic food products are perceived in the North-West Region of Romania as offering health and environmental benefits or as simply another sine qua non condition to be integrated into the luxurious yuppie lifestyle. The inspiration for our study came from witnessing the stereotypical image of organic food consumers as “stylish, trendy, fancy consumers” in the last three to five years. Scientific evidence on the perceptions of organic food is based on a probabilistic survey. The results indicate an environmental consciousness of organic food consumers in North-Western Region of Romania in terms of organic food: a high percentage of consumers believe that organic food is healthier than conventional food (87% and that it contributes to environmental protection more than conventional food (75%. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 was observed between people with higher education and those without higher education concerning the following beliefs: belief that most people consume organic products because they are in fashion, and belief that organic food contributes to environmental protection.

  11. Telling friend from foe : Environmental cues improve recognition of individuals with hostile intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijn, R.; Kleij, R. van der; Kallen, V.L.; Stekkinger, M.; Vries, P. de

    2017-01-01

    Detecting deviant behaviours that precede and are related to crimes can help prevent these crimes. Research suggests that the psychological mindset of wrongdoers may differ from others, such that they are more anxious, self-focussed, and vigilant. As a result, their responses to environmental cues,

  12. Chemical investigations related to some environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sofany, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Pesticides represent one the environmental pollutants. The determination of these pesticides in water and soil samples are of major importance. In the fist part of the present work, the assessment and optimization of the determination of certain pesticides by High performance liquid chromatography HPLC and Gas chromatography GC were investigated. When using HPLC, two eluent were used ACN: H 2 O and MeOH: H 2 O with two systems; isocreatic and gradient elution's. The optimum conditions for the measurements of Bromoxynil, Cypermethrin, methomyl, Dimethoat, carbofuran, simazine are gradient elution at a timetable of wavelengths. With GC measurements the ECD detector was found to be the best one for the working pesticides and at oven temperature from 100-160 degree C at range 20 deg./ min. and second rate from 160-280 degree C with rate 4 deg./min. at final time 20 min. The second part is the application of the optimised method on surface water samples from El-manzala lake three pesticides are present; simazine, atrazine and carbofuran. The third part of this work is the treatment of the contaminated water samples using economic adsorbents such as animal bones pyrolysis residue, apricot stone shell, Sm-4 and Sm-7. By using animal bones pyrolysis residue 100% of carbofuran and 60% of simazine and atrazine were removed from solutions at concentration 1 mg/L. 26 tabs., 28 figs., 61 refs

  13. Environmental Influences on Reproductive Health, the Importance of Chemical Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aolin; Padula, Amy; Sirota, Marina; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2016-01-01

    Unstructured Abstract Chemical exposures during pregnancy can have a profound and life-long impact on human health. Due to the omnipresence of chemicals in our daily life, there is continuous contact with chemicals in food, water, air and consumer products. Consequently, human biomonitoring studies show that pregnant women around the globe are exposed to a variety of chemicals. In this review, we provide a summary of current data on maternal and fetal exposure as well as health consequences from these exposures. We review several chemical classes including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), phenols, phthalates, pesticides, and metals. Additionally, we discuss environmental disparities and vulnerable populations, and future research directions. We conclude by providing some recommendations for prevention of chemical exposure and its adverse reproductive health consequences. PMID:27513554

  14. The Industrial Toxics Project: Targeting chemicals for environmental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    In September, 1990, the Administrator of the US Environmental Protection Agency committed the Agency to a program of targeting chemicals for multi-media risk reduction activities through pollution prevention. The Industrial Toxics Project will place emphasis on obtaining voluntary commitments from industry to reduce releases of toxic chemicals to the air, water, and land with a goal of reducing releases nationwide by 33% by 1992 and 50% by 1995. An initial list of 18 chemicals have been selected based on recommendations from each Agency program. The chemicals selected are subject to reporting under the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Program which will provide the basis for tracking progress. The chemicals are characterized by high production volume, toxicity and releases and present the potential for significant risk reduction through pollution prevention. This presentation will discuss the focus and direction of this new initiative

  15. CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS USING 'GREENER' ALTERNATIVE REACTION CONDITIONS AND MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical research during the last decade has witnessed a paradigm shift towards "environmentally-friendly chemistry" more popularly known as "green chemistry" due to the increasing environmental concerns and legislative requirements to curb the release of chemical waste into ...

  16. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system. Feasibility survey of the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system in Indonesia; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Indonesia ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With relation to the coal of Indonesia, where the expansion of the use of coal as a substitute for petroleum/plant fuel is aimed at, the paper grasped the situation of coal production/distribution/utilization and environmental problems, and analyzed the situation of the coal utilization/spread by industry including the commercial/residential use. The purpose of the survey is to work out a comprehensive master plan including Japan`s international cooperation for introducing the environmentally-friendly coal utilization system to Indonesia. Coal utilization systems, the introduction of which Indonesia should study in future, were picked up, according to the surveys in fiscal 1993 and 1994. In commercial/residential and small-scale industry sectors, needed is improvement of carbonization technology for production of coal carbonization briquette. Moreover, the introduction of bio-briquette should be studied in the future. In the power generation sector, studies should be made on the introduction of technology for SOx/NOx reduction and technology for coal ash treatment including the effective use of coal ash. For the introduction of coal boilers, the combustion mixed with bagasse, which is abundant in amount, is also necessary. In the coal production sector, coal preparation technology is studied, and a method to select the optimum process was proposed through the simulation. 76 figs., 43 tabs.

  17. Green Packaging Development. : A way to efficient, effective and more environmental friendly packaging solutions.

    OpenAIRE

    Mian Muhammad, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    Growing pressure on the packaging design to enhance the environmental and logistics performance of a packaging system stresses the packaging designers to search new design strategies that not only fulfill logistics requirements in the supply chain, but also reduce the CO 2emissions during the packaging life cycle. This thesis focuses on the packaging design process and suggests some improvements by considering its logistics performance and CO 2emissions. A Green packaging development model wa...

  18. Environmentally friendly paint and varnish additives based on isobutyrate aldehyde condensation products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guziałowska-Tic Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents selected results of ecotoxicological tests on the environmental impact of hydroxyester HE-1. It was found that the substance is biodegradable and has no negative impact on algae growth rate, however it may inhibit algae biomass growth. The results of Daphnia immobilization test shows that the substance is safe for the aquatic environment. Whereas, at higher concentrations, hydroxyester HE-1 may exhibit acute toxicity to rainbow trout.

  19. Polyester-Based (Bio)degradable Polymers as Environmentally Friendly Materials for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydz, Joanna; Sikorska, Wanda; Kyulavska, Mariya; Christova, Darinka

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the polyesters such as polylactide and polyhydroxyalkonoates, as well as polyamides produced from renewable resources, which are currently among the most promising (bio)degradable polymers. Synthetic pathways, favourable properties and utilisation (most important applications) of these attractive polymer families are outlined. Environmental impact and in particular (bio)degradation of aliphatic polyesters, polyamides and related copolymer structures are described in view of the potential applications in various fields. PMID:25551604

  20. Environmentally friendly hybrid coatings for corrosion protection: silane based pre-treatments and nanostructured waterborne coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Fedel, Michele

    2009-01-01

    This thesis considers a nanotechnology approach based on the production of metals pre-treatments and organic coatings (a complete protection system at all) designed from the nanoscale. The final aim is to develop protection systems with improved corrosion protection properties and a low environmental impact. In particular, multifunctional silane hybrid molecules were used to design sol-gel pre-treatments for metals and to modify the inner structure of UV curable waterborne organic coatings...

  1. Organic Food Perception: Fad, or Healthy and Environmentally Friendly? A Case on Romanian Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Dacinia Crina Petrescu; Ruxandra Malina Petrescu-Mag

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to explore consumers’ perceptions of organic food and examine whether organic food products are perceived in the North-West Region of Romania as offering health and environmental benefits or as simply another sine qua non condition to be integrated into the luxurious yuppie lifestyle. The inspiration for our study came from witnessing the stereotypical image of organic food consumers as “stylish, trendy, fancy consumers” in the last three to five years. Scien...

  2. Detritiation technologies - A way to make the nuclear power environmental friendly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Gh.; Ana, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Nowadays, at global level speaking, the radioactive pollution tends to reach the critic limits, putting into danger all life because of the accumulation of radioactivity. Radioisotopes are introduced into the environment as part of authorized nuclear activities. Special interest exists today for tritium because of the great penetration mobility through various materials and their respective spread in the neighboring clean spaces with great impact on health and environmental protection. (authors)

  3. Development of a green supercapacitor composed entirely of environmentally friendly materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyatkin, Boris; Presser, Volker; Heon, Min; Lukatskaya, Maria R; Beidaghi, Majid; Gogotsi, Yury

    2013-12-01

    Owing to recent power- and energy-density advances, higher efficiencies, and almost unlimited lifetimes, electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs, also known as supercapacitors) are now used in a wide range of energy harvesting and storage systems, which include portable power and grid applications. Despite offering key performance advantages, many device components pose significant environmental hazards once disposed. They often contain fluorine, sulfur, and cyanide groups, which are harmful if discarded by using conventional landfill or incineration methods, and they are constructed by using multiple metallic parts, which contribute to a high ash content. We explore designs for a fully operational supercapacitor that incorporates materials completely safe to dispose of and easy to incinerate. The components, which include material alternatives for the current collector, electrolyte, separator, particle binder, and packaging, are all mutually compatible, and most of them exhibit better performance than commonly used materials. We selected a graphite foil as current collector, sodium acetate as electrolyte, an ester as porous membrane based on acetate cellulose, and polymers based on polyvinyl alcohol as environmentally benign solutions for device components. The presented materials all originate from simple and inexpensive source compounds, which decreases the environmental impact of their manufacture and renders them more viable for integration into commercial devices for large-scale stationary and transportation energy storage applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. ICPP [Idaho Chemical Processing Plant] environmental monitoring report, CY-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivanek, K.R.

    1989-08-01

    Summarized in this report are the data collected through Environmental Monitoring programs conducted at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) by the Environmental Engineering (EE) Section of the Nuclear and Industrial Safety (N and IS) Department. The ICPP is responsible for complying with all applicable Federal, State, Local and DOE Rules, Regulations and Orders. Radiological effluent and emissions are regulated by the DOE. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates all nonradiological waste resulting from the ICPP operations including all airborne, liquid, and solid waste. The EE subsection completed a Quality Assurance (QA) Plan for Environmental Monitoring activities during the third quarter of 1986. QA activities have resulted in the ICPP's implementation of the Environmental Protection Agency rules and guidelines pertaining to the collection, analyses, and reporting of environmentally related samples. Where no approved methods for analyses existed for radionuclides, currently used methods were submitted for the EPA approval. 33 figs., 14 tabs

  5. L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekkala, R.O.; Price, V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1986-12-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the L-Area Oil and Chemical Basin at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy's proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (40 CFR 1500-1508). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a regulatory closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations

  6. CMP [Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides] Pits: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, S.C.; Kolb, N.L.; Price, V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1986-12-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy's proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (40 CFR 1500-1508). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a regulatory closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations

  7. Environmental high resolution electron microscopy and applications to chemical science

    OpenAIRE

    Boyes, Edward; Gai, Pratibha

    2017-01-01

    An environmental cell high resolution electron microscope (EHREM) has been developed for in situ studies of dynamic chemical reactions on the atomic scale. It allows access to metastable intermediate phases of catalysts and to sequences of reversible microstructural and chemical development associated with the activation, deactivation and poisoning of a catalyst. Materials transported through air can be restored or recreated and samples damaged, e.g. by dehydration, by the usual vacuum enviro...

  8. Physical and chemical trigger factors in environmental intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Anna-Sara; Palmquist, Eva; Nordin, Steven

    2018-04-01

    Individuals with environmental intolerance (EI) react to exposure from different environmental sources at levels tolerated by most people and that are below established toxicological and hazardous thresholds. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of attributing symptoms to chemical and physical sources in the environment among individuals with different forms of self-reported EI and in referents. Cross-sectional data from a population-based study, the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study (n = 3406), were used and individuals with self-reported EI to chemicals, buildings, electromagnetic fields and sounds as well as a group with multiple EIs were identified. The Environmental-Symptom Attribution Scale was used to quantify degree to which health symptoms are attributed to 40 specific environmental exposures and sources, with subscales referring to the four types of EI. All EI groups, except the group with building related intolerance (BRI), reported more symptoms from the expected sources compared to the referents. In addition, individuals with chemical and sound intolerance reported symptoms from building related trigger factors, and individuals with electromagnetic hypersensitivity reported symptoms from chemical trigger factors. The study suggests that individuals with BRI react to fewer and more specific trigger factors than do individuals with other EIs, and that it is important to ask about different sources since three of the EI groups attribute their symptoms to a wide variety of sources in addition to the sources to which their EI implicates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Antifouling technology-past, present and future steps towards efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yebra, Diego Meseguer; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2004-01-01

    , by some of the paint-producing companies. An exhaustive review of the historical development of antifouling systems and a detailed characterisation of sea water are also included. The need for studies on the behaviour of chemically active paints under different sea water conditions is emphasised...... in two main ways: imitation of the natural antifouling processes and modification of the characteristics of the substrate. The former mostly focuses on the study of the large amount of secondary metabolites secreted by many different marine organisms to control the fouling on their surfaces. The many...

  10. A Wide Span Tractor concept developed for efficient and environmental friendly farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hans Henrik; Grøn Sørensen, Claus; Oudshoorn, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    agricultural machines a new Wide Span (WS) tractor concept has been designed and a prototype tractor with a span of 9.6 m (wheel centre to wheel centre) has been built. It is designed to optimise the Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) system that is already in place on the vegetable farm where it is being tested....... The tractor is designed to carry out all operations during vegetable production including harvest. Using the tractor means that less than 10% of the field area is affected by compaction due to field traffic. The economical and environmental effects of such a wide span CTF growing system will be assessed....

  11. Soft antimicrobial agents: synthesis and activity of labile environmentally friendly long chain quaternary ammonium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Másson, Már; Kristinsson, Karl G; Hjálmarsdóttir, Martha A; Hilmarsson, Hilmar; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2003-09-11

    A series of soft quaternary ammonium antimicrobial agents, which are analogues to currently used quaternary ammonium preservatives such as cetyl pyridinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride, were synthesized. These soft analogues consist of long alkyl chain connected to a polar headgroup via chemically labile spacer group. They are characterized by facile nonenzymatic and enzymatic degradation to form their original nontoxic building blocks. However, their chemical stability has to be adequate in order for them to have antimicrobial effects. Stability studies and antibacterial and antiviral activity measurements revealed relationship between activity, lipophilicity, and stability. Their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was as low as 1 microg/mL, and their viral reduction was in some cases greater than 6.7 log. The structure-activity studies demonstrate that the bioactive compounds (i.e., MIC for Gram-positive bacteria of <10 microg/mL) have an alkyl chain length between 12 and 18 carbon atoms, with a polar headgroup preferably of a small quaternary ammonium group, and their acquired inactivation half-life must be greater than 3 h at 60 degrees C.

  12. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies. (letter)

  13. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A.

    2013-03-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies.

  14. Environmentally friendly procedure based on VA-MSPD for the determination of booster biocides in fish tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Augusto A; Caldas, Sergiane S; Escarrone, Ana Laura Venquiaruti; Arias, Jean Lucas de Oliveira; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2018-03-01

    Booster biocides have been widely applied to ships and other submerged structures. These compounds can be released into the marine environment as the result of vessel hull leaching and may remain in different environmental compartments. This study aimed at introducing an environmentally friendly procedure for the extraction of irgarol and diuron from fish samples by vortex-assisted matrix solid phase dispersion (VA-MSPD) with detection by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Different types of solid supports and solvents were evaluated. The best results were found when 0.5g mussel shell, 0.5g sodium sulfate and 5mL ethanol were used. Analytical recoveries ranged from 81 to 110%, with RSD below 10%, whereas the matrix effect was between -17 and 1% (for all samples under study). LOQ values of irgarol and diuron were 5 and 50ngg -1 , respectively. The method under investigation proved to be a promising alternative to controlling contamination of fish by booster biocides, with low consumption of biodegradable reagents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with ammonia recovery and energy production: Experimental study and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ye; Tan, Michelle Ting Ting; Chong, Clive; Xiao, Wende; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-10-01

    Animal manure waste is considered as an environmental challenge especially in farming areas mainly because of gaseous emission and water pollution. Among all the pollutants emitted from manure waste, ammonia is of greatest concern as it could contribute to formation of aerosols in the air and could hardly be controlled by traditional disposal methods like landfill or composting. On the other hand, manure waste is also a renewable source for energy production. In this work, an environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with combined ammonia recovery and energy production was proposed and investigated both experimentally and economically. Lab-scale feasibility study results showed that 70% of ammonia in the manure waste could be converted to struvite as fertilizer, while solid manure waste was successfully gasified in a 10kW downdraft fixed-bed gasifier producing syngas with the higher heating value of 4.9MJ/(Nm 3 ). Based on experimental results, economic study for the system was carried out using a cost-benefit analysis to investigate the financial feasibility based on a Singapore case study. In addition, for comparison, schemes of gasification without ammonia removal and incineration were also studied for manure waste disposal. The results showed that the proposed gasification-based manure waste treatment process integrated with ammonia recovery was most financially viable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmentally Friendly Plasma-Treated PEDOT:PSS as Electrodes for ITO-Free Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaagensmith, Bjorn; Reza, Khan Mamun; Hasan, Md Nazmul; Elbohy, Hytham; Adhikari, Nirmal; Dubey, Ashish; Kantack, Nick; Gaml, Eman; Qiao, Qiquan

    2017-10-18

    Solution processed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) transparent electrodes (TEs) offer great potential as a low cost alternative to expensive indium tin oxide (ITO). However, strong acids are typically used for enhancing the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS TEs, which produce processing complexity and environmental issues. This work presents an environmentally friendly acid free approach to enhance the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS using a light oxygen plasma treatment, in addition to solvent blend additives and post treatments. The plasma treatment was found to significantly reduce the sheet resistance of PEDOT:PSS TEs from 85 to as low as 15 Ω sq -1 , which translates to the highest reported conductivity of 5012 S/cm for PEDOT:PSS TEs. The plasma treated PEDOT:PSS TE resulted in an ITO-free perovskite solar cell efficiency of 10.5%, which is the highest reported efficiency for ITO-free perovskite solar cells with a PEDOT:PSS electrode that excludes the use of acid treatments. This research presents the first demonstration of this technology. Moreover, the PEDOT:PSS TEs enabled better charge extraction from the perovskite solar cells and reduced hysteresis in the current density-voltage (J-V) curves.

  17. Efficient heterogeneous and environmentally friendly degradation of nerve agents on a tungsten-based POM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizrahi, Dana M., E-mail: danami@iibr.gov.il [Department of Organic Chemistry, Israel Institute for Biological Research, P.O. Box 19, Ness Ziona 74100 (Israel); Saphier, Sigal; Columbus, Ishay [Department of Organic Chemistry, Israel Institute for Biological Research, P.O. Box 19, Ness Ziona 74100 (Israel)

    2010-07-15

    Common (chemical warfare agent) CWA decontaminants exhibit harsh and corrosive characteristics, and are harmful to the environment. In the course of our quest for active sorbents as efficient decontaminants, Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM) (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} was tested for oxidative degradation of CWAs. Although oxidation did not take place, sarin (GB) and VX were smoothly decontaminated to non-toxic products within 1 and 10 days, respectively. Degradation was carried out directly on the powder, eliminating the need for solvents. Mustard gas (HD), whose degradation is highly dependent on oxidation, was not decontaminated by this POM. Solid state MAS NMR ({sup 31}P and {sup 13}C) was utilized both for POM characterization and for decontamination studies monitoring.

  18. Efficient heterogeneous and environmentally friendly degradation of nerve agents on a tungsten-based POM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizrahi, Dana M.; Saphier, Sigal; Columbus, Ishay

    2010-01-01

    Common (chemical warfare agent) CWA decontaminants exhibit harsh and corrosive characteristics, and are harmful to the environment. In the course of our quest for active sorbents as efficient decontaminants, Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM) (NH 4 ) 3 PW 12 O 40 was tested for oxidative degradation of CWAs. Although oxidation did not take place, sarin (GB) and VX were smoothly decontaminated to non-toxic products within 1 and 10 days, respectively. Degradation was carried out directly on the powder, eliminating the need for solvents. Mustard gas (HD), whose degradation is highly dependent on oxidation, was not decontaminated by this POM. Solid state MAS NMR ( 31 P and 13 C) was utilized both for POM characterization and for decontamination studies monitoring.

  19. Environmentally friendly paint and varnish additives based on isobutyrate aldehyde condensation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guziałowska-Tic, Joanna; Jan Tic, Wilhelm

    2017-10-01

    The demand for exploitation of new plasticizers and coalescents to be used for production of water dispersion adhesives based on poli(vinyl acetate), turned to be recently of particular significance because the use of all kind of toxic phthalates was banned and certain restrictions were made to use glycol derivatives classified as volatile organic compounds. An alternative for toxic plasticizers used for production of adhesives is hydroxyester (HE-1) obtained from isobutanal during the process of aldol condensation under subsequent Cannizaro and Tischenko reactions. The paper presents selected results of ecotoxicological tests on the environmental impact of hydroxyester HE-1. It was found that the substance is biodegradable and has no negative impact on algae growth rate, however it may inhibit algae biomass growth. The results of Daphnia immobilization test shows that the substance is safe for the aquatic environment. Whereas, at higher concentrations, hydroxyester HE-1 may exhibit acute toxicity to rainbow trout.

  20. Operation of Resistive Plate Chamber Detectors with a New Environmentally Friendly Freon

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Helen Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    RPC particle gas detectors at CERN provide a vital element to the physics experiments carried out on the LHC. While their current operation and working gas mixtures are successful, environ- mental and economic factors force a revision of the mixture, specifically the eventual replacement of the current Freon gas R134-a with a newer, less environmentally harmful formulation, namely R1234-yf. The methods and results presented here outline the detector response to the introduction of the new Freon and its behavior under various mixtures. The electronegativity and hence impact on RPC parameters was investigated. It was found that the new Freon gas is indeed electroneg- ative, and suppresses the RPC signal. The mixture was modified to include Argon to increase ionization, and the final results of the operation of the RPC were satisfactory. Further work to refine the mixture for future implementation is necessary.

  1. SOLAR POWER PLANTS IN THE EU. AN ENVIRONMENTALLY-FRIENDLY ENGINE FOR THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea SAVEANU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We establish that the European Union is facing severe ecological problems, by analysing the ecological footprint of selected member states. Many of these problems are related to carbon and carbon equivalent emissions, some of which are generated by fossil fuel power plants. It is then shown that the European Union has potential in the solar power renewable energy sector. Finally, we calculate roughly how much land would be necessary in order to replace fossil fuel power plants, as well as nuclear plants, which are largely seen as environmentally dangerous. It is concluded that developing this alternative energy sector would help improve the ecological sustainability of the Union, by diminishing a significant part of its carbon footprint.

  2. Sea-dumped chemical weapons: environmental risk, occupational hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, M I; Sexton, K J; Vearrier, D

    2016-01-01

    Chemical weapons dumped into the ocean for disposal in the twentieth century pose a continuing environmental and human health risk. In this review we discuss locations, quantity, and types of sea-dumped chemical weapons, related environmental concerns, and human encounters with sea-dumped chemical weapons. We utilized the Ovid (http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com) and PubMed (http://www.pubmed.org) search engines to perform MEDLINE searches for the terms 'sea-dumped chemical weapons', 'chemical warfare agents', and 'chemical munitions'. The searches returned 5863 articles. Irrelevant and non-English articles were excluded. A review of the references for these articles yielded additional relevant sources, with a total of 64 peer-reviewed articles cited in this paper. History and geography of chemical weapons dumping at sea: Hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical munitions were disposed off at sea following World War II. European, Russian, Japanese, and United States coasts are the areas most affected worldwide. Several areas in the Baltic and North Seas suffered concentrated large levels of dumping, and these appear to be the world's most studied chemical warfare agent marine dumping areas. Chemical warfare agents: Sulfur mustard, Lewisite, and the nerve agents appear to be the chemical warfare agents most frequently disposed off at sea. Multiple other type of agents including organoarsenicals, blood agents, choking agents, and lacrimators were dumped at sea, although in lesser volumes. Environmental concerns: Numerous geohydrologic variables contribute to the rate of release of chemical agents from their original casings, leading to difficult and inexact modeling of risk of release into seawater. Sulfur mustard and the organoarsenicals are the most environmentally persistent dumped chemical agents. Sulfur mustard in particular has a propensity to form a solid or semi-solid lump with a polymer coating of breakdown products, and can persist in this state on the ocean floor

  3. Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due To Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on chemical fingerprinting of materials developed due to environmental issues. Some of the topics include: 1) Aerospace Materials; 2) Building Blocks of Capabilities; 3) Spectroscopic Techniques; 4) Chromatographic Techniques; 5) Factors that Determine Fingerprinting Approach; and 6) Fingerprinting: Combination of instrumental analysis methods that diagnostically characterize a material.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL ANDROGENS AND ANTIANDROGENS: AN EXPANDING CHEMICAL UNIVERSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the last ten years, awareness has grown about environmental chemicals that display antiandrogenic or androgenic activity. While studies in the early 1990s focused on pesticides that acted as androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, it soon became evident that this was not the ...

  5. Calculation of the disease burden associated with environmental chemical exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Bellanger, Martine

    2017-01-01

    neurotoxicants, air pollution, and endocrine disrupting chemicals, where sufficient data were available to determine dose-dependent adverse effects. Environmental exposure information allowed cost estimates for the U.S. and the EU, for OECD countries, though less comprehensive for industrializing countries...

  6. Industrial Implementation of Environmentally Friendly Nanometal Electroplating Process for Chromium and Copper Beryllium Replacement using Low Cost Pulse Current Power Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-10

    FINAL REPORT Industrial Implementation of Environmentally Friendly Nanometal Electroplating Process for Chromium and Copper Beryllium...35 3.2 Phase II – Development/Verification that Nanotechnology Based Electroplating Process to Replace EHC/Cu-Be Processes are Compatible With...36 3.3 Phase III – Development of 200kW Power Supply and Compatible Nanostructured Electroplating Processed for Commercialization

  7. Environmental laws regulating chemicals: Uses of information in decision making under environmental statutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaba, J.M. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Three areas are addressed in this paper: generic issues that arise simply in the process of decision-making under environmental statutes; different decision-making standards under various environmental statutes; and efforts to legislate a {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}acceptable{close_quotes} risk from exposure to carcinogenic chemicals.

  8. Grafting of Maleic Anhydride onto Polyethylene by Blend Process forEnvironmentally Friendly Plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrana, Sunit; Retno-Yusiasih; Sudirman; Ipit-Karyaningsih; Djimat-Lisnawati

    2000-01-01

    Grafting maleic anhydride (MAH) onto polyethylene is one of the route tomake plastics which can be consumed by microbe in the soil. High temperaturesolution process is one of the method to perform grafting. This method is notreally handy since it involves many steps. Therefore, in this work a simplemethod is performed to graft MAH onto polyethylene, i.e., blending process.As the process occurs in melt, the reaction is more likely to be diffusioncontrol rather than chemical control. Therefore, there are many parameterscan affect the grafting such as temperature of the blending, speed of therotation, concentration of MAH and concentration of dicumyl peroxide (DCP).Preliminary work in our laboratorium found an optimum condition for the firsttwo parameters. Thus, in this work the effect of concentration of MAH and DCPis studied into the effectiveness of grafting process. One of the indicationof unexpected reaction is formation of gel, or in other words the formationof X-link among polyethylene molecules. The grafted polyethylene ischaracterized by calculation of gel content, thermal properties by TG/DTA andFourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The results show the concentration of MAHand DCP play roles. However, initiator DCP has more significance effect thanthe MAH. (author)

  9. Interface design of environmentally friendly carbon nanotube-filled polyester composites: Fabrication, characterisation, functionality and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA composites containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were prepared using a process of melt-blending three-dimensional (3D printing filaments. Maleic anhydride (MA-grafted polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA-g-MA and chemically modified MWCNTs (MWCNTs-COOH were used to improve the compatibility and dispersibility of the MWCNTs within the PHA matrix. Structural, morphological, thermal and mechanical characterisations revealed dramatic enhancements in the thermal and mechanical properties of the PHA-g-MA/MWCNTs-COOH composites compared with PHA, because of the formation of ester carbonyl groups through the reaction between MA groups of PHA-g-MA and the carboxylic acid groups of the MWCNTs-COOH. For example, with an addition of 1.0 wt% of MWCNTs-COOH, the initial decomposition temperature and tensile strength at failure increased by 72 °C and 16.0 MPa, respectively. Moreover, MWCNTs or MWCNTs-COOH enhanced the antibacterial activity and static dissipative properties of the composites. Composites of PHA-g-MA or PHA containing MWCNTs or MWCNTs-COOH had better antibacterial activities and antistatic properties.

