WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental tradeoffs volume

  1. Environmentally induced development costs underlie fitness tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Greg M; Wilkinson, Melanie J; Aguirre, J David; Blows, Mark W; Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    Local adaptation can lead to genotype-by-environment interactions, which can create fitness tradeoffs in alternative environments, and govern the distribution of biodiversity across geographic landscapes. Exploring the ecological circumstances that promote the evolution of fitness tradeoffs requires identifying how natural selection operates and during which ontogenetic stages natural selection is strongest. When organisms disperse to areas outside their natural range, tradeoffs might emerge when organisms struggle to reach key life history stages, or alternatively, die shortly after reaching life history stages if there are greater risks of mortality associated with costs to developing in novel environments. We used multiple populations from four ecotypes of an Australian native wildflower (Senecio pinnatifolius) in reciprocal transplants to explore how fitness tradeoffs arise across ontogeny. We then assessed whether the survival probability for plants from native and foreign populations was contingent on reaching key developmental stages. We found that fitness tradeoffs emerged as ontogeny progressed when native plants were more successful than foreign plants at reaching seedling establishment and maturity. Native and foreign plants that failed to reach seedling establishment died at the same rate, but plants from foreign populations died quicker than native plants after reaching seedling establishment, and died quicker regardless of whether they reached sexual maturity or not. Development rates were similar for native and foreign populations, but changed depending on the environment. Together, our results suggest that natural selection for environment-specific traits early in life history created tradeoffs between contrasting environments. Plants from foreign populations were either unable to develop to seedling establishment, or they suffered increased mortality as a consequence of reaching seedling establishment. The observation of tradeoffs together with

  2. Historical trade-offs of livestock’s environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Kyle Frankel; Yu, Kailiang; Carr, Joel A; D’Odorico, Paolo; Herrero, Mario; Havlik, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Human demand for animal products has risen markedly over the past 50 years with important environmental impacts. Dairy and cattle production have disproportionately contributed to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and land use, while crop demands of more intensive systems have increased fertilizer use and competition for available crop calories. At the same time, chicken and pig production has grown more rapidly than for ruminants, indicating a change in the environmental burden per animal calorie (EBC) with time. How EBCs have changed and to what extent resource use efficiency (RUE), the composition of animal production and the trade of feed have played a role in these changes have not been examined to date. We employ a calorie-based perspective, distinguishing animal calorie production between calories produced from feedcrop sources—directly competing with humans for available calories—and those from non-feed sources—plant biomass unavailable for direct human consumption. Combining this information with data on agricultural resource use, we calculate EBCs in terms of land, GHG emissions and nitrogen. We find that EBCs have changed substantially for land (−62%), GHGs (−46%) and nitrogen (+188%). Changes in RUE (e.g., selective breeding, increased grain-feeding) have been the primary contributor to these EBC trends, but shifts in the composition of livestock production were responsible for 12%–41% of the total EBC changes. In addition, the virtual trade of land for feed has more than tripled in the past 25 years with 77% of countries currently relying on virtual land imports to support domestic livestock production. Our findings indicate that important tradeoffs have occurred as a result of livestock intensification, with more efficient land use and emission rates exchanged for greater nitrogen use and increased competition between feed and food. This study provides an integrated evaluation of livestock’s impact on food security and the environment

  3. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  4. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance

  5. Environmental trade-offs of tunnels vs cut-and-cover subways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, M.

    1978-01-01

    Heavy construction projects in cities entail two kinds of cost - internal cost, which can be defined in terms of payments from one set of parties to another, and external cost, which is the cost borne by the community at large as the result of disutilities entailed in construction and operation. Environmental trade-offs involve external costs, which are commonly difficult to measure. Cut-and-cover subway construction probably entails higher external and internal cost than deep tunnel construction in many urban geological environments, but uncertainty concerning the costs and environmental trade-offs of tunneling leads to limited and timid use of tunneling by American designers. Thus uncertainty becomes a major trade-off which works against tunneling. The reverse is true in Sweden after nearly 30 years of subway construction. Econometric methods for measuring external costs exist in principle, but are limited in application. Economic theory based on market pressure does not address the real problem of urban environmental trade-offs. Nevertheless, the problem of uncertainty can be addressed by comparative studies of estimated and as-built costs of cut-and-cover vs tunnel projects and a review of environmental issues associated with such construction. Such a study would benefit the underground construction industry and the design of transportation systems. It would also help solve an aspect of the urban problem. ?? 1978.

  6. Environmental Report 1995. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M. [and others

    1996-09-01

    This report contains the results of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) environmental monitoring and compliance effort and an assessment of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and the public. This first volume describes LLNL`s environmental impact and compliance activities and features descriptive and explanatory text, summary data tables, and plots showing data trends. The summary data include measures of the center of data, their spread or variability, and their extreme values. Chapters on monitoring air, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation are present.

  7. Environmental Report 1995. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains the results of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) environmental monitoring and compliance effort and an assessment of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and the public. This first volume describes LLNL's environmental impact and compliance activities and features descriptive and explanatory text, summary data tables, and plots showing data trends. The summary data include measures of the center of data, their spread or variability, and their extreme values. Chapters on monitoring air, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation are present

  8. Evaluation of trade-offs in costs and environmental impacts for returnable packaging implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarupan, Lerpong; Kamarthi, Sagar V.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2004-02-01

    The main thrust of returnable packaging these days is to provide logistical services through transportation and distribution of products and be environmentally friendly. Returnable packaging and reverse logistics concepts have converged to mitigate the adverse effect of packaging materials entering the solid waste stream. Returnable packaging must be designed by considering the trade-offs between costs and environmental impact to satisfy manufacturers and environmentalists alike. The cost of returnable packaging entails such items as materials, manufacturing, collection, storage and disposal. Environmental impacts are explicitly linked with solid waste, air pollution, and water pollution. This paper presents a multi-criteria evaluation technique to assist decision-makers for evaluating the trade-offs in costs and environmental impact during the returnable packaging design process. The proposed evaluation technique involves a combination of multiple objective integer linear programming and analytic hierarchy process. A numerical example is used to illustrate the methodology.

  9. Environmental justice research shows the importance of social feedbacks in ecosystem service trade-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M. Dawson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we shine a spotlight on approaches to research ecosystem service trade-offs and critically assess their representation of relevant social dynamics. Although studies linking ecosystem services and human well-being have provided theoretical insights into social and ecological trade-offs, we argue that ecosystem services research has paid insufficient attention to "social feedbacks," people's cognitive and behavioral responses to change. We demonstrate that augmenting ecosystem services research with environmental justice approaches (exploring perceptions of the distribution of costs and benefits, decision making procedures, and recognition of different values and identities can more effectively capture important responses to ecosystem governance. Spatial analysis of land use change, mixed-method assessment of multidimensional well-being, and qualitative environmental justice research were applied in three villages adjacent to Nam Et-Phou Louey National Protected Area in northern Laos. Spatial analysis showed that, from 2006 to 2015, forest clearance for cultivation remained stable within the protected area. Well-being assessment revealed the local population benefited from rapidly increasing incomes, asset ownership, and reduced poverty during that time. In combination, spatial and well-being analyses paint a picture of limited trade-offs, despite growing incentives to exploit protected land and resources through cash crops and high-value forest products. In contrast, results from environmental justice research revealed profound trade-offs between conservation and local practices, and highlight governance deficiencies relating to procedure and recognition. Consequently, formal protected area rules were perceived to be illegitimate by many and actively undermined, for example through negotiated access with alternative authorities. We conclude that although well-being research provides an essential foundation to understand diverse

  10. Analysis of environmental and economic tradeoffs in switchgrass supply chains for biofuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Jia; Yu, T. Edward; Larson, James A.; English, Burton C.; Fu, Joshua S.; Calcagno, James

    2016-01-01

    This study considered the environmental advantages of switchgrass, along with the economic challenges in its logistics, in the design of a sustainable switchgrass supply chain in Tennessee. Applying a multi-objective optimization model to high-resolution spatial data, potential tradeoffs among the objectives of minimizing feedstock costs, GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions, and soil erosion were identified for a set of conversion facilities on an efficient frontier. The tradeoff relationship was primarily driven by the type of agricultural land converted to switchgrass. Hay and pasture lands were more cost effective but resulted in higher soil carbon losses and soil erosion after being converted to switchgrass. Converting crop lands reduced GHG emissions and soil erosion but caused higher feedstock cost primarily due to the higher opportunity cost of land use. The respective average costs of abating GHG emissions and soil erosion on the efficient frontier were $2378 Mg"−"1 and $10 Mg"−"1. The compromise solution conversion facility site generated 63% higher feedstock cost compared to the cost minimizing location, while reducing soil erosion by 70 fold and diminishing GHG emissions by 27%. Reducing soil erosion may be a more cost effective environmental criterion than reducing GHG emissions in developing a sustainable switchgrass supply chain in Tennessee. - Highlights: • Multi-objective optimization is applied to a switchgrass supply chain in Tennessee. • Tradeoffs are identified among costs, greenhouse gas, and soil erosion in supply chain. • The type of agricultural land converted to feedstock is a key factor to the tradeoffs. • Abating soil erosion rather than greenhouse gas is more cost effective in Tennessee.

