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Sample records for environmentally compatible solid

  1. Integrated environmentally compatible soldering technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Frear, D.R.; Iman, R.L.; Keicher, D.M.; Lopez, E.P.; Peebles, H.C.; Sorensen, N.R.; Vianco, P.T.

    1994-05-01

    Chemical fluxes are typically used during conventional electronic soldering to enhance solder wettability. Most fluxes contain very reactive, hazardous constituents that require special storage and handling. Corrosive flux residues that remain on soldered parts can severely degrade product reliability. The residues are removed with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC), or other hazardous solvents that contribute to ozone depletion, release volatile organic compounds into the atmosphere, or add to the solvent waste stream. Alternative materials and processes that offer the potential for the reduction or elimination of cleaning are being developed to address these environmental issues. Timing of the effort is critical, since the targeted chemicals will soon be heavily taxed or banned. DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (DOE/EM) has supported Sandia National Laboratories` Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration (ECMID). Part of the ECM program involves the integration of several environmentally compatible soldering technologies for assembling electronics devices. Fluxless or {open_quotes}low-residue/no clean{close_quotes} soldering technologies (conventional and ablative laser processing, controlled atmospheres, ultrasonic tinning, protective coatings, and environmentally compatible fluxes) have been demonstrated at Sandia (SNL/NM), the University of California at Berkeley, and Allied Signal Aerospace-Kansas City Division (AS-KCD). The university demonstrations were directed under the guidance of Sandia staff. Results of the FY93 Soldering ID are presented in this report.

  2. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, Thomas P.; Marshall, John; Hecht, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) will evaluate the Martian environment for soil and dust-related hazards to human exploration as part of the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Sponsored by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise, MECA's goal is to evaluate potential geochemical and environmental hazards that may confront future martian explorers, and to guide HEDS scientists in the development of high fidelity Mars soil simulants. In addition to objectives related to human exploration, the MECA data set will be rich in information relevant to basic geology, paleoclimate, and exobiology issues. The integrated MECA payload contains a wet-chemistry laboratory, a microscopy station, an electrometer to characterize the electrostatics of the soil and its environment, and arrays of material patches to study the abrasive and adhesive properties of soil grains. MECA is allocated a mass of 10 kg and a peak power usage of 15 W within an enclosure of 35 x 25 x 15 cm (figures I and 2). The Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) consists of four identical cells that will accept samples from surface and subsurface regions accessible to the Lander's robotic arm, mix them with water, and perform extensive analysis of the solution. Using an array of ion-specific electrodes (ISEs), cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical techniques, the chemistry cells will wet soil samples for measurement of basic soil properties of pH, redox potential, and conductivity. Total dissolved material, as well as targeted ions will be detected to the ppm level, including important exobiological ions such as Na, K+, Ca++, Mg++, NH4+, Cl, S04-, HC03, as well as more toxic ions such as Cu++, Pb++, Cd++, Hg++, and C104-. MECA's microscopy station combines optical and atomic-force microscopy (AFM) to image dust and soil particles from millimeters to nanometers in size. Illumination by red, green, and blue LEDs is augmented by an ultraviolet LED intended to excite

  3. Water-compatible magnetic imprinted nanoparticles served as solid-phase extraction sorbents for selective determination of trace 17beta-estradiol in environmental water samples by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yi; Gao, Ruixia; Shi, Lu; Liu, Dechun; Tang, Yuhai; Guo, Zengjun

    2015-05-29

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a potential risk for wildlife and humans for their existence in water. The efficient extraction and clean-up steps are required before detection of low concentration levels of EDCs. In this work, a novel water-compatible magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles is synthesized for the selective extraction of 17β-estradiol (E2) in environmental water samples. The preparation is carried out by introducing aldehyde groups to the surface of amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles through a simple one-step modification, followed by copolymerization of functional monomer gelatin and template E2 via surface imprinting technique. The gelatin with abundant active groups could not only act as functional monomer reacting with template, but also assemble covalently at the surface of magnetic nanoparticles. At the same time, gelatin would improve the water-compatibility of imprinted materials for attaining high extraction efficiency. To obtain high imprinting effect, the preparation conditions are optimized in detail using Central composite design-response surface methodology. The resultant polymers have uniform spherical shape with a shell thickness of about 8nm, stable crystalline form, and super-paramagnetic property. Meanwhile, the obtained polymers have high capacity of 12.87mgg(-1) and satisfactory selectivity to template molecule. To testify the feasibility of the magnetic imprinted polymers in sample pretreatment, a method for determination of trace E2 in environmental water samples was set up by combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE) using the prepared polymers as sorbents and HPLC for rapid isolation and determination of E2. The limit of detection of proposed method is 0.04ngmL(-1), the intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) are less than 4.6% and 5.7%, respectively. The recoveries of E2 from environmental water samples are in the range from 88.3% to 99.1% with the RSDs less than 7.2%. Copyright

  4. Compatibility and stability of valsartan in a solid pharmaceutical formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamíris Amanda Júlio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Valsartan (VAL is a highly selective blocker of the angiotensin II receptor that has been widely used in the treatment of hypertension. Active pharmaceutical ingredient compatibility with excipients (crospovidone, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose and titanium dioxide is usually evaluated in solid pharmaceutical development. Compatibility and stability can be evaluated by liquid chromatography. Studies were performed using binary mixtures of 1:1 (w/w VAL/excipient; samples were stored under accelerated stability test conditions (40 ºC at 75% relative humidity. The results indicate that VAL is incompatible with crospovidone and hypromellose, which reduced the VAL content and gave rise to new peaks in the chromatogram due to degradation products.

  5. Vapor-solid-solid grown Ge nanowires at integrated circuit compatible temperature by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongyunshen; Song, Yuxin; Zhang, Zhenpu; Sun, Hao; Han, Yi; Li, Yaoyao; Zhang, Liyao; Xue, Zhongying; Di, Zengfeng; Wang, Shumin

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate Au-assisted vapor-solid-solid (VSS) growth of Ge nanowires (NWs) by molecular beam epitaxy at the substrate temperature of ˜180 °C, which is compatible with the temperature window for Si-based integrated circuit. Low temperature grown Ge NWs hold a smaller size, similar uniformity, and better fit with Au tips in diameter, in contrast to Ge NWs grown at around or above the eutectic temperature of Au-Ge alloy in the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth. Six ⟨110⟩ growth orientations were observed on Ge (110) by the VSS growth at ˜180 °C, differing from only one vertical growth direction of Ge NWs by the VLS growth at a high temperature. The evolution of NWs dimension and morphology from the VLS growth to the VSS growth is qualitatively explained by analyzing the mechanism of the two growth modes.

  6. Reuse of a treated red mud bauxite waste: studies on environmental compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, Claudia; Cremisini, Carlo; Massanisso, Paolo; Pinto, Valentina; Torricelli, Leonardo

    2005-01-14

    Red mud is the major solid waste produced in the process of alumina extraction from bauxite (Bayer process). Environmental "compatibility" of a treated red mud was studied in order to evaluate its possible recycling in environmental compartments. The leaching test requested by the Italian law on treated solid waste to be "re-introduced in the environment" was performed on this material. Moreover, in order to better evaluate the environmental compatibility, three different types of eco-toxicological tests were applied (Microtox test, ASTM microalgae toxicity test and sea urchin embryo toxicity test). These "chemical" and eco-toxicological tests gave encouraging results. The possibility to use this material for treating contaminated waters and soils was evaluated, again with particular attention to the Italian regulatory system, through experiments on the treated red mud metal trapping ability and on the subsequent release of trapped metals, at low pH conditions. The treated red mud showed a general high metal trapping capacity and the release at low pH was generally low.

  7. Environmental compatibility of CRYOPLANE the cryogenic-fuel aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, H.G. [Daimler Benz Aerospace Airbus, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    `CRYOPLANE` is the project name for an aircraft powered by cryogenic fuel, either liquid natural gas (LNG, mainly consisting of methane) or liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}). Emission of CO{sub 2}, unburnt hydrocarbons, soot and sulfur will be completely avoided by hydrogen combustion: LH{sub 2} is an extremely pure liquid. Emission of water as a primary combustion product is increased by a factor of 2.6. Exhaust gases behind hydrogen engines contain more water than behind kerosene engines, and hence can form contrails under a wider range of atmospheric conditions. Liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft promise big advantages relative to kerosene aircraft in terms of environmental compatibility. (R.P.)

  8. The MSP 2001 Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, M. H.; Meloy, T. P.; Anderson, M. S.; Buehler, M. G.; Frant, M. A.; Grannan, S. M.; Fuerstenau, D.; Keller, H. U.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Marshall, J.

    1999-09-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) will evaluate the Martian environment for soil and dust-related hazards to human exploration as part of the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Sponsored by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise, MECA's goal is to evaluate potential geochemical and environmental hazards that may confront future Martian explorers, and to guide HEDS scientists in the development of high fidelity Mars soil simulants. The integrated MECA payload contains a wet-chemistry laboratory, a microscopy station, an electrometer to characterize the electrostatics of the soil and its environment, and arrays of material patches to study the abrasive and adhesive properties of soil grains. The instrument will acquire soil samples with a robotic arm equipped with a camera. MECA will examine surface and subsurface soil and dust in order to characterize particle size, shape, hardness, and also physical characteristics that may provide clues to mineralogy. MECA will characterize soil/water mixtures with respect to pH, redox potential, total dissolved ions, and trace toxins. MECA will determine the nature of electrostatic charging associated with excavation of soil, and the influence of ionizing radiation on material properties. It will also observe natural dust accumulation on engineering materials. To accomplish these objectives, MECA is allocated a mass of 10 kg within an enclosure of 35 x 25 x 15 cm. The Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) consists of four identical cells that will accept samples from surface and subsurface regions accessible to the Lander's robotic arm, mix them with water, and perform extensive analysis of the solution. Ion-selective electrodes and related sensors will evaluate total dissolved solids, redox potential, pH, and the concentration of many soluble ions and gases in wet Martian soil. These electrodes can detect potentially dangerous heavy-metal ions, emitted pathogenic gases, and the soil

  9. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment MECA Abrasion Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Anderson, M. S.; Hinde, B. D.; Hecht, M. H.; Pike, W. T.; Marshall, J.; Meloy, T. P.; Cobbly, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) experiment, an instrument suite to be flown on Mars Surveyor 2001, will include a tool for doing simple mineralogical scratch and streak tests on particles from the Martian regolith. The Abrasion Tool will be applied to particles that adhere to highly polished substrates of various hardnesses. Granular soil components will be subjected to a compressive force of about 3 N using a leaf spring. The spring will be applied with a paraffin actuator capable of a 0.76 mm throw to achieve a maximum displacement of about 7.5 mm at the tip of the tool. The pressure per grain will be dependent on the grain size, the number of grains that adhere to the substrate and the number of grains in compression. The pressure per particle is expected to be on the order of 100 MPa - 1 GPa. The MECA sample wheel containing the substrates will be rotated after the particles are placed in compression to produce scratches or pits. A primary goal of the Abrasion Tool is to identify quartz (Mohs' hardness = 7) using substrates of varying hardnesses. Quartz is considered hazardous to future human explorers of Mars because it can cause silicosis of the lungs if it is of respirable size. It is also hazardous to machinery, structures, and space suits because of its ability to abrade and scratch surfaces. Since large quantities of minerals harder than quartz are not expected, any scratches produced on polished quartz substrates might be reasonably attributed to quartz particles, although there may be minerals such as impact metamorphic diamond in the soils. Careful calibration of the tool will be necessary to ensure that grains are not overloaded; for example, a steel ball pressed into glass will produce a Hertzian fracture, even though it is softer than glass. Other minerals, such as magnetite (Mohs'hardness = 6.5) have been shown to scratch glass ceramics such as Zerodur (Mohs' hardness = 6.5). Thus, minerals can be differentiated: note that

  10. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) Abrasion Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Anderson, M. S.; Hinde, B. D.; Hecht, M. H.; Pike, W. T.; Marshall, J. R.; Meloy, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) experiment, an instrument suite to be flown on Mars Surveyor 2001, will include a tool for doing simple mineralogical scratch and streak tests on particles from the Martian regolith. The Abrasion Tool will be applied to particles that adhere themselves to highly polished substrates of various hardnesses. Granular soil components will be subjected to a compressive force of about 3 N using a leaf spring. The spring will be applied with a paraffin actuator capable of a 0.76 mm throw to achieve a maximum displacement of about 7.5 mm at the tip of the tool. The pressure per grain will be dependent on the grain size, the number of grains that adhere to the substrate and the number of grains in compression. The pressure per particle is expected to be on the order of 100 MPa - 1 GPa. The MECA sample wheel containing the substrates will be rotated after the particles are placed in compression to produce scratches or pits. A primary goal of the Abrasion Tool is to identify quartz (Mohs' hardness = 7) using substrates of varying hardnesses. Quartz is considered hazardous to future human explorers of Mars because it can cause silicosis of the lungs if it is of respirable size. It is also hazardous to machinery, structures, and space suits because of its ability to abrade and scratch surfaces. Since large quantities of minerals harder than quartz are not expected, any scratches produced on polished quartz substrates might be reasonably attributed to quartz particles, although there may be minerals such as impact metamorphic diamond in the soils. Careful calibration of the tool will be necessary to ensure that grains are not overloaded; for example, a steel ball pressed into glass will produce a Hertzian fracture, even though it is softer than glass. Other minerals, such as magnetite (Mohs' hardness = 6.5) have been shown to scratch glass ceramics such as Zerodur (Mohs' hardness = 6.5). Thus, minerals can be differentiated

  11. Risperidone – Solid-state characterization and pharmaceutical compatibility using thermal and non-thermal techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Josiane Souza Pereira; Veronez, Isabela Pianna; Rodrigues, Larissa Lopes [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Trevisan, Marcello G. [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil); National Institute of Bioanalytics Science and Technology – INCTBio, Institute of Chemistry – UNICAMP, 13084-653, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Garcia, Jerusa Simone, E-mail: jerusa.garcia@unifal-mg.edu.br [Laboratório de Análise e Caracterização de Fármacos – LACFar, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: • DSC was used to characterize Risperidone and study its compatibility with excipients. • FT-IR associated with PCA was used to complement DSC data. • LC analyzes confirmed the DSC and FT-IR/PCA results. • Risperidone was incompatible with three among five excipients evaluated. - Abstract: A full solid-state characterization of risperidone was conducted using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine its physicochemical properties and polymorphism. The primary aim of this work was to study the compatibility of risperidone with pharmaceutical excipients using DSC to obtain and compare the curves of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the excipients with their 1:1 (w/w) binary mixtures. These same binary mixtures were turned to room temperature and analyzed by FT-IR combined with principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate solid-state incompatibilities. The chemical incompatibilities of these samples were verified using a stability-indicating liquid chromatography (LC) method to assay for the API and evaluate the formation of degradation products. All of these methods showed incompatibilities between risperidone and the excipients magnesium stearate, lactose and cellulose microcrystalline.

  12. All-solid-state potentiometric sensors for ascorbic acid by using a screen-printed compatible solid contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltsistas, Panayotis G.; Prodromidis, Mamas I.; Efstathiou, Constantinos

    2004-01-23

    The development of all-solid-state potentiometric ion selective electrodes for monitoring of ascorbic acid, by using a screen-printed compatible solid contact is described. The applied methodology is based on the use of PVC membrane modified with some firstly-tested ionophores (triphenyltin(IV)chloride, triphenyltin(IV)hydroxide and palmitoyl-L-ascorbic acid) and a novel one synthesized in our laboratory (dibutyltin(IV) diascorbate). Synthesis protocol and some preliminary identification studies are given. A conductive graphite-based polymer thick film ink was used as an internal solid contact between the graphite electrode and the PVC membrane. The presence and the nature of the solid contact (plain or doped with lanthanum 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPI)) seem to enhance the analytical performance of the electrodes in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range, and response time. The analytical performance of the constructed electrodes was evaluated with potentiometry, constant-current chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The interference effect of various compounds was also tested. The potential response of the optimized Ph{sub 3}SnCl-based electrode was linear against ascorbic acid concentration range 0.005-5.0 mM. The applicability of the proposed sensors in real samples was also tested. The detection limit was 0.002 mM ascorbic acid (50 mM phosphate, pH 5 in 50 mM KCl). The slope of the electrodes was super-Nernstian and pH dependent, indicating a mechanism involving a combination of charge transfer and ion exchange processes. Fabrication of screen-printed ascorbate ISEs has also been demonstrated.

  13. Matrix compatible solid phase microextraction coating, a greener approach to sample preparation in vegetable matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccarato, Attilio; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2016-09-01

    This work proposes the novel PDMS/DVB/PDMS fiber as a greener strategy for analysis by direct immersion solid phase microextraction (SPME) in vegetables. SPME is an established sample preparation approach that has not yet been adequately explored for food analysis in direct immersion mode due to the limitations of the available commercial coatings. The robustness and endurance of this new coating were investigated by direct immersion extractions in raw blended vegetables without any further sample preparation steps. The PDMS/DVB/PDMS coating exhibited superior features related to the capability of the external PDMS layer to protect the commercial coating, and showed improvements in terms of extraction capability and in the cleanability of the coating surface. In addition to having contributed to the recognition of the superior features of this new fiber concept before commercialization, the outcomes of this work serve to confirm advancements in the matrix compatibility of the PDMS-modified fiber, and open new prospects for the development of greener high-throughput analytical methods in food analysis using solid phase microextraction in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA): Identifying the Hazards of the Martian Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, T. P.; Hecht, M. H.; Anderson, M. S.; Frant, M. A.; Fuerstenau, S. D.; Keller, H. U.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Marshall, J.; Pike, W. T.; Quate, C. F.

    1999-09-01

    Sometime in the next decade NASA will decide whether to send a human expedition to explore the planet Mars. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) has been selected by NASA to evaluate the Martian environment for soil and dust hazards to human exploration. The integrated MECA payload contains three elements: a wet-chemistry laboratory, a microscopy station, and enhancements to a lander robot-arm system incorporating arrays of material patches and an electrometer to identify triboelectric charging during soil excavation. The wet-chemistry laboratory will evaluate samples of Martian soil in water to determine the total dissolved solids, redox potential, pH, and quantify the concentration of many soluble ions using ion-selective electrodes. These electrodes can detect potentially dangerous heavy-metal ions, emitted pathogenic gases, and the soil's corrosive potential. MECA's microscopy station combines optical and atomic-force microscopy with a robot-arm camera to provide imaging over nine orders of magnitude, from meters to nanometers. Soil particle properties including size, shape, color, hardness, adhesive potential (electrostatic and magnetic), will be determined on the microscope stage using an ar-ray of sample receptacles and collection substrates, and an abrasion tool,. The simple, rugged atomic-force microscope will image in the submicron size range and has the capability of performing a particle-by-particle analysis of the dust and soil. Although selected by NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space Enterprise, the MECA instrument suite also has the capability to address basic geology, paleoclimate, and exobiology issues. To understand both contemporaneous and ancient processes on Mars, the mineralogical, petrological, and reactivity of Martian surface materials should be constrained: the NMCA experiment will shed light on these quantities through its combination of chemistry and microscopy. On Earth, the earliest forms of life are

  15. Structure and blood compatibility of highly oriented PLA/MWNTs composites produced by solid hot drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqiu; Zhao, Xiaowen; Ye, Lin; Coates, Phil; Caton-Rose, Fin; Martyn, Michasel

    2014-03-01

    Highly oriented poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) composites were fabricated through solid hot drawing technology in an effort to improve the mechanical properties and blood biocompatibility of PLA as blood-contacting medical devices. It was found that proper MWNTs content and drawing orientation can improve the tensile strength and modulus of PLA dramatically. With the increase in draw ratio, the cold crystallization peak became smaller, and the glass transition and the melting peak of PLA moved to high temperature, while the crystallinity increased, and the grain size decreased, indicating the stress-induced crystallization of PLA during drawing. MWNTs showed a nucleation effect on PLA, leading to the rise in the melting temperature, increase in crystallinity and reduction of spherulite size for the composites. Moreover, the intensity of (002) diffraction of MWNTs increased with draw ratio, indicating that MWNTs were preferentially aligned and oriented during drawing. Microstructure observation demonstrated that PLA matrix had an ordered fibrillar bundle structure, and MWNTs in the composite tended to align parallel to the drawing direction. In addition, the dispersion of MWNTs in PLA was also improved by orientation. Introduction of MWNTs and drawing orientation could significantly enhance the blood compatibility of PLA by prolonging kinetic clotting time, reducing hemolysis ratio and platelet activation.

  16. Compatibility of global environmental assessment methods of buildings with an Egyptian energy code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Kamal Mohamed Shamseldin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental assessment methods of buildings had emerged over the world to set environmental classifications for buildings, such as the American method “Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design” (LEED the most widespread one. Several countries decided to put their own assessment methods to catch up with the previous orientation, such as Egypt. The main goal of putting the Egyptian method was to impose the voluntary local energy efficiency codes. Through a local survey, it was clearly noted that many of the construction makers in Egypt do not even know the local method, and whom are interested in the environmental assessment of buildings seek to apply LEED rather than anything else. Therefore, several questions appear about the American method compatibility with the Egyptian energy codes – that contain the most exact characteristics and requirements and give the outmost credible energy efficiency results for buildings in Egypt-, and the possibility of finding another global method that gives closer results to those of the Egyptian codes, especially with the great variety of energy efficiency measurement approaches used among the different assessment methods. So, the researcher is trying to find the compatibility of using non-local assessment methods with the local energy efficiency codes. Thus, if the results are not compatible, the Egyptian government should take several steps to increase the local building sector awareness of the Egyptian method to benefit these codes, and it should begin to enforce it within the building permits after a proper guidance and feedback.

  17. Application of Biosphere Compatibility Indicator for Assessment of the Effectiveness of Environmental Protection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaeva, N. V.; Vorobyov, S. A.; Chernyaeva, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The article is devoted to the issue of using the biosphere compatibility indicator to assess the effectiveness of environmental protection methods. The indicator biosphere compatibility was proposed by the vice-president of RAASN (Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences), Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor V.I. Ilyichev. This indicator allows one to assess not only qualitatively but also quantitatively the degree of urban areas development from the standpoint of preserving the biosphere in urban ecosystems while performing the city’s main functions. The integral biosphere compatibility indicator allows us to assess not only the current ecological situation in the territory under consideration but also to plan the forecast of its changes for the new construction projects implementation or for the reconstruction of the existing ones. The biosphere compatibility indicator, which is a mathematical expression of the tripartite balance (technosphere, biosphere and population of this area), allows us to quantify the effectiveness degree of different methods for environment protection to choose the most effective one under these conditions.

  18. Soil Analysis Micro-Mission Concepts Derived from the MSP 2001 Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, M. H.; Meloy, T. P.; Anderson, M. S.; Buehler, M. G.; Frant, M. A.; Grannan, S. M.; Fuerstenau, S. D.; Keller, H. U.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Marshall, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) will evaluate the Martian environment for soil and dust-related hazards to human exploration as part of the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. The integrated MECA payload contains a wet-chemistry laboratory, a microscopy station, an electrometer to characterize the electrostatic environment, and arrays of material patches to study abrasion and adhesion. Heritage will be all-important for low cost micro-missions, and adaptations of instruments developed for the Pathfinder, '98 and '01 Landers should be strong contenders for '03 flights. This talk has three objectives: (1) Familiarize the audience with MECA instrument capabilities; (2) present concepts for stand-alone and/or mobile versions of MECA instruments; and (3) broaden the context of the MECA instruments from human exploration to a comprehensive scientific survey of Mars. Due to time limitations, emphasis will be on the chemistry and microscopy experiments. Ion-selective electrodes and related sensors in MECA's wet-chemistry laboratory will evaluate total dissolved solids, redox potential, pH, and the concentration of many soluble ions and gases in wet Martian soil. These electrodes can detect potentially dangerous heavy-metal ions, emitted pathogenic gases, and the soil's corrosive potential, and experiments will include cyclic voltammetry and anodic stripping. For experiments beyond 2001, enhancements could allow multiple use of the cells (for mobile experiments) and reagent addition (for quantitative mineralogical and exobiological analysis). MECA's microscopy station combines optical and atomic-force microscopy (AFM) in an actively focused, controlled illumination environment to image particles from millimeters to nanometers in size. Careful selection of substrates allows controlled experiments in adhesion, abrasion, hardness, aggregation, magnetic and other properties. Special tools allow primitive manipulation (brushing and scraping) of samples

  19. Environmental Assessment for the Solids Waste Pond in Katenguenha, Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Inocêncio Bau-Satula; Mayda Ulloa-Carcasés; Juelmo Gola-Cahimba

    2017-01-01

    Deposition of solid wastes in the Katenguenha dump site is a serious environmental issue in the locality of Huambo (Angola). The objective of this work is to assess the environmental impact caused by solid waste deposition. The integrated relevant criteria method was used to identify and evaluate the environmental impact. The results indicated that the solid waste dump site has a negative impact on all environmental aspects (physical, biological and social). They are category II environment i...

  20. Compatible solute addition to biological systems treating waste/wastewater to counteract osmotic and other environmental stresses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyrides, Ioannis; Stuckey, David C

    2017-11-01

    This study reviews the addition of compatible solutes to biological systems as a strategy to counteract osmolarity and other environmental stresses. At high osmolarity many microorganisms accumulate organic solutes called "compatible solutes" in order to balance osmotic pressure between the cytoplasm and the environment. These organic compounds are called compatible solutes because they can function inside the cell without the need for special adaptation of the intracellular enzymes, and also serve as protein stabilizers in the presence of high ionic strength. Moreover, the compatible solutes strategy is regularly being employed by the cell, not only under osmotic stress at high salinity, but also under other extreme environmental conditions such as low temperature, freezing, heat, starvation, dryness, recalcitrant compounds and solvent stresses. The accumulation of these solutes from the environment has energetically a lower cost than de novo synthesis. Based on this cell mechanism several studies in the field of environmental biotechnology (most of them on biological wastewater treatment) employed this strategy by exogenously adding compatible solutes to the wastewater or medium in order to alleviate environmental stress. This current paper critically reviews and evaluates these studies, and examines the future potential of this approach. In addition to this, a strategy for the successful implementation of compatible solutes in biological systems is proposed.

  1. Water-compatible molecularly imprinted polymers for selective solid phase extraction of dencichine from the aqueous extract of Panax notoginseng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenhua; Xie, Hongkai; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Xiao; Ma, Xiuli; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    Specific molecularly imprinted polymers for dencichine were developed for the first time in this study by the bulk polymerization using phenylpyruvic acid and dl-tyrosine as multi-templates. The photographs confirmed that molecularly imprinted polymers prepared using N,N'-methylene diacrylamide as cross-linker and glycol dimethyl ether as porogen displayed excellent hydrophilicity. Selectivity, adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetics were investigated. The sample loading-washing-eluting solvent was optimized to evaluate the property of molecularly imprinted solid phase extract. Compared with LC/WCX-SPE, water-compatible molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction displayed more excellent specific adsorption performance. The extracted dencichine from Panax notoginseng with the purity of 98.5% and the average recovery of 85.6% (n=3) was obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Applicability of three-parameter equation of state of solids: compatibility with first principles approaches and application to solids

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, P B

    2003-01-01

    In a recent paper we have proposed a three-parameter equation of state (EOS) of solids, and applied it to a few isotherms and shown that the fits are uniformly excellent. In this paper a comprehensive comparison of the applicability of our model is made with seven existing three-parameter EOSs. We have applied our model along with seven existing three-parameter EOSs, with no constraint on the parameters, to accurate and model-independent isotherms of nine solids and studied the fitting accuracy and agreement of the fit parameters with experiment. Further, each of these nine isotherms is divided into three subsets, and the resulting subsets fitted with all the eight EOSs. The stability of the fitted stress-free bulk modulus B sub 0 and its pressure derivatives B' sub 0 and B'' sub 0 with variation in the compression range is compared. Furthermore, our EOS is applied to a large number of inorganic as well as organic solids, including alloy, glasses, rubbers and plastics; of widely divergent bonding and structur...

  3. Solid State compatibilities in CaO-CaO∙Al2O3-CaF2 system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Molina, S.

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In open atmosphere the two phases containing fluorine, C11A7∙CaF2 and 3CA∙CaF2, laying in the CaO-CaO∙Al2O3-CaF2 were synthesized. The synthesis of the 3CA∙CaF2 at 1.100°C was possible without loss of F, when the stoichiometric mixture of CA and CaF2 was pressed into tablets and was applied vacuum, avoiding in such a way the presence of moisture. According to TGA studies, the vapour pressure of phases containing fluorine, at 1.100°C is very low and follows this sequence: CaF2 2 11A7∙CaF2. At 1.000°C the system behaves as condensated. Verification of some compatibilities in solid state in the system CaO-CaO∙Al2O3-CaF2 at 1000°C has been done. Compatibility triangles found are the same described by Chaterjee, and different from the compatibilities given by Brisi and Rolando.Se han sintetizado en atmósfera abierta las dos fases fluoradas del sistema CaO-CaO∙Al2O3-CaF2: C11A7∙CaF2 y 3CA∙CaF2. La síntesis del 3CACaF2 a 1.100°C ha sido posible sin pérdida de F, cuando la mezcla estequiométrica de CA y CaF2 se empastilló a presión y aplicando vacío, como modo de evitar la presencia de humedad. De acuerdo con los resultados de Análisis Termogravimétrico, la presión de vapor de las fases fluoradas, a 1.100°C, es muy baja y sigue el orden: CaF2 2 11A7∙CaF2. A 1.000°C, el sistema se comporta como condensado. Se han verificado algunas relaciones de fases compatibles en estado sólido, en el sistema CaO-CaO∙Al2O3-CaF2, a 1.000°C. Las relaciones de fases compatibles que se han encontrado coinciden con aquéllas descritas por Chaterjee, y son diferentes a las encontradas por Brisi y Rolando.

  4. Integrated on-chip solid state capacitor based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers, grown using a CMOS temperature compatible process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Amin M.; Andersson, Rickard; Desmaris, Vincent; Enoksson, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Complete miniaturized on-chip integrated solid-state capacitors have been fabricated based on conformal coating of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs), using a CMOS temperature compatible microfabrication processes. The 5 μm long VACNFs, operating as electrode, are grown on a silicon substrate and conformally coated by aluminum oxide dielectric using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. The areal (footprint) capacitance density value of 11-15 nF/mm2 is realized with high reproducibility. The CMOS temperature compatible microfabrication, ultra-low profile (less than 7 μm thickness) and high capacitance density would enables direct integration of micro energy storage devices on the active CMOS chip, multi-chip package and passives on silicon or glass interposer. A model is developed to calculate the surface area of VACNFs and the effective capacitance from the devices. It is thereby shown that 71% of surface area of the VACNFs has contributed to the measured capacitance, and by using the entire area the capacitance can potentially be increased.

  5. Challenges of solid waste management and environmental ... - Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is widely accepted that Nigerian cities generally suffer in the area of effectively managing the high rate of solid waste generation in the country which poses great problems for good environmental sanitation and sustainable living of the citizens. The issues surrounding solid waste and its management in Nigerian ...

  6. Chemical compatibility study of melilite-type gallate solid electrolyte with different cathode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Alessandro [INSTM R.U. and Department of Chemistry–Physical Chemistry Division, University of Pavia, Pavia I-27100 (Italy); Felice, Valeria; Natali Sora, Isabella [INSTM R.U. and Department of Engineering, University of Bergamo, Dalmine, Bergamo I-24044 (Italy); Malavasi, Lorenzo [INSTM R.U. and Department of Chemistry–Physical Chemistry Division, University of Pavia, Pavia I-27100 (Italy); Tealdi, Cristina, E-mail: cristina.tealdi@unipv.it [INSTM R.U. and Department of Chemistry–Physical Chemistry Division, University of Pavia, Pavia I-27100 (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Chemical reactivity between cathodes and electrolytes is a crucial issue for long term SOFCs stability and performances. In this study, chemical reactivity between selected cathodic materials and the ionic conducting melilite La{sub 1.50}Sr{sub 0.50}Ga{sub 3}O{sub 7.25} has been extensively investigated by X-ray powder diffraction in a wide temperature range (up to 1573 K). Perovskite-type La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3−d} and La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}Cu{sub 0.2}O{sub 3−d} and K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}-type La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+d} were selected as cathode materials. The results of this study allow identifying the most suitable electrode material to be used in combination with the melilite-type gallate electrolyte and set the basis for future work on this novel system. - Graphical abstract: Chemical reactivity between cathodes and electrolytes is a crucial issue for long term SOFCs stability and performances. In this study, chemical reactivity between selected cathodic materials and the ionic conducting melilite La{sub 1.50}Sr{sub 0.50}Ga{sub 3}O{sub 7.25} has been extensively investigated by means of X-ray powder diffraction. - Highlights: • Chemical compatibility between melilite-type gallate and cathodes for SOFCs up to 1573 K. • No reactivity observed between La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}Cu{sub 0.2}O{sub 3−d} and La{sub 1.50}Sr{sub 0.50}Ga{sub 3}O{sub 7.25}. • Reactivity observed between La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}MnO{sub 3−d} and La{sub 1.50}Sr{sub 0.50}Ga{sub 3}O{sub 7.25}. • Significant reactivity observed between La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+d} and La{sub 1.50}Sr{sub 0.50}Ga{sub 3}O{sub 7.25}.

  7. Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor-Compatible, High-Mobility, ⟨111⟩-Oriented GaSb Nanowires Enabled by Vapor-Solid-Solid Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zai-Xing; Liu, Lizhe; Yip, SenPo; Li, Dapan; Shen, Lifan; Zhou, Ziyao; Han, Ning; Hung, Tak Fu; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Wu, Xinglong; Song, Aimin; Ho, Johnny C

    2017-04-25

    Using CMOS-compatible Pd catalysts, we demonstrated the formation of high-mobility ⟨111⟩-oriented GaSb nanowires (NWs) via vapor-solid-solid (VSS) growth by surfactant-assisted chemical vapor deposition through a complementary experimental and theoretical approach. In contrast to NWs formed by the conventional vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism, cylindrical-shaped Pd5Ga4 catalytic seeds were present in our Pd-catalyzed VSS-NWs. As solid catalysts, stoichiometric Pd5Ga4 was found to have the lowest crystal surface energy and thus giving rise to a minimal surface diffusion as well as an optimal in-plane interface orientation at the seed/NW interface for efficient epitaxial NW nucleation. These VSS characteristics led to the growth of slender NWs with diameters down to 26.9 ± 3.5 nm. Over 95% high crystalline quality NWs were grown in ⟨111⟩ orientation for a wide diameter range of between 10 and 70 nm. Back-gated field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated using the Pd-catalyzed GaSb NWs exhibit a superior peak hole mobility of ∼330 cm2 V-1 s-1, close to the mobility limit for a NW channel diameter of ∼30 nm with a free carrier concentration of ∼1018 cm-3. This suggests that the NWs have excellent homogeneity in phase purity, growth orientation, surface morphology and electrical characteristics. Contact printing process was also used to fabricate large-scale assembly of Pd-catalyzed GaSb NW parallel arrays, confirming the potential constructions and applications of these high-performance electronic devices.

  8. Biomolecular stiffness detection based on positive frequency shift of CMOS compatible gigahertz solidly mounted resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingrui; Pan, Shuting; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Hao; Pang, Wei; Duan, Xuexin

    2017-10-15

    In this work, gigahertz solidly mounted resonators (SMRs) (2.5GHz) were designed and fabricated to construct a novel particle-resonator system to achieve the biomolecular stiffness sensing in real time. The positive frequency shift of the system was used to estimate the stiffness of biomolecules connecting between the SMR and attached particles. The working principle was revealed by the mathematical analysis of the general block-spring model of the system. Further interpretations about the mechanism of such elastic interaction from the perspective of acoustic resonant modes of SMRs were given by finite element method. Biotin-streptavidin, antibody and antigen binding system were used as model molecular linkers to study the frequency shift varied with different particle diameters and particle densities. Different linker stiffness was realized by adjusting the concentrations of antigens connected with particles which form specific binding with antibodies immobilized on the SMR. The results fairly agree with the simulation results demonstrating the proposed particle-resonator system as an effective method to realize the real-time biomolecular stiffness detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. CMOS-compatible method for doping of buried vertical polysilicon structures by solid phase diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkulets, Yury [Micron Semiconductor Israel Ltd., Qiryat Gat 82109 (Israel); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 8410501 (Israel); Silber, Amir; Ripp, Alexander; Sokolovsky, Mark [Micron Semiconductor Israel Ltd., Qiryat Gat 82109 (Israel); Shalish, Ilan, E-mail: shalish@bgu.ac.il [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 8410501 (Israel)

    2016-03-28

    Polysilicon receives attention nowadays as a means to incorporate 3D-structured photonic devices into silicon processes. However, doping of buried layers of a typical 3D structure has been a challenge. We present a method for doping of buried polysilicon layers by solid phase diffusion. Using an underlying silicon oxide layer as a dopant source facilitates diffusion of dopants into the bottom side of the polysilicon layer. The polysilicon is grown on top of the oxide layer, after the latter has been doped by ion implantation. Post-growth heat treatment drives in the dopant from the oxide into the polysilicon. To model the process, we studied the diffusion of the two most common silicon dopants, boron (B) and phosphorus (P), using secondary ion mass spectroscopy profiles. Our results show that shallow concentration profiles can be achieved in a buried polysilicon layer using the proposed technique. We present a quantitative 3D model for the diffusion of B and P in polysilicon, which turns the proposed method into an engineerable technique.

  10. Water-compatible dummy molecularly imprinted resin prepared in aqueous solution for green miniaturized solid-phase extraction of plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingyu; Chang, Xiaochen; Wu, Xingyu; Yan, Hongyuan; Qiao, Fengxia

    2016-08-05

    A water-compatible dummy molecularly imprinted resin (MIR) was synthesized in water using melamine, urea, and formaldehyde as hydrophilic monomers of co-polycondensation. A triblock copolymer (PEO-PPO-PEO, P123) was used as porogen to dredge the network structure of MIR, and N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, which has similar shape and size to the target analytes, was the dummy template of molecular imprinting. The obtained MIR was used as the adsorbent in a green miniaturized solid-phase extraction (MIR⬜mini-SPE) of plant growth regulators, and there was no organic solvent used in the entire MIR⬜mini-SPE procedure. The calibration linearity of MIR⬜mini-SPE⬜HPLC method was obtained in a range 5⬜250ngmL(↙1) for IAA, IPA, IBA, and NAA with correlation coefficient (r) Ⱕ0.9998. Recoveries at three spike levels are in the range of 87.6⬜100.0% for coconut juice with relative standard deviations Ⱔ8.1%. The MIR⬜mini-SPE method possesses the advantages of environmental friendliness, simple operation, and high efficiency, so it is potential to apply the green pretreatment strategy to extraction of trace analytes in aqueous samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental assessment of solid waste systems and technologies: EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Janus Torsten; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Hansen, Trine Lund

    2006-01-01

    A new model has been developed for evaluating the overall resource consumption and environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems by the use of life cycle assessment. The model is named EASEWASTE (Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technologies) and is able...... to compare different waste management strategies, waste treatment methods and waste process technologies. The potential environmental impacts can be traced back to the most important processes and waste fractions that contribute to the relevant impacts. A model like EASEWASTE can be used by waste planners...... to optimize current waste management systems with respect to environmental achievements and by authorities to Set Guidelines and regulations and to evaluate different strategies for handling of waste. The waste hierarchy has for decades been governing waste management but the ranking of handling approaches...

  12. A state-of-the-art report on the evaluation technology of the environmental compatibility of nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Gyu; Oh, Won Zin; Cho, Il Hoon; Ahn, Ki Jung; Kim Young Min

    1997-09-01

    In order to evaluate the environmental compatibility of nuclear fuel cycle, the methodologies for quantifying evaluation factors and the global trend of the back-end nuclear fuel cycle is reviewed. The evaluation methods of monetary values of radiation dose are demonstrate. There are Human Capital, Legal Compensation Principles, Insurance Premium Analogies, and Willingness to Pay. It can be considered that the estimation of public acceptance cost is the estimation problem of economic value of environmental property. In this report, contingent valuation method is discussed, which is one of the estimation methods of economic value. The recent research on residual radiation detection system is analyzed. (author). 7 refs., 10 tabs., 11 figs

  13. Thermodynamic study of binary system Propafenone Hydrocloride with Metoprolol Tartrate: solid-liquid equilibrium and compatibility with α-lactose monohydrate and corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Daniela-Crina; Pincu, Elena; Meltzer, Viorica

    2013-05-20

    Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) for binary mixture of Propafenone Hydrocloride (PP) with Metoprolol Tartrate (MT) was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and corresponding activity coefficients were calculated. Simple eutectic behavior for this system was observed. The excess thermodynamic functions: G(E) and S(E) for the pre-, post-, and eutectic composition have been obtained using the computed activity coefficients data of the eutectic phase with their excess chemical potentials μi(E) (i=1, 2). The experimental solid-liquid phase temperatures were compared with predictions obtained from available eutectic equilibrium models. The results indicate non-ideality in this mixture. Also, the compatibility of each component and their eutectic mixture with usual excipients was investigated, and the DSC experiments indicate possible weak interactions with α-lactose monohydrate and compatibility with corn starch. The results obtained were confirmed by FT-IR measurements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. PPLN-based photon-pair source compatible with solid state quantum memories and telecom optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latypov, I. Z.; Shkalikov, A. V.; Akat'ev, D. O.; Kalachev, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    We report on the realization of a tunable source of correlated photon pairs compatible with telecommunication networks and quantum memories involving dielectric crystals doped by Nd3+ ions. The source is based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a 25 mm periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped by 532 nm cw laser. Spectral and correlation characteristics of the corresponding heralded single-photon source compatible with quantum memories are presented.

  15. Compatibility study towards monolithic self-charging power unit based on all-solid thin-film solar module and battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbaumhüter, Florian; Agbo, Solomon N.; Tsai, Chih-Long; Astakhov, Oleksandr; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Rau, Uwe; Merdzhanova, Tsvetelina

    2017-10-01

    Aiming at the development of a monolithic integrated all-solid-state self-rechargeable power unit, we perform a V-I characteristics compatibility study for the integration of such a device having a thin-film silicon multi-junction photovoltaic (PV) module and a thin-film solid Li//lithium phosphorus oxynitride//LiCoO2 battery. The battery and PV module are connected to mimic a monolithic module-to-storage cell device and the performance of this device in various temperature conditions has been tested. Few issues regarding the matching of the battery and PV module characteristics are identified for improvement. The concept of the integrated all-solid-state PV-battery solution appears viable especially in three-terminal device configuration.

  16. Determination of carbon-14 in environmental level, solid reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blowers, Paul, E-mail: paul.blowers@cefas.co.uk [Cefas Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Caborn, Jane, E-mail: jane.a.caborn@nnl.co.uk [NNL, Springfields, Salwick, Preston, Lancashire, PR4 0XJ (United Kingdom); Dell, Tony [Veterinary Laboratories Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, KT15 3NB (United Kingdom); Gingell, Terry [DSTL, Radiation Protection Services, Crescent Road, Alverstoke, Gosport, Hants, PO12 2DL (United Kingdom); Harms, Arvic [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Long, Stephanie [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, 3 Clonskeagh Square, Clonskeagh Road, Dublin 14, Ireland (United Kingdom); Sleep, Darren [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Stewart, Charlie [UKAEA (Waste Management Group), Chemical Support Services, D1310/14, Dounreay, Thurso, Caithness, KW14 7TZ (United Kingdom); Walker, Jill [Radiocarbon Dating, The Old Stables, East Lockinge, Wantage, Oxon OX12 8QY (United Kingdom); Warwick, Phil E. [GAU-Radioanalytical, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, European Way, Southampton, SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    An intercomparison exercise to determine the {sup 14}C activity concentrations in a range of solid, environmental level materials was conducted between laboratories in the UK. IAEA reference materials, C2, C6 and C7, and an in-house laboratory QA material were dispatched in 2006 to ten laboratories comprising of members of the Analyst Informal Working Group (AIWG) and one other invited party. The laboratories performed the determinations using a number of techniques, and using the results each one was evaluated in terms of levels of precision, sensitivity and limits of detection. The results of the study show that all techniques are capable of successfully analysing {sup 14}C in environmental level materials, however, a shortage of certified environmental reference materials exists. The suitability of the IAEA reference materials and other material for use as reference materials was also assessed.

  17. Advances in solid-phase extraction disks for environmental chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, E.M.; Snavely, K.

    2000-01-01

    The development of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for environmental chemistry has progressed significantly over the last decade to include a number of new sorbents and new approaches to SPE. One SPE approach in particular, the SPE disk, has greatly reduced or eliminated the use of chlorinated solvents for the analysis of trace organic compounds. This article discusses the use and applicability of various SPE disks, including micro-sized disks, prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of trace organic compounds in water. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  18. Environmental exposure assessment framework for nanoparticles in solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Baun, Anders

    2014-01-01

    releases, eventually leading to a final assessment of potential ENM exposure. The proposed framework was applied to three selected nanoproducts: nanosilver polyester textile, nanoTiO2 sunscreen lotion and carbon nanotube tennis racquets. We found that the potential global environmental exposure of ENMs......Information related to the potential environmental exposure of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the solid waste management phase is extremely scarce. In this paper, we define nanowaste as separately collected or collectable waste materials which are or contain ENMs, and we present a five......-step framework for the systematic assessment of ENM exposure during nanowaste management. The framework includes deriving EOL nanoproducts and evaluating the physicochemical properties of the nanostructure, matrix properties and nanowaste treatment processes as well as transformation processes and environment...

  19. The Compatible Solute Ectoine Reduces the Exacerbating Effect of Environmental Model Particles on the Immune Response of the Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Unfried

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of humans to particulate air pollution has been correlated with the incidence and aggravation of allergic airway diseases. In predisposed individuals, inhalation of environmental particles can lead to an exacerbation of immune responses. Previous studies demonstrated a beneficial effect of the compatible solute ectoine on lung inflammation in rats exposed to carbon nanoparticles (CNP as a model of environmental particle exposure. In the current study we investigated the effect of such a treatment on airway inflammation in a mouse allergy model. Ectoine in nonsensitized animals significantly reduced the neutrophilic lung inflammation after CNP exposure. This effect was accompanied by a reduction of inflammatory factors in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Reduced IL-6 levels in the serum also indicate the effects of ectoine on systemic inflammation. In sensitized animals, an aggravation of the immune response was observed when animals were exposed to CNP prior to antigen provocation. The coadministration of ectoine together with the particles significantly reduced this exacerbation. The data indicate the role of neutrophilic lung inflammation in the exacerbation of allergic airway responses. Moreover, the data suggest to use ectoine as a preventive treatment to avoid the exacerbation of allergic airway responses induced by environmental air pollution.

  20. Urban observatories opportunities for environmental monitoring: solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Caldelas, R I; Corona Zambrano, E A

    2008-01-01

    Towns concentrate around 50% of world-wide population and the trend is oriented to underscore an urban profile of population. In addition, towns have become important for their economic contribution to the Gross Internal Product. The negative side of towns is the environmental and social impacts as a result of productive and domestic activities, besides the lack of available data. In order to overcome these shortcomings, the United Nations has established a project of urban monitoring throughout the Global Network of Urban Observatories; Mexico joined the project in 2005. The Local Urban Observatory of Mexicali has the task to produce information about cities that is useful to design public policies. Some of this information deals with a set of environmental indicators in the United Nations Habitat Agenda, which includes solid wastes. Therefore, this paper deals with two main topics; firstly, from the Habitat Agenda, a comparative urban analysis of waste production and coverage of domestic waste collection services; secondly, from the Local Agenda, the identification and ranking of environmental problems according to public perception coming from people involved in the municipal planning and decision making process. Results will be used to develop local indicators and public environmental policies.

  1. Environmental compatible cooling water treatment chemicals; Umweltvertraegliche Chemikalien in der Kuehlwasserkonditionierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartiser, S.; Urich, E.

    2002-02-01

    In Germany about 32 billion m{sup 3}/a cooling water are discharged from industrial plants and power industry. These are conditioned partly with biocides, scaling and corrosion inhibitors. Within the research project the significance of cooling water chemicals was evaluated, identifying the chemicals from product information, calculating their loads from consumption data of more than 180 cooling plants and investigating the basic data needed for an environmental hazard assessment. Additionally the effects of cooling water samples and products were determined in biological test systems. Batch tests were performed under defined conditions in order to measure the inactivation of cooling water biocides. (orig.)

  2. Assessing environmental compatibility of new technologies for use in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K.; Turner, G.W.; Mullens, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A microprocessor-based reactor trip channel has been assembled for environmental testing under an Instrumentation and Control (I and C) Qualification Program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of this program is to establish the technical basis for the qualification of advanced I and C systems. The trip channel implemented for this study employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in some advanced light-water reactors (ALWRS) such as the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) and AP600. It is expected that these tests will reveal any potential system vulnerabilities for technologies representative of those proposed for use in ALWRS. The experimental channel will be purposely stressed considerably beyond what it is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment, so that the tests can uncover the worst-case failure modes (i.e., failures that are likely to prevent an entire trip system from performing its safety function when required to do so). Based on information obtained from this study, it may be possible to recommend tests that are likely to indicate the presence of such failure mechanisms. Such recommendations would be helpful in augmenting current qualification guidelines.

  3. Environmental compatibility of chemicals for sewage treatment; Umweltvertraeglichkeit von Chemikalien zur Abwasserbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, H.; Obst, K.; Friedrich, C.; Pattard, M.; Pluta, H.J.; Hahn, J.

    1997-05-30

    Due to the use of chemicals for waste water treatment the treated waste water and the effluents are polluted by the accompanying substance matrix of the chemicals. Furthermore, because of overstoichiometric dosage or additives also a not reacting part of toxic substances gets into the treated waste water and effluents. Therefore it is necessary to prevent that through waste water treatment further environmentally incompatible substances get into the waters. Within the framework of a research project promoted by the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety proposals were made for guide values and respectively limit values for coagulant and flocculant salts, lime products, neutralising agents, technical hydrochloric acid, technical sulphuric acid, polyacrylamides and organic sulphuric compounds. In contrast to most of the anorganic chemicals for waste water treatment, which show only a relatively low increase of heavy metal concentrations caused by the accompanying substance matrix, organic chemicals for sewage treatment are partly considered to be problematic substances because of an adverse combination of characteristics. (orig.) [Deutsch] Durch den Einsatz von Chemikalien zur Behandlung von Abwaessern gelangen - Verunreinigungen durch die Nebenstoff-Matrix der eingesetzten Behandlungschemikalien in das behandelte Abwasser und in die Gewaesser und - durch ueberstoechiometrische Dosierung oder Additive tritt der nicht reagierende Teil toxischer Substanzen ebenfalls im behandelten Abwasserablauf und im Gewaesser auf. Vor diesem Hintergrund gilt es zu verhindern, dass durch Massnahmen der Abwasserbehandlung zusaetzlich umweltunvertraegliche Stoffe in die Gewaesser eingetragen werden. Im Rahmen eines vom Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit gefoerderten Forschungsvorhabens wurden Vorschlaege fuer Richtwerte bzw. Anforderungen an Faellungs- und Flockungssalze, Kalkprodukte, Natronlauge, Soda, Salzsaeure

  4. A novel solid state non-dispersive infrared CO2 gas sensor compatible with wireless and portable deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Desmond; MacGregor, Calum

    2013-05-29

    This paper describes development of a novel mid-infrared light emitting diode (LED) and photodiode (PD) light source/detector combination and use within a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) carbon dioxide gas sensor. The LED/PD based NDIR sensor provides fast stabilisation time (time required to turn on the sensor from cold, warm up, take and report a measurement, and power down again ≈1 second), longevity (>15 years), low power consumption and low cost. Described performance is compatible with "fit and forget" wireless deployed sensors in applications such as indoor air quality monitoring/control & energy conservation in buildings, transport systems, horticultural greenhouses and portable deployment for safety, industrial and medical applications. Fast stabilisation time, low intrinsic power consumption and cycled operation offer typical energy consumption per measurement of mJ's, providing extended operation using battery and/or energy harvesting strategies (measurement interval of ≈ 2 minutes provides >10 years operation from one AA battery). Specific performance data is provided in relation to measurement accuracy and noise, temperature performance, cross sensitivity, measurement range (two pathlength variants are described covering ambient through to 100% gas concentration), comparison with NDIR utilizing thermal source/pyroelectric light source/detector combination and compatibility with energy harvesting. Semiconductor based LED/PD processing together with injection moulded reflective optics and simple assembly provide a route to low cost high volume manufacturing.

  5. A Novel Solid State Non-Dispersive Infrared CO2 Gas Sensor Compatible with Wireless and Portable Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Gibson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes development of a novel mid-infrared light emitting diode (LED and photodiode (PD light source/detector combination and use within a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR carbon dioxide gas sensor. The LED/PD based NDIR sensor provides fast stabilisation time (time required to turn on the sensor from cold, warm up, take and report a measurement, and power down again ≈1 second, longevity (>15 years, low power consumption and low cost. Described performance is compatible with “fit and forget” wireless deployed sensors in applications such as indoor air quality monitoring/control & energy conservation in buildings, transport systems, horticultural greenhouses and portable deployment for safety, industrial and medical applications. Fast stabilisation time, low intrinsic power consumption and cycled operation offer typical energy consumption per measurement of mJ’s, providing extended operation using battery and/or energy harvesting strategies (measurement interval of ≈ 2 minutes provides >10 years operation from one AA battery. Specific performance data is provided in relation to measurement accuracy and noise, temperature performance, cross sensitivity, measurement range (two pathlength variants are described covering ambient through to 100% gas concentration, comparison with NDIR utilizing thermal source/pyroelectric light source/detector combination and compatibility with energy harvesting. Semiconductor based LED/PD processing together with injection moulded reflective optics and simple assembly provide a route to low cost high volume manufacturing.

  6. Information and dialogue process on the safety and environmental compatibility of the fracking technology; Informations- und Dialogprozess zur Sicherheit und Umweltvertraeglichkeit der Fracking-Technologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borchardt, Dietrich [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung - UFZ, Magdeburg (Germany); Ewen, Christoph [team ewen, Darmstadt (Germany); Richter, Sandra [sconas GbR, Ahnatal (Germany); Hammerbacher, Ruth [hammerbacher gmbh - beratung und projekte, Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Due to the reservations from the public among the production of natural gas from unconventional deposits (shale gas, coal gas) The ''Information and dialogue process on the safety and environmental compatibility of the fracking technology'' was initiated. The authors of the contribution report on the modus operandi and the summary recommendations of the neutral expert panel.

  7. α-Azido Acids in Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis: Compatibility with Fmoc Chemistry and an Alternative Approach to the Solid Phase Synthesis of Daptomycin Analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohani, Chuda Raj; Rasera, Benjamin; Scott, Bradley; Palmer, Michael; Taylor, Scott D

    2016-03-18

    α-Azido acids have been used in solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) for almost 20 years. Here we report that peptides bearing an N-terminal α-azidoaspartate residue undergo elimination of an azide ion when treated with reagents that are commonly used for removing the Fmoc group during SPPS. We also report an alternative solid-phase route to the synthesis of an analog of daptomycin that uses a reduced number of α-azido amino acids and without elimination of an azide ion.

  8. Achieving Land, Energy, and Environmental Compatibility: Utility-Scale Solar Energy Potential and Land-Use in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffacker, M. K.; Hernandez, R. R.; Field, C. B.

    2013-12-01

    Solar energy is an archetype renewable energy technology with great potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions when substituted for carbon-intensive energy. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE; i.e., > 1 MW) necessitates large quantities of space making the efficient use of land for USSE development critical to realizing its full potential. However, studies elucidating the interaction between land-use and utility-scale solar energy (USSE) are limited. In this study, we assessed 1) the theoretical and technical potential of terrestrial-based USSE systems, and 2) land-use and land-cover change impacts from actual USSE installations (> 20 MW; planned, under construction, operating), using California as a case study due to its early adoption of renewable energy systems, unique constraints on land availability, immense energy demand, and vast natural resources. We used topo-climatic (e.g., slope, irradiance), infrastructural (e.g., proximity to transmission lines), and ecological constraints (e.g., threatened and endangered species) to determine highly favorable, favorable, and unfavorable locations for USSE and to assess its technical potential. We found that the theoretical potential of photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) in California is 26,097 and 29,422 kWh/m2/day, respectively. We identified over 150 planned, under construction, and operating USSE installations in California, ranging in size from 20 to 1,000 MW. Currently, 29% are located on shrub- and scrublands, 23% on cultivated crop land, 13% on pasture/hay areas, 11% on grassland/herbaceous and developed open space, and 7% in the built environment. Understanding current land-use decisions of USSE systems and assessing its future potential can be instructive for achieving land, energy, and environmental compatibility, especially for other global regions that share similar resource demands and limitations.