  10. Health and environmental effects of complex chemical mixtures: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy supports a broad long-term research program on human health and environmental effects from potential exposure to energy-related complex chemical mixtures. The program seeks basic mechanistic data on the effects of complex mixtures at the cellular, molecular, and whole animal levels to aid in predicting human health effects and seeks ecological data on biological and physical transformations in the mixtures, concentrations of the mixtures in various compartments of the environment, and potential routes for human exposure to these mixtures (e.g., food chain). On June 17-18, 1985, OHER held its First Annual Technical Meeting on the Complex Chemical Mixtures Program in Chicago, IL. The primary purpose of the meeting was to enable principal investigators to report the research status and accomplishments of ongoing complex chemical mixture studies supported by OHER. To help focus future research directions round table discussions were conducted.

  11. ADN – The new oxidizer around the corner for an environmentally friendly smokeless propellant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Y. Nagamachi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The search for a smokeless propellant has encouraged scientists and engineers to look for a chlorine-free oxidizer as a substitute for AP (ammonium perchlorate. Endeavors seemed to come to an end when ADN (ammonium dinitramide appeared in the West in the early 1990s. Although some drawbacks soon became apparent by that time, the foremost obstacle for its use in rocket-motors came from the patent originally applied for in the United States in 1990. Furthermore, environmental concerns have also increased during these two decades. Ammonium perchlorate is believed to cause thyroid cancer by contaminating soil and water. In addition, AP produces hydrogen chloride during burning which can cause acid rain and ozone layer depletion. Unlike AP, ADN stands for both smokeless and green propellant. Since then, much progress has been made in its development in synthesis, re-shaping, microencapsulation and solid propellant. The high solubility of ADN in water has also allowed its application as liquid monopropellant. Tests have revealed Isp (specific impulse superior to that normally observed with hydrazine, one of the most harmful and hazardous liquid propellants. With constraints of use, along with the patent near to expiry, scientists and engineers are rushing to complete developments and patents until then.

  12. A study of fine aggregate replacement with fly ash an environmental friendly and economical solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pofale, A D; Deo, S V

    2010-10-01

    The use of fly ash as a replacement of sand has a great potential to benefit our society in terms of reducing demand of natural sand, reducing environmental problems, conserving energy and reducing landfill area requirement. This paper presents an approach to increase the utilization of fly ash and conserve scarcely available natural sand for sustainable development. The experimental investigation by the inclusion of fly ash as a partial replacement of sand as compared to control cement mortar mixes indicated 50% to 100% increase in the compressive strength of mortar at 91 days. Replacement of 50% sand with fly ash can save about 0.4 m3 sand. Comparison of cost per N/mm2 compressive strength has shown about 40% to 60% saving in cost. Based on the experimental results, correlations are developed for finding out the compressive strength and cost at 28 and 91 days. Sand was replaced with 10% to 50% of fly ash by weight and 0.5, 0.55, 0.6 and 0.65 W/C ratios were used. Flow test performed for mortar revealed that as the percentage replacement of sand with the fly ash increased the flow of the mortar decreased. It was also observed that wet and dry densities were more than the control mortar for 10% & 20% replacement of sand with fly ash but for higher replacement percentage density reduced marginally.

  13. Environmentally friendly drive for gas compression applications: enhanced design of high-speed induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Karina Velloso; Pradurat, Jean Francois; Mercier, Jean Charles [Institut National Polytechncique, Lorrain (France). Converteam Motors Div.; Truchot, Patrick [Nancy Universite (France). Equipe de Recherche sur les Processus Innovatifs (ERPI)

    2008-07-01

    Taking into account the key issues faced by gas compressors users, this paper aims to help optimize the choice of the drive equipment as well as the driven equipment, in function of the cost of the whole installation life cycle. The design of the enhanced high-speed induction motor (MGV-Moteuer a Grande Vitesse) represents a technological breakthrough for the industry, it allows the direct coupling to the compressor, without using a gearbox making the system more efficient and reliable. From both micro and macro-economic viewpoints, the high-speed electric driver becomes a more efficient use of natural gas energy resources. This new technology associated with the electric option offers challenging and rewarding work to those responsible for the operation and maintenance of the compressor station. The electric option is not only conceptually viable but has a proven track record that justifies serious consideration as an alternative for reliably powering. Once an operator becomes comfortable with the prospects of motor-driven compression, the analysis of machine options requires only a few new approaches to fairly evaluate the alternatives. The application of this reasoning in projects using compression units is especially opportune, in view of the great variations of operational conditions and environmental issues. (author)

  14. Super Global Projects and Environmentally Friendly Technologies Used in Space Exploration: Realities and Prospects of the Space Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Krichevsky

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The 60th anniversary of the Space Age is an important intermediate finishing point on the way of a man and the whole humanity to space. Along with the outstanding achievements, there are a number of challenges and contradictions in space exploration due to the aggravation of the global crisis on Earth, low efficiency and the backlog of space research in the transition to a new technology based reality and clean technologies. Both the international astronautics and the space exploration area nowadays face difficulties in choosing a new paradigm and a development strategy that is becoming even more complicated due to the current unstable and turbulent situation on Earth. The article reveals the optimistic scenario of further space exploration, as well as the methodological and practical aspects of new projects and technologies. The periodization of the Space Age history has been conducted. It has been also proposed a new classification of the “space” phenomenon due to concretizing the concept of “global” in the form of a three-scale structure encompassing the following levels: 1 planetary global; 2 super global; 3 universally global. The notion of “super global space exploration project” has been introduced. The concept of further space exploration is proposed, which includes four interrelated super global projects:1 Earth Protection System from Asteroid and Comet Threat; 2 Moon Exploration; 3 Mars Exploration; 4 Cosmic Humanity. Since the humanity is embarking on the practical implementation of these super global projects, it is urgent to make a transition towards a new technology based order, as well as up-to-date technologies. A couple of ecological projects and space exploration technologies of the 20th and 21st centuries have been exemplified and analyzed. It has been also worked out the list of new environmentally friendly space technologies and projects. The research makes an emphasis upon a great potential of clean and green

  15. Physical-chemistry of Nawangan’s phyropyllite and its prospective as environmental friendly geopolymer materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutrofin, S.; Setyaningsih, T.; Wati, F. N.; Purwonugroho, D.

    2018-01-01

    The chemical composition and thermal behaviour of Nawangan-phyropyllite have been studied using XRF, powder XRD and FTIR. The fourier transfornation infrared was applied to analyze the phyropyllite after treating by calcinating at variuos temperature. Initial investigation has also been carried out by adding sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide to study the possiblity of phyropyllite as geopolymer materials. The phyropyllite contains Si(57.7% ), Al(16,7%), K (20.6%), Fe (2.47%) Ti (2.33%) and Cu (0.088%). Based on the XRD difractogram, peaks at 2 theta (9°, 20°, 21°, 26°, 34°, 36° and 39°) were characteristic for phyropyllite. While, infrared study showed that at 3630 cm-1, 756 cm-1 and 938 cm-1 are responsible for phyropyllite’s peaks. The hydroxyl bonded to alumina still existed under heating up to 400 °C and disappered at 600 °C. It indicted that covalent bond of Al-OH was broken. By heating at 600 °C, the peak at 1021 cm-1 splitted into two peaks, 990 cm-1 and 1049 cm-1. It may be due to the displacive transition. By adding NaOH 10 M, the peak intensity of Al-OH (3630 cm-1) reduced to 17% but the peak intensity of Al=O (1661 cm-1) incresed to 14% and the new peak (5%) emerged at 1387 cm-1(O-Al-O). The most reactive phyropyllite was obatained by adding KOH 5 M. The present of reactive functional groups (Al=O, O-Al-O and Al-OH) indicates that the local phyropyllite has a good change as geopolymer materials.

  16. Energy-efficient buildings are environmentally friendly, architecturally attractive and economically compelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafa, Latifa Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    Standard building construction is wasteful, toxic, and is destroying the environment. It produced buildings that operate independently of its natural surrounding and depended heavily on mechanical systems that run with fossil fuel to create comfortable indoor environment. These buildings caused a wide range of health and environmental problems. The concern about the consequences of standard building construction have prompted countless experiments and design improvements to make built environment more energy efficient, less reliant on potentially limited fossil fuels and more reliant on renewable energy resources. The application of energy efficient technologies can make significant contribution to meeting the building and construction sector's energy demand, while at the same time providing better built environment, offering more comfortable living and working conditions for the users, cleaner and healthier in-outdoor environment, and cost no more to build. The proposes of the paper are to: 1-Promote the implementation of Energy-Efficient buildings through vigorous efforts, by engaging government agencies, design professions, engineers, and construction industry in the task of radically improving the performance of our buildings, neighborhoods, and cities. 2-Educate the general public (the consumers) that Energy-Efficient Building is good for their well-being, to their pocket and to the environment.3-Demonstrate that Energy-efficient Building are with highest standards of architecture design, the highest quality living and working environment and within a reasonable budget. The paper describes the technological options available for dealing sensibly with energy and focuses on the important areas of new building constructions and building refurbishment together with its specific energy requirements. The approach presented in this paper is just one of many methods of planning energy efficient buildings.This paper is part of the effort to promote Energy

  17. Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Hybrid Conversion of Inland Passenger Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litwin Wojciech

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development and growing availability of modern technologies, along with more and more severe environment protection standards which frequently take a form of legal regulations, are the reason why attempts are made to find a quiet and economical propulsion system not only for newly built watercraft units, but also for modernised ones. Correct selection of the propulsion and supply system for a given vessel affects significantly not only the energy efficiency of the propulsions system but also the environment - as this selection is crucial for the noise and exhaust emission levels. The paper presents results of experimental examination of ship power demand performed on a historic passenger ship of 25 m in length. Two variants, referred to as serial and parallel hybrid propulsion systems, were examined with respect to the maximum length of the single-day route covered by the ship. The recorded power demands and environmental impact were compared with those characteristic for the already installed conventional propulsion system. Taking into account a high safety level expected to be ensured on a passenger ship, the serial hybrid system was based on two electric motors working in parallel and supplied from two separate sets of batteries. This solution ensures higher reliability, along with relatively high energy efficiency. The results of the performed examination have revealed that the serial propulsion system is the least harmful to the environment, but its investment cost is the highest. In this context, the optimum solution for the ship owner seems to be a parallel hybrid system of diesel-electric type

  18. Safety, health and environmental committee (JKSHE): Establishing chemical hazard management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyen, A.K.S.; Noriah Mod Ali; Sangau, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the laboratories in Malaysian Nuclear Agency are using chemicals in their research activities. However, it is known that using of chemicals without proper knowledge especially on the material characteristics as well as safe handling procedure may cause great harm to the workers. Therefore, Safety, Health and Environmental Committee (JKSHE) sees the need to establish a good chemical hazard management to ensure that a safe and healthy workplace and environment is provided. One of the elements in chemical hazard management is to carry out Chemical Hazard Risk Assessment (CHRA). The assessment was done so that decision can be made on suitable control measures upon use of such chemicals, such as induction and training courses to be given to the workers and health surveillance activities that may be needed to protect the workers. For this, JKSHE has recommended to conduct CHRA for one of the laboratories at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) namely Film Dosimeter Processing Room (dark room) as the initial effort towards a better chemical hazard management. This paper presents the case study where CHRA was conducted to identify the chemical hazards at the selected laboratory, the adequacy of existing control measures and finally the recommendation for more effective control measures. (author)

  19. The effects of environmental chemicals on renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Anglina; Trasande, Leonardo; Trachtman, Howard

    2015-10-01

    The global incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing among individuals of all ages. Despite advances in proteomics, genomics and metabolomics, there remains a lack of safe and effective drugs to reverse or stabilize renal function in patients with glomerular or tubulointerstitial causes of CKD. Consequently, modifiable risk factors that are associated with a progressive decline in kidney function need to be identified. Numerous reports have documented the adverse effects that occur in response to graded exposure to a wide range of environmental chemicals. This Review summarizes the effects of such chemicals on four aspects of cardiorenal function: albuminuria, glomerular filtration rate, blood pressure and serum uric acid concentration. We focus on compounds that individuals are likely to be exposed to as a consequence of normal consumer activities or medical treatment, namely phthalates, bisphenol A, polyfluorinated alkyl acids, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. Environmental exposure to these chemicals during everyday life could have adverse consequences on renal function and might contribute to progressive cumulative renal injury over a lifetime. Regulatory efforts should be made to limit individual exposure to environmental chemicals in an attempt to reduce the incidence of cardiorenal disease.

  20. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Development of environmentally friendly universal controller; 1998 nendo kankyo taio universal controller no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Research and development was carried out for an 'environmentally friendly universal controller (UC)' which would be 'user-friendly and energy-saving' when used with electrical home appliances. An environmentally friendly UC is a remote controller which utilizes an infrared two-way communication function and becomes capable of dealing with any appliance upon downloading remote control information from the appliance involved. Studies were conducted for the development of controller hardware and software therefor and for the development of electrical home appliances to correspond to their specifications. In relation with energy conservation, studies centered about reduction in power consumption while on standby and unnecessary power consumption. As the result, an environmentally friendly UC protocol was newly developed and, based on the protocol, plural numbers of controllers, appliances, and network gateways were tentatively fabricated, and were examined for their function, behavior, and operational interchangeability. Systems aiming at reducing power consumption while on standby and unnecessary power consumption were built by way of experiment, and were checked for performance. It was then concluded that a reduction of several billion kWh might be achieved. (NEDO)

  1. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A.

    2013-01-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  2. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: dan-paiva@hotmail.com, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A., E-mail: felipe-yamada@hotmail.com, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  3. Effects of benzotriazole on anodized film formed on AZ31B magnesium alloy in environmental-friendly electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xinghua; An Maozhong; Yang Peixia; Li Haixian; Su Caina

    2009-01-01

    An environmental-friendly electrolyte of silicate and borate, which contained an addition agent of 1H-benzotriazole (BTA) with low toxicity (LD50 of 965 mg/kg), was used to prepare an anodized film on AZ31B magnesium alloy under the constant current density of 1.5 A/dm 2 at room temperature. Effects of BTA on the properties of the anodized film were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), loss weight measurement, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), respectively. The results demonstrated that anodized growth process, surface morphology, thickness, phase structure and corrosion resistance of the anodized film were strongly dependant on the BTA concentration, which might be attributed to the formation of an BTA adsorption layer on magnesium substrate surface. When the BTA concentration was 5 g/L in the electrolyte, a compact and thick anodized film could provide excellent corrosion resistance for AZ31B magnesium alloy.

  4. LiNbO3 Coating on Concrete Surface: A New and Environmentally Friendly Route for Artificial Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit K. Nath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of a photocatalyst to ordinary building materials such as concrete creates environmentally friendly materials by which air pollution or pollution of the surface can be diminished. The use of LiNbO3 photocatalyst in concrete material would be more beneficial since it can produce artificial photosynthesis in concrete. In these research photoassisted solid-gas phases reduction of carbon dioxide (artificial photosynthesis was performed using a photocatalyst, LiNbO3, coated on concrete surface under illumination of UV-visible or sunlight and showed that LiNbO3 achieved high conversion of CO2 into products despite the low levels of band-gap light available. The high reaction efficiency of LiNbO3 is explained by its strong remnant polarization (70 µC/cm2, allowing a longer lifetime of photoinduced carriers as well as an alternative reaction pathway. Due to the ease of usage and good photocatalytic efficiency, the research work done showed its potential application in pollution prevention.

  5. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-12-03

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm(2), and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p(+-)n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5-10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method.

  6. Environmentally-Friendly Synthesis of Carbonate-Type Macrodiols and Preparation of Transparent Self-Healable Thermoplastic Polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Mi Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate-type macrodiols synthesized by base-catalyzed polycondensation of co-diols and dimethyl carbonate as an environmentally-friendly route were subsequently utilized for the preparation of transparent and self-healable thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs containing a carbonate-type soft segment. Three types of macrodiols, obtained from mono, dual and triple diol-monomers for target molecular weights of 1 and 1.5 kg mol−1, were analyzed by 1H NMR integration and the OH titration value. Colorless transparent macrodiols in a liquid state at a room temperature of 20 °C were obtained, except the macrodiol from mono 1,6-hexanediol. Before TPU synthesis, macrodiols require pH neutralization to prevent gelation. TPUs synthesized by a solution pre-polymer method with 4,4′-methylene(bisphenyl isocyanate and 1,4-butanediol as a chain extender exhibited moderate molecular weights, good transparencies and robust mechanical properties. Especially, the incorporation of 3-methyl-1,5-pentanediol within carbonate-type macrodiols enhanced the transparency of the resultant TPUs by decreasing the degree of microphase separation evidenced by ATR-FTIR and DSC. Interestingly, packing density of hard segments and the degree of microphase separation determined the self-healing efficiency of TPUs, which showed good performances in the case of sourced macrodiols from triple diol-monomers.

  7. CH3NH3Pb1-xMgxI3 perovskites as environmentally friendly photovoltaic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. D.; Feng, J.

    2018-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the toxicity of Pb in perovskite solar cells, the band structures, electron and hole effective masses, and electronic and optical properties of the novel perovskites CH3NH3Pb1-xMgxI3 were predicted using density functional theory with the scalar relativistic generalized gradient approximation. The calculation results indicated that the introduction of the Mg component caused the band gaps of the CH3NH3Pb1-xMgxI3 compounds to exceed that of CH3NH3PbI3. The calculated absorption coefficients of the CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3Pb1-xMgxI3 perovskites revealed that substituting 12.5 mol % of the Pb in CH3NH3PbI3 with Mg had little effect on the absorption ability. Surprisingly, it was also found that CH3NH3Pb0.75Mg0.25I3 retained up to 83% of the absorption performance relative to CH3NH3PbI3. This indicates that the amount of toxic Pb used in perovskite solar cells could be reduced by a quarter while retaining over 80% of the light-absorbing ability. In general, these novel CH3NH3Pb1-xMgxI3 (x ≤ 0.25) perovskites represent promising candidates for environmentally friendly light-harvesting materials for use in solar cells.

  8. The Chemical Technology Division at Argonne National Laboratory: Applying chemical innovation to environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Chemical Technology Division is one of the largest technical divisions at Argonne National Laboratory, a leading center for research and development related to energy and environmental issues. Since its inception in 1948, the Division has pioneered in developing separations processes for the nuclear industry. The current scope of activities includes R ampersand D on methods for disposing of radioactive and hazardous wastes and on energy conversion processes with improved efficiencies, lower costs, and reduced environmental impact. Many of the technologies developed by CMT can be applied to solve manufacturing as well as environmental problems of industry

  9. Mercapturic acids as biomarkers of exposure to electrophilic chemicals: applications to environmental and industrial chemicals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, B.M.; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1998-01-01

    The use of mercapturic acids (N-acetyl-L-cysteine S-conjugates, MAs) in the biological monitoring of human exposure to environmental and industrial chemicals is receiving more and more attention. Mercapturic acids (MAs) are formed from glutathione (GSH) S-conjugates via the MA-pathway. Although this

  10. Environmentally friendly AND cheap?

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    In the context of the initiative to make CERN a greener laboratory (see the Word from the DG in issue 20-21/2009 of the Bulletin), the Safety Commission’s General Safety Group has acquired CERN’s first electric bicycle. Picture of a cyclist wearing personal protective equipment riding the new bike at CERN.What with the Medical Service’s "Be active" health campaign, the emphasis placed on two-wheel safety this spring and the sheds for two-wheeled vehicles that are springing up all over the CERN site, it’s time to get on your bike… or one of the bikes available to the personnel, such as the DG/SCG’s new electric cycle. On Tuesday, 21 July, Building 57 welcomed CERN’s first electric bicycle, and the message to the DG/SCG group is clear: "Use it rather than taking one of the CERN cars as often as you can". With this new means of transport that’s easy on the environment (no direct gas emissions) as well as on the walle...

  11. Environmentally friendly consumer behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Andersen, Alf K.

    1996-01-01

    To uafhængige stikprøver á ca. 200 er interviewet om deres holdninger til og køb af hhv. økologisk mælk og økologiske gulerødder. Undersøgelsen finder, at over halvdelen af befolkningen har en positiv holdning til og intentioner om køb af økologis fødevarer. V.h.a. hierarkisk regressionsanalyse f...

  12. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  13. Antarctic environmental specimen bank. A tool for chemical monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soggia, F.; Dalla Riva, S.; Abelmoschi, M.L.; Frache, R. [Genoa Univ., Genoa (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Chimica Industriale

    2000-02-01

    The work illustrates the project on Antarctic Environmental Specimen Bank (BCAA), which is an integral part of the Italian project on the micropollutants chemistry (sector on chemical contamination of the Italian Antarctic Research program, PNRA), begun in 1994 when the BCAA was installed in the department of chemistry and industrial chemistry (Genoa University, Italy). Its objective underlines an emphasis on environmental chemistry and the establishment of baselines similar to the approaches followed by the other environmental specimen banks, begun at the end of Sixties with the aim of long-term storage of representative environmental specimens in order to study the presence and the evolution of dangerous substances, but focus on the chemical characterization of samples. [Italian] Il lavoro illustra le finalita' del Progetto su una Banca Campioni Ambientali Antartici (BCAA), che e' parte integrante del progetto Chmica dei microinquinannti del Settore Contaminazione chimica del Programma Nazionale di ricerche in Antartide (ONRA), nata nel 1994 presso il dipartimento di chimicia e chimica industriale dell'universita' di Genova. A differenza di altri progetti internazionali che enfatizzano gli aspetti biologici, ecologici e medici, il progetto BCAA enfatizza la chimica ambientale.

  14. Structure Study of Cellulose Fibers Wet-Spun from Environmentally Friendly NaOH/Urea Aqueous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen,X.; Burger, C.; Wan, F.; Zhang, J.; Rong, L.; Hsiao, B.; Chu, B.; Cai, J.; Zhang, L.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, structure changes of regenerated cellulose fibers wet-spun from a cotton linter pulp (degree of polymerization {approx}620) solution in an NaOH/urea solvent under different conditions were investigated by simultaneous synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). WAXD results indicated that the increase in flow rate during spinning produced a better crystal orientation and a higher degree of crystallinity, whereas a 2-fold increase in draw ratio only affected the crystal orientation. When coagulated in a H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution at 15 {sup o}C, the regenerated fibers exhibited the highest crystallinity and a crystal orientation comparable to that of commercial rayon fibers by the viscose method. SAXS patterns exhibited a pair of meridional maxima in all regenerated cellulose fibers, indicating the existence of a lamellar structure. A fibrillar superstructure was observed only at higher flow rates (>20 m/min). The conformation of cellulose molecules in NaOH/urea aqueous solution was also investigated by static and dynamic light scattering. It was found that cellulose chains formed aggregates with a radius of gyration, R{sub g}, of about 232 nm and an apparent hydrodynamic radius, R{sub h}, of about 172 nm. The NaOH/urea solvent system is low-cost and environmentally friendly, which may offer an alternative route to replace more hazardous existing methods for the production of regenerated cellulose fibers.

  15. CH3NH3Pb1−xMgxI3 perovskites as environmentally friendly photovoltaic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to reduce the toxicity of Pb in perovskite solar cells, the band structures, electron and hole effective masses, and electronic and optical properties of the novel perovskites CH3NH3Pb1−xMgxI3 were predicted using density functional theory with the scalar relativistic generalized gradient approximation. The calculation results indicated that the introduction of the Mg component caused the band gaps of the CH3NH3Pb1−xMgxI3 compounds to exceed that of CH3NH3PbI3. The calculated absorption coefficients of the CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3Pb1−xMgxI3 perovskites revealed that substituting 12.5 mol % of the Pb in CH3NH3PbI3 with Mg had little effect on the absorption ability. Surprisingly, it was also found that CH3NH3Pb0.75Mg0.25I3 retained up to 83% of the absorption performance relative to CH3NH3PbI3. This indicates that the amount of toxic Pb used in perovskite solar cells could be reduced by a quarter while retaining over 80% of the light-absorbing ability. In general, these novel CH3NH3Pb1−xMgxI3 (x ≤ 0.25 perovskites represent promising candidates for environmentally friendly light-harvesting materials for use in solar cells.

  16. Single, binary and multi-component adsorption of some anions and heavy metals on environmentally friendly Carpobrotus edulis plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiban, Mohamed; Soudani, Amina; Sinan, Fouad; Persin, Michel

    2011-02-01

    A low-cost adsorbent and environmentally friendly adsorbent from Carpobrotus edulis plant was used for the removal of NO(3)(-), H(2)PO(4)(-), Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) ions from single, binary and multi-component systems. The efficiency of the adsorbent was studied using batch adsorption technique under different experimental conditions by varying parameters such as pH, initial concentration and contact time. In single component systems, the dried C. edulis has the highest affinity for Pb(2+), followed by NO(3)(-), Cd(2+) and H(2)PO(4)(-), with adsorption capacities of 175mg/g, 125mg/g, 28mg/g and 26mg/g, respectively. These results showed that the adsorption of NO(3)(-) and H(2)PO(4)(-) ions from single and binary component systems can be successfully described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Freundlich adsorption model, showed the best fit to the single and binary experimental adsorption data. These results also indicated that the adsorption yield of Pb(2+) ion was reduced by the presence of Cd(2+) ion in binary metal mixture. The competitive adsorption of NO(3)(-), H(2)PO(4)(-), Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) ions on dried C. edulis plant shows that NO(3)(-) and H(2)PO(4)(-) anions are able to adsorb on different free binding sites and Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) cations are able to adsorb on the same active sites of C. edulis particles. The dried C. edulis was found to be efficient in removing nitrate, phosphate, cadmium and lead from aqueous solution as compared to other adsorbents already used for the removal of these ions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. New ADAC centre cools and heats environmental-friendly. Concrete core tempering; Neue ADAC-Zentrale kuehlt und heizt umweltvertraeglich. Betonkerntemperierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2010-12-15

    At present, the new centre of the General German Automobile Association (ADAC) arises in Munich's suburb Sendling/Westpark. In summer 2011, nearly 2,400 coworkers of ADAC so far distributed over six locations in Munich shall work together in the new office building. So that they feel well in this new building, Rehau AG (Rehau, Federal Republic of Germany) supplies an environmental-friendly heating and cooling of the building by means of concrete core tempering.