  11. Intermodal Freight Transport on the Right Track? Environmental and economic performances and their trade-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nam Seok

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation aims to evaluate environmental and economic performances of an intermodal freight transport system and to estimate the trade-off between CO2 emissions, which is presented as an indicator of environmental performance, and freight costs, which indicate the economic performance of the intermodal freight system. The truck-only system is always regarded as the counterpart of the intermodal freight system in this dissertation. To examine the environmental performance of the intermodal freight system, CO2 emissions generated from all the processes in the intermodal chain, such as pre-haulage and post-haulage, long distance haulage, and transshipment, are estimated considering different sources that generate electricity and transmission loss of electricity (Chapters 3 and 4). To examine the economic performance of the system, two approaches are considered: (1) finding the intermodal breakeven distance for which the intermodal system is more competitive than the truck-only system (Chapter 5); (2) examining the economies of scale in the intermodal network and finding the route/system choice that minimizes the total freight transportation costs (Chapter 6). Finally, this dissertation attempts to find the trade-off between CO2 emissions (representing the environmental performance) and freight transportation cost (representing the economic performance) (Chapter 7)

  12. A Regional Analysis of the Life Cycle Environmental and Economic Tradeoffs of Different Economic Growth Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Mo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Different economic development strategies may result in varied socioeconomic and environmental synergies or tradeoffs, suggesting an opportunity for environmentally conscious planning. To understand such synergies or tradeoffs, a dynamic environmental life cycle assessment was conducted for eleven groups of New Hampshire industries. Historical state level Gross Domestic Product (GDP-by-industry data was combined with economic input-output analysis to calculate the direct and life cycle energy use, freshwater use, greenhouse gas emissions, and eutrophication potential of each industry on a yearly basis for the period of 1997–2012. The future development of agriculture, traditional manufacturing, high tech, and tourism industries were investigated based on government projections. Total life cycle impacts of the 11 industries were found to represent around three to seven times those of direct impacts, indicating the significance of the supply chain impacts. Traditional manufacturing has the highest life cycle impacts even though it contributes to less than 10% of the state GDP. Future development of high tech was found to be the best strategy to increase GDP while imposing the least additional environmental impacts. Tourism presents relatively high impacts in terms of freshwater use and eutrophication potential, and a change in recreational style might be able to reduce its impacts.

  13. Developing models that analyze the economic/environmental trade-offs implicit in water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    Hydro-economic models have been used to analyze optimal supply management and groundwater use for the past 25 years. They are characterized by an objective function that usually maximizes economic measures such as consumer and producer surplus subject to hydrologic equations of motion or water distribution systems. The hydrologic and economic components are sometimes fully integrated. Alternatively they may use an iterative interactive process. Environmental considerations have been included in hydro-economic models as inequality constraints. Representing environmental requirements as constraints is a rigid approximation of the range of management alternatives that could be used to implement environmental objectives. The next generation of hydro-economic models, currently being developed, require that the environmental alternatives be represented by continuous or semi-continuous functions which relate water resource use allocated to the environment with the probabilities of achieving environmental objectives. These functions will be generated by process models of environmental and biological systems which are now advanced to the state that they can realistically represent environmental systems and flexibility to interact with economic models. Examples are crop growth models, climate modeling, and biological models of forest, fish, and fauna systems. These process models can represent environmental outcomes in a form that is similar to economic production functions. When combined with economic models the interacting process models can reproduce a range of trade-offs between economic and environmental objectives, and thus optimize social value of many water and environmental resources. Some examples of this next-generation of hydro-enviro- economic models are reviewed. In these models implicit production functions for environmental goods are combined with hydrologic equations of motion and economic response functions. We discuss models that show interaction between

  14. 2013 BNL Site Environmental Report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratel, K.; Remien, J.; Pohlot, P.; Williams, J.; Green, T.; Paquette, P.; Dorsch, W.; Welty, T.; Burke, J.

    2014-10-01

    A summary of Brookhaven National Laboratory’s (BNL) Site Environmental Report, meant to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of the Laboratory’s environmental performance in the lab’s surrounding area during the calendar year. The review is comprised of multiple volumes relevant to environmental data/environmental management performance and groundwater status report.

  15. Optimal dynamic water allocation: Irrigation extractions and environmental tradeoffs in the Murray River, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton, R. Quentin; Chu, Hoang Long; Stewardson, Michael; Kompas, Tom

    2011-12-01

    A key challenge in managing semiarid basins, such as in the Murray-Darling in Australia, is to balance the trade-offs between the net benefits of allocating water for irrigated agriculture, and other uses, versus the costs of reduced surface flows for the environment. Typically, water planners do not have the tools to optimally and dynamically allocate water among competing uses. We address this problem by developing a general stochastic, dynamic programming model with four state variables (the drought status, the current weather, weather correlation, and current storage) and two controls (environmental release and irrigation allocation) to optimally allocate water between extractions and in situ uses. The model is calibrated to Australia's Murray River that generates: (1) a robust qualitative result that "pulse" or artificial flood events are an optimal way to deliver environmental flows over and above conveyance of base flows; (2) from 2001 to 2009 a water reallocation that would have given less to irrigated agriculture and more to environmental flows would have generated between half a billion and over 3 billion U.S. dollars in overall economic benefits; and (3) water markets increase optimal environmental releases by reducing the losses associated with reduced water diversions.

  16. A tale of trade-offs: the impact of macroeconomic factors on environmental concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Stephen J; Emerson, Tisha L N

    2014-12-01

    We test whether macroeconomic conditions affect individuals' willingness to pay for environmental quality improvements. Improvements in environmental quality, like everything, come at a cost. Individuals facing difficult economic times may be less willing to make trade-offs required for improvements in environmental quality. Using somewhat different methodologies and shorter time frames, prior investigations have generally found a direct relationship between willingness to pay for environmental improvements and macroeconomic conditions. We use a nearly 40-year span (27 periods) of the General Social Survey (1974-2012) to estimate attitudes toward environmental spending while controlling for U.S. macroeconomic conditions and respondent-specific factors such as age, gender, marital status, number of children, residential location, educational attainment, personal financial condition, political party affiliation and ideology. Macroeconomic conditions include one-year lagged controls for the unemployment rate, the rate of economic growth (percentage change in real GDP), and an indicator for whether the U.S. economy was experiencing a recession. We find that, in general, when economic conditions are unfavorable (i.e., during a recession, or with higher unemployment, or lower GDP growth), respondents are more likely to believe the U.S. is spending too much on "improving and protecting the environment". Interacting lagged macroeconomic controls with respondent's income, we find that these views are at least partially offset by the respondent's own economic condition (i.e., their own real income). Our findings are consistent with the notion that environmental quality is a normal, or procyclical good, i.e., that environmental spending should rise when the economy is expanding and fall during economic contractions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental/Thermal Barrier Coatings for Ceramic Matrix Composites: Thermal Tradeoff Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. M.; Brewer, David; Shah, Ashwin R.

    2007-01-01

    Recent interest in environmental/thermal barrier coatings (EBC/TBCs) has prompted research to develop life-prediction methodologies for the coating systems of advanced high-temperature ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). Heat-transfer analysis of EBC/TBCs for CMCs is an essential part of the effort. It helps establish the resulting thermal profile through the thickness of the CMC that is protected by the EBC/TBC system. This report documents the results of a one-dimensional analysis of an advanced high-temperature CMC system protected with an EBC/TBC system. The one-dimensional analysis was used for tradeoff studies involving parametric variation of the conductivity; the thickness of the EBC/TBCs, bond coat, and CMC substrate; and the cooling requirements. The insight gained from the results will be used to configure a viable EBC/TBC system for CMC liners that meet the desired hot surface, cold surface, and substrate temperature requirements.

  18. Site Environmental Report for 1999 - Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, M

    2000-08-12

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1. The Site Environmental Report for 1999 is intended to summarize Berkeley Lab's compliance with environmental standards and requirements, characterize environmental management efforts through surveillance and monitoring activities, and highlight significant programs and efforts for calendar year 1999. The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains a general overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summary results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Each chapter in Volume I begins with an outline of the sections that follow, including any tables or figures found in the chapter. Readers should use section numbers (e.g., {section}1.5) as navigational tools to find topics of interest in either the printed or the electronic version of the report. Volume II contains the individual data results from monitoring programs.