  9. Possible global environmental impacts of solid waste practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.M.; Holter, G.M.; DeForest, T.J.; Stapp, D.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Dibari, J.C. [Heritage College, Toppenish, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Pollutants resulting from the management of solid waste have been shown to affect the air, land, oceans, and waterways. In addition, solid wastes have other, more indirect impacts such as reduction in feedstocks of natural resources, because useful materials are disposed of rather than recycled. The objective of this study is to evaluate solid waste management practices that have negative implications on the global environment and develop recommendations for reducing such impacts. Recommendations identifying needed changes are identified that will reduce global impacts of solid waste practices in the future. The scope of this study includes the range of non-hazardous solid wastes produced within our society, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial solid waste (ISW), as well as industry-specific wastes from activities such as construction, demolition, and landclearing. Most solid waste management decisions continue to be made and implemented at very local levels, predominantly with a short-term focus to respond to relatively immediate pressures of landfill shortages, funding problems, political considerations, and the like. In this rush to address immediate local problems, little consideration is being given to potential impacts, either short- or long-term, at the national or global level resulting from solid waste management practices. More and more, the cumulative impacts from local decisions concerning solid waste management are beginning to manifest themselves in broader, longer-term impacts than are being addressed by the decision-makers or, at the very least, are presenting a greater and greater potential for such impacts.

  10. Surface acidity and solid-state compatibility of excipients with an acid-sensitive API: case study of atorvastatin calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Ramprakash; Landis, Margaret; Hancock, Bruno; Gatlin, Larry A; Suryanarayanan, Raj; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to measure the apparent surface acidity of common excipients and to correlate the acidity with the chemical stability of an acid-sensitive active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in binary API-excipient powder mixtures. The acidity of 26 solid excipients was determined by two methods, (i) by measuring the pH of their suspensions or solutions and (ii) the pH equivalent (pHeq) measured via ionization of probe molecules deposited on the surface of the excipients. The chemical stability of an API, atorvastatin calcium (AC), in mixtures with the excipients was evaluated by monitoring the appearance of an acid-induced degradant, atorvastatin lactone, under accelerated storage conditions. The extent of lactone formation in AC-excipient mixtures was presented as a function of either solution/suspension pH or pHeq. No lactone formation was observed in mixtures with excipients having pHeq > 6, while the lactone levels were pronounced (> 0.6% after 6 weeks at 50°C/20% RH) with excipients exhibiting pHeq 6, 3-6, and API, were identified based on pHeq measurements. The incompatibility prediction was confirmed in the chemical stability tests using AC as an example of an acid-sensitive API.

  11. 77 FR 21619 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... environmental effects associated with: air quality; noise and compatible land use; land use, including Section 4... visual resources; hazardous materials, pollution prevention, and solid waste; infrastructure and utilities; and socioeconomics, environmental justice, and children's environmental health and safety. The...

  12. A new and efficient Solid Phase Microextraction approach for analysis of high fat content food samples using a matrix-compatible coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grazia, Selenia; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2017-05-15

    The current work presents the optimization of a protocol enabling direct extraction of avocado samples by a new Solid Phase Microextraction matrix compatible coating. In order to further extend the coating life time, pre-desorption and post-desorption washing steps were optimized for solvent type, time, and degree of agitation employed. Using optimized conditions, lifetime profiles of the coating related to extraction of a group of analytes bearing different physical-chemical properties were obtained. Over 80 successive extractions were carried out to establish coating efficiency using PDMS/DVB 65µm commercial coating in comparison with the PDMS/DVB/PDMS. The PDMS/DVB coating was more prone to irreversible matrix attachment on its surface, with consequent reduction of its extractive performance after 80 consecutive extractions. Conversely, the PDMS/DVB/PDMS coating showed enhanced inertness towards matrix fouling due to its outer smooth PDMS layer. This work represents the first step towards the development of robust SPME methods for quantification of contaminants in avocado as well as other fatty-based matrices, with minimal sample pre-treatment prior to extraction. In addition, an evaluation of matrix components attachment on the coating surface and related artifacts created by desorption of the coating at high temperatures in the GC-injector port, has been performed by GCxGC-ToF/MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Structural Investigation of Photocatalyst Solid Ag1−xCuxInS2 Quaternary Alloys Sprayed Thin Films Optimized within the Lattice Compatibility Theory (LCT Scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Colantoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CuxAg1−xInS2 solid thin films were fabricated through a low-cost process. Particular process-related enhanced properties lead to reaching a minimum of lattice mismatch between absorber and buffer layers within particular solar cell devices. First, copper-less samples X-ray diffraction analysis depicts the presence of AgInS2 ternary compound in chalcopyrite tetragonal phase with privileged (112 peak (d112=1.70 Å according to JCPDS 75-0118 card. Second, when x content increases, we note a shift of the same preferential orientation (112 and its value reaches 1.63 Å corresponding to CuInS2 chalcopyrite tetragonal material according to JCPDS 89-6095 file. Finally, the formation and stability of these quaternaries have been discussed in terms of the lattice compatibility in relation with silver-copper duality within indium disulfide lattice structure. Plausible explanations for the extent and dynamics of copper incorporation inside AgInS2 elaborated ternary matrices have been proposed.

  14. Dynamic flow-through approaches for metal fractionation in environmentally relevant solid samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Chomchoei, Roongrat

    2005-01-01

    In the recent decades, batchwise equilibrium-based single or sequential extraction schemes have been consolidated as analytical tools for fractionation analyses to assess the ecotoxicological significance of metal ions in solid environmental samples. However, taking into account that naturally...

  15. Environmentally Benign Bifunctional Solid Acid and Base Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmekawy, A.; Shiju, N.R.; Rothenberg, G.; Brown, D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Solid bifunctional acid-​base catalysts were prepd. in two ways on an amorphous silica support: (1) by grafting mercaptopropyl units (followed by oxidn. to propylsulfonic acid) and aminopropyl groups to the silica surface (NH2-​SiO2-​SO3H)​, and (2) by grafting only aminopropyl groups and then

  16. Applications of Liquid-Phase Microextraction in the Sample Preparation of Environmental Solid Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Prosen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extraction remains one of the fundamental sample preparation techniques in the analysis of environmental solid samples, but organic solvents are toxic and environmentally harmful, therefore one of the possible greening directions is its miniaturization. The present review covers the relevant research from the field of application of microextraction to the sample preparation of environmental solid samples (soil, sediments, sewage sludge, dust etc. published in the last decade. Several innovative liquid-phase microextraction (LPME techniques that have emerged recently have also been applied as an aid in sample preparation of these samples: single-drop microextraction (SDME, hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME. Besides the common organic solvents, surfactants and ionic liquids are also used. However, these techniques have to be combined with another technique to release the analytes from the solid sample into an aqueous solution. In the present review, the published methods were categorized into three groups: LPME in combination with a conventional solvent extraction; LPME in combination with an environmentally friendly extraction; LPME without previous extraction. The applicability of these approaches to the sample preparation for the determination of pollutants in solid environmental samples is discussed, with emphasis on their strengths, weak points and environmental impact.

  17. Ecological effects and environmental fate of solid rocket exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, B.; Stout, I. J.; Mickus, J.; Vickers, D.; Madsen, B.

    1974-01-01

    Specific target processes were classified as to the chemical, chemical-physical, and biological reactions and toxic effects of solid rocket emissions within selected ecosystems at Kennedy Space Center. Exposure of Citris seedlings, English peas, and bush beans to SRM exhaust under laboratory conditions demonstrated reduced growth rates, but at very high concentrations. Field studies of natural plant populations in three diverse ecosystems failed to reveal any structural damage at the concentration levels tested. Background information on elemental composition of selected woody plants from two terrestrial ecosystems is reported. LD sub 50 for a native mouse (peromysous gossypinus) exposed to SRM exhaust was determined to be 50 ppm/g body weight. Results strongly indicate that other components of the SRM exhaust act synergically to enhance the toxic effects of HCl gas when inhaled. A brief summary is given regarding the work on SRM exhaust and its possible impact on hatchability of incubating bird eggs.

  18. Integrated information management systems; A solid basis for environmental compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, D.M.; Gay, J.L.; Stallard, G.S. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States))

    1992-01-01

    With the wide-ranging impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, effective management of environmental issues-particularly SO{sub 2} emissions - will require not only long range planning, but daily evaluations and decisions. To produce power in the most cost-effective manner, environmental concerns and operational and economic issues must be considered. Costs, performance, and emissions must be effectively monitored and controlled, and the resulting information must be integrated to provide a comprehensive basis for a variety of decisions. Achieving such broad-base integration must be integrated to provide a comprehensive basis for a variety of decisions. Achieving such broad-base integration is not a simple task. A continuous flow of new data must be collected and analyzed; current conditions must be carefully evaluated to support day-to-day decisions and long-term power production and emissions strategies must be developed and reviewed. This paper describes the main design concepts of an integrated information system, and provides examples of how its capabilities can be applied to environmental decisions.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT: PROACTIVE LEGISLATION FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra F. N. Pereira

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental question is of complex nature. It involves knowledge of diverse subjects and makes possible the accomplishment of studies under the optics of different specialties. The philosopher Heller apud Carvalho (2001 contents that the world-wide civilization is in crisis, understands that the solution of the most serious problems is urgent, lest social and political chaos or even human self-destruction will result.Environmental Law is a science that appeared at a historical moment designated by the crisis. This science has been appraised as being a set of principles, norms and rules that have the objective of protecting the environment, maintain the ecological balance, conserve cultural assets and contribute to harmonic development and social justice. For the application of this concept, administrative and legal measures are used beyond repairing the actual damages to the environment and ecosystems (CARVALHO, 2001.The law itself is one of the tools used by the Science of Environmental Law. To command the social and cultural life in an effective process of adjustment in the light of the evolution of society is, in ample direction, the dynamics of the law. It can be observed that it also expresses the necessity of living beings to share one determined space of time and place, without the need for foreign orders devoid of adaptations.

  20. Assessment of environmental policy implementation in solid waste management in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Mohan B; Schoenberger, Erica; Boland, John J

    2017-06-01

    In Nepal, full-fledged environmental legislation was rare before the democratic constitution of 1990. The first law covering the environment and sustainability was the Environment Protection Act 1997. While the Solid Waste Act was introduced in 1987, the problem of solid waste management still surfaces in Kathmandu. In order to understand the bedrock of this unrelenting failure in solid waste management, the manuscript digs deeper into policy implementation by dissecting solid waste rules, environmental legislations, relevant local laws, and solid waste management practices in Kathmandu, Nepal. A very rich field study that included surveys, interviews, site visits, and literature review provided the basis for the article. The study shows that volumes of new Nepalese rules are crafted without effective enforcement of their predecessors and there is a frequent power struggle between local government bodies and central authority in implementing the codes and allocating resources in solid waste management. The study concludes that Kathmandu does not require any new instrument to address solid waste problems; instead, it needs creation of local resources, execution of local codes, and commitment from central government to allow free exercise of these policies.

  1. Solid reactors in sequential injection analysis: Recent trends in the environmental field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2006-01-01

    /reagent consumption. A further noteworthy feature is the inherent versatility of the flow network to implement unit operations at will with no need for manifold re-configuration. The present review discusses the potential of SI to accommodate solid reactors and packed columns in the flow set-up for environmental......-bead injection (SI-BI), used in either the jet-ring or lab-on-valve configurations, is presented as a front-end to many detectors. This article also outlines recent trends focused on exploiting SI as an automated tool for handling solid samples of environmental concern and accommodating dynamic fractionation...

  2. Environmental Legacies of Major Events: Solid Waste Management and the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katusiimeh, M.W.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Important political, cultural, or sports events can accelerate improvements in environmental policy and performance. This study investigates whether environmental improvements–and especially those related to solid waste–materialized during the 2007 Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting (CHOGM) in

  3. Understanding Our Energy Footprint: Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory Investigation of Environmental Impacts of Solid Fossil Fuel Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael; Goldfarb, Jillian L.

    2017-01-01

    Engaging undergraduates in the environmental consequences of fossil fuel usage primes them to consider their own anthropogenic impact, and the benefits and trade-offs of converting to renewable fuel strategies. This laboratory activity explores the potential contaminants (both inorganic and organic) present in the raw fuel and solid waste…

  4. 77 FR 6548 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Implementation of Energy, Water, and Solid Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... enhance the energy and water security of Fort Bliss, Texas, which is operationally necessary, financially... waste reduction, and energy and water conservation policies and practices; (2) the construction of a new... Department of the Army Environmental Impact Statement for the Implementation of Energy, Water, and Solid...

  5. Rational selection of alternative, environmentally compatible surfactants for biotechnological production of pharmaceuticals--a step toward green biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jürg Oliver; Shearer, Russel; Studer, Martin

    2014-09-01

    The biotechnological production of pharmaceutical active substances needs ancillary substances. Surfactants are used at the end of the cell culture as a protection against potential viral or bacterial contamination and to lyse the producing cells for isolation and purification of the products. To find a replacement for a surfactant that had raised environmental concern, environmentally relevant data for potential alternatives were searched for in the literature. Significant data gaps were filled with additional tests: biodegradability, algal growth inhibition, acute daphnid immobilization and chronic daphnid reproduction toxicity, acute fish toxicity, and activated sludge respiration inhibition. The results were used to model removal in the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) serving 3 biotechnological production sites in the Roche Group. Predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) were calculated using realistic amounts of surfactants and site-specific wastewater fluxes, modeled removals for the WWTPs and dilution factors by the respective receiving waters. Predicted no-effect concentrations (PNECs) were derived for WWTPs and for both fresh and marine receiving waters as the treated wastewater of 1 production site is discharged into a coastal water. This resulted in a spreadsheet showing PECs, PNECs, and PEC ÷ PNEC risk characterization ratios for the WWTPs and receiving waters for all investigated surfactants and all 3 sites. This spreadsheet now serves as a selection support for the biotechnological developers. This risk-based prioritization of surfactants is a step toward green biotechnological production. © 2014 SETAC.

  6. Application of solid phase extraction procedures for rare earth elements determination in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrzynska, Krystyna; Kubiak, Anna; Wysocka, Irena

    2016-07-01

    Determination of rare earth elements in environmental samples requires often pre-concentration and separation step due to a low metal content and high concentration of the interfering matrix components. A solid phase extraction technique with different kind of solid sorbents offers a high enrichment factor, rapid phase separation and the possibility of its combination with various detection techniques used either in on-line or off-line mode. The recent developments in this area published over the last five years are presented and discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Technological assessment of demonstration plants for environmentally compatible processing and utilization of liquid manure. Final report; Technologische Bewertung von Demonstrationsanlagen zur umweltvertraeglichen Guelleaufbereitung und -verwertung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, P.; Huettner, A.

    1997-09-01

    The aim of the BMBF-sponsored research programme ``Environmentally compatible liquid manure processing and utilization`` was to develop and test technical processing methods permitting environmentally friendly storage, application and harnessing of liquid manure. For practical testing and optimization, five demonstration plants were erected, which achieve partial or total cleaning of liquid manure by applying different techniques. All processes had the objective of eliminating from the liquid manure nutrients, organic constituents and odourous components, recovering the nutrients in the form of transportable products, and harnessing the liquid manure for biogas generation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel des BMBF-Foerderschwerpunktes `Umweltvertraegliche Guelleaufbereitung und -verwertung` war es, technische Aufbereitungsverfahren zu entwickeln und zu erproben, die eine umweltvertraegliche Lagerung, Ausbringung und Verwertung der Guelle ermoeglichen. Zur Praxiserprobung und Optimierung wurden fuenf Demonstrationsanlagen errichtet, die durch Anwendung unterschiedlicher Verfahren eine Teil- bzw. Totalreinigung der Guelle bewirken. Aufgabe saemtlicher Verfahren war es, die Guelle von Naehrstoffen, organischen Inhaltsstoffen und Geruchsstoffen zu befreien, die Naehrstoffe in Form transportwuerdiger Produkte zurueckzugewinnen und die Guelle durch Erzeugung von Biogas energetisch zu nutzen. (orig.)

  8. Artificial Reefs Created by Electrolysis and Coral Transplantation: An Approach Ensuring the Compatibility of Environmental Protection and Diving Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Treeck, P.; Schuhmacher, H.

    1999-08-01

    Coral reefs are currently being subjected to increasing pressure caused by water sports, especially scuba diving. Highly complex reef coenoses are affected by mechanical breakage and the coverage of corals by resuspended sediments. As the ecological capacity of the biocoenosis is exceeded, sensitive species are suppressed and the community is impoverished. The conflict between the needs of nature conservation and the economic interests of diving tourism can be mitigated by the creation of artificial underwater attractions as reef substitutes. Specially designed underwater structures are ideal for many diving activities, which can be diverted from sensitive natural habitats in that way. It is also possible to develop model reef communities for training and environmental education purposes. Our new concept is based on the elegant solution, proposed by Hilbertz et al. (1977), of depositing calcium minerals from the seawater in situ by electrolysis. We report on experiments conducted near Aqaba (Red Sea) showing that it is feasible to transplant living coral fragments on to the substrate being developed by electrochemical processes. In this way, the formation of a diverse community on any structure desired can be considerably enhanced.

  9. Determination of plutonium isotopes in waters and environmental solids: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Miró, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    A number of analytical methods have been developed in the past few years for environmental monitoring of plutonium (Pu) isotopes around nuclear facilities within protocols for emergency preparedness as well as for risk assessment of contaminated areas resulting from nuclear weapon tests, nuclear...... accidents, and the discharge of nuclear waste. This article summarizes and critically compares recently reported methods for determination of Pu isotopes in waters and environmental solid substrates, in which sample pre-treatment is imperative for separation of the target species from matrix ingredients and...

  10. Energy recovery from municipal solid waste, an environmental and safety mini-overview survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.L.

    1976-06-01

    The environmental and safety aspects of processing municipal solid wastes to recover energy and materials are reviewed in some detail. The state of the art in energy recovery, energy potential for the near and long-term, and constraints to commercialization are discussed. Under the environmental and safety aspects the state of the art, need for research and development, and need for coordination among federal agencies and private industry are considered. Eleven principal types of refuse-to-energy processes are described and a projected energy balance is derived for each process. (JSR)

  11. Modern coolant additives. Environmental friendly and light metal compatible coolant additives for modern combustion engines; Moderne Kuehlmittelzusaetze. Umwelt- und leichtmetallvertraegliche Kuehlmittelzusaetze fuer moderne Verbrennungskraftmaschinen. Abschlussbericht. Vorhaben Nr. 777

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gugau, M.; Kaiser, M.

    2004-01-31

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the influence of the enhanced thermal stress on the impact of environmental friendly and light metal compatible coolant additives. The application and advancement of new research methods under mechanism-oriented objective led to a validation of a new guideline to the examination of the suitability of coolant additives for the coolant of internal combustion engines. Moreover, the authors create a knowledge base, on which a purposeful development can take place from suitable formulations of inhibitor for magnesium. For aluminium with silicate containing corrosion anti-freezes a close relationship between the surface temperature and the impoverishment of silicate exists. During the excess of limit temperatures, cooling agent-specific damage features arise reproducibly. The comparison of the different methods for the investigation of cavitation showed that one cannot dispense with both methods in order to evaluate a demand of insulating cavitation and a cavitative / corrosive complex regarding to the development of a test guideline. By the comprehensive electro-chemical and cavitative investigations for the magnesium alloy AZ91hp, a broad knowledge base could be formed, on which a purposeful development and evaluation of inhibitors under the use can take place from different glycols.

  12. Environmental impact assessment of solid waste management in Beijing City, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Lu, Wenjing

    2011-01-01

    of auxiliary fuels to support combustion of wet waste. As for the long-term future scenario, efficient source separation of food waste could result in significant environmental improvements, primarily because of increase in calorific value of remaining waste incinerated with energy recovery. Sensitivity...... analysis emphasized the importance of efficient source separation of food waste, as well as the electricity recovery in incinerators, in order to obtain an environmentally friendly waste management system in Beijing City.......The environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management in Beijing City were evaluated using a life-cycle-based model, EASEWASTE, to take into account waste generation, collection, transportation, treatment/disposal technologies, and savings obtained by energy and material recovery...

  13. Indonesia municiple solid waste life cycle and environmental monitoring: current situation, before and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmono

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is a big country with circa 250 million population, with more than 500 Local Governments and they are going to improve their municiple solid waste dumping method from Open Dumping to Sanitary Landfill (SLF) and to promote Reduce-Reuse-Recycling (3R) since many years ago, and it is strengthened by issuing of Solid Waste Management Act No.18/2008, MSW Government Regulation No.12/2012 and other regulations which are issued by Central Government and Local Governments. During “Water and Sanitation Decade 1980-1990” through “Integrated Urban Infrastructures Development Program” some pilot project such as 30 units of 3R station were developed in the urban areas, and modified or simplification of SLF call Controlled Landfill (CLF) were implemented. In the year of 2002 about 45 units of composting pilot projects were developed under “Western Java Environmental Management Project”, and the result was notified that some of them are not sustain because many aspects. At the beginning of 2007 until now, some pilot projects of 3R were continued in some cities and since 2011 some Waste Banks are growing fast. In the year of 2014 was recorded that of 70 % of 3Rs in Java Island well developed (2014, Directorate of Environment Sanitation Report), and in the year of 2012 was recorded that development of Communal Waste Banks were growing fast during two months from 400 units to 800 units (2012, Ministry of Environment report), now more Communal Waste Banks all ready exist. After the last overview monitoring activity by Ministry of Environment and JICA (2008), because of lack of data is very difficult to give current accurate information of Municiple Solid Waste Handling in Indonesia. Nevertheless some innovation are developed because of impact of many pilot projects, Adipura City Cleanest Competition among Local Governments and growing of the spirit of autonomous policy of Local Governments, but some Local Governments still dependence on Central Government support

  14. Reducing environmental burdens of solid-state lighting through end-of-life design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, C. T.; Matthews, D. H.; Ashe, M.; Jaramillo, P.; McMichael, F. C.

    2010-01-01

    With 20% of US electricity used for lighting, energy efficient solid-state lighting technology could have significant benefits. While energy efficiency in use is important, the life cycle cost, energy and environmental impacts of light-emitting diode (LED) solid-state lighting could be reduced by reusing, remanufacturing or recycling components of the end products. Design decisions at this time for the nascent technology can reduce material and manufacturing burdens by considering the ease of disassembly, potential for remanufacturing, and recovery of parts and materials for reuse and recycling. We use teardowns of three commercial solid-state lighting products designed to fit in conventional Edison light bulb sockets to analyze potential end-of-life reuse strategies for solid-state lighting and recommend strategies for the industry. Current lamp designs would benefit from standardization of part connections to facilitate disassembly and remanufacturing of components, and fewer material types in structural pieces to maximize homogeneous materials recovery. The lighting industry should also start now to develop an effective product take-back system for collecting future end-of-life products.

  15. [Solid urban waste: socio-environmental impacts and prospects for sustainable management with social inclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2012-06-01

    Strategies to reconcile development with the protection of ecosystems will yet again be discussed at the forthcoming Rio +20 Summit. The management of solid urban waste is an issue which has barely been touched upon in such discussions. Given the institutionalization of the National Solid Waste Policy, this paper seeks to contribute to this debate and to single out alternatives to tackle this issue with an emphasis on social inclusion. For this purpose, specialized scientific literature was consulted as well as information on solid waste management. It is clearly seen that inadequate management of solid waste has immediate impacts on the environment and health, and contributes to climate change. Considering the limitations of the current options for waste disposal, it is essential to minimize the quantities produced by reducing, reusing and recycling. In this context, the role of independent waste gatherers who have been conducting work of great environmental importance is highlighted. Given the vulnerabilities of this population, it is necessary to devise public policies to ensure that waste gathering is a more respected and less risky activity that guarantees an income, so as to move towards more healthy, equitable and sustainable development.

  16. Mars Surveyor Program '01 Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment wet chemistry lab: a sensor array for chemical analysis of the Martian soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Samuel P.; Lukow, Stefan R.; Comeau, Brian P.; Hecht, Michael H.; Grannan-Feldman, Sabrina M.; Manatt, Ken; West, Steven J.; Wen, Xiaowen; Frant, Martin; Gillette, Tim

    2003-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) instrument was designed, built, and flight qualified for the now canceled MSP (Mars Surveyor Program) '01 Lander. The MECA package consisted of a microscope, electrometer, material patch plates, and a wet chemistry laboratory (WCL). The primary goal of MECA was to analyze the Martian soil (regolith) for possible hazards to future astronauts and to provide a better understanding of Martian regolith geochemistry. The purpose of the WCL was to analyze for a range of soluble ionic chemical species and electrochemical parameters. The heart of the WCL was a sensor array of electrochemically based ion-selective electrodes (ISE). After 20 months storage at -23 degrees C and subsequent extended freeze/thawing cycles, WCL sensors were evaluated to determine both their physical durability and analytical responses. A fractional factorial calibration of the sensors was used to obtain slope, intercept, and all necessary selectivity coefficients simultaneously for selected ISEs. This calibration was used to model five cation and three anion sensors. These data were subsequently used to determine concentrations of several ions in two soil leachate simulants (based on terrestrial seawater and hypothesized Mars brine) and four actual soil samples. The WCL results were compared to simulant and soil samples using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The results showed that flight qualification and prolonged low-temperature storage conditions had minimal effects on the sensors. In addition, the analytical optimization method provided quantitative and qualitative data that could be used to accurately identify the chemical composition of the simulants and soils. The WCL has the ability to provide data that can be used to "read" the chemical, geological, and climatic history of Mars, as well as the potential habitability of its regolith.

  17. Mars Surveyor Program '01 Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment wet chemistry lab: a sensor array for chemical analysis of the Martian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Samuel P; Lukow, Stefan R; Comeau, Brian P; Hecht, Michael H; Grannan-Feldman, Sabrina M; Manatt, Ken; West, Steven J; Wen, Xiaowen; Frant, Martin; Gillette, Tim

    2003-07-25

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) instrument was designed, built, and flight qualified for the now canceled MSP (Mars Surveyor Program) '01 Lander. The MECA package consisted of a microscope, electrometer, material patch plates, and a wet chemistry laboratory (WCL). The primary goal of MECA was to analyze the Martian soil (regolith) for possible hazards to future astronauts and to provide a better understanding of Martian regolith geochemistry. The purpose of the WCL was to analyze for a range of soluble ionic chemical species and electrochemical parameters. The heart of the WCL was a sensor array of electrochemically based ion-selective electrodes (ISE). After 20 months storage at -23 degrees C and subsequent extended freeze/thawing cycles, WCL sensors were evaluated to determine both their physical durability and analytical responses. A fractional factorial calibration of the sensors was used to obtain slope, intercept, and all necessary selectivity coefficients simultaneously for selected ISEs. This calibration was used to model five cation and three anion sensors. These data were subsequently used to determine concentrations of several ions in two soil leachate simulants (based on terrestrial seawater and hypothesized Mars brine) and four actual soil samples. The WCL results were compared to simulant and soil samples using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The results showed that flight qualification and prolonged low-temperature storage conditions had minimal effects on the sensors. In addition, the analytical optimization method provided quantitative and qualitative data that could be used to accurately identify the chemical composition of the simulants and soils. The WCL has the ability to provide data that can be used to "read" the chemical, geological, and climatic history of Mars, as well as the potential habitability of its regolith.

  18. A review of municipal solid waste environmental standards with a focus on incinerator residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues are often neglected until a lapse in the care for environment, which leads to serious human health problem, would then put regulation gaps in the spotlight. Environmental regulations and standards are important as they maintain balance among competing resources and help protect human health and the environment. One important environmental standard is related to municipal solid waste (MSW. Proper MSW management is crucial for urban public health. Meanwhile, the sustainability of landfills is also of concern as increasing volumes of MSW consume finite landfill space. The incineration of MSW and the reuse of incinerated residues help alleviate the burden on landfill space. However, the reuse of MSW incinerator residues must be regulated because they may expose the environment to toxic heavy metal elements. The study of environmental standards from different countries applicable to MSW is not widely published, much less those for incinerated MSW residue reuse. This paper compares extant waste classification and reuse standards pertinent to MSW, and explores the unique recent history and policy evolution in some countries exhibiting high environmental regard and rapid changes, so that policy makers can propose new or revise current MSW standards in other countries.

  19. Headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of brominated flame retardants in environmental solid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Petinal, Carmen; Garcia-Chao, Maria; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Cela, Rafael

    2006-06-01

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HSSPME-GC-MS-MS) methodology for determination of brominated flame retardants in sediment and soil samples is presented. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that SPME has been applied to analyze polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental solid samples. Analyses were performed using 0.5-g solid samples moisturized with 2 mL water, employing a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber coating, exposed to the headspace at 100 degrees C for 60 min. Several types of environmental solid samples were included in this study and the extraction efficiency was related to the organic matter content of the sample. Calibration was performed using real samples, and the method showed good linearity over a wide concentration range, precision, and afforded quantitative recoveries. The obtained detection limits were in the sub-ng g(-1) for all the target analytes in both samples. The proposed procedure was applied to several marine and river sediments and soils, some of which were found to contain PBDEs at concentrations in the ng g(-1) level; BDE-47, BDE-100, and BDE-99 were the major congeners detected. The proposed method constitutes a rapid and low-cost alternative for the analysis of the target brominated flame retardants in environmental solid samples, since the clean-up steps, fractionation, and preconcentration of extracts inherent to the classical multi-step solvent extraction procedures are avoided.

  20. Testing and environmental exposure of parachute materials for the solid rocket booster decelerator subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannehill, B. K.

    1978-01-01

    Static tests and evaluation of nonmetallic materials for use in parachutes for recovery of solid rocket boosters used in the space shuttle program are reported. Literature survey and manufacturer and vendor contacts led to the choice of nylon as the fabric most capable of withstanding the extreme loads and environmental conditions during repeated use. The material tests included rupture strength, elongation, abrasion resistance, shrinkage, environmental exposure, and degradation levels. Rinsing and drying procedures were also investigated and a salt-free level for nylon recommended in preparation for reuse. In all possible cases, worst-case conditions were used (e.g., inflation loads, seawater exposure for 3 days per drop-recovery, etc.).

  1. Determination of plutonium isotopes in waters and environmental solids: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao Jixin [Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hou Xiaolin, E-mail: xiaolin.hou@risoe.dk [Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Miro, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.miro@uib.es [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera de Valldemossa km. 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears (Spain); Roos, Per [Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2009-10-12

    A number of analytical methods have been developed in the past few years for environmental monitoring of plutonium (Pu) isotopes around nuclear facilities within protocols for emergency preparedness as well as for risk assessment of contaminated areas resulting from nuclear weapon tests, nuclear accidents, and the discharge of nuclear waste. This article summarizes and critically compares recently reported methods for determination of Pu isotopes in waters and environmental solid substrates, in which sample pre-treatment is imperative for separation of the target species from matrix ingredients and/or potentially interfering nuclides prior to detection by radiometric or mass spectrometric techniques. Also discussed, via representative examples, is the automation of the entire analytical protocol by on-line extraction chromatography and ion exchange chromatography using flow injection (FI) or sequential injection (SI) approaches.

  2. Environmental impact assessment of the incineration of municipal solid waste with auxiliary coal in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yan; Xing, Wei; Lu, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    The environmental impacts of waste incineration with auxiliary coal were investigated using the life-cycle-based software, EASEWASTE, based on the municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in Shuozhou City. In the current system, MSW is collected, transported, and incinerated with 250kg of coal...... per ton of waste. Based on observed environmental impacts of incineration, fossil CO2 and heavy metals were primary contributors to global warming and ecotoxicity in soil, respectively. Compared with incinerators using excess coal, incineration with adequate coal presents significant benefits...... (GB13223-2011)” implemented in 2012 introduced stricter policies on controlling SO2 and NOx emissions from coal power plants. Thus, increased use of auxiliary coal during incineration yields fewer avoided impacts on acidification and nutrient enrichment. When two-thirds of ash is source-separated...

  3. Epiphytic lichens as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill (C Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Luca; Grassi, Alice; Vannini, Andrea; Maslaňáková, Ivana; Bil'ová, Ivana; Bačkor, Martin; Corsini, Adelmo; Loppi, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Epiphytic lichens have been used as indicators of environmental quality around a municipal solid waste landfill in C Italy. An integrated approach, using the diversity of epiphytic lichens, as well as element bioaccumulation and physiological parameters in the lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale was applied along a transect from the facility. The results highlighted the biological effects of air pollution around the landfill. The Index of Lichen Diversity (ILD) increased and the content of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn) decreased with distance from the landfill. Clear stress signals were observed in lichens growing in front of the facility, i.e. discoloration, necrosis, membrane lipid peroxidation, lower ergosterol content, higher dehydrogenase activity. Decreased photosynthetic efficiency, altered chlorophyll integrity and production of secondary metabolites were also found. The results suggested that lichens can be profitably used as bioindicators of environmental quality around landfills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Solid waste for health: environmental impact health and feedback in case-disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Ferraz dos Anjos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the reality of the city of Vitoria da Conquista, with regard to the handling and final provisions of solid waste, health, it becomes imperative to raise so reflective, environmental impact and harm to health caused by them. This aims to describe research on the environmental impacts generated by Solid Wastes of Health (RSS and its implicativos in the health-disease; reflect on the ethical point of view focusing on professional negligence on the part of these, identifying the responsibilities of each involved in context; propose suggestions for improvements to creation of specific areas and handling appropriate to their final destination, to promote a balance of the environment and a healthy life. Through bibliographic methods, descriptive and exploratory with empirical basis, it was emphasized the conduct of that employed the landfill council, whose information based on photographic images of the site, showing thus the breach of the rules of the National Environmental Council ( CONAMA, the resolution 5 / 93 establishing standards of environmental quality in ralação to RSS1. Among other bodies engaged in monitoring the performance of health standards, is also SURVEILLANCE OF DIRECTORS AND CONTROL HEALTH, ENVIRONMENT (DIVISAM 2. The situation, if not circumvented quickly, tends to increase the rates of infections caused by such waste and degradation of the environment due to the exorbitant amount of them, that the landfill receives daily from various establishments of health. To this apparatus pejorativo, perceives itself as a city seen as a model in health, and this concept is linked directly with the environment, once you see an unconnected with reality and nature, and this source and stage of human life and well divides his words as a form of protest or a coincidence "Natu Reza"

  5. Hypercrosslinked particles for the extraction of sweeteners using dispersive solid-phase extrction from environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakade, Sameer S; Zhou, Qing; Li, Aimin; Borrull, Francesc; Fontanals, Núria; Marcé, Rosa M

    2017-12-26

    This work presents a new extraction material, namely, Q-100, based on hypercrosslinked magnetic particles, which was tested in dispersive solid-phase extraction for a group of sweeteners from environmental samples. The hypercrosslinked Q-100 magnetic particles had the advantage of suitable pore size distribution and high surface area, and showed good retention behavior towards sweeteners. Different dispersive solid-phase extraction parameters such as amount of magnetic particles or extraction time were optimized. Under optimum conditions, Q-100 showed suitable apparent recovery, ranging in the case of river water sample from 21 to 88% for all the sweeteners, except for alitame (12%). The validated method based on dispersive solid-phase extraction using Q-100 followed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry provided good linearity and limits of quantification between 0.01 and 0.1 μg L -1 . The method was applied to analyze samples from river water and effluent wastewater, and four sweeteners (acesulfame, saccharin, cyclamate and sucralose) were found in both types of sample. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION FOR TRACE ANALYSIS OF BENZENE IN ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Shahtaheri, H. R. Heidari, F. Golbabaei, M. Alimohammadi, A. Rahimi Froshani

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional analytical method for organic pollutants in water requires extraction of the pollutants, using hazardous solvent. Solid phase microextraction is a solvent free equilibrium extraction method, in which, proper calibration can allow quantitative determinations of organic pollutants at a very good sensitivity without the use of any organic solvent. Because individual volatile organic carbons are generally exposed environmentally and present in urine only at trace levels, a sensitive and accurate determination technique is essential. So, this study describes the optimization of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME followed by GC-FID for benzene in spiked urine. Through this investigations, the parameters affecting the extraction and gas chromatographic determination of analytes, including extraction time, temperature, desorption temperature, desorption time, salt addition, sample pH, sample volume and sample agitation were studied. An optimized headspace extraction was carried out at 30°C for 6 min in the presence of 0.2 g/mL of NaCl in the sample solution. Desorption of the analytes was carried out for 60 sec. at 250°C. The optimized procedure was also validated with three different pools of spiked urine samples and showed a good reproducibility over six consecutive days as well as six within-day experiments. The accuracy, linearity, detection limits were also determined. The headspace solid phase microextraction, GC-FID technique provides a relatively simple, convenient, practical procedure, which was here successfully applied to determine benzene in spiked urine.

  7. Studies of human and veterinary drugs' fate in environmental solid samples--analytical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilga, Joanna; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2008-08-01

    The improvement of medical care worldwide is one of the reasons for the increasing production of pharmaceutical products. Human medicines are affordable to a greater proportion of the world's population. But a significant amount of used pharmaceuticals can create problems--accessibility to high volume production pharmaceuticals contributes to an increased contamination in the environment and the possibility of adverse effects on humans and animals. Many of these substances and their metabolites end up in the soil, sediments, and sludge. Knowledge regarding the environmental occurrence of pharmaceutical products is increasing, but information in the peer-reviewed literature regarding the fate and effects of most pharmaceuticals is limited. One of the reasons for this lack of data is that, until now, there have been few analytical methods capable of detecting these compounds at the low levels, which might be expected in the environment. This review article covers recent developments in the analysis of pharmaceuticals in environmental solid matrices (including soil, sediments, and sludge). We will report applications of different solid sample extraction methods, and current advances in liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for detection and identification of selected drugs in sludge, soils, manure, and sediments.

  8. Environmental study of two significant solid samples: gravitation dust sediment and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeteiová, Dagmar; Rusnák, Radoslav; Kucanová, Eva; Fióová, Beáta; Ružičková, Silvia; Fekete, Ilona; Horváth, Márk; Dirner, Vojtech

    2012-01-01

    In this work are presented results of the complex study of two significant solid environmental samples: gravitation dust sediments (industrial pollutants, potential source of risk elements input to soils) and soils (component of the environment, potential source of risk elements input to food web). The first phase of this study was focused on the study of the significant chemical properties (phase composition, content of organic and inorganic carbon) of the dust and soil samples. In the second phase, the fractionation analysis was used on the evaluation of the mobility of chosen risk elements (Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) in the studied samples. The single-step extractions were applied in the order of the isolation of the element forms (fractions), with different mobilities during defined ecological conditions by utilization of the following reagents: 1 mol dm(-3) NH(4)NO(3) for isolation of the "mobile" fraction, 0.05 mol dm(-3) ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 0.43 mol dm(-3) CH(3)COOH for isolation of the "mobilizable" fraction, and 2 mol dm(-3) HNO(3) for isolation of all releasable forms. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, it is possible to state that different origins and positions of solid environmental samples in the environment reflect in different chemical properties of their matrix. The different properties of the sample matrix result in different mobilities of risk elements in these kinds of samples. The fractionation analysis with single-step extraction for isolation element fractions is the method most suitable for easy checking of environmental pollution and for evaluation of risk elements cycle in the environment.

  9. A Fmoc-compatible Method for the Solid-Phase Synthesis of Peptide C-Terminal (alpha)-Thioesters based on the Safety-Catch Hydrazine Linker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarero, J A; Hackel, B J; de Yoreo, J J; Mitchell, A R

    2003-11-22

    C-terminal peptide thioesters are key intermediates for the synthesis/semisynthesis of proteins and for the production of cyclic peptides by native chemical ligation. They can be synthetically prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) methods or biosynthetically by protein splicing techniques. Until recently, the chemical synthesis of C-terminal a-thioester peptides by SPPS was largely restricted to the Boc/Benzyl methodology because of the poor stability of the thioester bond to the basic conditions employed for the deprotection of the N{sup {alpha}}-Fmoc group. In the present work, we describe a new method for the SPPS of C-terminal thioesters by Fmoc/t-Bu chemistry. This method is based on the use of an aryl hydrazide linker, which is totally stable to the Fmoc-SPPS conditions. Once the peptide synthesis has been completed, activation of the linker can be achieved by mild oxidation. This step transforms the hydrazide group into a highly reactive diazene intermediate which can react with different H-AA-SEt to yield the corresponding {alpha}-thioester peptide in good yields. This method has been successfully used for the generation of different thioester peptides, circular peptides and a fully functional SH3 protein domain.

  10. Evaluation of environmental impacts from municipal solid waste management in the municipality of Aarhus, Denmark (EASEWASTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeby, Janus T; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Hansen, Trine Lund; Christensen, Thomas H; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael

    2006-02-01

    A new computer based life cycle assessment model (EASEWASTE) was used to evaluate a municipal solid waste system with the purpose of identifying environmental benefits and disadvantages by anaerobic digestion of source-separated household waste and incineration. The most important processes that were included in the study are optical sorting and pre-treatment, anaerobic digestion with heat and power recovery, incineration with heat and power recovery, use of digested biomass on arable soils and finally, an estimated surplus consumption of plastic in order to achieve a higher quality and quantity of organic waste to the biogas plant. Results showed that there were no significant differences in most of the assessed environmental impacts for the two scenarios. However, the use of digested biomass may cause a potential toxicity impact on human health due to the heavy metal content of the organic waste. A sensitivity analysis showed that the results are sensitive to the energy recovery efficiencies, to the extra plastic consumption for waste bags and to the content of heavy metals in the waste. A model such as EASEWASTE is very suitable for evaluating the overall environmental consequences of different waste management strategies and technologies, and can be used for most waste material fractions existing in household waste.

  11. Media Choice in Environmental Information Dissemination for Solid Waste Management among Policy Formulators and Implementors: A Case Study of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, B. A.; Temowo, O. O.; Ajiboye, J. O.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental information has been described as central to the issues of solid waste management and disposal. This study investigated the availability and accessibility of environmental information to the solid waste policy formulators and implementors with regard to the media/channels used for disseminating environmental information to the…

  12. Evaluation of the readsorption of plutonium and americium in dynamic fractionations of environmental solid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Roongrat; Hou, Xiaolin; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2008-07-01

    A dynamic extraction system exploiting sequential injection (SI) for sequential extractions incorporating a specially designed extraction column is developed to fractionate radionuclides in environmental solid samples such as soils and sediments. The extraction column can contain up to 5 g of a soil sample, and under optimal operational conditions it does not give rise to creation of back pressure. Attention has been placed on studies of the readsorption problems during sequential extraction using a modified Standards, Measurements and Testing (SM&T) scheme with four-step sequential extractions. The degree of readsorption in dynamic and conventional batch extraction systems is compared and evaluated by using a double-spiking technique. A high degree of readsorption of plutonium and americium (>75%) was observed in both systems, and they also exhibited similar distribution patterns of the two radionuclides. However, the dynamic system is fully automated, eliminates manual separations, significantly reduces the operational time required, and offers detailed kinetic information.

  13. Tourism and solid waste generation in Europe: A panel data assessment of the Environmental Kuznets Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbulú, Italo; Lozano, Javier; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between tourism growth and municipal solid waste (MSW) generation has been, until now, the subject of little research. This is puzzling since the tourism sector is an important MSW generator and, at the same time, is willing to avoid negative impacts from MSW mismanagement. This paper aims to provide tools for tourism and MSW management by assessing the effects of tourism volume, tourism quality and tourism specialization on MSW generation in the UE. This is done using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) framework. The study considers a panel data for 32 European economies in the 1997-2010 periods. Empirical results support the EKC hypothesis for MSW and shows that northern countries tend to have lower income elasticity than less developed countries; furthermore, results confirm a non-linear and significant effect of tourism arrivals, expenditure per tourist and tourism specialization on MSW generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Electromagnetic theory for electromagnetic compatibility engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Toh, Tze-Chuen

    2013-01-01

    Engineers and scientists who develop and install electronic devices and circuits need to have a solid understanding of electromagnetic theory and the electromagnetic behavior of devices and circuits. In particular, they must be well-versed in electromagnetic compatibility, which minimizes and controls the side effects of interconnected electric devices. Designed to entice the practical engineer to explore some worthwhile mathematical methods, and to reorient the theoretical scientist to industrial applications, Electromagnetic Theory for Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineers is based on the

  15. Water-related environmental control requirements at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J C; Johnson, L D

    1980-09-01

    Water use and waste water production, water pollution control technology requirements, and water-related limitations to their design and commercialization are identified at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion systems. In Part I, a summary of conclusions and recommendations provides concise statements of findings relative to water management and waste water treatment of each of four municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion categories investigated. These include: mass burning, with direct production of steam for use as a supplemental energy source; mechanical processing to produce a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for co-firing in gas, coal or oil-fired power plants; pyrolysis for production of a burnable oil or gas; and biological conversion of organic wastes to methane. Part II contains a brief description of each waste-to-energy facility visited during the subject survey showing points of water use and wastewater production. One or more facilities of each type were selected for sampling of waste waters and follow-up tests to determine requirements for water-related environmental controls. A comprehensive summary of the results are presented. (MCW)

  16. Gold nanoparticles based solid-phase microextraction coatings for determining organochlorine pesticides in aqueous environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Serpa, Adrián; Rocío-Bautista, Priscilla; Pino, Verónica; Jiménez-Moreno, Francisco; Jiménez-Abizanda, Ana I

    2017-05-01

    The use of solid-phase microextraction coatings based on gold nanoparticles was investigated, focusing the attention on the preparation of nanoparticles with nonclassical reduction agents of HAuCl4 such as gallic acid and H2 O2 , rather than the conventional sodium citrate. All nanoparticles were characterized by diode array spectroscopy, whereas novel nanoparticles prepared with gallic acid and H2 O2 were also characterized by microscopic techniques. Solid-phase microextraction coatings were prepared with a layer-by-layer approach. Gallic acid permitted the preparation of stable nanoparticles with milder experimental conditions (1 min, room temperature) and provided the most uniform coatings (thickness ∼3 μm). Seven organochlorine pesticides were determined in different environmental waters using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Despite the low thickness of the coatings, limits of detection of the entire method down to 0.13 μg/L were obtained. A comparison with the commercial polyacrylate in terms of the partition coefficients of the analytes to the coatings gave logarithm of the partition coefficient values two times higher with gallic acid than polyacrylate (although the commercial fiber is 28 times thicker). Interfiber relative standard deviation values ranged from 8.67 to 21.3%. Optimum fibers also presented an adequate lifetime (>100 extractions). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. [Methodological approaches to the development of environmentally benign technology for the use of solid waste in iron metallurgy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugin, K G; Vaĭsman, Ia I

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the life cycle of materials, containing wastes of iron and steel industry, new methodological approaches to the assessment of technologies of the secondary use of wastes are developed A complex criteria for selection of the technology for the use of resource potential of solid waste of iron and steel industry are developed with taking into account environmental, technological and economic indices. The technology of the use of wastes of ferrovanadium industry as bulk solid materials at the solid waste landfill is shown.

  18. Environmentally Friendly Method: Development and Application to Carbon Aerogel as Sorbent for Solid-Phase Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sheying; Huang, Guiqi; Su, Meiling; Huang, Tinglin

    2015-10-14

    We developed two simple, fast, and environmentally friendly methods using carbon aerogel (CA) and magnetic CA (mCA) materials as sorbents for micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE) and magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) techniques. The material performances such as adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetics, and specific surface area were discussed by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm measurements, ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The experimental results proved that the heterogeneities of CA and mCA were well modeled with the Freundlich isotherm model, and the sorption process well followed the pseudo-second-order rate equation. Moreover, plant growth regulators (PGRs) such as kinetin (6-KT), 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and uniconazole (UN) in a reservoir raw water sample were selected as the evaluation of applicability for the proposed μ-SPE and MSPE techniques using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The experimental conditions of two methods such as the amount of sorbent, extraction time, pH, salt concentration, and desorption conditions were studied. Under the optimized conditions, two extraction methods provided high recoveries (89-103%), low the limits of detection (LODs) (0.01-0.2 μg L(-1)), and satisfactory analytical features in terms of precision (relative standard deviation, RSD, 1.7-5.1%, n=3). This work demonstrates the feasibility and the potential of CA and mCA materials as sorbents for μ-SPE and MSPE techniques. Besides, it also could serve as a basis for future development of other functional CAs in pretreatment technology and make them valuable for analysis of pollutants in environmental applications.

  19. Urban Environmental Education Project, Curriculum Module VI: Solid Waste - Trash or Treasure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglan, Barbara

    Included in this module are four activities dealing with issues of solid waste disposal relative to urban concerns. Included activities are: (1) sources and composition of solid waste; (2) a "garbage game"; (3) disposal options for solid waste; and (4) an example county plan for solid waste disposal. Also included are an overview, teacher…

  20. Environmental Factors Affecting Microbiota Dynamics during Traditional Solid-state Fermentation of Chinese Daqu Starter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Lin, Weifeng; Liu, Xiong; Wang, Xiaowen; Luo, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the microbiota dynamics during two industrial-scale traditional solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes of Daqu starters. Similar evolution profiles of environmental parameters, enzymatic activities, microbial amounts, and communities were observed during the medium temperature SSF (MTSSF) and low temperature SSF (LTSSF) processes. Orders of Rickettsiales and Streptophyta only dominated the initial 2 days, and Eurotiales only predominated from days 10 to 24, however, phylotypes of Enterobacteriales, Lactobacillales, Bacillales, Saccharomycetales, and Mucorales both prevailed throughout the MTSSF and LTSSF processes. Nevertheless, the pH in MTSSF process on day 5 were 5.28, while in LTSSF process (4.87) significantly lower (P < 0.05). The glucoamylase activities in MTSSF process dropped from 902.71 to 394.33 mg glucose g-1 h-1 on days 5 to 24, while significantly lower (P < 0.05) in LTSSF process and decreased from 512.25 to 268.69 mg glucose g-1 h-1. The relative abundance of Enterobacteriales and Lactobacillales in MTSSF process constituted from 10.30 to 71.73% and 2.34 to 16.68%, while in LTSSF process ranged from 3.16 to 41.06% and 8.43 to 57.39%, respectively. The relative abundance of Eurotiales in MTSSF process on days 10 to 24 decreased from 36.10 to 28.63%, while obviously higher in LTSSF process and increased from 52.00 to 72.97%. Furthermore, lower bacterial richness but higher fungal richness were displayed, markedly differences in bacterial communities but highly similarities in fungal communities were exhibited, during MTSSF process comparatively to the LTSSF process. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed microbial structure transition happened at thermophilic stages under environmental stress of moisture, pH, acidity, and pile temperature. These profound understanding might help to effectively control the traditional Daqu SSF process by adjusting relevant environmental parameters. PMID:27540378

  1. MANAGEMENT OF SOLID WASTE GENERATED BY THE INTEGRATED STEELWORKS ACTIVITY AND SOLUTIONS TO REDUCE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anişoara CIOCAN

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of steel industry is subject to solve major problems arising from industry-nature relationship, strictly targeted on pollution control and protection of natural resources and energy. In this paper we discussed about the management of solid waste generated by an integrated steelwork located near a major urban area and the adopted solutions for the reduction of environmental impact. There are summarized technical solutions that are currently applied and were proposed some solutions that can be applied in accordance with the environmental legislations. The new solutions are proposed for integrated management of solid wastes in accordance with: the exact quantification (quantitative, qualitative and the generation sources of emissions and solid wastes; controlled storage; minimization of the wastes and its harmfulness; transformation of the wastes into valuable by-products used directly by the company in a subsequent process, or by external down-stream user.

  2. Recent advances and perspectives in analytical methodologies for monitoring the bioavailability of trace metals in environmental solid substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2006-01-01

    In the last decades, researchers have realised that the impact of trace elements (TE) in environmental solid substrates on ecological systems and biota cannot be ascertained appropriately by means of total metal content measurements. Assessment of TE chemical forms, types of binding and reactivit...

  3. Incubation of solid state C60 fullerene under UV irradiation mimicking environmentally relevant conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, Andrea; Helmus, Rick; Parsons, John R; Kalbitz, Karsten; de Voogt, Pim

    2017-05-01

    Carbon-based nanomaterials, such as C60 fullerenes, are expected to accumulate in soil due to direct release and deposition from the atmosphere. However, little is known about the environmental fate of these nanoparticles which may be susceptible to photochemical and microbial degradation. In the present work, C60 was incubated for a period of 28 days and irradiated with UVA light. Three experiments were carried out where the fullerenes were either spiked onto a glass surface or added to quartz sand or sandy soil samples. At specific time intervals the samples were extracted and analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to UV or high resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) detection. The fullerenes were degraded in all the treatments and the decay followed a pseudo-first-order rate law. In absence of a solid matrix, the half-life (t1⁄2) of the C60 was 13.1 days, with an overall degradation of 45.1% that was accompanied by the formation of functionalized C60-like structures. Furthermore, mass spectrometric analysis highlighted the presence of a large number of transformation products that were not directly related to the irradiation and presented opened cage and oxidized structures. When C60 was spiked into solid matrices the degradation occurred at a faster rate (t1⁄2 of 4.5 and 0.8 days for quartz sand and sandy soil, respectively). Minor but consistent losses were found in the non-irradiated samples, presumably due to biotic or chemical processes occurring in these samples. The results of this study suggest that light-mediated transformation of the fullerenes will occur in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymeric fibers using a single bifunctional monomer for the solid-phase microextraction of parabens from environmental solid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Álvarez, Myriam; Smith, Stephen P; Spivak, David A; Martín-Esteban, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    In this study, molecularly imprinted polymer fibers for solid-phase microextraction have been prepared with a single bifunctional monomer, N,O-bismethacryloyl ethanolamine using the so-called "one monomer molecularly imprinted polymers" method, replacing the conventional combination of functional monomer and cross-linker to form high fidelity binding sites. For comparison, imprinted fibers were prepared following the conventional approach based on ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker and methacrylic acid as monomer. The recognition performance of the new fibers was evaluated in the solid-phase microextraction of parabens, and from this study it was concluded that they provided superior performance over conventionally formulated fibers. Ultimately, real-world environmental testing on spiked solid samples was successful by the molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction of samples, and the relative recoveries obtained at enrichment levels of 10 ng/g of parabens were within 78-109% for soil and 83-109% for sediments with a relative standard deviation <15% (n = 3). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Swedish Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Systems Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Ola

    2003-04-01

    Waste management is something that affects most people. The waste amounts are still increasing, but the waste treatment is changing towards recycling and integrated solutions. In Sweden producers' responsibility for different products, a tax and bans on deposition of waste at landfills implicates a reorganisation of the municipal solid waste management. Plans are made for new incineration plants, which leads to that waste combustion comes to play a role in the reorganisation of the Swedish energy system as well. The energy system is supposed to adapt to governmental decisions on decommission of nuclear plants and decreased use of fossil fuels. Waste from private households consists of hazardous waste, scrap waste, waste electronics and wastes that to a large extent are generated in the kitchen. The latter type has been studied in this thesis, except for newsprint, glass- and metal packages that by source separation haven't ended up in the waste bin. Besides the remaining amount of the above mentioned fractions, the waste consists of food waste, paper, cardboard- and plastic packages and inert material. About 80-90 % of this mixed household waste is combustible, and the major part of that is also possible to recycle. Several systems analyses of municipal solid waste management have been performed. Deposition at landfill has been compared to energy recovery, recycling of material (plastic and cardboard) and recycling of nutrients (in food waste). Environmental impact, fuel consumption and costs are calculated for the entire lifecycle from the households, until the waste is treated and the by-products have been taken care of. To stop deposition at landfills is the most important measure to take as to decrease the environmental impact from landfills, and instead use the waste as a resource, thereby substituting production from virgin resources (avoiding resource extraction and emissions). The best alternative to landfilling is incineration, but also material

  6. Solid waste disposed in the surrounding of Caetés Ecological Station - PE: opportunity of environmental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Aparecida Megumi Nishiwaki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Several human activities have affected the integrity and balance of conservation unit, compromising the efficiency of the preservation of biodiversity, natural resources and cultural. This work aims to study the solid waste irregular disposition in the surrounding of Caetés Ecological Station (PE and the impacts on site, as well as presenting a proposal of environmental education program involving the local community. The problem has been identified through visiting areas, resulting in primary data, which were crossed with secondary data about solid waste and its negative effects, as well as on environmental education in communities. The environmental education program developed consists in lectures, dynamics, workshops, partnerships with local schools and training. The community mobilization expected in the program will rescue of the history of the Caetés Ecological Station.

  7. Life cycle modelling of environmental impacts from application of processed organic municipal solid waste on agricultural land (EASEWASTE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2006-01-01

    A model capable of quantifying the potential environmental impacts of agricultural application of composted or anaerobically digested source-separated organic municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. In addition to the direct impacts, the model accounts for savings by avoiding the production...... and use of commercial fertilizers. The model is part of a larger model, Environmental Assessment of Solid Waste Systems and Technology (EASEWASTE), developed as a decisionsupport model, focusing on assessment of alternative waste management options. The environmental impacts of the land application...... of processed organic waste are quantified by emission coefficients referring to the composition of the processed waste and related to specific crop rotation as well as soil type. The model contains several default parameters based on literature data, field experiments and modelling by the agro-ecosystem model...