  18. Effectiveness and environmental considerations for non-dispersant chemical countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, A.H.; Kucklick, J.H.; Michel, J.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical countermeasures for oil spill response have various effectiveness and operational limitations under certain spill situations. This has led to an interest in and use of alternative treatment methods. This chapter reviews the potential utility of one such group, nondispersant chemical countermeasures, in controlling the adverse impacts from marine oil spills. The types of nondispersant chemical countermeasures presented here include: herding agents, emulsion treating agents, solidifiers, elasticity modifiers, and shoreline cleaning agents. Each countermeasure group is discussed separately to provide a definition, mechanism of action, and effectiveness and environmental considerations for the group. Where ever possible, examples are given of countermeasure use during an actual spill. In addition to the groups mentioned above, a few other treating agents are briefly described under the section 'Miscellaneous Agents' to illustrate other, less prominent types of chemical countermeasures. Non-dispersant chemical countermeasures appear to have discrete response niches, i.e. situations where the countermeasures are well-suited and offer potential benefits. The key is matching conditions for optimal effectiveness with the appropriate incident-specific characteristics and window of opportunity. The practical aspects of logistics are not addressed because, if their potential utility can be demonstrated, the resolution of these issues would follow. (author)

  19. Lobbying friends and foes in climate policy: The case of business and environmental interest groups in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, Anne Therese

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on two conflicting hypotheses from the theoretical literature on lobbying, I consider the strategies applied by interest groups lobbying to influence climate policy in the European Union (EU). The first hypothesis claims that interest groups lobby their 'friends', decision-makers with positions similar to their own. The second claims that interest groups lobby their 'foes', decision-makers with positions opposed to their own. Using interviews with lobbyists and decision-makers, I demonstrate that in the field of climate policy, interest groups in the EU lobby both friends and foes, but under different conditions. Moreover, I find that the interest groups' motives are not always in line with the theoretical hypotheses. Interest groups lobby their friends on single policy decisions to exchange information, to further a common cause and to exert pressure, and their foes because a foe on one issue might prove to be a friend on another issue. Interest groups direct general lobbying towards both friends and foes. This paper provides a new empirical contribution to a literature that has so far been heavily dominated by studies focusing on lobbying in the US

  20. Characterization of the Environmentally Induced Chemical Transformations of Uranium Tetrafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellons, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-29

    A key challenge with nuclear safeguards environmental sampling is identification of the materials post release due to subsequent chemical reactions with ambient water and oxygen. Uranium Tetrafluoride (UF4) is of interest as an intermediate in both the upstream and downstream portions of uranium feedstock and metal production processes used in nuclear fuel production; however minimal published research exists relating to UF4 hydrolysis. FY16 efforts were dedicated to in-situ Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction characterization of UF4 during exposure to various relative humidity conditions. This effort mapped several hydrolysis reaction pathways and identified both intermediate, and terminal progeny species.

  1. Non-toxic and environmentally friendly route for preparation of copper indium sulfide based thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankir, Nurdan Demirci, E-mail: nsankir@etu.edu.tr; Aydin, Erkan; Ugur, Esma; Sankir, Mehmet

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Substrate structure of spray pyrolyzed CuInS{sub 2}/In{sub 2}S{sub 3} heterojunction solar cells. • Low cost and environmentally friendly fabrication of CuInS{sub 2} based solar cells. • Low RF power deposition of TCO layer. • AZO–Ag–AZO sandwich structure. • Effect of the thickness of buffer layer on the photovoltaic performance. - Abstract: In this study, copper based thin film solar cells with substrate structure have been built via spray pyrolysis method. Toxic material usage was avoided during the material deposition and the post-treatment steps. Novel device configuration of Mo/CuInS{sub 2}/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/ZnO/AZO–Ag–AZO was studied as a function of the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} buffer layer thickness. In order to utilize the zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) transparent conductive layers, deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD), on top of the spray pyrolyzed thin films, the RF power was lowered to 30 W. Although this minimized the unwanted penetration of the highly energetic particles, created during PVD process, sheet resistivity of the AZO films increased enormously. Hence very thin silver layer has been deposited between two AZO films. This resulted the decrease in the sheet resistivity more than 10{sup 6} times. Electrical measurements under illumination revealed that short circuit current density (J{sub sc}), open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}), fill factor (FF) and efficiency (η) of the Mo/CuInS{sub 2}/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/ZnO/AZO–Ag–AZO type solar cells increased with increasing the thickness of the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} layer. The maximum J{sub sc} of 9.20 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc} of 0.43 V, FF of 0.44 have been observed for the 0.94 μm-thick In{sub 2}S{sub 3} layer. Extraordinarily thick buffer layer provided better diffusion barrier between the absorber and the TCO layers and also resulted better photosensitivity. These could be the key factors to produce substrate configuration of the spray pyrolyzed

  2. Enhancement of stability of various nZVI suspensions used in groundwater remediation with environmentally friendly organic stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Doris; Wagner, Stephan; Velimirović, Milica; Laumann, Susanne; Micić, Vesna; Hofmann, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    The use of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles for in situ remediation of polluted soil and groundwater has been shown as one of the most promising techniques [1]. The success of this technology depends on the mobility, reactivity, and longevity of nZVI particles. The mobility of nZVI particles depends on the properties of the single particles, stability of the particle suspension, and the aquifer material [1,2]. In order to enhance the mobility of nZVI, the mobility-decisive properties of the nZVI particles in suspension such as concentration, size distribution, surface charge, and sedimentation rate have to be investigated and optimized. Previous studies showed that pristine nZVI particles aggregate rapidly in water, reducing the particles radius of influence after injection [3]. In order to prevent aggregation and sedimentation of the nZVI particles, and consequently improve the stability of nZVI suspension and therefore the mobility of the nZVI particles, surface stabilizers can be used to provide electrostatic repulsion and steric or electrosteric stabilization [3,4]. The objective of this lab-scale study is to investigate the potential for enhancing the stability of different nZVI suspensions by means of environmentally friendly organic stabilizers, including carboxymethyl cellulose, pectin, alginate, xanthan, and guar gum. The different nZVI particles used included pristine and polyacrylic acid-coated nZVI particles provided in suspension (Nanofer 25 and Nanofer 25S, respectively, NANOIRON s.r.o., Czech Republic), air-stable nZVI particles (Nanofer Star, (NANOIRON s.r.o., Czech Republic), and milled iron flakes (UVR-FIA, Germany). In order to study the enhancement of nZVI stability (1 g L-1 total iron) different concentrations of organic stabilizers (1-20 wt.%) were applied in these nZVI suspensions. Each nZVI suspension was freshly prepared and treated for 10 minutes with Ultra-Turrax (15 000 rpm) and 10 minutes ultrasonic bath prior to

  3. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista; Masiello, Caroline A.; Dugan, Brandon; Toselli, Moreno

    2016-01-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30 t ha −1 . We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρ s ) and envelope (ρ e ) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0–5 nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75 nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75 nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110 nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over short (~ years

  4. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista, E-mail: g.sorrenti@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Masiello, Caroline A., E-mail: masiello@rice.edu [Departments of Earth Science, BioSciences, and Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Dugan, Brandon, E-mail: dugan@rice.edu [Department of Earth Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Toselli, Moreno, E-mail: moreno.toselli@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30 t ha{sup −1}. We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρ{sub s}) and envelope (ρ{sub e}) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0–5 nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75 nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75 nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110 nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over

  5. Sampling and chemical analysis in environmental samples around Nuclear Power Plants and some environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Woo; Han, Man Jung; Cho, Seong Won; Cho, Hong Jun; Oh, Hyeon Kyun; Lee, Jeong Min; Chang, Jae Sook [KORTIC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Twelve kinds of environmental samples such as soil, seawater, underground water, etc. around Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs) were collected. Tritium chemical analysis was tried for the samples of rain water, pine-needle, air, seawater, underground water, chinese cabbage, a grain of rice and milk sampled around NPPs, and surface seawater and rain water sampled over the country. Strontium in the soil that sere sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were analyzed in 21 samples of surface seawater around the Korea peninsular that were supplied from KFRDI(National Fisheries Research and Development Institute). Sampling and chemical analysis environmental samples around Kori, Woolsung, Youngkwang, Wooljin Npps and Taeduk science town for tritium and strontium analysis was managed according to plans. Succeed to KINS after all samples were tried.

  6. An environmentally friendly and cost effective technique for the commercial cultivation of oyster mushroom [Pleurotus florida (Mont.) Singer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjikkaran, Seeja Thomachan; Mathew, Deepu

    2013-03-15

    The existing protocol for the cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) in polyethylene bags leads to environmental pollution amounting to 18 g of polyethylene per 450 g of mushroom, which is the average biological efficiency achieved from a bag. Thus the projected annual global pollution amounts to 2 million tones, corresponding to the production of 48 million tones. Experiments were conducted at Kerala Agricultural University, India, to formulate an oyster mushroom cultivation strategy that reduces this pollution level. Pooled results of experiments at the institute's and farmers' units have shown that reusable plastic buckets having perforations of 1.5 cm × 1.0 cm throughout the side walls could be used to substitute polyethylene bags, while following the standard cultivation protocols. Cultivation in perforated buckets has recorded a biological efficiency of 435.69 ± 56.75 g in 47.07 ± 5.22 days against 459.11 ± 53.52 g in 38.05 ± 4.54 days in polyethylene bags. The rate of contamination in buckets was significantly lower than that in bags: 9.28 ± 2.12 and 12.60 ± 3.73% respectively. Reusable plastic buckets with perforations on the side walls could be used to substitute the conventional polyethylene bags in oyster mushroom cultivation, with no significant difference in yield. Losses due to slight increase in crop duration in buckets will be compensated with a lower rate of contamination. For a unit having a daily output of 100 kg, it was estimated that during 10 years of permanent cultivation following this technique, the cost of cultivation could be reduced to one-tenth and the environmental pollution reduced by at least 730 000 non-degradable polyethylene bags. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Playing Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Games with Historical Monitoring Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhengqiu; Chen, Bin; Reniers, Genserik; Zhang, Laobing; Qiu, Sihang; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2017-09-29

    The chemical industry is very important for the world economy and this industrial sector represents a substantial income source for developing countries. However, existing regulations on controlling atmospheric pollutants, and the enforcement of these regulations, often are insufficient in such countries. As a result, the deterioration of surrounding ecosystems and a quality decrease of the atmospheric environment can be observed. Previous works in this domain fail to generate executable and pragmatic solutions for inspection agencies due to practical challenges. In addressing these challenges, we introduce a so-called Chemical Plant Environment Protection Game (CPEP) to generate reasonable schedules of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations (i.e., daily management plans) for inspection agencies. First, so-called Stackelberg Security Games (SSGs) in conjunction with source estimation methods are applied into this research. Second, high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations as well as gas sensor modules are modeled in the CPEP game. Third, simplified data analysis on the regularly discharging of chemical plants is utilized to construct the CPEP game. Finally, an illustrative case study is used to investigate the effectiveness of the CPEP game, and a realistic case study is conducted to illustrate how the models and algorithms being proposed in this paper, work in daily practice. Results show that playing a CPEP game can reduce operational costs of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations. Moreover, evidence suggests that playing the game leads to more compliance from the chemical plants towards the inspection agencies. Therefore, the CPEP game is able to assist the environmental protection authorities in daily management work and reduce the potential risks of gaseous pollutants dispersion incidents.

  8. Playing Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Games with Historical Monitoring Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, Genserik; Zhang, Laobing; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2017-01-01

    The chemical industry is very important for the world economy and this industrial sector represents a substantial income source for developing countries. However, existing regulations on controlling atmospheric pollutants, and the enforcement of these regulations, often are insufficient in such countries. As a result, the deterioration of surrounding ecosystems and a quality decrease of the atmospheric environment can be observed. Previous works in this domain fail to generate executable and pragmatic solutions for inspection agencies due to practical challenges. In addressing these challenges, we introduce a so-called Chemical Plant Environment Protection Game (CPEP) to generate reasonable schedules of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations (i.e., daily management plans) for inspection agencies. First, so-called Stackelberg Security Games (SSGs) in conjunction with source estimation methods are applied into this research. Second, high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations as well as gas sensor modules are modeled in the CPEP game. Third, simplified data analysis on the regularly discharging of chemical plants is utilized to construct the CPEP game. Finally, an illustrative case study is used to investigate the effectiveness of the CPEP game, and a realistic case study is conducted to illustrate how the models and algorithms being proposed in this paper, work in daily practice. Results show that playing a CPEP game can reduce operational costs of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations. Moreover, evidence suggests that playing the game leads to more compliance from the chemical plants towards the inspection agencies. Therefore, the CPEP game is able to assist the environmental protection authorities in daily management work and reduce the potential risks of gaseous pollutants dispersion incidents. PMID:28961188

  9. Playing Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Games with Historical Monitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqiu Zhu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical industry is very important for the world economy and this industrial sector represents a substantial income source for developing countries. However, existing regulations on controlling atmospheric pollutants, and the enforcement of these regulations, often are insufficient in such countries. As a result, the deterioration of surrounding ecosystems and a quality decrease of the atmospheric environment can be observed. Previous works in this domain fail to generate executable and pragmatic solutions for inspection agencies due to practical challenges. In addressing these challenges, we introduce a so-called Chemical Plant Environment Protection Game (CPEP to generate reasonable schedules of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations (i.e., daily management plans for inspection agencies. First, so-called Stackelberg Security Games (SSGs in conjunction with source estimation methods are applied into this research. Second, high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations as well as gas sensor modules are modeled in the CPEP game. Third, simplified data analysis on the regularly discharging of chemical plants is utilized to construct the CPEP game. Finally, an illustrative case study is used to investigate the effectiveness of the CPEP game, and a realistic case study is conducted to illustrate how the models and algorithms being proposed in this paper, work in daily practice. Results show that playing a CPEP game can reduce operational costs of high-accuracy air quality monitoring stations. Moreover, evidence suggests that playing the game leads to more compliance from the chemical plants towards the inspection agencies. Therefore, the CPEP game is able to assist the environmental protection authorities in daily management work and reduce the potential risks of gaseous pollutants dispersion incidents.

  10. Fungal treatment: a prospective process for eco-friendly bioremediation of wastewater sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molla, A. H.; Fakhru'l-Razi, A.

    2009-01-01

    None of the conventional techniques is safe and environmental friendly for wastewaters/sludge disposal. A sustainable, safe and environmental friendly biological technique is a great apprehension to the relevant scientists. Since the fungal treatment was exercised to evaluate its potentially for sustainable bioseparation and bioremediation of wastewater. Bioseparation and bioremediation of wastewater sludge by fungal inoculation implied the decreasing of bio solids, total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of wastewater. (Author)

  11. Dye sensitized solar cell based on environmental friendly eosin Y dye and Al doped titanium dioxide nano particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Swati S.; Bodkhe, Gajanan A.; Shirsat, Sumedh M.; Hussaini, S. S.; Shejwal, N. N.; Shirsat, Mahendra D.

    2018-03-01

    Present communication deals with the development of cost effective dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with eco-friendly materials. Eco-friendly Eosin Y dye was used to sensitize photo anode which was fabricated using undoped and Aluminium doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles. Undoped and Aluminium doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by simple and cost effective sol-gel method. Aluminium doped and undoped TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible, FT-IR spectroscopy, x-ray Diffraction, and Scanning Electron Micrograph with EDX. The photo-voltaic activity of the cell was studied under light irradiation of 100 milliwatt cm-2. Aluminium doped TiO2 nanoparticle photo electrode exhibits more than 60% increase in cell efficiency as compared to the undoped TiO2 nanoparticle photo electrode.

  12. Easy, fast and environmental friendly method for the simultaneous extraction of the 16 EPA PAHs using magnetic molecular imprinted polymers (mag-MIPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar-Navarro, Mercedes; Martín-Valero, María Jesús; Fernández-Torres, Rut Maria; Callejón-Mochón, Manuel; Bello-López, Miguel Ángel

    2017-02-15

    An easy and environmental friendly method, based on the use of magnetic molecular imprinted polymers (mag-MIPs) is proposed for the simultaneous extraction of the 16 U.S. EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) priority pollutants. The mag-MIPs based extraction protocol is simple, more sensitive and low organic solvent consuming compared to official methods and also adequate for those PAHs more retained in the particulate matter. The new proposed extraction method followed by HPLC determination has been validated and applied to different types of water samples: tap water, river water, lake water and mineral water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A sustainable and green process for scouring of cotton fabrics using xylano-pectinolytic synergism: switching from noxious chemicals to eco-friendly catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Avtar; Kaur, Amanjot; Patra, Arun Kumar; Mahajan, Ritu

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this research was to develop an appropriate, eco-friendly, cost-effective bioscouring methodology for removing natural impurities from cotton fabric. Maximum bioscouring was achieved using 5.0 IU xylanase and 4.0 IU pectinase with material to liquid ratio of 1:15 in a 50 mM buffer (glycine-NaOH buffer, 1.0 mM EDTA and 1% Tween-80, pH 8.5) with a treatment time of 60 min at 50 °C and an agitation speed of 60 rpm. The bioscoured cotton fabrics showed a gain of 1.17% in whiteness, 3.23% in brightness and a reduction of 4.18% in yellowness in comparison to fabric scoured with an alkaline scouring method. Further, after bleaching, the whiteness, brightness and tensile strength of the bioscoured fabrics were increased by 2.18, 2.33 and 11.74% along with a decrease of 4.61% in yellowness of bioscoured plus bleached fabrics in comparison to chemically scoured plus bleached fabrics. From the results, it is clear that bioscouring is more efficient, energy saving and an eco-friendly process and has the potential to replace the environment-damaging scouring process with the xylano-pectinolytic bioscouring process.

  14. Epigenetic Effects of Environmental Chemicals Bisphenol A and Phthalates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Shoei-Lung Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The epigenetic effects on DNA methylation, histone modification, and expression of non-coding RNAs (including microRNAs of environmental chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA and phthalates have expanded our understanding of the etiology of human complex diseases such as cancers and diabetes. Multiple lines of evidence from in vitro and in vivo models have established that epigenetic modifications caused by in utero exposure to environmental toxicants can induce alterations in gene expression that may persist throughout life. Epigenetics is an important mechanism in the ability of environmental chemicals to influence health and disease, and BPA and phthalates are epigenetically toxic. The epigenetic effect of BPA was clearly demonstrated in viable yellow mice by decreasing CpG methylation upstream of the Agouti gene, and the hypomethylating effect of BPA was prevented by maternal dietary supplementation with a methyl donor like folic acid or the phytoestrogen genistein. Histone H3 was found to be trimethylated at lysine 27 by BPA effect on EZH2 in a human breast cancer cell line and mice. BPA exposure of human placental cell lines has been shown to alter microRNA expression levels, and specifically, miR-146a was strongly induced by BPA treatment. In human breast cancer MCF7 cells, treatment with the phthalate BBP led to demethylation of estrogen receptor (ESR1 promoter-associated CpG islands, indicating that altered ESR1 mRNA expression by BBP is due to aberrant DNA methylation. Maternal exposure to phthalate DEHP was also shown to increase DNA methylation and expression levels of DNA methyltransferases in mouse testis. Further, some epigenetic effects of BPA and phthalates in female rats were found to be transgenerational. Finally, the available new technologies for global analysis of epigenetic alterations will provide insight into the extent and patterns of alterations between human normal and diseased tissues.

  15. Using the Chemistry of Fireworks to Engage Students in Learning Basic Chemical Principles: A Lesson in Eco-Friendly Pyrotechnics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Klapotke, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Fascination with fireworks and pyrotechnics can be used for educational purposes. Several aspects of pyrochemistry such as redox reactions, flame colors, or the theory of combustion can be incorporated in the curriculum to illustrate some basic chemical principles, guaranteeing a lesson that will be engaging and memorable. Beyond classic…

  16. Cobalt doped antimony oxide nano-particles based chemical sensor and photo-catalyst for environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamal, Aslam [Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering (CAMNE) and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, P. O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Rahman, Mohammed M. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Khan, Sher Bahadar, E-mail: drkhanmarwat@gmail.com [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Faisal, Mohd. [Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering (CAMNE) and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, P. O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Akhtar, Kalsoom [Division of Nano Sciences and Department of Chemistry, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Rub, Malik Abdul; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Al-Youbi, Abdulrahman O. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research (CEAMR), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: A dichloromethane chemical sensor using cobalt antimony oxides has been fabricated. This sensor showed high sensitivity and will be a useful candidate for environmental and health monitoring. Also it showed high photo-catalytic activity and can be a good candidate as a photo-catalyst for organic hazardous materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reusable chemical sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Green environmental and eco-friendly chemi-sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High sensitivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good candidate for environmental and health monitoring. - Abstract: Cobalt doped antimony oxide nano-particles (NPs) have been synthesized by hydrothermal process and structurally characterized by utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) which revealed that the synthesized cobalt antimony oxides (CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6}) are well crystalline nano-particles with an average particles size of 26 {+-} 10 nm. UV-visible absorption spectra ({approx}286 nm) were used to investigate the optical properties of CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6}. The chemical sensing of CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} NPs have been primarily investigated by I-V technique, where dichloromethane is used as a model compound. The analytical performance of dichloromethane chemical sensor exhibits high sensitivity (1.2432 {mu}A cm{sup -2} mM{sup -1}) and a large linear dynamic range (1.0 {mu}M-0.01 M) in short response time (10 s). The photo catalytic activity of the synthesized CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nano-particles was evaluated by degradation of acridine orange (AO), which degraded 58.37% in 200 min. These results indicate that CoSb{sub 2}O{sub 6} nano-particles can play an excellent research impact in the environmental field.

  17. Remediation of lead and cadmium from simulated groundwater in loess region in northwestern China using permeable reactive barrier filled with environmentally friendly mixed adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunhui; Gao, Yalin; Zhang, Yingchao; Dong, Wanqing; Lai, Miao

    2018-01-01

    Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is potentially effective for groundwater remediation, especially using environmentally friendly mixed fillers in representative areas, such as semi-arid loess region in northwestern China. The mixed materials, including corn straw (agricultural wastes), fly ash (industrial wastes), zeolite synthesized from fly ash (reutilized products), and iron-manganese nodule derived from loess (materials with regional characteristics) in northwestern China, were chosen as PRB media to reduce the contents of lead and cadmium in simulated groundwater. A series of lab-scale column experiments were investigated, and the response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the working process; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were applied to further reveal the reaction mechanism. It shows that the purification efficiencies are more acceptable when the concentrations of lead and cadmium are approximately 7 and 0.7 mg/L, respectively, at 25 °C in weakly acidic solution, and functional groups of -OH and C=C play an important role for contaminants removal. The mixed adsorbents used are effective to remove lead and cadmium in groundwater. This is the first report on the removal of lead and cadmium from groundwater in loess region in northwestern China using PRB filled with environmentally friendly mixed adsorbents.

  18. Efficient, environmentally-friendly and specific valorization of lignin: promising role of non-radical lignolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenya; Zhang, Chao; Sun, Xinxiao; Su, Sisi; Li, Qiang; Linhardt, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant bio-resource in nature. It is increasingly important to convert lignin into high value-added chemicals to accelerate the development of the lignocellulose biorefinery. Over the past several decades, physical and chemical methods have been widely explored to degrade lignin and convert it into valuable chemicals. Unfortunately, these developments have lagged because of several difficulties, of which high energy consumption and non-specific cleavage of chemical bonds in lignin remain the greatest challenges. A large number of enzymes have been discovered for lignin degradation and these are classified as radical lignolytic enzymes and non-radical lignolytic enzymes. Radical lignolytic enzymes, including laccases, lignin peroxidases, manganese peroxidases and versatile peroxidases, are radical-based bio-catalysts, which degrade lignins through non-specific cleavage of chemical bonds but can also catalyze the radical-based re-polymerization of lignin fragments. In contrast, non-radical lignolytic enzymes selectively cleave chemical bonds in lignin and lignin model compounds and, thus, show promise for use in the preparation of high value-added chemicals. In this mini-review, recent developments on non-radical lignolytic enzymes are discussed. These include recently discovered non-radical lignolytic enzymes, their metabolic pathways for lignin conversion, their recent application in the lignin biorefinery, and the combination of bio-catalysts with physical/chemical methods for industrial development of the lignin refinery.

  19. Chemical and environmental isotope study of precipitation in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Waters from a network of rainfall collection covering mine meteorological stations distributed mainly in the western part of Syria have been assayed using chemical and environmental isotope techniques for a period of 5 months from Dec. 1989 to Apr. 1990. The chemistry of rain waters falling over the mountainous stations shows a low solute concentration (20-105 mg 1 -1 ) compared with those falling over the coastal and anterior stations (50-210 mg 1 -1 ). The rain waters was generally characterized by a high deuterium excess (d=19%) compared with that of typical global meteoric waters (d=10%). The estimated deuterium excess is lower than that for the eastern Mediterranean meteoric waters (d=22%). The altitude effect is shown up by a depletion of heavy stable isotopes of about - 0.23% and -1.65% per 100 m elevation of δ 1 8 O and δD, respectively. The spatial distribution pattern of tritium contents shows a gradual build up with increasing distance from the Syrian coast. The weighted mean tritium content in rain waters falling over the country is estimated to amount to 9.5 tritium units (TU) during the period of observation. (author)

  20. Eco-friendly process combining physical-chemical and biological technics for the fermented dairy products waste pretreatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Mariam; Hamdi, Moktar; Trabelsi, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Residual fermented dairy products resulting from process defects or from expired shelf life products are considered as waste. Thus, dairies wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) suffer high input effluents polluting load. In this study, fermented residuals separation from the plant wastewater is proposed. In the aim to meet the municipal WWTP input limits, a pretreatment combining physical-chemical and biological processes was investigated to reduce residual fermented dairy products polluting effect. Yoghurt (Y) and fermented milk products (RL) were considered. Raw samples chemical oxygen demand (COD) values were assessed at 152 and 246 g.L -1 for Y and RL products, respectively. Following the thermal coagulation, maximum removal rates were recorded at 80 °C. Resulting whey stabilization contributed to the removal rates enhance to reach 72% and 87% for Y and RL samples; respectively. Residual whey sugar content was fermented using Candida strains. Bacterial growth and strains degrading potential were discussed. C. krusei strain achieved the most important removal rates of 78% and 85% with Y and RL medium, respectively. Global COD removal rates exceeded 93%.

  1. 1998 Chemical Technology Division Annual Technical Report. Applying chemical innovation to environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.; Einziger, R.E.; Gay, E.C.; Green, D.W.; Miller, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The Chemical Technology (CMT) Division is a diverse technical organization with principal emphases in environmental management and development of advanced energy sources. The Division conducts research and development in three general areas: (1) development of advanced power sources for stationary and transportation applications and for consumer electronics, (2) management of high-level and low-level nuclear wastes and hazardous wastes, and (3) electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The Division also performs basic research in catalytic chemistry involving molecular energy resources, mechanisms of ion transport in lithium battery electrolytes, and the chemistry of technology-relevant materials. In addition, the Division operates the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, which conducts research in analytical chemistry and provides analytical services for programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and other organizations. Technical highlights of the Division's activities during 1998 are presented

  2. Photodynamic Action against Wastewater Microorganisms and Chemical Pollutants: An Effective Approach with Low Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bartolomeu

    2017-08-01

    photooxidate organic compounds. As the photosensitizer when immobilized on solid matrixes can be easily removed, recovered, and reused, an effective, less-expensive, easy-applicable, and environmentally friendly technology can be applied to treat WW, inactivating microorganisms and degrading chemical contaminants at the same time.

  3. Progress of environmental management and risk assessment of industrial chemicals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Yan, Zhen-Guang; Li, Hong; Yang, Ni-Yun; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Wang, Yi-Zhe; Yu, Ruo-Zhen; Zhang, Lai; Wang, Wan-Hua; Jiao, Cong-Ying; Liu, Zheng-Tao

    2012-06-01

    With China's rapid economic growth, chemical-related environmental issues have become increasingly prominent, and the environmental management of chemicals has garnered increased attention from the government. This review focuses on the current situation and the application of risk assessment in China's environmental management of industrial chemicals. The related challenges and research needs of the country are also discussed. The Chinese government promulgated regulations for the import and export of toxic chemicals in 1994. Regulations for new chemical substances came into force in 2003, and were revised in 2010 based on the concept of risk management. In order to support the implementation of new regulations, Guidance for Risk Assessment of Chemicals is under development in an attempt to provide the concepts and techniques of risk assessment. With increasing concern and financial support from Chinese government, China is embarking on the fast track of research and development in environmental management of industrial chemicals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmentally friendly alternatives to bean and corn seeds production on the “Soterrado” farm in Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mailiu Díaz Peña

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to evaluate the environmental impact associated with the life cycle of seed production of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. CC 25-9 N and maize (Zea mays L. var. TGH on the Soterrado farm. The life cycle assessment (LCA methodology is applied, according to the NC-ISO14040, which includes the life cycle inventory of the crop, the assessment of the environmental impact of beans and maize crops and the assessment of the alternatives for environmental, agricultural and economic improvement. The environmental impact assessment helped determine the most affected impact categories: the non-renewable energy, global warming and respiratory inorganics. The most affected damage categories were damage to resources, human health and climate change. The consumption of urea, NPK and diesel represented an environmental impact with the highest contribution percentage. Two alternatives of environmental, agricultural and economic improvement for each crop were evaluated. They could reduce the environmental impact of the production of beans in 53.28 % and 79.25 % respectively and corn on 47.64 % and 63.48 % respectively. These alternatives would increase yields and soil characteristics, and help to reduce the production cost. It is recommended to inform the results of research to producers of Soterrado farm, validate the results, and apply this methodology to other crops in order to reduce the impact associated with agriculture.