  19. Site Environmental Report for 2007 Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, Regina E.; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-01-01

    The Site Environmental Report is an integrated report on Berkeley Lab's environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. It summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2007. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of the Laboratory, a discussion of the Laboratory's environmental management system, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities

  20. Site Environmental Report for 2007 Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Regina E.; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-09-15

    The Site Environmental Report is an integrated report on Berkeley Lab's environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. It summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2007. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of the Laboratory, a discussion of the Laboratory's environmental management system, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  1. Environmental projects. Volume 3: Environmental compliance audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex is part of NASA's Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. Activities at Goldstone are carried out in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. In support of the national goal of the preservation of the environment and the protection of human health and safety, NASA, JPL and Goldstone have adopted a position that their operating installations shall maintain a high level of compliance with Federal, state, and local laws governing the management of hazardous substances, abestos, and underground storage tanks. A JPL version of a document prepared as an environmental audit of Goldstone operations is presented. Both general and specific items of noncompliance at Goldstone are identified and recommendations are provided for corrective actions.

  2. Valuation of environmental and societal trade-offs of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosenius, Anna-Kaisa; Ollikainen, Markku

    2013-01-01

    Use of renewable energy sources is one solution to decrease green house gas emissions and the use of polluting fossil fuels. Renewables differ in their environmental and societal impacts, and to design sound renewable energy policy, societies need to assess the trade-offs between alternative sources. To enable the evaluation and comparison of renewable energy production alternatives in Finland, this paper applies the choice experiment to elicit the monetary information on people's preferences for four renewable energy sources: wind power, hydro power and energy from crops and wood, and considers four impacts of energy production: effects on biodiversity, local jobs, carbon emissions and household's electricity bill. The nested logit analysis reveals that higher income, male gender, young age, and pro-environmental attitude increase the probability to choose renewable energy instead of the current energy mix. Wind power is, on average, the most popular renewable energy technology, but regional differences exist. Biodiversity deterioration should be avoided. The national aggregate willingness to pay, based on stated preferences rather than preferences revealed by actual market behavior, for a combination of renewable energy technologies that corresponds to Finland's climate change and energy policy is over 500 million Euros. - Highlights: • Preferences for renewable energy sources are elicited with choice experiment. • Wind power is the most popular source in general. • Regional differences exist: energy from wood is favored in rural areas. • Biodiversity deterioration should be avoided

  3. Trade-offs between economic and environmental impacts of introducing legumes into cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz eReckling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Europe’s agriculture is highly specialized, dependent on external inputs and responsible for negative environmental impacts. Legume crops are grown on less than 2 % of the arable land and more than 70 % of the demand for protein feed supplement is imported from overseas. The integration of legumes into cropping systems has the potential to contribute to the transition to a more resource-efficient agriculture and reduce the current protein deficit. Legume crops influence the production of other crops in the rotation making it difficult to evaluate the overall agronomic effects of legumes in cropping systems. A novel assessment framework was developed and applied in five case study regions across Europe with the objective of evaluating trade-offs between economic and environmental effects of integrating legumes into cropping systems. Legumes resulted in positive and negative impacts when integrated into various cropping systems across the case studies. On average, cropping systems with legumes reduced nitrous oxide emissions by 18 % and 33 % and N fertilizer use by 24 % and 38 % in arable and forage systems, respectively, compared to systems without legumes. Nitrate leaching was similar with and without legumes in arable systems and reduced by 22 % in forage systems. However, grain legumes reduced gross margins in 3 of 5 regions. Forage legumes increased gross margins in 3 of 3 regions. Among the cropping systems with legumes, systems could be identified that had both relatively high economic returns and positive environmental impacts. Thus, increasing the cultivation of legumes could lead to economic competitive cropping systems and positive environmental impacts, but achieving this aim requires the development of novel management strategies informed by the involvement of advisors and farmers.

  4. Site Environmental Report for 2008, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Regina; Baskin, David; Fox, Robert; Jelinski, John; Pauer, Ron; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea; Xu, Suying

    2009-09-21

    The Site Environmental Report for 2008 is an integrated report on the environmental programs at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and satisfies the requirements of DOE order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities

  5. Economically and environmentally informed policy for road resurfacing: tradeoffs between costs and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reger, Darren; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-01-01

    As road conditions worsen, users experience an increase in fuel consumption and vehicle wear and tear. This increases the costs incurred by the drivers, and also increases the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that vehicles emit. Pavement condition can be improved through rehabilitation activities (resurfacing) to reduce the effects on users, but these activities also have significant cost and GHG emission impacts. The objective of pavement management is to minimize total societal (user and agency) costs. However, the environmental impacts associated with the cost-minimizing policy are not currently accounted for. We show that there exists a range of potentially optimal decisions, known as the Pareto frontier, in which it is not possible to decrease total emissions without increasing total costs and vice versa. This research explores these tradeoffs for a system of pavement segments. For a case study, a network was created from a subset of California’s highways using available traffic data. It was shown that the current resurfacing strategy used by the state’s transportation agency, Caltrans, does not fall on the Pareto frontier, meaning that significant savings in both total costs and total emissions can be achieved by switching to one of the optimal policies. The methods presented in this paper also allow the decision maker to evaluate the impact of other policies, such as reduced vehicle kilometers traveled or better construction standards. (letter)

  6. Life history trade-offs and relaxed selection can decrease bacterial virulence in environmental reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Mikonranta

    Full Text Available Pathogen virulence is usually thought to evolve in reciprocal selection with the host. While this might be true for obligate pathogens, the life histories of opportunistic pathogens typically alternate between within-host and outside-host environments during the infection-transmission cycle. As a result, opportunistic pathogens are likely to experience conflicting selection pressures across different environments, and this could affect their virulence through life-history trait correlations. We studied these correlations experimentally by exposing an opportunistic bacterial pathogen Serratia marcescens to its natural protist predator Tetrahymena thermophila for 13 weeks, after which we measured changes in bacterial traits related to both anti-predator defence and virulence. We found that anti-predator adaptation (producing predator-resistant biofilm caused a correlative attenuation in virulence. Even though the direct mechanism was not found, reduction in virulence was most clearly connected to a predator-driven loss of a red bacterial pigment, prodigiosin. Moreover, life-history trait evolution was more divergent among replicate populations in the absence of predation, leading also to lowered virulence in some of the 'predator absent' selection lines. Together these findings suggest that the virulence of non-obligatory, opportunistic bacterial pathogens can decrease in environmental reservoirs through life history trade-offs, or random accumulation of mutations that impair virulence traits under relaxed selection.

  7. Balancing tradeoffs: Reconciling multiple environmental goals when ecosystem services vary regionally

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connell, Christine S.; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Cuadra, Santiago; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Gerber, James; West, Paul C.; Polasky, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    As the planet’s dominant land use, agriculture often competes with the preservation of natural systems that provide globally and regionally important ecosystem services. How agriculture impacts ecosystem service delivery varies regionally, among services being considered, and across spatial scales. Here, we assess the tradeoffs between four ecosystem services—agricultural production, carbon storage, biophysical climate regulation, and biodiversity—using as a case study the Amazon, an active frontier of agricultural expansion. We find that the highest values for each of the ecosystem services are concentrated in different regions. Agricultural production potential and carbon storage are highest in the north and west, biodiversity greatest in the west, and climate regulation services most vulnerable to disruption in the south and east. Using a simple optimization model, we find that under scenarios of agricultural expansion that optimize total production across ecosystem services, small increases in priority for one ecosystem service can lead to reductions in other services by as much as 140%. Our results highlight the difficulty of managing landscapes for multiple environmental goals; the approach presented here can be adapted to guide value-laden conservation decisions and identify potential solutions that balance priorities.

  8. Economically and environmentally informed policy for road resurfacing: tradeoffs between costs and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, Darren; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-10-01

    As road conditions worsen, users experience an increase in fuel consumption and vehicle wear and tear. This increases the costs incurred by the drivers, and also increases the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that vehicles emit. Pavement condition can be improved through rehabilitation activities (resurfacing) to reduce the effects on users, but these activities also have significant cost and GHG emission impacts. The objective of pavement management is to minimize total societal (user and agency) costs. However, the environmental impacts associated with the cost-minimizing policy are not currently accounted for. We show that there exists a range of potentially optimal decisions, known as the Pareto frontier, in which it is not possible to decrease total emissions without increasing total costs and vice versa. This research explores these tradeoffs for a system of pavement segments. For a case study, a network was created from a subset of California’s highways using available traffic data. It was shown that the current resurfacing strategy used by the state’s transportation agency, Caltrans, does not fall on the Pareto frontier, meaning that significant savings in both total costs and total emissions can be achieved by switching to one of the optimal policies. The methods presented in this paper also allow the decision maker to evaluate the impact of other policies, such as reduced vehicle kilometers traveled or better construction standards.