  8. Development of immunoaffinity solid phase microextraction rods for analysis of three estrogens in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Yang, Linyan; Li, Na; Zhang, Xinda; Guo, Yongze; Li, Cun

    2017-09-01

    In this study, immunoaffinity solid phase microextraction (SPME) rods were developed for the analysis of diethylstilbestrol (DES), hexestrol (HES) and dienestrol (DIS) followed by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). This immunoaffinity SPME device was built with three stainless steel rods bundled together as one and modified with porous silicate particles. As an extraction sorbent, antibody immobilization approach was employed based on the covalent attachment of the anti-diethylstilbestrol monoclonal antibody (mAb) onto the rods. The immunoaffinity SPME rod was characterized and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The porous network showed a very large active surface area and significantly increased the adsorption capacity which can reach 49.6pmol/cm(2). Moreover, the immunoaffinity sorbent showed good sturdiness at least 10 times with stable extraction performance. Once the main experimental parameters were optimized, the method was used to detect DES, HES and DIS in environmental water samples. The limits of detection for the three estrogens were 0.05-0.15ng/mL, and the limits of quantification was 0.5ng/mL. The average recoveries ranged from 34.2 to 62.7% were achieved with good intra-day and inter-day precision ranging from 7.8 to 12.7% and from 8.2 to 13.5% respectively. The newly developed immunoaffinity SPME showed high adsorption capacity, good sensitivity and reproducibility and was successfully applied to the analysis of DES, HES and DIS in environmental water samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Headspace solid-phase microextraction of halogenated toluenes in environmental aqueous samples with polypropylene microporous membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinteiro, M I; Rodríguez, I; Cela, R; Ramil, M

    2009-04-03

    The optimization of the polypropylene microporous membrane based solid-phase microextraction (MMSPE) of several halogenated (Cl(-) and Br(-)) toluenes was carried out. The influence of several factors such as sampling mode, sample volume, stirring rate, ionic strength, exposure time, etc. on the performance of the microextraction process was thoroughly investigated. Under optimized conditions, analytes were concentrated onto a 2-cm long membrane exposed to the headspace (HS) of the sample vial containing 80mL of water with a 30% of sodium chloride. Equilibrium was achieved after a sampling period of 1h, at room temperature and vigorous magnetic stirring. After analytes desorption, with just 250 microL of n-hexane, they were determined by gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection (GC-mu-ECD). The developed methodology was characterized and validated also by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The proposed approach presented good precision (RSDs of 6-15% and 2-8% under reproducibility and repeatability conditions, respectively) and linear responses (R(2): 0.990-0.999) over more than two order of magnitude concentration ranges for di- to penta-substituted species either with GC-MS or GC-mu-ECD detection. The absolute extraction efficiency was directly related with the lipophilic nature of the studied species and their volatile character, ranging between 27% and 47% for di- to pentahalotoluenes. Despite being an adsorption based methodology, no matrix effects were observed for complex environmental water matrices such as river water or treated wastewater. The proposed approach provided a very simple and low-cost microextraction alternative rendering adequate limits of quantification, in the low/sub ngL(-1) level, for environmental sample analysis of poly-halogenated toluenes.

  10. Planet Patrol. An Environmental Unit on Solid Waste Solutions for Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    This classroom unit was developed for use in grades 4-6 to help teach the concept of solid waste management. The teacher's guide provides an overview of the issue of solid waste disposal, a description of government, industry, and consumer roles in resolving the solid waste issue, and four lessons involving sanitary landfills, the reduction of…

  11. Testing "Compatibility Testing."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Elliot; Huston, Ted L.

    Most models of marital choice are attempts to explain choices within the field of available eligibles. The essence of compatibility testing is that people select their mates by evaluating the match between psychological characteristics after sorting the available field on the basis of social characteristics. A compatibility model seems to require…

  12. Environmentally Benign Neem Biodiesel Synthesis Using Nano-Zn-Mg-Al Hydrotalcite as Solid Base Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Chelladurai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrotalcite, also known as aluminum-magnesium layered double hydroxide (LDH or anionic clay, is a synthetic compound that was broadly investigated in the past decade due to its many potential applications. In this work, we present an environmentally benign process for the transesterification (methanolysis of neem oil to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME using Zn-Mg-Al hydrotalcites as solid base catalysts in a heterogeneous manner. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TPD-CO2, and the BET surface area analysis. It is well-known that the catalytic performance of hydrotalcite is dramatically increased through the incorporation of Zn into the surface of Mg-Al hydrotalcite material. The optimized parameters, 10 : 1 methanol/oil molar ratio with 7.5 g catalysts reacted under stirring speed 450 rpm at 65°C for 4 h reaction, gave a maximum ester conversion of 90.5% for the sample with Zn-Mg-Al ratio of 3 : 3 : 1.

  13. Assessing the environmental sustainability of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeswani, H K; Azapagic, A

    2016-04-01

    Even though landfilling of waste is the least favourable option in the waste management hierarchy, the majority of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many countries is still landfilled. This represents waste of valuable resources and could lead to higher environmental impacts compared to energy recovered by incineration, even if the landfill gas is recovered. Using life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool, this paper aims to find out which of the following two options for MSW disposal is more environmentally sustainable: incineration or recovery of biogas from landfills, each producing either electricity or co-generating heat and electricity. The systems are compared on a life cycle basis for two functional units: 'disposal of 1 tonne of MSW' and 'generation of 1 kWh of electricity'. The results indicate that, if both systems are credited for their respective recovered energy and recyclable materials, energy from incineration has much lower impacts than from landfill biogas across all impact categories, except for human toxicity. The impacts of incineration co-generating heat and electricity are negative for nine out of 11 categories as the avoided impacts for the recovered energy and materials are higher than those caused by incineration. By improving the recovery rate of biogas, some impacts of landfilling, such as global warming, depletion of fossil resources, acidification and photochemical smog, would be significantly reduced. However, most impacts of the landfill gas would still be higher than the impacts of incineration, except for global warming and human toxicity. The analysis on the basis of net electricity produced shows that the LCA impacts of electricity from incineration are several times lower in comparison to the impacts of electricity from landfill biogas. Electricity from incineration has significantly lower global warming and several other impacts than electricity from coal and oil but has higher impacts than electricity from natural gas or UK grid. At

  14. Environmental cues that induce the physiology of solid medium: a study on lovastatin production by Aspergillus terreus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, N; Tarragó-Castellanos, M R; Barrios-González, J

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the main environmental factors that induce the special physiology displayed by fungi growing in solid culture-that is, higher secondary metabolite (SM) production-compared with those in submerged culture. Lovastatin-specific production (SP) was used as an indicator of the physiological status, and different model culture systems were used to evaluate the impact of potential solid-state fermentation (SSF) environmental stimuli. Direct contact with air was identified as an important stimulus. Cultures with two or more hours of exposure to air showed typical SSF lovastatin SP (1462% higher than cultures exposed for 0·08 h). Intermediate times of exposure generated intermediate physiological states. Support-related stimuli also induced higher lovastatin SP, even in a liquid environment (679% increase). Direct contact with air, as well as support-related stimuli, are major environmental cues that induce the physiology of solid medium. This knowledge is the starting point to investigate how these environmental cues are sensed and transduced, impacting SM and enzyme production. These results have important applied potential in new strategies to generate overproducing strains, as well as application in the design of novel production systems. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Environmental monitoring and fuzzy synthetic evaluation of municipal solid waste transfer stations in Beijing in 2001-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunping; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Yiming; Li, Yanfu; Huang, Jian

    2008-01-01

    Transfer station (TS) is an integral part of present-day municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. To provide information for the incorporation of waste facilities within the current integrated waste management system, the authors measured the existing environmental quality at five MSW TSs. Discharged wastewater, air, and noise were monitored and assayed at the five TSs in Beijing in 2001-2006 during rainy seasons (RSs) and dry seasons (DSs). Except Ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the analytical results of total suspended particles (TSPs), odor, noise, ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), suspended solid (SS), and fecal coliform concentrations were all degree-varied higher than the criteria limit in China. Using fuzzy mathematics, the environmental quality of MSW TSs in Beijing was classified into five categories, with levels of certainty of belonging to different categories and evaluations. The result indicated that the whole environmental quality of Datun TS, Majialou TS, and Xiaowuji TS, in Beijing, were bad during 2001-2006 in RSs and DSs. Except in 2002, the entire environmental quality of the Wuluju TS during 2001-2006 in RSs was poor. Only in the DSs of 2002 and 2003 was the whole environmental quality of the Wuluju TS good. The whole environmental quality of the Yamenkou TS during 2001-2006 in DSs was bad, which was lower than that of 2001-2006 DSs.

  16. Environmental impacts and costs of solid waste: a comparison of landfill and incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabl, Ari; Spadaro, Joseph V; Zoughaib, Assaad

    2008-04-01

    The methodology for evaluating the impacts and damage costs ('external costs') due to pollution from waste treatment is described and the results are presented, based on the ExternE project series of the European Commission. The damage costs of landfill and incineration of municipal solid waste are compared, with due account for energy and materials recovery, as well as possible differences in transport distance. We have not been able to quantify the total damage costs of leachates because of the complexity of the environmental pathways and of the long time horizon of some persistent pollutants, but we consider an extreme scenario to show that they are not worth worrying about in the sense that reducing the pollutants in leachates beyond current regulations would bring negligible benefit in comparison with the abatement of other sources of the same pollutants. The damage costs due to the construction of the waste treatment facility are negligible. The damage costs of waste transport, which are illustrated by an arbitrary choice of a 100 km round trip by a 16 tonne truck, are also negligible. The benefits of materials recovery make a small contribution to the total damage cost. The only significant contributions come from direct emissions (of the landfill or incinerator) and from avoided emissions due to energy recovery (from an incinerator). Damage costs for incineration range from about 4 to 21 EUR tonne waste(-1), and they are extremely dependent on the assumed scenario for energy recovery. For landfill the cost ranges from about 10 to 13 EUR tonne waste(-1); it is dominated by greenhouse gas emissions because only a fraction of the CH4 can be captured (here assumed to be 70%). Amenity costs (odour, visual impact, noise) are highly site-specific and we only cite results from a literature survey which indicates that such costs could make a significant contribution, very roughly on the order of 1 EUR tonne waste(-1).

  17. Fluorescence spectrophotometer analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples based on solid phase extraction using molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupadam, Reddithota J; Bhagat, Bhagyashree; Wate, Satish R; Bodhe, Ghanshyam L; Sellergren, Borje; Anjaneyulu, Yerramilli

    2009-04-15

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized using a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) standard as a template, methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker, and acetonitrile as a porogen. This polymer was used as a solid phase adsorbent for the quantitative enrichment of PAHs in coastal sediments, atmospheric particulates, and industrial effluents. The MIP selective adsorption capacity for PAHs started reducing when the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total dissolved solids (TDS) was more than 800 mg L(-1) in the targeted environmental samples. The adsorption stability of the MIP was tested by the consecutive contact of environmental samples, and it was shown that the performance of the MIP did not vary after 10 enrichments and desorption cycles. Recoveries of eight PAH compounds, extracted from 10 g of coastal sediments and 1 L of industrial effluent spiked with 10 microL of standard PAHs, showed recoveries between 85 and 96%. The fluorescence spectrophotometer limit of detection of PAHs varied from 10 to 30 etag L(-1) in industrial effluent and from 0.1 to 2.9 etag kg(-1) in solid samples (coastal sediment and atmospheric particulates), and this indicates that the environmental analytical method is significantly sensitive, when compared with other commonly used methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  18. The role played by environmental factors in the integration of a transfer station in a municipal solid waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Powell, J C; Gallardo, A; Capuz-Rizo, S F

    2007-01-01

    Transfer stations are an integral part of present-day municipal solid waste management systems. The main criteria used to decide on the location of a transfer station has traditionally been the minimization of transport costs, since it is cheaper to transport great amounts of waste over long distances in large loads than in small ones. In this study, we are going to consider the environmental factor in order to compare the feasibility of using a transfer station integrated within a waste management system. Applying the Life Cycle Assessment technique will enable us to obtain an objective parameter that quantifies the environmental impact of transportation and of operating a transfer station. Taking the current rates of solid wastes generation in the Plana region of Castellón (Spain) as our starting point, in this study we compare the environmental costs involved in the process of taking municipal wastes directly to the nearest waste treatment facility, with those involved in a waste management system integrating a transfer station. Comparing these two cases, an average reduction of 16.8% in the environmental impact can be obtained when a transfer station is incorporated in the waste management system.

  19. Ultrasensitive determination of highly polar trimethyl phosphate in environmental water by molecularly imprinted polymeric fiber headspace solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Cuicui; Zhang, Pengcheng; Deng, Jiali; Zhou, Hongbin; Cheng, Jing

    2017-12-14

    A sensitive, accurate and cost effective method for the quantification of trimethyl phosphate, which is highly polar and volatile, in environmental water is presented. Trimethyl phosphate was headspace solid-phase microextracted on a molecularly imprinted polymeric fiber, and then the fiber was thermally desorbed in the gas chromatograph injector, and the compound was determined. The trimethyl phosphate imprinted polymeric fiber was prepared by copolymerization in a fused silica capillary tube and obtained by removal of the wall of fused silica capillary tube. The monolithic fiber displayed good selectivity toward trimethyl phosphate among its structural analogues. It was thermally stable up to 320°C so that it can withstand the high temperature of the gas chromatograph injector for desorption. The factors influencing the performance of its headspace solid phase microextraction were studied. Under the optimal conditions, the method for quantification of trimethyl phosphate in environmental water was well developed. It exhibited significant linearity, the lowest limit of quantification to date and good recoveries. Using this method, trimethyl phosphate was detected out in five out of seven environmental water samples at concentration levels from 0.28 to 1.22 μg L-1 , illustrating the heavy pollution of trimethyl phosphate in environmental water. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental impact analysis of nitrogen cross-media metabolism: A case study of municipal solid waste treatment system in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zongguo; Bai, Weinan; Zhang, Wenting; Chen, Chen; Fei, Fan; Chen, Bin; Huang, Yi

    2018-03-15

    Municipal Solid Waste Treatment System (MSWTS) contributes a lot to urban metabolism optimization and pollution control of nitrogen. An analysis framework for cross-media metabolism of nitrogen was developed for MSWTS to study the systematic effects of nitrogen metabolism in MSWTS on ecosystem quality. Then cross-media distribution of pollutants was calculated in landfill, composting, incineration and anaerobic digestion, respectively. Sixty three percent to 82% of the original inputs ended up in the natural environment using the former three technologies (landfill, composting and incineration), which was attributed to cross-media migration. Anaerobic digestion should be highlighted due to its overall desirable removal efficiency. Critical processes related to nitrogen cross-media migration were identified to analyze the overall environmental impacts sensitivities. Positive effects emerged in liquid-solid interface migration of nitrogen through sewage collection and treatment technology processes, while the incineration flue gas treatment witnessed negative effects in gas-liquid interface migration. Overall, the environmental impact sensitivity levels of nitrogen cross-media migration under critical processes were as follows: incineration>landfill>composting>anaerobic digestion. Therefore, the environment is most sensitively affected by incineration and its processes. The present study is of great significance to optimize environmental management by shifting the management mode from single environmental medium quality control to systematic ecosystem quality improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of alternative environmentally friendly matrix solid phase dispersion solid supports for the simultaneous extraction of 15 pesticides of different chemical classes from drinking water treatment sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Karina Lotz; Cerqueira, Maristela Barnes Rodrigues; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2017-09-01

    This study describes the development, optimization and validation of a method for the extraction of 15 pesticides of different chemical classes in drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) by vortex-assisted Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD) with determination by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. It focused on the application of alternative and different solid supports to the extraction step of the MSPD. The main parameters that influenced the extraction were studied in order to obtain better recovery responses. Recoveries ranged from 70 to 120% with RSD below 20% for all analytes. Limits of quantification (LOQ) of the method ranged from 5 to 500 μg kg-1 whereas the analytical curves showed correlation coefficients above 0.997. The method under investigation used low volume of solvent (5 mL), low sample mass (1.5 g) and low mass of chitin (0.5 g), an environmentally friendly support. It has advantages, such as speed, simplicity and low cost material, over other methods. When the method was applied, 4 out of 15 pesticides were detected in the DWTS samples in concentrations below the LOQ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of a food waste disposer policy on solid waste and wastewater management with economic implications of environmental externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Amani; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the carbon footprint of introducing a food waste disposer (FWD) policy was examined in the context of its implications on solid waste and wastewater management with economic assessment of environmental externalities emphasizing potential carbon credit and increased sludge generation. For this purpose, a model adopting a life cycle inventory approach was developed to integrate solid waste and wastewater management processes under a single framework and test scenarios for a waste with high organic food content typical of developing economies. For such a waste composition, the results show that a FWD policy can reduce emissions by nearly ∼42% depending on market penetration, fraction of food waste ground, as well as solid waste and wastewater management schemes, including potential energy recovery. In comparison to baseline, equivalent economic gains can reach ∼28% when environmental externalities including sludge management and emissions variations are considered. The sensitivity analyses on processes with a wide range in costs showed an equivalent economic impact thus emphasizing the viability of a FWD policy although the variation in the cost of sludge management exhibited a significant impact on savings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electromagnetic compatibility engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, Henry W

    2009-01-01

    Praise for Noise Reduction Techniques IN electronic systems ""Henry Ott has literally 'written the book' on the subject of EMC. . . . He not only knows the subject, but has the rare ability to communicate that knowledge to others.""-EE Times Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering is a completely revised, expanded, and updated version of Henry Ott's popular book Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems. It reflects the most recent developments in the field of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and noise reduction¿and their practical applications t

  4. Airlift-reactor design and test for aerobic environmental bioprocesses with extremely high solid contents at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitkenhauer, H; Maleski, R; Märkl, H

    2003-01-01

    Bioprocesses at high temperatures gained considerably in importance within the last years and several new applications for aerobic, extreme thermophilic environmental bioprocesses are emerging. However, this development is not yet matched by adequate bioreactor designs, especially if it comes to the treatment of solids. In this communication we propose the use of airlift reactors to bridge this gap. The design of an internal draught tube bioreactor (Area(Riser)/Area(Downcomer) . 1; Height/Diameter . 8) is described in detail. The influence of the temperature on gas hold-up, liquid velocity and mixing characteristics was investigated. It was shown that this reactor could hold up to 1 t quartz sand per m3 in suspension at moderate aeration rates. Despite the decreasing oxygen solubility, the oxygen transfer rate increased with rising temperature due to the improved mass transfer parameters. With rising solid content, the oxygen transfer rate increased and reached a maximum at a solid content of about 140 kg m(-3) before it decreased again. However, it is only slightly reduced at the highest solid contents. The results demonstrate that aerobic bioprocesses at high temperatures are not only feasible, but can be very efficient if carried out in proper bioreactors.

  5. How long can culturable bacteria and total DNA persist in environmental waters? The role of sunlight and solid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Cacciabue, Dolores; Cid, Alicia G; Rajal, Verónica B

    2016-01-01

    In this work, sunlight inactivation of two indicator bacteria in freshwater, with and without solid particles, was studied and the persistence of culturable cells and total DNA was compared. Environmental water was used to prepare two matrices, with and without solid particles, which were spiked with Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. These matrices were used to prepare microcosm bags that were placed in two containers: one exposed to sunlight and the other in the dark. During one month, samples were removed from each container and detection was done by membrane filter technique and real-time PCR. Kinetic parameters were calculated to assess sunlight effect. Indicator bacteria without solid particles exposed to sunlight suffered an immediate decay (DNA persisted much longer than culturable cells (T99>40h in the dark with particles). In this case active cells were more prone to sunlight than total DNA and the protective effect of solid particles was also observed. Results highlight that the effects caused by the parameters which describe the behavior of culturable microorganisms and total DNA in water are different and must be included in simulation models but without forgetting that these parameters will also depend on bacterial properties, sensitizers, composition, type, and uses of the aquatic environment under assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Security of the electricity supply. The area of conflict between profitability and environmental compatibility; Sicherheit der Elektrizitaetsversorgung. Das Spannungsfeld von Wirtschaftlichkeit und Umweltvertraeglichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praktiknjo, Aaron

    2013-07-01

    The scope of the book is on the one hand support for the power industry defining investment and sales strategies that intend optimum supply security in the view of the customer and on the other hand the information for energy and environmental politicians demonstrating the conflict of objectives. The following issues are covered: technical and organizational aspects of electricity supply, theoretical background of the security of electricity supply, security of supply for economic sections, security of electricity supply for private households: theoretical microeconomic approach, security of electricity supply for private households: method of defined preferences, security of electricity supply in the context of climate protection and nuclear phase-out.

  7. Determination of total mercury for marine environmental monitoring studies by solid sampling continuum source high resolution atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandjukov, Petko; Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Vassileva, Emilia, E-mail: e.vasileva-veleva@iaea.org

    2015-01-01

    The most critical step in almost all commonly used analytical procedures for Hg determination is the sample preparation due to its extreme volatility. One of the possible solutions of this problem is the application of methods for direct analysis of solid samples. The possibilities for solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS) determination of total mercury in various marine environmental samples e.g. sediments and biota are object of the present study. The instrumental parameters were optimized in order to obtain reproducible and interference free analytical signal. A calibration technique based on the use of solid standard certified reference materials similar to the nature of the analyzed sample was developed and applied to various CRMs and real samples. This technique allows simple and reliable evaluation of the uncertainty of the result and the metrological characteristics of the method. A validation approach in line with the requirements of ISO 17025 standard and Eurachem guidelines was followed. With this in mind, selectivity, working range (0.06 to 25 ng for biota and 0.025 to 4 ng for sediment samples, expressed as total Hg) linearity (confirmed by Student's t-test), bias (1.6–4.3%), repeatability (4–9%), reproducibility (9–11%), and absolute limit of detection (0.025 ng for sediment, 0.096 ng for marine biota) were systematically assessed using solid CRMs. The relative expanded uncertainty was estimated at 15% for sediment sample and 8.5% for marine biota sample (k = 2). Demonstration of traceability of measurement results is also presented. The potential of the proposed analytical procedure, based on solid sampling HR CS AAS technique was demonstrated by direct analysis of sea sediments form the Caribbean region and various CRMs. Overall, the use of solid sampling HR CS AAS permits obtaining significant advantages for the determination of this complex analyte in marine samples, such as

  8. Environmental evaluation of the electric and cogenerative configurations for the energy recovery of the Turin municipal solid waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panepinto, Deborah; Genon, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    Given the desirability of reducing fossil fuel consumption, together with the increasing production of combustible solid wastes, there is clearly a need for waste treatment systems that achieve both volume reduction and energy recovery. Direct incineration method is one such system. The aim of this work was to analyze the municipal solid waste incineration plant currently under construction in the province of Turin (Piedmont, North Italy), especially the potential for energy recovery, and the consequent environmental effects. We analyzed two kinds of energy recovery: electric energy (electrical configuration) only, and both electric and thermal energy (cogenerative configuration), in this case with a different connection hypothesis to the district heating network. After we had evaluated the potential of the incinerator and considered local demographic, energy and urban planning effects, we assumed different possible connections to the district heating network. We computed the local and global environmental balances based on the characteristics of the flue gas emitted from the stack, taking into consideration the emissions avoided by the substituted sources. The global-scale results provided relevant information on the carbon dioxide emissions parameter. The results on the local scale were used as reference values for the implementation of a Gaussian model (Aermod) that allows evaluation of the actual concentration of the pollutants released into the atmosphere. The main results obtained highlight the high energy efficiency of the combined production of heat and electricity, and the opportunity to minimize the environmental impact by including cogeneration in a district heating scheme. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Introduction to electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Clayton R.

    A formal and extensive treatment of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is presented. Basic principles are reviewed in detail, including reasons for EMC in electronic design. Also discussed are: nonideal behavior of components, signal spectra, radiated emission and susceptibility, conducted emissions and susceptibility, crosstalk, shielding, electrostatic discharge, and system design for EMC.

  10. Electromagnetic compatibility overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K. C.

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the electromagnetic compatibility impact of the Satellite Power System is discussed. The discussion is divided into two parts: determination of the emission expected from SPS including their spatial and spectral distributions, and evaluation of the impact of such emissions on electromagnetic systems including considerations of means for mitigating effects.

  11. The understanding of solid wastes from healthcare services in academic education: a contribution to environmental education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Corrêa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article shows solid wastes of health services have been approached in the process of formation of undergratuation courses of the field of health. Data were collected from coordinators, teachers and students of the courses of Dentistry, Veterinary Medicine, Nursery-Obstetrics and Medicine of a Public Institution of higher education in the southern region of Brazil. A reform of teaching is taken as necessary, in order to include in the pedagogic processes new understandings: of integrality, articulation, dialogue, problematização, so that to prepare future professionals for facing the problem of solid wastes of health services, with responsibility and commitment.

  12. Environment and traffic. Contribution to environmentally compatible projecting and analysis of roads; Umwelt und Verkehr. Beitraege zur umweltvertraeglichen Planung und Beurteilung von Verkehrswegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The book contains contributions on air pollution abatement, noise and vibration abatement, conservation and landscaping. It addressses experts, who are given information on efficient and low-cost planning of new roads with minimum adverse effects on nature and landscape and minimum pollutant and noise problems. The focus is on noise, as this field is often left out of account in environmental protection considerations. [German] Das Heft beinhaltet eine Zusammenstellung von Beitraegen aus den Fachbereichen der Luftreinhaltung, des Laerm- und Erschuetterungsschutzes sowie des Naturschutzes und der Landschaftspflege. Es soll der Fachwelt Hinweise und Anregungen geben, um Verkehrswege zweckmaessig und kostenguenstig zu planen sowie Eingriffe in die Natur und Landschaft und verkehrsbedingte Einwirkungen von Schadstoffen und Laerm so gering wie moeglich zu halten. Das Thema Laerm dominiert hier ganz bewusst. Wenn auch bei allen Arten der Umweltbeeintraechtigung durch den Verkehr nach weiteren Loesungen gesucht werden muss, besteht im Laermschutz ein besonderer technischer und regelnder Nachholbedarf. (orig.)

  13. Environmental effects of shifts in a regional heating mix through variations in the utilization of solid biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Christian; Klein, Daniel; Richter, Klaus; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele

    2016-07-15

    Solid Biofuels, i.e. wood, play an important role in present and future national and global climate change mitigation policies. Wood energy, while displaying favorable properties for the mitigation of climate change also exhibits several drawbacks, such as potentially high emission of particulate matter. To assess the environmental effects of shifts in the heating mix, emission factors of the comprising energy carriers and the Bavarian heating mix were determined. Through the application of regionalized substitution percentiles the environmental effects caused by shifts in the amount of final energy provided by solid biofuels could be identified. For this purpose, four scenarios, based on political and scientific specifications were assessed. In 2011 a total amount of 663.715 TJ of final energy was used for the provision of heat in Bavaria, with solid biofuels exhibiting the third largest share of 12.6% (83% of renewable heat). Environmental effects were evaluated through life cycle assessments assessing the impact categories of Global Warming (GW), Particulate Matter emissions (PM), Freshwater Eutrophication (ET) and Acidification (AC). Additionally, the non-renewable primary energy consumption (PE) was analyzed. The heating mix in Bavaria (Baseline) causes emissions of 49.6 Mt CO2-eq. * yr(-1)(GW), 14.555 t of PM2.5-eq. * yr(-1) (PM), 873.4 t P-eq. * yr(-1) (ET), and 82.299 kmol H(+) eq. * yr(-1) (AC), for which 721,745 TJ of primary energy were expended. Current policies entail a GHG reduction potential of approximately 1 Mt CO2-eq. * yr(-1) while increasing the amount of energy wood by 15%. The maximum, hypothetical share of solid biofuels of the heating mix cannot surpass 25%, while the climate change mitigation performance of the current use of solid biofuels is approximately 6.4 Mt CO2-eq. * yr(-1). GHG-emissions would be 13% higher and PM emissions 77% lower without this energetic use of wood. Furthermore, our calculations allow for new specified

  14. Environmental assessment of municipal solid waste management in Sri Lanka and India in a life cycle perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikpura, S.N.M.; Bonnet, Sebastien; Gheewala, Shabbir H. [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand). Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment; Ministry of Education (Thailand). Center for Energy Technology and Environment

    2010-07-01

    At present, many Asian developing countries are practicing poor Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management methods such as open dumping and non-engineered landfilling. This creates severe burdens on the environment and threat to human health. The quantification of the environmental impacts resulting from such poor MSW management practices is necessary to serve as a baseline against which alternative treatment technology options can be assessed for implementation of more environmentally sustainable MSW management systems that are adapted to local situation. In this study, existing MSW management systems in Ski Lanka and India were evaluated in order to assess the severity of their environmental impacts with focus on global warming potential and abiotic resource depletion. Life Cycle Assessment methodology was followed to perform this investigation. Results from this study reveal that the existing MSW management methods used in both countries cause severe environmental damages. However, the situation in India is slightly better as compared to Sri Lanka since 24% of its MSW is being composted. The implementation of landfill with landfill gas recovery for energy was identified as an important initial step to overcome the existing environmental impacts assessed. The results obtained revealed that implementation of such systems would help substantially to reduce global warming potential and abiotic resources depletion. (orig.)

  15. Porous organic polymers with different pore structures for sensitive solid-phase microextraction of environmental organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhoubing; Liu, Shuqin; Xu, Jianqiao; Yin, Li; Zheng, Juan; Zhou, Ningbo; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2017-10-09

    Adsorption capacity is the major sensitivity-limited factor in solid-phase microextraction. Due to its light-weight properties, large specific surface area and high porosity, especially tunable pore structures, the utilization of porous organic polymers as solid-phase microextraction adsorbents has attracting researchers' attentions. However, these works mostly concentrated on the utilization of specific porous organic polymers for preparing high-performance solid-phase microextraction coatings. The relationship between pore structures and adsorption performance of the porous organic polymers still remain unclear. Herein, three porous organic polymers with similar properties but different pore distributions were prepared by condensation polymerization reaction of phloroglucinol and terephthalaldehyde, which were fabricated as solid-phase microextraction coatings subsequently. The adsorption capacity of the porous organic polymers-coated fibers were evaluated by using benzene and its derivatives (i.e.,benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as the target analytes. The results showed that the different adsorption performance of these porous organic polymers was mainly caused by their different pore volumes instead of their surface areas or pore sizes. Finally, the proposed method by using the mesoporous organic polymer coating was successfully applied to the determination of benzene and its derivatives in environmental water samples. As for analytical performance, high pre-concentration factors (74-2984), satisfactory relative recoveries (94.5 ± 18.5-116.9 ± 12.5%), intraday precision (2.44-5.34%), inter-day precision (4.62-7.02%), low limit of detections (LODs, 0.10-0.29 ng L(-1)) and limit of quantifications (LOQs, 0.33-0.96 ng L(-1)) were achieved under the optimal conditions. This study provides an important idea in the rational design of porous organic polymers for solid-phase microextraction or other

  16. Solid state compatibility in the ZnO-rich region of ZnO-Bi2O3-Sb2O3 and ZnO-Bi2O3-Sb2O5 systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardiel, T.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The obtaining of ZnO-Bi2O3-Sb2O3 (ZBS based varistor thick films with high non-linear properties is constrained by the bismuth loss by vaporization that takes place during the sintering step of these ceramics, a process which is yet more critical in the thick film geometry due to its inherent high are/volume ratio. This volatilization can be controlled to a certain extent by modifying the proportions of the Bi and/or Sb precursors. Obviously this requires a clear knowledge of the different solid state compatibilities in the mentioned ZBS system. In this sense a detailed study of the thermal evolution of the ZnO-Bi2O3-Sb2O3 and ZnO-Bi2O3-Sb2O5 systems in the ZnO-rich region of interest for varistors, is presented in this contribution. A different behaviour is observed when using Sb2O3 or Sb2O5 as starting precursor, which should be attributed to the oxidation process experimented by Sb2O3 compound during the heating. On the other hand the use of high amounts of Bi in the starting formulation leads to the formation of a liquid phase at lower temperatures, which would allow the use of lower sintering temperatures.La obtención de varistors en lámina gruesa basados en ZnO-Bi2O3-Sb2O3 (ZBS y con propiedades altamente no-lineales está limitada por la perdida de bismuto por volatilización durante la sinterización de estos cerámicos, un proceso que es todavía más crítico en la geometría de lámina gruesa debido a su elevada relación área/volumen inherente. Dicha volatilización puede ser no obstante controlada hasta cierta extensión modificando las proporciones de los precursores de Bi y/o Sb. Obviamente ello conlleva un amplio conocimiento de las diferentes compatibilidades en estado sólido en el mencionado sistema ZBS. En este sentido, en la presente contribución se presenta un estudio detallado de la evolución térmica de los sistemas ZnO-Bi2O3-Sb2O3 y ZnO-Bi2O3-Sb2O5 en la región rica en ZnO de interés para varistores. Como

  17. Laser ablation/ionization characterization of solids: Second interim progress report of the strategic environmental research development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, W.P.; Bushaw, B.A.; McCarthy, M.I.; Campbell, J.A.; Colson, S.D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Dickinson, J.T. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-10-01

    The Department of Energy is undertaking the enormous task of remediating defense wastes and environmental insults which have occurred over 50 years of nuclear weapons production. It is abundantly clear that significant technology advances are needed to characterize, process, and store highly radioactive waste and to remediate contaminated zones. In addition to the processing and waste form issues, analytical technologies needed for the characterization of solids, and for monitoring storage tanks and contaminated sites do not exist or are currently expensive labor-intensive tasks. This report describes progress in developing sensitive, rapid, and widely applicable laser-based mass spectrometry techniques for analysis of mixed chemical wastes and contaminated soils.

  18. Environmental Analysis of U.S. Navy Submarine Solid Waste Discharges. Report of Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Sosa. Pollution By Solid Wastes Carried By Marine Currents To The Caribbean Coast ofHonduras. Revista De Biologia Tropical, V38 N2, pp. 339-342...Oceanographic Institution Reference; 72-7. Dicks, B. 1986. Oil and The Black Mangrove, Avicennia Marina in The Northern Red Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin

  19. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment, Phase II, Post-Secondary Education Profile: Solid Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    Educational programs in solid waste management offered by 16 schools in 9 states were surveyed. These programs represent a sample, only, of the various programs available nationwide. Enrollment and graduate statistics are presented. Overall, 116 full-time and 124 part-time faculty were involved in the programs surveyed. Curricula and sources of…

  20. 78 FR 29124 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Implementation of Energy, Water, and Solid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ..., and Solid Waste Sustainability Initiatives at Fort Bliss, Texas and New Mexico AGENCY: Department of..., construction of dry-cooled concentrating solar power technology (Alternative 6). Alternative 7 proposes... sustainability and security of Fort Bliss. DATES: The public comment period will end 45 days after publication of...

  1. Lubricants trying to meet the diverging requirements of environmental compatibility and efficient performance; Schmierstoffe im Spannungsfeld zwischen Umweltvertraeglichkeit und technischem Leistungsanspruch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornscheidt, G.A. [Carl Bechem GmbH, Hagen (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    The article addresses the political goal, to substitute lubricants on a mineral oil basis by biologically degradable oils, primarily from renewable sources as e.g. rapeseed or sunflower oils, but animal oils as well. These products can be further processed by oleochemical treatment to synthetic esters which meet the high performance requirements of technical applications. The Federal Government supports research and development activities and thus has given attractive incentives for a reorientation towards biological oils. This will not heal the hole in the ozone layer, nor will it halt destruction of the rainforests, but nevertheless enhances the chances for active environmental protection through application of new, less hazardous substances. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Wie es im Vortrag dargestellt wird, ist es ein erklaertes Ziel der Bundesregierung, problematische mineraloelbasische Schmierstoffe durch den Einsatz biologisch schnell abbaubarer Grundfluessigkeiten, vorrangig nachwachsender Rohstoffe wie Raps- und Sonnenblumenoele, aber auch tierischer Oele, zu ersetzen. Fuer technisch anspruchsvolle Anwendungen koennen diese Produkte von der Oleochemie zu synthetischen Estern weiterverarbeitet werden. Durch die Foerderung von Forschungs- und Entwicklungsmassnahmen fuer Bio-Schmieroele setzt die Bundesregierung hier deutliche Akzente. Kein Schmierstoff dieser Welt kann die Umwelt verbessern. Weder laesst sich mit Bio-Oel das Ozonloch `stopfen`, noch das Problem der sterbenden Regenwaelder loesen. Dennoch kann mit den neuen innovativen Schmierstoffen aktiv Umweltschutz betrieben werden. (orig.)

  2. An economic evaluation and assessment of environmental impact of the municipal solid waste management system for Taichung City in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Chu, Chien-Wei; Lin, Min-Der

    2012-05-01

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is an important environmental challenge and subject in urban planning. For sustainable MSWM strategies, the critical management factors to be considered include not only economic efficiency of MSW treatment but also life-cycle assessment of the environmental impact. This paper employed linear programming technique to establish optimal MSWM strategies considering economic efficiency and the air pollutant emissions during the life cycle of a MSWM system, and investigated the correlations between the economical optimization and pollutant emissions. A case study based on real-world MSW operating parameters in Taichung City is also presented. The results showed that the costs, benefits, streams of MSW, and throughputs of incinerators and landfills will be affected if pollution emission reductions are implemented in the MSWM strategies. In addition, the quantity of particulate matter is the best pollutant indicator for the MSWM system performance of emission reduction. In particular this model will assist the decision maker in drawing up a friendly MSWM strategy for Taichung City in Taiwan. Recently, life-cycle assessments of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) strategies have been given more considerations. However, what seems to be lacking is the consideration of economic factors and environmental impacts simultaneously. This work analyzed real-world data to establish optimal MSWM strategies considering economic efficiency and the air pollutant emissions during the life cycle of the MSWM system. The results indicated that the consideration of environmental impacts will affect the costs, benefits, streams of MSW, and throughputs of incinerators and landfills. This work is relevant to public discussion and may establish useful guidelines for the MSWM policies.

  3. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-06-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  4. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  5. Simultaneous determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and oestrogenic hormones in environmental solid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumirska, Jolanta; Migowska, Natalia; Caban, Magda; Łukaszewicz, Paulina; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2015-03-01

    Pharmaceuticals are continually being released into the environment. Because of their physical and chemical properties, many of them or their bioactive metabolites can accumulate in sediments, sludge and soils, and induce adverse effects in terrestrial organisms. However, due to the very limited methods permitting the detection of these low-level concentration compounds in such complex matrices, their concentrations in natural solids remain largely unknown. In this paper, an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of thirteen pharmaceuticals (eight non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and five oestrogenic hormones) in solid matrices was developed. The proposed MAE-SPE-GC-MS(SIM) method has been successfully validated providing a linear response over a concentration range of 1(17)-1000(1200)ng/g, depending on the pharmaceuticals, with correlation coefficients above 0.991. The method detection limits were in the range of 0.3-5.7 ng/g, absolute recoveries above 50%, except estrone. The developed method was applied in the analysis of the target compounds in sediment, sludge and soils collected in Poland giving primary data on their concentrations in such matrices in Poland. The obtained results confirmed that the proposed method can be successfully used in the analysis of real environmental solid samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of zinc in environmental samples by solid phase spectrophotometry: optimization and validation study

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Mar??a Francisca; Nechar, Mounir; Bosque-Sendra, Juan M.

    1998-01-01

    A simple and specific solid-phase spectrophotometric (SPS) determination of zinc in ??g dm-3 level has been developed based on the reaction of Zn(II) with 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) in the presence of potassium iodide; the product was then fixed on an anionic exchanger. The absorbance of the gel, packed in a 1 mm cell, is measured directly. PAR and KI concentrations were optimized simultaneously using response surface methodology (RSM) from sequential experimental Doehlert designs. The ...

  7. Economic and environmental review of Waste-to-Energy systems for municipal solid waste management in medium and small municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, J M; Grindlay, A L; Serrano-Bernardo, F; Rodríguez-Rojas, M I; Zamorano, M

    2017-09-01

    The application of Directive 2008/98/CE on Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) implies the need to introduce technologies to generate energy from waste. Incineration, the most widely used method, is difficult to implement in low populated areas because it requires a large amount of waste to be viable (100,000 tons per year). This paper analyses the economic and environmental costs of different MSW-to-Energy technologies (WtE) in an area comprising of 13 municipalities in southern Spain. We analyse anaerobic digestion (Biomethanization), the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF) and gasification, and compare these approaches to the present Biological Mechanical Treatment (BMT) with elimination of the reject in landfill, and incineration with energy recovery. From an economic standpoint the implementation of WtE systems reduces the cost of running present BMT systems and incineration; gasification presents the lowest value. From the environmental standpoint, Life Cycle Assessment shows that any WtE alternatives, including incineration, present important advantages for the environment when compared to BMT. Finally, in order to select the best alternative, a multi-criteria method is applied, showing that anaerobic digestion is the optimal solution for the area studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reduction of environmental impact of solid domestic landfills of residential area due to their recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilina Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the research it was considered dynamics of growth of municipal solid waste landfill in a city of Tyumen for six years Shows the distribution of waste by placing objects, calculated amounts of solid household and industrial wastes placed on landfill south of the Tyumen region. Comparison of components suitable for generating methane for household waste and scum of wastewater. Formation of methane and carbon dioxide at various stages of fermentation of municipal solid waste. Specific generation of municipal waste per 1 inhabitant is calculated. The concept of co-utilization of municipal waste of apartment buildings. Comparative estimate of various options for fermentation of waste. It is established that the amount of methane produced is sufficient to compensate for the communal needs of apartment buildings. Reducing the anthropogenic burden on landfill is possible upon conditions of the implementation of biogas recovery and its reuse on the site of waste generation that is conducive to development of productions based on using secondary energy resources on the cheap raw materials basis.

  9. Determination of total mercury for marine environmental monitoring studies by solid sampling continuum source high resolution atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandjukov, Petko; Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Vassileva, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    The most critical step in almost all commonly used analytical procedures for Hg determination is the sample preparation due to its extreme volatility. One of the possible solutions of this problem is the application of methods for direct analysis of solid samples. The possibilities for solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS) determination of total mercury in various marine environmental samples e.g. sediments and biota are object of the present study. The instrumental parameters were optimized in order to obtain reproducible and interference free analytical signal. A calibration technique based on the use of solid standard certified reference materials similar to the nature of the analyzed sample was developed and applied to various CRMs and real samples. This technique allows simple and reliable evaluation of the uncertainty of the result and the metrological characteristics of the method. A validation approach in line with the requirements of ISO 17025 standard and Eurachem guidelines was followed. With this in mind, selectivity, working range (0.06 to 25 ng for biota and 0.025 to 4 ng for sediment samples, expressed as total Hg) linearity (confirmed by Student's t-test), bias (1.6-4.3%), repeatability (4-9%), reproducibility (9-11%), and absolute limit of detection (0.025 ng for sediment, 0.096 ng for marine biota) were systematically assessed using solid CRMs. The relative expanded uncertainty was estimated at 15% for sediment sample and 8.5% for marine biota sample (k = 2). Demonstration of traceability of measurement results is also presented. The potential of the proposed analytical procedure, based on solid sampling HR CS AAS technique was demonstrated by direct analysis of sea sediments form the Caribbean region and various CRMs. Overall, the use of solid sampling HR CS AAS permits obtaining significant advantages for the determination of this complex analyte in marine samples, such as straightforward

  10. Environmental assessment of solid waste landfilling technologies by means of LCA-modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2009-01-01

    -aerobic landfill) and assesses the influence of the active operations practiced on these performances. The environmental assessments have been performed by means of the LCA-based tool EASEWASTE, whereby the functional unit utilized for the LCA is “landfilling of 1 ton of wet household waste in a 10 m deep landfill...... for 100 years”. The assessment criteria include standard categories (global warming, nutrient enrichment, ozone depletion, photo-chemical ozone formation and acidification), toxicity-related categories (human toxicity and ecotoxicity) and impact on spoiled groundwater resources. Results demonstrate......, although it does not lead to noticeable environmental benefits when considering a 100 years LCA-perspective. In order to more comprehensively understand the influence of the active operations (i.e., leachate recirculation, waste flushing and air injection) on the environmental performance, the time horizon...

  11. Environmental assessment of solid waste landfilling technologies by means of LCA-modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Simone; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-01-01

    By using life cycle assessment (LCA) modeling, this paper compares the environmental performance of six landfilling technologies (open dump, conventional landfill with flares, conventional landfill with energy recovery, standard bioreactor landfill, flushing bioreactor landfill and semi-aerobic landfill) and assesses the influence of the active operations practiced on these performances. The environmental assessments have been performed by means of the LCA-based tool EASEWASTE, whereby the functional unit utilized for the LCA is "landfilling of 1ton of wet household waste in a 10m deep landfill for 100 years". The assessment criteria include standard categories (global warming, nutrient enrichment, ozone depletion, photo-chemical ozone formation and acidification), toxicity-related categories (human toxicity and ecotoxicity) and impact on spoiled groundwater resources. Results demonstrate that it is crucially important to ensure the highest collection efficiency of landfill gas and leachate since a poor capture compromises the overall environmental performance. Once gas and leachate are collected and treated, the potential impacts in the standard environmental categories and on spoiled groundwater resources significantly decrease, although at the same time specific emissions from gas treatment lead to increased impact potentials in the toxicity-related categories. Gas utilization for energy recovery leads to saved emissions and avoided impact potentials in several environmental categories. Measures should be taken to prevent leachate infiltration to groundwater and it is essential to collect and treat the generated leachate. The bioreactor technologies recirculate the collected leachate to enhance the waste degradation process. This allows the gas collection period to be reduced from 40 to 15 years, although it does not lead to noticeable environmental benefits when considering a 100 years LCA-perspective. In order to more comprehensively understand the influence

  12. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. [and others

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition.

  13. Elastomer Compatible With Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jon W.

    1987-01-01

    Artificial rubber resists ignition on impact and seals at low temperatures. Filled fluoroelastomer called "Katiflex" developed for use in seals of vessels holding cold liquid and gaseous oxygen. New material more compatible with liquid oxygen than polytetrafluoroethylene. Provides dynamic seal at -196 degrees C with only 4 times seal stress required at room temperature. In contrast, conventional rubber seals burn or explode on impact in high-pressure oxygen, and turn hard or even brittle at liquid-oxygen temperatures, do not seal reliably, also see (MFS-28124).

  14. Comprehensive planning for classification and disposal of solid waste at the industrial parks regarding health and environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Pourzamani, Hamidreza; Rahmani Samani, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the comprehensive planning for integrated management of solid waste at the industrial parks. The share of each industrial group including food, metal, chemical, non-metallic minerals, textile, electrical and electronical, and cellulose industries were 48.2, 14.9, 6.7, 22, 0.9, 0.6, and 6.5 percent, respectively. The results showed that nearly half of total industrial waste produced from the range of biological materials are biodegradable and discharging them without observing environmental regulations leads to short-term pollution and nuisance in the acceptor environment. Also some parts of case study waste were recyclable which is considerable from viewpoint of economical and environmental pollution. Long-term impacts will appear due to improper site selection of disposal from the spatial standpoint. In this way, an approach for site selection using several socioeconomic, physical, and environmental criteria based on multicriteria decision making model (MCDM) is introduced. Health risks and environment pollution such as soil and surface water may be done. It is essential to revise the studied industries layout, particularly those units which produce special waste which should be more cautious. Also stricter enforcement is required as an effective step in reducing the harmful impacts of it.

  15. Geo-environmental application of municipal solid waste incinerator ash stabilized with cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davinder Singh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of soluble salts contained in the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI ash significantly affects the strength development and hardening reaction when stabilized with cement. The present study focuses on the compaction and strength behavior of mixed specimens of cement and MSWI ash. A series of indices such as unconfined compressive strength, split tensile strength, California bearing ratio (CBR and pH value was examined. Prior to this, the specimens were cured for 7 d, 14 d, and 28 d. The test results depict that the maximum dry density (MDD decreases and the optimum moisture content (OMC increases with the addition of cement. The test results also reveal that the cement increases the strength of the mixed specimens. Thus, the combination of MSWI ash and cement can be used as a lightweight filling material in different structures like embankment and road construction.

  16. Contribution of individual waste fractions to the environmental impacts from landfilling of municipal solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredi, Simone; Tonini, Davide; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2010-01-01

    by leaching of heavy metals from ashes (e.g. residues from roads cleaning and vacuum cleaning bags), batteries, paper and metals. On the other hand, substantial net environmental savings are estimated for the categories Global Warming (GW; -31 mPE/tonne) and Eco-Toxicity in water chronic (ETwc; -53 m......A number of LCA-based studies have reported on the environmental performance of landfilling of mixed waste, but little is known about the relative contributions of individual waste fractions to the overall impact potentials estimated for the mixed waste. In this paper, an empirical model has been...... used to estimate the emissions to the environment from landfilling of individual waste fractions. By means of the LCA-model EASEWASTE, the emissions estimated have been used to quantify how much of the overall impact potential for each impact category is to be attributed to the individual waste...

  17. Dynamic Flow-through Methods for Metal Fractionation in Environmental Solid Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Petersen, Roongrat

    of elements is quite insufficient to estimate their physicochemical mobility, potential bioavailability, and, consequently, toxicity. Within the last two decades, batchwise equilibrium-based single or sequential extraction schemes have been consolidated as analytical tools for fractionation analyses to assess...... occurring processes always take place under dynamic conditions, recent trends have been focused on the development of alternative flow-through dynamic methods aimed at mimicking environmental events more correctly than their classical extraction counterparts. In this lecture particular emphasis is paid...

  18. Hybrid Si/TMD 2D electronic double channels fabricated using solid CVD few-layer-MoS2 stacking for Vth matching and CMOS-compatible 3DFETs

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Min Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Stackable 3DFETs such as FinFET using hybrid Si/MoS2 channels were developed using a fully CMOS-compatible process. Adding several molecular layers (3-16 layers) of the transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD), MoS2 to Si fin and nanowire resulted in improved (+25%) Ion,n of the FinFET and nanowire FET (NWFET). The PFETs also operated effectively and the N/P device Vth are low and matched perfectly. The proposed heterogeneous Si/TMD 3DFETs can be useful in future electronics. © 2014 IEEE.

  19. Recent Developments and Applications of Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME in Food and Environmental Analysis—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybille Merkle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid-phase microextraction (SPME is a simple, sensitive, rapid and solvent-free technique for the extraction of analytes from gaseous, liquid and solid samples and takes a leading position among microextraction methods. Application of SPME in sample preparation has been increasing continuously over the last decade. It is most often used as an automatized fiber injection system coupled to chromatographic separation modules for the extraction of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds and also allows for the trace analysis of compounds in complex matrices. Since SPME was first introduced in the early 1990s, several modifications have been made to adapt the procedure to specific application requirements. More robust fiber assemblies and coatings with higher extraction efficiencies, selectivity and stability have been commercialized. Automation and on-line coupling to analytical instruments have been achieved in many applications and new derivatization strategies as well as improved calibration procedures have been developed to overcome existing limitations regarding quantitation. Furthermore, devices using tubes, needles or tips for extraction instead of a fiber have been designed. In the field of food analysis, SPME has been most often applied to fruit/vegetables, fats/oils, wine, meat products, dairy and beverages whereas environmental applications focus on the analysis of air, water, soil and sediment samples.

  20. Solid waste management of coal conversion residuals from a commercial-size facility: environmental engineering aspects. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, J.; Neufeld, R. D.; Shapiro, M. A.

    1980-11-30

    Major residuals generated by the conversion process and its auxiliary operations include: (a) coal preparation wastes; (b) gasifier ash; (c) liquefaction solids-char; (d) tail gas or flue gas desulfurization sludge; (e) boiler flyash and bottom ash; (f) raw water treatment sludge, and; (g) biosludges from process wastewater treatment. Recovered sulfur may also require disposal management. Potential environmental and health impacts from each of the residues are described on the basis of characterization of the waste in the perspective of water quality degradation. Coal gasification and liquefaction systems are described in great detail with respect to their associated residuals. Management options are listed with the conclusion that land disposal of the major residual streams is the only viable choice. On-site versus off-site disposal is analyzed with the selection of on-site operations to reduce political, social and institutional pressures, and to optimize the costs of the system. Mechanisms for prevention of leachate generation are described, and various disposal site designs are outlined. It is concluded that co-disposal feasibility of some waste streams must be established in order to make the most preferred solid waste management system feasible. Capacity requirements for the disposal operation were calculated for a 50,000 bbl/day coal liquefaction plant or 250 million SCF/day gasification operation.

  1. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beylot, Antoine, E-mail: a.beylot@brgm.fr; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  2. Compatibility Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, James Allen

    2016-01-01

    In support of ground system development for the Space Launch System (SLS), engineers are tasked with building immense engineering models of extreme complexity. The various systems require rigorous analysis of pneumatics, hydraulic, cryogenic, and hypergolic systems. There are certain standards that each of these systems must meet, in the form of pressure vessel system (PVS) certification reports. These reports can be hundreds of pages long, and require many hours to compile. Traditionally, each component is analyzed individually, often utilizing hand calculations in the design process. The objective of this opportunity is to perform these analyses in an integrated fashion with the parametric CADCAE environment. This allows for systems to be analyzed on an assembly level in a semi-automated fashion, which greatly improves accuracy and efficiency. To accomplish this, component specific parameters were stored in the Windchill database to individual Creo Parametric models based on spec control drawings. These parameters were then accessed by using the Prime Analysis within Creo Parametric. MathCAD Prime spreadsheets were created that automatically extracted these parameters, performed calculations, and generated reports. The reports described component compatibility based on local conditions such as pressure, temperature, density, and flow rates. The reports also determined component pairing compatibility, such as properly sizing relief valves with regulators. The reports stored the input conditions that were used to determine compatibility to increase traceability of component selection. The desired workflow for using this tool would begin with a Creo Schematics diagram of a PVS system. This schematic would store local conditions and locations of components. The schematic would then populate an assembly within Creo Parametric, using Windchill database parts. These parts would have their attributes already assigned, and the MathCAD spreadsheets could begin running

  3. Solid and liquid fractionation of digestate: Mass balance, chemical characterization, and agronomic and environmental value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambone, Fulvia; Orzi, Valentina; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Adani, Fabrizio

    2017-11-01

    Solid-liquid (S/L) separation of digestate (D) represents a simple technology able to produce two fractions having different composition. The aim of this work was to study the effect of S/L separation on dry matter (DM), nitrogen (TKN), phosphorus (P2O5) and heavy metals (HM) repartition into these two fractions and to characterize them. Therefore, thirteen full-scale digestion plants were studied and D, LF and SF were collected during three seasons of the year. Results obtained indicated that unexpectedly, on a mass balance, the liquid fraction still contains the majority of DM, i.e. 67% of the total of D. LF also contained 87% and 71% of TKN and P2O5 respectively. HM contents were in line with typical NP-organic fertilizers. Chemical characterization suggested that the LF can be used as a substitute for mineral N fertilizers because of its high N content, while SF can be proposed as an NP-organic fertilizer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental assessment of mining industry solid pollution in the mercurial district of Azzaba, northeast Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seklaoui, M'hamed; Boutaleb, Abdelhak; Benali, Hanafi; Alligui, Fadila; Prochaska, Walter

    2016-11-01

    To date, there have been few detailed studies regarding the impact of mining and metallogenic activities on solid fractions in the Azzaba mercurial district (northeast Algeria) despite its importance and global similarity with large Hg mines. To assess the degree, distribution, and sources of pollution, a physical inventory of apparent pollution was developed, and several samples of mining waste, process waste, sediment, and soil were collected on regional and local scales to determine the concentration of Hg and other metals according to their existing mineralogical association. Several physico-chemical parameters that are known to influence the pollution distribution are realized. The extremely high concentrations of all metals exceed all norms and predominantly characterize the metallurgic and mining areas; the metal concentrations significantly decrease at significant low distances from these sources. The geo-accumulation index, which is the most realistic assessment method, demonstrates that soils and sediments near waste dumps and abandoned Hg mines are extremely polluted by all analyzed metals. The pollution by these metals decreases significantly with distance, which indicates a limited dispersion. The results of a clustering analysis and an integrated pollution index suggest that waste dumps, which are composed of calcine and condensation wastes, are the main source of pollution. Correlations and principal component analysis reveal the important role of hosting carbonate rocks in limiting pollution and differentiating calcine wastes from condensation waste, which has an extremely high Hg concentration (˃1 %).

  5. Ensuring the Environmental and Industrial Safety in Solid Mineral Deposit Surface Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubetskoy, Kliment; Rylnikova, Marina; Esina, Ekaterina

    2017-11-01

    The growing environmental pressure of mineral deposit surface mining and severization of industrial safety requirements dictate the necessity of refining the regulatory framework governing safe and efficient development of underground resources. The applicable regulatory documentation governing the procedure of ore open-pit wall and bench stability design for the stage of pit reaching its final boundary was issued several decades ago. Over recent decades, mining and geomechanical conditions have changed significantly in surface mining operations, numerous new software packages and computer developments have appeared, opportunities of experimental methods of source data collection and processing, grounding of the permissible parameters of open pit walls have changed dramatically, and, thus, methods of risk assessment have been perfected [10-13]. IPKON RAS, with the support of the Federal Service for Environmental Supervision, assumed the role of the initiator of the project for the development of Federal norms and regulations of industrial safety "Rules for ensuring the stability of walls and benches of open pits, open-cast mines and spoil banks", which contribute to the improvement of economic efficiency and safety of mineral deposit surface mining and enhancement of the competitiveness of Russian mines at the international level that is very important in the current situation.