  5. Earning capacity of environmentally friendly companies and social responsible investing; Miljoevennlige bedrifter gir like hoey avkastning som andre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerk, Jan

    2002-07-01

    Firms on Dow Jones Sustainability Index yield over time the same return as the ''ordinary'' firms on the Dow Jones World Stock Index. There are several investment funds today that deal in shares with selected companies having a high environmental or ethical profile. This is Social Responsible Investing (SRI). When the Norwegian company Storebrand Kapitalforvaltning selects companies for SRI, they exclude immediately nuclear power stations, tobacco factories and manufacturers of land mines. In addition to the same return on invested capital, both investors and society get an environmental profit. The firms analysed and selected by Storebrand for SRI contributes significantly less negative environmental effects than the other firms, typically 33% less to the global heating and have on average 53% less toxic emissions and 45% less water consumption.

  6. Earning capacity of environmentally friendly companies and social responsible investing; Miljoevennlige bedrifter gir like hoey avkastning som andre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerk, Jan

    2002-07-01

    Firms on Dow Jones Sustainability Index yield over time the same return as the ''ordinary'' firms on the Dow Jones World Stock Index. There are several investment funds today that deal in shares with selected companies having a high environmental or ethical profile. This is Social Responsible Investing (SRI). When the Norwegian company Storebrand Kapitalforvaltning selects companies for SRI, they exclude immediately nuclear power stations, tobacco factories and manufacturers of land mines. In addition to the same return on invested capital, both investors and society get an environmental profit. The firms analysed and selected by Storebrand for SRI contributes significantly less negative environmental effects than the other firms, typically 33% less to the global heating and have on average 53% less toxic emissions and 45% less water consumption.

  7. Simple and environmentally friendly preparation and size control of silver nanoparticles using an inhomogeneous system with silver-containing glass powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yasutaka; Tagawa, Toshio; Fujita, Masanori; Kuno, Toyohiko; Suzuki, Satoshi; Matsui, Takemi; Ishihara, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    A simple, environmentally friendly method for preparing highly size-controlled spherical silver nanoparticles was developed that involved heating a mixture of silver-containing glass powder and an aqueous solution of glucose. The stabilizing agent for silver nanoparticles was found to be caramel, which was generated from glucose when preparing the nanoparticles. The particle size was independent of the reaction time, but it increased proportionally with the square root of the glucose concentration in the range 0.25–8.0 wt% (corresponding to particle sizes of 3.48 ± 1.83 to 20.0 ± 2.76 nm). Difference of the generation mechanism of silver nanoparticles between this inhomogeneous system and a system in which Ag + was homogeneously dispersed was discussed.

  8. FACILITATED CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS UNDER ALTERNATE REACTION CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical research in the late 1990's witnessed a paradigm shift towards "environmentally-friendly chemistry" more popularly known as "green chemistry" due to the increasing environmental concerns and legislative requirements to curb the release of chemical waste into the atmo...

  9. In Vitro Screening of Environmental Chemicals for Targeted Testing Prioritization: The ToxCast Project

    OpenAIRE

    Judson, Richard S.; Houck, Keith A.; Kavlock, Robert J.; Knudsen, Thomas B.; Martin, Matthew T.; Mortensen, Holly M.; Reif, David M.; Rotroff, Daniel M.; Shah, Imran; Richard, Ann M.; Dix, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Chemical toxicity testing is being transformed by advances in biology and computer modeling, concerns over animal use, and the thousands of environmental chemicals lacking toxicity data. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s ToxCast program aims to address these concerns by screening and prioritizing chemicals for potential human toxicity using in vitro assays and in silico approaches. Objectives This project aims to evaluate the use of in vitro assays for understanding the ty...

  10. Environmental evaluations of chemical processes by using environmental indexes - case study: the hydroconversion of residues; Avaliacao de processos quimicos com o uso de indicadores ambientais - estudo de caso: a hidroconversao de residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonell, Montserrat Motas [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: montserrat@petrobras.com.br; Guirardello, Reginaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Quimica. Dept. de Processos Quimicos]. E-mail: guira@feq.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    The environmental evaluation of a chemical process during its development, design or retrofit is important to reduce environmental impacts of industrial processes. This is called design for the environment (DfE) and has been done through the development and use of environmental indicators. This paper presents a brief literature review, discussing the main characteristics and comparing two selected environmental indicators. The paper also presents the 'Heinzle et al. (1998) modified method', adapted for the use in the evaluation of petroleum refining process. The environmental indicator is based on mass balances through defined regions and qualitative scales to consider the environmental aspects of: availability of raw materials resources, environmental impacts in the synthesis of raw materials, air and water pollution and special problems for disposal. This indicator helps in the identification of major loss and environmental problems in process components, streams or schemes so that process alternatives can be proposed and evaluated, leading to the development of environmentally friendly processes. The Heinzle et al. modified method is applied to the hydroconversion reaction balance region, showing the calculation of the environmental factor of the pseudo components. (author)

  11. Can Naturbanization Promote Environmentally Friendly Built-Up Areas? A Comparison Between Cadí-Moixeró (Catalonia, Spain and Comana (Romania Natural Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulla Antoni-Francesc

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study compares the on-going naturbanization processes in and around two Natural Parks under the impact of newcomers, but also tourists from Barcelona and Bucharest and their metropolitan areas. The landscape value of these areas attracts the urban population, which contributes to local sustainable development process but also promotes construction. New businesses associated with rural multifunctionality and value-added activities related to environmental quality were identified. New residents have contributed introducing responsible patterns of consumer, ecoentrepreneurship by women, recovery of abandoned buildings and intensification of rural-urban relationships. Negative impacts such as intensive construction of second homes, with a lower use, in some areas around Cadí-Moixeró threaten biodiversity and habitat connectivity. Insufficient integration of environmental policies, particularly in the Comana wetlands, reduces the potential for rural renewal. Research methods included a review of the counterurbanization literature and the statistical data related to processes of naturbanization in both areas, along with the conduct of 30 structured interviews with key local actors in each area. Naturbanization still offers the potential to enhance local development; however, it is urgent to assess social perspectives in natural parks management in order to achieve environmentally friendly built-up areas.

  12. In vitro screening of environmental chemicals for targeted testing prioritization: the ToxCast project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Richard S; Houck, Keith A; Kavlock, Robert J; Knudsen, Thomas B; Martin, Matthew T; Mortensen, Holly M; Reif, David M; Rotroff, Daniel M; Shah, Imran; Richard, Ann M; Dix, David J

    2010-04-01

    Chemical toxicity testing is being transformed by advances in biology and computer modeling, concerns over animal use, and the thousands of environmental chemicals lacking toxicity data. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ToxCast program aims to address these concerns by screening and prioritizing chemicals for potential human toxicity using in vitro assays and in silico approaches. This project aims to evaluate the use of in vitro assays for understanding the types of molecular and pathway perturbations caused by environmental chemicals and to build initial prioritization models of in vivo toxicity. We tested 309 mostly pesticide active chemicals in 467 assays across nine technologies, including high-throughput cell-free assays and cell-based assays, in multiple human primary cells and cell lines plus rat primary hepatocytes. Both individual and composite scores for effects on genes and pathways were analyzed. Chemicals displayed a broad spectrum of activity at the molecular and pathway levels. We saw many expected interactions, including endocrine and xenobiotic metabolism enzyme activity. Chemicals ranged in promiscuity across pathways, from no activity to affecting dozens of pathways. We found a statistically significant inverse association between the number of pathways perturbed by a chemical at low in vitro concentrations and the lowest in vivo dose at which a chemical causes toxicity. We also found associations between a small set of in vitro assays and rodent liver lesion formation. This approach promises to provide meaningful data on the thousands of untested environmental chemicals and to guide targeted testing of environmental contaminants.

  13. Influence of Environmentally Friendly and High-Efficiency Composite Additives on Pulverized Coal Combustion in Cement Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 4 kinds of chemical reagents and 3 kinds of industrial wastes were selected as burning additives for 2 kinds of coals in cement industry. The work focused on the replacement of partial chemical reagents by industrial wastes, which not only reduced the cost and took full advantage of industrial wastes, but also guaranteed the high combustion efficiency and removed the NOX and SO2 simultaneously. The experiments were carried out in DTF. The combustion residues were analyzed by SEM and XRD. The results showed that the burnout rate was increased after adding the additives; meanwhile, the NOX and SO2 release concentration were reduced, but the degree of action varied for different additives and coals. The substitute of chemical reagents by industrial wastes was very effective; overall, the cold-rolled iron oxide worked better than others; the particles surface was tougher and the peaks of crystalline phase were lower than raw coal, which indicated that the additives played good roles in combustion process.

  14. Ionic liquid and solid HF equivalent amine-poly(hydrogen fluoride) complexes effecting efficient environmentally friendly isobutane-isobutylene alkylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A; Mathew, Thomas; Goeppert, Alain; Török, Béla; Bucsi, Imre; Li, Xing-Ya; Wang, Qi; Marinez, Eric R; Batamack, Patrice; Aniszfeld, Robert; Prakash, G K Surya

    2005-04-27

    Isoparaffin-olefin alkylation was investigated using liquid as well as solid onium poly(hydrogen fluoride) catalysts. These new immobilized anhydrous HF catalysts contain varied amines and nitrogen-containing polymers as complexing agents. The liquid poly(hydrogen fluoride) complexes of amines are typical ionic liquids, which are convenient media and serve as HF equivalent catalysts with decreased volatility for isoparaffin-olefin alkylation. Polymeric solid amine:poly(hydrogen fluoride) complexes are excellent solid HF equivalents for similar alkylation acid catalysis. Isobutane-isobutylene or 2-butene alkylation gave excellent yields of high octane alkylates (up to RON = 94). Apart from their excellent catalytic performance, the new catalyst systems significantly reduce environmental hazards due to the low volatility of complexed HF. They represent a new, "green" class of catalyst systems for alkylation reactions, maintaining activity of HF while minimizing its environmental hazards.

  15. High Throughput Heuristics for Prioritizing Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The risk posed to human health by any of the thousands of untested anthropogenic chemicals in our environment is a function of both the potential hazard presented by the chemical, and the possibility of being exposed. Without the capacity to make quantitative, albeit uncertain, f...

  16. Making Conventional Agriculture Environmentally Friendly: Moving beyond the Glorification of Organic Agriculture and the Demonization of Conventional Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Alon Tal

    2018-01-01

    The article reviews the most recent research surrounding the potential role of organic agriculture in providing food for the planet. It challenges the claims of organic agriculture’s environmental superiority compared to well-managed, conventional agriculture. The relative advantages of these contrasting approaches to farming in areas such as aggregate land requirements, biodiversity/habitat loss, water quality, land degradation and climate change are considered. Legitimate concerns abo...

  17. Environmental friendly crush-magnetic separation technology for recycling metal-plated plastics from end-of-life vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-03-06

    Metal-plated plastics (MPP), which are important from the standpoint of aesthetics or even performance, are increasingly employed in a wide variety of situations in the automotive industry. Serious environmental problems will be caused if they are not treated appropriately. Therefore, recycling of MPP is an important subject not only for resource recycling but also for environmental protection. This work represents a novel attempt to deal with the MPP. A self-designed hammer crusher was used to liberate coatings from the plastic substrate. The size distribution of particles was analyzed and described by the Rosin-Rammler function model. The optimum retaining time of materials in the crusher is 3 min. By this time, the liberation rate of the materials can reach 87.3%. When the density of the suspension is 31,250 g/m(3), the performance of liberation is the best. Two-step magnetic separation was adopted to avoid excessive crushing and to guarantee the quality of products. Concerning both the separation efficiency and grade of products, the optimum rotational speed of the magnetic separator is 50-70 rpm. On the basis of the above studies about the liberating and separating behavior of the materials, a continuous recycling system (the technology of crush-magnetic separation) is developed. This recycling system provides a feasible method for recycling MPP efficiently, economically, and environmentally.

  18. Why small and medium chemical companies continue to pose severe environmental risks in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guizhen; Zhang, Lei; Mol, Arthur P J; Wang, Tieyu; Lu, Yonglong

    2014-02-01

    In China, rural chemical SMEs are often believed to still largely operate below the sustainability radar. This paper investigates to what extent and how chemical SMEs are already experiencing pressure to improve their environmental performance, using an in-depth case study in Jasmine County, Hebei province. The results show that local residents had rather low trust in the environmental improvement promises made by the enterprises and the local government, and disagreed with the proposed improvement plans. Although the power of local residents to influence decision making remained limited, the chemical SMEs started to feel increasing pressures to clean up their business, from governments, local communities and civil society, and international value chain stakeholders. Notwithstanding these mounting pressures chemical SME's environmental behavior and performance has not changed radically for the better. The strong economic ties between local county governments and chemical SMEs continue to be a major barrier for stringent environmental regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Raspberry Extract as Both a Stabilizer and a Reducing Agent in Environmentally Friendly Process of Receiving Colloidal Silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Pulit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An ecofriendly method of nanosilver obtaining has been studied. The process involves the chemical reduction method carried out in aqueous environment. Silver nitrate (V was applied as a silver ions source. Raspberry extract was used as a natural source of both reducing and stabilizing agents. The total amount of phenolic compounds was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Obtained nanoparticles were analyzed by the dynamic light scattering technique so as to determine the particles size and suspension stability which was characterized by an electrokinetic potential. The results confirmed that the size of some nanoparticles was under 100 nm.

  20. Environmentally friendly technology and equipment of the system of spent FA waste removal for storage at the RT plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vovkotrub, Yu.G.; Dorokhin, V.I.; Istomin, V.L.; Markov, B.V.; Samokhotov, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Systems having no world analog for removal and disposal of spent fuel assembly tailings and insoluble fragments of crushed fuel element claddings, which have been put into service at radiotechnical plant of Mayak PA, are described. The tailings are brought to a repository by a dolly moving inside a piping (box) using linear asynchronous electric motors, while insoluble fragments are removed via the piping using pulsed pneumatic transportation. It is pointed out that the systems described comply with today's requirements in terms of environmental protection and creation of conditions favorable for the personnel work [ru

  1. Environmental issues and work: women with multiple chemical sensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Juliene G; Doiron, Nathalie

    2006-08-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS) is an acquired condition in which exposure to low levels of chemicals causes symptoms in multiple organ systems. Some 12%-16% of the U.S. population has some level of chemical sensitivity, 80% of whom are women. Attempts to reduce chemical exposures leads to enormous life difficulties at home, school, and workplace. We base our article on an ethnographic study of MCS in the United States and Canada. We describe here themes related to work issues in terms of a general trajectory of becoming sick from work exposures, coping with toxic physical environments and dealing with coworkers and, when unable to continue working, applying for workers' compensation, or disability status, or both.

  2. Environmentally Friendly Solution to Ground Hazards in Design of Bridges in Earthquake Prone Areas Using Timber Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Bridges are major elements of infrastructure in all societies. Their safety and continued serviceability guaranties the transportation and emergency access in urban and rural areas. However, these important structures are subject to earthquake induced damages in structure and foundations. The basic approach to the proper support of foundations are a) distribution of imposed loads to foundation in a way they can resist those loads without excessive settlement and failure; b) modification of foundation ground with various available methods; and c) combination of "a" and "b". The engineers has to face the task of designing the foundations meeting all safely and serviceability criteria but sometimes when there are numerous environmental and financial constrains, the use of some traditional methods become inevitable. This paper explains the application of timber piles to improve ground resistance to liquefaction and to secure the abutments of short to medium length bridges in an earthquake/liquefaction prone area in Bohol Island, Philippines. The limitations of using the common ground improvement methods (i.e., injection, dynamic compaction) because of either environmental or financial concerns along with the abundance of timber in the area made the engineers to use a network of timber piles behind the backwalls of the bridge abutments. The suggested timber pile network is simulated by numerical methods and its safety is examined. The results show that the compaction caused by driving of the piles and bearing capacity provided by timbers reduce the settlement and lateral movements due to service and earthquake induced loads.

  3. Identifying populations sensitive to environmental chemicals by simulating toxicokinetic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Caroline L; Pearce, Robert G; Setzer, R Woodrow; Wetmore, Barbara A; Wambaugh, John F

    2017-09-01

    The thousands of chemicals present in the environment (USGAO, 2013) must be triaged to identify priority chemicals for human health risk research. Most chemicals have little of the toxicokinetic (TK) data that are necessary for relating exposures to tissue concentrations that are believed to be toxic. Ongoing efforts have collected limited, in vitro TK data for a few hundred chemicals. These data have been combined with biomonitoring data to estimate an approximate margin between potential hazard and exposure. The most "at risk" 95th percentile of adults have been identified from simulated populations that are generated either using standard "average" adult human parameters or very specific cohorts such as Northern Europeans. To better reflect the modern U.S. population, we developed a population simulation using physiologies based on distributions of demographic and anthropometric quantities from the most recent U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. This allowed incorporation of inter-individual variability, including variability across relevant demographic subgroups. Variability was analyzed with a Monte Carlo approach that accounted for the correlation structure in physiological parameters. To identify portions of the U.S. population that are more at risk for specific chemicals, physiologic variability was incorporated within an open-source high-throughput (HT) TK modeling framework. We prioritized 50 chemicals based on estimates of both potential hazard and exposure. Potential hazard was estimated from in vitro HT screening assays (i.e., the Tox21 and ToxCast programs). Bioactive in vitro concentrations were extrapolated to doses that produce equivalent concentrations in body tissues using a reverse dosimetry approach in which generic TK models are parameterized with: 1) chemical-specific parameters derived from in vitro measurements and predicted from chemical structure; and 2) with

  4. Radiation-chemical disinfection of dissolved impurities and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrukhin, N.V.; Putilov, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-chemical neutralization of dissolved toxic impurities formed in the production processes of different materials, while modern plants being in use, is considered. For the first time the processes of deep industrial waste detoxication and due to this peculiarities of practically thorough neutralization of dissolved toxic impurities are considered. Attention is paid to devices and economic factors of neutralization of dissolved toxic impurities. The role of radiation-chemical detoxication for environment protection is considered

  5. Research report. Environmentally friendly energy community research business for Fujieda district (Refuse energy utilization); Fujieda chiku kankyo chowagata energy community chosa jigyo (haikibutsu energy riyo shisetsu) chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    An environmentally friendly refuse energy utilizing business, for which RDF (refuse derived fuel) produced out of wastes discharged by industries belonging to a Fujieda city environmental protection council will provide the heat source, is proposed by the said council. The proposal is subjected to a study, a basic plan is drafted, and a decision is made on its profitability. In the study, surveys are conducted on the actualities of wastes and of demand for heat, and specifications are worked out relating to transportation and storage of RDF, production of steam by an RDF-fired boiler, routing of pipes for transmitting the steam to the industries in the district, facility costs, operating costs, etc. It is found that the amount of RDF produced out of the wastes discharged by the council member industries is so small that it can meet the demand of only one industry and that, even if more wastes are collected from a wider area, the increased amount will but meet the demand of two industries and a hot water pool. It is found that the system will be economically feasible, however, if the shortage of RDF-generated energy is covered by an oil-fired boiler and thereby impartiality is established in steam distribution and steam production unit price is reduced. In view of the intensification of control over dioxin, etc., the business will be gaining profit in 2002 and after. (NEDO)

  6. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on. PMID:23603866

  7. Integrated environmental risk assessment and whole-process management system in chemical industry parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-04-19

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  8. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

  9. Environmental chemicals and autoimmune disease: cause and effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Evelyn V.

    2002-01-01

    Many important clues have been provided by the relationship of certain medications to lupus and other autoimmune syndromes. These are temporary conditions that resolve when the medication is removed. There are now over 70 such medications which have been reported related to these autoimmune conditions. Interest continues to grow in the potential for environmental substances to cause these syndromes. Among those under suspicion are hydrazines, tartrazines, hair dyes, trichloroethylene, industrial emissions and hazardous wastes. Other possible associations include silica, mercury, cadmium, gold and L canavanine. Two recognised outbreaks include 'toxic oil syndrome' related to contaminated rape seed oil in Spain in 1981 and exposure to a contaminated environmental substance associated with an autoimmune attack on muscle tissue in 1989. Recently, there have been proposals made for the definition and identification of environmentally associated immune disorders. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has also provided recent publications for other environmentally related problems. All these aspects will be presented and reviewed in detail

  10. The effect of environmental chemicals on the tumor microenvironment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casey, Stephanie C.; Vaccari, Monica; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Brown, Dustin G.; Chapellier, Marion; Christopher, Joseph; Curran, Colleen S.; Forte, Stefano; Hamid, Roslida A.; Heneberg, Petr; Koch, Daniel C.; Krishnakumar, P. K.; Laconi, Ezio; Maguer-Satta, Veronique; Marongiu, Fabio; Memeo, Lorenzo; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Roman, Jesse; Roy, Rabindra; Ryan, Elizabeth P.; Ryeom, Sandra; Salem, Hosni K.; Scovassi, A. Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Soucek, Laura; Vermeulen, Louis; Whitfield, Jonathan R.; Woodrick, Jordan; Colacci, Annamaria; Bisson, William H.; Felsher, Dean W.

    2015-01-01

    Potentially carcinogenic compounds may cause cancer through direct DNA damage or through indirect cellular or physiological effects. To study possible carcinogens, the fields of endocrinology, genetics, epigenetics, medicine, environmental health, toxicology, pharmacology and oncology must be

  11. Concentration levels of endocrine disrupting chemicals in environmental media of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Junheon; Choi, Kyunghee; Kim, Sangdon; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Eunkyoung; Jeon, Sung-Hwan; Na, Jin-Gyun [National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction As the public is more concerned about endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the Ministry of Environment in Korea has designed and established a mid- and long-term research plan on EDCs. Since 1999, the National Institute of Environmental Research has investigated the impact of EDCs on the natural ecosystem and carried out the field test for environmental monitoring. The goal of this study was to measure the contamination level of EDCs in a variety of environmental media, such as water, sediment, soil and air and to provide a basis for the sound management of EDCs and policy-making for the control of EDCs in Korea. Environmental monitoring sites were selected at representative sites through the nation. In 2002, 310 samples were collected from 122 sites of water, sediment, soil and air. The target EDCs examined were 93 chemicals in 45 chemical groups including Dioxin, coplanar PCBs, PCBs. Results show that 46 chemicals (31 chemical groups) including dioxins were detected in at least one environmental medium, while 47 chemicals including aldrin were not detected in any environmental media. In this study, the results of the fourth year of environmental monitoring are reported.

  12. A Methodology for Off-line Evaluation of New Environmentally Friendly Tribo-systems for Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Increasing focus on environmental issues in industrial production has urged sheet stamping companies to look for new tribo-systems in order to substitute hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin oils. Production testing of new lubricants is, however, costly and makes industry reluctant...... towards testing alternative solutions. The present paper presents a methodology for off-line testing of new tribo-systems based on numerical modelling of production process as well as laboratory test to adjust the latter combined with testing of selected tribo-systems on a new automatic sheet......-tribo-tester emulating typical sheet forming production processes. Final testing of the tribo-systems in production verifies the methodology. © 2013 CIRP....

  13. Modelling environmentally friendly fairways using Lagrangian trajectories: a case study for the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomere, Tarmo; Berezovski, Mihhail; Quak, Ewald; Viikmäe, Bert

    2011-10-01

    We address possibilities of minimising environmental risks using statistical features of current-driven propagation of adverse impacts to the coast. The recently introduced method for finding the optimum locations of potentially dangerous activities (Soomere et al. in Proc Estonian Acad Sci 59:156-165, 2010) is expanded towards accounting for the spatial distributions of probabilities and times for reaching the coast for passively advecting particles released in different sea areas. These distributions are calculated using large sets of Lagrangian trajectories found from Eulerian velocity fields provided by the Rossby Centre Ocean Model with a horizontal resolution of 2 nautical miles for 1987-1991. The test area is the Gulf of Finland in the northeastern Baltic Sea. The potential gain using the optimum fairways from the Baltic Proper to the eastern part of the gulf is an up to 44% decrease in the probability of coastal pollution and a similar increase in the average time for reaching the coast. The optimum fairways are mostly located to the north of the gulf axis (by 2-8 km on average) and meander substantially in some sections. The robustness of this approach is quantified as the typical root mean square deviation (6-16 km) between the optimum fairways specified from different criteria. Drastic variations in the width of the `corridors' for almost optimal fairways (2-30 km for the average width of 15 km) signifies that the sensitivity of the results with respect to small changes in the environmental criteria largely varies in different parts of the gulf.

  14. Why small and medium chemical companies continue to pose severe environmental risks in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Guizhen; Zhang, Lei; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Wang, Tieyu; Lu, Yonglong

    2014-01-01

    In China, rural chemical SMEs are often believed to still largely operate below the sustainability radar. This paper investigates to what extent and how chemical SMEs are already experiencing pressure to improve their environmental performance, using an in-depth case study in Jasmine County, Hebei province. The results show that local residents had rather low trust in the environmental improvement promises made by the enterprises and the local government, and disagreed with the proposed improvement plans. Although the power of local residents to influence decision making remained limited, the chemical SMEs started to feel increasing pressures to clean up their business, from governments, local communities and civil society, and international value chain stakeholders. Notwithstanding these mounting pressures chemical SME's environmental behavior and performance has not changed radically for the better. The strong economic ties between local county governments and chemical SMEs continue to be a major barrier for stringent environmental regulation. -- Highlights: • Rural chemical SMEs are often below the sustainability radar in China. • Close local government-SMEs tie remained as a barrier for effective environmental enforcement. • Rural communities proved unable to collectively raise their voice. • National government must adopt environment-oriented political incentives. -- The paper provides a major understanding of how and why the large number of existing chemical SMEs in rural China still form major chemical risks

  15. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the Philippines; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Philippines ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Grasping the present situation of coal utilization technology in the Philippines, the paper proposed a feasibility study of introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system which seems to be needed in the future. (1) Introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the electric power generation sector: there are only four full-scale running coal thermal power plants in the Philippines. In the future, several coal thermal plants are planned to be constructed by 2005, but for the new installation, it is desirable to adopt fluidized bed boilers with wide application to coal kinds. In case of 0.3-1.0 million MW class plants, it is planned to adopt high grade import coals, and it will be natural to fire pulverized coal. For the processing of flue gas, it is a must to install desulfurization facilities and smoke/soot removal devices. (2) Utilization/development of domestic low grade coals: at the mine-mouth generating plant, it is necessary to investigate the economically minable amount of coal, confirm productivity, survey coal quality, etc., and select boiler. As to coal briquetting technology, it is necessary to examine coal quality for tests and make a thorough study of what technology is most suitable. 50 figs., 78 tabs.

  16. Prediction of Hydrolysis Products of Organic Chemicals under Environmental pH Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheminformatics-based software tools can predict the molecular structure of transformation products using a library of transformation reaction schemes. This paper presents the development of such a library for abiotic hydrolysis of organic chemicals under environmentally relevant...

  17. Laser Applications to Chemical, Security, and Environmental Analysis: introduction to the feature issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreizler, Andreas; Fried, Alan; Gord, James R.

    2007-01-01

    This Applied Optics feature issue on Laser Applications to Chemical, Security,and Environmental Analysis (LACSEA) highlights papers presented at theLACSEA 2006 Tenth Topical Meeting sponsored by the Optical Society ofAmerica

  18. Laser applications to chemical, security, and environmental analysis: introduction to the feature issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Thomas; Dreier, Thomas; Chen, Weidong; Kearny, Sean; Kulatilaka, Waruna

    2017-04-10

    This Applied Optics feature issue on laser applications to chemical, security, and environmental analysis (LACSEA) highlights papers presented at the LACSEA 2016 Fifteenth Topical Meeting sponsored by the Optical Society of America.

  19. Chemical Safety Alert: First Responders’ Environmental Liability Due To Mass Decontamination Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    CERCLA's good Samaritan provisions protect responders such as the Chemical Weapons Improved Response Team during lifesaving actions. Once imminent threats are addressed, responders should contain contamination and avoid/mitigate environmental consequences.

  20. IMPROVING THE ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES THROUGH THE USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efforts are currently underway at the USEPA to develop information technology applications to improve the environmental performance of the chemical process industry. These efforts include the use of genetic algorithms to optimize different process options for minimal environmenta...