  9. Spatially and Temporally Resolved Analysis of Environmental Trade-Offs in Electricity Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Rebecca A M; Garrison, Jared B; Timms, Craig P; Sanders, Kelly T

    2016-04-19

    The US power sector is a leading contributor of emissions that affect air quality and climate. It also requires a lot of water for cooling thermoelectric power plants. Although these impacts affect ecosystems and human health unevenly in space and time, there has been very little quantification of these environmental trade-offs on decision-relevant scales. This work quantifies hourly water consumption, emissions (i.e., carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides), and marginal heat rates for 252 electricity generating units (EGUs) in the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) region in 2011 using a unit commitment and dispatch model (UC&D). Annual, seasonal, and daily variations, as well as spatial variability are assessed. When normalized over the grid, hourly average emissions and water consumption intensities (i.e., output per MWh) are found to be highest when electricity demand is the lowest, as baseload EGUs tend to be the most water and emissions intensive. Results suggest that a large fraction of emissions and water consumption are caused by a small number of power plants, mainly baseload coal-fired generators. Replacing 8-10 existing power plants with modern natural gas combined cycle units would result in reductions of 19-29%, 51-55%, 60-62%, and 13-27% in CO2 emissions, NOx emissions, SOx emissions, and water consumption, respectively, across the ERCOT region for two different conversion scenarios.

  10. Environmental and economic trade-offs in a watershed when using corn stover for bioenergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramig, Benjamin M; Reeling, Carson J; Cibin, Raj; Chaubey, Indrajeet

    2013-02-19

    There is an abundant supply of corn stover in the United States that remains after grain is harvested which could be used to produce cellulosic biofuels mandated by the current Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). This research integrates the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) watershed model and the DayCent biogeochemical model to investigate water quality and soil greenhouse gas flux that results when corn stover is collected at two different rates from corn-soybean and continuous corn crop rotations with and without tillage. Multiobjective watershed-scale optimizations are performed for individual pollutant-cost minimization criteria based on the economic cost of each cropping practice and (individually) the effect on nitrate, total phosphorus, sediment, or global warming potential. We compare these results with a purely economic optimization that maximizes stover production at the lowest cost without taking environmental impacts into account. We illustrate trade-offs between cost and different environmental performance criteria, assuming that nutrients contained in any stover collected must be replaced. The key finding is that stover collection using the practices modeled results in increased contributions to atmospheric greenhouse gases while reducing nitrate and total phosphorus loading to the watershed relative to the status quo without stover collection. Stover collection increases sediment loading to waterways relative to when no stover is removed for each crop rotation-tillage practice combination considered; no-till in combination with stover collection reduced sediment loading below baseline conditions without stover collection. Our results suggest that additional information is needed about (i) the level of nutrient replacement required to maintain grain yields and (ii) cost-effective management practices capable of reducing soil erosion when crop residues are removed in order to avoid contributions to climate change and water quality impairments as a result

  11. Social-environmental trade-offs for Systems of Rice Intensification in S. India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathorne-Hardy, A.; Reddy, D. N.; Motkuri, V.; Harriss-White, B.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems will only be sustainable if social and economic considerations are included in their design. Systems of Rice Intensification (SRI) has been proposed as more sustainable form of rice production due to reported higher yields and lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However there is a research gap concerning the wider social and economic implications of SRI. We developed a model to simultaneously analyse social, economic and environmental sustainability indicators (GHG emissions, ground water use, fossil/ non-fossil energy use, costs, profits, gender, employment quality and employment quantity) to compare SRI to conventional flooded rice production systems. Data was based on farmer-recall questionnaires in Andhra Pradesh, India. Data was collected per hectare and per kg of paddy. SRI substantially increased yields (157% of control), reduced ground-water requirements (64% ha-1, 42% kg-1, of control) and reduced GHG emissions (72% ha-1, 42% kg-1, of control). Costs were substantially lower for SRI systems, on both a hectare and a per kg basis. The high yields and lower costs resulted in a doubling of profits per hectare. However, these benefits are accrued to the farmer potentially at the expense of landless labourers. The role of agricultural employment in developing countries is a controversial issue, but in India, whose substantial economic growth has been largely jobless, agriculture retains a key role in reducing under- and un- employment. SRI labour demand was lower (70% of control ha-1). Simultaneously the ratio of male to female employment increased, from 67% female labour in control to 50% SRI. Thus trade-offs may exist between environmental, economic and social aspects of SRI. Understanding sustainability from a broad perspective facilitates better policy creation.

  12. A hybrid Bayesian network approach for trade-offs between environmental flows and agricultural water using dynamic discretization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jie; Gui, Dongwei; Lei, Jiaqiang; Sun, Huaiwei; Zeng, Fanjiang; Feng, Xinlong

    2017-12-01

    Agriculture and the eco-environment are increasingly competing for water. The extension of intensive farmland for ensuring food security has resulted in excessive water exploitation by agriculture. Consequently, this has led to a lack of water supply in natural ecosystems. This paper proposes a trade-off framework to coordinate the water-use conflict between agriculture and the eco-environment, based on economic compensation for irrigation stakeholders. A hybrid Bayesian network (HBN) is developed to implement the framework, including: (a) agricultural water shortage assessments after meeting environmental flows; (b) water-use tradeoff analysis between agricultural irrigation and environmental flows using the HBN; and (c) quantification of the agricultural economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders. The constructed HBN is computed by dynamic discretization, which is a more robust and accurate propagation algorithm than general static discretization. A case study of the Qira oasis area in Northwest China demonstrates that the water trade-off based on economic compensation depends on the available water supply and environmental flows at different levels. Agricultural irrigation water extracted for grain crops should be preferentially guaranteed to ensure food security, in spite of higher economic compensation in other cash crops' irrigation for water coordination. Updating water-saving engineering and adopting drip irrigation technology in agricultural facilities after satisfying environmental flows would greatly relieve agricultural water shortage and save the economic compensation for different irrigation stakeholders. The approach in this study can be easily applied in water-stressed areas worldwide for dealing with water competition.

  13. Site Environmental Report for 1998 Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Volume II of the Site Environment Report for 1998 is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to the report printed in volume I. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results in the main report for routine and non routine activities at the Laboratory (except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in chapter 6). Data presented in the tables are given in International System of Units (SI) units of measure

  14. Site Environmental Report for 2005 Volume I and Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, Michael

    2006-07-07

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, ''Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting''. The ''Site Environmental Report for 2005'' summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2005. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as ''Berkeley Lab'', ''the Laboratory'', ''Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory'', and ''LBNL''.) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. This year's Volume I text body is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters. The report's structure has been reorganized this year, and it now includes a chapter devoted to environmental management system topics. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities. The ''Site Environmental Report'' is distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request. The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are also reported using the more conventional (non-SI) system of measurements, because the non-SI system is referenced by several current

  15. Environmental report 1994. Volume No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, K.S.; Harrach, R.J.; Gallegos, G.M.; Failor, R.A.; Christofferson, E.

    1995-01-01

    This volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual Environmental Report 1994 is a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable, along with some summary data and more detailed accounts of sample collection and analytical methods. Six chapters have information on monitoring of air, surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuffs, and environmental radiation; two other chapters cover compliance sel-monitoring and quality assurance

  16. Site Environmental Report for 2002, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauer, Ron

    2003-07-01

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1. The ''Site Environmental Report for 2002'' summarizes Berkeley Lab's compliance with environmental standards and requirements, characterizes environmental management efforts through surveillance and monitoring activities, and highlights significant programs and efforts for calendar year 2002. Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as ''Berkeley Lab,'' ''the Laboratory,'' ''Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,'' and ''LBNL.'' The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains a general overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Volume II contains individual data results from the monitoring programs. This year, the ''Site Environmental Report'' was distributed on a CD in PDF format that includes Volume I, Volume II, and related documents. The report is also available on the Web at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are additionally reported using the more conventional (non-SI) system of measurements because this system is referenced by some current regulatory standards and is more familiar to some readers. The tables included at the end of the Glossary are intended to help readers understand the various prefixes used with SI units of measurement and convert these units from one system to the other.

  17. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies report. Volume 2: Supplement to design trade-off studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Results of studies leading to the preliminary design of a hybrid passenger vehicle which is projected to have the maximum potential for reducing petroleum consumption in the near term are presented. Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicle tradeoffs, assessment of battery power source, and weight and cost analysis of key components are among the topics covered. Performance of auxiliary equipment, such as power steering, power brakes, air conditioning, lighting and electrical accessories, heating and ventilation is discussed along with the selection of preferred passenger compartment heating procedure for the hybrid vehicle. Waste heat from the engine, thermal energy storage, and an auxiliary burner are among the approaches considered.

  18. Economic and Environmental Impact Trade-Offs Related to In-Water Hull Cleanings of Merchant Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagoropoulos, Aris; Kjær, Louise Laumann; Dong, Yan

    2017-01-01

    they are an established practice, their associated environmental and economic trade-offs and conflicts have remained largely unexplored. The purpose of this article is to quantitatively assess both economic and environmental impacts of hull management schemes on the operation of tanker vessels. After identifying induced...... and avoided costs and environmental impacts from the hull management system, we used both temporally and spatially distributed models to capture the degradation of the antifouling system as well as the global sailing profile of the vessels. Last, we analyzed how each of the modeled impacts varied...... of the service are likely to offset the savings—especially if fuel prices are low. In regards to climate change, avoided emissions due to fuel savings are likely to outweigh the limited impacts from the service itself. Last, while ecosystem impacts from marine, terrestrial, and freshwater eco-toxicity are likely...