  6. Development of a solid-phase extraction coupling chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for determination of organophosphorus pesticides in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen-Lin; Sun, Wen-Jia; Yang, Jin-Yi; Jiang, Yue-Ming; Campbell, Katrina; Shen, Yu-Dong; Lei, Hong-Tao; Zeng, Dao-Ping; Wang, Hong; Sun, Yuan-Ming

    2012-03-07

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) and direct competitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (dcCL-EIA) were combined for the detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in environmental water samples. dcCL-EIA based on horseradish peroxidase labeled with a broad-specificity monoclonal antibody against OPs was developed, and the effects of several physicochemical parameters on dcCL-EIA performance were studied. SPE was used for the pretreatment of water samples to remove interfering substances and to concentrate the OP analytes. The coupling of SPE and dcCL-EIA can detect seven OPs (parathion, coumaphos, phoxim, quinalphos, triazophos, dichlofenthion, and azinphos-ethyl) with the limit of quantitation below 0.1 ng/mL. The recoveries of OPs from spiked water samples ranged from 62.5% to 131.7% by SPE-dcCL-EIA and 69.5% to 112.3% by SPE-HPLC-MS/MS. The screening of OP residues in real-world environmental water samples by the developed SPE-dcCL-EIA and their confirmatory analysis using SPE-HPLC-MS/MS demonstrated that the assay is ideally suited as a monitoring method for OP residues prior to chromatographic analysis.

  7. Volatile trace compounds released from municipal solid waste at the transfer stage: Evaluation of environmental impacts and odour pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongtao

    2015-12-30

    Odour pollution caused by municipal solid waste is a public concern. This study quantitatively evaluated the concentration, environmental impacts, and olfaction of volatile trace compounds released from a waste transfer station. Seventy-six compounds were detected, and ethanol presented the highest releasing rate and ratio of 14.76 kg/d and 12.30 g/t of waste, respectively. Life cycle assessment showed that trichlorofluoromethane and dichlorodifluoromethane accounted for more than 99% of impact potentials to global warming and approximately 70% to human toxicity (non-carcinogenic). The major contributor for both photochemical ozone formation and ecotoxicity was ethanol. A detection threshold method was also used to evaluate odour pollution. Five compounds including methane thiol, hydrogen sulphide, ethanol, dimethyl disulphide, and dimethyl sulphide, with dilution multiples above one, were considered the critical compounds. Methane thiol showed the highest contribution to odour pollution of more than 90%, as indicated by its low threshold. Comparison of the contributions of the compounds to different environmental aspects indicated that typical pollutants varied based on specific evaluation targets and therefore should be comprehensively considered. This study provides important information and scientific methodology to elucidate the impacts of odourant compounds to the environment and odour pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Economic and environmental sustainability of an AnMBR treating urban wastewater and organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretel, R; Moñino, P; Robles, A; Ruano, M V; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic and environmental sustainability of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating urban wastewater (UWW) and organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) at ambient temperature in mild/hot climates. To this aim, power requirements, energy recovery from methane (biogas methane and methane dissolved in the effluent), consumption of reagents for membrane cleaning, and sludge handling (polyelectrolyte and energy consumption) and disposal (farmland, landfilling and incineration) were evaluated within different operating scenarios. Results showed that, for the operating conditions considered in this study, AnMBR technology is likely to be a net energy producer, resulting in considerable cost savings (up to €0.023 per m(3) of treated water) when treating low-sulphate influent. Life cycle analysis (LCA) results revealed that operating at high sludge retention times (70 days) and treating UWW jointly with OFMSW enhances the overall environmental performance of AnMBR technology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization and application of an extraction procedure to determine drugs of abuse in solid environmental matrices of Turia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Maria Jesus; Alvarez, Rodrigo; Andreu, Vicente; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-04-01

    After their consumption, drug of abuse are excreted through urine or faeces, as parent compound or as secondary metabolites that arrive to wastewater treatment plants. Accordingly, the incomplete removal of these compounds in the treatment plants could release them into environmental compartments [1]. This scenario needs attention from an ecotoxicological perspective because their possible negative effects [2]. The aim of this study is to optimize and apply a solvent extraction and solid phase clean-up methodology to obtain a valid procedure for the extraction of these compounds in different solid matrices. Amphetamine, methamphetamine, ethylamphetamine, ecstasy, ethylone, bk-MMBDB and MBDB belong to phenylethylamine group; codeine and ketamine belong to opioid and phencyclidine group, respectively, and benzoylecgonine is the major excreted metabolite of the alkaloid cocaine. To optimize the method to determinate drugs of abuse in environmental solid matrices, two replicates and one blank were prepared for each sample of sediment. They were prepared by adding 1 g of sediment sample, 5 mL of buffer (methanol-Mc Ilvaine 50:50) and internal standard to obtain a final concentration in the extract of 25 ng/g. Also standards of drugs of abuse were added to the replicates to obtain a final concentration of 100 ng/g. Then all samples were shaken, sonicated and centrifuged and the supernatant was separated and placed in a 250 mL volumetric flask, which was filled the rest with distilled water. SPE was carried out with Strata-X cartridges and 250 mL of sample were passed through them. The extracts were eluted with 6 mL of methanol, evaporated to dryness and reconstituted in 1 mL of methanol-water 1:9. One of the replicates was filtrated through 0.22 μm pore size and the others were not. The samples were determined by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS/MS) using an electrospray ionization source (ESI) in positive ionization mode. The results

  10. The principle of environmental compatible energy supply in energy law characteristics and environmental (energy) legal connections; Das Prinzip der umweltvertraeglichen Energieversorgung in energiewirtschaftsrechtlichen Auspraegungen und umwelt(energie)rechtlichen Verzahnungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Michaela

    2015-07-01

    The course of the investigation follows the path of the electric power. Considered are the electricity industry value-added stages with their environmental impact and their relevant legal regulations. The focus in each case are the environmentally relevant legal rules of EnWG, whose own contributions are examined for environmental objective as well as the interaction with other legislation. First, the value chain of the supply or production of primary energy sources is considered closer. Second, the conversion of primary energy sources in electricity is to take in the view. The conversion plant depending on widely varying environmental impacts and the relevant legal instruments are shown. Thirdly comes the electricity downstream value-added level of network operations, through which the electric power is transmitted and distributed. In the fourth stage, the effect of support of the legal requirements for the storage of electricity is considered. Fifth value chain is the distribution, through which the direct relationship between suppliers and customers is organized. [German] Der Gang der Untersuchung folgt dem Weg des Stroms. Betrachtet werden die elektrizitaetswirtschaftlichen Wertschoepfungsstufen mit ihren jeweiligen Umweltauswirkungen und den einschlaegigen rechtlichen Regelungen. Im Zentrum stehen dabei jeweils die umweltrelevanten Normen des EnWG, deren eigenstaendiger Beitrag zum Umweltvertraeglichkeitsziel ebenso wie das Zusammenwirken mit anderen Rechtsvorschriften untersucht werden. Zunaechst wird die Wertschoepfungsstufe der Bereitstellung bzw. Gewinnung der Primaerenergietraeger naeher betrachtet. Als zweites ist die Umwandlung der Primaerenergietraeger in Elektrizitaet in den Blick zu nehmen. Die je nach Konversionsanlage stark variierenden Umweltauswirkungen und das einschlaegige rechtliche Instrumentarium werden dargestellt. Drittens folgt die der Stromerzeugung nachgelagerte Wertschoepfungsstufe des Netzbetriebs, ueber die der Strom uebertragen und

  11. Fertilization compatibility of spawning corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes experimental results of fertilization assays to characterize genetic compatibility between individual parental genotypes. Targeted species...

  12. Settlement behavior of municipal solid waste due to internal and external environmental factors in a lysimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Márcio C; Caribé, Rômulo M; Ribeiro, Libânia S; Sousa, Raul B A; Monteiro, Veruschka E D; de Paiva, William

    2016-12-05

    Long-term settlement magnitude is influenced by changes in external and internal factors that control the microbiological activity in the landfill waste body. To improve the understanding of settlement phenomena, it is instructive to study lysimeters filled with MSW. This paper aims to understand the settlement behavior of MSW by correlating internal and external factors that influence waste biodegradation in a lysimeter. Thus, a lysimeter was built, instrumented and filled with MSW from the city of Campina Grande, the state of Paraíba, Brazil. Physicochemical analysis of the waste (from three levels of depth of the lysimeter) was carried out along with MSW settlement measurements. Statistical tools such as descriptive analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were also performed. The settlement/compression, coefficient of variation and PCA results indicated the most intense rate of biodegradation in the top layer. The PCA results of intermediate and bottom levels presented fewer physicochemical and meteorological variables correlated with compression data in contrast with the top layer. It is possible to conclude that environmental conditions may influence internal indicators of MSW biodegradation, such as the settlement.

  13. Graphene aerogel based monolith for effective solid-phase extraction of trace environmental pollutants from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang; Liang, Qionglin; Zhang, Xiaoqiong; Yang, Liu; Ding, Mingyu

    2016-05-20

    Graphene aerogel (GA), a typical kind of three-dimensional (3D) macroscopic assembly, not only provides inherently excellent properties of graphene sheets (GS), but also exhibits interesting characteristics of the 3D macroporous architecture including large and tunable pore volumes, high specific surface areas and fast mass transport kinetics. Thus, it is rational to expect GA to be an efficient adsorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE). In this paper, a novel GA monolith based solid-phase extraction method was investigated in the application of environment analysis. The GA monolith based SPE cartridge was fabricated directly in the empty cartridge through template-free "sol-cryo" method. Due to the efficient mass transfer, more adsorption sites as well as effective retention for the analytes, the adsorption property of GA for bisphenol A revealed better performance than that of GS. What's more, GA also outperformed in loading and eluting for target analysis. On the basis of the above advantages, the obtained cartridge was applied for the separation of environmental pollutants from water samples. Taking endocrine disrupting chemicals and polychlorinated biphenyls as the polar and weak polar model analytes, optimizing several parameters influencing the recoveries, limits of detection in the range of 0.01-0.11ngmL(-1) and 0.19-1.53ngL(-1) for the two series of compounds were provided by the established methods. The satisfied sensitivity was accessed and recoveries ranging from 76.3 to 112.5% were obtained for all the analytes when the proposed methods were applied in real water samples analysis. The results revealed the potential of GA as an effective sorbent in sample preparation processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental Assessment for the construction and operation of the Three Rivers Solid Waste Authority regional waste management center at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a landfill and technology center for regionally-generated municipal solid waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The facility would serve the municipal solid waste disposal needs for SRS and at least nine of the surrounding counties who currently comprise the Three Rivers Solid Waste Authority (TRSWA). Additional counties could become included in the proposed action at some future date. Current Federal and state requirements do not afford individual counties and municipalities within the region encompassing SRS the ability to efficiently or economically operate modern waste management facilities. In addition, consolidation of regional municipal solid waste at one location would have the benefit of reducing the duplicity of environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of county-level facilities. The option to seek a combined disposal and technology development facility based on a regionally-cooperative effort was selected as a viable alternative to the existing individual SRS or county disposal activities. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Part 1021). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS).

  15. Improvement of windowed type environmental-cell transmission electron microscope for in situ observation of gas-solid interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Tadahiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); PRESTO-JST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ueda, Kouta [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ichihashi, Mikio; Tanji, Takayoshi [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    We have developed an improved, windowed type environmental-cell (E-cell) transmission electron microscope (TEM) for in situ observation of gas-solid interactions, such as catalytic reactions at atmospheric pressure. Our E-cell TEM includes a compact E-cell specimen holder with mechanical stability, resulting in smoother introduction of the desired gases compared with previous E-cell TEMs. In addition, the gas control unit was simplified by omitting the pressure control function of the TEM pre-evacuation chamber. This simplification was due to the successful development of remarkably tough thin carbon films as the window material. These films, with a thickness of <10 nm, were found to withstand pressure differences >2 atm. Appropriate arrangement of the specimen position inside the E-cell provided quantitatively analyzable TEM images, with no disturbances caused by the windowed films. As an application, we used this E-cell TEM to observe the dynamic shape change in a catalytic gold nanoparticle supported on TiO{sub 2} during the oxidation of CO gas.

  16. Synthesis of Mesoporous Silica Monoliths — A Novel Approach Towards Fabrication of Solid-State Optical Sensors for Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, D.; Subashini, C.; Akhila Maheswari, M.

    2016-10-01

    Mesoporous silica monoliths are an attractive area of research owing to their high specific surface area, uniform channels and mesoporous size (2-30nm). This paper deals with the direct templating synthesis of a mesoporous worm-like silica monolithic material using F127 — a triblock copolymer, by micro-emulsion technique using trimethyl benzene (TMB), as the solvent. The synthesized silica monolith is characterized using SEM-EDAX, XRD, BET, NMR and FT-IR. The monolith shows an ordered worm-like mesoporous structure with tuneable through pores, an excellent host for the anchoring of chromo-ionophores for the naked-eye metal ion-sensing. The mesoporous monoliths were loaded with 4-dodecyl-6-(2-pyridylazo)-phenol (DPAP) ligand through direct immobilization, thereby acting as solid-state naked-eye colorimetric ion-sensors for the sensing toxic Pb(II) ions at parts-per-billion (ppb) level in various industrial and environmental systems. The influence of various experimental parameters such as solution pH, limiting ligand loading concentration, amount of monolith material, matrix tolerance level, limit of detection and quantification has been studied and optimized.

  17. Molecularly imprinted polymer for the extraction of parabens from environmental solid samples prior to their determination by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, L; Turiel, E; Martin-Esteban, A; Tadeo, J L

    2010-03-15

    An analytical methodology incorporating a molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction procedure (MISPE) has been developed for the determination of parabens in environmental solid samples. Four different polymers were prepared combining the use of acetonitrile or toluene as porogen, and 4-vinylpyridine (VP) or methacrylic acid (MAA) as monomer, using benzylparaben (BzP) as a template molecule. Although all the polymers were able to recognize the template in rebinding experiments, the MIP prepared in toluene using MAA showed better performance. This polymer was also capable of recognizing other parabens (methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, propyl, isobutyl, butyl and benzylparaben) allowing to develop an appropriated MISPE procedure for this family of compounds. The extraction of the parabens from environmental solid samples was performed by ultrasonic assisted extraction in small columns (SAESC), and this procedure next to MISPE as clean-up step followed by HPLC-UV determination was successfully used for the determination of parabens in soil and sediment samples of different locations. Recoveries ranging from 80% to 90% have been achieved depending on the compound and the samples, and limits of detection (LODs) were under 1 ng g(-1) for all the compounds, making this method suitable for the determination of parabens in environmental solid matrices. The method was further applied to the determination of paraben contents in real samples, founding levels up to 11.5 ng g(-1) in sea sediments. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Compatible quantum theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, R; Hohenberg, P C

    2014-09-01

    Formulations of quantum mechanics (QM) can be characterized as realistic, operationalist, or a combination of the two. In this paper a realistic theory is defined as describing a closed system entirely by means of entities and concepts pertaining to the system. An operationalist theory, on the other hand, requires in addition entities external to the system. A realistic formulation comprises an ontology, the set of (mathematical) entities that describe the system, and assertions, the set of correct statements (predictions) the theory makes about the objects in the ontology. Classical mechanics is the prime example of a realistic physical theory. A straightforward generalization of classical mechanics to QM is hampered by the inconsistency of quantum properties with classical logic, a circumstance that was noted many years ago by Birkhoff and von Neumann. The present realistic formulation of the histories approach originally introduced by Griffiths, which we call 'compatible quantum theory (CQT)', consists of a 'microscopic' part (MIQM), which applies to a closed quantum system of any size, and a 'macroscopic' part (MAQM), which requires the participation of a large (ideally, an infinite) system. The first (MIQM) can be fully formulated based solely on the assumption of a Hilbert space ontology and the noncontextuality of probability values, relying in an essential way on Gleason's theorem and on an application to dynamics due in large part to Nistico. Thus, the present formulation, in contrast to earlier ones, derives the Born probability formulas and the consistency (decoherence) conditions for frameworks. The microscopic theory does not, however, possess a unique corpus of assertions, but rather a multiplicity of contextual truths ('c-truths'), each one associated with a different framework. This circumstance leads us to consider the microscopic theory to be physically indeterminate and therefore incomplete, though logically coherent. The completion of the theory

  19. A Study in the Application of Microbial Functions to Environmental Cleaning and Fermented Foodstuffs : Biotechnological Aspects of Solid State Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    藤尾, 雄策; yusaku, Fujio; 九州大学農学部; Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University,

    1997-01-01

    The contents of this paper can be summarized in one keyword ; the solid state fermentation process. This is a process which is considered to be the origin of microbial fermentation. In our research, studies were carried out on solid-organic-waste composting, on the microbial enzyme production of wheat bran media, and on soybean fermentation as food processing. Among them, the development of a method for solid-organic waste management may be important because of increases in the amount of the ...

  20. Multivariate optimization of a solid-phase microextraction method for the analysis of phthalate esters in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Maria; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Cela, Rafael

    2005-04-22

    A solid-phase microextraction method (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed for the determination of the six phthalate esters included in the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Priority Pollutants list in water samples. These compounds are dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP). Detailed discussion of the different parameters, which could affect the extraction process, is presented. Main factors have been studied and optimized by means of a multifactor categorical design. Different commercial fibers, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene (PDMS-DVB), polyacrylate (PA), Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (CAR-PDMS) and Carbowax-divinylbenzene (CW-DVB), have been investigated, as well as the extraction mode, exposing the fiber directly into the sample (DSPME) or into the headspace over the sample (HS-SPME), and different extraction temperatures. The use of this experimental design allowed for the evaluation of interactions between factors. Extraction kinetics has also been studied. The optimized microextraction method showed linear response and good precision for all target analytes. Detection limits were estimated considering the contamination problems associated to phthalate analysis. They were in the low pg mL(-1), excluding DEHP (100 pg mL(-1)). The applicability of the developed SPME method was demonstrated for several real water samples including mineral, river, industrial port and sewage water samples. All the target analytes were found in real samples. Levels of DEP and DEHP were over 1 ng mL(-1) in some of the samples.

  1. Direct Immersion Solid-Phase Microextraction with Matrix-Compatible Fiber Coating for Multiresidue Pesticide Analysis of Grapes by Gas Chromatography-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (DI-SPME-GC-ToFMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Silva, Érica A; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2015-05-13

    A fast and sensitive direct immersion-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DI-SPME-GC-ToFMS) method for the determination of multiresidue pesticides in grapes employing a PDMS-modified PDMS/DVB coating was developed utilizing multivariate approaches for optimization of the most important factors affecting SPME performance. A comprehensive investigation of appropriate internal standards using a bottom-up approach led to the selection of suitable compounds that adequately covered a range of 40 pesticides pertaining to various classes. The validated method yielded good accuracy, precision, and sensitivity and has been successfully applied to the analysis of commercial samples. With regard to the limitations of the proposed method, the DI-SPME method did not provide a satisfactory performance toward more polar pesticides (e.g., acephate, omethoate, dimethoate) and highly hydrophobic pesticides, such as pyrethroids. Despite the challenges and limitations encountered by this method, the practical aspects of the PDMS-modified coating demonstrated here create new opportunities for SPME applied in food analysis.

  2. 76 FR 46798 - Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: This document contains a...

  3. A Study of Environmental Behaviour of the Wenceslau Braz (In the State of Paraná Population as Regards Urban Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Januário

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing and continuous production of waste in cities is a major concern for Public Managers. The implementation of the Environmental Public Policy has contributed to the responsible participation of all citizens. A partnership between the State University of Northern Paraná, in the Bandeirantes (PR campus, and the City of Wenceslau Braz (PR enabled the implementation of the "Green Partnership" Extension Project. Among the results, the implementation of selective collection of municipal solid waste was the most important. This study aims to understand the environmental behaviour of the population of Wenceslau Braz (PR after 15 months after the start of the selective collection service. A field research was done to study the environmental awareness of the people regarding the treatment of solid waste. Semi-structured questionnaires were applied by Community Health Agents, provided by the local Health Department, which, in the first week of December 2013, interviewed 310 people. The results show that 51% of respondents have a high interest in the issue of waste in nature. However, only 29% of them have substituted products for others to reduce the impact on the environment. Of the respondents, 1 in 5 do not commit to recycling at home. The data show that the lower the educational level, the greater the indifference to waste in nature. The study concludes that environmental education is the main tool to promote the overcoming of the current environmental problems, making possible the effective sustainability of our planet.

  4. Study of the compatibility of the polymeric mixture of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) with poly(ethylene oxide) by solid state NMR; Estudo da compatibilidade da mistura polimerica da polivinilpirrolidona com o poli(oxido de etileno) por RMN no estado solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Edemilson P. da [Universidade Estadual Norte Fluminense, Campo dos Goitacases, RJ (Brazil). CCT; Menezes, Sonia M.C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Tavares, Maria Ines B. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas

    1997-12-31

    The study of the polymeric mixture compatibility by nuclear magnetic resonance was performed aiming to evaluate the molecular mobility of the title system and its compatibility. It was observed that the system is compatible up to 60% weigh/weigh proportion 11 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Assessment of carbon footprint emissions and environmental concerns of solid waste treatment and disposal techniques; case study of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Abualqumboz, Motasem S; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman M; Abunama, Taher J

    2017-12-01

    Malaysian authorities has planned to minimize and stop when applicable unsanitary dumping of waste as it puts human health and the environment at elevated risk. Cost, energy and revenue are mostly adopted to draw the blueprint of upgrading municipal solid waste management system, while the carbon footprint emissions criterion rarely acts asa crucial factor. This study aims to alert Malaysian stakeholders on the uneven danger of carbon footprint emissions of waste technologies. Hence, three scenarios have been proposed and assessed mainly on the carbon footprint emissions using the 2006 IPCC methodology. The first scenario is waste dumping in sanitary landfills equipped with gas recovery system, while the second scenario includes anaerobic digestion of organics and recycling of recyclable wastes such as plastic, glass and textile wastes. The third scenario is waste incineration. Besides the carbon footprint emissions criterion, other environmental concerns were also examined. The results showed that the second scenario recorded the lowest carbon footprint emissions of 0.251t CO2 eq./t MSW while the third scenario had the highest emissions of 0.646t CO2 eq./t MSW. Additionally, the integration between anaerobic digestion and recycling techniques caused the highest avoided CO2 eq. emissions of 0.74t CO2 eq./t MSW. The net CO2 eq. emissions of the second scenario equaled -0.489t CO2 eq./t MSW due to energy recovery from the biogas and because of recycled plastic, glass and textile wastes that could replace usage of raw material. The outcomes also showed that the first scenario generates huge amount of leachate and hazardous air constituents. The study estimated that a ton of dumped waste inside the landfills generates approximately 0.88m3 of trace risky compounds and 0.188m3 of leachate. As for energy production, the results showed that the third scenario is capable of generating 639kWh/t MSW followed by the second scenario with 387.59kWh/t MSW. The first scenario

  6. In situ hydrothermal growth of ytterbium-based metal-organic framework on stainless steel wire for solid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiu-Lin; Wang, Xia; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Ming-Lin; Zhao, Ru-Song

    2015-10-09

    In this paper, we report the use of a porous ytterbium-based metal-organic framework (Yb-MOF) coating material with good thermal stability for the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from environmental samples. The Yb-MOF thin films, grown in situ on stainless steel wire in solution, exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity toward PAHs. Under the optimal conditions, the novel fibers achieved large enrichment factors (130-2288), low limits of detection (0.07-1.67ngL(-1)), and wide range of linearity (10-1000ngL(-1)) for 16 PAHs in the tested samples. The novel fiber was successfully used in the analysis of PAHs in real environmental samples. These results demonstrated that Yb-MOF is a promising coating material for the SPME of PAHs at trace levels from environmental samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dispersive micro-solid phase extraction based on self-assembling, ionic liquid-coated magnetic particles for the determination of clofentezine and chlorfenapyr in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bing; Zhang, Jiaheng; Lu, Runhua; Zhang, Sanbing; Zhou, Wenfeng; Gao, Haixiang

    2013-11-21

    Two ionic liquid-coated-Fe3O4 magnetic particles (IL-Fe3O4 MPs) were developed for use in two types of dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) for the high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of clofentezine and chlorfenapyr in environmental water samples. Self-assembling IL-Fe3O4 MPs were used in D-μ-SPE as adsorbents. Two D-μ-SPE extraction methods, namely, direct dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (d-D-μ-SPE) and in situ solvent formation-based dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (ISF-D-μ-SPE), were proposed, using [C8MIM][PF6] to extract analytes through two pathways. Lower IL doses were required in the extraction process compared with those in other IL-based methods. Fe3O4 MPs can also be recycled and reused after extraction and are thus environmentally friendly. These newly developed methods were demonstrated to be feasible for use in the quantitation of clofentezine and chlorfenapyr at trace levels, with lower limit of detection values ranging from 0.4 to 0.5 ng mL(-1) for d-D-μ-SPE and 0.4 ng mL(-1) for ISF-D-μ-SPE. Finally, relative standard deviations of less than 6.0% were obtained.

  8. Atuarfitsialak: Greenland's Cultural Compatible Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tasha R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, Greenlandic reform leaders launched a comprehensive, nation-wide reform to create culturally compatible education. Greenland's reform work spans the entire educational system and includes preschool through higher education. To assist their efforts, reform leaders adopted the Standards for Effective Pedagogy developed at the Center for…

  9. Compatibility of Ohio trail users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger E. McCay; George H. Moeller

    1976-01-01

    Compatibility indexes show how Ohio trail users feel about meeting each other on the trail. All four of the major types of trail users-hikers, horseback riders, bicycle riders, and motorcycle riders-enjoy meeting their own kind. But they also feel antagonism toward the faster, more mechanized trail users; e.g., everyone likes hikers, but few like motorcycle riders....

  10. Design optimization for car compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nastic, T.; Schoofs, A.J.G.; Mooi, H.G.

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays traffic safety and occupant protection get a lot of attention due to the large number of fatalities and injuries in car accidents. The occupant protection in two-vehicle crashes can be improved by car-to-car compatibility, which means well balanced crashworthiness characteristics of both

  11. Electromagnetic compatibility in power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Costa , François; Revol , Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Scientists largely attribute the recent deterioration of the electromagnetic environment to power electronics. This realization has spurred the study of methodical approaches to electromagnetic compatibility designs as explored in this text. The book addresses major challenges, such as handling numerous parameters vital to predicting electro magnetic effects and achieving compliance with line-harmonics norms, while proposing potential solutions.

  12. Compatibility of RuO2 electrodes with PZT ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    ween RuO2 and lead zirconate–titanate (PZT) solid solu- tions. Phase diagrams of the component ternary systems provide a visual summary of compatibility relations. Ther- modynamic data provide the input for the calculations. 2.1 Phase relations. The subsolidus phase diagrams for the system PbO–. RuO2–TiO2 given by ...

  13. Computer codes application to evaluate comparative analysis of environmental compatibility between waste treatment plants and site characterization of Matera (southern Italy); Applicazioni del codice di calcolo SITEVAL per l'analisi della compatibilita' ambientale degli impianti di smaltimento e recupero dei rifiuti alle discariche non controllate presenti nella provincia di Matera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cautilli, F.; Musmeci, F.; Tassoni, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    The report presents the software SITEVAL aimed at tackling the comparative analysis of environmental compatibility between waste treatment plants and hosting areas. The SITEVAL application for non-monitored urban waste landfills in the province of Matera (southern Italy) is showed with the objective to identify the more relevant environmental components in such landfills. [Italian] L'articolo illustra il codice di calcolo SITEVAL utilizzato per analisi comparative di compatibilita' ambientale di impianti di smaltimento di rifiuti con i siti che li ospitano e poi riporta l'applicazione del codice nella situazione della provincia di Matera riguardo allo smaltimento non controllato di rifiuti solidi urbani e alla individuazione delle componenti ambientali piu' sensibili alla presenza di tali discariche nel territorio. Il codice ha permesso di stilare graduatorie di compatibilita' delle discariche non controllate e di definire l'interdipendenza dei risultati dalla scelta dei parametri di input del programma.

  14. Environmental comparison of solid waste management systems: A case study of the cities of Iasi, Romania and Enschede, Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinea, Cristina; Petraru, Madalina; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Gavrilescu, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region can be achieved by integrated waste management systems. The waste management systems differ in developed and developing countries. The Netherlands has a unique waste management system, the Dutch approach to waste consist in “avoid waste as

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT: TRITON SYSTEMS, LLC SOLID BOWL CENTRIFUGE, MODEL TS-5000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Triton Systems, LLC Solid Bowl Centrifuge Model TS-5000 (TS-5000) was conducted at the Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory Swine Educational Unit in Raleigh, North Carolina. The TS-5000 was 48" in diameter and 30" deep, with a bowl capacity of 16 ft3. ...

  16. Multiparty Compatibility for Concurrent Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roly Perera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objects and actors are communicating state machines, offering and consuming different services at different points in their lifecycle. Two complementary challenges arise when programming such systems. When objects interact, their state machines must be "compatible", so that services are requested only when they are available. Dually, when objects refine other objects, their state machines must be "compliant", so that services are honoured whenever they are promised. In this paper we show how the idea of multiparty compatibility from the session types literature can be applied to both of these problems. We present an untyped language in which concurrent objects are checked automatically for compatibility and compliance. For simple objects, checking can be exhaustive and has the feel of a type system. More complex objects can be partially validated via test cases, leading to a methodology closer to continuous testing. Our proof-of-concept implementation is limited in some important respects, but demonstrates the potential value of the approach and the relationship to existing software development practices.

  17. Magnetic solid-phase extraction of brominated flame retardants from environmental waters with graphene-doped Fe3O4 nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Qiao, Jun-qin; Cui, Shi-hai; Li, Jia-yuan; Zhu, Jin-jin; Yin, He-xing; Zhan, Cheng-yan; Lian, Hong-zhen

    2015-06-01

    Graphene-doped Fe3O4 nanocomposites were prepared by a solvothermal reaction of an iron source with graphene. The nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, superconducting quantum interference, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. This nanomaterial has been used as a magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbent to extract trace brominated flame retardants from environmental waters. Various extraction parameters were optimized including dosage and reusability of the nanocomposites, and pH of sample matrix. The reliability of the magnetic solid-phase extraction protocol based on graphene-doped Fe3O4 nanocomposites was evaluated by investigating the recoveries of 2,4,6-tribromophenol, tetrabromobisphenol A, 4-bromodiphenyl ether, and 4,4'-dibromodiphenyl ether in water samples. Good recoveries (85.0-105.0%) were achieved with the relative standard deviation ranging from 1.1-7.1%. Moreover, it is speculated from characterization and magnetic solid-phase extraction experiment that there is not only π-π stacking but also possible hydrophobic interaction between the graphene-doped Fe3O4 nanocomposites and analytes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: environmental and recycling-related properties; Muellverbrennungsschlacken: umwelt- und verwertungsrelevante Eigenschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, H. [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz, Augsburg (Germany). Josef-Vogt-Technikum

    2004-07-01

    Re-utilisation of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash in civil engineering requires compliance with quality standards defined in term of bulk and leachate concentrations. In addition, solid phase properties comparable to natural construction materials are necessary. Addressing the perspectives and possible constraints of bottom ash recycling, this study includes the results of laboratory analyses, a field leaching experiment, and a survey of several construction projects in which MSWI bottom ash was used as a grounding material. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen zweier Forschungsvorhaben wurden die umwelt- und verwertungsrelevanten Eigenschaften von Muellverbrennungsschlacke (MV-Schlacke) eingehend untersucht. Aufbau, Schadstoffgehalt und Auslaugverhalten von Schlacke sowie die Eignung von Schlacke fuer den Einsatz bei Bauvorhaben standen als zwei Schwerpunkte im Vordergrund. Der Einsatz von MV-Schlacke als Sekundaerrohstoff z.B. in Bauvorhaben stellt entsprechend der Untersuchungsergebnisse eine sinnvolle Verwertungsmoeglichkeit dar. (orig.)

  19. Environmental comparison of solid waste management systems: A case study of the cities of Iasi, Romania and Enschede, Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Chinea, Cristina; Petraru, Madalina; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Gavrilescu, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable approach to solid waste management in any region can be achieved by integrated waste management systems. The waste management systems differ in developed and developing countries. The Netherlands has a unique waste management system, the Dutch approach to waste consist in “avoid waste as much as possible, recover the valuable raw materials from any waste that is created, try to generate energy by incinerating the residual waste, and only then dump what is left”. Netherlands is tod...

  20. Changes in the solid state of anhydrous and hydrated forms of sodium naproxen under different grinding and environmental conditions: Evidence of the formation of new hydrated forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censi, Roberta; Rascioni, Riccardo; Di Martino, Piera

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the solid state change of the anhydrous and hydrate solid forms of sodium naproxen under different grinding and environmental conditions. Grinding was carried out manually in a mortar under the following conditions: at room temperature under air atmosphere (Method A), in the presence of liquid nitrogen under air atmosphere (Method B), at room temperature under nitrogen atmosphere (Method C), and in the presence of liquid nitrogen under nitrogen atmosphere (Method D). Among the hydrates, the following forms were used: a dihydrate form (DSN) obtained by exposing the anhydrous form at 55% RH; a dihydrate form (CSN) obtained by crystallizing sodium naproxen from water; the tetrahydrate form (TSN) obtained by exposing the anhydrous form at 75% RH. The metastable monohydrate form (MSN), previously described in the literature, was not used because of its high physical instability. The chemical stability during grinding was firstly assessed and proven by HPLC. Modification of the particle size and shape, and changes in the solid state under different grinding methods were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometry and thermogravimetry, respectively. The study demonstrated the strong influence of starting form, grinding and environmental conditions on particle size, shape and solid state of recovered sodium naproxen forms. In particular, it was demonstrated that in the absence of liquid nitrogen (Methods A and C), either at air or at nitrogen atmosphere, the monohydrate form (MSN) was obtained from any hydrates, meaning that these grinding conditions favored the dehydration of superior hydrates. The grinding process carried out in the presence of liquid nitrogen (Method B) led to further hydration of the starting materials: new hydrate forms were identified as one pentahydrate form and one hexahydrate form. The hydration was caused by the condensation of the atmospheric water on sodium naproxen

  1. Facile preparation of a polydopamine-based monolith for multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction of triazine herbicides in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zirui; Mei, Meng; Huang, Yanmei; Huang, Xiaojia; Huang, Hanyue; Ding, Yuxin

    2017-02-01

    A new multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction using a polydopamine-based monolith as the extraction medium is proposed. The monolith was synthesized by facile in situ copolymerization of N-methacryldopamine and dual cross-linkers (divinylbenzene/ethylenedimethacrylate) in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide. The effect of the contents of N-methacryldopamine and porogen in the polymerization mixture on the extraction performance was investigated thoroughly. A series of characterization studies was performed to validate the structure and properties of the monolith. The prepared multiple monolithic fibers were used for the extraction of triazine herbicides in environmental water samples. After the optimization of the extraction parameters, a convenient, sensitive, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly method for the determination of trace triazine herbicides in water samples was developed by coupling multiple monolithic fibers solid-phase microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography and diode array detection. The results indicated that the limits of detection and quantification for the target compounds were 0.031-0.14 and 0.10-0.45 μg/L, respectively. Good precision and reproducibility were obtained with the relative standard deviations below 10%. The developed method was applied to the analysis of the triazine herbicides in different water samples (lake, river, and farmland waters). The recoveries of the method were in the range between 79.6 and 117%. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Extraction and RT-qPCR detection of enteroviruses from solid environmental matrixes: Method decision tree for different sample types and viral concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Díaz, Julia; Lucena, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative RT-PCR methods (RT-qPCR) are becoming increasingly desirable for the detection of enteric viruses in solid environmental matrixes such as sediments, soils and sewage sludge. However, effective methodologies that allow the extraction of high quality RNA ready for molecular quantification continue to be evaluated. In the present study, four different methods for enterovirus extraction from solid environmental matrixes were compared in terms of viral recovery and inhibitor removal. Three indirect methods based on glycine elution and concentration by ultracentrifugation were tested. The main differences between indirect methods were the sample to glycine buffer ratio, and the ultracentrifugation protocol applied. One commercial direct method was also tested. The indirect methods produced better results than the direct method. The ultracentrifugation led to viral losses in samples with high titers; however, as the virus concentration reduced, the ultracentrifugation became increasingly important for viral recovery. Two commercial RNA extraction kits were also evaluated and it was selected the most effective in removing RT-qPCR inhibitors. The results obtained allowed the development of a method decision tree with three versions that are suitable for different samples and viral concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Compatibility Determination : [Crescent Lake NWR 2003 hunting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Compatibility Determination states that hunting deer and upland birds at Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge is compatible with Refuge purposes.

  4. [Compatibility determinations Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides two compatibility determinations; one stated that the proposed agricultural practices (row crop farming) are compatible with Refuge objectives...

  5. Community–groundwater compatibility assessments: An approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data processing and analyses include the statistical processing of the collected data to assess the comprehensive measure of groundwater compatibility per area, and the individual indicators of the groundwater-compatibility index are given a relative score. This enables the different indicators for groundwater compatibility ...

  6. Electromagnetic compatibility principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, David A

    2001-01-01

    This totally revised and expanded reference/text provides comprehensive, single-source coverage of the design, problem solving, and specifications of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) into electrical equipment/systems-including new information on basic theories, applications, evaluations, prediction techniques, and practical diagnostic options for preventing EMI through cost-effective solutions. Offers the most recent guidelines, safety limits, and standards for human exposure to electromagnetic fields! Containing updated data on EMI diagnostic verification measurements, as well as over 900 drawings, photographs, tables, and equations-500 more than the previous edition

  7. Environmental impact of rejected materials generated in organic fraction of municipal solid waste anaerobic digestion plants: Comparison of wet and dry process layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colazo, Ana-Belén; Sánchez, Antoni; Font, Xavier; Colón, Joan

    2015-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion of source separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste is an increasing waste valorization alternative instead of incineration or landfilling of untreated biodegradable wastes. Nevertheless, a significant portion of biodegradable wastes entering the plant is lost in pre-treatments and post-treatments of anaerobic digestion facilities together with other improper materials such as plastics, paper, textile materials and metals. The rejected materials lost in these stages have two main implications: (i) less organic material enters to digesters and, as a consequence, there is a loss of biogas production and (ii) the rejected materials end up in landfills or incinerators contributing to environmental impacts such as global warming or eutrophication. The main goals of this study are (i) to estimate potential losses of biogas in the rejected solid materials generated during the pre- and post-treatments of two full-scale anaerobic digestion facilities and (ii) to evaluate the environmental burdens associated to the final disposal (landfill or incineration) of these rejected materials by means of Life Cycle Assessment. This study shows that there is a lost of potential biogas production, ranging from 8% to 15%, due to the loss of organic matter during pre-treatment stages in anaerobic digestion facilities. From an environmental point of view, the Life Cycle Assessment shows that the incineration scenario is the most favorable alternative for eight out of nine impact categories compared with the landfill scenario. The studied impact categories are Climate Change, Fossil depletion, Freshwater eutrophication, Marine eutrophication, Ozone depletion, Particulate matter formation, Photochemical oxidant formation, Terrestrial acidification and Water depletion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A model record of technologies for use in a compatible projects for environmental licensing of wind farms; Um modelo de registro das tecnologias para uso na compatibilizacao de projetos para licenciamento ambiental de parques eolicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares Junior, Wandemberg; Oliveira, Lucia Maria Barbosa [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article presents the development of a model for survey and registration of technologies that can be inserted in the process of reconciliation of the subjects of the project for environmental licensing of wind farms. It was used a basis for the theoretical model of the Simultaneous Engineering and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis - FMEA. Given the importance that the wind has for the pursuit of sustainable development, this work had as its main objective to contribute to the reduction of negative indices, proposing improvements to the process of project for environmental licensing of wind farms. (author)

  9. Water stability of zeolite imidazolate framework 8 and application to porous membrane-protected micro-solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Dandan; Lee, Hian Kee

    2011-11-25

    Zeolite imidazolate framework 8 (ZIF-8) has permanent porosity, high surface area, hydrophobic property, open metal sites and remarkable water stability. These novel properties characterize the material as being different from other moisture sensitive metal-organic frameworks and endow ZIF-8 with the potential to extract trace analytes from environmental water samples. In the present study, ZIF-8 was synthesized and used as a sorbent for micro-solid-phase extraction of 6 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from environmental water samples for the first time. Parameters influencing the extraction efficiency such as desorption time, extraction time, desorption solvent and salt concentration were investigated. Environmental water samples collected from a local lake were processed using this novel μ-SPE procedure. ZIF-8 proved to be a very efficient extraction sorbent for the extraction of trace analytes from water samples. The limits of detection from gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of PAHs were 0.002-0.012 ng/ml. The linear ranges were 0.1-50 or 0.5-50 ng/ml. The relative standard deviations for five replicates of the extractions were in the range of 2.1-8.5%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Testing of Environmentally Preferable Aluminum Pretreatments and Coating Systems for Use on Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, C.; Raley, R.; Zook, L.

    2001-01-01

    The solid rocket booster (SRB) has historically used a chromate conversion coating prior to protective finish application. After conversion coating, an organic paint system consisting of a chromated epoxy primer and polyurethane topcoat is applied. An overall systems approach was selected to reduce waste generation from the coatings application and removal processes. While the most obvious waste reduction opportunity involved elimination of the chromate conversion coating, several other coating system configurations were explored in an attempt to reduce the total waste. This paper will briefly discuss the use of a systems view to reduce waste generation from the coating process and present the results of the qualification testing of nonchromated aluminum pretreatments and alternate coating systems configurations.

  11. Environmentally acceptable mobility in Europe: New strategies for passenger and goods transport. A contribution to ecologically compatible mobility. Documentation; Umweltgerecht mobil in Europa: Menschen und Gueter auf neuen Wegen. Ein Beitrag zur oekologisch vertraeglichen Mobilitaet. Dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, F.G. [Akademie fuer Natur- und Umweltschutz beim Ministerium fuer Umwelt und Verkehr des Landes Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany); Diekmann, P.; Holzwarth, J. [comps.] [Ministerium fuer Umwelt und Verkehr des Landes Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    The traffic sector, with its transport systems and structures which for the most part are not ecologically acceptable, is a significant obstacle to sustainable development. As a contribution to a future-orientated, optimized consideration of both the need for mobility and the necessity of environmental protection, this volume presents big and small steps that can be taken to prevent traffic from the view of politicians, practicians and scientists in the field of passenger and goods transport. (orig.)

  12. Environmental compatible design of power operated products. Contribution of the ecological design regulation to the energy efficiency targets of the EU; Umweltgerechte Gestaltung energiebetriebener Produkte. Der Beitrag der Oekodesign-Richtlinie zu den Energieeffizienzzielen der EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehme, Ines; Halatsch, Andreas; Schuberth, Jens; Mordziol, Christoph

    2009-07-15

    The ecological design regulation and its further arrangement are a central component of the climatic protection politics and the policy of the European Union according to the sustainability in production and consumption. This regulation is to contribute to reduce the environmental impacts caused by power operated products. In the contribution under consideration, the Federal Office for Environment Protection (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on the ecological design regulation and answers the following questions: (a) Which goals pursues the ecological design regulation and which processes lead to their arrangement?; (b) Which contribution does the regulation perform to the energy saving?; (c) Which challenges and chances exist for the manufacturers?; (d) What are the effects of the ecological design regulation for the consumers?; (e) What mean the ecological design requirements concretely for the individual products? The ecological design requirements not only reduce the environmental impacts but also contribute to the climate protection and reduce the energy costs in the phase of utilization. The consumers receive comprehensive information on the technical characteristics of the products as well as their quality and environmental fairness. Parallel to the conversion of the ecological design regulation, the European Union updates the marking of the energy consumption for numerous products. The ecological design requirements refer to technical characteristics. They do not forbid products or techniques as such.

  13. Settlement-Compatible Lunar Transporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, G.

    Over the past few years we have published papers in this forum identifying, characterizing and advocating settlement-compatible transportation architectures for Mars. In the present paper, we do the same for the Moon and show evolutionary potentials for growth of lunar architectures into Mars architectures of the types discussed in our previous papers. The essence of a settlement-compatible architecture is that it yields a low recurring transportation cost and that the elements of the architecture are enduring, i.e., fully reusable with lifetimes on the order of Earth-based capital investments. Our previous papers have shown that extension of human habitation to other bodies in our Solar System is probably unaffordable with any other approach. The design of a settlement-compatible architecture begins with Earth launch. In our prior papers, we simply identified the Earth launch option as a fully reusable system with roughly Shuttle (or Atlas 5 or Delta 4 or Sea Launch or Ariane 5) capability, i.e. about 20 metric t. to low Earth orbit and a payload bay of dimensions about 5 m diameter x 15 to 20 m length. This is what the commercial market needs; this is where the traffic demand is; this is approximately the design point for a next-generation (after Shuttle) reusable launch vehicle. We continue in that vein for the present paper. Human mission advocates may argue it isn't big enough; that they need 80 metric t. payload to orbit. We answer that to achieve our cost criteria, there isn't much of a choice, and that the savings in launch cost will far outweigh the added expense for on-orbit assembly. Lunar transportation is considerably less demanding than Mars transportation. The main difference is in trip time. Because lunar trips are short, the crew habitat can be small, a la the Apollo Command Module, and the propulsion system to move it is also small by comparison. We analyze and depict a lunar transportation system based on crew elements adapted from the

  14. [Study on solid phase extraction and spectrophotometric determination of vanadium in environmental samples with 2-(2-quinolinylazo)-1,3-dihydroxidebenzene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yongchun; Zhang, Xiaoman; Zhai, Ping; Hu, Qiufen; Yin, Jiayuan; Yang, Guangyu

    2004-09-01

    Based on the color reaction of 2-(2-quinolinylazo)-1,3-dihydroxidebenzene (QADHB) with vanadium (v) and the solid phase extraction of its colored complex with C18 cartridge, a new method for the determination of vanadium was studied. In the presence of CTMAB and citric acid-sodium hydroxide buffer solution (pH 3.5) medium. QADHB reacts with vanadium(II) to form a stable 2:1 complex. The colored complex was extracted by C18 cartridge and eluted the retained chelate from cartridge with ethanol (containing 2% of acetic acid), then can be determined by spectrophotometry at 552 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in range of 0-1.0 mg/l. This method can be applied to the determination of vanadium in environmental samples with good results.

  15. Environmental, scanning electron and optical microscope image analysis software for determining volume and occupied area of solid-state fermentation fungal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osma, Johann F; Toca-Herrera, José L; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Here we propose a software for the estimation of the occupied area and volume of fungal cultures. This software was developed using a Matlab platform and allows analysis of high-definition images from optical, electronic or atomic force microscopes. In a first step, a single hypha grown on potato dextrose agar was monitored using optical microscopy to estimate the change in occupied area and volume. Weight measurements were carried out to compare them with the estimated volume, revealing a slight difference of less than 1.5%. Similarly, samples from two different solid-state fermentation cultures were analyzed using images from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an environmental SEM (ESEM). Occupied area and volume were calculated for both samples, and the results obtained were correlated with the dry weight of the cultures. The difference between the estimated volume ratio and the dry weight ratio of the two cultures showed a difference of 10%. Therefore, this software is a promising non-invasive technique to determine fungal biomass in solid-state cultures.

  16. Electromagnetic compatibility and interference metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M. T.; Kanda, M.

    1986-07-01

    The material included in the report is intended for a short course on electromagnetic compatibility/interference (EMC/EM) metrology. The entire course is presented in nine chapters with the introductory part given as Chapter 1. The particular measurement topics to be covered are: (1) open sites (Chapters 2 and 6), (2) transverse electromagnetic cells (Chapter 3), (3) techniques for measuring the electromagnetic shielding of materials (Chapter 4), (4) anechoic chambers (Chapter 5), and (5) reverberating chambers (Chapter 8). In addition, since small probe antennas play an important role in some of the EMC/EMI measurements discussed, a separate chapter on various probe systems developed at NBS is given in Chapter 7. Selected contemporary EMI topics such as the characterization and measurement of a complex EM environment, interferences in the form of out-of-band receptions to an antenna, and some conducted EMI problems are also briefly discussed (Chapter 9).

  17. Optimization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow-fiber solid-liquid-phase microextraction for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Raheleh; Hadjmohammadi, Mohammad Reza

    2017-09-01

    A novel design of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a solid sorbent, which is immobilized in the pore and lumen of hollow fiber by the sol-gel technique, was developed for the pre-concentration and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples. The proposed method utilized both solid- and liquid-phase microextraction media. Parameters that affect the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were optimized in two successive steps as follows. Firstly, a methodology based on a quarter factorial design was used to choose the significant variables. Then, these significant factors were optimized utilizing central composite design. Under the optimized condition (extraction time = 25 min, amount of multiwalled carbon nanotubes = 78 mg, sample volume = 8 mL, and desorption time = 5 min), the calibration curves showed high linearity (R(2)  = 0.99) in the range of 0.01-500 ng/mL and the limits of detection were in the range of 0.007-1.47 ng/mL. The obtained extraction recoveries for 10 ng/mL of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons standard solution were in the range of 85-92%. Replicating the experiment under these conditions five times gave relative standard deviations lower than 6%. Finally, the method was successfully applied for pre-concentration and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The development of solid fuel gasification systems for cost-effective power generation with low environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, M.; Kurkela, E.; Staahlberg, P.; Laatikainen-Luntama, J.; Ranta, J.; Hepola, J.; Kangasmaa, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Gasification and Advanced Combustion

    1997-10-01

    Relatively low carbon conversion is a disadvantage related to the air-blown fluidised-bed coal-biomass co-gasification process. Low carbon conversion is due to different reactivities and ash sintering behaviour of coal and biomass which leads to compromises in definition of gasification process conditions. In certain cases co-gasification may also lead to unexpected deposit formations or corrosion problems in downstream components especially when high alkali metal or chlorine containing biomass feedstocks are co-gasified with coal. During the reporting period, the work focused on co-gasification of coal and wood waste. The objectives of the present work were to find out the optimum conditions for improving the carbon conversion and to study the formation of different gas impurities. The results based on co-gasification tests with a pressurised fluidised-bed gasifies showed that in co-gasification even with only 15 % coal addition the heavy tar concentration was decreased significantly and, simultaneously, an almost total carbon conversion was achieved by optimising the gasification conditions. The study of filter fines recirculation and solid residues utilisation was started by characterizing filter dust. The work was carried out with an entrained-flow reactor in oxidising, inert and reducing gas conditions. The aim was to define the conditions required for achieving increased carbon conversion in different reactor conditions

  19. Solid phase extraction of Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Zn in environmental samples on multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Erkan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2014-09-01

    A simple and sensitive solid phase extraction (SPE) method on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is presented for the determination of cadmium, lead, nickel, copper, and zinc at trace levels combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The effects of parameters like pH, sample volume, sample and eluent flow rates, eluent concentration, and volume and type of eluent on the recovery of trace elements was examined. The metals retained on the nanotube at pH 6.5 as α-benzoin oxime complexes were eluted by 10 mL 2 M HNO3 in acetone. The influence of matrix ions on the developed method was also evaluated. The preconcentration factor of the method was found to be 50. The detection limits for Cd(II), Pb(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) were found as 1.7, 5.5, 6.0, 2.3, and 2.4 μg L(-1), respectively. To test the accuracy of the method, the method was applied to TMDA-70 fortified lake water and Spinach 1570A standard reference materials. Addition recovery studies were applied to tap water and cracked wheat samples, and determination of the analyte elements was carried out in some food samples with good results.

  20. Smart thorium and uranium determination exploiting renewable solid-phase extraction applied to environmental samples in a wide concentration range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avivar, Jessica; Ferrer, Laura; Cerda, Victor [University of the Balearic Islands, Chemistry Department, Palma (Spain); Casas, Montserrat [University of the Balearic Islands, Physic Department, IFISC-CSIC, Palma (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    A smart fully automated system is proposed for determination of thorium and uranium in a wide concentration range, reaching environmental levels. The hyphenation of lab-on-valve (LOV) and multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA), coupled to a long path length liquid waveguide capillary cell, allows the spectrophotometric determination of thorium and uranium in different types of environmental sample matrices achieving high selectivity and sensitivity levels. Online separation and preconcentration of thorium and uranium is carried out by means of Uranium and TEtraValents Actinides resin. The potential of the LOV-MSFIA makes possible the full automation of the system by the in-line regeneration of the column and its combination with a smart methodology is a step forward in automation. After elution, thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) are spectrophotometrically detected after reaction with arsenazo-III. We propose a rapid, inexpensive, and fully automated method to determine thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) in a wide concentration range (0-1,200 and 0-2,000 {mu}g L{sup -1} Th and U, respectively). Limits of detection reached are 5.9 {eta}g L{sup -1} of uranium and 60 {eta}g L{sup -1} of thorium. Different water sample matrices (seawater, well water, freshwater, tap water, and mineral water), and a channel sediment reference material which contained thorium and uranium were satisfactorily analyzed with the proposed method. (orig.)

  1. Metal-Detergent/Cleaner Compatibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hindin, Barry

    1994-01-01

    ...) such as CFC-1 13 or 1,1,1 Trichioroethane (TCA) in their cleaning and degreasing procedures. During the last few years, AGMC has been evaluating alternative, environmentally acceptable chemicals to replace their ODC cleaners...

  2. Eco-compatibility in the Brazilian energy matrix: biodiesel fuel can be considered environmentally friendly?; Eco-compatibilidade na matriz energetica brasileira: o biodiesel pode ser considerado como combustivel ambientalmente correto?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; Santos, Jarsia Melo dos; Cruz, Andrea Cristina da; Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos [Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciencias, Salvador, BA (Brazil)], e-mail: iracema@ftc.br; Pereira, Solange Andrade; Nascimento, Mauricio Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2008-07-01

    Based on the law 11.097/05, Brazil begins the compulsory use of biodiesel from 2008, persuading the compliance of economical, technological, social and environmental objectives. The country uses 40 billions litters of diesel per year, 15% to 17% imported, which represented in 2007, a cost superior to two billion dollars. The addition of biodiesel to diesel from 2%, 5% to 20% (limit proved as technically secure), besides providing economical and social benefits, represents environmental gains, due to emissions reduction in relation to diesel fossil. However, besides the acrolein, which can result from the burnt of possible remaining glycerin in biodiesel, the soluble fractions of this biofuel and the effluents generated during its productive processes may cause possible pollution in soil and water bodies. Eco toxicological information of co-products is incomplete, and due to technical and economical restraints for the use of ethanol, methanol is mostly used for the transesterification process of biodiesel production, even though its toxicological properties are already biodiesel/year. However, the estimated production capacity is supposed to reach 3,8 billions L by 2009, what may represent environmental constraints. The present work does not discuss all the ecological risks associated to the biodiesel productive chain. It aims to determine the toxicity of the soluble water fraction (FSA) of three different types of biodiesel: castor base oil (methylic route and homogeneous basic catalysis - NaOH), 'dende' base oil (methylic route and acid catalysis) and residual cooking oil OGR-biodiesel (methylic route and acid and basic catalysis), using as organism-test (Echinometra lucunter) and, as biochemical biomarker, the activity of acid phosphatase, measured in hepatocytes of exposed fishes (Oreochromis niloticus). The results showed that the FSA of mamona (castor oil) biodiesel was the most toxic (5,0 mU/mg), followed by OGR (3,9 mU/mg) and dende biodiesel (2

  3. Fe(3)O(4)@MOF core-shell magnetic microspheres for magnetic solid-phase extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls from environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangfeng; Ding, Ning; Zang, Hao; Yeung, Hoisze; Zhao, Ru-Song; Cheng, Chuange; Liu, Jianhua; Chan, T-W Dominic

    2013-08-23

    Fe3O4@MIL-100 core-shell magnetic microspheres were, for the first time, used as the sorbent for the magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of polychlorinated biphenyls at trace levels in environmental water samples. GC coupled with tandem MS was used for sample quantification and detection. The Box-Behnken design was used to determine the optimum extraction parameters influencing extraction efficiency through response surface methodology. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method showed good linearity within the range of 5-4000ngL(-1), low limits of detection (1.07-1.57ngL(-1); signal-to-noise ratio=3:1), and good extraction repeatability (relative standard deviationsnow water were processed using the developed method. The results demonstrated that the Fe3O4@MOF core-shell magnetic microspheres are promising sorbents in the MSPE of aromatic pollutants from environmental water samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of Economical and Environmental Costs for the Selection of Municipal Solid Waste Treatment and Disposal Scenarios through Multicriteria Analysis (ELECTRE Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena De Medina-Salas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making for the selection of treatment alternatives and landfilling of municipal solid waste (MSW is based on the experience and judgment of those management responsible, without considering multicriteria analysis. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to determine the treatment scenario and landfilling of MSW with the lowest environmental and economic costs in a medium-sized city. The methodology included the definition and data processing of the project (population, generation, and composition of MSW, for 16 years. In the design of scenarios, recycling, composting, incineration with energy recovery, and landfilling treatments were proposed; later, the combinations of treatments for each type of residue were generated. The results showed 36 scenarios, then the ELECTRE method was applied to the five with the lowest economical and environmental costs. Finally from the latter, one dominant scenario was determined: organic waste in composting; plastic, paper, and glass in recycling; and ‘others’ in landfilling. It is concluded that the final decision on the scenario is adapted to the particular conditions of the locality.