  1. Carcinogenicity tests of certain environmental and industrial chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisburger, E.K.; Ulland, B.M.; Nam, J.; Gart, J.J.; Weisburger, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Fourteen chemicals of varied uses were tested for carcinogenicity by oral administration in male and female Charles River CD rats. Under the conditions of the tests, propane sultone, propylene imine, and ethylenethiourea, in addition to the positive control N-2-fluorenylacetamide, were carcinogenic. Avadex, bis(2-chloroethyl) ether, the potassium salt of bis(2-hydroxyethyl) dithiocarbamic acid, ethylene carbonate, and semicarbazide hydrochloride were not carcinogenic under the test conditions. Dithiooxamide, glycerol alpha-monochlorohydrin, and thiosemicarbazide gave somewhat ambiguous results, though administered at high enough dose levels to be toxic. An inadequate number of animals survived treatments with sodium azide, sodium bisulfide, and vinylene carbonate, or the animals may not have received sufficiently high doses of the test chemicals to provide maximum test sensitivity. However, there were no indications that these three chemicals were carcinogenic under the test conditions

  2. Synthesis of environmentally friendly highly dispersed magnetite nanoparticles based on rosin cationic surfactants as thin film coatings of steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Ayman M; El-Mahdy, Gamal A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Al-Hussain, Sami A

    2014-04-22

    This work presents a new method to prepare monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles capping with new cationic surfactants based on rosin. Core/shell type magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using bis-N-(3-levopimaric maleic acid adduct-2-hydroxy) propyl-triethyl ammonium chloride (LPMQA) as capping agent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to characterize the nanoparticles chemical structure. Transmittance electron microscopies (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the morphology of the modified magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite dispersed aqueous acid solution was evaluated as an effective anticorrosion behavior of a hydrophobic surface on steel. The inhibition effect of magnetite nanoparticles on steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results obtained from both potentiodynamic polarisation and EIS measurements reveal that the magnetite nanoparticle is an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in 1.0 M HCl solution. Polarization data show that magnetite nanoparticles behave as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS methods are in good agreement.

  3. Synthesis of Environmentally Friendly Highly Dispersed Magnetite Nanoparticles Based on Rosin Cationic Surfactants as Thin Film Coatings of Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Atta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new method to prepare monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles capping with new cationic surfactants based on rosin. Core/shell type magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using bis-N-(3-levopimaric maleic acid adduct-2-hydroxy propyl-triethyl ammonium chloride (LPMQA as capping agent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR was employed to characterize the nanoparticles chemical structure. Transmittance electron microscopies (TEM and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD were used to examine the morphology of the modified magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite dispersed aqueous acid solution was evaluated as an effective anticorrosion behavior of a hydrophobic surface on steel. The inhibition effect of magnetite nanoparticles on steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Results obtained from both potentiodynamic polarisation and EIS measurements reveal that the magnetite nanoparticle is an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in 1.0 M HCl solution. Polarization data show that magnetite nanoparticles behave as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS methods are in good agreement.

  4. The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and human exposure to environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, Antonia M

    2012-02-01

    Researchers are increasingly interested in using human biomonitoring - the measurement of chemicals, their metabolites or specific reaction products in biological specimens/body fluids - for investigating exposure to environmental chemicals. General population human biomonitoring programs are useful for investigating human exposure to environmental chemicals and an important tool for integrating environment and health. One of these programs, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), conducted in the United States is designed to collect data on the health and nutritional status of the noninstitutionalized, civilian U.S. population. NHANES includes a physical examination, collecting a detailed medical history, and collecting biological specimens (i.e., blood and urine). These biological specimens can be used to assess exposure to environmental chemicals. NHANES human biomonitoring data can be used to establish reference ranges for selected chemicals, provide exposure data for risk assessment, and monitor exposure trends. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. Environmentally-Friendly Dense and Porous Geopolymers Using Fly Ash and Rice Husk Ash as Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Ziegler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the feasibility of two industrial wastes, fly ash (FA and rice husk ash (RHA, as raw materials for the production of geopolymeric pastes. Three typologies of samples were thus produced: (i halloysite activated with potassium hydroxide and nanosilica, used as the reference sample (HL-S; (ii halloysite activated with rice husk ash dissolved into KOH solution (HL-R; (iii FA activated with the alkaline solution realized with the rice husk ash (FA-R. Dense and porous samples were produced and characterized in terms of mechanical properties and environmental impact. The flexural and compressive strength of HL-R reached about 9 and 43 MPa, respectively. On the contrary, the compressive strength of FA-R is significantly lower than the HL-R one, in spite of a comparable flexural strength being reached. However, when porous samples are concerned, FA-R shows comparable or even higher strength than HL-R. Thus, the current results show that RHA is a valuable alternative to silica nanopowder to prepare the activator solution, to be used either with calcined clay and fly ash feedstock materials. Finally, a preliminary evaluation of the global warming potential (GWP was performed for the three investigated formulations. With the mix containing FA and RHA-based silica solution, a reduction of about 90% of GWP was achieved with respect to the values obtained for the reference formulation.

  6. Energy saving of benzene separation process for environmentally friendly gasoline using an extended DWC (divided wall column)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Han

    2016-01-01

    Benzene is a known carcinogen, and is desired to be removed from the gasoline additive for environmental reason. A benzene removal process from the additive, reformate of catalytic reformers, is proposed utilizing an extended DWC (divided wall column). The DWC reduces the processing load of the whole process especially in extractor, which employs high boiling point solvent requiring large amount of energy and costly utility. In this study the design of the proposed process is addressed along with the evaluation of energy saving, economics and thermodynamic efficiency. The evaluation results indicate the heating duty reduction of 56.8% from the proposed process over the conventional process and 64.6% reduction of cooling duty. The economics reveals the 26% reduction of investment and 56% reduction of utility cost from the proposed process. However, no significant improvement of thermodynamic efficiency is yielded. - Highlights: • Energy saving benzene separation process is proposed. • Extraction load is reduced by feed separation. • Heat duty saving of 57% is yielded. • Investment and utility cost savings are 26% and 56%. • Commercially proven DWC is utilized.

  7. Electrochemical evaluation of sodium metabisulfite as environmentally friendly inhibitor for corrosion of aluminum alloy 6061 in a chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaid, B., E-mail: zaidbachir@yahoo.com [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Maddache, N.; Saidi, D. [Département de métallurgie, Division de Technologie du Combustible, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria CRND, BP. 43 Draria, Alger (Algeria); Souami, N. [Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d’Alger CRNA, 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, Alger (Algeria); Bacha, N. [Département de Mécanique, Université SAAD Dahleb, Blida (Algeria); Si Ahmed, A. [Im2np, UMR 7334 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2015-04-25

    Highlights: • Sodium metabisulfite acts as cathodic-type inhibitor. • The polarization resistance increases with the inhibitor concentration. • The pit nucleation rate decreases with increasing inhibitor concentration. • The current rise linked to pit propagation drops as inhibitor content increases. • The reactions involved in the inhibition actions are pointed out. - Abstract: Inhibition properties of sodium metabisulfite (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5}) on pitting corrosion of 6061 aluminum alloy, in 5 × 10{sup −2} M NaCl solution of pH near 7.2 at 298 K, are characterized using open circuit potential, polarization resistance, cyclic and chrono-amperometric polarization measurements. In addition, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectrons are employed. Sodium metabisulfite, which is well compatible with environmental requirements, seems to act as a cathodic-type corrosion inhibitor. The passivation range and the polarization resistance increase with Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentration. The inhibition effects are also reflected through the substantial reduction of both the rate of pit nucleation and the current rise characterizing the pit propagation progress. The SEM–EDS and XPS analyses reveal the formation of a passive film, which contains sulfur atoms.

  8. Cumulative Risk and Impact Modeling on Environmental Chemical and Social Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongtai; Wang, Aolin; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Lam, Juleen; Sirota, Marina; Padula, Amy; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this review is to identify cumulative modeling methods used to evaluate combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors. The specific review question is: What are the existing quantitative methods used to examine the cumulative impacts of exposures to environmental chemical and social stressors on health? There has been an increase in literature that evaluates combined effects of exposures to environmental chemicals and social stressors on health using regression models; very few studies applied other data mining and machine learning techniques to this problem. The majority of studies we identified used regression models to evaluate combined effects of multiple environmental and social stressors. With proper study design and appropriate modeling assumptions, additional data mining methods may be useful to examine combined effects of environmental and social stressors.

  9. Toxicologic evidence of developmental neurotoxicity of environmental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Nielsen, J B; Grandjean, P

    2000-01-01

    Developmental neurotoxicity constitutes effects occurring in the offspring primarily as a result of exposure of the mother during pregnancy and lactation. To exert their effect, these chemicals or their metabolites must pass the placenta and/or the blood-brain barrier. In experimental animals, ex...

  10. Playing chemical plant environmental protection games with historical monitoring data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Zhengqiu; Chen, Bin; Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.; Zhang, L.; Qiu, S.; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2017-01-01

    The chemical industry is very important for the world economy and this industrial sector represents a substantial income source for developing countries. However, existing regulations on controlling atmospheric pollutants, and the enforcement of these regulations, often are insufficient in such

  11. Radiation-chemical sanitation of dissolved pollutants and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrukhin, N.V.; Putilov, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-chemical sanitation of dissolved toxic pollutants resulted from the production processes of different substances and modern equipment operation is considered. The processes of fundamental industrial sewage processing and, as a result, features of practically total disposal of dissolved toxic agents are considered for the first time

  12. Examination of environmentally friendly "green" logistics behavior of managers in the pharmaceutical sector using the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Miray; Şar, Sevgi

    2017-12-11

    Logistics activities play a prominent role in enabling manufacturers, distribution channels, and pharmacies to work in harmony. Nowadays these activities have become increasingly striking in the pharmaceutical industry and seen as a development area for this sector. Additionally, green practices are beginning to be more attracting particularly in decreasing costs and increasing image of pharmaceutical companies. The main objective of this study was modeling green logistics (GL) behavior of the managers in the pharmaceutical sector in the theory of planned behavior (TPB) frame via structural equation modeling (SEM). A measurement tool was developed according to TPB. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine subfactors of GL behavior. In the second step, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted for confirming whether there is a relationship between the observed variables and their underlying latent constructs. Finally, structural equation model was conducted to specify the relationships between latent variables. In the proposed green logistics behavior (GLB) model, the positive effect of environmental attitude towards GL, perceived behavioral control related GL, and subjective norm about GL on intention towards GL were found statistically significant. Nevertheless, the effect of attitude towards costs of GL on intention towards GL was not found statistically significant. Intention towards GL has been found to have a positive statistically significant effect on the GL behavior. Based on the results of this study, it is possible to say that TPB is an appropriate theory for modeling green logistics behavior of managers. This model can be seen as a guide to the companies in the pharmaceutical sector to participate in green logistics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Novel, Safe, and Environmentally Friendly Technology for Water Production Through Recovery of Rejected Thermal Energy From Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Yehia F.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we describe a novel design that utilizes seawater and a portion of rejected heat from a nuclear plant's steam cycle to operate a water desalination system using forward osmosis technology. Water produced from this process is of sufficient quality to be readily used to supply plant demands for continuous makeup water. The proposed process minimizes the environmental concerns associated with thermal pollution of public waters and the resulting adverse impact on marine ecology. To demonstrate the technical feasibility of this conceptual design of a water treatment process, we discuss a case study as an example to describe how the proposed design can be implemented in a nuclear power station with a once--through cooling system that discharges rejected heat to an open sound seawater as its ultimate heat sink. In this case study, the station uses a leased (vendor owned and operated) onsite water treatment system that demineralizes and polishes up to 500-gpm of city water (at 100 ppm TDS) to supply high-quality makeup water (< 0.01 ppm TDS) to the plant steam system. The objectives of implementing the new design are three fold: 1) forego current practice of using city water as the source of plant makeup water, thereby reducing the nuclear station's impact on the region's potable water supply by roughly 100 million gallons/year, 2) minimize the adverse impact of discharging rejected heat into the open sound seawater and, hence, protect the marine ecology, and 3) eliminate the reliance on external vendor that owns and operates the onsite water treatment system, thereby saving an annual fixed cost of $600 K plus 6 cents per 1,000 gallons of pure water. The design will also eliminate the need for using two double-path reverse osmosis (RO) units that consume 425 kW/h of electric power to operate two RO pumps (480 V, 281.6 HP, and 317.4 amps). (authors)

  14. Challenges to studying the health effects of early life environmental chemical exposures on children's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joseph M; Gray, Kimberly

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological studies play an important role in quantifying how early life environmental chemical exposures influence the risk of childhood diseases. These studies face at least four major challenges that can produce noise when trying to identify signals of associations between chemical exposure and childhood health. Challenges include accurately estimating chemical exposure, confounding from causes of both exposure and disease, identifying periods of heightened vulnerability to chemical exposures, and determining the effects of chemical mixtures. We provide recommendations that will aid in identifying these signals with more precision.

  15. Identification of environmentally relevant chemicals in bibliographic databases: a comparative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Ole; Wallin, Johan Albert

    2013-01-01

    takes as its starting point environmentally important chemicals and the retrieval of selectively chosen substances in the four databases: SciFinder, Web of Science (WoS), Scopus and Google Scholar. The way chemical data are stored in the databases plays a major role in the recovery process...

  16. WAR DSS: A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The second generation of the Waste Reduction (WAR) Algorithm is constructed as a decision support system (DSS) in the design of chemical manufacturing facilities. The WAR DSS is a software tool that can help reduce the potential environmental impacts (PEIs) of industrial chemical...

  17. Progress of environmental management and risk assessment of industrial chemicals in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hong; Yan Zhenguang; Li Hong; Yang Niyun; Leung, Kenneth M.Y.; Wang Yizhe; Yu Ruozhen; Zhang Lai; Wang Wanhua; Jiao Congying

    2012-01-01

    With China’s rapid economic growth, chemical-related environmental issues have become increasingly prominent, and the environmental management of chemicals has garnered increased attention from the government. This review focuses on the current situation and the application of risk assessment in China’s environmental management of industrial chemicals. The related challenges and research needs of the country are also discussed. The Chinese government promulgated regulations for the import and export of toxic chemicals in 1994. Regulations for new chemical substances came into force in 2003, and were revised in 2010 based on the concept of risk management. In order to support the implementation of new regulations, Guidance for Risk Assessment of Chemicals is under development in an attempt to provide the concepts and techniques of risk assessment. With increasing concern and financial support from Chinese government, China is embarking on the fast track of research and development in environmental management of industrial chemicals. - This paper reviews the current situation of industrial chemical management in China, and discusses the application of risk assessment and further research needs in this field.

  18. Biomarkers of DNA and cytogenetic damages induced by environmental chemicals or radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses results from the studies on various biomarkers of the DNA and cytogenetic damages induced by environmental chemicals or radiation. Results of the biomonitoring studies have shown that particularly in the condition of Poland, health hazard from radiation exposure is overestimated in contradistinction to the environmental hazard

  19. Integrating Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering Education: The Application of an Environmental Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanes, M. T.; Palomares, A. E.; Sanchez-Tovar, R.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of sustainable development have been integrated in chemical engineering education by means of an environmental management system. These principles have been introduced in the teaching laboratories where students perform their practical classes. In this paper, the implementation of the environmental management system, the problems…

  20. Environmental chemicals and DNA methylation in adults: a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence supports the notion that environmental exposures are associated with DNA-methylation and expression changes that can impact human health. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of epidemiologic studies evaluating the association between environmental chemicals with DNA met...

  1. New lubrication concepts for environmental friendly machines. Tribological, thermophysical and viscometric properties of lubricants interacting with triboactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.; Klingenberg, G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Woydt, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    high wear resistance can additionally be used on aluminium liners to increase the resistance of critical components against wear, adhesive wear and thermomechanical stresses. For given tribological test conditions all APS coatings on piston rings showed no friction reducing effect. The coefficient of friction is more determined by the lubricants than by the materials or by an individual interaction between lubricants and a specific material or tribopairing. Lubricious oxides or triboactive materials and/or polar base oils may substitute the extreme pressure (EP) and anti-wear (AW) properties realized by the additives, thus enabling long drains and responding to 'eco-tox' or 'bio-no-tox' requirements as well as restrictions from the 'chemical box'. Overall, the different polymer-free bionotox and low-ash prototype engine oils with reduced additive contents displayed isoperformance regarding the tribological behaviour against cast iron with high carbon content and triboreactive materials. (orig.)

  2. An Environmentally-Friendly Tourist Village in Egypt Based on a Hybrid Renewable Energy System––Part One: What Is the Optimum City?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Diab

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to select the optimum city from five touristic Egyptian cities (Luxor, Giza, Alexandria, Qena and Aswan to establish an environmentally-friendly tourist village. The selection of the city, according to the economic cost (cost of energy (COE, net present cost (NPC and the amount of greenhouse gases (GHG emitted, is carried out with respect to four cases, based on the effects of ambient temperature and applying GHG emission penalties. According to the simulation results, using the well-known Homer software, Alexandria is the economic city for hybrid photovoltaics (PV/wind/diesel/battery and wind/diesel/battery systems, while Aswan is the most economic city for a hybrid PV/diesel/battery system. However, for a diesel/battery system there is no significant economic difference between the cities in the study. On the other hand, according to the amount of GHG emitted from a hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery system, Qena is the optimum city if the effects of ambient temperature are considered. However, if the GHG emission penalties are applied, Aswan will be the optimum city. Furthermore, Alexandria is the optimum city if the effects of ambient temperature are considered and the GHG emission penalties are applied. Additionally, the effects of ambient temperature and applying GHG emission penalties are studied on hybrid PV/diesel/battery, wind/diesel/battery and diesel/battery systems in this study.

  3. Simulating the potential for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) reduction by the application of environmentally friendly transportation (case study: Gatot Subroto Street, Medan City)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryati, Isra; Turmuzi Lubis, Muhammad; Mawaddah, Nurul

    2018-03-01

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is one of the greenhouse gases. One source of greenhouse gases comes from the use of fossil fuels from the transport sector. The transportation sector is one of the dominant sectors in contributing to the greenhouse effect. This study aims to calculate the amount of CO2 from transportation activities by using mobile six equations in Gatot Subroto Street, Medan City. A sampling of CO2 concentration was done using Carbon Dioxide Monitor with Non-Dispersive Infra Red (NDIR) Analyzer method. Also, a simulation of the reduction of the number of private vehicles to mass transportation such as BRT gas-fired. The results showed CO2 emissions calculations with mobile six ranged from 47.2 kg CO2 - 978.2 kg CO2. Meanwhile, measurements range from 3,004 ppm - 3,405 ppm. Implementation of the concept of environmentally friendly transportation such as BRT in Gatot Subroto Street, Medan City will be able to reduce the average emissions load CO2 by 42.75% -78.80%. Based on the calculation simulation in this study is estimated the number of BRT required approximately 71 units.

  4. Economic consequences of the German environmental liability act: Capital market response for the chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bartsch, Elga

    1997-01-01

    The Environmental Liability Act (Umwelthaftungsgesetz) enacted January 1, 1991 is claimed to have substantially tightened the environmental liability regime in Germany. The economic consequences of the amendment of the German environmental liability legislation initiated by the Sandoz accident are investigated for a portfolio of firms in the chemical industry. By means of an event study it is determined whether the UmweltHG has led to a revision of expectations regarding the profitability of ...

  5. Molecular building blocks and their architecture in biologically/environmentally compatible soft matter chemical machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Taro; Banno, Taisuke; Nitta, Sachiko; Takinoue, Masahiro; Nomoto, Tomonori; Natsume, Yuno; Matsumura, Shuichi; Fujinami, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent developments in the construction of biologically/environmentally compatible chemical machinery composed of soft matter. Since environmental and living systems are open systems, chemical machinery must continuously fulfill its functions not only through the influx and generation of molecules but also via the degradation and dissipation of molecules. If the degradation or dissipation of soft matter molecular building blocks and biomaterial molecules/polymers can be achieved, soft matter particles composed of them can be used to realize chemical machinery such as selfpropelled droplets, drug delivery carriers, tissue regeneration scaffolds, protocell models, cell-/tissuemarkers, and molecular computing systems.

  6. Mechanisms of environmental chemicals that enable the cancer hallmark of evasion of growth suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahta, Rita; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Andrade-Vieira, Rafaela; Bay, Sarah N; Brown, Dustin G; Calaf, Gloria M; Castellino, Robert C; Cohen-Solal, Karine A; Colacci, Annamaria; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Dent, Paul; Di Fiore, Riccardo; Forte, Stefano; Goldberg, Gary S; Hamid, Roslida A; Krishnan, Harini; Laird, Dale W; Lasfar, Ahmed; Marignani, Paola A; Memeo, Lorenzo; Mondello, Chiara; Naus, Christian C; Ponce-Cusi, Richard; Raju, Jayadev; Roy, Debasish; Roy, Rabindra; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Salem, Hosni K; Scovassi, A Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Vaccari, Monica; Vento, Renza; Vondráček, Jan; Wade, Mark; Woodrick, Jordan; Bisson, William H

    2015-06-01

    As part of the Halifax Project, this review brings attention to the potential effects of environmental chemicals on important molecular and cellular regulators of the cancer hallmark of evading growth suppression. Specifically, we review the mechanisms by which cancer cells escape the growth-inhibitory signals of p53, retinoblastoma protein, transforming growth factor-beta, gap junctions and contact inhibition. We discuss the effects of selected environmental chemicals on these mechanisms of growth inhibition and cross-reference the effects of these chemicals in other classical cancer hallmarks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The dilemma in prioritizing chemicals for environmental analysis: known versus unknown hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Sobek; Sofia, Bejgarn; Christina, Rudén; Magnus, Breitholtz

    2016-08-10

    A major challenge for society is to manage the risks posed by the many chemicals continuously emitted to the environment. All chemicals in production and use cannot be monitored and science-based strategies for prioritization are essential. In this study we review available data to investigate which substances are included in environmental monitoring programs and published research studies reporting analyses of chemicals in Baltic Sea fish between 2000 and 2012. Our aim is to contribute to the discussion of priority settings in environmental chemical monitoring and research, which is closely linked to chemical management. In total, 105 different substances or substance groups were analyzed in Baltic Sea fish. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the most studied substances or substance groups. The majority, 87%, of all analyses comprised 20% of the substances or substance groups, whereas 46 substance groups (44%) were analyzed only once. Almost three quarters of all analyses regarded a POP-substance (persistent organic pollutant). These results demonstrate that the majority of analyses on environmental contaminants in Baltic Sea fish concern a small number of already regulated chemicals. Legacy pollutants such as POPs pose a high risk to the Baltic Sea due to their hazardous properties. Yet, there may be a risk that prioritizations for chemical analyses are biased based on the knowns of the past. Such biases may lead to society failing in identifying risks posed by yet unknown hazardous chemicals. Alternative and complementary ways to identify priority chemicals are needed. More transparent communication between risk assessments performed as part of the risk assessment process within REACH and monitoring programs, and information on chemicals contained in consumer articles, would offer ways to identify chemicals for environmental analysis.

  8. Improvements to enforcement of multilateral environmental agreements to control international shipments of chemicals and wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Somboon, Vira; Wun'gaeo, Surichai; Middleton, Carl; Tingsabadh, Charit; Limjirakan, Sangchan

    2016-06-01

    Illegal trade in hazardous waste and harmful chemicals has caused severe damage on human health and the environment, and brought big challenges to countries to meet their commitments to related multilateral environmental agreements. Synergy-building, like organising law enforcement operations, is critical to address illegal trade in waste and chemicals, and further improve the effectiveness of environmental enforcement. This article discusses how and why law enforcement operations can help countries to implement chemical and waste-related multilateral environmental agreements in a more efficient and effective way. The research explores key barriers and factors for organising law enforcement operations, and recommends methods to improve law enforcement operations to address illegal trade in hazardous waste and harmful chemicals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Environmental Product Development Combining the Life Cycle Perspective with Chemical Hazard Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askham, Cecilia

    in the design or redesign process. This thesis concerns marrying the life cycle perspective with chemical hazard information, in order to advance the practice of environmental product development, and hence takes further steps towards sustainable development. The need to consider the full value chain...... for the life cycle of products meant that systems theory and systems engineering principles were important in this work. Life cycle assessment methodology was important for assessing environmental impacts for case products. The new European regulation for chemicals (REACH) provided the main driver......Concerns regarding the short- and long-term detrimental effects of chemicals on human health and ecosystems have made the minimisation of chemical hazards a vitally important issue. If sustainable development is to be achieved, environmental efficient products (and product life cycles...

  10. Properties of potential eco-friendly gas replacements for particle detectors in high-energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviano, G.; Ferrini, M.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Piccolo, D.; Colafranceschi, S.; KjØlbro, J.; Sharma, A.; Yang, D.; Chen, G.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Grassini, S.; Parvis, M.

    2018-03-01

    Gas detectors for elementary particles require F-based gases for optimal performance. Recent regulations demand the use of environmentally unfriendly F-based gases to be limited or banned. This work studies properties of potential eco-friendly gas replacements by computing the physical and chemical parameters relevant for use as detector media, and suggests candidates to be considered for experimental investigation.

  11. Sequential chemical extraction for a phosphogypsum environmental impact evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari, R. F.; Garcia, I.; Medina, N. H.; Silveira, M. A. G.

    2013-05-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is gypsum generated during phosphoric acid production. PG is stocked in large stacks or accumulated in lakes; it contains heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive elements. The metal contamination may affect the functionality, sustainability and biodiversity of ecosystems. In this work, PG samples were analyzed by Plasma Spectrometry. Total metal content and in the extractable fraction of chemical elements were determined. For K, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ba, Pb and U, the results obtained are lower than those obtained in a Idaho plant are including and also lower than those found in the soil, indicating this PG sample analyzed probably will not cause any additional metal neither natural radiation contamination.

  12. Environmental assessments of sea dumped chemical warfare agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik

    This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...... residues in connection with the installation of the pipelines. Novel exposure and toxicity assessments are presented and the risk is assessed. The overall conclusion is that there is a negligible acute added CWA risk towards the fish community from the installation of the pipelines....

  13. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... beneficiation of coals using acid and alkali–acid leaching procedures is evaluated as a potential coal cleaning technology employing life cycle assessment (LCA). Taking into account the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal in pulverized coal power plants and the environmental burden of the cleaning...... itself, it is demonstrated that for a wide range of cleaning procedures and types of coal, chemical cleaning generally performs worse than combustion of the raw coals and physical cleaning using dense medium separation. These findings apply for many relevant impact categories, including climate change...

  14. Environmental Chemical Analysis (by B. B. Kebbekus and S. Mitra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Reviewed By Nathan W.

    1999-11-01

    This text helps to fill a void in the market, as there are relatively few undergraduate instrumental analysis texts designed specifically for the expanding population of environmental science students. R. N. Reeve's introductory, open-learning Environmental Analysis (Wiley, 1994) is one of the few, and it is aimed at a lower level and is less appropriate for traditional classroom study. Kebbekus and Mitra's book appears to be an update of I. Marr and M. Cresser's excellent 1983 text by the same name (and also published under the Chapman and Hall imprint). It assumes no background in instrumental methods of analysis but it does depend upon a good general chemistry background in kinetic and equilibrium calculations and the standard laboratory techniques found in a classical introduction to analytical chemistry. The slant taken by the authors is aimed more toward engineers, not only in the choice of topics, but also in how they are presented. For example, the statistical significance tests presented follow an engineering format rather than the standard used in analytical chemistry. This approach does not detract from the book's clarity. The writing style is concise and the book is generally well written. The earlier text, which has become somewhat of a classic, took the unusual step of teaching the instruments in the context of their environmental application. It was divided into sections on the "atmosphere", the "hydrosphere", the "lithosphere", and the "biosphere". This text takes a similar approach in the second half, with chapters on methods for air, water, and solid samples. Users who intend to use the book as a text instead of a reference will appreciate the addition of chapters in the first half of the book on spectroscopic, chromatographic, and mass spectrometric methods. The six chapters in these two parts of the book along with four chapters scattered throughout on environmental measurements, sampling, sample preparation, and quality assurance make a nice

  15. Lubricant Film Breakdown and Material Pick-Up in Sheet Forming of Advanced High Strength Steels and Stainless Steels when Using Environmental Friendly Lubricants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno; Olsson, M.; Bay, Niels

    2014-01-01

    chemically with the tool and workpiece material forming thin films, which adhere strongly to the surfaces and reduce the tendency to metal-metal contact and material pick-up. Production tests of new, environmentally benign tribo-systems are, however, costly and laboratory tests are preferred as a preliminary...... the tribological performance, i.e. tendency to material pick-up and galling, of the evaluated tribo-systems. Moreover the SEM analysis shows that different workpiece materials result in different types of material pick-up....