  19. Site Environmental Report for 2009, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Regina

    2010-08-17

    Each year, the University of California (UC), as the managing and operating contractor of the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, prepares an integrated report regarding its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.1 The Site Environmental Report for 2009 summarizes Berkeley Lab's environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year (CY) 2009. Throughout this report, 'Berkeley Lab' or 'LBNL' refers both to (1) the multiprogram scientific facility the UC manages and operates on the 202-acre university-owned site located in the hills above the UC Berkeley campus, and the site itself, and (2) the UC as managing and operating contractor for Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of LBNL, a discussion of its environmental management system (EMS), the status of environmental programs, summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities, and quality assurance (QA) measures. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities. The Site Environmental Report is distributed by releasing it on the World Wide Web (Web) from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. Links to documents available on the Web are given with the citations in the References section. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request. The report follows Berkeley Lab's policy of using the International System of Units (SI), also known as the metric system of measurements. Whenever possible

  20. Environmental report for rod storage. Volume V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danese, F.L.

    1981-09-01

    Volume V of this report examines the environmental impact of the rod consolidation program. The postulated, nonsite-specific, differential impacts are primarily additional occupational exposures due to the rod storage operations. Other potential radiological and nonradiological impacts that are identified and addressed are negligible. There are no increases in population exposures except those associated with transportation of spent fuel and waste material. The increased utilization of existing spent fuel storage space could result in a decrease in the nonrecoverable material resources lost to new permanent spent fuel storage

  1. Trade-offs and spatial dependency of rice production and environmental consequences at community level in Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Liu, Zhong; Wang, Lihua; Wan, Haibo; Jing, Changwei; Jiang, Jingang; Wu, Jiaping; Qi, Jiaguo

    2018-02-01

    Over the past three decades, farmers in China have increasingly used fertilizers to increase paddy rice production. While this approach has eased the rising demand for food, it is unclear whether it pays off in the long-run when costs associated with environmental consequences are considered. Using two case studies in Zhejiang Province, China, this paper analyzed field-based rice yields, fertilizer inputs, nitrogen leaching and greenhouse emissions and their socioeconomic values of different farm practices. The objective was to assess the trade-offs among economic gains from increased yield and environmental consequences of different paddy rice management practices. The results indicated short-term economic gains to farmers outweigh the environmental cost concerns. However, considering the lasting environmental effects, there is a significant imbalance toward a conservative farming practice. The results further indicated that synergies can be achieved if precision management practices are adopted. It was also indicated that a large spatial variation exists in yields and environmental impacts, suggesting ‘one-size fits all’ policies will likely be ineffective in reducing environmental impacts. Although only two case studies were demonstrated in this study, the approach may be generalized to other geographic regions to help guide paddy farmers in similar climatic and land use environments such as those in the subtropical regions of Southeast Asia, to achieve synergic environment practices.

  2. A strategic planning approach for operational-environmental tradeoff assessments in terminal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Hernando

    This thesis proposes the use of well established statistical analysis techniques, leveraging on recent developments in interactive data visualization capabilities, to quantitatively characterize the interactions, sensitivities, and tradeoffs prevalent in the complex behavior of airport operational and environmental performance. Within the strategic airport planning process, this approach is used in the assessment of airport performance under current/reference conditions, as well as in the evaluation of terminal area solutions under projected demand conditions. More specifically, customized designs of experiments are utilized to guide the intelligent selection and definition of modeling and simulation runs that will yield greater understanding, insight, and information about the inherent systemic complexity of a terminal area, with minimal computational expense. For the research documented in this thesis, a modeling and simulation environment was created featuring three primary components. First, a generator of schedules of operations, based primarily on previous work on aviation demand characterization, whereby growth factors and scheduling adjustment algorithms are applied on appropriate baseline schedules so as to generate notional operational sets representative of consistent future demand conditions. The second component pertains to the modeling and simulation of aircraft operations, defined by a schedule of operations, on the airport surface and within its terminal airspace. This component is a discrete event simulator for multiple queuing models that captures the operational architecture of the entire terminal area along with all the necessary operational logic pertaining to simulated Air Traffic Control (ATC) functions, rules, and standard practices. The third and final component is comprised of legacy aircraft performance, emissions and dispersion, and noise exposure modeling tools, that use the simulation history of aircraft movements to generate estimates

  3. Environmental-economic benefits and trade-offs on sustainably certified coffee farms

    OpenAIRE

    Haggar, Jeremy; Soto, Gabriela; Casanoves, Fernando; de Melo Virginio, Elias

    2017-01-01

    Coffee with diverse shade trees is recognized as conserving greater biodiversity than more intensive production methods. Sustainable certification has been proposed as an incentive to conserve shade grown coffee. With 40% of global coffee production certified as sustainable, evidence is needed to demonstrate whether certification supports the environmental benefits of shade coffee. Environmen-tal and economic data were taken from 278 coffee farms in Nicaragua divided between non-certified and...

  4. National Environmental Policy Act compliance guide. Volume II (reference book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This document (Volume II of the National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Guide) contains current copies of regulations and guidance from the Council on Environmental Quality, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency, related to compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  5. Resource Programs : Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    Every two years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) prepares a Resource Program which identifies the resource actions BPA will take to meet its obligation to serve the forecasted power requirements of its customers. The Resource Program`s Environmental Impact Statement (RPEIS) is a programmatic environmental document which will support decisions made in several future Resource Programs. Environmental documents tiered to the EIS may be prepared on a site-specific basis. The RPEIS includes a description of the environmental effects and mitigation for the various resource types available in order to evaluate the trade-offs among them. It also assesses the environmental impacts of adding thirteen alternative combinations of resources to the existing power system. This report contains the appendices to the RPEIS.

  6. 1987 Oak Ridge model conference: Proceedings: Volume 2, Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    See the abstract for Volume I for general information on the conference. Topics discussed in Volume II include data management techiques for environmental protection efforts, the use of models in environmental auditing, in emergency plans, chemical accident emergency response, risk assessment, monitoring of waste sites, air and water monitoring of waste sites, and in training programs

  7. 1987 Oak Ridge model conference: Proceedings: Volume 2, Environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    See the abstract for Volume I for general information on the conference. Topics discussed in Volume II include data management techiques for environmental protection efforts, the use of models in environmental auditing, in emergency plans, chemical accident emergency response, risk assessment, monitoring of waste sites, air and water monitoring of waste sites, and in training programs. (TEM)

  8. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The unclassified, annotated bibliography is Volume I of a two-volume set on Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom in a series of scheduled bibliographies on Environmental Pollution. Volume II is Confidential. Corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, title, contract, and report number indexes are included. (Author/JR)

  9. Site Environmental Report for 2012, Volumes 1& 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauer, Ron; Baskin, David; Bauters, Tim; Borglin, Ned; Fox, Robert; Horst, Blair; Jelinski, John; Lackner, Ginny; Philliber, Jeff; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea; Wehle, Petra; Xu, Suying; None

    2013-09-30

    This report provides a comprehensive summary of the environmental program activities at LBNL for the calendar year 2012. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that include an overview of LBNL, a discussion of its Environmental Management System (EMS), the status of environmental programs, summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities, and quality assurance (QA) measures. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  10. Environmental service payments: evaluating biodiversity conservation trade-offs and cost-efficiency in the Osa Conservation Area, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, D N; Faith, D P; Rusch, G M; Acevedo, H; Paniagua, L; Castro, M

    2009-02-01

    The cost-efficiency of payments for environmental services (PES) to private landowners in the Osa Conservation Area, Costa Rica, is evaluated in terms of the trade-off between biodiversity representation and opportunity costs of conservation to agricultural and forestry land-use. Using available GIS data and an 'off-the-shelf' software application called TARGET, we find that the PES allocation criteria applied by authorities in 2002-2003 were more than twice as cost-efficient as criteria applied during 1999-2001. Results show that a policy relevant assessment of the cost-effectiveness of PES relative to other conservation policies can be carried out at regional level using available studies and GIS data. However, there are a number of data and conceptual limitations to using heuristic optimisation algorithms in the analysis of the cost-efficiency of PES. Site specific data on probabilities of land-use change, and a detailed specification of opportunity costs of farm land, labour and capital are required to use algorithms such as TARGET for ranking individual sites based on cost-efficiency. Despite its conceptual soundness for regional conservation analysis, biodiversity complementarity presents a practical challenge as a criterion for PES eligibility at farm level because it varies depending on the set of areas under PES contracts at any one time.