  5. Membrane solid phase microextraction with alumina hollow fiber on line coupled with ICP-OES for the determination of trace copper, manganese and nickel in environmental water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Chao; He Man [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hu Bin, E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2011-03-15

    A novel alumina hollow fiber was synthesized by sol-gel template method and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption technique and X-ray diffraction. With the use of prepared alumina hollow fiber as extraction membrane, a new method of flow injection (FI)-membrane solid phase microextraction (MSPME) on-line coupled to inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was developed for simultaneous determination of trace metals (Cu, Mn and Ni) in environmental water samples. The adsorption capacities of the alumina hollow fiber for Cu, Mn and Ni were found to be 6.6, 8.7 and 13.3 mg g{sup -1}, respectively. With a preconcentration factor of 10, the limits of detection (LODs) for Cu, Mn and Ni were found to be 0.88, 0.61 and 0.38 ng mL{sup -1}, respectively, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were ranging from 6.2 to 7.9% (n = 7, c = 10 ng mL{sup -1}). To validate the accuracy, the proposed method was applied to the analysis of certified reference material GSBZ50009-88 environmental water and the determined values are in good agreement with the certified values. The developed method was also employed for the analysis of Yangtze River water and East Lake water, and the recoveries for the spiked samples were in the range of 87.4-110.2%.

  6. Rapid isolation of plutonium in environmental solid samples using sequential injection anion exchange chromatography followed by detection with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao Jixin, E-mail: jixin.qiao@risoe.d [Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hou Xiaolin; Roos, Per [Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Miro, Manuel [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera de Valldemossa km. 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears (Spain)

    2011-01-31

    This paper reports an automated analytical method for rapid determination of plutonium isotopes ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu) in environmental solid extracts. Anion exchange chromatographic columns were incorporated in a sequential injection (SI) system to undertake the automated separation of plutonium from matrix and interfering elements. The analytical results most distinctly demonstrated that the crosslinkage of the anion exchanger is a key parameter controlling the separation efficiency. AG 1-x4 type resin was selected as the most suitable sorbent material for analyte separation. Investigation of column size effect upon the separation efficiency revealed that small-sized (2 mL) columns sufficed to handle up to 50 g of environmental soil samples. Under the optimum conditions, chemical yields of plutonium exceeded 90% and the decontamination factors for uranium, thorium and lead ranged from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4}. The determination of plutonium isotopes in three standard/certified reference materials (IAEA-375 soil, IAEA-135 sediment and NIST-4359 seaweed) and two reference samples (Irish Sea sediment and Danish soil) revealed a good agreement with reference/certified values. The SI column-separation method is straightforward and less labor intensive as compared with batch-wise anion exchange chromatographic procedures. Besides, the automated method features low consumption of ion-exchanger and reagents for column washing and elution, with the consequent decrease in the generation of acidic waste, thus bearing green chemical credentials.

  7. Microbiota Dynamics Associated with Environmental Conditions and Potential Roles of Cellulolytic Communities in Traditional Chinese Cereal Starter Solid-State Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Liang, Hebin; Lin, Wei-Tie; Feng, Feng; Luo, Lixin

    2015-08-01

    Traditional Chinese solid-state fermented cereal starters contain highly complex microbial communities and enzymes. Very little is known, however, about the microbial dynamics related to environmental conditions, and cellulolytic communities have never been proposed to exist during cereal starter fermentation. In this study, we performed Illumina MiSeq sequencing combined with PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to investigate microbiota, coupled with clone library construction to trace cellulolytic communities in both fermentation stages. A succession of microbial assemblages was observed during the fermentation of starters. Lactobacillales and Saccharomycetales dominated the initial stages, with a continuous decline in relative abundance. However, thermotolerant and drought-resistant Bacillales, Eurotiales, and Mucorales were considerably accelerated during the heating stages, and these organisms dominated until the end of fermentation. Enterobacteriales were consistently ubiquitous throughout the process. For the cellulolytic communities, only the genera Sanguibacter, Beutenbergia, Agrobacterium, and Erwinia dominated the initial fermentation stages. In contrast, stages at high incubation temperature induced the appearance and dominance of Bacillus, Aspergillus, and Mucor. The enzymatic dynamics of amylase and glucoamylase also showed a similar trend, with the activities clearly increased in the first 7 days and subsequently decreased until the end of fermentation. Furthermore, β-glucosidase activity continuously and significantly increased during the fermentation process. Evidently, cellulolytic potential can adapt to environmental conditions by changes in the community structure during the fermentation of starters. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. In situ hydrothermal growth of polyaniline coating for in-tube solid-phase microextraction towards ultraviolet filters in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yanan; Feng, Juanjuan; Wang, Xiuqin; Tian, Yu; Sun, Min; Luo, Chuannan

    2017-02-03

    A facile, low cost, sensitive and environmentally friendly polyaniline (PANI) coating was prepared onto the basalt fibers (BFs) by in situ hydrothermal growth method. PANI functionalized BFs were placed into a poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) tube as a fibers-in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) device. The extraction and analysis processes were carried out by connecting it to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three ultraviolet filters including 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, phenyl salicylate and 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone were employed as model analytes. Under the optimal extraction and desorption conditions, online in-tube SPME-HPLC analysis method was established and afforded satisfactory enrichment factors (1323-1555), wide linear ranges (0.06-100μgL-1) with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9995 to 0.9999, low limits of detection (0.02-0.05μgL-1) and acceptable extraction repeatability (RSDultraviolet filters in two environmental water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through...... life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between...... landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use...

  10. Vacuum Compatible Percussive Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a vacuum compatible percussive dynamic cone penetrometer (PDCP), for establishing soil bin characteristics, with the ultimate...

  11. Environmental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawsan M. Aboul Ezz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotifers are one of the most common, abundant components of plankton in the coastal waters of the Mediterranean Sea, which means that they can be used as bio-indicators and provide useful information on the long-term dynamics of the El-Mex Bay ecosystem. Rotifera species were quantitatively and qualitatively assessed in the El-Mex Bay, west of Alexandria at eight stations to study spatial, temporal, dominance, and abundance of the rotifer community and their relation with changes in environmental conditions. Samples were collected seasonally from autumn 2011 to autumn 2012. Ecological parameters were determined and correlated with total rotifers abundance to gain information about the forces that structure the rotifer community in this dynamic environment. A total of 38 rotifer species were identified belonging to 16 genera within 12 families and 3 orders under one class and contributed about 12.1% of the total zooplankton in the study area with an average of 1077 specimens/m3. Maximum density was observed in summer 2012 with an average of 1445 specimens/m3. During autumn 2011 rotifers appeared in low density (434 specimens/m3. The predominant species Ascomorpha saltans, Brachionus urceolaris, Synchaeta oblonga, Synchaeta okai, Synchaeta pectinata and Synchaeta tremula were recorded in all study stations of the bay. Salinity, temperature, depth, and chlorophyll-a concentration were the most important environmental factors co-related with the abundance of rotifers in the El-Mex Bay. A significant positive correlation between the total rotifer abundance and chlorophyll-a was observed during winter 2012 and summer 2012 (r = 0.763 and r = 0.694, respectively, at p ⩽ 0.05.

  12. Streamlined sample cleanup using combined dispersive solid-phase extraction and in-vial filtration for analysis of pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Lijun [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China); Sapozhnikova, Yelena [U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States); Lehotay, Steven J., E-mail: Steven.Lehotay@ars.usda.gov [U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The first report that combines in-vial filtration and dispersive-SPE for sample cleanup. • The unique application of ammonium formate for salting-out partitioning in QuEChERS. • Evaluations of a new zirconium-based and a non-friable GCB sorbent for d-SPE cleanup. • A new analytical method for 59 pesticides and environmental pollutants in shrimp. Abstract: A new method of sample preparation was developed and is reported for the first time. The approach combines in-vial filtration with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) in a fast and convenient cleanup of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extracts. The method was applied to simultaneous analysis of 42 diverse pesticides and 17 environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and flame retardants, in shrimp as the sample matrix. Final extracts were analyzed by both low-pressure gas chromatography – triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS), and high-performance liquid chromatography – triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to provide a wide scope of analysis for targeted analytes. During method development, several different commercial sorbents for d-SPE were investigated and compared with respect to analyte recoveries. The method was validated at 10, 50, and 100 ng g⁻¹ spiking levels (10-fold lower for PCBs), and the results for nearly all analytes were between 70 and 115% recoveries with ≤17% relative standard deviations. The method was shown to be simple, fast, and effective for multi-application analysis of chemical residues in the representative food and environmental marker matrix.

  13. Tone compatibility between HDR displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bist, Cambodge; Cozot, Rémi; Madec, Gérard; Ducloux, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) is the latest trend in television technology and we expect an in ux of HDR capable consumer TVs in the market. Initial HDR consumer displays will operate on a peak brightness of about 500-1000 nits while in the coming years display peak brightness is expected to go beyond 1000 nits. However, professionally graded HDR content can range from 1000 to 4000 nits. As with Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) content, we can expect HDR content to be available in variety of lighting styles such as low key, medium key and high key video. This raises concerns over tone-compatibility between HDR displays especially when adapting to various lighting styles. It is expected that dynamic range adaptation between HDR displays uses similar techniques as found with tone mapping and tone expansion operators. In this paper, we survey simple tone mapping methods of 4000 nits color-graded HDR content for 1000 nits HDR displays. We also investigate tone expansion strategies when HDR content graded in 1000 nits is displayed on 4000 nits HDR monitors. We conclude that the best tone reproduction technique between HDR displays strongly depends on the lighting style of the content.

  14. Testing of an environmental compatible dismantling technology for activated metallic reactor components (water abrasive jetstream technic) under real conditions. Final report; Erprobung des Wasserabrasivsuspensionsstrahlverfahrens (WASS) bei der Zerlegung aktivierter metallischer Reaktorkomponenten (RDB u.a.) unter realen Bedingungen. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalwa, H.; Louis, H.; Brandt, C. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde

    2000-07-01

    The water abrasive suspension jetstream cutting (WASJ) was tested during the past research program for its general practicability. The programs goal was to investigate the dismantling of the lower part of the core baffel as well as of the reactor-pressure-vessel itself. For this purpose the University of Hanover established a lab-scale testing program to optimize the following parameters: different abrasives, cutting performance, remote tools monitoring and handling, verification of the forces to the manipulators, adaptation of cutting parameters to the different cutting tasks and the analyses for water-processing to maintain sub-aquatic visibility. Based on the results obtained in minor-scale testing the process parameters were adapted to the pilot manifold (ALBA-WASS) in VAK. This program served also for the training of personnel and the certification of the procedure by experts and the authorities. During the pre-operational phase a solids extraction and water-purification device was developed to enable the use of the technique under sub-aquatic conditions. The core-baffel was dismantled with the 1400 bar WASS into parts ready for final storage. For the cutting of the reactor-pressure-vessel itself, the WASS was modified to a jetstream-pressure of 2000 bar. At the end of the operation we were able to determine that for the dismantling of nuclear-power-plants an additional efficient cutting technique is now available. (orig.) [German] Das Wasserabrasivsuspensionsstrahlschneiden war in vorangegangenen Forschungsvorhaben auf seine generelle Einsatzbarkeit untersucht worden. Die Aufgabenziele waren, die Zerlegung des Kernmantelunterteiles sowie die Zerlegung des Reaktordruckbehaelters. Zu diesem Zweck wurden mit der Laboranlage der Universitaet Hannover Untersuchungen verschiedener Abrasivmittel bezueglich Schneidfaehigkeit und Truebung, Versuche zur Optimierung der Werkzeugueberwachung und -handhabung, Ermittlung der Kraefte am Handhabungssystem, Anpassung der

  15. Analysis of pesticides residues in environmental water samples using multiwalled carbon nanotubes dispersive solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Curbelo, Miguel Ángel; Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Ángel

    2013-02-01

    In this manuscript, a dispersive SPE method based on the use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes has been developed for the determination of 15 organophosphorus pesticides residues including some of their metabolites (disulfoton sulfoxide, ethoprophos, cadusafos, dimethoate, terbufos, disulfoton, chlorpyrifos-methyl, malaoxon, fenitrothion, pirimiphos-methyl, malathion, chlorpyrifos, terbufos sulfone, disulfoton sulfone, and fensulfothion) from real environmental waters (run-off, mineral and tap water) by GC with nitrogen phosphorus detection. Factors that affect the enrichment efficiency such as sample volume, multiwalled carbon nanotubes amount, and volume of eluent were studied. The optimized method was validated in terms of matrix-matched calibration, recovery, precision, and accuracy for the three analyzed samples. In this last case, the developed Student's t test demonstrated that there were no significant differences between real and spiked concentrations. Optimum dispersive SPE conditions (extraction of 200 mL of water, pH 6.0, with 130 mg of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, elution with 25 mL of dichloromethane for run-off and tap water and 30 mL for mineral water) allowed the quantitative extraction of analytes at levels lower than the maximum residues limits legislated by the European Union, with LODs between 1.16 and 93.6 ng/L. Absolute recovery values achieved were in the range of 67-107% (RSD values <10.1%). © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Titanium determination by multisyringe flow injection analysis system and a liquid waveguide capillary cell in solid and liquid environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quiles, David; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Horstkotte, Burkhard

    2013-11-15

    A multisyringe flow injection analysis system using a liquid waveguide capillary cell (MSFIA-LWCC) has been used for the spectrophotometric determination of titanium (Ti) in marine environmental samples. Samples were previous digested using potassium peroxodisulfate (K2S2O8). The method showed to be linear over a range up to 1 μM with a detection limit of 9.2 nM. The analysis consumes little reagent (250 μL) and sample (600 μL). It had an adequate accuracy with high repeatability (RSD of 1.8%) for all marine samples. The proposed method was used to evaluate the concentration of Ti in natural samples collected in the coastal area of the Majorca Island (Western Mediterranean Sea). We report average concentrations of Ti in coastal surface microlayer of 510.7 ± 267.2 nM, in surface sediments of 2.72 ± 1.84 μmol/g, and in rhizomes and leaves of Posidonia oceanica of 310 ± 295 nmol/g and 157 ± 132 nmol/g, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Flow and regulatory compatibility: an experimental approach to the flow model of intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Johannes; Bless, Herbert

    2008-02-01

    The authors propose that the experience of flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 2000) as reflected in the deep involvement in an activity perceived as intrinsically rewarding represents a regulatory compatibility experience. The research addresses the notion that the compatibility of critical person (e.g., skills) and environmental factors (e.g., demands) involved in a given activity elicits subjective experiences that render the respective activity rewarding. Two studies are reported that investigate the consequences of compatibility of skills and task demands during task engagement. Departing from correlational research, the present studies employ a newly developed experimental paradigm to document the causal impact of such a skills/demands compatibility on the emergence of flow. Experiment 2 revealed that individuals characterized by a strong habitual action-orientation were most sensitive to the manipulation of the skills-demands compatibility.

  18. Simultaneous determination of benzothiazoles, benzotriazoles and benzosulfonamides by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in environmental aqueous matrices and human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccarato, Attilio; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2014-04-18

    This work proposes a new approach for the simultaneous determination of benzothiazoles, benzotriazoles and benzosulfonamides in different environmental matrices and human urine, using solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas-chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-QqQMS). The analytes object of this investigation have been classified as toxic to aquatic organisms and their presence in human urine was reported to occur as result of human exposure to contaminated environment. In this work many of the challenges related to the chemical diversity and polarity of the analytes selected were overcame conducting a multivariate optimization of the working conditions by using the approach of "Experimental design". Tests performed to assess the performances of five SPME coatings in direct immersion mode revealed the polyacrylate coating to be the most suitable for the extraction of the probe analytes. A central composite design (CCD) was employed to determine the optimal conditions for four factors affecting the solid-phase microextraction process: extraction time, extraction temperature, pH and percentage of sodium chloride. The optimal working condition determined by using Derringer's desirability function were 40min as extraction time, pH 7.1 and 6.0% of NaCl. Since the extraction temperature do not significantly affects the responses for all the analytes considered, analyses were performed at room temperature. A careful evaluation of the matrix effect for all the matrices tested was carried out. The results obtained showed that the proposed method did not significantly influenced by matrix effects in most of the cases tested, and thus allows the use of simplified calibration procedure. Satisfactory values of accuracy and precision were also obtained for all the matrices considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel polyamide-based nanofibers prepared by electrospinning technique for headspace solid-phase microextraction of phenol and chlorophenols from environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, Habib, E-mail: bagheri@sharif.edu [Environmental and Bio-Analytical Laboratories, Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Av., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghakhani, Ali; Baghernejad, Masoud; Akbarinejad, Alireza [Environmental and Bio-Analytical Laboratories, Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Av., P.O. Box 11365-9516, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-02-24

    A novel solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was fabricated by electrospinning method in which a polymeric solution was converted to nanofibers using high voltages. A thin stainless steel wire was coated by the network of polymeric nanofibers. The polymeric nanofiber coating on the wire was mechanically stable due to the fine and continuous nanofibers formation around the wire with a three dimensional structure. Polyamide (nylon 6), due to its suitable characteristics was used to prepare the unbreakable SPME nanofiber. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of this new coating showed a diameter range of 100-200 nm for polyamide nanofibers with a homogeneous and porous surface structure. The extraction efficiency of new coating was investigated for headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) of some environmentally important chlorophenols from aqueous samples followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Effect of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency including extraction temperature, extraction time, ionic strength and polyamide amount were investigated and optimized. In order to improve the chromatographic behavior of phenolic compounds, all the analytes were derivatized prior to the extraction process using basic acetic anhydride. The detection limits of the method under optimized conditions were in the range of 2-10 ng L{sup -1}. The relative standard deviations (RSD) (n = 3) at the concentration level of 1.7-6.7 ng mL{sup -1} were obtained between 1 and 7.4%. The calibration curves of chlorophenols showed linearity in the range of 27-1330 ng L{sup -1} for phenol and monochlorophenols and 7-1000 ng L{sup -1} for dichloro and trichlorophenols. Also, the proposed method was successfully applied to the extraction of phenol and chlorophenols from real water samples and relative recoveries were between 84 and 98% for all the selected analytes except for 2,4,6 tricholophenol which was between 72 and 74%.

  20. On-line dynamic fractionation and automatic determination of inorganic phosphorus in environmental solid substrates exploiting sequential injection microcolumn extraction and flow injection analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buanuam, Janya [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Miro, Manuel [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera de Valldemossa km. 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears (Spain)]. E-mail: manuel.miro@uib.es; Hansen, Elo Harald [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Building 207, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)]. E-mail: ehh@kemi.dtu.dk; Shiowatana, Juwadee [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2006-06-16

    Sequential injection microcolumn extraction (SI-MCE) based on the implementation of a soil-containing microcartridge as external reactor in a sequential injection network is, for the first time, proposed for dynamic fractionation of macronutrients in environmental solids, as exemplified by the partitioning of inorganic phosphorus in agricultural soils. The on-line fractionation method capitalises on the accurate metering and sequential exposure of the various extractants to the solid sample by application of programmable flow as precisely coordinated by a syringe pump. Three different soil phase associations for phosphorus, that is, exchangeable, Al- and Fe-bound, and Ca-bound fractions, were elucidated by accommodation in the flow manifold of the three steps of the Hieltjes-Lijklema (HL) scheme involving the use of 1.0 M NH{sub 4}Cl, 0.1 M NaOH and 0.5 M HCl, respectively, as sequential leaching reagents. The precise timing and versatility of SI for tailoring various operational extraction modes were utilized for investigating the extractability and the extent of phosphorus re-distribution for variable partitioning times. Automatic spectrophotometric determination of soluble reactive phosphorus in soil extracts was performed by a flow injection (FI) analyser based on the Molybdenum Blue (MB) chemistry. The 3{sigma} detection limit was 0.02 mg P L{sup -1} while the linear dynamic range extended up to 20 mg P L{sup -1} regardless of the extracting media. Despite the variable chemical composition of the HL extracts, a single FI set-up was assembled with no need for either manifold re-configuration or modification of chemical composition of reagents. The mobilization of trace elements, such as Cd, often present in grazed pastures as a result of the application of phosphate fertilizers, was also explored in the HL fractions by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

  1. On-line dynamic fractionation and automatic determination of inorganic phosphorus in environmental solid substrates exploiting sequential injection microcolumn extraction and flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buanuam, Janya; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Shiowatana, Juwadee

    2006-06-16

    Sequential injection microcolumn extraction (SI-MCE) based on the implementation of a soil-containing microcartridge as external reactor in a sequential injection network is, for the first time, proposed for dynamic fractionation of macronutrients in environmental solids, as exemplified by the partitioning of inorganic phosphorus in agricultural soils. The on-line fractionation method capitalises on the accurate metering and sequential exposure of the various extractants to the solid sample by application of programmable flow as precisely coordinated by a syringe pump. Three different soil phase associations for phosphorus, that is, exchangeable, Al- and Fe-bound, and Ca-bound fractions, were elucidated by accommodation in the flow manifold of the three steps of the Hieltjes-Lijklema (HL) scheme involving the use of 1.0M NH4Cl, 0.1M NaOH and 0.5M HCl, respectively, as sequential leaching reagents. The precise timing and versatility of SI for tailoring various operational extraction modes were utilized for investigating the extractability and the extent of phosphorus re-distribution for variable partitioning times. Automatic spectrophotometric determination of soluble reactive phosphorus in soil extracts was performed by a flow injection (FI) analyser based on the Molybdenum Blue (MB) chemistry. The 3sigma detection limit was 0.02 mg P L(-1) while the linear dynamic range extended up to 20 mg P L(-1) regardless of the extracting media. Despite the variable chemical composition of the HL extracts, a single FI set-up was assembled with no need for either manifold re-configuration or modification of chemical composition of reagents. The mobilization of trace elements, such as Cd, often present in grazed pastures as a result of the application of phosphate fertilizers, was also explored in the HL fractions by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

  2. 32 CFR 552.95 - Compatible use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compatible use. 552.95 Section 552.95 National... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.95 Compatible use. (a... closed. (4) Motorized infantry operations that will use the majority of the road net in a training area...

  3. Common fixed points for weakly compatible maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem, from the class of compatible continuous maps to a larger class of maps having weakly compatible maps without appeal to continuity, which generalized the results of Jungck [3], Fisher [1], Kang and Kim [8], Jachymski [2], and Rhoades [9].

  4. Is Religious Education Compatible with Science Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the problem of the compatibility of science and religion, and its bearing on science and religious education, challenges the popular view that science and religion are compatible or complementary. Discusses differences at the doctrinal, metaphysical, methodological, and attitudinal levels. Argues that religious education should be kept…

  5. EVA-Compatible Microbial Swab Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed spacecraft meet planetary protection requirements—and to protect our science from human contamination—we'll need to know whether micro-organisms are leaking/venting from our ships and spacesuits. This is easily done by swabbing external vents and suit surfaces for analysis, but requires a specialized tool for the job. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently developed an Extravehicular Activity (EVA)-compatible swab tool that can be used to sample current space suits and life support systems. Data collected now will influence Mars life support and EVA hardware early in the planning process, before design changes become difficult and expensive.NASA’s EVA swab tool pairs a Space Shuttle-era tool handle with a commercially available swab tip mounted into a custom-designed end effector. A glove-compatible release mechanism allows the handle to quickly switch between swab tips, much like a shaving razor handle can snap onto a disposable blade cartridge. Swab tips are stowed inside individual sterile containers, each fitted with a microbial filter that allows the container to equalize atmospheric pressure, but prevents cabin contaminants from rushing into the container when passing from the EVA environment into a pressurized cabin. A bank of containers arrayed inside a tool caddy allows up to six individual samples to be collected during a given spacewalk.NASA plans to use the tool in 2016 to collect samples from various spacesuits during ground testing to determine what (if any) human-borne microbial contamination leaks from the suit under simulated thermal vacuum conditions. Next, the tool will be used on board the International Space Station to assess the types of microbial contaminants found on external environmental control and life support system vents. Data will support

  6. Functional regulation of Pb-Ti/MoS{sub 2} composite coatings for environmentally adaptive solid lubrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Siming [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies of Zhejiang Province, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Hao [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Cui, Mingjun [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies of Zhejiang Province, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Wang, Liping, E-mail: wangliping@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies of Zhejiang Province, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Pu, Jibin, E-mail: pujibin@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies of Zhejiang Province, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Co-doped Pb-Ti/MoS{sub 2} composite coatings were successfully fabricated by unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. • Co-doped Pb-Ti/MoS{sub 2} composite coatings showed lower friction coefficient and longer wear life in both humid and vacuum environments than that of single-doped ones. • The wear behaviours of Pb-Ti/MoS{sub 2} composite coatings with the increase of Pb content is in accordance with the variation in H/E ratio that higher H/E is corresponding to the lower wear rate of coating. - Abstract: The lubrication of molybdenum disulfide coatings has commonly been limited by the application environments, for instance, the crystal MoS{sub 2} are easily affected by water to form MoO{sub 3} that causes a higher friction coefficient and short lifetime. Therefore, to improve the tribolgical performance of MoS{sub 2} in high humidity condition, the co-doped Pb-Ti/MoS{sub 2} composite coatings are deposited by unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. The design of the co-doping elements in MoS{sub 2}-based coatings can not only maintain the characteristic of low humidity-sensitivity as the Ti/MoS{sub 2} coating but also improve the mechanical properties and tribological performance of coatings as a comparison with single-doped ones. Moreover, the ultra-low friction coefficient with a minimum value of 0.006 under the vacuum condition is achieved for Pb-Ti/MoS{sub 2} composite coating containing about 4.6 at.% Pb, depending on the densification structure of coating. Intriguingly, the wear behaviours of Pb-Ti/MoS{sub 2} composite coatings are in accordance with the variation in H/E (hardness to the elastic modulus) ratio that the coating with higher H/E exhibits lower wear rate. These results demonstrate that the lubricating properties of MoS{sub 2} coatings in both humid environment and vacuum condition can be achieved through the Pb and Ti co-doped, which is of great significant for developing MoS{sub 2} coatings as the environmentally adaptive

  7. Adapting deployed touch screen displays for NVG compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudette, Claude

    2008-04-01

    As the battlefield becomes "digitized", all arms of the military are deploying COTS displays in the form of Portable Notebooks, Kneeboards, GPS and PDA's in ever greater numbers. Many of these COTS equipments and associated displays use full color LCD's and resistive touch panels as the operator-interface. These displays are a challenge to those who must modify the COTS equipment for NVG compatibility. Traditional NVG filter options have relatively poor color rendering and are too thick or rigid to interface with touch panels. In addition, many of these displays do not have sufficient dimming capabilities to allow covert night-time operations and do not have sufficient luminance for daytime operations. Polymeric materials recently developed by Wamco have been specifically designed for applications where traditional NVG filters have failed. These applications will be discussed and quantified in terms of NVG Compatibility, Color Rendering, Luminance Contrast and Daytime Readability, Touch Screen Sensitivity and Environmental Performance.

  8. Covalent triazine framework-1 as adsorbent for inline solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of trace nitroimidazoles in porcine liver and environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cheng; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2017-02-03

    In this study, covalent triazine framework-1 (CTF-1) was adopted as solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbents, and a method of SPE inline coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection was developed for trace analysis of three nitroimidazolaes (including metronidazole, ronidazole and dimetridazole) in porcine liver and environmental water samples. CTF-1 has rich π-electron and N containing triazine, thus can form π-π interaction and intermolecular hydrogen bond with three target polar nitroimidazoles, resulting in high extraction efficiency (87%-98%). Besides, CTF-1 has large specific area, which benefits rapid mass transfer and low column pressure, leading to fast adsorption/desorption dynamics. Several parameters affecting inline SPE including pH, sample flow rate, sample volume, desorption reagents, elution flow rate, elution volume, and ionic strength were investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (S/N=3) were found to be in the range of 0.11-0.13μg/L. The enrichment factors (EFs) ranged from 52 to 59 fold (theoretical EF was 60-fold). The relative standard deviations were in the range of 4.3-9.4% (n=7, c=1μg/L), and the linear range was 0.5-500μg/L for three target analytes. The sample throughput is 7/h. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of nitroimidazoles in porcine liver and environmental water samples with good recoveries for the spiked samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Single-layer HDR video coding with SDR backward compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, S.; François, E.; Le Léannec, F.; Touzé, D.

    2016-09-01

    The migration from High Definition (HD) TV to Ultra High Definition (UHD) is already underway. In addition to an increase of picture spatial resolution, UHD will bring more color and higher contrast by introducing Wide Color Gamut (WCG) and High Dynamic Range (HDR) video. As both Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) and HDR devices will coexist in the ecosystem, the transition from Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) to HDR will require distribution solutions supporting some level of backward compatibility. This paper presents a new HDR content distribution scheme, named SL-HDR1, using a single layer codec design and providing SDR compatibility. The solution is based on a pre-encoding HDR-to-SDR conversion, generating a backward compatible SDR video, with side dynamic metadata. The resulting SDR video is then compressed, distributed and decoded using standard-compliant decoders (e.g. HEVC Main 10 compliant). The decoded SDR video can be directly rendered on SDR displays without adaptation. Dynamic metadata of limited size are generated by the pre-processing and used to reconstruct the HDR signal from the decoded SDR video, using a post-processing that is the functional inverse of the pre-processing. Both HDR quality and artistic intent are preserved. Pre- and post-processing are applied independently per picture, do not involve any inter-pixel dependency, and are codec agnostic. Compression performance, and SDR quality are shown to be solidly improved compared to the non-backward and backward-compatible approaches, respectively using the Perceptual Quantization (PQ) and Hybrid Log Gamma (HLG) Opto-Electronic Transfer Functions (OETF).

  10. Re-fermentation os spent solids from dark fermentation allows for a substantial increase of hydrogen production from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Paez, K. M.; Pareja-Camacho, J.; Rios-Leal, E.; Valdez-Vazquez, I.; Poggi Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-07-01

    In the last 10 years, interest on bio hydrogen has resurrected, particularly the research on dark fermentation of solid wastes. In effect, in a context of scarce and expensive fossil fuels, hydrogen can be considered the best energy alternative because it can be produced by biological means, it has the highest energy density, it is versatile since can be used both as a primary or secondary energy source, it is compatible with electrochemical and combustion-based energy conversion processes, and it is environmentally-friendly since water is its main combustion product and no aggressive pollutants are generated. (Author)

  11. Environmental monitoring of complex hydrocarbon mixtures in water and soil samples after solid phase microextraction using PVC/MWCNTs nanocomposite fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Amir Abbas; Biparva, Pourya; Gheshlaghi, Mohammad; Farhadi, Khalil; Gheshlaghi, Ali

    2013-11-01

    A novel nanocomposite based on incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was prepared. Proposed nanocomposite was coated on stainless steel wire by deep coating. Composition of nanocomposite was optimized based on results of morphological studies using scanning electron microscopy. The best composition (83% MWCNTs:17% PVC) was applied as a solid phase microextraction fiber. Complex mixture of aromatic (BTEX) and aliphatic hydrocarbons (C5-C34) were selected as model analytes, and performance of proposed fiber in extraction of the studied compounds from water and soil samples was evaluated. Analytical merits of the method for water samples (LODs=0.10-1.10 ng L(-1), r(2)=0.9940-0.9994) and for soil samples (LODs=0.10-0.77 ng kg(-1), r(2)=0.9946-0.9994) showed excellent characteristics of it in ultra trace determination of petroleum type environmental pollutants. Finally, the method was used for determination of target analytes in river water, industrial effluent and soil samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis immobilized on Chromosorb 101: A new solid phase extractant for preconcentration of heavy metal ions in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendil, Durali; Tuzen, Mustafa [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Usta, Canan [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Biology Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: msoylak@gmail.com

    2008-01-31

    Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis immobilized on Chromosorb 101 that is a new solid phase extractor has been presented at this work for the preconcentration and separation of cadmium(II), lead(II), manganese(II), chromium(III), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) in environmental samples. The analytical parameters including pH of aqueous solutions, sample volume, eluent types, etc. were investigated for the quantitative recoveries of the analytes. The influences of the some metal ions as concomitant were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits by 3{sigma} for analyte ions were in the range of 0.37-2.85 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The accuracy of the developed procedure was confirmed by IAEA 336 Lichen and NIST SRM 1573a Tomato leaves certified reference materials. The method was also applied successfully to the determination of analytes in microwave digested red wine, rice and canned fish samples and sea water, spring water and urine samples.

  13. Determination of Iodate in Food, Environmental, and Biological Samples after Solid-Phase Extraction with Ni-Al-Zr Ternary Layered Double Hydroxide as a Nanosorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abdolmohammad-Zadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured nickel-aluminum-zirconium ternary layered double hydroxide was successfully applied as a solid-phase extraction sorbent for the separation and pre-concentration of trace levels of iodate in food, environmental and biological samples. An indirect method was used for monitoring of the extracted iodate ions. The method is based on the reaction of the iodate with iodide in acidic solution to produce iodine, which can be spectrophotometrically monitored at 352 nm. The absorbance is directly proportional to the concentration of iodate in the sample. The effect of several parameters such as pH, sample flow rate, amount of nanosorbent, elution conditions, sample volume, and coexisting ions on the recovery was investigated. In the optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection (3s and enrichment factor were 0.12 μg mL−1 and 20, respectively. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system was linear in the range of 0.2–2.8 μg mL−1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. In order to validate the presented method, a certified reference material, NIST SRM 1549, was also analyzed.

  14. Selective determination of COXIBs in environmental water samples by mixed-mode solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triñanes, Sara; Casais, Maria Carmen; Mejuto, Maria Carmen; Cela, Rafael

    2015-11-13

    The development and performance evaluation of a method for the simultaneous determination of six pharmaceuticals belonging to the class of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which present high selectivity for the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 isoform of COX (COXIBs) in environmental waters are presented. The method involves an off-line mixed mode (reversed-phase and strong anionic exchange) solid phase extraction (SPE) for the selective concentration of COXIBs in combination with liquid chromatography (LC) quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The use of a strong anionic exchange sorbent (Oasis MAX) led to a significant reduction of matrix effects, during electrospray ionization (ESI), in comparison with results obtained for mixed mode weak anionic exchange sorbent (Oasis Wax) and polymeric reversed phase sorbents (Oasis HLB and Strata X). The developed method attained limits of quantification (LOQs) between 0.01 and 0.20 ng L(-1) for river water and effluent wastewater and, for influent wastewater this limits were ranged between 0.03 and 0.45 ng L(-1). Among the pharmaceuticals investigated, two of them (celecoxib and etoricoxib) were detected at low levels (ppt) in real samples of treated and raw wastewaters, and two metabolites were also found; the carboxylated celecoxib and the hydroxylated etoricoxib. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Determination of paraquat and diquat in drinking water and environmental water by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with on-line clean-up and solid phase extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Liu, Zhaojin; An, Baochao; Lu, Yan; Xu, Qun

    2012-10-01

    An on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) system was used to eliminate the interferences sufficiently and fulfill the simple and sensitive determination of diquat and paraquat in tap and pond water. This on-line SPE system used two SPE cartridges. One was an Acclaim Mixed-Mode WAX-1 cartridge for the elimination of anionic interferences; the other one was an Acclaim Mixed-Mode WCX-1 cartridge for the enrichment of diquat and paraquat and the elimination of co-enriched cationic interferences. The baseline separation of diquat and paraquat was achieved on an Acclaim Trinity P1 column. A dual-gradient high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) system provided an efficient platform to fulfill the on-line SPE and separation, and the system operated under automatic control of chromatography data system software. The complete analysis only required 16 min, and the detection limits of the method were 0.12 microg/L for diquat and 0.10 microg/L for paraquat. The method is simple, rapid and sensitive, and can be applied to the determination of diquat and paraquat in drinking water and environmental water.

  16. Bamboo charcoal as a novel solid-phase microextraction coating material for enrichment and determination of eleven phthalate esters in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ru-Song; Liu, Yan-Long; Zhou, Jia-Bin; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Xia

    2013-05-01

    This study demonstrates the potential of bamboo charcoal as a novel and inexpensive solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coating material for enrichment and determination of organic pollutants in water samples. Bamboo charcoal was prepared and used as a SPME coating material. Eleven phthalate esters (PAEs) were used as model analytes, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for separation and detection. Important extraction conditions (ionic strength, stirring rate, and extraction time) and desorption conditions (desorption temperature and time) were systematically investigated and optimized. Linearity of 0.1-100 μg L(-1) and correlation coefficients of 0.9992-0.9998 were obtained under optimum conditions. Inter-day and intra-day repeatability were 2.15-9.93 % and 1.89-9.85 %, respectively, and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility was 5.42-9.66 %. On the basis of a chromatographic signal-to-baseline noise ratio of three, the limits of detection reached 0.004-0.023 μg L(-1). Satisfactory results were achieved when the bamboo coating was used for determination of 11 PAEs in real water samples. The experimental results indicate that bamboo charcoal has significant potential as a SPME coating material for rapid enrichment and sensitive determination of organic pollutants in environmental samples.

  17. Investigation of feasibility of bamboo charcoal as solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the enrichment and determination of four phthalate esters in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ru-Song; Wang, Xia; Yuan, Jin-Peng; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2008-03-07

    This paper demonstrates, for the first time, that adsorptive potential of bamboo charcoal for solid-phase extraction of phthalate esters was investigated. The four phthalate esters, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), are quantitatively adsorbed on a bamboo charcoal packed cartridge, then the analytes retained on the cartridge are quantitatively desorbed with optimum amounts of acetone. Finally, the analytes in the eluant acetone are determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detectior. Important parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, such as eluant and its volume, flow rate of sample, sample volume, pH, the amount of adsorbent and ionic strength were investigated and optimized in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection were 0.35-0.43 microg/L for four phthalate esters. The proposed method has been applied to the analysis of rainwater and tap water samples. And satisfactory spiked recoveries were obtained in the range of 75.0-114.2%. All the results indicated that the bamboo charcoal has great potential as a novel adsorbent material for the enrichment and determination of phthalate esters in real environmental water samples.

  18. DOD Offshore Wind Mission Compatibility Assessments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set represents the results of analyses conducted by the Department of Defense to assess the compatibility of offshore wind development with military assets...

  19. Morgantown People Mover Electromagnetic Compatibility Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) of a transit system is the absence of interference between all parts of the system, and between the system and the community which it serves. This report documents the EMC experience obtained during the design and ...

  20. Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated Laundry System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated laundry System (AMCILS) is proposed that uses a two phase water / water vapor system to allow good agitation of...

  1. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - Mixing Procedures and Materials Compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olinger, Becky D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Moran, Jesse S. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whipple, Richard E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kashgarian, Michaele [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-01-14

    Three mixing procedures have been standardized for the IDCA proficiency test—solid-solid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid. Due to the variety of precursors used in formulating the materials for the test, these three mixing methods have been designed to address all combinations of materials. Hand mixing is recommended for quantities less than 10 grams and Jar Mill mixing is recommended for quantities over 10 grams. Consideration must also be given to the type of container used for the mixing due to the wide range of chemical reactivity of the precursors and mixtures. Eight web site sources from container and chemical manufacturers have been consulted. Compatible materials have been compiled as a resource for selecting containers made of materials stable to the mixtures. In addition, container materials used in practice by the participating laboratories are discussed. Consulting chemical compatibility tables is highly recommended for each operation by each individual engaged in testing the materials in this proficiency test.

  2. Psychological compatibility of women's handball team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalar O.G.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of study of psychological compatibility of womanish handball commands are presented. The psychological climate of command is investigational. Certain and adapted methods of estimation of psychological compatibility in the command playing types of sport. Psychological tests allow to expose the strong and weak sides of psychology of sportsmen. These information can be used for more effective program of psychological preparation of sportsmen development. It is necessary to improve determination of separate individual qualities of personality of sportsmen.

  3. Compatibility studies for the waste packaging program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1969-03-01

    A program is now underway by Battelle-Northwest to develop the technology required for a waste packaging plant. Cesium chloride and strontium fluoride have been selected as the prime candidates for packaging. Cesium diuranate and strontium pyrophosphate have been selected as backup compounds for packaging in case either or both of the prime candidates should be rejected for any reason. No detailed studies of CsCl compatibility have been reported and long term data are needed. As in the case with CsCl, no detailed studies have been made on SrF{sub 2} compatibility. As a result of the lack of pertinent compatibility data, it is readily apparent that detailed studies are required on CsCl and SrF{sub 2} compatibility and at least scouting studies must be made on the compatibility of the backup packaging compounds. This report summarizes the compatibility studies that are underway at PNL using non-radioactive compounds. Capsule fabrication procedures and tests schedules are outlined.

  4. A JPEG backward-compatible HDR image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2012-10-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging is expected to become one of the technologies that could shape next generation of consumer digital photography. Manufacturers are rolling out cameras and displays capable of capturing and rendering HDR images. The popularity and full public adoption of HDR content is however hindered by the lack of standards in evaluation of quality, file formats, and compression, as well as large legacy base of Low Dynamic Range (LDR) displays that are unable to render HDR. To facilitate wide spread of HDR usage, the backward compatibility of HDR technology with commonly used legacy image storage, rendering, and compression is necessary. Although many tone-mapping algorithms were developed for generating viewable LDR images from HDR content, there is no consensus on which algorithm to use and under which conditions. This paper, via a series of subjective evaluations, demonstrates the dependency of perceived quality of the tone-mapped LDR images on environmental parameters and image content. Based on the results of subjective tests, it proposes to extend JPEG file format, as the most popular image format, in a backward compatible manner to also deal with HDR pictures. To this end, the paper provides an architecture to achieve such backward compatibility with JPEG and demonstrates efficiency of a simple implementation of this framework when compared to the state of the art HDR image compression.

  5. Hopping transport in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Pollak, M

    1991-01-01

    The hopping process, which differs substantially from conventional transport processes in crystals, is the central process in the transport phenomena discussed in this book. Throughout the book the term ``hopping'' is defined as the inelastic tunneling transfer of an electron between two localized electronic states centered at different locations. Such processes do not occur in conventional electronic transport in solids, since localized states are not compatible with the translational symmetry of crystals.The rapid growth of interest in hopping transport has followed in the footsteps of the

  6. Magnetic solid phase extraction of brominated flame retardants and pentachlorophenol from environmental waters with carbon doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Center of Materials Analysis, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomedical Functional Materials, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, 1 Wenyuan Road, Nanjing 210023 (China); Li, Jia-yuan; Qiao, Jun-qin [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Center of Materials Analysis, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Cui, Shi-hai [Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Biomedical Functional Materials, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Nanjing Normal University, 1 Wenyuan Road, Nanjing 210023 (China); Lian, Hong-zhen, E-mail: hzlian@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Center of Materials Analysis, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chen, Hong-yuan [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Center of Materials Analysis, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C nanospheres were used in MSPE of BFRs and PCP from water samples. • The method shows merits of simpleness, reliableness and environmental friendliness. • The bonding between Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and coated organic carbon has been demonstrated in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C. • The straight influences of synthesis conditions of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C on MSPE were investigated. • The extraction characteristics of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C nanoparticles were further elucidated. - Abstract: Carbon doped Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C) prepared by a facile hydrothermal reaction of glucose with iron resource have been applied as magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) sorbent, for the first time, to extract trace brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) from environmental waters. Various MSPE parameters were optimized including amount of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C nanoparticles, pH of sample solution, enrichment factor of analytes and reusability of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C sorbent. The reliability of the MSPE method was evaluated by the recoveries of BFRs and PCP in spiked water samples. Good recoveries (80.0–110.0%) were achieved with the relative standard deviations range from 0.3% to 6.8%. In this paper, the extraction characteristics of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C sorbent were further elucidated. It is found that the adsorption process of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C to analytes predominates the MSPE efficiency. There is hybrid hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding or dipole–dipole attraction between Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/C and analytes. Notably, the chemical components of carbon layer on the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry, and in consequence the covalent bonds between Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the coated carbon have been observed. In addition, the straight influence of synthesis condition of Fe

  7. Preparation of molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction fiber for the selective removal and extraction of the antiviral drug abacavir in environmental and biological matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terzopoulou, Zoi [Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24, Thessaloniki (Greece); Papageorgiou, Myrsini [Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR–541 24, Thessaloniki (Greece); Kyzas, George Z.; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N. [Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24, Thessaloniki (Greece); Lambropoulou, Dimitra A., E-mail: dlambro@chem.auth.gr [Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR–541 24, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2016-03-24

    In the present study, a molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction fiber (MIP-SPME{sub f}) was synthesized and applied for the selective removal and extraction of the antiviral drug, abacavir (ABA). Morphology and structure characterization of fibers were performed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectra, respectively. The effects on the adsorption behavior of the process parameters were studied and the equilibrium data were fitted by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich models. The maximum adsorption capability (Q{sub max}) was determined by Langmuir- Freundlich model and was 149 mg/g for MIP-SPME{sub f}. In the next step, SPME methodology followed by liquid desorption and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has been developed and evaluated for the determination of the target compound in environmental and biological matrices (surface waters, wastewaters and urine). Parameters that could influence SPME efficiency were investigated. Then, optimization of stirring speed, extraction time and salt content was carried out by using a central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). A quadratic model between dependent and independent variables was built. Under the optimum conditions (extraction time 40 min, stirring rate 650 rpm and salt content 0.3% NaCl w/v) the validated method presented a high sensitivity and selectivity with LODs and LOQs in the range of 10.1–13.6 and 33.3–43.9 ng/L, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of ABA in real samples. The percentage extraction efficiency ranged from 88 to 99% revealing good accuracy and absence of matrix effects. - Highlights: • Preparation of a novel SPME MIP fiber with remarkable recognition properties. • Selective removal and extraction of abacavir from environmental & biological media. • Detailed adsorbent characterization and adsorption studies. • Successful application of

  8. Determination of persistent organic pollutants in solid environmental samples using accelerated solvent extraction and supercritical fluid extraction. Exhaustive extraction and sorption/desorption studies of PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerklund, E.

    1998-10-01

    Human activity is constantly causing environmental problems due to production and release of numerous chemicals. A group of compounds of special concern is persistent organic pollutants (POP). These toxic, lipophilic chemicals have a high chemical and biological stability, and tend to accumulate in the lipid phase of living organisms. A major sink for POPs are sediments, and consequently these are important for the distribution of POPs in the aquatic environment. Traditionally, determination of POPs relay on exhaustive extraction using liquid extraction techniques (e.g. Soxhlet extraction developed in the late 19th century) followed by gas chromatographic analysis. Since liquid-solid extraction normally requires large volumes of organic solvents in combination with long extraction times and extract clean-up, there has been an increasing demand for improved technology. This should result in reduced organic solvent consumption and sample preparation time, at the same time improving the environment and cutting costs for POP monitoring. In this thesis two modern techniques with capability of fulfilling at least one of these goals have been investigated: (1) Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE), and (2) Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were chosen as model compounds in all experiments performed on environmental matrices, since they cover a relatively large range of physiochemical parameters. Important parameters influencing the overall extraction efficiency in ASE and SFE, are discussed and illustrated for a large number of sediments. It was demonstrated that, by careful consideration of the experimental parameters, both techniques are capable of replacing old methods such as Soxhlet extraction. ASE is somewhat faster than SFE, but the extracts generated in SFE are much cleaner and can be analyzed without sample clean-up. Consequently the overall sample preparation time may be substantially lower using SFE. However, ASE is important

  9. Dithizone modified magnetic nanoparticles for fast and selective solid phase extraction of trace elements in environmental and biological samples prior to their determination by ICP-OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guihong; He, Man; Peng, Hanyong; Hu, Bin

    2012-01-15

    A fast and simple method for analysis of trace amounts of Cr(III), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) in environmental and biological samples was developed by combining magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) detection. Dithizone modified silica-coated magnetic Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (H(2)Dz-SCMNPs) were prepared and used for MSPE of trace amounts of Cr(III), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II). The prepared magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The factors affecting the extraction of the target metal ions such as pH, sample volume, eluent, and interfering ions had been investigated and the adsorption mechanism of the target metals on the self-prepared H(2)Dz-SCMNPs was investigated by FT-IR and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS). Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of the developed method for Cr(III), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) were 35, 11, 62, and 8ngL(-1), respectively, with the enrichment factor of 100. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, c=10μgL(-1), n=7) were in the range of 1.7-3.1% and the linear range was 0.1-100μgL(-1). The proposed method had been validated by two certified reference materials (GSBZ50009-88 environmental water and GBW07601 human hair), and the determined values were in good agreement with the certified values. The method was also applied for the determination of trace metals in real water and human hair samples with recoveries in the range of 85-110% for the spiked samples. The developed MSPE-ICP-OES method has the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, selectivity, high extraction efficiency and is suitable for the analysis of samples with large volume and complex matrix. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous Carbonate Species and Solid Carbonate Phases of Selected Trace Elements pertinent to Drinking Water Standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, John A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilkin, Richard T. [US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This report contains a series of tables summarizing the thermodynamic properties of aqueous carbonate complexes and solid carbonate phases of the following elements: arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) thallium (Tl), uranium (U) and zinc (Zn). Most of these elements are potentially hazardous as defined by extant primary drinking water standards of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The remainder are not considered hazardous, but are either listed by EPA under secondary standards, or because they can adversely affect drinking water quality. Additional tables are included giving the thermodynamic properties for carbonates of the alkali metal and alkali earth elements, sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), and strontium (Sr), because of their value in developing correlative models to estimate the thermodynamic properties of carbonate minerals for which no such data currently exist. The purpose in creating the tables in this report is to provide future investigators with a convenient source for selecting and tracing the sources of thermodynamic data of the above listed elements for use in modeling their geochemical behavior in “underground sources of drinking water” (USDW). The incentive for doing so lies with a heightened concern over the potential consequences of the proposed capture and storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) generated by fossil fuel fired power plants in deep subsurface reservoirs. If CO2 were to leak from such reservoirs, it could migrate upward and contaminate USDWs with undesirable, but undetermined, consequences to water quality. The EPA, Office of Research and Development, through an Interagency Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, funded the preparation of this report.

  11. Fabrication of graphene/Fe3O4@polythiophene nanocomposite and its application in the magnetic solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdinia, Ali; Khodaee, Nader; Jabbari, Ali

    2015-04-08

    Polythiophene (PT) was used as a surface modifier of graphene/Fe3O4 (G/Fe3O4) composite to increase merit of it, and also overcome some limitations and disadvantages of using G/Fe3O4 alone as solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbent. An in-situ chemical polymerization method was employed to prepare G/Fe3O4@PT nanocomposites. Application of this newly designed material in the magnetic SPE (MSPE) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as model analytes, in the environmental water samples was investigated. The characterization of the hybrid material was performed using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. Seven important parameters, affecting the extraction efficiency of PAHs, including: amount of adsorbent, adsorption and desorption times, type and volume of the eluent solvent, initial sample volume and salt content of the sample were evaluated. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained as: 4 min for extraction time, 20 mg for sorbent amount, 100mL for initial sample volume, toluene as desorption solvent, 0.6 mL for desorption solvent volume, 6 min for desorption time and 30% (w/v) for NaCl concentration. Good performance data were obtained at the optimized conditions. Detection limits were in the range of 0.009-0.020 μg L(-1) in the real matrix. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranges from 0.03 to 80 μg L(-1) with correlation coefficients (R(2)) between 0.995 and 0.998 for all the analytes. Relative standard deviations were ranged from 4.3 to 6.3%. Appropriate recovery values, in the range of 83-107%, were also obtained for the real sample analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of trace labile copper in environmental waters by magnetic nanoparticle solid phase extraction and high-performance chelation ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z; Sandron, S; Townsend, A T; Nesterenko, P N; Paull, B

    2015-04-01

    Cobalt magnetic nanoparticles surface functionalised with iminodiacetic acid were evaluated as a nano-particulate solid phase extraction absorbent for copper ions (Cu(2+)) from environmental water samples. Using an external magnetic field, the collector nanoparticles could be separated from the aqueous phase, and adsorbed ions simply decomplexed using dilute HNO3. Effects of pH, buffer concentration, sample and sorbent volume, extraction equilibrium time, and interfering ion concentration on extraction efficiency were investigated. Optimal conditions were then applied to the extraction of Cu(2+) ions from natural water samples, prior to their quantitation using high-performance chelation ion chromatography. The limits of detection (LOD) of the combined extraction and chromatographic method were ~0.1 ng ml(-1), based upon a 100-fold preconcentration factor (chromatographic performance; LOD=9.2 ng ml(-1) Cu(2+)), analytical linear range from 20 to 5000 ng mL(-1), and relative standard deviations=4.9% (c=1000 ng ml(-1), n=7). Accuracy and precision of the combined approach was verified using a certified reference standard estuarine water sample (SLEW-2) and comparison of sample determinations with sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Recoveries from the addition of Cu(2+) to impacted estuarine and rain water samples were 103.5% and 108.5%, respectively. Coastal seawater samples, both with and without prior UV irradiation and dissolved organic matter removal were also investigated using the new methodology. The effect of DOM concentration on copper availability was demonstrated. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Proteolytic extracts of three Bromeliaceae species as eco-compatible tools for leather industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errasti, María Eugenia; Caffini, Néstor Oscar; López, Laura María Isabel

    2018-01-02

    Most tanneries use high proportions of Na2S and CaO during the dehairing step, resulting in effluents of high alkalinity and large amounts of suspended solid, besides the risk of liberating the toxic H2S. Solid waste rich in protein is another environmental problem of tanneries. Enzymes are an interesting technological tool for industry due to their biodegradability, nontoxic nature, and nonpolluting effluent generation. In the leather industry, proteases have been chosen as a promising eco-friendly alternative to Na2S/CaO dehairing. Extracts with high proteolytic activity have been obtained from fruits of Bromeliaceae species: Bromelia balansae Mez (Bb), Bromelia hieronymi Mez (Bh), and Pseudananas macrodontes (Morr.) Harms (Pm). In this work, Bb, Bh, and Pm have been studied for application in the leather industry, focusing in their dehairing properties. Enzymatic activities were measured against collagen, keratin, elastin, and epidermis while a dehairing assay was performed by employing cowhide. All extracts showed similar activity on collagen and epidermis, while Bh and Pm were the most active against keratin at the same caseinolytic unit (CU) values; Bh was the only extract active against elastin. Bb (1 CU/ml), Bh (1.5 CU/ml), and Pm (0.5 CU/ml) were able to depilate cowhide. Desirable characteristics of dehairing were observed for all extracts since hair pores did not show residual hair, grain surface was clean and intact, and collagen fiber bundles of dermis were not damaged. In conclusion, results here presented show that proteolytic extracts of Bromeliaceae species are promising eco-compatible tools for leather industry.

  14. Electromagnetic Compatibility for the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Space Shuttle electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). It includes an overview of the design of the shuttle with the areas that are of concern for the electromagnetic compatibility. It includes discussion of classical electromagnetic interference (EMI) and the work performed to control the electromagnetic interference. Another area of interest is electrostatic charging and the threat of electrostatic discharge and the attempts to reduce damage to the Shuttle from these possible hazards. The issue of electrical bonding is als reviewed. Lastly the presentation reviews the work performed to protect the shuttle from lightning, both in flight and on the ground.

  15. Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.