  16. An environmental chamber for investigating the evaporation of volatile chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, H K; Rumph, P F

    1998-03-01

    An inexpensive test chamber has been constructed that provides an environment appropriate for testing the effects of temperature and chemical interactions on gaseous emissions from test solutions. Temperature, relative humidity, and ventilation rate can be controlled and a well-mixed atmosphere can be maintained. The system is relatively simple and relies on heated tap water or ice to adjust the temperature. Temperatures ranging from 9 to 21 degrees C have been maintained. At an average temperature of 15.1 degrees C, temperatures at any location within the chamber vary by no more than 0.5 degree C, and the temperature of the test solution within the chamber varies by no more than 0.1 degree C. The temperatures within the chamber are stable enough to generate precise steady-state concentrations. The wind velocities within the chamber are reproducible from run to run. Consequently, the effect of velocity on the rate of evaporation of a test chemical is expected to be uniform from run to run. Steady-state concentrations can be attained in less than 1 hour at an air exchange rate of about 5 per hour.

  17. Environmental profiles on chemicals (EPC): A substitution tool i.a. used in the textile industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, John; Laursen, Søren E.

    2002-01-01

    When dealing with cleaner technology and product development within industries using a lot of different chemicals, substitution is essential. In many cases substitution of hazardous chemicals with less hazardous ones will diminish the environmental impact from the industry in question. But among...... many different chemicals it can be difficult to prioritize and evaluate areas for substitution. The EPC-tool was thus developed and it has been used successfully within the Danish printing industry and the Polish textile industry. The EPC tool combines key emission and key consumption figures...... with hazard assessments of the chemicals used in production and thus creates an environmental profile of the industry, process or product in question. The preceding EPCs are used for pointing out hazardous chemicals used in relatively high quantities and therefore candidates for substitution. The EPCs created...

  18. State of the art of environmentally friendly sample preparation approaches for determination of PBDEs and metabolites in environmental and biological samples: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Paula; Lana, Nerina B; Ríos, Juan M; García-Reyes, Juan F; Altamirano, Jorgelina C

    2016-01-28

    Green chemistry principles for developing methodologies have gained attention in analytical chemistry in recent decades. A growing number of analytical techniques have been proposed for determination of organic persistent pollutants in environmental and biological samples. In this light, the current review aims to present state-of-the-art sample preparation approaches based on green analytical principles proposed for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metabolites (OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs) in environmental and biological samples. Approaches to lower the solvent consumption and accelerate the extraction, such as pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and ultrasound-assisted extraction, are discussed in this review. Special attention is paid to miniaturized sample preparation methodologies and strategies proposed to reduce organic solvent consumption. Additionally, extraction techniques based on alternative solvents (surfactants, supercritical fluids, or ionic liquids) are also commented in this work, even though these are scarcely used for determination of PBDEs. In addition to liquid-based extraction techniques, solid-based analytical techniques are also addressed. The development of greener, faster and simpler sample preparation approaches has increased in recent years (2003-2013). Among green extraction techniques, those based on the liquid phase predominate over those based on the solid phase (71% vs. 29%, respectively). For solid samples, solvent assisted extraction techniques are preferred for leaching of PBDEs, and liquid phase microextraction techniques are mostly used for liquid samples. Likewise, green characteristics of the instrumental analysis used after the extraction and clean-up steps are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Is energy efficiency environmentally friendly?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, H. [Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Energy and Environment Research Unit

    2000-07-01

    The paper challenges the view that improving the efficiency of energy use will lead to a reduction in national energy consumption, and hence is an effective policy for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. It argues that improving energy efficiency lowers the implicit price of energy and hence makes its use more affordable, thus leading to greater use. The paper presents the views of economists, as well as green critics of 'efficiency' and the 'dematerialization' thesis. It argues that a more effective CO{sub 2} policy is to concentrate on shifting to non-fossil fuel, like renewables, subsidized through a carbon tax. Ultimately what is needed, to limit energy consumption is energy conservation not energy efficiency. 44 refs.

  20. Environmentally Friendly Sustainable Housing Construction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major steps include 5 star standards in the state of Victoria, with rebates for sustainable products including solar hot water system, photovoltaic panels, rainwater tanks, grey water tanks and insulation. In addition phasing out of incandescent light bulbs is also encouraged. A number of house energy rating tools have ...

  1. Environmentally Friendly Zirconium Oxide Pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Society for Testing and Materials AVCRAD Aviation Classification Repair Activity Depot Chrome (VI) Hexavalent Chromium CRS Cold Rolled Steel...are being used commercially in automotive and other industrial operations as replacements to hexavalent chromium-based and zinc phosphate...application over CRS and aluminum with water-borne and solvent-borne Mil-Spec primers gave results in corrosion performance similar to the chrome

  2. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2012-08-28

    An animal litter composition including geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control is accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  3. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-09-03

    An animal litter composition that includes geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. This geopolymerization reaction may occur within a pelletizer. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it may be dried and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates may be used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter or other absorbing material. Aluminum sulfate, clinoptilolite, silica gel, sodium alginate and mineral oil may be added as additional ingredients.

  4. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in India); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Indo ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The survey was conducted of the present situation of coal utilization and the present coal situation such as the environmental state of India which is a coal producing/consuming country next to China in Asia. The paper studied a feasibility of the introduction of the environmental friendly type coal utilization system` to be planned in India. The items for survey are the present situation of economy and energy and the future trend, environmental problems on coal utilization, the present status of the coal distribution system and study subjects, the present status of coal utilization by field and study subjects, a possibility of briquette use, a possibility of coal fluidization, electric power development plans and coal combustion technology in each industry, etc. The subjects are the obligation of coal preparation to coal thermal power plants 1000 km away from coal mines starting 2001, measures taken for effective ash use, measures taken for superannuated gas furnaces, etc. Based on the results of these site surveys and reports of the investigation under consignment from CMPDI, the paper studied/analyzed possibilities of introducing the coal utilization system having actual introduction results in Japan to India, and made an investigational report. 39 refs., 12 figs., 56 tabs.

  5. Fiscal 1996 survey report on the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system feasibility study. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in Malaysia and Vietnam; Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa. Malaysia Vietnam ni okeru kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This survey arranged the status of coal utilization technology and the status of coal production, supply, etc. in Malaysia and Vietnam, examined/studied coal utilization systems in both countries, and finally assessed feasibility of introducing the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. As a country of primary energy source which is abundant in crude oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, coal, etc., Malaysia now depends on crude oil and natural gas for 80% of its energy, and places emphasis on exploration of natural gas and oil refining. In electric power and cement industries where coal is consumed, effectiveness and environmental issues in association with coal utilization are future subjects. In Vietnam, the north is abundant in hydroelectric power and anthracite, and the south in oil and gas resource, but the north and central districts are in a state of undevelopment. Coal is used for coal thermal power generation, cement industry, and residential/commercial fuel. In the future, effective coal utilization and environmental issues will be subjects. 16 refs., 38 figs., 75 tabs.

  6. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Oil and Natural Gas Operations: Potential Environmental Contamination and Recommendations to Assess Complex Environmental Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Tillitt, Donald E; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. Although these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals that are used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and antihormonal activities for chemicals used. We discuss the literature on a) surface and groundwater contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and b) potential human exposure, particularly in the context of the total hormonal and antihormonal activities present in surface and groundwater from natural and anthropogenic sources; we also discuss initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps. In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures. We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide information supporting the idea that using such a component will help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  7. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: Potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. While these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals.Objectives: We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and anti-hormonal activities for chemicals used.Methods: We discuss the literature on 1) surface and ground water contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and 2) potential human exposure, particularly in context of the total hormonal and anti-hormonal activities present in surface and ground water from natural and anthropogenic sources, with initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps discussed.Discussion: In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures.Conclusions: We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide supporting information that using this may help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  8. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: a bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Eriksen, Mette L; Ellegaard, Ole; Wallin, Johan A

    2011-11-10

    While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title searches to determine long-term trends for prominent substances and substances considered in need of research attention. The 119,636 journal articles found had 760,056 CAS number links during 2000-2009. The top-20 environmental chemicals consisted of metals, (chlorinated) biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, and ethanol and contributed 12% toward the total number of links- Each of the top-20 substances was covered by 2,000-10,000 articles during the decade. The numbers for the 10-year period were similar to the total numbers of pre-2000 articles on the same chemicals. However, substances considered a high priority from a regulatory viewpoint, due to lack of documentation, showed very low publication rates. The persistence in the scientific literature of the top-20 chemicals was only weakly related to their publication in journals with a high impact factor, but some substances achieved high citation rates. The persistence of some environmental chemicals in the scientific literature may be due to a 'Matthew' principle of maintaining prominence for the very reason of having been well researched. Such bias detracts from the societal needs for documentation on less well known environmental hazards, and it may also impact negatively on the potentials for innovation and discovery in research.

  9. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title searches to determine long-term trends for prominent substances and substances considered in need of research attention. Results The 119,636 journal articles found had 760,056 CAS number links during 2000-2009. The top-20 environmental chemicals consisted of metals, (chlorinated biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, and ethanol and contributed 12% toward the total number of links- Each of the top-20 substances was covered by 2,000-10,000 articles during the decade. The numbers for the 10-year period were similar to the total numbers of pre-2000 articles on the same chemicals. However, substances considered a high priority from a regulatory viewpoint, due to lack of documentation, showed very low publication rates. The persistence in the scientific literature of the top-20 chemicals was only weakly related to their publication in journals with a high impact factor, but some substances achieved high citation rates. Conclusions The persistence of some environmental chemicals in the scientific literature may be due to a 'Matthew' principle of maintaining prominence for the very reason of having been well researched. Such bias detracts from the societal needs for documentation on less well known environmental hazards, and it may also impact negatively on the potentials for innovation and discovery in research.

  10. Can exposure to environmental chemicals increase the risk of diabetes type 1 development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Johanna; Stene, Lars Christian; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease, where destruction of beta-cells causes insulin deficiency. The incidence of T1DM has increased in the last decades and cannot entirely be explained by genetic predisposition. Several environmental factors are suggested to promote T1DM, like early childhood enteroviral infections and nutritional factors, but the evidence is inconclusive. Prenatal and early life exposure to environmental pollutants like phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated compounds, PCBs, dioxins, toxicants, and air pollutants can have negative effects on the developing immune system, resulting in asthma-like symptoms and increased susceptibility to childhood infections. In this review the associations between environmental chemical exposure and T1DM development is summarized. Although information on environmental chemicals as possible triggers for T1DM is sparse, we conclude that it is plausible that environmental chemicals can contribute to T1DM development via impaired pancreatic beta-cell and immune-cell functions and immunomodulation. Several environmental factors and chemicals could act together to trigger T1DM development in genetically susceptible individuals, possibly via hormonal or epigenetic alterations. Further observational T1DM cohort studies and animal exposure experiments are encouraged.

  11. Can Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Increase the Risk of Diabetes Type 1 Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Bodin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune disease, where destruction of beta-cells causes insulin deficiency. The incidence of T1DM has increased in the last decades and cannot entirely be explained by genetic predisposition. Several environmental factors are suggested to promote T1DM, like early childhood enteroviral infections and nutritional factors, but the evidence is inconclusive. Prenatal and early life exposure to environmental pollutants like phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated compounds, PCBs, dioxins, toxicants, and air pollutants can have negative effects on the developing immune system, resulting in asthma-like symptoms and increased susceptibility to childhood infections. In this review the associations between environmental chemical exposure and T1DM development is summarized. Although information on environmental chemicals as possible triggers for T1DM is sparse, we conclude that it is plausible that environmental chemicals can contribute to T1DM development via impaired pancreatic beta-cell and immune-cell functions and immunomodulation. Several environmental factors and chemicals could act together to trigger T1DM development in genetically susceptible individuals, possibly via hormonal or epigenetic alterations. Further observational T1DM cohort studies and animal exposure experiments are encouraged.

  12. Eco-friendly and biocompatible cross-linked carboxymethylcellulose hydrogels as adsorbents for the removal of organic dye pollutants for environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capanema, Nádia S V; Mansur, Alexandra A P; Mansur, Herman S; de Jesus, Anderson C; Carvalho, Sandhra M; Chagas, Poliane; de Oliveira, Luiz C

    2017-08-28

    In this study, new eco-friendly hydrogel adsorbents were synthesized based on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, degree of substitution [DS] = 0.7) chemically cross-linked with citric acid (CA) using a green process in aqueous solution and applied for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). Spectroscopic analyses demonstrated the mechanism of cross-linking through the reaction of hydroxyl functional groups from CMC with CA. These CMC hydrogels showed very distinct morphological features dependent on the extension of cross-linking and their nanomechanical properties were drastically increased by approximately 300% after cross-linking with 20% CA (e.g. elastic moduli from 80 ± 15 to 270 ± 50 MPa). Moreover, they were biocompatible using an in vitro cell viability assay in contact with human osteosarcoma-derived cells (SAOS) for 24 h. These CMC-based hydrogels exhibited adsorption efficiency above 90% (24 h) and maximum removal capacity of MB from 5 to 25 mg g -1 depending on the dye concentration (from 100 to 500 mg L -1 ), which was used as the model cationic organic pollutant. The adsorption of process of MB was well-fit to the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The desorption of MB by immersion in KCl solution (3 mol L -1 , 24 h) showed a typical recovery efficiency of over 60% with conceivable reuse of these CMC-based hydrogels. Conversely, CMC hydrogels repelled methyl orange dye used as model anionic pollutant, proving the mechanism of adsorption by the formation of charged polyelectrolyte/dye complexes.

  13. A piscicultura e o ambiente: o uso de alimentos ambientalmente corretos em piscicultura Fish farming and the environment: the use of environmental friendly feeds in fish culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eurico Possebon Cyrino

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Embora a ciência da nutrição de peixes esteja longe de estabelecer um padrão geral de exigências nutricionais, a necessidade de desenvolvimento de alimentos de baixo impacto poluente há muito faz parte da agenda das comunidades científica e empresarial internacional da aqüicultura. Não só é absolutamente possível formular alimentos ambientalmente corretos, como é necessário modelar a formulação destes alimentos. Porém, é necessária absoluta acurácia para atender formulações espécie-específicas, considerando-se as interações da biologia e fisiologia nutricional das espécies com os alimentos e com as variações abióticas do meio. O conhecimento disponível sobre as mais de 200 espécies de peixe produzidas comercialmente no mundo é ainda incipiente e os sistemas de produção de peixe, nos diferentes regimes de exploração, estão implantados em todas as condições ecológicas possíveis. Neste cenário, produzir rações ambientalmente corretas é, senão impossível, pelo menos muito difícil e depende da ação coordenada e positiva de produtores, indústria da alimentação, agências regulatórias, e instituições de ensino e pesquisa para definir os parâmetros necessários à consecução deste objetivo.Although fish nutrition science is far from establishing general standards of nutritional requirements, the need for developing low impact feeds has long been included in the agenda of aquaculture's international scientific and business communities of. Not only is absolutely possible to formulate environmental friendly feeds, as it is necessary modeling the formulation of these feeds. However, it is necessary higher accuracy to develop species-specific formulations, considering interactions of the biology and nutritional physiology of the species with the feedstuffs and variations of abiotic environment. The knowledge on more than 200 species of commercially farmed fish is still incipient and fish production

  14. Chemical and environmental isotopes study of precipitation in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Charideh, A.; Abou Zakhem, B.

    2009-02-01

    Chemical and isotopic compositions of monthly precipitation were monitored at 12 stations distributed over the entire region in Syria for a period of 4 years from December 1999 to April 2003. Amount of precipitation and mean air temperature of rain monthly were also recorded. The conductivity of rain waters varies between 35 μ/cm in the mountainous stations and 336 μ/cm at Deir Az-Zor station. Excepted Tartous station, the mean value of Cl in the rainfall in all station is 3.8 mg/l. The seasonal variations in δ 18 O are smaller at west stations than to the east stations due to low seasonal temperature variations. All stations are characterized by water lines with slopes significantly lower than GMWL, except Bloudan, suggesting the influence of local factors on the isotopic composition of the precipitation. d-excess values decrease from 19% in the western part to 13% in the eastern part of Syria, indicating the influence of the precipitation generated by the air masses coming from the Mediterranean Sea over Syria. A reliable altitude effect represent by depletion of heavy stable isotopes of about -0.21, and -1.47, per 100 m elevation of 18 O and δ 2 H, respectively. Monthly tritium activity and seasonal variations pattern are low in the west stations than at the east stations. The weighted mean tritium values are between 3 to 9 TU during 2000-2003, and it is increasing with distance from the Syrian coast by 1 TU /100 Km. (author)

  15. Children's environmental chemical exposures in the USA, NHANES 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Luo, Juhua

    2018-02-01

    Children are vulnerable to environmental chemical exposures, but little is known about the extent of multiple chemical exposures among children. We analyzed biomonitoring data from five cycles (2003-2012) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to describe multiple chemical exposures in US children, examine levels of chemical concentrations present over time, and examine differences in chemical exposures by selected demographic groups. We analyzed data for 36 chemical analytes across five chemical classes in a sample of 4299 children aged 6-18. Classes included metals, pesticides, phthalates, phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We calculated the number and percent of chemicals detected and tested for secular trends over time in chemical concentrations. We compared log concentrations among groups defined by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and poverty using multiple linear regression models and report adjusted geometric means. Among a smaller subgroup of 733 children with data across chemical classes, we calculated the linear correlations within and between classes and conducted a principal component analysis. The percentage of children with detectable concentrations of an individual chemical ranged from 26 to 100%; the average was 93%, and 29 of 36 were detected in more than 90% of children. Concentrations of most tested chemicals were either unchanged or declined from earlier to more recent years. Many differences in concentrations were present by age, sex, poverty, and race/ethnicity categories. Within and between class correlations were all significant and positive, and the principal component analysis suggested a one factor solution, indicating that children exposed to higher levels of one chemical were exposed to higher levels of other chemicals. In conclusion, children in the USA are exposed to multiple simultaneous chemicals at uneven risk across socioeconomic and demographic groups. Further efforts to understand the effects of

  16. High production volume chemical Amine Oxide [C8-C20] category environmental risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Tibazarwa, Caritas; Greggs, William

    2009-01-01

    and personal care products. Given the lack of persistence or bioaccumulation, and the low likelihood of these chemicals partitioning to soil, the focus of the environmental assessment is on the aquatic environment. In the United States, the E-FAST model is used to estimate effluent concentrations in the United......An environmental assessment of amine oxides has been conducted under the OECD SIDS High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Amine Oxides Consortium. Amine oxides are primarily used in conjunction with surfactants in cleaning...... States from manufacturing facilities and from municipal facilities resulting from consumer product uses. Reasonable worst-case ratios of predicted environmental concentration (PEC) to predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) range from 0.04 to 0.003, demonstrating that these chemicals are a low risk...

  17. Hypothesis for prediction of environmental stability of chemicals by mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremolada, P; Di Guardo, A; Calamari, D; Davoli, E; Fanelli, R [Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Entomologia Agraria Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan (Italy)

    1992-01-01

    The environmental persistence of organic chemicals is generally very hard to predict. In this work, the hypothesis of the use of fragmentation data in Mass Spectrometry (MS) as a possible 'stability index' of the molecules is presented. Since the fragmentation is determined by the thermodynamic properties of the molecules, it is possible to deduct information about the 'intrinsic stability' of a chemical. Such information can be used and correlated to predict the environmental degradability of a substance, especially referring to abiotic degradation. To study this relation, three different methods of measuring the fragmentation patterns are compared. All the methods show similar behaviour and one of them, in particular, shows a very good qualitative correlation between fragmentation data and persistence values found in literature. A possible 'stability index' for the quantitative prediction of the environmental degradation of a chemical is discussed.

  18. Environmental fate and transport of chemical signatures from buried landmines -- Screening model formulation and initial simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1997-06-01

    The fate and transport of chemical signature molecules that emanate from buried landmines is strongly influenced by physical chemical properties and by environmental conditions of the specific chemical compounds. Published data have been evaluated as the input parameters that are used in the simulation of the fate and transport processes. A one-dimensional model developed for screening agricultural pesticides was modified and used to simulate the appearance of a surface flux above a buried landmine, estimate the subsurface total concentration, and show the phase specific concentrations at the ground surface. The physical chemical properties of TNT cause a majority of the mass released to the soil system to be bound to the solid phase soil particles. The majority of the transport occurs in the liquid phase with diffusion and evaporation driven advection of soil water as the primary mechanisms for the flux to the ground surface. The simulations provided herein should only be used for initial conceptual designs of chemical pre-concentration subsystems or complete detection systems. The physical processes modeled required necessary simplifying assumptions to allow for analytical solutions. Emerging numerical simulation tools will soon be available that should provide more realistic estimates that can be used to predict the success of landmine chemical detection surveys based on knowledge of the chemical and soil properties, and environmental conditions where the mines are buried. Additional measurements of the chemical properties in soils are also needed before a fully predictive approach can be confidently applied.

  19. Climate-friendly Default Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia A.

    . The underlying reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, climate-friendly defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. In deciding whether to establish...

  20. Optimized Solvent for Energy-Efficient, Environmentally-Friendly Capture of CO{sub 2} at Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farthing, G. A.; Rimpf, L. M.

    2014-04-30

    The overall goal of this project, as originally proposed, was to optimize the formulation of a novel solvent as a critical enabler for the cost-effective, energy-efficient, environmentally-friendly capture of CO{sub 2} at coal-fired utility plants. Aqueous blends of concentrated piperazine (PZ) with other compounds had been shown to exhibit high rates of CO{sub 2} absorption, low regeneration energy, and other desirable performance characteristics during an earlier 5-year development program conducted by B&W. The specific objective of this project was to identify PZ-based solvent formulations that globally optimize the performance of coal-fired power plants equipped with CO{sub 2} scrubbing systems. While previous solvent development studies have tended to focus on energy consumption and absorber size, important issues to be sure, the current work seeks to explore, understand, and optimize solvent formulation across the full gamut of issues related to commercial application of the technology: capital and operating costs, operability, reliability, environmental, health and safety (EH&S), etc. Work on the project was intended to be performed under four budget periods. The objective of the work in the first budget period has been to identify several candidate formulations of a concentrated PZ-based solvent for detailed characterization and evaluation. Work in the second budget period would generate reliable and comprehensive property and performance data for the identified formulations. Work in the third budget period would quantify the expected performance of the selected formulations in a commercial CO{sub 2} scrubbing process. Finally, work in the fourth budget period would provide a final technology feasibility study and a preliminary technology EH&S assessment. Due to other business priorities, however, B&W has requested that this project be terminated at the end of the first budget period. This document therefore serves as the final report for this project. It

  1. Evaluation of environmental impacts during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) for sustainable manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Seop; Park, Sun Joon; Jeong, Hae Do [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    Reducing energy consumption has become a critical issue in manufacturing. The semiconductor industry in particular is confronted with environmental regulations on pollution associated with electric energy, chemical, and ultrapure water (UPW) consumptions. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the environmental impacts during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), a key process for planarization of dielectrics and metal films in ultra-large-scale integrated circuits. The steps in the CMP process are idling, conditioning, wetting, wafer loading/unloading, head dropping, polishing, and rinsing. The electric energy, CMP slurry, and UPW consumptions associated with the process and their impacts on global warming are evaluated from an environmental standpoint. The estimates of electric energy, slurry, and UPW consumptions as well as the associated greenhouse gas emissions presented in this paper will provide a technical aid for reducing the environmental burden associated with electricity consumption during the CMP process.

  2. Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, M.L.; Cooper, A.T.; Castleton, K.J.

    1995-11-01

    Pacific Northwest's Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values

  3. In silico environmental chemical science: properties and processes from statistical and computational modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tratnyek, P. G.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Weber, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) have long been used in the environmental sciences. More recently, molecular modeling and chemoinformatic methods have become widespread. These methods have the potential to expand and accelerate advances in environmental chemistry because they complement observational and experimental data with “in silico” results and analysis. The opportunities and challenges that arise at the intersection between statistical and theoretical in silico methods are most apparent in the context of properties that determine the environmental fate and effects of chemical contaminants (degradation rate constants, partition coefficients, toxicities, etc.). The main example of this is the calibration of QSARs using descriptor variable data calculated from molecular modeling, which can make QSARs more useful for predicting property data that are unavailable, but also can make them more powerful tools for diagnosis of fate determining pathways and mechanisms. Emerging opportunities for “in silico environmental chemical science” are to move beyond the calculation of specific chemical properties using statistical models and toward more fully in silico models, prediction of transformation pathways and products, incorporation of environmental factors into model predictions, integration of databases and predictive models into more comprehensive and efficient tools for exposure assessment, and extending the applicability of all the above from chemicals to biologicals and materials.

  4. In silico environmental chemical science: properties and processes from statistical and computational modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tratnyek, Paul G; Bylaska, Eric J; Weber, Eric J

    2017-03-22

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) have long been used in the environmental sciences. More recently, molecular modeling and chemoinformatic methods have become widespread. These methods have the potential to expand and accelerate advances in environmental chemistry because they complement observational and experimental data with "in silico" results and analysis. The opportunities and challenges that arise at the intersection between statistical and theoretical in silico methods are most apparent in the context of properties that determine the environmental fate and effects of chemical contaminants (degradation rate constants, partition coefficients, toxicities, etc.). The main example of this is the calibration of QSARs using descriptor variable data calculated from molecular modeling, which can make QSARs more useful for predicting property data that are unavailable, but also can make them more powerful tools for diagnosis of fate determining pathways and mechanisms. Emerging opportunities for "in silico environmental chemical science" are to move beyond the calculation of specific chemical properties using statistical models and toward more fully in silico models, prediction of transformation pathways and products, incorporation of environmental factors into model predictions, integration of databases and predictive models into more comprehensive and efficient tools for exposure assessment, and extending the applicability of all the above from chemicals to biologicals and materials.

  5. Environmentally-friendly oxygen-free roasting/wet magnetic separation technology for in situ recycling cobalt, lithium carbonate and graphite from spent LiCoO{sub 2}/graphite lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jia; Wang, Guangxu; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • The idea of “waste + waste → resources.” was used on this study. • Based on thermodynamic analysis, the possible reaction between LiCoO{sub 2} and graphite was obtained. • The residues of oxygen-free roasting are cobalt, lithium carbonate and graphite. • The recovery rate of Co and Li is 95.72% and 98.93% after wet magnetic separation. • It provides the rationale for environmental-friendly recycling spent LIBs in industrial-scale. - Abstract: The definite aim of the present paper is to present some novel methods that use oxygen-free roasting and wet magnetic separation to in situ recycle of cobalt, Lithium Carbonate and Graphite from mixed electrode materials. The in situ recycling means to change waste into resources by its own components, which is an idea of “waste + waste → resources.” After mechanical scraping the mixed electrode materials enrich powders of LiCoO{sub 2} and graphite. The possible reaction between LiCoO{sub 2} and graphite was obtained by thermodynamic analysis. The feasibility of the reaction at high temperature was studied with the simultaneous thermogravimetry analysis under standard atmospheric pressure. Then the oxygen-free roasting/wet magnetic separation method was used to transfer the low added value mixed electrode materials to high added value products. The results indicated that, through the serious technologies of oxygen-free roasting and wet magnetic separation, mixture materials consist with LiCoO{sub 2} and graphite powders are transferred to the individual products of cobalt, Lithium Carbonate and Graphite. Because there is not any chemical solution added in the process, the cost of treating secondary pollution can be saved. This study provides a theoretical basis for industrial-scale recycling resources from spent LIBs.

  6. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was develope...