  11. Production versus environmental impact trade-offs for Swiss cropping systems: a model-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing need to improve sustainability of agricultural systems. The key focus remains on optimizing current production systems in order to deliver food security at low environmental costs. It is therefore essential to identify and evaluate agricultural management practices for their potential to maintain or increase productivity and mitigate climate change and N pollution. Previous research on Swiss cropping systems has been concentrated on increasing crop productivity and soil fertility. Thus, relatively little is known about management effects on net soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and environmental N losses in the long-term. The aim of this study was to extrapolate findings from Swiss long-term field experiments and to evaluate the system-level sustainability of a wide range of cropping systems under conditions beyond field experimentation by comparing their crop productivity and impacts on soil carbon, net soil GHG emissions, NO3 leaching and soil N balance over 30 years. The DayCent model was previously parameterized for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices and evaluated for productivity, soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems. Based on a prediction uncertainty criterion for crop productivity and soil carbon (rRMSEGM). The productivity of Swiss cropping systems was mainly driven by total N inputs to the systems. The GWP of systems ranged from -450 to 1309 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. All studied systems, except for ORG-RT-GM systems, acted as a source of net soil GHG emissions with the relative contribution of soil N2O emissions to GWP of more than 60%. The GWP of systems with CT decreased consistently with increasing use of organic manures (MIN>IN>ORG). NT relative to RT management showed to be more effective in reducing GWP from MIN systems due to reduced soil N2O emissions and positive effects on soil C sequestration. GM relative to CC management was shown to be more effective in mitigating NO3

  12. INEL environmental characterization report. Volume I. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This environmental characterization report contains general information on environmental aspects of the INEL, and specific information on two areas within the INEL which have been tentatively selected for NPR siting. The objective is to present environmental information but not assess environmental impacts. Impacts will be addressed specifically at a later date when an EIS is prepared. The information in this report will be used to evaluate the siting of various reactor types at each of the three reservation alternatives. The report covers geography, physiography, and demography of the INEL, ecology, climatology overview, geology and seismology, hydrology, cultural resources assessment, baseline socioeconomic data, description of INEL facilities and capabilities, effluent and environmental measurements and monitoring programs, exposure pathways, and environmental laws and regulations

  13. INEL environmental characterization report. Volume III. Appendices E-H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This volume contains the following appendices: (1) INEL subsurface hydrology; (2) cultural resources assessment of two study areas on the INEL; (3) description of INEL facilities; and (4) effluent measurements and environmental monitoring programs

  14. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Environmental Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This is volume 1 of the final environmental impact statement of the Bonneville Power Administration Information is included on the following: Purpose of and need for action; alternatives including the proposed action; affected environment; and environmental consequences.

  15. Environmental Report 1994, Volume No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, K.S.; Harrach, R.J.; Gallegos, G.M.; Failor, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility operated by the University of California, serves as a national resource of scientific, technical, and engineering capability. The Laboratory's mission focuses on nuclear weapons and national security, and over the years has been broadened to include areas such as strategic defense, energy, the environment, biomedicine, technology transfer, the economy, and education. The Laboratory carries out this multifaceted mission in compliance with local, state, and federal environmental regulatory requirements. It does so with the support of the Environmental Protection Department, which is responsible for environmental monitoring and analysis, hazardous waste management, environmental restoration, and ensuring compliance with environmental laws and regulations. LLNL comprises two sites: the Livermore site and Site 300. The Livermore site occupies an area of 3.28 square kilometers on the eastern edge of Livermore, California. Site 300, LLNL's experimental testing site, is located 24 kilometers to the east in the Altamont Hills, and occupies an area of 30.3 square kilometers. Environmental monitoring activities are conducted at both sites as well as in surrounding areas. This summary provides an overview of LLNL's environmental activities in 1994, including radiological and nonradiological sampling and surveillance monitoring, remediation, assessment of radiological releases and doses, and determination of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and public health

  16. Environmental Report 1994, Volume No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, K.S. [ed.; Harrach, R.J.; Gallegos, G.M.; Failor, R.A. [and others

    1995-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility operated by the University of California, serves as a national resource of scientific, technical, and engineering capability. The Laboratory`s mission focuses on nuclear weapons and national security, and over the years has been broadened to include areas such as strategic defense, energy, the environment, biomedicine, technology transfer, the economy, and education. The Laboratory carries out this multifaceted mission in compliance with local, state, and federal environmental regulatory requirements. It does so with the support of the Environmental Protection Department, which is responsible for environmental monitoring and analysis, hazardous waste management, environmental restoration, and ensuring compliance with environmental laws and regulations. LLNL comprises two sites: the Livermore site and Site 300. The Livermore site occupies an area of 3.28 square kilometers on the eastern edge of Livermore, California. Site 300, LLNL`s experimental testing site, is located 24 kilometers to the east in the Altamont Hills, and occupies an area of 30.3 square kilometers. Environmental monitoring activities are conducted at both sites as well as in surrounding areas. This summary provides an overview of LLNL`s environmental activities in 1994, including radiological and nonradiological sampling and surveillance monitoring, remediation, assessment of radiological releases and doses, and determination of the impact of LLNL operations on the environment and public health.

  17. Engineering report. Part 2: NASA wheel and brake material tradeoff study for space shuttle type environmental requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, L. D.

    1973-01-01

    The study included material selection and trade-off for the structural components of the wheel and brake optimizing weight vs cost and feasibility for the space shuttle type application. Analytical methods were used to determine section thickness for various materials, and a table was constructed showing weight vs. cost trade-off. The wheel and brake were further optimized by considering design philosophies that deviate from standard aircraft specifications, and designs that best utilize the materials being considered.

  18. 1980 annual radiological environmental report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted during 1980 in the vicinity of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Radiological Environmental Program consists of on-site sampling of water and gaseous effluents and off-site monitoring of water, air, river sediments, soils, food pathway samples, and radiation levels in the vicinity of the site. This report discusses the results of this monitoring during 1980. The environmental program outlined in the Beaver Valley Power Station Technical Specifications was followed throughout 1980. There were no radioactive liquid effluents released from the Shippingport Atomic Power Station since radioactive liquids are processed and re-cycled within the plant systems. The results of this environmental monitoring program show that Shippingport Atomic Power Station and Beaver Valley Power Station operations have not adversely affected the surrounding environment

  19. Site Environmental Report for 2011, Volumes 1& 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskin, David; Bauters, Tim; Borglin, Ned; Fox, Robert; Horst, Blair; Jelinski, John; Lackner, Ginny; Philliber, Jeff; Rothermich, Nancy; Thorson, Patrick; Wahl, Linnea; Xu, Suying

    2012-09-12

    The Site Environmental Report for 2011 summarizes Berkeley Lab’s environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year (CY) 2011. Throughout this report, “Berkeley Lab” or “LBNL” refers both to (1) the multiprogram scientific facility the UC manages and operates on the 202-acre university-owned site located in the hills above the UC Berkeley campus, and the site itself, and (2) the UC as managing and operating contractor for Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that include an overview of LBNL, a discussion of its Environmental Management System (EMS), the status of environmental programs, summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities, and quality assurance (QA) measures. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  20. Trade-Offs between Economic and Environmental Optimization of the Forest Biomass Generation Supply Chain in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of forest residue to produce forest biomass energy can mitigate CO2 emissions and generate additional revenue for related eco-enterprises and farmers. In China, however, the benefit of this utilization is still in question because of high costs and CO2 emissions in the entire supply chain. In this paper, a multi-objective linear programming model (MLP is employed to analyze the trade-offs between the economic and environmental benefits of all nodes within the forest biomass power generation supply chain. The MLP model is tested in the Mao Wu Su biomass Thermoelectric Company. The optimization results show that (1 the total cost and CO2 emissions are decreased by US$98.4 thousand and 60.6 thousand kg, respectively; 3750 thousand kg of waste-wood products is reduced and 3750 thousand kg of sandy shrub stubble residue is increased; (2 64% of chipped sandy shrub residue is transported directly from the forestland to the power plant, 36% of non-chipped sandy shrub residue is transported from the forestland to the power plant via the chipping plant; (3 transportation and chipping play a significant role in the supply chain; and (4 the results of a sensitivity analysis show that the farmer’s average transportation distance should be 84.13 km and unit chipping cost should be $0.01022 thousand for the optimization supply cost and CO2 emissions. Finally, we suggest the following: (1 develop long-term cooperation with farmers; (2 buy chain-saws for regularly used farmers; (3 build several chipping plants in areas that are rich in sandy shrub.

  1. Savannah River Site Environmental Implementation Plan. Volume 2, Protection programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    Formal sitewide environmental planning at the . Savannah River Site (SRS) began in 1986 with the development and adoption of the Strategic Environmental Plan. The Strategic Environmental Plan describes the philosophy, policy, and overall program direction of environmental programs for the operation of the SRS. The Strategic Environmental Plan (Volume 2) provided the basis for development of the Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP). The EIP is the detailed, comprehensive environmental master plan for operating contractor organizations at the SRS. The EIP provides a process to ensure that all environmental requirements and obligations are being met by setting specific measurable goals and objectives and strategies for implementation. The plan is the basis for justification of site manpower and funding requests for environmental projects and programs over a five-year planning period.