    2004-11-25

    From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical

  16. Compatibility and testing of electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Jowett, C E

    2013-01-01

    Compatibility and Testing of Electronic Components outlines the concepts of component part life according to thresholds of failure; the advantages that result from identifying such thresholds; their identification; and the various tests used in their detection. The book covers topics such as the interconnection of miniature passive components; the integrated circuit compatibility and its components; the semiconductor joining techniques; and the thin film hybrid approach in integrated circuits. Also covered are topics such as thick film resistors, conductors, and insulators; thin inlays for el

  17. Facile synthesis of multifunctional attapulgite/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/polyaniline nanocomposites for magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction of benzoylurea insecticides in environmental water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoling; Qiao, Kexin; Ye, Yiren; Yang, Miyi; Li, Jing; Gao, Haixiang; Zhang, Sanbing; Zhou, Wenfeng; Lu, Runhua, E-mail: rhlu@cau.edu.cn

    2016-08-31

    In this study, the superparamagnetic attapulgite/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/polyaniline (ATP/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PANI) nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by a one-pot method. Fe (III) was applied as both the oxidant for the oxidative polymerization of aniline and the single iron source of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} formed by the redox reaction between aniline and Fe (III). The ATP/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PANI was used as sorbent for magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (MDSPE) of benzoylurea insecticides (BUs) in environmental water samples. The as-prepared nanocomposite sorbents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and vibrating sample magnetometry. Various experimental parameters affecting the ATP/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PANI-based MDSPE procedure, including the composition of the nanocomposite sorbents, amount of ATP/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PANI nanocomposites, vortex time, pH, and desorption conditions were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, a good linearity was observed for all target analytes, with correlation coefficients (r{sup 2}) ranging from 0.9985 to 0.9997; the limits of detection (LOD) were in the range of 0.02–0.43 μg L{sup −1}, and the recoveries of analytes using the proposed method ranged between 77.37% and 103.69%. The sorbents exhibited an excellent reproducibility in the range of 1.52–5.27% in extracting the five target analytes. In addition, the intra-day and inter-day precision values were found to be in the range of 0.78–6.86% and 1.66–8.41%, respectively. Finally, the proposed ATP/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PANI-based MDSPE method was successfully applied to analyze river water samples by rapid preconcentration of BUs. - Highlights: • A novel superparamagnetic ATP/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PANI nanocomposite was first introduced in MDSPE. • ATP/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PANI nanocomposites exhibited fast adsorption and desorption

  18. Magnetic solid-phase extraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong-mei; Yang, Ting; Wang, Yan-hong; Lian, Hong-zhen; Hu, Xin

    2013-11-15

    A new approach of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) has been developed for the speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) using zincon-immobilized silica-coated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Zincon-Si-MNPs) as the MSPE absorbent. Cr(III) was quantitatively reserved on the absorbent at pH 9.1 while total Cr was reserved at pH 6.5. The absorbed Cr species were eluted by using 2 mol/L HCl and detected by GFAAS. The concentration of Cr(VI) could be calculated by subtracting Cr(III) from total Cr. All the parameters affecting the separation and extraction efficiency of Cr species such as pH, extraction time, concentration and volume of eluent, sample volume and influence of co-existing ions were systematically examined and the optimized conditions were established accordingly. The detection limit (LOD) of the method was 0.016 and 0.011 ng mL(-1) for Cr(III) and Cr(VI), respectively, with the enrichment factor of 100 and 150. The precisions of this method (Relative standard deviation, RSD, n=7) for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) at 0.1 ng mL(-1) were 6.0% and 6.2%, respectively. In order to validate the proposed method, a certified reference material of environmental water was analyzed, and the result of Cr speciation was in good agreement with the certified value. This MSPE-GFAAS method has been successfully applied for the speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in lake and tap waters with the recoveries of 88-109% for the spiked samples. Moreover, the MSPE separation mechanism of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) based on their adsorption-desorption on Zincon-Si-MNPs has been explained through various spectroscopic characterization. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Burden of disease attributable to air pollutants from municipal solid waste incinerators in Seoul, Korea: a source-specific approach for environmental burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Jung-Wk; Lee, Hyun-Jung

    2011-05-01

    Few studies have attempted to quantify the integrated health burden, incorporating both mortality and morbidity as these factors pertain to air pollutants, on the population in the vicinity of the incinerators. The aims of this study are to estimate the attributable burden of disease caused by incinerators in Seoul, Korea and to present an approach based on source-specific exposure for the estimation of the environmental burden of disease (EBD). With particular attention on the development of a measurement means of the source-specific, exposure-based population attributable fraction (PAF), we integrated air dispersion modeling, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the population distribution of exposure, and the exposure-response relationship. We then estimated the PAFs caused by additional concentrations of four air pollutants (PM(10), NO(2,) SO(2), and CO) emitted from four municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in Seoul in 2007. We, finally, estimated the attributable burden of disease, using the estimated PAF and the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) method developed by the Global Burden of Disease Group of the World Health Organization (WHO). The PAF for NO(2) to all-cause mortality was assessed at approximately 0.02% (95% CI: 0.003-0.036%), which was the highest among all air pollutants. The PAFs for respiratory and cardiovascular disease were 0.12% (95% CI: 0.01-0.16%) and 0.10% (95% CI: 0.04-0.16%), respectively. The sum of the attributable burden of disease for four pollutants was about 297 person-years (PYs) (95% CI: 121-472 PYs) when the incinerators observed to the emission standards. The attributable burdens of respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease were about 0.2% and 0.1%, respectively, of the total burden of respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease of Seoul citizens for the year 2007. Although the air emissions from one risk factor, an incinerator, are small, the burden of disease can be significant to the public health when

  20. Methods and machinery for pulverising solid wastes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpkins, MJ

    1976-11-01

    Full Text Available This report is published on behalf of the South African Committee for Solid Wastes which in turn advises the National Committee for Environmental Sciences on problems concerned with Solid Wastes in South Africa. It is particularly concerned...

  1. 46 CFR 150.150 - Exceptions to the compatibility chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions to the compatibility chart. 150.150 Section... CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES § 150.150 Exceptions to the compatibility chart. The Commandant (G-MSO... 1, the Compatibility Chart. ...

  2. Compatibility Between Electric Components in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdyk, Andrzej; Holbøll, Joachim; Arana Aristi, Iván

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a method for investigation of the compatibility between electric components in wind farms by identifying critical resonances at different points of an offshore wind farm (OWF), based on systematic variation of critical parameters. In this way, the design of future OWF can...

  3. Globalisation and international compatibility - a challenge to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contexts of institutions for higher education are in flux with consequent learning challenges. One of these challenges is that of globalisation and the need for international compatibility. Another challenge is that Mode 2 learning programmes, material and methods need to be relevant to the specific context in which they ...

  4. Screening for attractants compatible with entomopathogenic fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several thrips attractants were screened for compatibility with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and a subset of these for attraction to Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Conidial germination and germ tube length of M. anisopliae were used as indicators of ...

  5. Electromagnetic compatibility design guideline for STADAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdell, R. B.; Hill, J. S.; Senn, J. C.; Shifman, J. C.; Skaggs, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Procedures for achieving electromagnetic compatibility in electronic and electrical equipment for aerospace ground stations are investigated. The application of shielding theory to good design is treated and standards of good practice are outlined for bonding, grounding, wiring, and cabling. Some aspects of filter design are explained, and suggestions are given for the application of filters to electronic and electrical equipment.

  6. Plasmonic Modulator Using CMOS Compatible Material Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Naik, Gururaj V.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a design of ultra-compact plasmonic modulator is proposed and numerically analyzed. The device l ayout utilizes alternative plas monic materials such as tr ansparent conducting oxides and titanium nitride which potentially can be applied for CMOS compatible process. The modulation...

  7. Energetic materials standards – Chemical compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuukkanen, I.M.; Bouma, R.H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Subgroup A Energetic Materials Team, SG/A (EMT), develops and maintains standards that are relevant to all life-cycle phases of ammunition/weapon systems. STANAG 4147 is the standard regarding chemical compatibility of explosives with munition components, and is a document of prime importance.

  8. Compatibility of Motion Facilitates Visuomotor Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, Michael J.; Spivey, Michael J.; Krumhansl, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research indicates that synchronized tapping performance is very poor with flashing visual stimuli compared with auditory stimuli. Three finger-tapping experiments compared flashing visual metronomes with visual metronomes containing a spatial component, either compatible, incompatible, or orthogonal to the tapping action. In Experiment 1,…

  9. Catholic Educator Perceptions about Brain Compatible Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, Amie

    2009-01-01

    This document reports the findings of a doctoral project regarding the perceptions held by administrators and teachers of comprehensive Catholic schools in one Midwestern diocese. With the recent explosion of research in the area of the brain and brain compatible instruction it is valuable to know and understand the perceptions held by current…

  10. Improvement of crash compatibility between cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, J.A.H.M.; Faerber, E.; Cesari, D.; Hobbs, A.C.; Kampen, B. van; Paez, J.; Wykes, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the research work of the European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC) in the field of crash compatibility between passenger cars. Since July 1997 the EC Commission is partly funding the research work of EEVC. The running period of this project will be two

  11. Improvement of crash compatibility between cars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faerber, E. Cesari, D. Hobbs, A.C. Huibers, J. Kampen, B. van Paez, J. & Wykes, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the research work of the European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC) in the field of crash compatibility between passenger cars. Since July 1997 the EC Commission is partly funding the research work of EEVC. The running period of this project will be two

  12. Are Naturalism and Moral Realism Compatible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peels, H.D.

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper, Alvin Plantinga has argued that there is good reason to think that naturalism and moral realism are incompatible. He has done so by arguing that the most important argument for the compatibility of these two theses, which has been provided by Frank Jackson, fails and that any

  13. The Construal (In)compatibility Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaojing; Ringberg, Torsten; Mao, Huifang

    2011-01-01

    incompatible with their mental construal, while ad claims construed at a level compatible with consumers' mental construal are more effective for those who possess a less creative mindset. We document that such differences in persuasion are driven by the fact that consumers with a creative (less creative) mind...

  14. Compatibility of Calamus deerratus and Lacosperma secundiflorum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was conducted to determine the optimum water to cement ratio for a locally manufactured Portland cement for use in wood composites. The effects of pre-processing and calcium chloride (CaCl2) on the compatibility of two rattan canes (Calamus deerratus and Lacosperma secundiflorum) with cement were ...

  15. fMRI-compatible rehabilitation hand device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzika Aria

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has been widely used in studying human brain functions and neurorehabilitation. In order to develop complex and well-controlled fMRI paradigms, interfaces that can precisely control and measure output force and kinematics of the movements in human subjects are needed. Optimized state-of-the-art fMRI methods, combined with magnetic resonance (MR compatible robotic devices for rehabilitation, can assist therapists to quantify, monitor, and improve physical rehabilitation. To achieve this goal, robotic or mechatronic devices with actuators and sensors need to be introduced into an MR environment. The common standard mechanical parts can not be used in MR environment and MR compatibility has been a tough hurdle for device developers. Methods This paper presents the design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a novel, one degree of freedom, MR compatible, computer controlled, variable resistance hand device that may be used in brain MR imaging during hand grip rehabilitation. We named the device MR_CHIROD (Magnetic Resonance Compatible Smart Hand Interfaced Rehabilitation Device. A novel feature of the device is the use of Electro-Rheological Fluids (ERFs to achieve tunable and controllable resistive force generation. ERFs are fluids that experience dramatic changes in rheological properties, such as viscosity or yield stress, in the presence of an electric field. The device consists of four major subsystems: a an ERF based resistive element; b a gearbox; c two handles and d two sensors, one optical encoder and one force sensor, to measure the patient induced motion and force. The smart hand device is designed to resist up to 50% of the maximum level of gripping force of a human hand and be controlled in real time. Results Laboratory tests of the device indicate that it was able to meet its design objective to resist up to approximately 50% of the maximum handgrip force. The detailed

  16. fMRI-compatible rehabilitation hand device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanicheh, Azadeh; Muto, Andrew; Triantafyllou, Christina; Weinberg, Brian; Astrakas, Loukas; Tzika, Aria; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2006-10-06

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used in studying human brain functions and neurorehabilitation. In order to develop complex and well-controlled fMRI paradigms, interfaces that can precisely control and measure output force and kinematics of the movements in human subjects are needed. Optimized state-of-the-art fMRI methods, combined with magnetic resonance (MR) compatible robotic devices for rehabilitation, can assist therapists to quantify, monitor, and improve physical rehabilitation. To achieve this goal, robotic or mechatronic devices with actuators and sensors need to be introduced into an MR environment. The common standard mechanical parts can not be used in MR environment and MR compatibility has been a tough hurdle for device developers. This paper presents the design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a novel, one degree of freedom, MR compatible, computer controlled, variable resistance hand device that may be used in brain MR imaging during hand grip rehabilitation. We named the device MR_CHIROD (Magnetic Resonance Compatible Smart Hand Interfaced Rehabilitation Device). A novel feature of the device is the use of Electro-Rheological Fluids (ERFs) to achieve tunable and controllable resistive force generation. ERFs are fluids that experience dramatic changes in rheological properties, such as viscosity or yield stress, in the presence of an electric field. The device consists of four major subsystems: a) an ERF based resistive element; b) a gearbox; c) two handles and d) two sensors, one optical encoder and one force sensor, to measure the patient induced motion and force. The smart hand device is designed to resist up to 50% of the maximum level of gripping force of a human hand and be controlled in real time. Laboratory tests of the device indicate that it was able to meet its design objective to resist up to approximately 50% of the maximum handgrip force. The detailed compatibility tests demonstrated that there is

  17. Sensitive determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental water samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction with bamboo charcoal@iron oxide black fibers prior to gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Long; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Jia-Bin; Zhao, Ru-Song

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of bamboo charcoal@iron oxide black for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental water samples. Bamboo charcoal@iron oxide black was prepared and used as a solid-phase microextraction coating material, and gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was used for detection. Several important factors affecting the extraction efficiency were systematically investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the experimental data exhibited wide linear range over the range 0.2-1000 ng/L and low limits of detection in the range of 4.7-22.2 pg/L. The novel coating was successfully used for the enrichment and determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in real environmental water samples. All these results indicated that bamboo charcoal@iron oxide black-based headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was an excellent alternative for the sensitive analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls at ultratrace levels in the environment. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. 40 CFR 174.25 - Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plant-incorporated protectant from sexually compatible plant. 174.25 Section 174.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Exemptions...

  19. Solid-Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  20. Environmental monitoring recovery of solid wastes in Muribeca, (Brasil): 1 part; Monitoreo ambiental de la recuperacion del vertedero de residuos solidos de Muribeca, Brasil- 1 parte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juca, J. f. T.; Monteiro, V. E. D.; Melo, M. C.

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive program of studying and monitoring the in situ performance of Muribeca Landfill. Physical, chemical and biological properties of the solid waste were analyzing in order to understand the mechanics of the landfill, the waste biodegradation process and the contamination level of air, liquids and subsoil. The parameters monitored in this investigation involve from leachate and gases generation to salts variations and the evolution of bacteria growth. Climate variation, among several others environment parameters, that affects solid waste degradation in sanitary landfills, were also controlled. Temperature, settlement, physical-chemical parameters, pathogenic microorganisms determination (quantitative and qualitative) and phytotoxicity are also part of this study. Secondary determinations as: moisture content, volatile solids, pH, grains density, and metals, evaluation in different depths were also investigated. (Author)

  1. Environmental monitoring recovery of solid wastes in Muribeca (Brasil). 2 part; Monitoreo ambiental de la recuperacion del vertedero de residuos solidos de Muribeca, Brasil-II parte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juca, J. F. T.; Monteiro, V. E. D.; Melo, M. C.

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive program of studying and monitoring the in situ performance of Muribeca Landfill, Physical, chemical and biological properties of the solid waste were analyzing in order to understand the mechanics of the landfill, the waste biodegradation process and the contamination level of air, liquids and subsoil. the parameters monitored in this investigation involve from leachate and gases generation to salts variations and the evolution of bacteria growth. Climate variation, among several others environment parameters, that affects solid waste degradation in sanitary landfills, were also controlled. Temperature, settlement, physical-chemical parameters, pathogenic microorganisms determination (quantitative and qualitative) and phyto toxicity are also part of this study. Secondary determinations as: moisture content, volatile solids, pH, grains density, and metals evaluation in different depths were also investigated. (Author) 23 refs.

  2. Environmental indicators for solid waste management of oil industry; Indicadores ambientais para a gestao de residuos solidos oleosos da industria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Mara R.F.V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Holanda, Francisco S.R. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The Chapter 40 of the Agenda 21 guides for the use of indicators as effective instruments to synthesize and to transmit information in a significant way, inside of the making decision process. The environmental indicators aid in the analysis of the environmental quality, which depends on the pressure exercised in the environment and they possess the communication function and administration function. To facilitate the communication, the indicators should be in reduced number and of easy understanding. To facilitate the administration, the indicators should be aligned with the political questions. This work defined 15 environmental indicators for the System of environmental administration of oil waste of the oil industry as instruments to organize, to systematize, to quantify, to simplify and to communicate relative information to several environmental aspects, using the model Pressure-state-impact-answer proposed by PNUMA-CIAT (1996) added of prospective indicators, making possible to determine the type and the nature of the socio-environmental relationships. (author)

  3. One-Way Compatibility, Two-Way Compatibility and Entry in Network Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Maria Manenti; Ernesto Somma

    2002-01-01

    We study the strategic choice of compatibility between two initially incompatible network goods in a two-stage game played by an incumbent and an entrant firm. Compatibility may be achieved by means of a converter. We derive a number of results under different assumptions about the nature of the converter (one-way vs two-way), the existence of property rights and the possibility of side payments. With incompatibility, entry deterrence occurs for sufficiently strong network effects. In the cas...

  4. General survey of solid-waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, T. G.; Wadle, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Potential ways of providing solid-waste management for a building complex serviced by a modular integrated utility system (MIUS) were explored. Literature surveys were conducted to investigate both conventional and unusual systems to serve this purpose. The advantages and disadvantages of the systems most compatible with MIUS are discussed.

  5. Automation of electromagnetic compatability (EMC) test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Efforts to automate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center are discussed. The present facility is used to accomplish a battery of nine standard tests (with limited variations) deigned to certify EMC of Shuttle payload equipment. Prior to this project, some EMC tests were partially automated, but others were performed manually. Software was developed to integrate all testing by means of a desk-top computer-controller. Near real-time data reduction and onboard graphics capabilities permit immediate assessment of test results. Provisions for disk storage of test data permit computer production of the test engineer's certification report. Software flexibility permits variation in the tests procedure, the ability to examine more closely those frequency bands which indicate compatibility problems, and the capability to incorporate additional test procedures.

  6. Paleogeographical reconstructions compatible with Earth dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scalera

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research concerns the study of the possibility of an increase in the size of the Earthbecause of a still unknown process. After a previous recognition of the existence in the Pacific of shape conformities in a number of pairs of continental and oceanic boundaries (Scalera, 1991, 1993a, a search for compatibility of these results with independent data sets, paleomagnetic and geological and paleontological was undertaken. The conclusion is that the Earth's dilatation is compatible with the used data, while nothing can be affirmed with certainty about the dilatation process or its continuity or discontinuity through geological time. A tentative model of the evolution of the trench-arc-backarc systems has been provided, tuning it in agreement with a dilatational planet.

  7. Migration and sustainability - compatible or contradictory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2006-01-01

    When the migration issue is discussed in a sustainability perspective, two questions are vital: 1) What is the relationship between migration and the global population growth? 2) What is the relationship between migration and consumption growth, and how does migration influence the distribution o...... of consumption possibilities both between and within industrialized and developing countries? Based on responses to these questions, it is argued that reasonably managed migration will be compatible with sustainable development....

  8. Group Discounts Compatible with Buyer Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo-Ferrer, Josep; Blanco-Justicia, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We show how group discounts can be offered without forcing buyers to surrender their anonymity, as long as buyers can use their own computing devices (e.g. smartphone, tablet or computer) to perform a purchase. Specifically, we present a protocol for privacy-preserving group discounts. The protocol allows a group of buyers to prove how many they are without disclosing their identities. Coupled with an anonymous payment system, this makes group discounts compatible with buyer privacy (that is,...

  9. Oxygen Compatibility Testing of Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Neil A.; Hudgins, Richard J.; McBain, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The development of polymer composite liquid oxygen LO2 tanks is a critical step in creating the next generation of launch vehicles. Future launch vehicles need to minimize the gross liftoff weight (GLOW), which is possible due to the 25%-40% reduction in weight that composite materials could provide over current aluminum technology. Although a composite LO2 tank makes these weight savings feasible, composite materials have not historically been viewed as "LO2 compatible." To be considered LO2 compatible, materials must be selected that will resist any type of detrimental, combustible reaction when exposed to usage environments. This is traditionally evaluated using a standard set of tests. However, materials that do not pass the standard tests can be shown to be safe for a particular application. This paper documents the approach and results of a joint NASA/Lockheed Martin program to select and verify LO2 compatible composite materials for liquid oxygen fuel tanks. The test approach developed included tests such as mechanical impact, particle impact, puncture, electrostatic discharge, friction, and pyrotechnic shock. These tests showed that composite liquid oxygen tanks are indeed feasible for future launch vehicles.

  10. An MR-compatible neonatal incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, M N J; Hart, A R; Lait, M; Griffiths, P D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To develop a neonatal MR-compatible incubator for transporting babies between a neonatal intensive care unit and an MRI unit that is within the same hospital but geographically separate. Methods The system was strapped to a standard MR-compatible patient trolley, which provides space for resuscitation outside the incubator. A constant-temperature exothermic heat pad was used to maintain temperature together with a logging fluoro-optic temperature monitor and alarm system. The system has been designed to accommodate standard knee-sized coils from the major MR manufacturers. The original incubator was constructed from carbon fibre, but this required modification to prevent radiofrequency shading artefacts due to the conducting properties of the carbon fibre. A high-tensile polyester material was used, which combined light weight with high impact strength. The system could be moved onto the patient bed with the coils and infant in place by one technologist. Results Studies in eight neonatal patients produced high quality 1.5 T MR images with low motion artefacts. The incubator should also be compatible with imaging in 3 T MR systems, although further work is required to establish this. Images were acquired using both rapid and high-resolution sequences, including three-dimensional volumes, proton spectra and diffusion weighting. Conclusion The incubator provides a safe, quiet environment for neonates during transport and imaging, at low cost. PMID:22167517

  11. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-02-23

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented.

  12. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  13. [Miscellaneous Compatibility Determinations : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR : 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Linked through this record are compatibility determinations from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal between the years 2005 and 2014. Included is a 2005 Compatibility...

  14. Energy-filtered environmental transmission electron microscopy for the assessment of solid-gas reactions at elevated temperature: NiO/YSZ-H2 as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Q.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2016-01-01

    in 1.3mbar of H2. Three-window elemental maps and jump-ratio images of the O K edge and total inelastic mean free path images are recorded as a function of temperature and used to provide local and quantitative information about the reaction kinetics and the volume changes that result from the reaction......A novel approach, which is based on the analysis of sequences of images recorded using energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy and can be used to assess the reaction of a solid with a gas at elevated temperature, is illustrated for the reduction of a NiO/ceramic solid oxide fuel cell anode....... Under certain assumptions, the speed of progression of the reaction front in all three dimensions is obtained, thereby providing a three-dimensional understanding of the reaction....

  15. Zeolite imidazolate frameworks 8 as sorbent and its application to sonication-assisted emulsification microextraction combined with vortex-assisted porous membrane-protected micro-solid-phase extraction for fast analysis of acidic drugs in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Dandan; Lee, Hian Kee

    2012-09-28

    A novel and fast procedure, sonication-assisted emulsification microextraction combined with vortex-assisted porous membrane protected micro-solid-phase extraction (SAEME-VA-μ-SPE), was developed for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of acidic drugs from environmental water samples. One advantage of the new procedure is that any solvent immiscible with water can be used as extractant solvent of SAEME and any solid sorbent can be used for μ-SPE in the SAEME-VA-μ-SPE process. In the present work, zeolite imidazolate framework 8 (ZIF-8) was employed as extraction sorbent for μ-SPE and 1-octanol as extractant solvent for SAEME. ZIF-8 has very good thermal, chemical and water stability, which make it a suitable material for the extraction of trace analytes from aqueous samples. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the developed method exhibited low limits of detection (0.01-0.04 ng/ml), good linearity (with r² between 0.9965 and 0.9993) from 0.5 to 50 ng/ml and satisfactory repeatability (between 4.1% and 7.6%). In essence SAEME-VA-μ-SPE is a combination of two different and efficient miniaturized techniques. It was demonstrated to be a fast, accurate, and convenient pretreatment procedure for trace analysis of environmental water samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. New environmentally friendly MSPD solid support based on golden mussel shell: characterization and application for extraction of organic contaminants from mussel tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombaldi, Caroline; de Oliveira Arias, Jean Lucas; Hertzog, Gabriel Ianzer; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Vieira, João P; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2015-06-01

    The use of golden mussel shells as a solid support in vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was evaluated for the first time for extraction of residues of 11 pesticides and nine pharmaceutical and personal care products from mussel tissue samples. After they had been washed, dried, and milled, the mussel shells were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. The MSPD procedure with analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry allowed the determination of target analytes at trace concentrations (nanograms per gram), with mean recoveries ranging from 61 to 107 % and relative standard deviations lower than 18 %. The optimized method consisted of dispersion of 0.5 g of mussel tissue, 0.5 g of NaSO4, and 0.5 g of golden mussel shell for 5 min, and subsequent extraction with 5 mL of ethyl acetate. The matrix effect was evaluated, and a low effect was found for all compounds. The results showed that mussel shell is an effective material and a less expensive material than materials that have traditionally been used, i.e., it may be used in the MSPD dispersion step during the extraction of pesticides and pharmaceutical and personal care products from golden mussel tissues. Graphical Abstract Vortex-assited matrix solid-phase dispersion for extraction of 11 pesticides and 9 PPCPs care products from mussel tissue samples.

  17. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079 ...

  18. 47 CFR 68.4 - Hearing aid-compatible telephones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... if it provides internal means for effective use with hearing aids that are designed to be compatible... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatible telephones. 68.4 Section... (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK General § 68.4 Hearing aid-compatible...

  19. The Effect of Birth Order on Roommate Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, John H.; Williams, Ondre J.

    1977-01-01

    A group of students were matched on the basis of compatible birth order; another was matched on the basis of conflicting birth order. After a month's experience in a residence hall their compatibility was examined. Students with conflicting birth order were more compatible than those with the same birth order. (Author)

  20. 76 FR 53376 - Definition of Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 260, 261, and 270 RIN 2050-AG62 Definition of Solid Waste AGENCY: Environmental... definition of solid waste published in the Federal Register on July 22, 2011. EPA is proposing to revise certain exclusions from the definition of solid waste for hazardous secondary materials intended for...

  1. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

  2. A low-cost MRI compatible keyboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Snejbjerg; Heggli, Ole Adrian; Alves da Mota, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging is a powerful tool to explore how and why humans engage in music. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has allowed us to identify brain networks and regions implicated in a range of cognitive tasks including music perception and performance. However, MRI-scanners are noisy and cramped......, presenting a challenging environment for playing an instrument. Here, we present an MRI-compatible polyphonic keyboard with a materials cost of 850 $, designed and tested for safe use in 3T (three Tesla) MRI-scanners. We describe design considerations, and prior work in the field. In addition, we provide...

  3. Rate-Compatible Protograph LDPC Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods resulting in rate-compatible low density parity-check (LDPC) codes built from protographs. Described digital coding methods start with a desired code rate and a selection of the numbers of variable nodes and check nodes to be used in the protograph. Constraints are set to satisfy a linear minimum distance growth property for the protograph. All possible edges in the graph are searched for the minimum iterative decoding threshold and the protograph with the lowest iterative decoding threshold is selected. Protographs designed in this manner are used in decode and forward relay channels.

  4. Energetic and environmental assessment of thermochemical and biochemical ways for producing energy from agricultural solid residues: Coffee Cut-Stems case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carlos A; Peña, Álvaro; Betancourt, Ramiro; Cardona, Carlos A

    2017-04-24

    Forest residues are an important source of biomass. Among these, Coffee Cut-Stems (CCS) are an abundant wood waste in Colombia obtained from coffee crops renovation. However, only low quantities of these residues are used directly in combustion processes for heating and cooking in coffee farms where their energy efficiency is very low. In the present work, an energy and environmental assessment of two bioenergy production processes (ethanol fermentation and gasification) using CCS as raw material was performed. Biomass gasification seems to be the most promising thermochemical method for bioenergy production whereas, ethanol fermentation is a widely studied biochemical method to produce biofuels. Experimental runs of the CCS gasification were carried out and the synthesis gas composition was monitored. Prior to the fermentation process, a treatment of the CCS is required from which sugar content was determined and then, in the fermentation process, the ethanol yield was calculated. Both processes were simulated in order to obtain the mass and energy balance that are used to assess the energy efficiency and the potential environmental impact (PEI). Moderate high energy efficiency and low environmental impacts were obtained from the CCS gasification. In contrast, high environmental impacts in different categories and low energy efficiencies were calculated from the ethanolic fermentation. Biomass gasification seems to be the most promising technology for the use of Coffee Cut-Stems with high energy yields and low environmental issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Final Report: A CdZnTe detector for MRI-compatible SPECT Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Ling-Jian

    2012-12-27

    The key objective of this project is to develop the enabling technology for future MRI-compatible nuclear (e.g. SPECT) imaging system, and to demonstrate the feasibility of performing simultaneous MR and SPECT imaging studies of the same object. During the past three years, we have developed (a) a MRI-compatible ultrahigh resolution gamma ray detector and associated readout electronics, (b) a theoretical approach for modeling the effect of strong magnetic field on SPECT image quality, and (c) a maximum-likelihood (ML) based reconstruction routine with correction for the MR-induced distortion. With this support, we have also constructed a four-head MR-compatible SPECT system and tested the system inside a 3-T clinical MR-scanner located on UI campus. The experimental results obtained with this system have clearly demonstrated that sub-500um spatial resolution can be achieved with a SPECT system operated inside a 3-T MRI scanner. During the past three years, we have accomplished most of the major objectives outlined in the original proposal. These research efforts have laid out a solid foundation the development of future MR-compatible SPECT systems for both pre-clinical and clinical imaging applications.

  6. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Matrix Converter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fligl

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with matrix converters pulse width modulation strategies design with emphasis on the electromagnetic compatibility. Matrix converters provide an all-silicon solution to the problem of converting AC power from one frequency to another, offering almost all the features required of an ideal static frequency changer. They possess many advantages compared to the conventional voltage or current source inverters. A matrix converter does not require energy storage components as a bulky capacitor or an inductance in the DC-link, and enables the bi-directional power flow between the power supply and load. The most of the contemporary modulation strategies are able to provide practically sinusoidal waveforms of the input and output currents with negligible low order harmonics, and to control the input displacement factor. The perspective of matrix converters regarding EMC in comparison with other types of converters is brightly evident because it is no need to use any equipment for power factor correction and current and voltage harmonics reduction. Such converter with proper control is properly compatible both with the supply mains and with the supplied load. A special digital control system was developed for the realized experimental test bed which makes it possible to achieve greater throughput of the digital control system and its variability.

  7. Is religious education compatible with science education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario

    1996-04-01

    This paper tackles a highly controversial issue: the problem of the compatibility of science and religion, and its bearing on science and religious education respectively. We challenge the popular view that science and religion are compatible or even complementary. In order to do so, we give a brief characterization of our conceptions of science and religion. Conspicuous differences at the doctrinal, metaphysical, methodological and attitudinal level are noted. Regarding these aspects, closer examination reveals that science and religion are not only different but in fact incompatible. Some consequences of our analysis for education as well as for education policy are explored. We submit that a religious education, particularly at an early age, is an obstacle to the development of a scientific mentality. For this and other reasons, religious education should be kept away from public schools and universities. Instead of promoting a religious world view, we should teach our children what science knows about religion, i.e., how science explains the existence of religion in historical, biological, psychological and sociological terms.

  8. Electromagnetic compatibility management for fast diagnostic design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimbourg, J.

    2004-10-01

    This article presents an overview of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) management for fast diagnostic design. We will present and detail the classical approach in EMC. This approach can be successfully applied for installations where a single engineering entity has the authority to prescribe and enforce a certain compatibility level. Most of the time, strict application of generic standards is required for fast diagnostics. Nethertheless, the pulse perturbation must be synchronized to the fast diagnostic operation. Some "traditional" techniques, such as star-earthing and bonding cable screens at one end, have been shown to be inadequate for fast diagnostic design. Our laser facility, the LIL, will be able to focus up to 60 kJ into a volume of less than 1 mm3. We have to evaluate the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) where diagnostics, cables, and oscilloscopes will be installed. We performed electromagnetic measurements inside and outside the OMEGA target chamber. The electromagnetic pulse generated by the target chamber contains very high frequency components above 1 GHz. The electric field is around a few kV/m outside and goes up to 20 kV/m inside the target. We designed a specific electromagnetic probe for pulse measurement with a rise time down to 100 ps. An ultrashort rise time EMP bench test was built to test apparatus before installation around a target chamber. It produces an electric field higher than 5 kV/m with a rise time under 100 ps.

  9. LED lamps in shipboard lighting systems: Aspects of electromagnetic compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beley V. F.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trends in the development of different types of light sources and their energy characteristics have been described in the paper. Analysis of regulatory documents has been given. The results of experimental studies of a number of modern LED lamps have been described. Investigation has been made for a number of LED lamps produced by Philips, Xavax and Melitec. The experimental data have been obtained with the complex of devices: the dual-channel oscilloscope (GDS-71042, the power quality analyzer (Fluke-434 and the multi-function device EcoLight-01 (light-, pulse- and luminance meter. It has been shown that operation of LED lamps is characterized by emission of higher current harmonics and reactive power consumption, which depends on the type and design of the lamp driver. It has been found that the value of luminance created by LED lamps in case of acceptable (for ships prolonged deviation of voltage (–10 % is reduced by 3 %; in case of permissible short-term voltage deviation (–20 % luminance is reduced by 7 %. For incandescent lamps this indicator is characterized by a decrease in luminance by 40 % and 60 %, respectively. Despite the low sensitivity to voltage changes (in comparison with other types of lamps, the operation of LED lamps is also associated with the appearance of flicker. Absence of limitations for fluctuations of the light flux in shipboard lighting systems and imperfection of methods for determining the flicker make it difficult to ensure electromagnetic compatibility of LED lamps. Therefore due to reliability, environmental friendliness, energy efficiency and lumen maintenance LED lamps have prospects for introduction into shipboard lighting systems. However, to ensure electromagnetic compatibility of LED lighting systems it is necessary to conduct a detailed study of energy characteristics of LED lamps and to develop appropriate regulatory requirements and technical solutions.

  10. Preconcentration and determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in environmental water samples by solid-phase microextraction with Fe3O4-coated bamboo charcoal fibers prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ru-Song; Liu, Yan-Long; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Yuan, Jin-Peng; Bai, Ai-Ying; Zhou, Jia-Bin

    2013-03-26

    In this paper, bamboo charcoals were modified using Fe3O4 nanosheets for the first time. The composites, as a novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating, were used for the extraction of seven polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental water samples. The extraction factors (stirring rate, extraction time, and ionic strength) and desorption factors (desorption time and desorption temperature) of the fibers were systematically investigated and optimized. Under optimum conditions, the linear range was 1-1000 ng L(-1). Based on the ratio of chromatographic signal to base line noise (SN(-1)=3), the limits of detection (LODs) can reach 0.25-0.62 ng L(-1). The novel method was successful in the analysis of PBDEs in real environmental water samples. The results indicate that bamboo charcoal/Fe3O4 as an SPME coating material coupled with gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometry is an excellent method for the routine analysis of PBDEs at trace levels in environmental water samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cogasification of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, A.; Jurczyk, K.; Mullin, J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Zanardi, M. [Sao Paulo State Univ., Guaratingueta, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Energy Dept.; Peres, S. [Univ. of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    High efficiency gas turbine based systems, utility deregulation and more stringent environmental regulations strongly favor the use of natural gas over coal and other solid fuels in new electricity generators. Solid fuels could continue to compete, however, if a low cost gasifier fed by low cost feedstocks can be coupled with a gas turbine system. The authors examine on-site gasification of coal with other domestic fuels in an indirectly heated gasifier as a strategy to lower the costs of solid fuel systems. The systematics of gaseous pyrolysis yields assembled with the help of thermal measurement data and molecular models suggests blending carbonaceous fuels such as coal, coke or char with oxygenated fuels such as biomass, RDF, MSW, or dried sewage sludge. Such solid fuel blending can, with the help of inexpensive catalysts, achieve an optimum balance of volatiles, heating values and residual char thus reducing the technical demands upon the gasifier. Such simplifications should lower capital and operating costs of the gasifier to the mutual benefit of both solid fuel communities.

  12. Engine Materials Compatibility with Alternate Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2013-05-01

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  13. Engine Materials Compatability with Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steve [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Moore, D. [USCAR

    2013-04-05

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  14. Toward Clinically Compatible Phase-Contrast Mammography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Scherer

    Full Text Available Phase-contrast mammography using laboratory X-ray sources is a promising approach to overcome the relatively low sensitivity and specificity of clinical, absorption-based screening. Current research is mostly centered on identifying potential diagnostic benefits arising from phase-contrast and dark-field mammography and benchmarking the latter with conventional state-of-the-art imaging methods. So far, little effort has been made to adjust this novel imaging technique to clinical needs. In this article, we address the key points for a successful implementation to a clinical routine in the near future and present the very first dose-compatible and rapid scan-time phase-contrast mammograms of both a freshly dissected, cancer-bearing mastectomy specimen and a mammographic accreditation phantom.

  15. Fuel System Compatibility Issues for Prometheus-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DC Noe; KB Gibbard; MH Krohn

    2006-01-20

    Compatibility issues for the Prometheus-1 fuel system have been reviewed based upon the selection of UO{sub 2} as the reference fuel material. In particular, the potential for limiting effects due to fuel- or fission product-component (cladding, liner, spring, etc) chemical interactions and clad-liner interactions have been evaluated. For UO{sub 2}-based fuels, fuel-component interactions are not expected to significantly limit performance. However, based upon the selection of component materials, there is a potential for degradation due to fission products. In particular, a chemical liner may be necessary for niobium, tantalum, zirconium, or silicon carbide-based systems. Multiple choices exist for the configuration of a chemical liner within the cladding; there is no clear solution that eliminates all concerns over the mechanical performance of a clad/liner system. A series of tests to evaluate the performance of candidate materials in contact with real and simulated fission products is outlined.

  16. fMRI-Compatible Electromagnetic Haptic Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riener, R; Villgrattner, T; Kleiser, R; Nef, T; Kollias, S

    2005-01-01

    A new haptic interface device is suggested, which can be used for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. The basic component of this 1 DOF haptic device are two coils that produce a Lorentz force induced by the large static magnetic field of the MR scanner. A MR-compatible optical angular encoder and a optical force sensor enable the implementation of different control architectures for haptic interactions. The challenge was to provide a large torque, and not to affect image quality by the currents applied in the device. The haptic device was tested in a 3T MR scanner. With a current of up to 1A and a distance of 1m to the focal point of the MR-scanner it was possible to generate torques of up to 4 Nm. Within these boundaries image quality was not affected.

  17. Dispersive solid phase micro-extraction of mercury(II from environmental water and vegetable samples with ionic liquid modified graphene oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollahpour Atefeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new dispersive solid phase micro-extraction (dispersive-SPME method for separation and preconcentration of mercury(II using ionic liquid modified magnetic reduced graphene oxide (IL-MrGO nanoparticles, prior to the measurement by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS has been developed. The IL-MrGO composite was characterized by Brunauer– Emmett–Teller method (BET for adsorption-desorption measurement, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The method is based on the sorption of mercury( II on IL-MrGO nanoparticles due to electrostatic interaction and complex formation of ionic liquid part of IL-MrGO with mercury(II. The effect of experimental parameters for preconcentration of mercury(II, such as solution type, concentration and volume of the eluent, pH, time of the sorption and desorption, amount of the sorbent and coexisting ion concentration have been optimized. Under the optimized conditions, a linear response was obtained in the concentration range of 0.08–10 ng mL-1 with a determination coefficient of 0.9995. The limit of detection (LOD of the method at a signal to noise ratio of 3 was 0.01 ng mL-1. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were obtained equal to 3.4 and 4.5 %, respectively. The dispersive solid phase micro-extraction of mercury(II on IL-MrGO nanoparticles coupled with cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry was successfully used for extraction and determination of mercury(II in water and vegetable samples.

  18. Developing 2 C-compatible investment criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, Frauke [NewClimate - Institute for Climate Policy and Global Sustainability gGmbH, Bonn (Germany); Weischer, Lutz [Germanwatch e.V., Koeln (Germany); Thomae, Jakob [2degrees Investing Initiative, New York, NY (United States); Hoehne, Niklas; Hagemann, Markus; El Alaoui, Alexander; Bals, Christoph; Eckstein, David; Kreft, Soenke; Rosse, Morten

    2015-11-30

    This report studies the development of criteria for assessing the compatibility of financial investments with the international goal to limit global temperature increase to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels. The findings are intended as a starting point and a key input for a longer term process to develop consensus-based 2 C investing criteria. The focus here is placed on investments in projects and physical assets, in particular of development and climate finance organisations. In order to limit global temperature increase to 2 C, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will have to be reduced significantly, eventually to zero, during the course of this century. This requires shifting capital from high to low carbon investments as well as significant capital mobilisation for investments in 2 C-compatible infrastructure. Given the long lifetime of physical assets, and the urgency of decarbonisation over the coming decades, this needs to begin today. Public financial institutions can play a prominent role in contributing to aligning investment flows with the 2 C limit, as well as in closing the current infrastructure investment gap, responding to their explicit or implicit climate mandates and leadership role in the finance sector. The majority of international financial institutions integrate climate considerations into their finance decisions to some degree, and are familiar with different types of criteria, including positive and negative lists, qualitative and quantitative benchmarks, and the use of shadow carbon pricing. However, current approaches do not link to the 2 C limit. 2 C investment criteria are therefore needed to guide investors in this regard. Such criteria may also support other purposes, including an understanding of climate risks and improved reporting and accountability.

  19. CMOS-compatible spintronic devices: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Alexander; Windbacher, Thomas; Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2016-11-01

    For many decades CMOS devices have been successfully scaled down to achieve higher speed and increased performance of integrated circuits at lower cost. Today’s charge-based CMOS electronics encounters two major challenges: power dissipation and variability. Spintronics is a rapidly evolving research and development field, which offers a potential solution to these issues by introducing novel ‘more than Moore’ devices. Spin-based magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) is already recognized as one of the most promising candidates for future universal memory. Magnetic tunnel junctions, the main elements of MRAM cells, can also be used to build logic-in-memory circuits with non-volatile storage elements on top of CMOS logic circuits, as well as versatile compact on-chip oscillators with low power consumption. We give an overview of CMOS-compatible spintronics applications. First, we present a brief introduction to the physical background considering such effects as magnetoresistance, spin-transfer torque (STT), spin Hall effect, and magnetoelectric effects. We continue with a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art spintronic devices for memory applications (STT-MRAM, domain wall-motion MRAM, and spin-orbit torque MRAM), oscillators (spin torque oscillators and spin Hall nano-oscillators), logic (logic-in-memory, all-spin logic, and buffered magnetic logic gate grid), sensors, and random number generators. Devices with different types of resistivity switching are analyzed and compared, with their advantages highlighted and challenges revealed. CMOS-compatible spintronic devices are demonstrated beginning with predictive simulations, proceeding to their experimental confirmation and realization, and finalized by the current status of application in modern integrated systems and circuits. We conclude the review with an outlook, where we share our vision on the future applications of the prospective devices in the area.

  20. Screening Methods for Agent Compatibility with People, Materials, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    the environment was held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology on November 14 and 15, 1997, which was attended by approximately 40 representatives from government, academia, and industry. The participants were asked to assess currently used screening methods for each of the following properties of candidate fire suppressants: environmental impact (including ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, and atmospheric lifetime); materials compatibility (including long-term storage stability, the interaction of the agent with metals, gaskets and

  1. Environmental assessment of the reuse of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in quarry backfilling; Evaluation environnementale de la valorisation de machefers d'incineration d'ordures menageres en remplissage de carriere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brons-Laot, G.

    2002-10-15

    The leaching behaviour of three different MSWI bottom ashes-based materials containing hydraulic binders is assessed in the conditions specified by the quarry backfilling application. An adapted approach methodology is applied: - physical, mineralogical and chemical characterizations of materials, - use of parametric tests to determine the effect of main scenarios factors on the release, - chemical modelling based on mineralogical and experimental leaching data with geochemical calculation codes, - chemical reaction / transport coupled modelling. The main results demonstrate that: - the batch and dynamic tests allow to obtain enough data to model and to predict the long term behaviour, - the chemical modelling of the solid / liquid equilibrium permits the determination of the chemical reactions involved and the prediction of pollutants solubilization in different chemical contexts, - the new materials (source term) present a low environmental impact in the conditions specified by the considered scenarios. (author)

  2. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartini, Evvy [Center for Science and Technology of Advanced Materials – National Nuclear Energy Agency, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, Tangerang Selatan15314, Banten (Indonesia); Manawan, Maykel [Post Graduate Program of Materials Science, University of Indonesia, Jl.Salemba Raya No.4, Jakarta 10430 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say “the most important emerging energy technology” is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner’s cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  3. Solid electrolyte for solid-state batteries: Have lithium-ion batteries reached their technical limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartini, Evvy; Manawan, Maykel

    2016-02-01

    With increasing demand for electrical power on a distribution grid lacking storage capabilities, utilities and project developers must stabilize what is currently still intermittent energy production. In fact, over half of utility executives say "the most important emerging energy technology" is energy storage. Advanced, low-cost battery designs are providing promising stationary storage solutions that can ensure reliable, high-quality power for customers, but research challenges and questions lefts. Have lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) reached their technical limit? The industry demands are including high costs, inadequate energy densities, long recharge times, short cycle-life times and safety must be continually addressed. Safety is still the main problem on developing the lithium ion battery.The safety issue must be considered from several aspects, since it would become serious problems, such as an explosion in a Japan Airlines 787 Dreamliner's cargo hold, due to the battery problem. The combustion is mainly due to the leakage or shortcut of the electrodes, caused by the liquid electrolyte and polymer separator. For this reason, the research on solid electrolyte for replacing the existing liquid electrolyte is very important. The materials used in existing lithium ion battery, such as a separator and liquid electrolyte must be replaced to new solid electrolytes, solid materials that exhibits high ionic conductivity. Due to these reasons, research on solid state ionics materials have been vastly growing worldwide, with the main aim not only to search new solid electrolyte to replace the liquid one, but also looking for low cost materials and environmentally friendly. A revolutionary paradigm is also required to design new stable anode and cathode materials that provide electrochemical cells with high energy, high power, long lifetime and adequate safety at competitive manufacturing costs. Lithium superionic conductors, which can be used as solid electrolytes

  4. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Bimleshwar; Shepherd, Philip

    1992-10-01

    The enthusiasm for and commitment to recycling of municipal solid wastes is based on several intuitive benefits: Conservation of landfill capacity; Conservation of non-renewable natural resources and energy sources; Minimization of the perceived potential environmental impacts of MSW combustion and landfilling; Minimization of disposal costs, both directly and through material resale credits. In this discussion, recycling'' refers to materials recovered from the waste stream. It excludes scrap materials that are recovered and reused during industrial manufacturing processes and prompt industrial scrap. Materials recycling is an integral part of several solid waste management options. For example, in the preparation of refuse-derived fuel (RDF), ferrous metals are typically removed from the waste stream both before and after shredding. Similarly, composting facilities, often include processes for recovering inert recyclable materials such as ferrous and nonferrous metals, glass, Plastics, and paper. While these two technologies have as their primary objectives the production of RDF and compost, respectively, the demonstrated recovery of recyclables emphasizes the inherent compatibility of recycling with these MSW management strategies. This appendix discusses several technology options with regard to separating recyclables at the source of generation, the methods available for collecting and transporting these materials to a MRF, the market requirements for post-consumer recycled materials, and the process unit operations. Mixed waste MRFs associated with mass bum plants are also presented.

  5. Online analysis of five organic ultraviolet filters in environmental water samples using magnetism-enhanced monolith-based in-tube solid phase microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Meng; Huang, Xiaojia

    2017-11-24

    Due to the endocrine disrupting properties, organic UV filters have been a great risk for humans and other organisms. Therefore, development of accurate and effective analytical methods is needed for the determination of UV filters in environmental waters. In this work, a fast, sensitive and environmentally friendly method combining magnetism-enhanced monolith-based in-tube solid phase microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (DAD) (ME-MB-IT/SPME-HPLC-DAD) for the online analysis of five organic UV filters in environmental water samples was developed. To extract UV filters effectively, an ionic liquid-based monolithic capillary column doped with magnetic nanoparticles was prepared by in-situ polymerization and used as extraction medium of online ME-MB-IT/SPME-HPLC-DAD system. Several extraction conditions including the intensity of magnetic field, sampling and desorption flow rate, volume of sample and desorption solvent, pH value and ionic strength of sample matrix were optimized thoroughly. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction efficiencies for five organic UV filters were in the range of 44.0-100%. The limits of detection (S/N=3) and limits of quantification (S/N=10) were 0.04-0.26μg/L and 0.12-0.87μg/L, respectively. The precisions indicated by relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10% for both intra- and inter-day variabilities. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to the determination of UV filters in three environmental water samples and satisfactory results were obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  7. Molecular tailoring of solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Evenson, S A

    1997-01-01

    The overall performance of a material can be dramatically improved by tailoring its surface at the molecular level. The aim of this project was to develop a universal technique for attaching dendrimers (well-defined, nanoscale, functional polymers) and Jeffamines (high molecular weight polymer chains) to the surface of any shaped solid substrate. This desire for controlled functionalization is ultimately driven by the need to improve material compatibility in various biomedical applications. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used initially to study the packing and structure of Langmuir-Blodgett films on surfaces, and subsequently resulted in the first visualization of individual, spherically shaped, nanoscopic polyamidoamine dendrimers. The next goal was to develop a methodology for attaching such macromolecules to inert surfaces. Thin copolymer films were deposited onto solid substrates to produce materials with a fixed concentration of surface anhydride groups. Vapor-phase functionalization reactions were t...

  8. 40 CFR 240.201 - Solid wastes excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid wastes excluded. 240.201 Section 240.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.201 Solid...

  9. 40 CFR 240.200 - Solid wastes accepted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid wastes accepted. 240.200 Section 240.200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.200 Solid...

  10. Separation and Enrichment of Gold in Water, Geological and Environmental Samples by Solid Phase Extraction on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Prior to its Determination by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ali; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes the application of multi-walled carbon nanotubes as a solid sorbent for the preconcentration of gold prior to its flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination. Extraction was achieved by using a glass column (15.0 cm in length and 1.0 cm in diameter). Quantitative recoveries were obtained in the pH range of 2.5-4.0; the elution step was carried out with 5.0 ml of 1.0 mol/L HNO3 in acetone. In the ligand-free study, variables such as pH, eluent type, sample volume, flow rates, and matrix effect were examined for the optimum recovery of gold ions. The gold ions were able to be pre-concentrated by a factor of 150 and their LOD was determined to be 1.71 μg/L. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the developed method, addition-recovery tests were applied for the tap water, mineral water, and sea water samples. Gold recovery studies were implemented using a wet digestion technique for mine and soil samples taken from various media, and this method was also applied for anodic slime samples taken from the factories located in the Kayseri Industrial Zone of Turkey.

  11. Speciation of selenium in environmental samples by solid-phase spectrophotometry using 2,3-dichloro-6-(2,7-dihydroxy-naphthylazo)quinoxaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Alaa S

    2014-01-01

    Solid-phase spectrophotometry was applied to determination of trace amounts of selenium (Se) in water, soil, plant materials, human hair, and a cosmetic preparation (lipstick). Se(IV) was sorbed in a dextran type lipophilic gel as a complex with 2,3-dichloro-6-(2,7-dihydroxy-naphthylazo)quinoxaline (DCDHNAQ), whereas Se(VI) was determined after boiling in HCI for 10 min to convert Se(VI) to Se(IV). Resin phase absorbances at 588 and 800 nm were measured directly, which allowed the determination of Se in the range of 0.2-3.3 microg/L with an RSD of 1.22%. The influences of analytical parameters including pH of the aqueous solution, amounts of DCDHNAQ, and sample volume were investigated. The molar absorptivities were found to be 1.09 x 10(6), 4.60 x 10(6), and 1.23 x 10(7) L/mol cm for 100, 500, and 1000 mL, respectively. The LOD and LOQ of the 500 mL sample method were 110 and 360 ng/L, respectively, when using 50 mg dextran type lipophilic gel. For a 1000 mL sample, the LOD and LOQ were 60 and 200 ng/L, respectively, using 50 mg of the exchanger. Increasing the sample volume enhanced the sensitivity. No considerable interferences were observed from other investigated anions and cations on the Se determination.

  12. Composting of urban solid wastes: agronomic value of environmental impact. Application for potatoes production; Compost de RSU: valor agronomico vs impacto ambiental. Aplicacion en la produccion de patata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastiao, M. J.; Queda, A. C. C.

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) compost (still allowed in Portugal for agricultural purposes) on potato production and to assess the risk of heavy metal contamination of vegetables and soils. Three types of soils from the Setubal region were tested. Significant increases in potato production were obtained in poor sandy soils even at low compost application rates (15 t/ha year). There was no significant intake of heavy metals by the tubers grown with compost in all the tests performed. Four years of compost application increased copper concentration in the three types of soils, Zinc and lead accumulation was also observed in some of the experimental fields. Nevertheless, the detected amounts are still far below the limit values indicated in Portuguese and EU legislation for agricultural soils. The gradual change from MSW to bio-waste compost already in progress in our country will certainly reduce our concerns about compost utilisation in agriculture. (Author)

  13. Characterization of a former dump site in the Lagoon of Venice contaminated by municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash, and estimation of possible environmental risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Chiarafrancesca; Zamengo, Luca; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Argese, Emanuele

    2009-10-01

    Bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator on a former contaminated site, the island of Sacca San Biagio (Lagoon of Venice), was examined in order to evaluate levels of pollutants and their potential mobility and availability. Heavy metal concentrations were determined and the actual contamination of the site was compared with national legislation on polluted sites. The site was mainly contaminated by zinc, copper and lead. Physico-chemical characterization of bottom ash was carried out by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) with micro-analysis by EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) and XRD (X-ray Diffractometry), for information on newly formed minerals. SEM-EDS analysis revealed the presence of particles, compounds and clusters containing heavy metals and, in particular, the presence of barium sulfate, which was assumed to be a site-specific compound. Similarities between bottom ash and atmospheric PM10 collected on the adjacent island of Sacca Fisola were studied and a risk of aerodispersion of the fine fraction of ash was assumed. Lastly, in order to evaluate the potentially available fraction of metals (non-residual fraction) and the directly exchangeable fraction, two single extraction procedures with HCl and citric acid were carried out, respectively. Results showed a relatively low concentration of readily phyto-available metals, as well as the high concentrations found for some heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) in the potentially mobilizable fraction.