  7. An Extended Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Game on Addressing Uncertainties of Human Adversaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhengqiu; Chen, Bin; Qiu, Sihang; Wang, Rongxiao; Chen, Feiran; Wang, Yiping; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2018-03-27

    Chemical production activities in industrial districts pose great threats to the surrounding atmospheric environment and human health. Therefore, developing appropriate and intelligent pollution controlling strategies for the management team to monitor chemical production processes is significantly essential in a chemical industrial district. The literature shows that playing a chemical plant environmental protection (CPEP) game can force the chemical plants to be more compliant with environmental protection authorities and reduce the potential risks of hazardous gas dispersion accidents. However, results of the current literature strictly rely on several perfect assumptions which rarely hold in real-world domains, especially when dealing with human adversaries. To address bounded rationality and limited observability in human cognition, the CPEP game is extended to generate robust schedules of inspection resources for inspection agencies. The present paper is innovative on the following contributions: (i) The CPEP model is extended by taking observation frequency and observation cost of adversaries into account, and thus better reflects the industrial reality; (ii) Uncertainties such as attackers with bounded rationality, attackers with limited observation and incomplete information (i.e., the attacker's parameters) are integrated into the extended CPEP model; (iii) Learning curve theory is employed to determine the attacker's observability in the game solver. Results in the case study imply that this work improves the decision-making process for environmental protection authorities in practical fields by bringing more rewards to the inspection agencies and by acquiring more compliance from chemical plants.

  8. An Extended Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Game on Addressing Uncertainties of Human Adversaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongxiao; Chen, Feiran; Wang, Yiping; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2018-01-01

    Chemical production activities in industrial districts pose great threats to the surrounding atmospheric environment and human health. Therefore, developing appropriate and intelligent pollution controlling strategies for the management team to monitor chemical production processes is significantly essential in a chemical industrial district. The literature shows that playing a chemical plant environmental protection (CPEP) game can force the chemical plants to be more compliant with environmental protection authorities and reduce the potential risks of hazardous gas dispersion accidents. However, results of the current literature strictly rely on several perfect assumptions which rarely hold in real-world domains, especially when dealing with human adversaries. To address bounded rationality and limited observability in human cognition, the CPEP game is extended to generate robust schedules of inspection resources for inspection agencies. The present paper is innovative on the following contributions: (i) The CPEP model is extended by taking observation frequency and observation cost of adversaries into account, and thus better reflects the industrial reality; (ii) Uncertainties such as attackers with bounded rationality, attackers with limited observation and incomplete information (i.e., the attacker’s parameters) are integrated into the extended CPEP model; (iii) Learning curve theory is employed to determine the attacker’s observability in the game solver. Results in the case study imply that this work improves the decision-making process for environmental protection authorities in practical fields by bringing more rewards to the inspection agencies and by acquiring more compliance from chemical plants. PMID:29584679

  9. An Extended Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Game on Addressing Uncertainties of Human Adversaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqiu Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical production activities in industrial districts pose great threats to the surrounding atmospheric environment and human health. Therefore, developing appropriate and intelligent pollution controlling strategies for the management team to monitor chemical production processes is significantly essential in a chemical industrial district. The literature shows that playing a chemical plant environmental protection (CPEP game can force the chemical plants to be more compliant with environmental protection authorities and reduce the potential risks of hazardous gas dispersion accidents. However, results of the current literature strictly rely on several perfect assumptions which rarely hold in real-world domains, especially when dealing with human adversaries. To address bounded rationality and limited observability in human cognition, the CPEP game is extended to generate robust schedules of inspection resources for inspection agencies. The present paper is innovative on the following contributions: (i The CPEP model is extended by taking observation frequency and observation cost of adversaries into account, and thus better reflects the industrial reality; (ii Uncertainties such as attackers with bounded rationality, attackers with limited observation and incomplete information (i.e., the attacker’s parameters are integrated into the extended CPEP model; (iii Learning curve theory is employed to determine the attacker’s observability in the game solver. Results in the case study imply that this work improves the decision-making process for environmental protection authorities in practical fields by bringing more rewards to the inspection agencies and by acquiring more compliance from chemical plants.

  10. FY 1999 report on the potential survey of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system. Potential survey of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the Philippines; 1999 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowa gata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Firipin ni okeru kankyo chowa gata system kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to working out a master plan for the introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system in the Philippines, analysis was made of the state of coal use/the state of spread by industry mostly including the electric power industry, cement industry and residential/commercial use fuel sector. In the Philippines, the amount of coal use has rapidly been increasing since coal-fired power plants started operation. For the promotion of the use of domestic coals, it is important to reform low grade coal. Moreover, the technology is required which copes with the reinforced regulation against SOx emissions. In the cement industry, coal and coal ash have not yet been effectively used. Therefore, the following measures should be taken to increase the competitive force: energy conservation measures, reinforcement of environmental measures such as dust prevention, and effective use of the fly ash emitted from power plants. In general households and small-/medium-sized industries such as tobacco drying, they still use a large amount of charcoals and firewood, which is approximately 86% of the residential/commercial use energy. There is a growing tendency for the development/spread of coal briquette as substituting energy. (NEDO)

  11. Eco-friendly Development Of Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Gi Cheol; Park, Hun; Lee, Dong Jin; Ryu, Sang Hui

    1998-02-01

    This book reports eco-friendly development of industry, which has summary on bring up the issue and research way and system of research. It deals with current state of affairs on eco-friendly development of industry and the case of developed countries such as necessity and meaning of eco-friendly development industry, prospect and change of the tendency, environmental issue by field in Korea like the steel industry, nonferrous metal industry, auto industry, and cement industry and general policy for eco-friendly development of industry.

  12. Differential effects of environmental chemicals and food contaminants on adipogenesis, biomarker release and PPARγ activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Sørensen, Karin Dreisig; Boberg, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Eleven environmental relevant chemicals were investigated for their ability to affect adipogenesis in vitro, biomarker release from adipocytes and PPARα and γ activation. We found that butylparaben stimulated adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and increased release of leptin, adiponectin and resis...

  13. Allium -test as a tool for toxicity testing of environmental radioactive-chemical mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudalova, A A; Pyatkova, S V; Geras’kin, S A; Dikareva, N S

    2017-01-01

    Bioassay-based approaches have been propagated to assess toxicity of unknown mixtures of environmental contaminants, but it was rarely applied in cases of chemicals with radionuclides combinations. Two Allium -test studies were performed to assess environmental impact from potential sources of combined radioactive-chemical pollution. Study sites were located at nuclear waste storage facilities in European and in Far-Eastern parts of Russia. As environmental media under impact, waters from monitor wells and nearby water bodies were tested. Concentrations of some chemicals and radionuclides in the samples collected enhanced the permitted limits. Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects were used as biological endpoints, namely, frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations and mitotic abnormalities in anatelophase cells as well as mitotic activity in Allium root tips. Sample points were revealed where waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. The findings obtained could be used to optimize monitoring system and advance decision making on management and rehabilitation of industrial sites. The Allium -test could be recommended and applied as an effective tool for toxicity testing in case of combined contamination of environmental compartments with radionuclides and chemical compounds. (paper)

  14. Chemical Transformation System: Cloud Based Cheminformatic Services to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems that account for the fate/transport of organics frequently require physicochemical properties as well as transformation products. A myriad of chemical property databases exist but these can be difficult to access and often do not co...

  15. Chemical Transformation System: Cloud Based Cheminformatic Services to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling (proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems that account for the fate/transport of organics frequently require physicochemical properties as well as transformation products. A myriad of chemical property databases exist but these can be difficult to access and often do not co...

  16. Environmental Comparison of Biobased Chemicals from Glutamic Acid with Their Petrochemical Equivalents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, T.M.; Potting, J.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Glutamic acid is an important constituent of waste streams from biofuels production. It is an interesting starting material for the synthesis of biobased chemicals, thereby decreasing the dependency on fossil fuels. The objective of this paper was to compare the environmental impact of four biobased

  17. Environmental comparison of biobased chemicals from glutamic acid with their petrochemical equivalents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, T.M.; Potting, J.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Glutamic acid is an important constituent of waste streams from biofuels production. It is an interesting starting material for the synthesis of biobased chemicals, thereby decreasing the dependency on fossil fuels. The objective of this paper was to compare the environmental impact of four biobased

  18. Engineering Education: Environmental and Chemical Engineering or Technology Curricula--A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavic, Peter; Lukman, Rebeka; Lozano, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Over recent years, universities have been incorporating sustainable development (SD) into their systems, including their curricula. This article analyses the incorporation of SD into the curricula of chemical and environmental engineering or technology bachelor degrees at universities in the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association…

  19. In Silico Prediction of Physicochemical Properties of Environmental Chemicals Using Molecular Fingerprints and Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are little available toxicity data on the vast majority of chemicals in commerce. High-throughput screening (HTS) studies, such as those being carried out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ToxCast program in partnership with the federal Tox21 research progra...

  20. Allium-test as a tool for toxicity testing of environmental radioactive-chemical mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudalova, A. A.; Geras'kin, S. A.; Dikareva, N. S.; Pyatkova, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    Bioassay-based approaches have been propagated to assess toxicity of unknown mixtures of environmental contaminants, but it was rarely applied in cases of chemicals with radionuclides combinations. Two Allium-test studies were performed to assess environmental impact from potential sources of combined radioactive-chemical pollution. Study sites were located at nuclear waste storage facilities in European and in Far-Eastern parts of Russia. As environmental media under impact, waters from monitor wells and nearby water bodies were tested. Concentrations of some chemicals and radionuclides in the samples collected enhanced the permitted limits. Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects were used as biological endpoints, namely, frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations and mitotic abnormalities in anatelophase cells as well as mitotic activity in Allium root tips. Sample points were revealed where waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. The findings obtained could be used to optimize monitoring system and advance decision making on management and rehabilitation of industrial sites. The Allium-test could be recommended and applied as an effective tool for toxicity testing in case of combined contamination of environmental compartments with radionuclides and chemical compounds.

  1. Chemical mixtures and environmental effects: a pilot study to assess ecological exposure and effects in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Kolpin, Dana W.; Bradley, Paul M.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Mills, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and management of the risks of exposure to complex chemical mixtures in streams are priorities for human and environmental health organizations around the world. The current lack of information on the composition and variability of environmental mixtures and a limited understanding of their combined effects are fundamental obstacles to timely identification and prevention of adverse human and ecological effects of exposure. This report describes the design of a field-based study of the composition and biological activity of chemical mixtures in U.S. stream waters affected by a wide range of human activities and contaminant sources. The study is a collaborative effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Scientists sampled 38 streams spanning 24 States and Puerto Rico. Thirty-four of the sites were located in watersheds impacted by multiple contaminant sources, including industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, crop and animal agricultural runoff, urban runoff, and other point and nonpoint contaminant sources. The remaining four sites were minimally development reference watersheds. All samples underwent comprehensive chemical and biological characterization, including sensitive and specific direct analysis for over 700 dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals and field parameters, identification of unknown contaminants (environmental diagnostics), and a variety of bioassays to evaluate biological activity and toxicity.

  2. Parental Concern about Environmental Chemical Exposures and Children's Urinary Concentrations of Phthalates and Phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Tripler; Eliot, Melissa; Chen, Aimin; Lanphear, Bruce P; Yolton, Kimberly; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Braun, Joseph M

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether parents' concerns about environmental chemical exposures were associated with urinary phthalate and phenol concentrations in their school-age children. In a prospective cohort of 218 mother-child pairs from Cincinnati, Ohio (2010-2014), we measured 11 phthalate metabolites and 5 phenols in urine samples when children were age 8 years and used questionnaire data from caregivers. We estimated the covariate-adjusted percent difference in phthalates and phenols among children of parents who expressed concern about environmental chemical exposures compared with children whose parents did not. Concentrations of 4 phthalates, bisphenol S, and bisphenol A were lower among children whose parents expressed concern about environmental chemicals (n = 122) compared with those who did not (n = 96). Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites, bisphenol S, and bisphenol A concentrations were 23% (95% CI -38, -5), 37% (95% CI -49, -21), and 13% (95% CI -26, 3) lower, respectively, among children whose parents expressed concern compared with those whose parents did not. Triclosan concentrations were 35% greater (95% CI -2, 87) among children whose parents expressed concern compared with children whose parents did not. Parental concern about environmental chemicals was associated with lower childhood urine concentrations of several phthalates and phenols; unexpectedly, parental concern was associated with greater triclosan concentrations. These results suggest that parental concern may be an important factor in mitigating children's phthalate and phenol exposures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of Environmental Chemicals in Obesity: A Systematic Review on the Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the experimental and human studies on obesogenic chemicals and their mechanisms of action to provide a comprehensive view on the multifactorial aspects of obesity. The literatures were searched in available databases. The relevant papers were selected in three phases. After quality assessment, two reviewers extracted the data while another checked their extracted data. In this review, we summarized information regarding environmental chemicals that can be associated with obesity. Most evidence comes from experimental and laboratory studies; however a growing number of human studies also support the role of obesogenic chemicals. The current evidence proposes that the systemic responses to exposure to environmental factors could potentially increase the risk of excess weight. The effects of exposure to these chemicals are of crucial importance during developmental phases of life, when preprogramming for an adipogenic outcome may occur. By considering the adverse transgenerational effects of obesogen chemicals on human health, the global obesity epidemic should be considered as a multifactorial complex disorder necessitating the emphasis of public health interventions for environmental protection.

  4. Environmental Pollution, Toxicity Profile and Treatment Approaches for Tannery Wastewater and Its Chemical Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Gaurav; Chandra, Ram; Bharagava, Ram Naresh

    Leather industries are key contributors in the economy of many developing countries, but unfortunately they are facing serious challenges from the public and governments due to the associated environmental pollution. There is a public outcry against the industry due to the discharge of potentially toxic wastewater having alkaline pH, dark brown colour, unpleasant odour, high biological and chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids and a mixture of organic and inorganic pollutants. Various environment protection agencies have prioritized several chemicals as hazardous and restricted their use in leather processing however; many of these chemicals are used and discharged in wastewater. Therefore, it is imperative to adequately treat/detoxify the tannery wastewater for environmental safety. This paper provides a detail review on the environmental pollution and toxicity profile of tannery wastewater and chemicals. Furthermore, the status and advances in the existing treatment approaches used for the treatment and/or detoxification of tannery wastewater at both laboratory and pilot/industrial scale have been reviewed. In addition, the emerging treatment approaches alone or in combination with biological treatment approaches have also been considered. Moreover, the limitations of existing and emerging treatment approaches have been summarized and potential areas for further investigations have been discussed. In addition, the clean technologies for waste minimization, control and management are also discussed. Finally, the international legislation scenario on discharge limits for tannery wastewater and chemicals has also been discussed country wise with discharge standards for pollution prevention due to tannery wastewater.

  5. The Tox21 robotic platform for the assessment of environmental chemicals--from vision to reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attene-Ramos, Matias S; Miller, Nicole; Huang, Ruili; Michael, Sam; Itkin, Misha; Kavlock, Robert J; Austin, Christopher P; Shinn, Paul; Simeonov, Anton; Tice, Raymond R; Xia, Menghang

    2013-08-01

    Since its establishment in 2008, the US Tox21 inter-agency collaboration has made great progress in developing and evaluating cellular models for the evaluation of environmental chemicals as a proof of principle. Currently, the program has entered its production phase (Tox21 Phase II) focusing initially on the areas of modulation of nuclear receptors and stress response pathways. During Tox21 Phase II, the set of chemicals to be tested has been expanded to nearly 10,000 (10K) compounds and a fully automated screening platform has been implemented. The Tox21 robotic system combined with informatics efforts is capable of screening and profiling the collection of 10K environmental chemicals in triplicate in a week. In this article, we describe the Tox21 screening process, compound library preparation, data processing, and robotic system validation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Environmental Decontamination of a Chemical Warfare Simulant Utilizing a Membrane Vesicle-Encapsulated Phosphotriesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Nathan J; Moore, Martin; Johnson, Brandy J; Dean, Scott N; Turner, Kendrick B; Medintz, Igor L; Walper, Scott A

    2018-05-09

    While technologies for the remediation of chemical contaminants continue to emerge, growing interest in green technologies has led researchers to explore natural catalytic mechanisms derived from microbial species. One such method, enzymatic degradation, offers an alternative to harsh chemical catalysts and resins. Recombinant enzymes, however, are often too labile or show limited activity when challenged with nonideal environmental conditions that may vary in salinity, pH, or other physical properties. Here, we demonstrate how phosphotriesterase encapsulated in a bacterial outer membrane vesicle can be used to degrade the organophosphate chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulant paraoxon in environmental water samples. We also carried out remediation assays on solid surfaces, including glass, painted metal, and fabric, that were selected as representative materials, which could potentially be contaminated with a CWA.

  7. Environmental impact of industrial sludge stabilization/solidification products: chemical or ecotoxicological hazard evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcos A R; Testolin, Renan C; Godinho-Castro, Alcione P; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2011-09-15

    Nowadays, the classification of industrial solid wastes is not based on risk analysis, thus the aim of this study was to compare the toxicity classifications based on the chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of four industrial sludges submitted to a two-step stabilization/solidification (S/S) processes. To classify S/S products as hazardous or non-hazardous, values cited in Brazilian chemical waste regulations were adopted and compared to the results obtained with a battery of biotests (bacteria, alga and daphnids) which were carried out with soluble and leaching fractions. In some cases the hazardous potential of industrial sludge was underestimated, since the S/S products obtained from the metal-mechanics and automotive sludges were chemically classified as non-hazardous (but non-inert) when the ecotoxicity tests showed toxicity values for leaching and soluble fractions. In other cases, the environmental impact was overestimated, since the S/S products of the textile sludges were chemically classified as non-inert (but non-hazardous) while ecotoxicity tests did not reveal any effects on bacteria, daphnids and algae. From the results of the chemical and ecotoxicological analyses we concluded that: (i) current regulations related to solid waste classification based on leachability and solubility tests do not ensure reliable results with respect to environmental protection; (ii) the two-step process was very effective in terms of metal immobilization, even at higher metal-concentrations. Considering that S/S products will be subject to environmental conditions, it is of great interest to test the ecotoxicity potential of the contaminants release from these products with a view to avoiding environmental impact given the unreliability of ecotoxicological estimations originating from chemical analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical and radiation environmental risk management at the crossroads: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, N.; Burke, T.; Locke, P.

    1999-01-01

    Although many of the major environmental risk management decisions we face today require the simultaneous evaluation and control of both radiological and chemical risks, the separation of radiation and chemical risk management persists along legal, regulatory, programmatic, training and professional practice levels. In June 1998, a panel of 40 chemical and radiation risk experts met at an interactive workshop entitled 'Addressing the Similarities and Differences in Chemical and Radiation Environmental Risk Management,' in Annapolis, Maryland to discuss several perspectives on harmonizing chemical and radiation risk management approaches. At the conclusion of the meeting, workshop participants recommended that case studies of clean-up sites at which radioactive materials and hazardous chemical risks were addressed, be developed to help educate participants in the harmonization dialogue about their counterpart's issues, stimulate discussion and sharpen issues in a way that they can be resolved. Several key risk management issues that were highlighted from the discussion at the Annapolis meeting are being evaluated in the case studies. They include: decision criteria, costs and public/stakeholder input. This paper presents these key issues and the approach taken in the case studies. (author)

  9. The effects of environmental chemical carcinogens on the microRNA machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzotti, A; Pulliero, A

    2014-07-01

    The first evidence that microRNA expression is early altered by exposure to environmental chemical carcinogens in still healthy organisms was obtained for cigarette smoke. To date, the cumulative experimental data indicate that similar effects are caused by a variety of environmental carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitropyrenes, endocrine disruptors, airborne mixtures, carcinogens in food and water, and carcinogenic drugs. Accordingly, the alteration of miRNA expression is a general mechanism that plays an important pathogenic role in linking exposure to environmental toxic agents with their pathological consequences, mainly including cancer development. This review summarizes the existing experimental evidence concerning the effects of chemical carcinogens on the microRNA machinery. For each carcinogen, the specific microRNA alteration signature, as detected in experimental studies, is reported. These data are useful for applying microRNA alterations as early biomarkers of biological effects in healthy organisms exposed to environmental carcinogens. However, microRNA alteration results in carcinogenesis only if accompanied by other molecular damages. As an example, microRNAs altered by chemical carcinogens often inhibits the expression of mutated oncogenes. The long-term exposure to chemical carcinogens causes irreversible suppression of microRNA expression thus allowing the transduction into proteins of mutated oncogenes. This review also analyzes the existing knowledge regarding the mechanisms by which environmental carcinogens alter microRNA expression. The underlying molecular mechanism involves p53-microRNA interconnection, microRNA adduct formation, and alterations of Dicer function. On the whole, reported findings provide evidence that microRNA analysis is a molecular toxicology tool that can elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms activated by environmental carcinogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental Chemical Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of the Epidemiological Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkbrenner, Amy E.; Schmidt, Rebecca J.; Penlesky, Annie C.

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, the number of epidemiological publications addressing environmental chemical exposures and autism has grown tremendously. These studies are important because it is now understood that environmental factors play a larger role in causing autism than previously thought and because they address modifiable risk factors that may open up avenues for the primary prevention of the disability associated with autism. In this review, we covered studies of autism and estimates of exposure to tobacco, air pollutants, volatile organic compounds and solvents, metals (from air, occupation, diet, dental amalgams, and thimerosal-containing vaccines), pesticides, and organic endocrine-disrupting compounds such as flame retardants, non-stick chemicals, phthalates, and bisphenol A. We included studies that had individual-level data on autism, exposure measures pertaining to pregnancy or the 1st year of life, valid comparison groups, control for confounders, and adequate sample sizes. Despite the inherent error in the measurement of many of these environmental exposures, which is likely to attenuate observed associations, some environmental exposures showed associations with autism, especially traffic-related air pollutants, some metals, and several pesticides, with suggestive trends for some volatile organic compounds (e.g., methylene chloride, trichloroethylene, and styrene) and phthalates. Whether any of these play a causal role requires further study. Given the limited scope of these publications, other environmental chemicals cannot be ruled out, but have not yet been adequately studied. Future research that addresses these and additional environmental chemicals, including their most common routes of exposures, with accurate exposure measurement pertaining to several developmental windows, is essential to guide efforts for the prevention of the neurodevelopmental damage that manifests in autism symptoms. PMID:25199954

  11. Hurricane Harvey, Houston's Petrochemical Industry, and US Chemical Safety Policy: Impacts to Environmental Justice Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, G. T.; Johnson, C.; Gutierrez, A.; Declet-Barreto, J.; Berman, E.; Bergman, A.

    2017-12-01

    When Hurricane Harvey made landfall outside Houston, Texas, the storm's wind speeds and unprecedented precipitation caused significant damage to the region's petrochemical infrastructure. Most notably, the company Arkema's Crosby facility suffered a power failure that led to explosions and incineration of six of its peroxide tanks. Chemicals released into the air from the explosions sent 15 emergency responders to the hospital with severe respiratory conditions and led to the evacuation of hundreds of surrounding households. Other petrochemical facilities faced other damages that resulted in unsafe and acute chemical releases into the air and water. What impacts did such chemical disasters have on the surrounding communities and emergency responders during Harvey's aftermath? What steps might companies have taken to prevent such chemical releases? And what chemical safety policies might have ensured that such disaster risks were mitigated? In this talk we will report on a survey of the extent of damage to Houston's oil and gas infrastructure and related chemical releases and discuss the role of federal chemical safety policy in preventing and mitigating the potential for such risks for future storms and other extreme weather and climate events. We will also discuss how these chemical disasters created acute toxics exposures on environmental justice communities already overburdened with chronic exposures from the petrochemical industry.

  12. Environmental fate and exposure models: advances and challenges in 21st century chemical risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guardo, Antonio; Gouin, Todd; MacLeod, Matthew; Scheringer, Martin

    2018-01-24

    Environmental fate and exposure models are a powerful means to integrate information on chemicals, their partitioning and degradation behaviour, the environmental scenario and the emissions in order to compile a picture of chemical distribution and fluxes in the multimedia environment. A 1995 pioneering book, resulting from a series of workshops among model developers and users, reported the main advantages and identified needs for research in the field of multimedia fate models. Considerable efforts were devoted to their improvement in the past 25 years and many aspects were refined; notably the inclusion of nanomaterials among the modelled substances, the development of models at different spatial and temporal scales, the estimation of chemical properties and emission data, the incorporation of additional environmental media and processes, the integration of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis in the simulations. However, some challenging issues remain and require research efforts and attention: the need of methods to estimate partition coefficients for polar and ionizable chemical in the environment, a better description of bioavailability in different environments as well as the requirement of injecting more ecological realism in exposure predictions to account for the diversity of ecosystem structures and functions in risk assessment. Finally, to transfer new scientific developments into the realm of regulatory risk assessment, we propose the formation of expert groups that compare, discuss and recommend model modifications and updates and help develop practical tools for risk assessment.

  13. Environmental Chemical Assessment in Clinical Practice: Unveiling the Elephant in the Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Bijlsma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests chemicals present in air, water, soil, food, building materials and household products are toxicants that contribute to the many chronic diseases typically seen in routine medical practice. Yet, despite calls from numerous organisations to provide clinicians with more training and awareness in environmental health, there are multiple barriers to the clinical assessment of toxic environmental exposures. Recent developments in the fields of systems biology, innovative breakthroughs in biomedical research encompassing the “-omics” fields, and advances in mobile sensing, peer-to-peer networks and big data, provide tools that future clinicians can use to assess environmental chemical exposures in their patients. There is also a need for concerted action at all levels, including actions by individual patients, clinicians, medical educators, regulators, government and non-government organisations, corporations and the wider civil society, to understand the “exposome” and minimise the extent of toxic exposures on current and future generations. Clinical environmental chemical risk assessment may provide a bridge between multiple disciplines that uses new technologies to herald in a new era in personalised medicine that unites clinicians, patients and civil society in the quest to understand and master the links between the environment and human health.