  2. Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy manages the Nevada Test Site in a manner that meets evolving DOE Missions and responds to the concerns of affected and interested individuals and agencies. This Routine Radiological Monitoring Plan addressess complicance with DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 and other drivers requiring routine effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance on the Nevada Test Site. This monitoring plan, prepared in 1998, addresses the activities conducted onsite NTS under the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision. This radiological monitoring plan, prepared on behalf of the Nevada Test Site Landlord, brings together sitewide environmental surveillance; site-specific effluent monitoring; and operational monitoring conducted by various missions, programs, and projects on the NTS. The plan provides an approach to identifying and conducting routine radiological monitoring at the NTS, based on integrated technical, scientific, and regulatory complicance data needs.

  3. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant expansion: final environmental statement. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    Volume 1 is comprised of chapters on: background and description; environmental impacts of add-on gaseous diffusion plant; unavoidable adverse environmental effects; alternatives; relationship between short-term uses and long-term productivity; relationship of program to land-use plans, policies, and controls; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; cost-benefit analysis; and response to comment letters. (LK)

  4. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant expansion: final environmental statement. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    Volume 1 is comprised of chapters on: background and description; environmental impacts of add-on gaseous diffusion plant; unavoidable adverse environmental effects; alternatives; relationship between short-term uses and long-term productivity; relationship of program to land-use plans, policies, and controls; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; cost-benefit analysis; and response to comment letters

  5. Electric vehicle charging in China’s power system: Energy, economic and environmental trade-offs and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Davis, Chris; Lukszo, Zofia; Weijnen, Margot

    2016-01-01

    generation; and (3) reducing generation costs and EV charging costs. Hence, in light of this trade-off of controlled charging with the goals of energy security, economic efficiency and reducing environmental impacts, policy interventions in the Chinese power system should opt for controlled charging strategies in order to best realize the benefits of EVs. Accordingly, this paper proposes that increasing the use of cleaner forms of electricity generation, such as RES power and gas power, and establishing energy efficiency and CO_2 emission regulations in power dispatch are critical for China. Lastly, this work illustrates what the optimized charging profiles from the power system perspective look like for different regions. These results can inform Chinese policy makers in creating a better integration of the transportation and the power system.

  6. Site environmental report for 2003, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauer, Ronald

    2004-06-21

    Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) is a multiprogram scientific facility operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE). The Laboratory's research is directed toward the physical, biological, environmental, and computational sciences--in order to deliver the scientific knowledge and discoveries pertinent to DOE's missions. To provide the highest degree of protection for its workers, the public, and the environment, Berkeley Lab employs a system called Integrated Safety Management (ISM). ISM is a comprehensive DOE management system that involves five core functions: work planning, hazard and risk analysis, establishment of controls, work performance in accordance with the controls, and feedback and improvement. These five core functions are applied to all activities at Berkeley Lab. Laboratory activities are planned and conducted with full regard to protecting the public and the environment and complying with appropriate environmental laws and regulations. Both radiological and nonradiological activities are thoroughly monitored to assess their potential impacts on public health and the environment. Berkeley Lab has committed to developing a focused Environmental Management System (EMS), which will be integrated with the Lab's ISM System. When practical, ISM processes will be used to support environmental performance improvement and compliance management. In calendar year (CY) 2003, Berkeley Lab developed an EMS action plan, which was submitted to DOE, and program implementation began. To that end, training was provided to an EMS Core Team that was formed and to Environment, Health, and Safety Division staff who will support the Laboratory's EMS efforts. Implementation of the EMS will continue in CY 2004. This annual Site Environmental Report covers activities conducted in CY 2003. The format and content of this report satisfy the requirements of DOE Order 231.1, &apos

  7. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1992. Volume 1: Narrative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koncinski, W.S. [ed.

    1993-09-01

    The two volumes of this report present data and supporting narratives regarding the impact of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on its environs and the public during 1992. This Volume (Volume 1) includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ``stand-alone`` report for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1992 data for the ORR. Volume 2 includes the detailed data in formats that ensure all the environmental data are represented. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2.

  8. Environmental biotechnology for waste treatment, environmental science research, Volume 41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylor, G.S.; Fox, R.; Blackburn, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the symposium entitled [open quotes]Environmental Biotechnology: Moving from the Flask to the Field[close quotes] held in October 17th through 19th, 1990, in Knoxville, Tennessee. Environmental biotechnology involves the use of microorganisms and their processes for the clean-up of environmental contamination, specific examples of which include ground-water treatment, treatment of leachates, and clean-up of contaminated soils, sludges, and sediments. In comparison with other technologies, environmental biotechnology (or bioremediation) has the advantages of affecting mineralization of toxic compounds to innocuous end-products, being energy-effective with processes able to take place at a moderate temperature and pressure, safety, and economy and is, therefore, perceived to hold great potential for environmental clean-up. Bioremediation treatment technologies for contaminated soils and groundwater can take the form of: (1) solid-phase biotreatment; (2) slurry-phase treatment; (3) in situ treatment; and (4) combination biological and physical/chemical treatment. The goal of the symposium was to pressure technical accomplishments at the laboratory and field-scale levels, future technical directions and economic, public and regulatory concerns in environmental biotechnology. The book is divided into five major sections on Current Perceptions, Field-Scale Studies, Technical Issues and Concerns in Implementation, Nontechnical Issues and Concerns in Implementation, International Activities, and ends with a critical review of the symposium.

  9. Site Environmental Report for 1998 Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The mission of Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) is to continue the long tradition of outstanding research that has made it a premier national and international multiprogram laboratory. Laboratory activities are planned and conducted with full regard to protecting the public and the environment and complying with appropriate environmental laws and regulations. Both radiological and nonradiological activities are thoroughly monitored to assess their potential impact on the environment

  10. Site Environmental Report for 1998 Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, Michael

    1999-09-24

    The mission of Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) is to continue the long tradition of outstanding research that has made it a premier national and international multiprogram laboratory. Laboratory activities are planned and conducted with full regard to protecting the public and the environment and complying with appropriate environmental laws and regulations. Both radiological and nonradiological activities are thoroughly monitored to assess their potential impact on the environment.

  11. Corrosion and Environmental Degradation, 2 Volume Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütze, Michael; Cahn, Robert W.; Haasen, Peter; Kramer, E. J.

    2001-06-01

    Corrosion and corrosion protection is one of most important topics in applied materials science. Corrosion science is not only important from an economic point of view, but, due to its interdisciplinary nature combining metallurgy, materials physics and electrochemistry, it is also of high scientific interest. Nowadays corrosion science even gets new impetus from surface science and polymer chemistry. This two-volume reference work belonging to the well renown series Materials Science and Tehcnology provides the reader with a sound and broad survey on the whole subject - from the fundamentals to the latest research results. Written by a team of international top-experts it will become an indispensable reference for any materials scientist, physicist or chemist involved in corrosion science.

  12. Environmental epidemiology, Volume 1: Public health and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental Epidemiology, Volume 1, represents the first of several planned volumes on the uses of epidemiologic techniques to study environmental public health issues. This text focuses on environmental epidemiology as it relates to hazardous waste in the United States. This study was commissioned by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to examine available data for evidence of adverse health effects on human populations exposed to hazardous waste. The committee was also asked to identify data gaps which were impediments to analyzing hazardous waste health effects and to suggest ways that such environmental health assessments might be improved. The committee's solution to the paucity of data on this issue was to concentrate in this volume on identifying the available, peer-reviewed data and, consequently, the major data gaps. The study opens with a recapitulation of the context of hazardous waste sites in the United States, the approaches currently used by state and federal epidemiologists in analyzing hazardous waste exposure and effects, and candid assessment of the problems associated with environmental exposure assessment. From that context, the committee then presents the data currently available to assess human exposures through air, domestic water consumption, soil, and the food chain. The general focus here is on biomarker data as the date of choice. As with all NAS reports, this one closes with general conclusions and recommendations. Environmental health risk assessors will find this volume a valuable resource

  13. Local above-ground persistence of vascular plants : Life-history trade-offs and environmental constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozinga, Wim A.; Hennekens, Stephan M.; Schaminee, Joop H. J.; Smits, Nina A. C.; Bekker, Renee M.; Roemermann, Christine; Klimes, Leos; Bakker, Jan P.; van Groenendael, Jan M.

    Questions: 1. Which plant traits and habitat characteristics best explain local above-ground persistence of vascular plant species and 2. Is there a trade-off between local above-ground persistence and the ability for seed dispersal and below-ground persistence in the soil seed bank? Locations: 845

  14. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1 (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, M. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, K. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stokes, B. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-13

    On behalf of all the authors and contributors, it is a great privilege to present the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16), volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from volume 1. This report represents the culmination of several years of collaborative effort among national laboratories, government agencies, academic institutions, and industry. BT16 was developed to support the U.S. Department of Energy’s efforts towards national goals of energy security and associated quality of life.

  15. The role of Latin America's land and water resources for global food security: environmental trade-offs of future food production pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity's major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC's agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)-a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector-to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths.