  14. Multiresidue analysis of 24 Water Framework Directive priority substances by on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubirola, Adrià; Boleda, Mª Rosa; Galceran, Mª Teresa

    2017-04-14

    This paper reports the development of a fully multiresidue and automated on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) - liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of 24 priority substances (PS) belonging to different classes (pesticides, hormones or pharmaceuticals) included in the Directive 2013/39/UE and the recent Watch List (Decision 2015/495) in water samples (drinking water, surface water, and effluent wastewaters). LC-MS/MS conditions and on-line SPE parameters such as sorbent type, sample and wash volumes were optimized. The developed method is highly sensitive (limits of detection between 0.1 and 1.4ngL -1 ) and precise (relative standard deviations lower than 8%). As part of the method validation studies, linearity, accuracy and matrix effects were assessed. The main advantage of this method over traditional off-line procedures is the minimization of tedious sample preparation increasing productivity and sample throughput. The optimized method was applied to the analysis of water samples and the results revealed the presence of 16 PS in river water and effluent water of wastewater treatment plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Polyurethane Organosilicate Nanocomposites as Blood Compatible Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson H. Y. Chung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymer clay nanocomposites (NCs show remarkable potential in the field of drug delivery due to their enhanced barrier properties. It is hypothesised that well dispersed clay particles within the polymer matrix create a tortuous pathway for diffusing therapeutic molecules, thereby resulting in more sustained release of the drug. As coatings for medical devices, these materials can simultaneously modulate drug release and improve the mechanical performance of an existing polymer system without introducing additional materials with new chemistries that can lead to regulatory concerns. In this study, polyurethane organosilicate nanocomposites (PUNCs coated onto stainless steel wires were evaluated for their feasibility as blood compatible coatings and as drug delivery systems. Heparin was selected as the model drug to examine the impact of silicate loading and modifier chain length in modulating release. Findings revealed that better dispersion was achieved from samples with lower clay loadings and longer alkyl chains. The blood compatibility of PUNCs as assessed by thrombin generation assays showed that the addition of silicate particles did not significantly decrease the thrombin generation lag time (TGT, p = 0.659 or the peak thrombin (p = 0.999 of polyurethane (PU. PUNC coatings fabricated in this research were not cytotoxic as examined by the cell growth inhibition assay and were uniformly intact, but had slightly higher growth inhibition compared to PU possibly due to the presence of organic modifiers (OM. The addition of heparin into PUNCs prolonged the TGT, indicating that heparin was still active after the coating process. Cumulative heparin release profiles showed that the majority of heparin released was from loosely attached residues on the surface of coils. The addition of heparin further prolonged the TGT as compared to coatings without added heparin, but a slight decrease in heparin activity was observed in the NCs

  16. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T. [Gunma Univ., Dept. of Electronic Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two {pi} type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO{sub 2} surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally

  17. Evaluation of environmental impacts in the mining of solid fossil fuels; Avaliacao de impactos ambientais na mineracao de combustiveis fosseis solidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Gilda Carneiro

    1989-07-01

    This study evaluates the environmental problems caused by the mining works of coal, peat and oil schists; also it evaluates the kind of treatment used by the mining companies against water, air and ground pollution, as well as the necessary control according to the mine activities and the affected environment. the studied areas are situated at brasilian states of Santa Catarina (Criciuma, Urussanga and Sideropolis), Rio Grande do Sul (Charqueada, Bage, Cachoeira do Sul, Butia and Arroio dos Ratos), Parana (Figueira and Sao Mateus do Sul), and Sao Paulo (Iguape and Sao Jose dos Campos). This study was done through a direct inquiry, by sending questionnaire to fifteen coal mining companies, three of peat ones and one of oil schists one. besides it was done a compilation of federal and state laws concerning to the environment and on the rights and duties of the mining companies. The information brought up in this way were compiled into a data bank, which allowed and sample surveys of environmental condition in the different industries and further it enabled a comparison between the real facts and the bibliography suggestions about adequate monitoring of the air, waters and ground, during mining activities. this analysis showed that the environment problems, created by the three former kind of mining works, are under control through projects of environment restoring and monitoring in phase of implantation and that these projects are restricted to that less expensive and easier to construct (holding back in pools or reservoirs, pouring in pits and aspersion). It was not notices a significant monitoring of parameters considered to be critical to the environment (metals, cyanides, sulphide and general bacteria). Almost all the companies have not yet exact data about the efficiency of each kind of environmental treatment because it is new ones and are just in follow-up and consequently they have not yet parameters to change the adequate the steps of the treatment, because

  18. Magnetic solid-phase extraction based on magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the simultaneous enantiomeric analysis of five β-blockers in the environmental samples by chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaokun; Zhang, Xue; Jiang, Shenmeng; Guo, Xingjie

    2018-04-01

    In this work, the magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Mag-MWCNTs) were prepared by self-assembly method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray and vibrating sample magnetometer. Then, these synthetic Mag-MWCNTs were used as sorbents to extract five β-blockers (atenolol, metoprolol, esmolol, pindolol and arotinolol) by magnetic solid-phase extraction. The target analytes adsorbed on Mag-MWCNTs were eluted and determined on a chiral α-acid glycoprotein column coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Eventually, the proposed method was applied to the analysis of the enantiomeric composition of the studied β-blockers in three environmental samples, including river water, influent wastewater and effluent wastewater. Method detection and quantification limits for all enantiomers were in the range of 0.50-1.45 and 1.63-3.75ng/L, respectively. Satisfactory recovery (82.9-95.6%), good intra-day precision (RSD 0.4-10.4%) and inter-day precision (RSD 2.9-7.4%) were also obtained. With numerous advantages such as simplicity of operation, rapidity and high enrichment factor, the newly developed method has potential to assess the enantioselectivity of chiral drugs in ecotoxicity and biodegradation processes, which is also a new expanded application of Mag-MWCNTs in the environmental analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of trace/ultratrace rare earth elements in environmental samples by ICP-MS after magnetic solid phase extraction with Fe3O4@SiO2@polyaniline-graphene oxide composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shaowei; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Hu, Bin; Xiao, Zuowei

    2014-02-01

    A novel Fe3O4@SiO2@polyaniline-graphene oxide composite (MPANI-GO) was prepared through a simple noncovalent method and applied to magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of trace rare earth elements (REEs) in tea leaves and environmental water samples followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. The prepared MPANI-GO was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. Various parameters affecting MPANI-GO MSPE of REEs have been investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, 3σ) for REEs were in the range of 0.04-1.49 ng L(-1) and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, c=20 ng L(-1), n=7) were 1.7-6.5%. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated by analyzing a Certified Reference Material of GBW 07605 tea leaves. The method was also successfully applied for the determination of trace REEs in tea leaves and environmental water samples. The developed MPANI-GO MSPE-ICP-MS method has the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, high sensitivity, high enrichment factor and is suitable for the analysis of trace REEs in samples with complex matrix. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Preconcentration and sensitive determination of hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers in environmental water samples using solid phase extraction with bamboo charcoal cartridge prior to rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ru-Song; Hu, Cong; Zhou, Jia-Bin; Yuan, Jin-Peng; Wang, Shan-Shan; Wang, Xia

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, a simple and cheap method for the simultaneous preconcentration and sensitive determination of three hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) diastereomers (α-, β-, and γ-HBCD) in environmental water samples has been developed. It was based on solid phase extraction (SPE) and rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Bamboo charcoal, one kind of cheap material, was investigated and used as SPE adsorbent for the enrichment and determination of HBCD diastereomers. Related important parameters affecting extraction efficiencies, including type and volume of eluant, amount of sorbent, sample pH, flow rate, and sample volume, were investigated and optimized in detail. Under the optimum conditions, experimental data exhibited excellent linear relationships between peak area and concentrations over the range 0.1-10 μg L(-1). The limits of detection and precision were in the range of 0.005-0.015 μg L(-1) and 4.59-7.47%, respectively. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the trace analysis of HBCD diastereomers in real-world environmental water samples.

  1. Fe3O4@ionic liquid@methyl orange nanoparticles as a novel nano-adsorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofei; Lu, Xin; Huang, Yong; Liu, Chengwei; Zhao, Shulin

    2014-02-01

    A novel nano-adsorbent, Fe3O4@ionic liquid@methyl orange nanoparticles (Fe3O4@IL@MO NPs), was prepared for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental water samples. The Fe3O4@IL@MO NPs were synthesized by self-assembly of the ionic liquid 1-octadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C18mimBr) and methyl orange (MO) onto the surface of Fe3O4 silica magnetic nanoparticles, as confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and superconducting quantum interface device magnetometer. The extraction performance of Fe3O4@IL@MO NPs as a nano-adsorbent was evaluated by using five PAHs, fluorene (FLu), anthracene (AnT), pyrene (Pyr), benzo(a)anthracene (BaA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as model analytes. Under the optimum conditions, detection limits in the range of 0.1-2 ng/L were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). This method has been successfully applied for the determination of PAHs in environmental water samples by using the MSPE-HPLC-FLD. The recoveries for the five PAHs tested in spiked real water samples were in the range of 80.4-104.0% with relative standard deviations ranging from 2.3 to 4.9%. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Ion imprinted activated carbon solid-phase extraction coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry for selective determination of lead ions in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naraghi, Kiyana; Panahi, Homayon Ahmad; Hassani, Amir Hesam [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Korea, Republic of); Moniri, Elham [Islamic Azad University, Varamin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A simple lead ion imprinted sorbent was synthesized by coupling activated carbon with a known metal chelating compound, iminodiacetic acid. The ion imprinted sorbent has been characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis and subjected for the extraction and determination of trace Pb(II) in environmental water samples. The optimum pH value for sorption of the lead ion was 6.5. The sorption capacity of lead imprinted sorbent was 42.2 mg g{sup −1}. The chelating imprinted sorbent can be reused for five cycles of sorption-desorption without any significant change in sorption capacity. Compared with non-imprinted polymer particles, the lead ion imprinted sorbent showed high adsorption capacity, significant selectivity, good site accessibility for Pb(II). The equilibrium adsorption data of Pb(II) by modified resin were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Redlich-Peterson models.

  3. Solid phase extraction and trace monitoring of cadmium ions in environmental water and food samples based on modified magnetic nanoporous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidi, Fariborz [Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Behbahani, Mohammad, E-mail: mohammadbehbahai89@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalate Bojdi, Majid [Faculty of Chemistry, Kharazmi (Tarbiat Moallem) University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahtaheri, Seyed Jamaleddin [Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public Health and Institute for Environmental Research, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    A new method has been developed for trace separation/preconcentration of cadmium ions using pyridine-functionalized magnetic nanoporous silica material (called Py-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MCM-41) as a new magnetic sorbent and their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Py-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MCM-41 sorbent was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MCM-41 can be easily separated from an aqueous solution by applying an external magnetic field. Effects of pH, amount of functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@MCM-41, extraction time, type and quantity of eluent, desorption time, and interfering ions on the extraction efficiency were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit and relative standard deviation was 0.04 μg L{sup –1} and 2.9%, respectively and the maximum adsorption capacity of the synthesized sorbent for cadmium ions was 154 mg g{sup −1}. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of Cd ions at trace levels in real samples such as, rice, onion, carrot, lettuce, parsley, basil, tap water, river water and seawater with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • The introducing of modified magnetic mesoporous silica as a novel magnetic sorbent. • Trace monitoring of cadmium ions. • The limit of detection (LOD) by the proposed solid phase extraction method was 0.04 ng mL{sup −1} for the cadmium ions. • High surface areas and magnetic characteristic of the sorbent. • Maximum adsorption capacity of the sorbent was 154 mg g{sup −1}.

  4. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, P.D.; Kercel, S.W.; Korsah, K.; Wood, R.T.

    1999-08-29

    Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) has long been a key element of qualification for mission critical instrumentation and control (I&C) systems used by the U.S. military. The potential for disruption of safety-related I&C systems by electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio-frequency interference (RFI), or power surges is also an issue of concern for the nuclear industry. Experimental investigations of the potential vulnerability of advanced safety systems to EMI/RFI, coupled with studies of reported events at nuclear power plants (NPPs) that are attributed to EMI/RFI, confirm the safety significance of EMC for both analog and digital technology. As a result, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in the development of the technical basis for guidance that addresses EMC for safety-related I&C systems in NPPs. This research has involved the identification of engineering practices to minimize the potential impact of EMI/RFI and power surges and an evaluation of the ambient electromagnetic environment at NPPs to tailor those practices for use by the nuclear industry. Recommendations for EMC guidance have been derived from these research findings and are summarized in this paper.

  5. [Safety and electromagnetic compatibility in sanitary field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, M; Feroldi, P; Ferri, C; Ignesti, A; Olmi, R; Priori, S; Riminesi, C; Tobia, L

    2012-01-01

    In sanitary field and especially in a hospital, multiple sources of non ionizing radiation are used for diagnostic and therapeutic aims. In sanitary sector both workers and users are present at the same time, and in some cases general population could need higher protection than workers in relationship to the exposition to electromagnetic fields. In order to protect health and safety of patients, general population and workers of hospitals and with the aim to identify, analyze, evaluate and study its level of significance, electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic sources Research Italian project Si.C.E.O. (Safety And Electromagnetic Compatibility In Sanitary Field) was instituted. Target of our research project was to deepen risk of exposition elements with analysis of outdoor (e.g. power lines, transmission cabinets) and indoor (e.g. equipment for physical therapy) sources, located in sanitary structures and to verify the level exposition of workers and common population end the respect of specific regulation, and finally to define technical and organizational measures really useful for protection and reduction of risk.

  6. A magnetic field compatible graphene transmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, James G.; Uilhoorn, Willemijn; de Jong, Damaz; Borsoi, Francesco; van der Enden, Kian; Goswami, Srijit; Cassidy, Maja; Kouwenhoven, Leo. P.

    Hybrid circuit QED is a key tool for readout and scaling of both semiconductor-based spin and topological quantum computing schemes. However, traditional approaches to circuit QED are incompatible with the strong external magnetic fields required for these qubits. Here we present measurements of a hybrid graphene-based transmon operating at 1 T. The device consists of coplanar waveguide resonators where the NbTiN thin film is patterned with a dense anti-dot lattice to trap Abriskov vortices, resulting in internal quality factors Qi >10^5 up to 6 T. Furthermore, the atomically thin nature of graphene in combination with the high critical field of its superconducting contacts makes it an ideal system for tolerating strong parallel magnetic fields. We combine these circuit elements to realize a magnetic field compatible transmon qubit. An external gate allows us to change the Josephson energy, and study the corresponding change in the resonator-qubit interaction in the dispersive regime. Two tone spectroscopy reveals a gate-tunable qubit peak at 1T. These experiments open up the possibility of fast charge parity measurements in high magnetic fields for readout of Majorana qubits..

  7. MRI compatible head phantom for ultrasound surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menikou, Georgios; Dadakova, Tetiana; Pavlina, Matt; Bock, Michael; Damianou, Christakis

    2015-03-01

    Develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatible head phantom with acoustic attenuation closely matched to the human attenuation, and suitable for testing focused ultrasound surgery protocols. Images from an adult brain CT scan were used to segment the skull bone from adjacent cerebral tissue. The segmented model was manufactured in a 3-D printer using (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) ABS plastic. The cerebral tissue was mimicked by an agar-evaporated milk-silica gel (2% w/v-25% v/v-1.2% w/v) which was molded inside a skull model. The measured attenuation of the ABS skull was 16 dB/cm MHz. The estimated attenuation coefficient of the gel replicating brain tissue was 0.6 dB/cm MHz. The estimated agar-silica gel's T1 and T2 relaxation times in a 1.5 Tesla magnetic field were 852 ms and 66 ms respectively. The effectiveness of the skull to reduce ultrasonic heating was demonstrated using MRI thermometry. Due to growing interest in using MRI guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) for treating brain cancer and its application in sonothrombolysis, the proposed head phantom can be utilized as a very useful tool for evaluating ultrasonic protocols, thus minimizing the need for animal models and cadavers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Solid-shape energy fuels from recyclable municipal solid waste and plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gug, Jeongin

    Diversion of waste streams, such as plastics, wood and paper, from municipal landfills and extraction of useful materials from landfills is an area of increasing interest across the country, especially in densely populated areas. One promising technology for recycling MSW (municipal solid waste) is to burn the high energy content components in standard coal boilers. This research seeks to reform wastes into briquette that are compatible with typical coal combustion processes. In order to comply with the standards of coal-fired power plants, the feedstock must be mechanically robust, moisture resistance, and retain high fuel value. Household waste with high paper and fibers content was used as the base material for this study. It was combined with recyclable plastics such as PE, PP, PET and PS for enhanced binding and energy efficiency. Fuel pellets were processed using a compression molding technique. The resulting moisture absorption, proximate analysis from burning, and mechanical properties were investigated after sample production and then compared with reference data for commercial coals and biomass briquettes. The effects of moisture content, compression pressure and processing temperature were studied to identify the optimal processing conditions with water uptake tests for the durability of samples under humid conditions and burning tests to examine the composition of samples. Lastly, mechanical testing revealed the structural stability of solid fuels. The properties of fuel briquettes produced from waste and recycled plastics improved with higher processing temperature but without charring the material. Optimization of moisture content and removal of air bubbles increased the density, stability and mechanical strength. The sample composition was found to be more similar to biomass fuels than coals because the majority of the starting material was paper-based solid waste. According to the proximate analysis results, the waste fuels can be expected to have

  9. Radiation-Tolerant, SpaceWire-Compatible Switching Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Current and future near-Earth and deep space exploration programs and space defense programs require the development of robust intra-spacecraft serial data transfer electronics that must be reconfigurable, fault-tolerant, and have the ability to operate effectively for long periods of time in harsh environmental conditions. Existing data transfer systems based on state-of-the-art serial data transfer protocols or passive backplanes are slow, power-hungry, and poorly reconfigurable. They provide limited expandability and poor tolerance to radiation effects and total ionizing dose (TID) in particular, which presents harmful threats to modern submicron electronics. This novel approach is based on a standard library of differential cells tolerant to TID, and patented, multi-level serial interface architecture that ensures the reliable operation of serial interconnects without application of a data-strobe or other encoding techniques. This proprietary, high-speed differential interface presents a lowpower solution fully compatible with the SpaceWire (SW) protocol. It replaces a dual data-strobe link with two identical independent data channels, thus improving the system s tolerance to harsh environments through additional double redundancy. Each channel incorporates an automatic line integrity control circuitry that delivers error signals in case of broken or shorted lines.

  10. Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-07-02

    There are 177 waste storage tanks containing over 210,000 m{sup 3} (55 million gal) of mixed waste at the Hanford Site. The River Protection Project (RPP) has adopted the data quality objective (DQO) process used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (EPA 1994a) and implemented by RPP internal procedure (Banning 1999a) to identify the information and data needed to address safety issues. This DQO document is based on several documents that provide the technical basis for inputs and decision/action levels used to develop the decision rules that evaluate the transfer of wastes. A number of these documents are presently in the process of being revised. This document will need to be revised if there are changes to the technical criteria in these supporting documents. This DQO process supports various documents, such as sampling and analysis plans and double-shell tank (DST) waste analysis plans. This document identifies the type, quality, and quantity of data needed to determine whether transfer of supernatant can be performed safely. The requirements in this document are designed to prevent the mixing of incompatible waste as defined in Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-040. Waste transfers which meet the requirements contained in this document and the Double-Shell Tank Waste Analysis Plan (Mulkey 1998) are considered to be compatible, and prevent the mixing of incompatible waste.

  11. Compatibility study of paracetamol, chlorpheniramine maleate and phenylephrine hydrochloride in physical mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G.G. de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol (PAR, phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHE and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM are commonly used in clinical practice as antipyretic and analgesic drugs to ameliorate pain and fever in cold and flu conditions. The present work describes the use of thermal analysis for the characterization of the physicochemical compatibility between drugs and excipients during the development of solid dosage forms. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC were used to study the thermal stability of the drug and of the physical mixture (drug/excipients in solid binary mixtures (1:1. DSC thermograms demonstrated reproducible melting event of the prepared physical mixture. Starch, mannitol, lactose and magnesium stearate influence thermal parameters. Information recorded from the derivative thermogravimetric (DTG and TGA curves demonstrated the decomposition of drugs in well-defined thermal events, translating the suitability of these techniques for the characterization of the drug/excipients interactions.

  12. Environmental metabolomics with data science for investigating ecosystem homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Jun; Ito, Kengo; Date, Yasuhiro

    2018-02-01

    A natural ecosystem can be viewed as the interconnections between complex metabolic reactions and environments. Humans, a part of these ecosystems, and their activities strongly affect the environments. To account for human effects within ecosystems, understanding what benefits humans receive by facilitating the maintenance of environmental homeostasis is important. This review describes recent applications of several NMR approaches to the evaluation of environmental homeostasis by metabolic profiling and data science. The basic NMR strategy used to evaluate homeostasis using big data collection is similar to that used in human health studies. Sophisticated metabolomic approaches (metabolic profiling) are widely reported in the literature. Further challenges include the analysis of complex macromolecular structures, and of the compositions and interactions of plant biomass, soil humic substances, and aqueous particulate organic matter. To support the study of these topics, we also discuss sample preparation techniques and solid-state NMR approaches. Because NMR approaches can produce a number of data with high reproducibility and inter-institution compatibility, further analysis of such data using machine learning approaches is often worthwhile. We also describe methods for data pretreatment in solid-state NMR and for environmental feature extraction from heterogeneously-measured spectroscopic data by machine learning approaches. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Brain-Compatible Music Teaching Part 2: Teaching "Nongame" Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In the previous issue of "General Music Today," the Early Childhood column explored brain-compatible ways of teaching action songs and singing games. This article illustrates the application of brain-compatible ways to teach songs that do not lend themselves to actions or games. There are two ways of teaching songs. One is based on the assumption…

  14. Topological spaces with a coarsest compatible quasi-uniformity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some equivalent forms of the condition for the existence of a coarsest compatible (transitive) quasi-uniformity are presented. The T2 case is also discussed. As a tool we use an interesting description of the compatible transitive totally bounded quasi-uniformities. Quaestiones Mathematicae 23(2000), 67–75 ...

  15. 47 CFR 76.630 - Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. 76.630 Section 76.630 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. (a) Cable system operators shall not scramble or otherwise...

  16. HLW Flexible jumper materials compatibility evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-13

    H-Tank Farm Engineering tasked SRNL/Materials Science & Technology (MS&T) to evaluate the compatibility of Goodyear Viper® chemical transfer hose with HLW solutions. The hose is proposed as a flexible Safety Class jumper for up to six months service. SRNL/MS&T performed various tests to evaluate the effects of radiation, high pH chemistry and elevated temperature on the hose, particularly the inner liner. Test results suggest an upper dose limit of 50 Mrad for the hose. Room temperature burst pressure values at 50 Mrad are estimated at 600- 800 psi, providing a safety factor of 4.0-5.3X over the anticipated operating pressure of 150 psi and a safety factor of 3.0-4.0X over the working pressure of the hose (200 psi), independent of temperature effects. Radiation effects are minimal at doses less than 10 Mrad. Doses greater than 50 Mrad may be allowed, depending on operating conditions and required safety factors, but cannot be recommended at this time. At 250 Mrad, burst pressure values are reduced to the hose working pressure. At 300 Mrad, burst pressures are below 150 psi. At a bounding continuous dose rate of 57,870 rad/hr, the 50 Mrad dose limit is reached within 1.2 months. Actual dose rates may be lower, particularly during non-transfer periods. Refined dose calculations are therefore recommended to justify longer service. This report details the tests performed and interpretation of the results. Recommendations for shelf-life/storage, component quality verification, and post-service examination are provided.

  17. Development of Recycling Compatible Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives and Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Severtson

    2010-02-15

    The objective of this project was the design of new water-based pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) products and coatings engineered for enhanced removal during the processing of recycled fiber. Research included the formulation, characterization, and performance measurements of new screenable coatings, testing of modified paper and board substrates and the design of test methods to characterize the inhibition of adhesive and coating fragmentation and relative removal efficiencies of developed formulations. This project was operated under the requirements that included commercially viable approaches be the focus, that findings be published in the open literature and that new strategies could not require changes in the methods and equipment used to produce PSA and PS labels or in the recycling process. The industrial partners benefited through the building of expertise in their company that they would not, and likely could not, have pursued if it had not been for the partnership. Results of research on water-based PSAs clearly identifies which PSA and paper facestock properties govern the fragmentation of the adhesive and provide multiple strategies for making (pressure-sensitive) PS labels for which the PSA is removed at very high efficiencies from recycling operations. The application of these results has led to the identification of several commercial products in Franklin International’s (industrial partner) product line that are recycling compatible. Several new formulations were also designed and are currently being scaled-up. Work on recycling compatible barrier coatings for corrugated containers examined the reinforcement of coatings using a small amount of exfoliated organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT). These OMMT/paraffin wax nanocomposites demonstrated significantly improved mechanical properties. Paraffin waxes containing clay were found to have significantly higher Young’s moduli and yield stress relative to the wax matrix, but the most

  18. Compatibility of Fluorinert, FC-72, with selected materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, James Henry; Sawyer, Patricia Sue

    2006-02-01

    Removable encapsulants have been developed as replacement materials for electronic encapsulation. They can be removed from an electronic assembly in a fairly benign manner. Encapsulants must satisfy a limited number of criteria to be useful. These include processing ease, certain mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, adhesion to common clean surfaces, good aging characteristics, and compatibility. This report discusses one aspect of the compatibility of removable blown epoxy foams with electronic components. Of interest is the compatibility of the blowing agent, Fluorinert{trademark} (FC-72) electronic fluid with electronic parts, components, and select materials. Excellent compatibility is found with most of the investigated materials. A few materials, such as Teflon{reg_sign} that are comprised of chemicals very similar to FC-72 show substantial absorption of FC-72. No compatibility issues have yet been identified even for the few materials that show substantial absorption.

  19. Deformation compatibility control for engineering structures methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hanhua; Chen, Mengchong; Deng, Jianliang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents essential methods of deformation compatibility control, and explicitly addresses the implied conditions on the methods’ deformation compatibility. Consequently, these conditions can be considered in engineering structure design, while the conditions on stable equilibrium can be taken into account in the design method. Thus, the designed deformation and the actual deformation of the respective structure are approximately identical, guaranteeing both the flexibility of the construction material in force transmission and the equilibrium of force in the structure. Though equilibrium theory in engineering structures has been extensively studied, there has been comparatively little research on compatibility. In the limited researches available, the topics are primarily the theories and assumptions on the deformation compatibility, while few systematic works focus on the mechanical theoretical principles and methods of deformation compatibility control. As such, the flexibility of the constructi...

  20. [Medical implantable devices and electromagnetic compatibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrivet, P

    2003-04-01

    Continuing progress in medicine has led to a corresponding population growth among the elderly population resulting in an increase in the number of patients with active implanted medical devices. At the same time, there continues to be a proliferation of electromagnetic wave sources within our technological environment. The coexistence of implanted active medical devices and environmental electromagnetic waves requires particular attention in order to avoid electromagnetic interference. For this reason, experts are more and more involved in writing specific manufacturing standards.

  1. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) design guidelines for I and C systems for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In Koo; Lee, Dong Young; Cha, Kyung Ho; Park, Joo Hyun; Lee, Ki Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    This report describes the research results on Electromagnetic Compatibility technologies for I and C(Instrumentation and Control) systems for nuclear power plants. As the nuclear industries are adopting the digital equipment rather than the conventional analog type equipment for safety I and C systems as well as non-safety systems of nuclear power plants(NPPs), it is necessary to secure compatibility against EMI(electromagnetic interference) for the digital safety I and C systems. EMI qualification, identified as a regulatory compliance item by US NRC and Korean regulatory body, should be performed in accordance with appropriate standards, because the electromagnetic environment is regarded as one of the environmental factors possible to affect the safety functions. As a technical guide on this EMI issue, this report includes description of code and standards scheme, EMI qualification methods, noise reduction strategies, and survey on noise levels in nuclear power plants. 29 refs., 72 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  2. Investigating the factors affecting farmers' perceived compatibility of bio- fertilizers in the Zanjan county

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesamedin Gholami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of bio-fertilizers has increased because of the negative consequences of using chemical fertilizers. This study that was conducted in the Zanjan County was aimed at examining the factors that affect farmers' perceived compatibility of bio- fertilizers. In this regard, among 313 active farmers in the Zanjan county, 135 farmers were contacted and surveyed through a convenient sampling to examine two categories of effective factors, i.e. personal (knowledge about and attitude toward bio-fertilizers and environmental (economic accessibility, physical accessibility to bio-fertilizers and policy and support structures factors. Binary logistic regression and discriminant analysis were applied to examine the consistency of the results. The results of two techniques showed that improving policy and support increased farmers' perceived computability and providing economic facilities decreased it. Furthermore, the results revealed that farmers' knowledge and attitude did not have a significant effect on the perceived compatibility.

  3. Simultaneous determination of BTEX and their metabolites using solid-phase microextraction followed by HPLC or GC/MS: An application in teeth as environmental biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Johannes L; Pell, Albert; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel

    2017-12-15

    Applications of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-, m-, and p-xylenes (BTEX) release them into the environment exposing living organism. These endocrine disruptors are toxic, highly volatile and easily absorbed by the lungs and can cause adverse consequences for the human health as neurological diseases and cancer. A method for the analysis of BTEX and its metabolites (phenols and aromatic acids) in teeth is presented. The method consists in a one-step simple extraction procedure from spiked tooth using NaOH solution followed by SPME-HPLC or HS-SPME-GC/MS determination. Optimization of both, spiking procedure and extraction step of these analytes from tooth, was carried out. Two fibers CAR/PDMS for BTEX and PA for BTEX metabolites were used for the SPME and variables were optimized for analytes at 30°C using spiked solutions. The optimized adsorption times were 30, 75 and 30min and desorption times were 10, 40 and 30min for BTEX, phenols and aromatic acids, respectively. Linearity for SPME-HPLC method was established using spiked solutions with both, BTEX and metabolites, at 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 25.0μg/mL. The obtained results indicated a good linearity (r2 above 0.994) for all analytes. Triplicate analyses were performed with RSD lower than 15%. LODs were in the range 0.2-33.3ng/mL for SPME-HPLC and 0.06-0.09pg/mL for HS-SPME-GC/MS methods in spiking solutions. Once the method was optimized, bovine teeth were used as biological matrix model for the tuning of spiking and extraction steps. Optimal adsorption and desorption times were 4h for both procedures. Micrograms per tooth gram of BTEX and phenols were quantified in ten human teeth and aromatic acids were not identified. The developed method for BTEX and metabolites analyses using SPME-HPLC or HS-SPME-GC/MS shows good precision, linearity and sensitivity. The method was successfully applied in human teeth as environmental biomarker of BTEX and metabolites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Solid-phase microextraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Torben

    and organophosphate pesticides and triazine herbicides together with their metabolites in aqueous samples. SPME combined with gas chromatography proved to be a precise, accurate and sensitive technique for water analysis. Also SPME combined with high performance liquid chromatography was tested, and a method......The objective of this study has been to develop new analytical methods using the rapid, simple and solvent-free extraction technique solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the quantitative analysis of organic pollutants at trace level in drinking water and environmental samples. The dynamics...

  5. Physical Compatibility of Propofol-Sufentanil Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbytovská, Jarmila; Gallusová, Jana; Vidlářová, Lucie; Procházková, Kamila; Šimek, Jan; Štěpánek, František

    2017-03-01

    instability that could lead to particle enlargement; thus, fat embolism should not be a risk after their intravenous application. However, our long-term stability study revealed differences between commercially available preparations containing the same active ingredient; some of the mixtures showed an increase in particle size and polydispersity over a longer period. Although our results should not be generalized beyond the particular propofol-sufentanil preparations and concentrations studied here, they do suggest that, as a general principle, a compatibility study should be performed for any preparation before the first intravenous application to exclude the risk of droplet aggregation.

  6. Solid wastes research in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Noble, RG

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of solid wastes management in environmental pollution control cannot be over-emphasised. Increased socio-economic development in South Africa has brought with it increasing volumes of urban, industrial and agricultural wastes...

  7. Torrefaction Processing for Human Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, Michael A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Wójtowicz, Marek A.; Stapleton, Thomas J.; Nalette, Tim A.; Ewert, Michael K.; Lee, Jeffrey; Fisher, John

    2016-01-01

    This study involved a torrefaction (mild pyrolysis) processing approach that could be used to sterilize feces and produce a stable, odor-free solid product that can be stored or recycled, and also to simultaneously recover moisture. It was demonstrated that mild heating (200-250 C) in nitrogen or air was adequate for torrefaction of a fecal simulant and an analog of human solid waste (canine feces). The net result was a nearly undetectable odor (for the canine feces), complete recovery of moisture, some additional water production, a modest reduction of the dry solid mass, and the production of small amounts of gas and liquid. The liquid product is mainly water, with a small Total Organic Carbon content. The amount of solid vs gas plus liquid products can be controlled by adjusting the torrefaction conditions (final temperature, holding time), and the current work has shown that the benefits of torrefaction could be achieved in a low temperature range (< 250 C). These temperatures are compatible with the PTFE bag materials historically used by NASA for fecal waste containment and will reduce the energy consumption of the process. The solid product was a dry material that did not support bacterial growth and was hydrophobic relative to the starting material. In the case of canine feces, the solid product was a mechanically friable material that could be easily compacted to a significantly smaller volume (approx. 50%). The proposed Torrefaction Processing Unit (TPU) would be designed to be compatible with the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS), now under development by NASA. A stand-alone TPU could be used to treat the canister from the UWMS, along with other types of wet solid wastes, with either conventional or microwave heating. Over time, a more complete integration of the TPU and the UWMS could be achieved, but will require design changes in both units.

  8. Environmentally-friendly and ultrasonic-assisted preparation of two-dimensional ultrathin Ni/Co-NO3 layered double hydroxide nanosheet for micro solid-phase extraction of phenolic acids from fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Roozbeh; Shahvar, Ali; Dinari, Mohammad; Saraji, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we report an environmentally-friendly and low cost synthetic approach for large-scale fabrication of 2-dimentional porous Ni/Co-NO3-based layered double hydroxide (Ni/Co-NO3-LDH) nanosheet through ultrasonic-assisted process. The synthesis procedure used ethylene glycol/water system as an eco-friendly solvent system. The synthesized LDH was characterized by FE-SEM, TEM, XRD, and FT-IR techniques. FE-SEM and TEM images showed porous structure surface morphology of the synthesized LDH. Also, For Ni/Co-NO3-LDH, a hexagonal ultrathin layered was obtained owing to ultrasonic irradiation and applied processing conditions. The prepared LDH was used as sorbent in dispersive micro solid-phase extraction procedure. Two phenolic acids including p-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid were selected as model compounds. Some experimental factors affecting the extraction efficiency of the analytes were investigated and optimized. Finally, the sorbent was used for the extraction of model compound from fruit juice samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography. Linear dynamic range of 0.5-500µgL-1 with a low detection limit (0.1µgL-1) was obtained by the method. The relative standard deviations were 2.5 and 4.3% for p-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid, respectively. All recoveries were between 82 and 92%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of bamboo charcoal as solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the determination of atrazine and simazine in environmental water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ru-Song; Yuan, Jin-Peng; Jiang, Ting; Shi, Jun-Bo; Cheng, Chuan-Ge

    2008-08-15

    In this article, a new method for the determination of triazine herbicides atrazine and simazine in environment aqueous samples was developed. It was based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) using bamboo charcoal as adsorbent and high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV) for the enrichment and determination of atrazine and simazine at trace level. Related important factors influencing the extraction efficiency, such as the kind of eluent and its volume, flow rate of the sample, pH of the sample, and volume of the sample, were investigated and optimized in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental results showed that excellent linearity was obtained over the range of 0.5-30 microg L(-1) with correlation coefficients 0.9991 and 0.9982, for atrazine and simazine, respectively; and the relative standard deviations of two analytes were 8.3, 8.7%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of tap water and well water samples. And satisfactory spiked recoveries were obtained in the range of 75.2-107.1%. The above results indicated that the developed method was an excellent alternative for the routine analysis in environmental field.

  10. Trace analysis of antidepressants in environmental waters by molecularly imprinted polymer-based solid-phase extraction followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeestere, Kristof; Petrović, Mira; Gros, Meritxell; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman; Barceló, Damià

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the development, optimization, and validation of an innovative method to analyze trace concentrations of seven selected psychoactive pharmaceuticals in environmental waters. Hereby, the solid-phase extraction (SPE) potential of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in terms of extraction recovery, breakthrough, precision, and selectivity is studied for the first time. Instrumental analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry allowed a rapid (run time = 7.5 min) and sensitive (instrumental detection limit Experiments performed in spiked river water, sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent and influent showed for these compounds extraction recoveries higher than 70%, breakthrough volumes up to 200 mL, method detection limits (MDL) as low as 0.5 ng/L, and good precision (exemplified by relative standard deviations better than 15%, n > or = 3). Compared to the widely used hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced (HLB) polymers, the newly developed MIPs indicated to be more resistant toward matrix effects induced ion signal suppression particularly when dealing with relative dirty samples like STP influents. As a result of the better selectivity, the MDL obtained with the MIP-based SPE method was up to a factor of 7 lower compared to those obtained with a recently reported multi-residue HLB method. However, optimizing a HLB method in terms of selectivity, e.g., by introducing a stronger washing protocol, can significantly reduce its MDL up to values approximating those obtained with MIPs.

  11. Resíduos sólidos urbanos: impactos socioambientais e perspectiva de manejo sustentável com inclusão social Solid urban waste: socio-environmental impacts and prospects for sustainable management with social inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gouveia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Com a Rio+20 retoma-se a discussão de estratégias para conciliar desenvolvimento com proteção dos ecossistemas. Um tema apenas tangenciado nessas discussões é o gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos urbanos. Diante da institucionalização da Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos, busca-se contribuir para esse debate, bem como apontar caminhos para o enfrentamento dessa questão, privilegiando a inclusão social. Para isso, foram utilizados documentos e informações sobre a gestão de resíduos sólidos, e a literatura científica especializada. Observa-se que o inadequado gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos gera impactos imediatos no ambiente e na saúde, assim como contribui para mudanças climáticas. Considerando as limitações das opções de destinação final para os resíduos, é imprescindível minimizar as quantidades produzidas por meio da redução, reutilização e reciclagem. Nesse contexto, destaca-se o papel dos catadores, que vêm realizando um trabalho de grande importância ambiental. Dadas as fragilidades desse segmento populacional, é preciso delinear políticas públicas que tornem a atividade de catação mais digna e com menos riscos e que, ao mesmo tempo, garantam renda, para assim caminhar rumo a um desenvolvimento mais saudável, justo e sustentável.Strategies to reconcile development with the protection of ecosystems will yet again be discussed at the forthcoming Rio +20 Summit. The management of solid urban waste is an issue which has barely been touched upon in such discussions. Given the institutionalization of the National Solid Waste Policy, this paper seeks to contribute to this debate and to single out alternatives to tackle this issue with an emphasis on social inclusion. For this purpose, specialized scientific literature was consulted as well as information on solid waste management. It is clearly seen that inadequate management of solid waste has immediate impacts on the environment and health

  12. Dummy-surface molecularly imprinted polymers as a sorbent of micro-solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of five 2-phenylpropionic acid NSAIDs in aquatic environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ping; Yuan, Xucan; Zhang, Jingjing; Wang, Binjie; Sun, Xiaoyang; Chen, Xiaohui; Zhao, Longshan

    2018-01-01

    environmental fate and risk to ecological health. Graphical abstract Dummy-surface molecularly imprinted polymers as a sorbent of micro-solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of five 2-phenylpropionic acid NSAIDs in aquatic environmental samples.

  13. Generalized Metric Spaces Do Not Have the Compatible Topology

    OpenAIRE

    Tomonari Suzuki

    2014-01-01

    We study generalized metric spaces, which were introduced by Branciari (2000). In particular, generalized metric spaces do not necessarily have the compatible topology. Also we prove a generalization of the Banach contraction principle in complete generalized metric spaces.

  14. Standards for compatibility of printed circuit and component lead materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Study of packaging of microminiature electronic components reveals methods of improving compatibility of lead materials, joining techniques, transfer molding concepts, printed circuit board materials, and process and material specifications.

  15. Compatibility of Functionalized Graphene with Polyethylene and Its Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Myeong Seo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of polyethylene (PE with a functionalized graphene sheet (FGS, which was prepared by the thermal reduction of graphite oxide, was examined in this study. The dispersion of the FGS in the PE was improved as the molecular weight of the PE was decreased. The PE copolymers containing polar comonomers such as maleic anhydride or acrylic acid exhibited better compatibility with FGS than the PE homopolymers. The compatibility of the FGS with PE copolymers containing small amounts of comonomers, which have a solubility parameter slightly larger [up to approximately 0.5 (J/cm31/2] than that of PE itself, was better than the compatibility of both the PE and PE copolymers containing larger amounts of comonomers. The morphology, electric conductivity, and tensile properties of FGS/PE copolymer/PE nanocomposites showed that the copolymers with a solubility parameter slightly larger than that of PE effectively served as a compatibilizer in FGS/PE nanocomposites.

  16. Preformulation compatibility screening of dika fat-drug mixtures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dika fat was found to be compatible with aspirin, ascorbic acid, paracetamol, sulphanilamide, phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride, bromopheniramine maleate, chlorpheniramire maleate, diazepam, phenobarbital, phenobarbital sodium, phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride and propranolol hydrochloride. It appears that ...

  17. Metric Compatible or Noncompatible Finsler--Ricci Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Vacaru, Sergiu I

    2011-01-01

    There were elaborated different models of Finsler geometry using the Cartan (metric compatible), or Berwald and Chern (metric non-compatible) connections, the Ricci flag curvature etc. In a series of works, we studied (non)commutative metric compatible Finsler and nonholonomic generalizations of the Ricci flow theory [see S. Vacaru, J. Math. Phys. 49 (2008) 043504; 50 (2009) 073503 and references therein. The goal of this work is to prove that there are some models of Finsler gravity and geometric evolution theories with generalized Perelman's functionals, and correspondingly derived nonholonomic Hamilton evolution equations, when metric noncompatible Finsler connections are involved. Following such an approach, we have to consider distortion tensors, uniquely defined by the Finsler metric, from the Cartan and/or the canonical metric compatible connections. We conclude that, in general, it is not possible to elaborate self-consistent models of geometric evolution with arbitrary Finsler metric noncompatible co...

  18. Compatibility of entomopathogenic fungi with extracts of plants and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The compatibility of some commercial botanicals (Biospark, Phytophrate, Exodos, Biodos and Neemgold) and of solvent extracts of Syndrella nodiflora, Premna tomentosa, Vitex negundo, Ipomea carnea, Pteridium aquilinum (leaves) and Annona squomosa (seeds) with Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuil., Isaria ...

  19. Incentive-Compatible Interdomain Routing with Linear Utilities

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Alexander; Nikolova, Evdokia; Papadimitriou, Christos

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the problem of incentive-compatible interdomain routing, examining the quite realistic special case in which the utilities of autonomous systems (ASes) are linear functions of the traffic in the incident links and the traffic leaving each AS. We show that incentive-compatibility toward maximizing total welfare is achievable efficiently, and in the uncapacitated case, by an algorithm that can be easily implemented by the border gateway protocol (BGP), the standard ...

  20. Methodology of site selection for solid municipal waste disposal plants; Metodologia per la localizzazione sul territorio di aree ambientalmente compatibili con impianti di smaltimento rifiuti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassoni, E.; Cautilli, F.; Polizzano, C.; Andriola, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-09-01

    The selection of suitable areas for solid municipal waste disposal plants has a notable importance in relation to the problems linked to the solid municipal waste management. The knowledge of the territory constitutes the fundamental base for the selection of compatible areas, from an environmental point of view. The method developed by ENEA (1995) and applied to the Latina territory (Central Italy) preliminary considers an accurate bibliographic and cartographic search, relative to the geological, presently, hydrogeological characteristics and the use constraints of the territory. The selection of suitable areas has been carried out on the ground of the following criteria: - selection of potentially suitable large areas, carried out overlaying thematic maps (geological, geomorphological, etc.) elaborated for all the examined territory; - selection of ``exclusion`` areas on the ground of use constraints, such as residential areas, water protection zones and so on. At the end of the proceeding phases other main points with territorial and socioeconomic significance have been examined and represented on thematic maps. Because the selected areas have resulted too numerous, it has been necessary to utilize methods to get environmental comparative evaluations of the areas in relation to the solid municipal waste disposal plants. A method, developed by ENEA (1994) and based on the calculus of the ``impacts matrix`` has been used. The application of the described method has allowed to find out the areas with the best degree of compatibility, which could be defined ``first priority`` areas for the final choice of the plants site. The aforesaid classification allows the Local Administrators to select the site in a scientifically correct way, on the ground of the evaluation of environmental characteristics above indicated and of a cost-benefit balance; this latter is presently not included among the objectives of the methodology.

  1. Studies on compatibility of energetic materials by thermal methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Carvalho Mazzeu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemical compatibility of explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants with those materials is studied to evaluate potential hazards when in contact with other materials during production, storage and handling. Compatibility can be studied by several thermal methods as DSC (differential scanning calorimetry, TG (Thermogravimetry, VST (Vacuum stability test and others. The test methods and well defined criteria are the most important elements when a compatibility study is being accomplished. In this paper, the compatibility of two very important high explosives used in ammunition, RDX (Cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine and HMX (Cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine was studied with the materials: fluoroelastomer (Viton and powdered aluminum (Al, using DSC and VST methods. The criteria to judge the compatibility between materials is based on a standardization agreement (STANAG 4147, 2001, and the final conclusion is that explosives and this materials are compatible, but in DSC it was observed that the peak of decomposition temperature of the admixture of RDX with Al decreased in 3º C and another peak appeared after the decomposition peak.

  2. Soil pollution of urban origin: environmental management of solid waste in the municipalities of Pernambuco Center Agreste | Poluição do solo de origem urbana: gestão ambiental de resíduos sólidos nos municípios do Centro de Pernambuco Agreste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Buonora de Souza Lira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazil has serious problems in the management of solid waste. The Pernambuco states occupies an area of approximately 98,146 square kilometers and is divided into 12 Regions Development, based on environmental, socioeconomic, cultural and geographic. The Northern Region Agreste has 19 municipalities with a population of approximately 430,222 habitants; the region faces problems of degradation and soil erosion, lack of sanitation, in addition to poor housing. Poor management and inadequate disposal have generated social and environmental impacts increasingly significant because the production system not only uses of natural resources, but also generates increasing amounts of materials in the form of waste on the environment. When using the landfill for final disposal of waste, this area suffers a high degree of negative environmental impacts such as contamination of the subsoil and groundwater in disposal sites. This research aims to present environmental problems on the management of municipal solid waste, its environmental damage of some municipalities of the Agreste and present some suggestions for programs and actions to improve environmental quality.

  3. Context-dependent JPEG backward-compatible high-dynamic range image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2013-10-01

    High-dynamic range (HDR) imaging is expected, together with ultrahigh definition and high-frame rate video, to become a technology that may change photo, TV, and film industries. Many cameras and displays capable of capturing and rendering both HDR images and video are already available in the market. The popularity and full-public adoption of HDR content is, however, hindered by the lack of standards in evaluation of quality, file formats, and compression, as well as large legacy base of low-dynamic range (LDR) displays that are unable to render HDR. To facilitate the wide spread of HDR usage, the backward compatibility of HDR with commonly used legacy technologies for storage, rendering, and compression of video and images are necessary. Although many tone-mapping algorithms are developed for generating viewable LDR content from HDR, there is no consensus of which algorithm to use and under which conditions. We, via a series of subjective evaluations, demonstrate the dependency of the perceptual quality of the tone-mapped LDR images on the context: environmental factors, display parameters, and image content itself. Based on the results of subjective tests, it proposes to extend JPEG file format, the most popular image format, in a backward compatible manner to deal with HDR images also. An architecture to achieve such backward compatibility with JPEG is proposed. A simple implementation of lossy compression demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed architecture compared with the state-of-the-art HDR image compression.

  4. PERUBAHAN FISIK KERUANGAN DAN SOSIAL EKONOMI MASYARAKAT DI KAWASAN SEKITAR TEMPAT PEMBUANGAN AKHIR SAMPAH BANTARGEBANG KOTA BEKASI (Physical Environmental and Social Economic Changing in Bantargebang Solid Waste Dumping Site Area Surrounding Bekasi City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Kesuma

    2003-07-01

    Physical change was marked by the increasing number of built area, i.e., the growing areas for garbage collectors housings, stalls, local inhabitants housings, increasing length and width of road, and decreasing quality of ground water, air, and solid fertility. The changes of social condition were marked by the increasing population, economic activities or job opportunities, low rate of participation in all levels of education, decreasing degree of health, and disturbed environmental comfort, all of which reduce people’s welfare. The income increase of income, hob opportunities, and business activities which marked the improvement of economic condition. the research concluded that Bantargebang dumping site brought more negative than positive impacts to the surrounding environment and society in the research location.

  5. Direct Bioconversion of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches for Bioethanol Production By Solid State Bioconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassereldeen Ahmed Kabbashi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The bioethanol production was conducted by utilizing agriculture waste, palm oil empty fruit bunches (EFB with the aid of T. harzianum and yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae using solid state bioconversion method. The compatibility of various fungal strains was done as to develop the direct bioconversion process of compatible mixed culture. Analyzes such ethanol estimation, reducing sugar and glucosamine as growth indicator were conducted in order to select the best experimented run for optimization. The optimization of process conditions, by using central composite design (CCD was carried out. Optimization of process condition was done with varied level of moisture content, pH, inoculum size, concentration of co-substrate (wheat flour and mineral solutions. Statistical analysis showed that the optimum process condition for moisture content was 50% (v/w, pH of 4, inoculum size of 10% (v/v, concentration of wheat flour of 1% (v/v and mineral solutions 1%(v/v. In this study, the application levels of the methods of environmental management in regards to the maximum production were determined. The final optimization with the developed process conditions indicated that the maximum production was increased from 14.315 (v/v to 34.785(v/v.

  6. Environmental taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekins, P.; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Vos, H.

    include those on sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in Sweden, on toxic waste in Germany, on water pollution in The Netherlands, and the tax differentials on leaded fuel and 'cleaner' diesel fuel in Sweden.3.Taxes as such have potential negative impacts on competitiveness and on employment, Most barriers...... and information. 4.As environmental concerns move from point-source emissions and problems, such as industrial emissions from pipelines and chimneys, to include more diffuse and mobile sources of pollution, such as solid waste, or from the agricultural and transport sectors, there is increased scope...

  7. 40 CFR 261.2 - Definition of solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of solid waste. 261.2 Section 261.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.2 Definition of solid waste. (a)(1) A...

  8. The metal-organic framework HKUST-1 as efficient sorbent in a vortex-assisted dispersive micro solid-phase extraction of parabens from environmental waters, cosmetic creams, and human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocío-Bautista, Priscilla; Martínez-Benito, Carla; Pino, Verónica; Pasán, Jorge; Ayala, Juan H; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; Afonso, Ana M

    2015-07-01

    Three metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), specifically HKUST-1, MOF-5, and MIL-53(Al), have been synthetized, characterized, studied and compared in a vortex-assisted dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction (VA-D-µ-SPE) procedure in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection (DAD) for determining seven parabens in environmental waters (tap water, swimming pool water, and water coming from a spa pool), human urine (from two volunteers), and cosmetic creams (two commercial brands). Experimental parameters, such as nature and amount of MOF, sample volume, nature of elution solvent and its amount, vortex and centrifugation time, among others, were properly optimized. HKUST-1 was the most adequate MOF to work with. Detection limits for the overall method down to 0.1 μgL(-1) for butylparaben (BPB) and benzylparaben (BzPB) were obtained, with determination coefficients (R(2)) higher than 0.9966 for a range of 0.5-147 μgL(-1) (depending on the paraben), average relative recoveries (RR, in %) of 80.3% at the low spiked level (7 μgL(-1)), and relative standard deviation (RSD) values below 10% also at the low spiked level. The strength of the affinity between HKUST-1 and parabens was evaluated, and it ranged from 33.5% for isopropylparaben (iPPB) to 77.0% for isobutylparaben (iBPB). When analyzing complex environmental waters, RR values of 78%, inter-day precision values (as RSD) lower than 15%, and intra-day precision values lower than 7.8% were obtained, despite the observed matrix effect. When analyzing cosmetic creams, parabens were detected, with contents ranging from 0.14 ± 0.01 μgg(-1) for EPB in the healing cream analyzed to 1.12 ± 0.07 mgg(-1) for MPB in the mask cream analyzed, with precision values (RSD) lower than 12% and RR values from 63.7% for propylparaben (PPB) to 121% for iPPB. When analyzing human urine, no parabens were detected but the method could be performed with RSD values lower than 19%. These

  9. In situ growth and phenyl functionalization of titania nanoparticles coating for solid-phase microextraction of ultraviolet filters in environmental water samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography-UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Guo, Ruibin; Li, Yi; Guo, Mei; Wang, Xuemei; Du, Xinzhen

    2015-03-31

    Based on TiO2-nanoparticles coating fabricated by a one-step anodization method on titanium wire substrate, a novel phenyl functionalized solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating was prepared by simple and rapid in situ chemical assembling technique between the fiber surface titanol groups and trichlorophenylsilane reaction. The as-fabricated fiber exhibited good extraction capability for some UV filters and was employed to determine the ultraviolet (UV) filters in combination with high performance liquid chromatography-UV detection (HPLC-UV). The main parameters affecting extraction performance were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method was applied to detect several UV filters at trace concentration levels with only 8 mL of sample volume. They were determined in the range from 0.005 to 25 μg L(-1) with detection limits (S/N=3) from 0.1 to 50 ng L(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for single fiber repeatability varied from 4.6 to 6.5% (n=5) and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility (n=5) ranged from 5.5 to 9.1%. The linear ranges spanned two-four magnitudes with correlation coefficients above 0.9990. Five real water samples including four Yellow River water samples and one rain water sample were determined sensitively with good recoveries ranging from 86.2 to 105.5%. The functionalized fiber coating performed good reproducible manner, high mechanical strength, good stability and long service life. Moreover, this study proposed an efficient sample pretreatment method for the determination of UV filters from environmental water samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasmonics Based Harsh Environment Compatible Chemical Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Carpenter

    2012-01-15

    with the observed stability over long exposure periods, each of these Au-metal oxide films shows good potential as an optical sensing element for harsh environmental conditions.

  11. Sensors for environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David Russell; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Davis, Mary Jo (Science Applications International Corporation, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-09-01

    This report surveys the needs associated with environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship. Emerging sensor technologies are reviewed to identify compatible technologies for various environmental monitoring applications. The contaminants that are considered in this report are grouped into the following categories: (1) metals, (2) radioisotopes, (3) volatile organic compounds, and (4) biological contaminants. Regulatory drivers are evaluated for different applications (e.g., drinking water, storm water, pretreatment, and air emissions), and sensor requirements are derived from these regulatory metrics. Sensor capabilities are then summarized according to contaminant type, and the applicability of the different sensors to various environmental monitoring applications is discussed.

  12. Synthesis of novel conjugates of a saccharide, amino acids, nucleobase and the evaluation of their cell compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the synthesis of a novel type of conjugate of three fundamental biological build blocks (i.e., saccharide, amino acids, and nucleobase and their cell compatibility. The facile synthesis starts with the synthesis of nucleobase and saccharide derivatives, then uses solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS to build the peptide segment (Phe-Arg-Gly-Asp or naphthAla-Phe-Arg-Gly-Asp with fully protected groups, and later, an amidation reaction in liquid phase connects these three parts together. The overall yield of these multiple step synthesis is about 34%. Besides exhibiting excellent solubility, these conjugates of saccharide–amino acids–nucleobase (SAN, like the previously reported conjugates of nucleobase–amino acids–saccharide (NAS and nucleobase–saccharide–amino acids (NSA, are mammalian cell compatible.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of the biostability and cell compatibility of novel conjugates of nucleobase, peptidic epitope, and saccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the synthesis of a new class of conjugates containing a nucleobase, a peptidic epitope, and a saccharide and the evalution of their gelation, biostability, and cell compatibility. We demonstrate a facile synthetic process, based on solid-phase peptide synthesis of nucleopeptides, to connect a saccharide with the nucleopeptides for producing the target conjugates. All the conjugates themselves (1–8 display excellent solubility in water without forming hydrogels. However, a mixture of 5 and 8 self-assembles to form nanofibers and results in a supramolecular hydrogel. The proteolytic stabilities of the conjugates depend on the functional peptidic epitopes. We found that TTPV is proteolytic resistant and LGFNI is susceptible to proteolysis. In addition, all the conjugates are compatible to the mammalian cells tested.

  14. Conceptual design of CFETR divertor remote handling compatible structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Huaichu, E-mail: yaodm@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Yao, Damao; Cao, Lei; Zhou, Zibo; Li, Lei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Conceptual design for the CFETR divertor have been proposed, especially the divertor remote handling compatible structure. • The degrees of freedom of the divertor are analyzed in order to validate the design the divertor supports structure. • Besides the ITER-like scheme, a new scheme for the divertor remote handling compatible supports is proposed, that is the rack and pinion mechanism. • The installation/removel process is verified through simulation in Delmia in order to check design quality for remote handling requirements. - Abstract: Divertor is one of key components of tokamak fusion reactor. The CFETR is China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor. Its divertor will expose to tritium environment and neutron radiation. Materials of the divertor will be radioactived, and cannot be handled by personnel directly. To develop structure which compatible with robots handle for installation, maintenance and removing is required. This paper introduces a conceptual design of CFETR divertor module which compatible with remote handling end-effectors. The divertor module is confined by inner and outer support. The inner support is only confined divertor module radial, toroidal and vertical moving freedom degrees, but not confined rotating freedom degrees. The outer support is the structure that can confine rotating freedom degrees and should also be compatible with remote handling end-effectors.

  15. Solid-Phase Synthesis for the Construction of Biologically Interesting Molecules and the Total Synthesis of Trioxacarcin DC-45-A2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Remi Jacob Thomsen

    This thesis covers three research projects in addition to a literature survey on solid-phase organic synthesis and photolabile linkers. Synthesis of Doxorubicin Derivatives on Photolabile Solid Support. The synthesis of doxorubicin derivatives on photolabile solid support, compatible with bead-ba...

  16. Statics of deformable solids

    CERN Document Server

    Bisplinghoff, Raymond L; Pian, Theodore HH

    2014-01-01

    Profusely illustrated exposition of fundamentals of solid mechanics and principles of mechanics, statics, and simple statically indeterminate systems. Covers strain and stress in three-dimensional solids, elementary elasticity, energy principles in solid continuum, and more. 1965 edition.

  17. Novel Electro-Optical Coupling Technique for Magnetic Resonance-Compatible Positron Emission Tomography Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Olcott

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-compatible positron emission tomography (PET detector design is being developed that uses electro-optical coupling to bring the amplitude and arrival time information of high-speed PET detector scintillation pulses out of an MRI system. The electro-optical coupling technology consists of a magnetically insensitive photodetector output signal connected to a nonmagnetic vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL diode that is coupled to a multimode optical fiber. This scheme essentially acts as an optical wire with no influence on the MRI system. To test the feasibility of this approach, a lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate crystal coupled to a single pixel of a solid-state photomultiplier array was placed in coincidence with a lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystal coupled to a fast photomultiplier tube with both the new nonmagnetic VCSEL coupling and the standard coaxial cable signal transmission scheme. No significant change was observed in 511 keV photopeak energy resolution and coincidence time resolution. This electro-optical coupling technology enables an MRI-compatible PET block detector to have a reduced electromagnetic footprint compared with the signal transmission schemes deployed in the current MRI/PET designs.