  14. Environmental chemicals in human milk: a review of levels, infant exposures and health, and guidance for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaKind, Judy S.; Amina Wilkins, A.; Berlin, Cheston M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this review is to introduce the reader to various science and policy aspects of the topic of environmental chemicals in human milk. Although information on environmental chemicals in human milk has been available since the 1950s, it is only relatively recently that public awareness of the issue has grown. This review on environmental chemicals in human milk provides a resource summarizing what is currently known about levels and trends of environmental chemicals in human milk, potential infant exposures, and benefits of breast-feeding relative to the risks of exposures to environmental chemicals. The term 'environmental chemicals', as it pertains to human milk, refers to many classes of exogenous chemicals that may be detected in human milk. For example, pharmaceutical agents and alcohol are environmental chemicals that have been found in human milk. Other chemicals, such as heavy metals and volatile organic compounds, have also been detected in human milk. Most research on environmental chemicals in human milk has concentrated on persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals. In this review, a description of human milk is provided, including a brief review of endogenous substances in human milk. Determinants of levels of PBTs are discussed, as are models that have been developed to predict levels of PBTs in human milk and associated body burdens in breast-feeding infants. Methodologies for human milk sampling and analysis, and concepts for consideration in interpretation and communication of study results, as developed by the Technical Workshop on Human Milk Surveillance and Research for Environmental Chemicals in the United States are described. Studies which have compared the health risks and benefits associated with breast-feeding and formula-feeding are discussed

  15. Chemical stimulation in unconventional hydrocarbons extraction in the USA: a preliminary environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutra, Emilie; Spada, Matteo; Burgherr, Peter

    2016-04-01

    While the exploitation of unconventional resources recently shows an extensive development, the stimulation techniques in use in this domain arouse growing public concerns. Often in the shadow of the disputed hydraulic fracturing process, the matrix acidizing is however a complementary or alternative procedure to enhance the reservoir connectivity. Although acidizing processes are widespread within the traditional hydrocarbons sources exploration, the matrix acidizing does not appear to be commonly used in unconventional hydrocarbons formations due to their low permeability. Nonetheless, this process has been recently applied to the Monterey formation, a shale oil play in California. These stimulation fluids are composed by various chemicals, what represents a matter of concern for public as well as for authorities. As a consequence, a risk assessment implying an exposure and toxicity analysis is needed. Focusing on site surface accidents, e.g., leak of a chemical from a storage tank, we develop in this study concentration scenarios for different exposure pathways to estimate the potential environmental risk associated with the use of specific hazardous substances in the matrix acidizing process for unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in the USA. Primary, information about the usage of different hazardous substances have been collected in order to extract the most frequently used chemicals. Afterwards, a probabilistic estimation of the environmental risk associated with the use of these chemicals is carried out by comparing the Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) distribution with the Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) value. The latter is collected from a literature review, whereas the PEC is estimated as probability distribution concentrations in different environmental compartments (e.g., soil) built upon various predefined accident scenarios. By applying a probabilistic methodology for the concentrations, the level at which the used chemicals

  16. Environmental risk assessment of selected organic chemicals based on TOC test and QSAR estimation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yulang; Zhang, Huanteng; Huang, Qiansheng; Lin, Yi; Ye, Guozhu; Zhu, Huimin; Dong, Sijun

    2018-02-01

    Environmental risks of organic chemicals have been greatly determined by their persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity (PBT) and physicochemical properties. Major regulations in different countries and regions identify chemicals according to their bioconcentration factor (BCF) and octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow), which frequently displays a substantial correlation with the sediment sorption coefficient (Koc). Half-life or degradability is crucial for the persistence evaluation of chemicals. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) estimation models are indispensable for predicting environmental fate and health effects in the absence of field- or laboratory-based data. In this study, 39 chemicals of high concern were chosen for half-life testing based on total organic carbon (TOC) degradation, and two widely accepted and highly used QSAR estimation models (i.e., EPI Suite and PBT Profiler) were adopted for environmental risk evaluation. The experimental results and estimated data, as well as the two model-based results were compared, based on the water solubility, Kow, Koc, BCF and half-life. Environmental risk assessment of the selected compounds was achieved by combining experimental data and estimation models. It was concluded that both EPI Suite and PBT Profiler were fairly accurate in measuring the physicochemical properties and degradation half-lives for water, soil, and sediment. However, the half-lives between the experimental and the estimated results were still not absolutely consistent. This suggests deficiencies of the prediction models in some ways, and the necessity to combine the experimental data and predicted results for the evaluation of environmental fate and risks of pollutants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Climate-based archetypes for the environmental fate assessment of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffo, Biagio; Sala, Serenella

    2013-11-15

    Emissions of chemicals have been on the rise for years, and their impacts are greatly influenced by spatial differentiation. Chemicals are usually emitted locally but their impact can be felt both locally and globally, due to their chemical properties and persistence. The variability of environmental parameters in the emission compartment may affect the chemicals' fate and the exposure at different orders of magnitude. The assessment of the environmental fate of chemicals and the inherent spatial differentiation requires the use of multimedia models at various levels of complexity (from a simple box model to complex computational and high-spatial-resolution models). The objective of these models is to support ecological and human health risk assessment, by reducing the uncertainty of chemical impact assessments. The parameterisation of spatially resolved multimedia models is usually based on scenarios of evaluative environments, or on geographical resolutions related to administrative boundaries (e.g. countries/continents) or landscape areas (e.g. watersheds, eco-regions). The choice of the most appropriate scale and scenario is important from a management perspective, as a balance should be reached between a simplified approach and computationally intensive multimedia models. In this paper, which aims to go beyond the more traditional approach based on scale/resolution (cell, country, and basin), we propose and assess climate-based archetypes for the impact assessment of chemicals released in air. We define the archetypes based on the main drivers of spatial variability, which we systematically identify by adopting global sensitivity analysis techniques. A case study that uses the high resolution multimedia model MAPPE (Multimedia Assessment of Pollutant Pathways in the Environment) is presented. Results of the analysis showed that suitable archetypes should be both climate- and chemical-specific, as different chemicals (or groups of them) have different traits

  18. Interactions between toxic chemicals and natural environmental factors--a meta-analysis and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Ryszard; Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Kramarz, Paulina E; Loureiro, Susana; Scheil, Volker; Kudłek, Joanna; Holmstrup, Martin

    2010-08-15

    The paper addresses problems arising from effects of natural environmental factors on toxicity of pollutants to organisms. Most studies on interactions between toxicants and natural factors, including those completed in the EU project NoMiracle (Novel Methods for Integrated Risk Assessment of Cumulative Stressors in Europe) described herein, showed that effects of toxic chemicals on organisms can differ vastly depending purely on external conditions. We compiled data from 61 studies on effects of temperature, moisture and dissolved oxygen on toxicity of a range of chemicals representing pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plant protection products of bacterial origin and trace metals. In 62.3% cases significant interactions (pnatural factors and chemicals were found, reaching 100% for the effect of dissolved oxygen on toxicity of waterborne chemicals. The meta-analysis of the 61 studies showed that the null hypothesis assuming no interactions between toxic chemicals and natural environmental factors should be rejected at p=2.7 x 10(-82) (truncated product method probability). In a few cases of more complex experimental designs, also second-order interactions were found, indicating that natural factors can modify interactions among chemicals. Such data emphasize the necessity of including information on natural factors and their variation in time and across geographic regions in ecological risk assessment. This can be done only if appropriate ecotoxicological test designs are used, in which test organisms are exposed to toxicants at a range of environmental conditions. We advocate designing such tests for the second-tier ecological risk assessment procedures. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid and sensitive reporter gene assays for detection of antiandrogenic and estrogenic effects of environmental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne; Jørgensen, E.C.B.; Larsen, John Christian

    1999-01-01

    Reports on increasing incidences in developmental abnormalities of the human male reproductive tract and the recent identifications of environmental chemicals with antiandrogenic activity necessitate the screening of a larger number of compounds in order to get an overview of potential antiandrog......Reports on increasing incidences in developmental abnormalities of the human male reproductive tract and the recent identifications of environmental chemicals with antiandrogenic activity necessitate the screening of a larger number of compounds in order to get an overview of potential...... antiandrogenic chemicals present in our environment. Thus, there is a great need for an effective in vitro screening method for (anti)androgenic chemicals. We have developed a rapid, sensitive, and reproducible reporter gene assay for detection of antiandrogenic chemicals. Chinese Hamster Ovary cells were...... calcium phosphate transfection method, this method has the advantage of being more feasible, as the assay can be scaled down to the microtiter plate format. Furthermore, the transfection reagent is noncytotoxic, allowing its addition together with the test compounds thereby reducing the hands...

  20. The Matthew effect in environmental science publication: A bibliometric analysis of chemical substances in journal articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Eriksen, Mette Lindholm; Ellegaard, Ole

    2011-01-01

    attention. Results The 119,636 journal articles found had 760,056 CAS number links during 2000-2009. The top-20 environmental chemicals consisted of metals, (chlorinated) biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, and ethanol and contributed 12% toward the total number of links- Each of the top-20...... substances was covered by 2,000-10,000 articles during the decade. The numbers for the 10-year period were similar to the total numbers of pre-2000 articles on the same chemicals. However, substances considered a high priority from a regulatory viewpoint, due to lack of documentation, showed very low...

  1. Environmental compatible cooling water treatment chemicals; Umweltvertraegliche Chemikalien in der Kuehlwasserkonditionierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartiser, S; Urich, E

    2002-02-01

    In Germany about 32 billion m{sup 3}/a cooling water are discharged from industrial plants and power industry. These are conditioned partly with biocides, scaling and corrosion inhibitors. Within the research project the significance of cooling water chemicals was evaluated, identifying the chemicals from product information, calculating their loads from consumption data of more than 180 cooling plants and investigating the basic data needed for an environmental hazard assessment. Additionally the effects of cooling water samples and products were determined in biological test systems. Batch tests were performed under defined conditions in order to measure the inactivation of cooling water biocides. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of Innovation and Its Environmental Impacts on the Chemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Schreiber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of the economy and the need to achieve competitiveness drive organizations to invest in technology and in innovation, in order to find solutions that will provide advantages in an ever-more competitive market. The conflict between dwindling natural resources and the demand for economic growth has created a growing need to find means for making environmental conservation compatible with economic growth. The objective of this study is to contribute to the debate by analyzing the innovations implemented by chemical companies in the Sinos Valley region, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and by identifying the motivations that drive them to develop environmental technologies. The study is exploratory and descriptive, with a quantitative data collection component in the form of a survey sent to all chemical companies in the Sinos Valley region, listed in a local business association database. The study results indicate that development of innovations is predominantly of an incremental nature and that novelty is generally restricted to the new-for-firm level. The environmental technologies implemented are generally designed to prevent or remedy environmental damage and are primarily motivated by the need to comply with environmental standards and legislation.

  3. Tartaric Acid as a Non-toxic and Environmentally-Friendly Anti-scaling Material for Using in Cooling Water Systems: Electrochemical and Surface Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Elnaz; Gholizadeh-Khajeh, Maryam; Ashassi-Sorkhabi, Habib

    2016-10-01

    Because of the major limitations in drinking water resources, the industries need to use unprocessed water sources for their cooling systems; these water resources contain major amount of hardening cations. So, mineral scales are formed in cooling water systems during the time and cause major problems. The use of green anti-scaling materials such as carboxylic acids is considered due to their low risks of environmental pollution. In the present work, the scale inhibition performance of tartaric acid as a green organic material was evaluated. Chemical screening tests, cathodic and anodic voltammetry measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive x-ray and x-ray diffraction, were used for the evaluation of the scale inhibition performance. The results showed that tartaric acid can prevent calcium carbonate precipitation significantly. The hard water solution with 2.0 mM of tartaric acid indicated the highest scale inhibition efficiency (ca. 68%). The voltammetry, EIS and FESEM results verified that tartaric acid can form smooth and homogeneous film on steel surface through formation of Fe(III)-tartrate complexes and retard the local precipitation of calcium carbonate deposits.

  4. Modern sample preparation techniques for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of environmental markers of chemical warfare agents use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terzic, O.; de Voogt, P.; Banoub, J.

    2014-01-01

    The chapter introduces problematics of on-site chemical analysis in the investigations of past chemical warfare agents (CWA) events. An overview of primary environmental degradation pathways of CWA leading to formation of chemical markers of their use is given. Conventional and modern sample

  5. Constraints in the Adoption of Eco Friendly Conservation Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Murali Krishnan

    2016-05-01

    Insect pest and diseases management, Lack of awareness of agro environmental problems and farmer’s attitude towards the Eco Friendly Conservation Practices are the major constraints in the adoption of Eco Friendly Conservation Practices.The study suggests educational, extension & training strategies for fostering the adopted of ECO friendly Conservation Practices.

  6. Sensitivity of the Early Development of Ramshorn Snail, Marisa cornuarietis (Ampullariidae) to Environmental Chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Sawasdee, Banthita

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the suitability of the M. cornuarietis embryo toxicity test (MariETT) for environmental chemicals was investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the recently introduced M. cornuarietis embryo toxicity test (MariETT) using selected metals (inorganic pollutants) and pesticides (organic pollutants), and to compare its sensitivity and practicability to other established bioassay. The following endpoints were observed: mortality, formation of tentacl...

  7. A unified algorithm for predicting partition coefficients for PBPK modeling of drugs and environmental chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyret, Thomas; Poulin, Patrick; Krishnan, Kannan

    2010-01-01

    The algorithms in the literature focusing to predict tissue:blood PC (P tb ) for environmental chemicals and tissue:plasma PC based on total (K p ) or unbound concentration (K pu ) for drugs differ in their consideration of binding to hemoglobin, plasma proteins and charged phospholipids. The objective of the present study was to develop a unified algorithm such that P tb , K p and K pu for both drugs and environmental chemicals could be predicted. The development of the unified algorithm was accomplished by integrating all mechanistic algorithms previously published to compute the PCs. Furthermore, the algorithm was structured in such a way as to facilitate predictions of the distribution of organic compounds at the macro (i.e. whole tissue) and micro (i.e. cells and fluids) levels. The resulting unified algorithm was applied to compute the rat P tb , K p or K pu of muscle (n = 174), liver (n = 139) and adipose tissue (n = 141) for acidic, neutral, zwitterionic and basic drugs as well as ketones, acetate esters, alcohols, aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and ethers. The unified algorithm reproduced adequately the values predicted previously by the published algorithms for a total of 142 drugs and chemicals. The sensitivity analysis demonstrated the relative importance of the various compound properties reflective of specific mechanistic determinants relevant to prediction of PC values of drugs and environmental chemicals. Overall, the present unified algorithm uniquely facilitates the computation of macro and micro level PCs for developing organ and cellular-level PBPK models for both chemicals and drugs.

  8. Conducting Polymers in the Fields of Energy, Environmental Remediation, and Chemical-Chiral Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Jorge G; Rincón, Marina E; Gutierrez-Granados, Silvia; Chahma, M'hamed; Jaramillo-Quintero, Oscar A; Frontana-Uribe, Bernardo A

    2018-05-09

    Conducting polymers (CPs), thanks to their unique properties, structures made on-demand, new composite mixtures, and possibility of deposit on a surface by chemical, physical, or electrochemical methodologies, have shown in the last years a renaissance and have been widely used in important fields of chemistry and materials science. Due to the extent of the literature on CPs, this review, after a concise introduction about the interrelationship between electrochemistry and conducting polymers, is focused exclusively on the following applications: energy (energy storage devices and solar cells), use in environmental remediation (anion and cation trapping, electrocatalytic reduction/oxidation of pollutants on CP based electrodes, and adsorption of pollutants) and finally electroanalysis as chemical sensors in solution, gas phase, and chiral molecules. This review is expected to be comprehensive, authoritative, and useful to the chemical community interested in CPs and their applications.

  9. Autoantibodies associated with prenatal and childhood exposure to environmental chemicals in faroese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osuna, Christa E; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál

    2014-01-01

    to both neural (neurofilaments, cholineacetyltransferase, astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein) and non-neural (actin, desmin, and keratin) antigens were measured and the associations of these autoantibody concentrations with chemical exposures were assessed using linear...... of autoantibodies. However, it is not known if autoantibodies similarly will be generated and detectable in humans following toxicant exposures. Therefore, we conducted a pilot study to investigate if autoantibodies specific for neural and non-neural antigens could be detected in children at age 7 years who have...... been exposed to environmental chemicals. Both prenatal and age-7 exposures to mercury, PCBs, and PFCs were measured in 38 children in the Faroe Islands who were exposed to widely different levels of these chemicals due to their seafood-based diet. Concentrations of IgM and IgG autoantibodies specific...

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN THE FIELD OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION OF RUSSIAN CHEMICAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Makarov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007, many chemical industrial companies in the Russian Federation have been actively involved in the Responsible Care® international voluntary program. To implement this program, vast bodies of data on environmental impact assessments needs to be collected. This allows us to analyse the environment-oriented trends in economic and social activities, and to record the achievements and problems in this field. The collected large bodies of data are in many cases heterogeneous, since the report has been a voluntary initiative. To analyse the existing trends in business processes, authors applied the methodology for system analysis of large bodies of data and used their own heuristic approximation algorithm for the treatment of accumulated data. This algorithm gives us the unique possibility of evaluating the performance of both individual chemical companies in the framework of the Responsible Care® program and the Russian chemical industry as a whole.

  11. Use of plant cell cultures to study the metabolism of environmental chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandermann, H. Jr.; Scheel, D.; von der Trenck, T.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism of the following environmental chemicals has been studied in cell suspension cultures of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.):2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol, diethylhexylphthalate , benzo [alpha] pyrene, and DDT. All chemicals tested, including the persistent ones, were partially metabolized. Polar conjugates predominated in all cases. A covalent incorporation into lignin could be demonstrated for 2,4-D and pentachlorophenol. A specific deposition in the cellular vacuole could be demonstrated for the beta-D-glucopyranoside conjugates derived from 2,4-D. A rapid assay procedure to evaluate the metabolism of a given 14 C-labeled chemical in plant cell suspension cultures is described. This procedure requires about 1 week, and the reproducibility of the results obtained has been assessed

  12. Impacts of Environmental Nanoparticles on Chemical, Biological and Hydrological Processes in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides insights on nanoparticle (NP) influence or control on the extent and timescales of single or coupled physical, chemical, biological and hydrological reactions and processes that occur in terrestrial ecosystems. Examples taken from the literature that show how terrestrial NPs may determine the fate of the aqueous and sorbed (adsorbed or precipitated) chemical species of nutrients and contaminants, are also included in this chapter. Specifically, in the first section, chapter objectives, term definitions and discussions on size-dependent properties, the origin and occurrence of NP in terrestrial ecosystems and NP toxicity, are included. In the second section, the topic of the binary interactions of NPs of different sizes, shapes, concentrations and ages with the soil solution chemical species is covered, focusing on NP formation, stability, aggregation, ability to serve as sorbents, or surface-mediated precipitation catalysts, or electron donors and acceptors. In the third section, aspects of the interactions in the ternary systems composed of environmental NP, nutrient/contaminant chemical species, and the soil/sediment matrix are discussed, focusing on the inhibitory and catalytic effects of environmental NP on nutrient/contaminant advective mobility and mass transfer, adsorption and desorption, dissolution and precipitation and redox reactions that occur in terrestrial ecosystems. These three review sections are followed by a short summary of future research needs and directions, the acknowledgements, the list of the references, and the figures.

  13. Role of environmental stress in the physiological response to chemical toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental physiology is the study of the physiological mechanisms that allow animals to cope with and adapt to changes in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and other natural factors of their physical environment. Nearly all toxicological and pharmacological studies are performed in resting (i.e., non exercising) experimental animals acclimatized to standard environmental conditions that are usually considered ideal to the animal's physiological well-being. These ideal test conditions are clearly not representative of the fluctuations in the natural environment encountered by humans and other animals on a day-to-day basis. It behooves the toxicologist, especially those interested in extrapolating experimental data from laboratory animals to humans, to consider how variations in the natural environment will alter physiological responses to toxicants. Temperature and exercise are the two most well-studied parameters in the fields of environmental physiology and toxicology. In general, high temperatures exacerbate the toxic effects of many environmental toxicants. Moreover, exercising subjects are generally more vulnerable to airborne toxic agents. The prospect of global warming also warrants a better assessment of how higher environmental temperatures may impact on the response of humans and other species to toxic chemicals. Hence, this paper and accompanying papers from the proceedings of a symposium focus on the salient aspects of the interaction between environmental stress and physiological response to toxic agents with particular emphasis on temperature and exercise

  14. Complex shaped ZnO nano- and microstructure based polymer composites: mechanically stable and environmentally friendly coatings for potential antifouling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölken, Iris; Hoppe, Mathias; Mishra, Yogendra K; Gorb, Stanislav N; Adelung, Rainer; Baum, Martina J

    2016-03-14

    Since the prohibition of tributyltin (TBT)-based antifouling paints in 2008, the development of environmentally compatible and commercially realizable alternatives is a crucial issue. Cost effective fabrication of antifouling paints with desired physical and biocompatible features is simultaneously required and recent developments in the direction of inorganic nanomaterials could play a major role. In the present work, a solvent free polymer/particle-composite coating based on two component polythiourethane (PTU) and tetrapodal shaped ZnO (t-ZnO) nano- and microstructures has been synthesized and studied with respect to mechanical, chemical and biocompatibility properties. Furthermore, antifouling tests have been carried out in artificial seawater tanks. Four different PTU/t-ZnO composites with various t-ZnO filling fractions (0 wt%, 1 wt%, 5 wt%, 10 wt%) were prepared and the corresponding tensile, hardness, and pull-off test results revealed that the composite filled with 5 wt% t-ZnO exhibits the strongest mechanical properties. Surface free energy (SFE) studies using contact angle measurements showed that the SFE value decreases with an increase in t-ZnO filler amounts. The influence of t-ZnO on the polymerization reaction was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared-spectroscopy measurements and thermogravimetric analysis. The immersion tests demonstrated that fouling behavior of the PTU/t-ZnO composite with a 1 wt% t-ZnO filler has been decreased in comparison to pure PTU. The composite with a 5 wt% t-ZnO filler showed almost no biofouling.

  15. Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Yield and Yield Components of Sesame (Sesamum indicum l. with Emphasize on Environmental Friendly Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rezvani Moghaddam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of different plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on yield and yield components of sesame, an experiment was conducted in the form of Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in year 2009. Treatments were: 1 Nitragin (containing of Azotobacter sp., Azospirillum sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 2 Nitroxin (containing of Azotobacter sp. and Azospirillum sp., 3 Super nitro plus (containing of Azospirillum sp., Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 4 Phosphate suloblizing bacteria (containing of Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 5 Bio Phosphate (containing of Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 6 Nitroxin + Phosphate suloblizing bacteria, 7 Nitroxin + Bio Phosphate and control. The results showed that seed yield affected by PGPR and Nitroxin + Phosphate suloblizing bacteria treatment had superior effect on seed yield compared to other treatments. Superior effect of Nitroxin + Phosphate suloblizing bacteria treatment also was shown on plant seed weight and harvest index. Nitragin, Nitroxin + Bio Phosphate, Nitroxin + Phosphate suloblizing bacteria, Bio Phosphate, Phosphate suloblizing bacteria, Nitroxin treatments increased dry weight of capsules per plant of 62, 53, 51, 36 and 30 percent compared to control, respectively. Although, the effect of PGPR was not significant on sesame seed oil content but Bio Phosphate and Nitragin treatments increased seed oil content by 1 and 1.5 percent, respectively. In general, results showed utilization of PGPR can improve seed yield and seed oil content, which can decrease dependence of sesame seed production to chemical fertilizer, decrease negative environmental impacts and as an ecofriendly inputs can help to produce crops and sustainable agriculture guidlines.

  16. User-friendly chemistry takes center stage at ACS meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, R.

    1992-01-01

    These days it seems that what chemistry needs more than anything else is a good p.r. agent. If you ask John or Joan Q. Public about the accomplishments of the chemical industry, chances are they'll mention Love Canal, CFCs destroying the ozone layer, or carcinogens in food. However, if the national meeting of the American Chemical Society in Washington, D.C., 2 weeks ago is any indication, chemists are working hard to fix the image problem. Nearly all of the two dozen press conferences held during the meeting focused on food, health topics, environment-friendly technology, or some other subject close to consumers' hearts. And the scientific talks themselves reflected the same interests, with sessions such as 'Environmental Successes in the Chemical Industry', 'Food Phytochemicals for Cancer Prevention', 'Chemistry of Electrophilic Metal Complexes', 'New Advances in Polyolefin Polymers', 'Zapping acid rain with microwaves.'

  17. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: Classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Vicki, E-mail: v.stone@napier.ac.uk [School of Life Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT (United Kingdom); Nowack, Bernd [Materials, Products and the Environment Group, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5 CH - 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Baun, Anders [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, NanoDTU, Building 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Brink, Nico van den [Alterra, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Kammer, Frank von der [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Vienna University, Althanstrasse 14, Wien 1090 (Austria); Dusinska, Maria [Health Effects Laboratory, Centre for Ecological Economics, Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Instituttveien, 18, 2027 Kjeller (Norway); Handy, Richard [University of Plymouth, Davy Building, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Hankin, Steven [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Research Avenue North, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AP (United Kingdom); Hasselloev, Martin [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Nanoparticle Research Group, Goeteborg University, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Joner, Erik [Bioforsk Soil and Environment, Fredrik A Dahls vei 20, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Fernandes, Teresa F. [School of Life Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key questions: 1.What properties should be characterised for nanomaterials used in environmental and ecotoxicology studies? 2.What reference materials should be developed for use in environmental and ecotoxicological studies? 3.Is it possible to group different nanomaterials into categories for consideration in environmental studies? Such questions have been, at least partially, addressed by other projects/workshops especially in relation to human health effects. Such projects provide a useful basis on which this workshop was based, but in this particular case these questions were reformulated in order to focus specifically on environmental studies. The workshop participants, through a series of discussion and reflection sessions, generated the conclusions listed below. The physicochemical characterisation information identified as important for environmental studies included measures of aggregation/agglomeration/dispersability, size, dissolution (solubility), surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry/composition, with the assumption that chemical composition would already be known. There is a need to have test materials for ecotoxicology, and several substances are potentially useful, including TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, polystyrene beads labelled with fluorescent dyes, and silver nanoparticles. Some of these test materials could then be developed into certified reference materials over time. No clear consensus was reached regarding the classification of nanomaterials into categories to aid environmental studies, except that a chemistry-based classification system was a reasonable starting point, with some modifications. It was suggested, that additional work may be

  18. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: Classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Vicki; Nowack, Bernd; Baun, Anders; Brink, Nico van den; Kammer, Frank von der; Dusinska, Maria; Handy, Richard; Hankin, Steven; Hasselloev, Martin; Joner, Erik; Fernandes, Teresa F.

    2010-01-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key questions: 1.What properties should be characterised for nanomaterials used in environmental and ecotoxicology studies? 2.What reference materials should be developed for use in environmental and ecotoxicological studies? 3.Is it possible to group different nanomaterials into categories for consideration in environmental studies? Such questions have been, at least partially, addressed by other projects/workshops especially in relation to human health effects. Such projects provide a useful basis on which this workshop was based, but in this particular case these questions were reformulated in order to focus specifically on environmental studies. The workshop participants, through a series of discussion and reflection sessions, generated the conclusions listed below. The physicochemical characterisation information identified as important for environmental studies included measures of aggregation/agglomeration/dispersability, size, dissolution (solubility), surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry/composition, with the assumption that chemical composition would already be known. There is a need to have test materials for ecotoxicology, and several substances are potentially useful, including TiO 2 nanoparticles, polystyrene beads labelled with fluorescent dyes, and silver nanoparticles. Some of these test materials could then be developed into certified reference materials over time. No clear consensus was reached regarding the classification of nanomaterials into categories to aid environmental studies, except that a chemistry-based classification system was a reasonable starting point, with some modifications. It was suggested, that additional work may be required

  19. Fiscal 1997 survey report. Feasibility study of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system (survey of the coal utilization in Pakistan); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa (Pakistan ni okeru sekitan riyo gaikyo chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper made a literature survey, hearing survey, site survey/study on the coal in Pakistan such as the coal utilization system and the environmental situation, etc., and aimed at pre-examination for the survey of the introduction of the environmentally friendly type coal utilization system to be planned in Pakistan in the future. The examination, data collection and preparation were conducted in terms of the following items: the structure of coal consumption in energy supply, structure of coal consumption, mainly of domestic brown coal consumption, the situation of coal utilization by industry and by region, environmental problems caused by coal utilization such as air pollution, the trend of policies of environmental regulation, etc. The literature on the following was obtained and surveyed: the situation of economy/energy in Pakistan, coal utilization technology by industrial field, and environmental protection technology. The hearing survey was made to institutions concerned, corporation groups and men of learning and experience. Site surveys were conducted for the typically selected coal utilization equipment and existing environmental protection equipment. 66 figs., 56 tabs.

  20. Research review. Interactions between environmental chemicals and drug biotransformation in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, A P

    1978-01-01

    Many factors influence the metabolism of drugs in man. Besides genetic factors, environmental factors may play a significant role in explaining the variation observed in the rates of drug metabolism between different individuals. Intentional or unintentional exposure to environmental chemicals could enhance or inhibit the activity of hepatic mixed function oxidases that metabolise drugs and other foreign chemicals, as well as endogenous substrates such as steroid hormones. A major source of such exposure may be occupational. Exposure to the heavy metal, lead, has been shown to inhibit drug metabolism; whereas intensive exposure to chlorinated insecticides, and other halogenated hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated biphenyls, has been shown to enhance the metabolism of test drugs such as antipyrine and phenylbutazone. An intentional source of exposure to foreign chemicals is cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke contains polycyclic hydrocarbons, which are known inducers of hepatic mixed function oxidases. A number of studies have shown that cigarette smoking can alter the pharmacological action and/or the metabolism of some drugs. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that cigarette smoking decreases the bioavailability of phenacetin and increases dosage requirements of theophylline by enhancing their rate of metabolism. Data, which are not very conclusive, indicate that heavy marijuana use may have an inhibitory effect on metabolism of some drugs and an inducing effect on others such as theophylline. Dietary factors may also play a significant role in the regulation of drug metabolism. Charcoal broiling which introduces polycyclic hydrocarbons into foods has been shown to enhance the metabolism of the test drug, antipyrine, and of such commonly used drugs as phenacetin and theophylline. Such intentional or unintentional exposure to environmental chemicals which may alter the rates of drug metabolism in man indicates the importance of individualisation of drug therapy.