  18. Novel electro-optical coupling technique for magnetic resonance-compatible positron emission tomography detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott, Peter D; Peng, Hao; Levin, Craig S

    2009-01-01

    A new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible positron emission tomography (PET) detector design is being developed that uses electro-optical coupling to bring the amplitude and arrival time information of high-speed PET detector scintillation pulses out of an MRI system. The electro-optical coupling technology consists of a magnetically insensitive photodetector output signal connected to a nonmagnetic vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) diode that is coupled to a multimode optical fiber. This scheme essentially acts as an optical wire with no influence on the MRI system. To test the feasibility of this approach, a lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate crystal coupled to a single pixel of a solid-state photomultiplier array was placed in coincidence with a lutetium oxyorthosilicate crystal coupled to a fast photomultiplier tube with both the new nonmagnetic VCSEL coupling and the standard coaxial cable signal transmission scheme. No significant change was observed in 511 keV photopeak energy resolution and coincidence time resolution. This electro-optical coupling technology enables an MRI-compatible PET block detector to have a reduced electromagnetic footprint compared with the signal transmission schemes deployed in the current MRI/PET designs.

  19. A tailored approach to electromagnetic compatibility requirements in space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, Ken; Nave, Mark

    1991-01-01

    An approach is outlined which defines the requirements for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) between NASA and military technologies with attention given to electromagnetic interference (EMI) requirements. In order to minimize the cost and weight impact of the changes needed for compatibility the plan emphasizes the incorporation of off-the-shelf technology with current nonstandard methods. NASA designs are structured to meet EMI requirements rather than processing waivers against military-type specifications. The NASA-wide EMI requirements can be documented in three sections: requirements, test methods, and tailoring guidelines. It is shown that a NASA-wide EMC specification would decrease the costs of achieving compatibility by increasing efficiency and optimizing the relationship between EMC design and performance and cost.

  20. The compatibility of fingerprint visualization techniques with immunolabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Annemieke; Aalders, Maurice C G; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Lambrechts, Saskia A G

    2013-07-01

    The chemical composition of a fingermark potentially holds a wealth of information about the fingermark donor, which can be extracted by immunolabeling. Immunolabeling can be used to detect specific components in fingermarks; however, to be applicable in the forensic field, it should be compatible with commonly used fingerprint visualization techniques. In this study, the compatibility of immunolabeling with two different fingerprint visualization techniques, magnetic powdering and ninhydrin staining, was investigated on fingermarks deposited on glass and on nitrocellulose membranes. With dermcidin as antigen of interest, immunolabeling was performed successfully on all developed fingermarks. We can conclude that immunolabeling is compatible with magnetic powdering and ninhydrin staining, which can be of great forensic value. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Biochemical mechanisms determine the functional compatibility of heterologous genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porse, Andreas; Schou, Thea S.; Munck, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Elucidating the factors governing the functional compatibility of horizontally transferred genes is important to understand bacterial evolution, including the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance, and to successfully engineer biological systems. In silico efforts and work using single-gene...... libraries have suggested that sequence composition is a strong barrier for the successful integration of heterologous genes. Here we sample 200 diverse genes, representing >80% of sequenced antibiotic resistance genes, to interrogate the factors governing genetic compatibility in new hosts. In contrast...... to previous work, we find that GC content, codon usage, and mRNA-folding energy are of minor importance for the compatibility of mechanistically diverse gene products at moderate expression. Instead, we identify the phylogenetic origin, and the dependence of a resistance mechanism on host physiology, as major...

  2. [Application of Doehlert design for compatibility research of Dachengqi decoction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhen; Cao, Cheng; Zeng, Yuaner; Jiang, Bin

    2009-05-01

    To study the compatibility of dosage change of Zhishi, Houpo and Mangxiao affecting the yields of Anthraquinone components in Dachengqi decoction. Response surface methodology (RSM) with Doehlert design was adopted to evaluate the yields of Anthraquinone components in Dachengqi decoction by dosage change of Zhishi, Houpo and Mangxiao and the analysis time was shorten through a desirability function. Results show that Anthraquinone components were got a high yields when the dosage ratio of Dachengqi decoction were compatible as follows: Dahuang-Zhishi-Houpo-Mangxiao (1:4:2. 31:2). The Doehlert design with a desirability function, which allow a sequential response methodology, is a good methods, and, of cause, the mathematical model can be further extended and applied to the compatibility research of Chinese material medicine.

  3. [Study on the compatibility of slip casting aluminous ceramic crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Q B; Xue, M; You, L; Du, C S; Chao, Y L

    1997-03-01

    One of the key factors for a good slip casting aluminous ceramic crown is good compatibility between its core material and the veneering porcelain.The chemical and thermal compatibility of two slip casting aluminous ceramic crown systems(In-Ceram and GI-I) were investigated by means of SEM and EDAX,thermal shock tests were also performed to evaluate the crazing resistance.The results showed: the crazing resistance of In-Ceram was 158 degrees centigrade,and that of GI-I was degrees centigrade;there existed tightly bonded interfaces between the slip casting aluminous ceramic cores and the veneering porcelains in both of the two systems,where ion transferences were found.The results also suggested good compatibility of the two slip casting aluminous ceramic crown systems.

  4. Compatibility studies of nevirapine in physical mixtures with excipients for oral HAART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.G.G. de; Ferraz, H.G. [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Health, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Severino, P. [Department of Biotechnological Processes, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas 13083-970 (Brazil); Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Fernando Pessoa University, Porto 4200-150 (Portugal); Souto, E.B., E-mail: eliana@ufp.edu.pt [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Fernando Pessoa University, Porto 4200-150 (Portugal); Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Genomics and Biotechnology, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro (IBB-CGB/UTAD), 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal)

    2013-03-01

    Nevirapine is a hydrophobic non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, used in first line regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The drug has more than one crystalline form, which may have implications for its behaviour during production and also for its in vivo performance. This study was aimed at exploring the suitability of thermoanalytical methods for the solid-state characterization of commercial crystalline forms of nevirapine. The drug powder was characterized by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, stereoscopy, scanning electron microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, measurements of density, flowability, solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR), differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and photostability measurements. The results showed that nevirapine has high stability and is not susceptible to degradation under light exposure. The drug showed compatibility with the excipients tested (lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone and polyvinyl acetate copolymer (PVP/PVA), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)). Nevirapine has low solubility, an acid medium being the most appropriate medium for assessing the release of the drug from dosage forms. However, the data obtained from IDR testing indicate that dissolution is the critical factor for the bioavailability of this drug. - Graphical abstract: Bulk nevirapine powder analysed by scanning electron microscopy and the drug solubility profile in various buffer solutions. The pH values of the media in which the tests were conducted are also presented. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nevirapine shows more than one crystalline form, that influence its in vivo and in vitro behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSC and TGA were used for solid-state characterization of crystalline forms of nevirapine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nevirapine is compatible with lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, PVP/PVA copolymers and HPMC. Black

  5. CMOS-compatible photonic devices for single-photon generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Chunle

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sources of single photons are one of the key building blocks for quantum photonic technologies such as quantum secure communication and powerful quantum computing. To bring the proof-of-principle demonstration of these technologies from the laboratory to the real world, complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS-compatible photonic chips are highly desirable for photon generation, manipulation, processing and even detection because of their compactness, scalability, robustness, and the potential for integration with electronics. In this paper, we review the development of photonic devices made from materials (e.g., silicon and processes that are compatible with CMOS fabrication facilities for the generation of single photons.

  6. Technical compatibility and safety of glass fiber in battery separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, R. [Schuller International, Toledo, OH (United States); Versen, R. [Schuller International, Littleton, CO (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Nonwovens comprised of glass fibers are both compatible with the relatively harsh chemical environment in lead acid batteries, and yet are safe to handle. The health and safety of glass fibers may seem confusing from a regulatory viewpoint, but are in fact highly tested and well understood scientifically to not cause respiratory disease. Nonwoven separators made from glass fibers are well situated to withstand scientific scrutiny in these times of suspicion of negative health effects ranging from second-hand smoke to tap water. This paper examines technical compatibility of the glass fibers in the battery, the health and safety aspects of glass fibers, and governmental and regulatory interpretation of studies.

  7. TIMBULAN SAMPAH B3 RUMAHTANGGA DAN POTENSI DAMPAK KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN DI KABUPATEN SLEMAN, YOGYAKARTA (Generation of Household Hazardous Solid Waste and Potential Impacts on Environmental Health in Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswanto Iswanto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Sampah rumahtangga yang mengandung Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun (B3 seperti baterai, lampu listrik, elektronik, kemasan pestisida, pemutih pakaian, pembersih lantai, cat, kaleng bertekanan (aerosol, sisa obat-obatan, termometer dan jarum suntik berpotensi mengancam kesehatan manusia dan lingkungan. Meskipun kuantitas sampah B3 rumahtangga (SB3-RT di Kabupaten Sleman hanya 2,44 g/orang/hari atau sekitar 0,488% dari sampah domestik, tetapi karena memiliki karakteristik mudah meledak, mudah terbakar, reaktif, beracun, infeksius dan/atau korosif maka sangat membahayakan bagi kesehatan dan lingkungan (air, tanah, udara. Sampai saat ini, SB3-RT di Kabupaten Sleman masih ditangani seperti layaknya sampah domestik, yaitu dibakar, dibuang ke sungai, ditimbun di pekarangan, dibuang ke tempat pembuangan sampah ilegal atau dibuang ke Tempat Pemrosesan Akhir (TPA Piyungan. Jenis SB3-RT yang banyak ditemukan adalah sampah elektronik (24,91%, lampu listrik bekas (18,08% dan baterai bekas (16,71%. Ketiga jenis sampah tersebut mengandung berbagai unsur logam berat seperti Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr, As, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, Al, Mn, Li, Sb dan Fe yang umumnya bersifat toksik, karsinogenik dan akumulatif yang dapat masuk ke dalam tubuh manusia secara langsung atau melalui rantai makanan. Pemaparan bahan berbahaya beracun (B3 dapat menyebabkan kerusakan pada berbagai jaringan/organ tubuh pada masyarakat sekitar tempat pembuangan, petugas sampah, pemulung, pengepul, pemanfaat dan pelaku daur ulang SB3-RT. Oleh karena itu SB3-RT perlu dikelola sebagaimana mestinya sesuai dengan sifat dan karakteristiknya.   ABSTRACT Household solid waste containing hazardous and toxic materials such as batteries, electric light, electronics, pesticides, bleach, cleaner, paint, pressurized cans (aerosol, unused medicines, thermometers and syringes can threaten human and environment. Although the quantity of Household Hazardous Solid Waste (HHSW in Sleman Regency only 2.44 g/person/day or

  8. GIS integrated application of distribution models and risk index to analyse the environmental compatibility of pesticide. The Lombardy's region case history; Applicazione integrata in ambiente GIS di modelli di distribuzione e indici di rischio per l'analisi della compatibilita' ambientale di prodotti fitosanitari su base territoriale. Il caso della regione Lombardia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verro, R.; Sala, S.; Finizio, A. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio; Auteri, D. [International Centre for Pesticide Safety, Busto Garolfo, MI (Italy)

    2001-10-01

    In this study the application of a methodology is proposed to assess the hazard and a risk's index for surface water due to pesticide use in agriculture. The work's aim is to evaluate the impact of nine molecules used in pre and post-emergence period on corn referring to the 77 principal rivers in the Lombardia region. The methodology is based on an integration of database, mathematical models of pesticide distribution and risks index, using Geographical Information System for managing models input data and results in a distributed way on the territory. Molecular properties, as chemical-physical and toxicological data of active ingredients, and environmental characteristics, as land use, crop distribution, meteorological data, hydrography, Digital Terrain Model, are stored in two distinct and elaborated to develop a realistic scenario of application. The tiered methodology allows to calculate the masses lost by drift and runoff, and the Predicted Environmental Concentration in water bodies, afterwards to assess the hazard and a risks index. Using GIS is possible to calculate and map the spatial distribution of results, underlining the importance of a synergic and integrated evaluation between the active ingredients and land characteristics. The results are useful to make a comparison between the active ingredients to draft a classification based on environmental sustainability of their use and to defense the aquatic ecosystem. [Italian] Nel presente lavoro viene illustrata l'applicazione di una metodologia per il calcolo e la mappatura di un indice di rischio per l'ecosistema acque superficiali, connesso all'utilizzo di prodotti fitoiatrici in agricoltura. Lo scopo di tale applicazione consiste nell'esaminare l'impatto dovuto a nove molecole utilizzate nei trattamenti in pre e post emergenza su mais, in relazione ai 77 principali corsi d'acqua della regione Lombardia. L'applicazione della metodologia prevede l

  9. ITER solid breeder blanket materials database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dienst, W. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Material- und Festkoerperforschung; Flament, T. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Commissariat A L`Energie Atomique; Lorenzetto, P. [NET Team, Garching (Germany); Noda, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takai, Ibaraki, (Japan); Roux, N. [CEA Centre d`Etudes et de Recherches Les Materiaux (France). Commissariat a L`Energie Atomique

    1993-11-01

    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li{sub 2},O, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and LiAlO{sub 2}) and beryllium multiplier material are critically reviewed and evaluated. Emphasis is placed on physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Correlations are selected for design analysis and compared to the database. Areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology are highlighted and prioritized.

  10. Fabrication of graphene/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@polythiophene nanocomposite and its application in the magnetic solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdinia, Ali, E-mail: mehdinia@inio.ac.ir [Department of Marine Science, Iranian National Institute for Oceanography and Atmospheric Science, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodaee, Nader; Jabbari, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-08

    Highlights: • G/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@polythiophene as a novel sorbent for MSPE of PAHs. • Polythiopheneas an efficient modifier of G/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • G sheets can act as a “support” for the growth of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • G sheets can act as a “spacer” for the inhibition of NPs aggregation. - Abstract: Polythiophene (PT) was used as a surface modifier of graphene/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (G/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) composite to increase merit of it, and also overcome some limitations and disadvantages of using G/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} alone as solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbent. An in-situ chemical polymerization method was employed to prepare G/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@PT nanocomposites. Application of this newly designed material in the magnetic SPE (MSPE) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as model analytes, in the environmental water samples was investigated. The characterization of the hybrid material was performed using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. Seven important parameters, affecting the extraction efficiency of PAHs, including: amount of adsorbent, adsorption and desorption times, type and volume of the eluent solvent, initial sample volume and salt content of the sample were evaluated. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained as: 4 min for extraction time, 20 mg for sorbent amount, 100 mL for initial sample volume, toluene as desorption solvent, 0.6 mL for desorption solvent volume, 6 min for desorption time and 30% (w/v) for NaCl concentration. Good performance data were obtained at the optimized conditions. Detection limits were in the range of 0.009–0.020 μg L{sup −1} in the real matrix. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration ranges from 0.03 to 80 μg L{sup −1} with correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) between 0.995 and 0.998 for all the analytes

  11. Contrastive Compatibility in Some Arabic Dialects and Their Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadora, Frederic J.

    1976-01-01

    This study assesses and characterizes lexical relationships among the major urban Syro-Lebanese varieties of Arabic. To achieve this quantitative analysis of degrees of similarity or differentiation, an analytical procedure based on lexical compatibility was developed. Secondarily, a classification of these varieties is presented as a by-product…

  12. Creative Commons licenses and design: are the two compatible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasserand, C.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses whether Creative Commons licences are applicable to and compatible with design. The first part focuses on the peculiar and complex nature of a design, which can benefit from a copyright and a design protection. This shows how it can affect the use of Creative Commons licences.

  13. Operation compatibility: a neglected contribution to dual-task costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannebakker, M.M.; Band, G.P.H.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, dual-task interference has been attributed to the consequences of task load exceeding capacity limitations. However, the current study demonstrates that in addition to task load, the mutual compatibility of the concurrent processes modulates whether 2 tasks can be performed in

  14. Leaders, Leadership and Democracy--Are They Compatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schostak, John

    2016-01-01

    This article is taken from a talk given by John Schostak at the Co-Operative Head Office, Manchester on 25 September 2015. Question addressed in this paper include: (1) To what extent is leadership needed for a democratic life?; (2) What form of democratic organisation, if any, is compatible with leadership?; and (3) Is democracy undermined by…

  15. Visual land-use compatibility and scenic-resource quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Hendrix

    1977-01-01

    The effect that land-use relationships have upon perceived quality of the visual landscape is discussed, and a case is made for expansion of fit-misfit theory into what has been called visual land-use compatibility. An assessment methodology that was designed to test people's perceptions of land-use relationships is presented and the results are discussed.

  16. Circuit board design for good electromagnetic compatibility performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearpark, J

    2005-10-01

    Design engineers need to consider the electromagnetic performance of printed circuit boards to adhere to electromagnetic compatibility requirements. This article examines factors that influence performance and outlines techniques to avoid the use of overly expensive screen enclosures in order to comply with the standards.

  17. The impact of the revised electromagnetic compatibility standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozec, Didier; Hayes, Darren J

    2004-10-01

    Electromedical equipment must be tested to the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standard EN 60601-1-2 to carry the CE mark. The new version of EN 60601-1-2, which becomes mandatory from 1 November 2004, could affect the design of some products. This article summarises the new EMC requirements and provides design tips on how to meet them.

  18. Compatibility of fixed orthodontic appliances with MR environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starčuk jr., Zenon; Hubálková, H.; Starčuková, Jana; Linetskiy, I.; Bartušek, Karel; Krupa, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 19, Suppl. 1 (2006), EPOS 726:1-7 E-ISSN 1352-8661 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : orthodontic appliance * magnetic resonance * compatibility * dentistry * artifact Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 0.756, year: 2005 http://posters.webges.com/esmrmb/epos

  19. An IC-compatible polyimide pressure sensor with capacitive readout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, M.; Meijerink, M.G.H.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    1997-01-01

    A capacitive differential pressure sensor has been developed. The process used for the fabrication of the sensor is IC-compatible, meaning that the device potentially can be integrated on one chip with a suitable signal-conditioning circuit. A sensor for a differential pressure of ±1 bar has been

  20. Compatibility of the holy Qur'an with sciences: anthropological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus Allah has encouraged us since more than 14 centuries; to study the past of beings included that of humans and, therefore to found the two other anthropological specialities: the Archaeology and the Paleoanthropology. In other verses Allah designates other important anthropological concepts compatible with the most ...

  1. 77 FR 59702 - Promoting U.S. EC Regulatory Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... to be addressed (including any information on negative effects of these differences and on the... markets and technologies. As we continue in the High Level Working Group on Jobs and Growth to examine the... approaches to standards; and An assessment of the effects of enhanced regulatory compatibility (quantified...

  2. The compatibility of fingerprint visualization techniques with immunolabeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Annemieke; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Lambrechts, Saskia A. G.

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition of a fingermark potentially holds a wealth of information about the fingermark donor, which can be extracted by immunolabeling. Immunolabeling can be used to detect specific components in fingermarks; however, to be applicable in the forensic field, it should be compatible

  3. 47 CFR 68.316 - Hearing aid compatibility: Technical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-504 Magnetic Field Intensity Criteria for Telephone Compatibility With Hearing Aids Table of Contents... communications since the 1940's. Magnetic pick-ups in hearing-aids have provided for coupling to many, but not... useful to anyone engaged in the manufacture of telephone terminal equipment and hearing-aids and to those...

  4. compatible volume-taper equations for predicting merchantable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    ABSTRACT: Compatible systems of merchantable total tree cubic volume and stem taper equations are derived by integrating an existing volume equation. The systems are developed to yield volume at any merchantable length, total volume and for any merchantable top diameter. It is also demonstrated that the most ...

  5. Compatible volume-taper equations for predicting merchantable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compatible systems of merchantable total tree cubic volume and stem taper equations are derived by integrating an existing volume equation. The systems are developed to yield volume at any merchantable length, total volume and for any merchantable top diameter. It is also demonstrated that the most common types of ...

  6. 36 CFR 1193.21 - Accessibility, usability, and compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. 1193.21 Section 1193.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES General Requirements § 1193.21...

  7. Genetics of wide compatible gene and variability studies in rice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 95; Issue 2. Genetics of wide compatible gene and variability studies in rice (Oryza sativa L.) S. REVATHI K. SAKTHIVEL S. MANONMANI M. UMADEVI R. USHAKUMARI S. ROBIN.

  8. Spectral measurement using IC-compatible linear variable optical filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emadi, A.; Grabarnik, S.; Wu, H.; De Graaf, G.; Hedsten, K.; Enoksson, P.; Correia, J.H.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the functional and spectral characterization of a microspectrometer based on a CMOS detector array covered by an IC-Compatible Linear Variable Optical Filter (LVOF). The Fabry-Perot LVOF is composed of 15 dielectric layers with a tapered middle cavity layer, which has been

  9. Biocytin: a neuronal tracer compatible with rapid decalcification procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsig-Wiechmann, C R

    1994-03-01

    The compatibility of neuronal tract-tracing and decalcification procedures was examined in salamander nasal chemosensory systems. Biocytin, but not horseradish peroxidase, retained its labeling capacity following rapid decalcification of the cranial bone. The combination of biocytin tract-tracing and decalcification procedures allows the visualization of labeled neurons and/or their projections within bony regions of intact specimens.

  10. Pollen-pistil compatibility relationships in some Iranian almond ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The identification of pollen-pistil compatibility relationships among almond cultivars and genotypes is very important for breeders and growers. In the present study, PCR based technique was used to identify S-alleles in 10 late blooming almond genotypes. In total, 19 alleles were amplified by five primer pairs in the studied ...

  11. On Incentive Compatibility and Budget Balancedness in Public Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Holstroem (1979) showed that Groves' schemes are the unique incentive compatible transfer schemes for public decision making problems if the domain of preferences is smoothly connected. In this paper we will show that this result can be extended to public decision making problems with a connected

  12. Compatibility and economic assessment of sweetpotato and garden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, sole cropping of NR05/022 variety of Sweetpotato had the best Naira return on investment with a BCR of 3.25. It is therefore recommended that Sweetpotato and garden egg are compatible and intercropping them in a humid ultisol is economically viable. So farmers in the study area are encouraged to intercrop ...

  13. Solid waste management and environmental education from the perspective of workers of a cooperative recycling | Gestão de resíduos sólidos e educação ambiental a partir da perspectiva dos trabalhadores de uma cooperativa de reciclagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Oliveira Ferreira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Before the exhaustion of natural resources, directly related to the disorderly growth of the cities, the lack of environmental awareness of its inhabitants and the mismanagement of solid waste produced, recycling is a process essential for sustainability. This research aimed to evaluate the perception of the community recycling cooperative in Jericó, in Triunfo/PE on the social, economic and environmental relevance of the activities they perform. To this end, questionnaires were applied with the social actors of this organization, as well as direct observation of the tasks carried out by them. While results, respondents stated that dealing with the recycling increased its interest on issues related to environmental education, as well as have come to understand the importance and consequences of the work they perform every day in the community where they live. The present study also revealed the contribution of cooperatives to promote recycling of local and sustainable development.

  14. On-chip solid phase extraction and enzyme digestion using cationic PolyE-323 coatings and porous polymer monoliths coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hua, Y; Jemere, A.B; Harrison, D.J

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the compatibility and performance of polymer monolith solid phase extraction beds that incorporate cationic charge, with a polycationic surface coating, PolyE-323, fabricated within microfluidic glass chips...

  15. Integrated solid waste management in megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Abdoli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and industrialization, population growth and economic growth in developing countries make management of municipal solid waste more complex comparing with developed countries. Furthermore, the conventional municipal solid waste management approach often is reductionists, not tailored to handle complexity. Therefore, the need to a comprehensive and multi-disciplinary approach regarding the municipal solid waste management problems is increasing. The concept of integrated solid waste management is accepted for this aim all over the world. This paper analyzes the current situation as well as opportunities and challenges regarding municipal solid waste management in Isfahan according to the integrated solid waste management framework in six aspects: environmental, political/legal, institutional, socio-cultural, financial/economic, technical and performance aspects. Based on the results obtained in this analysis, the main suggestions for future integrated solid waste management of Isfahan are as i promoting financial sustainability by taking the solid waste fee and reducing the expenses through the promoting source collection of recyclable materials, ii improving compost quality and also marketing the compost products simultaneously, iii promoting the private sector involvements throughout the municipal solid waste management system.

  16. Comparative environmental health assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk R

    2008-10-01

    Conceptual and methodological issues in calculating and comparing the health impacts from environmental risk factors in ways that are not only compatible across environmental hazards but also can be fairly compared to burdens from nonenvironmental risk factors, such as poor nutrition, unsafe sex, and smoking, are discussed. It is emphasized that a focus on environmental health burden does not always produce priorities that correspond to those related to environmental quality alone. The methods when applied to China's environmental and other risks using the Chinese burden of disease in terms of lost healthy life years as the metric are illustrated. Household environmental risks are still quite important in China, because of rural poverty, but have been exceeded by community environmental risks nationally. Global risks from climate are small at present, but have the potential to rise. Although not a major greenhouse gas emitter on a per capita basis compared to rich countries, China has already passed the threshold of imposing more global risk than it receives. The study ends with the suggestion that environmental risk assessment should use as a baseline estimates that are based on methods developed in international collaborative assessments, such as those in the WHO Comparative Risk Assessment, in order to foster comparability and policy and public confidence in the methods.

  17. Determinants of Consumers’ Pro-Environmental Behavior – Toward an Integrated Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octav-Ionuţ Macovei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at constructing a model which will explain consumers’ pro-environmental behavior by analyzing its direct and indirect predictors. To achieve this, variables from wellestablished models and theories were employed, such as Schwartz’s Norm Activation Theory (NAT, Stern’s Value-belief-norms Theory (VBN and Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. Important variables like perceived behavioral control, normative beliefs, awareness of the consequences of environmental problems, Compatibility with a pro-environmental behaviour, attitude towards a proenvironmental behavior and intention to behave in a pro-environmental manner are considered to be determinants of consumers’ pro-environmental behavior. All these variables were discussed and assembled in an integrated research model which can be validated through a quantitative survey. Each variable was described at a conceptual and operational level, items and scales being proposed for each one The proposed model will offer to organizations a valuable green marketing tool which can be used in the fight for environment protection. The proposed model is unique can be used as a solid based for future research.

  18. Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as urban solid waste dump; Utilizacion de Escombreras de Carbon como Vertedero Controlado de Residuos Solidos Urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the coordinated project DISPOSAL OF SOLID RESIDUES FROM COAL it is included the project Coal Mining Spoil Heap Management as Urban Solid Waste Dump. The main target of this project consisted of determining the viability of using coal mining spoil heaps, as controlled dubbish dump of urban solid wastes. The working plan to achieve this objective was composed of the following stages: 1. Urban solid wastes characterization. 2. Methodology to be followed for the selection of coal mining spoil heaps as controlled dump of urban solid wastes. 2.1 Classification and preliminary assessment of the possibility of using spoil heaps as urban solid waste dumps (APT/NON APT). 2.2 Realization of geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies applied to the spoil heaps classified as APT. 2.3 Analysis of the compatibility of the mining activity with the urban solid wastes dumped on the spoil heap. 2.4 Analysis of the use of coal mining wastes in the rubbish dump operative life. 3. Extraction of conclusions. The works were focused in the Leon province. As result of the researches we obtained the following results and conclusions: In the areas studied, only two emplacements are optima to dump urban solid wastes; spoil heap n. 13. Roguera Mine (Cinera-Matallana) and the open pit mine n. 4, Las Chaviadas, in Villablino. The active spoil heap use as controlled rubbish dump can cause, if not managed adequately, several coperating and occupational problems to the mine and to the company that manages the urban solid wastes. The abandoned spoil heap utilisation is difficult due to the problems that would arise when conditioning the site to be use as rubbish dump. The use of abandoned open pit mines, as controlled rubbish dump is feasible if geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and environmental studies support it. It's possible the use of the coal mining wastes in the different operatives phases of the controlled rubbish dump. The evaluation methodology

  19. Nanoalloy Printed and Pulse-Laser Sintered Flexible Sensor Devices with Enhanced Stability and Materials Compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Wei; Rovore, Thomas; Weerawarne, Darshana; Osterhoudt, Gavin; Kang, Ning; Joseph, Pharrah; Luo, Jin; Shim, Bonggu; Poliks, Mark; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2015-06-02

    While conformal and wearable devices have become one of the most desired formats for printable electronics, it is challenging to establish a scalable process that produces stable conductive patterns but also uses substrates compatible with widely available wearable materials. Here, we describe findings of an investigation of a nanoalloy ink printed and pulsed laser sintered conductive patterns as flexible functional devices with enhanced stability and materials compatibility. While nanoparticle inks are desired for printable electronics, almost all existing nanoparticle inks are based on single-metal component, which, as an electronic element, is limited by its inherent stabilities of the metal such as propensity of metal oxidation and mobility of metal ions, especially in sintering processes. The work here has demonstrated the first example in exploiting plasmonic coupling of nanoalloys and pulsed-laser energy with controllable thermal penetration. The experimental and theoretical results have revealed clear correlation between the pulsed laser parameters and the nanoalloy structural characteristics. The superior performance of the resulting flexible sensor device, upon imparting nanostructured sensing materials, for detecting volatile organic compounds has significant implications to developing stable and wearable sensors for monitoring environmental pollutants and breath biomarkers. This simple “nanoalloy printing 'laser sintering' nanostructure printing” process is entirely general to many different sensor devices and nanostructured sensing materials, enabling the ability to easily construct sophisticated sensor array.

  20. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  1. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  2. Modeling solid-to-solid biocatalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, M.J.F.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis, a kinetic model is described for the conversion of solid Ca-maleate to solid Ca-D-malate. The reaction is catalysed by maleate hydratase in permeabilized Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes and is executed in a batch reactor seeded

  3. Study of IC Compatible On-Chip Thermoelectric Coolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong-Ho; Wijngaards, Davey D. L.; Wolffenbuttel, Reinoud F.

    2005-07-01

    A thin-film-based thermoelectric micro-cooler has been studied and realized using the standard integrated circuit (IC) fabrication technology and bulk micromachining technology in sequence. The whole fabrication process is kept IC compatible by postponing potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching step to the last part of the fabrication sequence. Considering the fabrication compatibility, polycrystalline silicon germanium (polySiGe) is chosen as thermoelectric material even though bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) is one of the most effective thermoelectric materials. The influence of non-idealities on device performance, such as Joule heating due to contact resistance and parasitic heat loss through supporting membrane, is analyzed. The characterized thermoelectric, thermal and electric properties of the fabricated polySiGe thermoelectric material correspond well to those from literatures. Measured cooling performance demonstrates that an on-chip micro-cooler can be applied for thermal stabilization near ambient temperature.

  4. Compatibility of structural materials with liquid bismuth, lead, and mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, J.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-06-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, a substantial program existed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of the Liquid Metal Fuel reactor program on the compatibility of bismuth, lead, and their alloys with structural materials. Subsequently, compatibility investigations of mercury with structural materials were performed in support of development of Rankine cycle mercury turbines for nuclear applications. The present talk will review present understanding of the corrosion/mass-transfer reactions of structural materials with these liquid metal coolants. Topics to be discussed include the basic solubility relationships of iron, chromium, nickel, and refractory metals in these liquid metals, the results of inhibition studies, the role of oxygen on the corrosion processes, and specialized topics such as cavitation-corrosion and liquid metal embrittlement. Emphasis will be placed on utilizing the understanding gained in this earlier work on the development of heavy liquid metal targets in spallation neutron sources.

  5. COSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruta Dana Duda Daianu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The team leader is the author of vision, mentor, guide, motivator, source of encouragement and supportive team. The leader helps team members to focus on the big picture of the project, to give the best of them, to follow the right path and stay united. Leader qualities must necessarily include its ability to work together, to be folded on the processes that describe functional and structural developments in embedded team. The issue of the leader development includes the necessity to concurrently form the skills of tem working. The working paper underlines that these two formative desiderate are compatible, correlative and complementary. So, in the study that we undertake we proposed to determine the degree of compatibility between the two demands of education, as follows: the training of leader capable to exercise also the specific activities of teamwork

  6. Compatibility of hyaluronic acid hydrogel and skeletal muscle myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wei; Zhang Li; Sun Liang; Wang Chengyue [Jinzhou Central Hospital, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Fan Ming; Liu Shuhong, E-mail: Weiwang_Ly@yahoo.com.c [Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Academy of Military Medical Science, Beijing 100850 (China)

    2009-04-15

    Compatibility of hyaluronic acid hydrogel (HAH) and skeletal muscle myoblasts has been investigated for the first time in the present paper. Skeletal muscle myoblasts were separated from skeletons of rats and incubated with a HAH-containing culture medium. Cell morphology, hydrophilicity and cell adhesion of the HAH scaffold were investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Hoechest33258 fluorescent staining, the immunocytochemistry method and water adsorption rate measurement. It was found that at a proper concentration (around 0.5%) of hyaluronic acid, the hydrogel possessed good compatibility with skeletal muscle myoblasts. The hydrogel can create a three-dimensional structure for the growth of skeletal muscle myoblasts and benefit cell attachment to provide a novel scaffold material for the tissue engineering of skeletal muscle.

  7. Blood compatibility of the jellyfish valve without anticoagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imachi, K; Mabuchi, K; Chinzei, T; Abe, Y; Imanishi, K; Suzukawa, M; Yonezawa, T; Kouno, A; Ono, T; Nozawa, H

    1991-01-01

    The blood compatibility of the jellyfish valve was studied. Artificial heart (AH) blood pumps incorporating jellyfish valves were connected to 18 goats as total artificial hearts (TAHs) and pumped for 1 to 125 days without anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs. No thrombus was formed on the valve membrane or around the valve seat. Scanning electron microscopy showed almost no platelet deposition or microfibrin clot formation on the valve membrane, including its central region; the spokes of the valve seat were also free from platelet and microfibrin clots. No calcification was observed during these tests, and plasma free hemoglobin was between 2 and 7 mg/dl. The jellyfish valve revealed good blood compatibility, even without anticoagulant use.

  8. Effect of Time on Gypsum-Impression Material Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, John Boram

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of dental gypsum with three recently introduced irreversible hydrocolloid (alginate) alternatives. The test materials were Alginot® (Kerr™), Position Penta Quick® (3M ESPE™) and Silgimix ® (Sultan Dental™). The irreversible hydrocolloid impression material, Jeltrate Plus antimicrobial® (Dentsply Caulk™) served as the control. Materials and Methods: Testing of materials was conducted in accordance with ANSI/ADA Specification No. 18 for Alginate Impression Materials. Statistical Analysis: The 3-Way ANOVA test was used to analyze measurements between different time points at a significance level of (p Outcome: It was found that there was greater compatibility between gypsum and the alternative materials over time than the traditional irreversible hydrocolloid material that was tested. A statistically significant amount of surface change/incompatibility was found over time with the combination of the dental gypsum products and the control impression material (Jeltrate Plus antimicrobial®).

  9. On Rate-Compatible Punctured Turbo Codes Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montorsi Guido

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose and compare some design criteria for the search of good systematic rate-compatible punctured turbo code (RCPTC families. The considerations presented by S. Benedetto et al. (1998 to find the "best" component encoders for turbo code construction are extended to find good rate-compatible puncturing patterns for a given interleaver length . This approach is shown to lead to codes that improve over previous ones, both in the maximum-likelihood sense (using transfer function bounds and in the iterative decoding sense (through simulation results. To find simulation and analytical results, the coded bits are transmitted over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channel using an antipodal binary modulation. The two main applications of this technique are its use in hybrid incremental ARQ/FEC schemes and its use to achieve unequal error protection of an information sequence.

  10. On Compatible Normal Odd Partitions in Cubic Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Fouquet, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    A normal odd partition T of the edges of a cubic graph is a partition into trails of odd length (no repeated edge) such that each vertex is the end vertex of exactly one trail of the partition and internal in some trail. For each vertex v, we can distinguish the edge for which this vertex is pending. Three normal odd partitions are compatible whenever these distinguished edges are distinct for each vertex. We examine this notion and show that a cubic 3 edge-colorable graph can always be provided with three compatible normal odd partitions. The Petersen graph has this property and we can construct other cubic graphs with chromatic index four with the same property. Finally, we propose a new conjecture which, if true, would imply the well known Fan and Raspaud Conjecture

  11. Compatibility of refractory materials for nuclear reactor poison control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Metal-clad poison rods have been considered for the control system of an advanced space power reactor concept studied at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Such control rods may be required to operate at temperatures of about 140O C. Selected poison materials (including boron carbide and the diborides of zirconium, hafnium, and tantalum) were subjected to 1000-hour screening tests in contact with candidate refractory metal cladding materials (including tungsten and alloys of tantalum, niobium, and molybdenum) to assess the compatibility of these materials combinations at the temperatures of interest. Zirconium and hafnium diborides were compatible with refractory metals at 1400 C, but boron carbide and tantalum diboride reacted with the refractory metals at this temperature. Zirconium diboride also showed promise as a reaction barrier between boron carbide and tungsten.

  12. Environmental and comparative analysis between the conventional and movil recovery of municipal Solid Wastes in Barcelona (Spain); Analisis ambiental global y local comprativo entre la recogida neumatica movil y convencional de resiudos solidos muncipales en Barcelona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, C.; Domenech, X.; Rieradevall, J.

    2001-07-01

    This article describes, from an environmental point of view, these factors that are affected by refuse collecting with a mobile vacuum system, a new technology that is imposing in Spanish cities. Vacuum system consists in the suction of refuse through a pipe net to a collection station (Stationary system) or to a truck (Mobil system). The environmental impacts in vacuum system are compared with impacts in conventional system. I mean collecting in containers on the street. In the evaluation of environmental impacts produced by both systems, the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) has been used. LCA is an objective method for method for evaluating environmental charges associated to a product, process or activity in every stage of his life. The results reveal a global environmental impact lower in conventional system than vacuum system, but benefits in local environmental factors. (Author) 19 refs.

  13. Community-Based Solid Waste Management: A Training Facilitator's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    Urban environmental management and environmental health issues are of increasing concern worldwide. The need for urban environmental management work at the local level where the Peace Corps works most effectively is significant, but training materials dedicated specifically to community-based solid waste management work in urban areas are lacking.…

  14. An accurate SPICE-compatible circuit model for power FLYMOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galadi, A.; Morancho, F.; Benhida, K.; Hassani, M. M.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper, a new SPICE-compatible circuit model for low voltage, low on-resistance power FLYMOSFETs is presented for the first time. In this new structure, the improvement of the on-resistance has been obtained by inserting floating islands in the lowly doped layer. Our modelling is based on device physics, analytical study and on experimental characterization. The inter-electrode capacitances are modelled accurately as nonlinear functions, and good agreement between simulation and measurements is found.

  15. A Zeroth Law Compatible Model to Kerr Black Hole Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor G. Czinner; Hideo Iguchi

    2017-01-01

    We consider the thermodynamic and stability problem of Kerr black holes arising from the nonextensive/nonadditive nature of the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy formula. Nonadditive thermodynamics is often criticized by asserting that the zeroth law cannot be compatible with nonadditive composition rules, so in this work we follow the so-called formal logarithm method to derive an additive entropy function for Kerr black holes also satisfying the zeroth law’s requirement. Starting from the most gen...

  16. Improved in Vitro Blood Compatibility of Polycaprolactone Nanowire Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    There are a multitude of polymeric materials currently utilized to prepare a variety of blood-contacting implantable medical devices. These devices include tissue grafts, coronary artery and vascular stents, and orthopedic implants. The thrombogenic nature of such materials can cause serious complications in patients, and ultimately lead to functional failure. To date, there is no truly hemocompatible biomaterial surface. Nanostructured surfaces improve cellular interactions but there is a limited amount of information regarding their blood compatibility. In this study, the in vitro blood compatibility of four different surfaces (control, PCL; nanowire, NW; collagen immobilized control, cPCL; collagen immobilized nanowire, cNW) were investigated for their use as interfaces for blood-contacting implants. The results presented here indicate enhanced in vitro blood compatibility of nanowire surfaces compared control surfaces. Although there were no significant differences in leukocyte adhesion, there was a decrease in platelet adhesion on NW surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a decrease in platelet/leukocyte complexes on cNW surfaces and no apparent complexes were formed on NW surfaces compared to PCL and cPCL surfaces. The increase in these complexes likely contributed to a higher expression of specific markers for platelet and leukocyte activation on PCL and cPCL surfaces. No significant differences were found in contact and complement activation on any surface. Further, thrombin antithrombin complexes were significantly reduced on NW surfaces. A significant increase in hemolysis and fibrinogen adsorption was identified on PCL surfaces likely caused by its hydrophobic surface. This work shows the improved blood-compatibility of nanostructured surfaces, identifying this specific nanoarchitecture as a potential interface for promoting the long-term success of blood-contacting biomaterials. PMID:25184556

  17. S3c, prototipos de vivienda construidos por componentes compatibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes González, J. Miguel

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available What is the construction by compatible components about? Which are its plants? Which results and answers does it add? Which consequences and implications does it lead to? To these other questions related with the subject, this work tries to give answer, not by definitions and generalities which would fail in the field of a theoretical disquisition but by a review of determined prototypes and projects of dwellings built during the last ten years, which will lead us, on base of its descriptions, to expose out in particular: — Methodological conditions: "open orders". — Technological conditions: "compatible compounds". — Trade conditions: "open prefabrication". — Transformation conditions: actualization?¿Qué es la construcción por componentes compatibles? ¿En qué consiste? ¿Cuáles son sus planteamientos? ¿Qué resultados y respuestas aporta? ¿Qué consecuencias e implicaciones conlleva? A estas y otras cuestiones relacionadas con el tema tratan de dar respuesta estas páginas, pero recurriendo para ello no a definiciones y generalidades que podrían sucumbir en el mundo de las disquisiciones teóricas, sino haciendo referencia a prototipos y proyectos concretos de vivienda realizados en la última década que servirán para, a partir de su descripción, exponer las particulares condiciones que de los mismos se desprenden: — Metodológicas: ''órdenes abiertos". — Tecnológicas: ''componentes compatibles". — De mercado: "prefabricación abierta". — Transformación: ¿actualización?

  18. Development of Improved LOX-Compatible Laminated Gasket Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-08-01

    Fixture with Liquid Nitrogen Cryostat ........ .. ..................... . 107 71 Quartz Tube Dilatometer ..... .................... 109 72 Total Linear...properties had to be adequate for this application. 3. The materials had to be compatible with LOX, such that there would be no ignition, explosion ...five composite laminate specimens from room temperature to approximately 100°F, -320’F, and -423°F were measured using the vertical tube dilatometer

  19. Compatibility Studies on Elastomers and Polymers with Ethanol Blended Gasoline

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaliwal, J S; M. S. Negi; G. S. Kapur; Shashi Kant

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the compatibility studies of 10% ethanol blended gasoline (E10) with four types of elastomer materials, namely, Neoprene rubber, Nitrile rubber, hydrogenated Nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR), and Polyvinyl chloride/Nitrile butadiene rubber blend (PVC/NBR), and two types of plastic materials, namely, Nylon-66 and Polyoxymethylene (Delrin). These materials have applications in automotives as engine seals, gaskets, fuel system seals and hoses, and so forth. Two types of the eth...

  20. Electromagnetic compatibility of implantable neurostimulators to RFID emitters

    OpenAIRE

    Guag Joshua W; Seidman Seth J; Pantchenko Oxana S; Witters Donald M; Sponberg Curt L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study is to investigate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of implantable neurostimulators with the emissions from radio frequency identification (RFID) emitters. Methods Six active implantable neurostimulators with lead systems were tested for susceptibility to electromagnetic fields generated by 22 RFID emitters. These medical devices have been approved for marketing in the U.S. for a number of intended uses that include: epilepsy, depression, inco...

  1. Assessment of DUPIC fuel compatibility with CANDU-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, H. B.; Roh, G. H.; Jeong, C. J.; Rhee, B. W.; Choi, J. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The compatibility of DUPIC fuel with the existing CANDU reactor was assessed. The technical issues of DUPIC fuel compatibility were chosen based on the CANDU physics design requirements and inherent characteristics of DUPIC fuel. The compatibility was assessed for the reference DUPIC fuel composition which was determined to reduce the composition heterogeneity and improve the spent PWR fuel utilization. Preliminary studies on a CANDU core loaded with DUPIC fuel have shown that the nominal power distribution is flatter than that of a natural uranium core when a 2-bundle shift refueling scheme is used, which reduces the reactivity worths of devices in the core and, therefore, the performance of reactivity devices was assessed. The safety of the core was assessed by a LOCA simulation and it was found that the power pulse upon LOCA can be maintained below that in the natural uranium core when a poison material is used in the DUPIC fuel. For the feasibility of handling DUPIC fuel in the plant, it will be necessary to introduce new equipment to load the DUPIC fuel in the refueling magazine. The radiation effect of DUPIC fuel on both the reactor hardware and the environment will require a quantitative analysis later. (author).

  2. A Zeroth Law Compatible Model to Kerr Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor G. Czinner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider the thermodynamic and stability problem of Kerr black holes arising from the nonextensive/nonadditive nature of the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy formula. Nonadditive thermodynamics is often criticized by asserting that the zeroth law cannot be compatible with nonadditive composition rules, so in this work we follow the so-called formal logarithm method to derive an additive entropy function for Kerr black holes also satisfying the zeroth law’s requirement. Starting from the most general, equilibrium compatible, nonadditive entropy composition rule of Abe, we consider the simplest non-parametric approach that is generated by the explicit nonadditive form of the Bekenstein–Hawking formula. This analysis extends our previous results on the Schwarzschild case, and shows that the zeroth law-compatible temperature function in the model is independent of the mass–energy parameter of the black hole. By applying the Poincaré turning point method, we also study the thermodynamic stability problem in the system.

  3. Compatibility analysis of 3D printer resin for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sivashankar, Shilpa

    2016-08-30

    The salient features of microfluidics such as reduced cost, handling small sample and reagent volumes and less time required to fabricate the devices has inspired the present work. The incompatibility of three-dimensional printer resins in their native form and the method to improve their compatibility to many biological processes via surface modification are reported. The compatibility of the material to build microfluidic devices was evaluated in three different ways: (i) determining if the ultraviolet (UV) cured resin inhibits the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), i.e. testing devices for PCR compatibility; (ii) observing agglutination complex formed on the surface of the UV cured resin when anti-C-reactive protein (CRP) antibodies and CRP proteins were allowed to agglutinate; and (iii) by culturing human embryonic kidney cell line cells and testing for its attachment and viability. It is shown that only a few among four in its native form could be used for fabrication of microchannels and that had the least effect on biological molecules that could be used for PCR and protein interactions and cells, whereas the others were used after treating the surface. Importance in building lab-on-chip/micrototal analysis systems and organ-on-chip devices is found.

  4. Still seeking for an explanation of the Sequential Compatibility Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Privado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The modulation of the Compatibility Effect (CE according to the compatibility of the previous trial (Sequential Compatibility Effect, SCE in three types of attentional tasks is explored. The flankers and spatial Stroop tasks have different degrees of cognitive complexity. In all three tasks it is analyzed whether the SCE varies when the stimuli in consecutive trials are exactly the same (pure replicas or not. The data, collected from three independent samples (total N = 1.159, show the CE in the three tasks. However, SCE only shows up in the spatial Stroop task. The effect is smaller albeit still significant when the pure replica trials are removed, a result inconsistent with those of Mayr et al. (2003 and Hommel (1998 but consistent with the Conflict Theory (Botvinick et al., 2001. Furthermore, we also discuss the importance of cognitive complexity in relation to the perspective of Botvinick et al. (2004. From this point of view more complexity should be reflected in a greater presence of cognitive conflict, and therefore a higher SCE.

  5. Eco-Anthropic Compatibility - a Multidisciplinary Model in Urban Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANO L. BIANCA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose a multidisciplinary model of urban development which goes beyond the notion of ecological sustainability, by building on the concept of eco-anthropic compatibility. First of all I will sketch the historical development of human aggregations and I will underline the difference between ancient and modern aggregations. On the basis of this analysis, I will take into consideration the notion of sustainability and its possible application to present conurbations. I will underline several limits of the notion of sustainable development and I will propose a multidisciplinary model grounded on a broader and new notion: the eco-anthropic compatibility. Using this notion, which includes the idea of sustainability, it is possible to handle, within the model, the human factors and human living conditions inside an urban aggregation. Finally, I will state that the actual urban model is decaying and therefore, sooner or later, we will have to face the end of urban civilization; for this reason we can start imagining new future ways for human aggregations on the planet based on the notion of eco-anthropic compatibility.

  6. Solid fuel applications to transportation engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentz, Richard L.; Renner, Roy A.

    1980-06-01

    The utilization of solid fuels as alternatives to liquid fuels for future transportation engines is reviewed. Alternative liquid fuels will not be addressed nor will petroleum/solid fuel blends except for the case of diesel engines. With respect to diesel engines, coal/oil mixtures will be addressed because of the high interest in this specific application as a result of the large number of diesel engines currently in transportation use. Final assessments refer to solid fuels only for diesel engines. The technical assessments of solid fuels utilization for transportation engines is summarized: solid fuel combustion in transportation engines is in a non-developed state; highway transportation is not amenable to solid fuels utilization due to severe environmental, packaging, control, and disposal problems; diesel and open-cycle gas turbines do not appear worthy of further development, although coal/oil mixtures for slow speed diesels may offer some promise as a transition technology; closed-cycle gas turbines show some promise for solid fuels utilization for limited applications as does the Stirling engine for use of cleaner solid fuels; Rankine cycle engines show good potential for limited applications, such as for locomotives and ships; and any development program will require large resources and sophisticated equipment in order to advance the state-of-the-art.

  7. A study of the compatibility of science instruments with the solar electric propulsion space vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, R. H.; Ajello, J. M.; Bratenahl, A.; Clay, D. R.; Tsurutani, B.

    1973-01-01

    Electromagnetic interference and field-of-view constraints are identified as the areas of most concern to science on solar electric propulsion space vehicles. Several areas are indicated which more detailed data on the space vehicle environment are needed. In addition, possible means to attain or demonstrate science/space vehicle compatibility are recommended for further iteration between space vehicle design and science payload considerations. The space vehicle design developed by the solar electric propulsion system integration technology effort is used. Two payload sets for comet Encke missions (a slow flyby and a rendezvous), as well as several instruments which are not included in the two payload sets, are analyzed to determine requirements on the space vehicle imposed by the instruments in order to meet their objectives. Environmental requirements for the sets of instruments are developed and compared to both the SEPSIT design criteria and the environment as it is presently understood.

  8. MRI compatible Nb-Ta-Zr alloys used for vascular stents: optimization for mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Zhe; Xu, Jian

    2014-04-01

    With the increased usage of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a diagnostic tool in clinic, the currently-used metals for vascular stents, such as 316L stainless steel (SS), Co-Cr alloys and Ni-Ti alloys, are challenged by their unsatisfactory MRI compatibility, due to their constituents containing ferromagnetic elements. To provide more MRI compatible vascular stents, the Nb-xTa-2Zr (30≤x≤70) series alloys were selected in the current work. Several key properties of these alloys were optimized in terms of stent requirements, including magnetic susceptibility, elastic modulus and tensile properties. In the as-cast state, a single-phase solid solution with bcc structure was formed in the alloys. The volume magnetic susceptibility (χv) and Young's modulus (E) of the alloys scaled linearly with the Ta content. Increasing the Ta content gave rise to the decreased χv and the increased E, together with the elevated yield strength but less-changed elongation. From multiple requirements for the stents, the Nb-60Ta-2Zr alloy exhibits an optimal properties, including the χv of about 3% of the 316L SS, the E of 142GPa superior to pure niobium, high mass density of 12.03g/cm(3) favored to the X-ray visibility, yield strength of ~330MPa comparable to the 316L SS and a elongation of ~24%. These remarkable advantages make it quite promising as a new candidate of stent metals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS CONTAINING SOLID DISPERSIONS OF BACLOFEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Janardhana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustained release tablets containing solid dispersions granules of a poorly water soluble drug were prepared to investigate the controlled release of the drug. Baclofen was chosen because of its poor water solubility and short elimination half-life. Poloxamer 188 and PEG 6000 were used as solid dispersion carrier. Free flowing solid dispersion granules were prepared by adsorbing the melt of the drug and carriers onto the surface of an adsorbent, Carbopol 934P followed by direct compression with HPMC K4M and HPMC K100 to obtain an solid dispersion loaded sustained release tablets. FTIR studies confirmed that the compatibility of drug and carriers. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-ray diffraction (XRD revealed partially amorphous structures of the drug in solid dispersion granules. The solid dispersion granules dissolved completely within 30 min, which was much faster than that of pure drug baclofen. The sustained release of baclofen from the solid dispersion containing tablet was achieved for 2 h in gastric fluid (pH 1.2 and for up to 10 h in intestinal fluid (pH 6.8. A combination of solid dispersion techniques using adsorption and sustained release concepts is a promising approach to control the release rate of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  10. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  11. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  12. Organic and Related Solids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Organic solid state is a fascinating area of current research. The design of such solids follows the well laid principles based on inter-molecular interactions and establishes the relationships between the structures of a molecular solid and its properties. The term. 'Crystal Engineering' is now well-established in the ...

  13. Selawik National Wildlife Refuge Compatibility Determination for Semi-Permanent Bridge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Compatibility determination finding that construction of a semi-permanent bridge is compatible with Selawik National Wildlife Refuge purposes.

  14. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge Compatibility Determination for Feasibility Study of Proposed Road Construction

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Compatibility determination finding that reconnaissance drilling and sampling for proposed road is compatible with Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge purposes.

  15. Kenai National Wildlife Refuge Compatibility Determination for Commercial Sale of Timber Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This compatibility determination states that the commercial sale of timber products, as a part of the Skilak Wildlife Recreation Area Habitat Project, is compatible...

  16. A CMOS-Compatible Hybrid Plasmonic Slot Waveguide With Enhanced Field Confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Jing; Wei, Qi-Qin; Yang, Daoguo; Zhang, Ping; He, Ning; Zhang, G.Q.; Ren, Tian-Ling; Chen, XP

    2016-01-01

    The emerging field of nanophotonics requires plasmonic devices to be fully compatible with semiconductor fabrication techniques. However, very few feasible practical structures exist at present. Here, we propose a CMOS-compatible hybrid plasmonic slot waveguide (HPSW) with enhanced field

  17. Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge Compatibility Determination for Aggregated Uses in the Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Compatibility determination finding that aggregated uses are compatible with Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge purposes. Aggregated uses include: boating...

  18. Evaluation of the environmental compatibility of using slag from refuse incineration in road construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, D.; Gerwinski, W.

    1989-05-01

    Relatively large amounts of combustion slag, which subsequently have to be disposed of, are left after refuse incineration. Possible applications, for example in road construction, are problematical because of the high heavy metal content. Knowledge of the leaching behaviour of slag is important for estimating the degree of contamination of ground water. Laboratory experiments are being confirmed by open-air tests using lysimeters or by the observation of actual cases of application to see if conclusions can be drawn from them.

  19. Environmental assessment for the satellite power system concept development and evaluation program-electromagnetic systems compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, K A; Grant, W B; Morrison, E L; Juroshek, J R

    1981-01-01

    The EMC analysis addressed only the direct effects of electromagnetic emissions from the SPS on other technological systems. Emissions were defined quite broadly, including not only those from the microwave system, but also thermal blackbody emission and scattered sunlight from the satellite. The analysis is based on the design for an SPS as described in the Reference System Report and some quantitative conclusions, e.g., ranges from rectenna sites at which effects are expected are specific to that design. The methodology and qualitative conclusions, however, apply to an SPS concept using microwave power transmission. Quantitative conclusions have been obtained parametrically and can be adjusted as SPS designs change. The electromagnetic environment that the Reference System would produce, and in which other systems would have to function, is described. As an early part of the EMC Assessment, the problems expected for a hypothetical rectenna site, in the Mojave Desert of southern California, were analyzed in detail. This effort provided an initial quantitative indication of the scope of potential EMC problems and indicated the importance of EMC considerations in rectenna site selection. The results of this analysis are presented. The effects of SPS microwave emissions on important categories of electronic systems and equipment are summarized, with many examples of test results and demonstrated techniques for mitigation of problems encountered. SPS effects on other satellite systems are presented. Astronomical research frequently involves measurement of extremely low levels of electromagnetic radiation and is thus very susceptible to interference. The concerns of both radio astronomy with microwave emissions from SPS and optical astronomy with sunlight scattered from SPS spacecraft are discussed. Summaries of mitigation techniques, cost estimates, and conclusions are presented. (WHK)

  20. Solid state phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrance, R

    1972-01-01

    Solid State Phenomena explores the fundamentals of the structure and their influence on the properties of solids. This book is composed of five chapters that focus on the electrical and thermal conductivities of crystalline solids. Chapter 1 describes the nature of solids, particularly metals and crystalline materials. This chapter also presents a model to evaluate crystal structure, the forces between atom pairs, and the mechanism of plastic and elastic deformation. Chapter 2 demonstrates random vibrations of atoms in a solid using a one-dimensional array, while Chapter 3 examines the resista