  16. The Role of Latin America’s Land and Water Resources for Global Food Security: Environmental Trade-Offs of Future Food Production Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity’s major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC’s agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)—a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector—to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths. PMID:25617621

  17. Evaluating the Life Cycle Environmental Benefits and Trade-Offs of Water Reuse Systems for Net-Zero Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasik, Vaclav; Anderson, Naomi E; Collinge, William O; Thiel, Cassandra L; Khanna, Vikas; Wirick, Jason; Piacentini, Richard; Landis, Amy E; Bilec, Melissa M

    2017-02-07

    Aging water infrastructure and increased water scarcity have resulted in higher interest in water reuse and decentralization. Rating systems for high-performance buildings implicitly promote the use of building-scale, decentralized water supply and treatment technologies. It is important to recognize the potential benefits and trade-offs of decentralized and centralized water systems in the context of high-performance buildings. For this reason and to fill a gap in the current literature, we completed a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the decentralized water system of a high-performance, net-zero energy, net-zero water building (NZB) that received multiple green building certifications and compared the results with two modeled buildings (conventional and water efficient) using centralized water systems. We investigated the NZB's impacts over varying lifetimes, conducted a break-even analysis, and included Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis. The results show that, although the NZB performs better in most categories than the conventional building, the water efficient building generally outperforms the NZB. The lifetime of the NZB, septic tank aeration, and use of solar energy have been found to be important factors in the NZB's impacts. While these findings are specific to the case study building, location, and treatment technologies, the framework for comparison of water and wastewater impacts of various buildings can be applied during building design to aid decision making. As we design and operate high-performance buildings, the potential trade-offs of advanced decentralized water treatment systems should be considered.

  18. Remote sensing for environmental monitoring and resource management. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The subject of this volume is remote sensing for environmental monitoring and resource management. This session is divided in eight parts. First part is on general topics, methodology and meteorology. Second part is on geology, environment and land cover. Third part is on disaster monitoring. Fourth part is on operational status of remote sensing. Fifth part is on coastal zones and inland waters. Sixth and seventh parts are on forestry and agriculture. Eighth part is on instrumentation and systems. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  19. Environmental benefits and risks of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI): risk mitigation or trade-off?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch

    2009-01-01

    nanoparticles, in part due to extensive and fundamental uncertainties. These data may provide a starting point to more thoroughly investigate the potential risks of nZVI and ultimately help scientists, engineers, and decision makers make better informed decisions regarding the use of nZVI for environmental...... dimensions. While the use and further development of nZVI is understandably heralded as an environmentally-beneficial technology, the potentials risks of introducing these nanoparticles into the environment also needs to be considered. To date most research has focused on the potential benefits of n...... of substantial concentrations. In this study, we provide a brief synopsis of the expected environmental benefits and potential risks of nZVI, particularly focusing on its environmental fate and behavior and potential role as contaminant carrier. These are some areas of primary concern for risk assessors...

  20. Environmental efficiency and labour productivity. Trade-off or joint dynamics? A theoretical investigation and empirical evidence from Italy using NAMEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Zoboli, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we test an adapted EKC hypothesis to verify the relationship between 'environmental efficiency' (namely emissions per unit of value added) and labour productivity (value added per employee). We exploit NAMEA data on Italy for 29 sector branches and 6 categories of air emissions for the period 1991-2001. We employ data on capital stock and trade openness to test the robustness of our results. On the basis of the theoretical and empirical analyses focusing on innovation, firm performances and environmental externalities, we would expect a positive correlation between environmental efficiency and labour productivity - a negative correlation between the emissions intensity of value added and labour productivity - which departs from the conventional mainstream view. The hypothesis tested is a critical one within the longstanding debate on the potential trade-off or complementarity between environmental preservation and economic performance, which is strictly associated with the role of technological innovation. We find that for most air emission categories there is a positive relationship between labour productivity and environmental efficiency. Labour productivity dynamics, then, seem to be complementary to a decreasing emissions intensity in the production process. Taking a disaggregate sector perspective, we show that the macro-aggregate evidence is driven by sector dynamics in a non-homogenous way across pollutants. Services tend always to show a 'complementary' relationship, while industry seems to be associated with inverted U-shape dynamics for greenhouse gases and nitrogen oxides. This is in line with our expectations. In any case, EKC shapes appear to drive such productivity links towards complementarity. The extent to which this evidence derives from endogenous market forces, industrial and structural change, and policy effects is discussed by taking an evolutionary perspective to innovation and by referring to impure public goods arguments

  1. Bird diversity and environmental heterogeneity in North America: A test of the area-heterogeneity trade-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel Chocron; Curtis H. Flather; Ronen Kadmon

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Deterministic niche theory predicts that increasing environmental heterogeneity increases species richness. In contrast, a recent stochastic model suggests that heterogeneity has a unimodal effect on species richness since high levels of heterogeneity reduce the effective area available per species, thereby increasing the likelihood of stochastic...

  2. Removing nitrogen from wastewater with side stream anammox: What are the trade-offs between environmental impacts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauck, M.; Maalcke-Luesken, F.A.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a novel way to reduce nitrogen in ammonium rich wastewater. Although aquatic eutrophication will certainly be reduced, it is unknown how other environmental impacts may change by including anammox in the treatment of wastewater. Here, life cycle assessment

  3. Navigating environmental, economic, and technological trade-offs in the design and operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs)

    KAUST Repository

    Pretel, R.

    2015-12-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) enable energy recovery from wastewater while simultaneously achieving high levels of treatment. The objective of this study was to elucidate how detailed design and operational decisions of submerged AnMBRs influence the technological, environmental, and economic sustainability of the system across its life cycle. Specific design and operational decisions evaluated included: solids retention time (SRT), mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration, sludge recycling ratio (r), flux (J), and specific gas demand per membrane area (SGD). The possibility of methane recovery (both as biogas and as soluble methane in reactor effluent) and bioenergy production, nutrient recovery, and final destination of the sludge (land application, landfill, or incineration) were also evaluated. The implications of these design and operational decisions were characterized by leveraging a quantitative sustainable design (QSD) framework which integrated steady-state performance modeling across seasonal temperatures (using pilot-scale experimental data and the simulating software DESASS), life cycle cost (LCC) analysis, and life cycle assessment (LCA). Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were used to characterize the relative importance of individual design decisions, and to navigate trade-offs across environmental, economic, and technological criteria. Based on this analysis, there are design and operational conditions under which submerged AnMBRs could be net energy positive and contribute to the pursuit of carbon negative wastewater treatment.

  4. Plasticity and trade-offs in physiological traits of intertidal mussels subjected to freshwater-induced environmental variation

    KAUST Repository

    Ramajo, L

    2016-05-17

    Environmental gradients play an important role in shaping geographic variability in coastal marine populations. Thus, the ability of organisms to cope with these changes will depend on their potential to acclimatize, or adapt, to these new environmental conditions. We investigated the spatial variability in biological responses shown by Perumytilus purpuratus mussels collected from 2 intertidal areas experiencing contrasting freshwater input influences (river-influenced vs. marine conditions). To highlight the role of plasticity and adaptive potential in biological responses, we performed a reciprocal-Transplant experiment and measured relevant phenotypic traits including mortality, growth, calcification, metabolism, and chemical composition of the shell periostra-cum. We determined that mussels exposed to river-influenced conditions had increased metabolic rates and reduced growth rates, as compared to mussels experiencing marine conditions (p > 0.05). While the energy investment strategies of the 2 local populations resulted in similar net calcification rates, these rates decreased significantly when mussels were transplanted to the river-influenced site. Stressful conditions at the river-influenced site were evidenced by decreased survivorship across treatments. Freshwater inputs modify the organic composition of the shell periostracum through a significant reduction in polysaccharides. Although our field experiment did not identify specific environmental factors underlying these contrasting phenotypic changes, the results imply that plasticity plays a strong role when P. purpuratus is exposed to some combination of natural (e.g. salinity) and anthropogenic influences (e.g. pollution), and that the lack of exposure to freshwater may promote less tolerant mussels with greater potential for local adaptation. © The authors 2016.

  5. Plasticity and trade-offs in physiological traits of intertidal mussels subjected to freshwater-induced environmental variation

    KAUST Repository

    Ramajo, L; Prado, L; Rodriguez-Navarro, AB; Lardies, MA; Duarte, Carlos M.; Lagos, NA

    2016-01-01

    Environmental gradients play an important role in shaping geographic variability in coastal marine populations. Thus, the ability of organisms to cope with these changes will depend on their potential to acclimatize, or adapt, to these new environmental conditions. We investigated the spatial variability in biological responses shown by Perumytilus purpuratus mussels collected from 2 intertidal areas experiencing contrasting freshwater input influences (river-influenced vs. marine conditions). To highlight the role of plasticity and adaptive potential in biological responses, we performed a reciprocal-Transplant experiment and measured relevant phenotypic traits including mortality, growth, calcification, metabolism, and chemical composition of the shell periostra-cum. We determined that mussels exposed to river-influenced conditions had increased metabolic rates and reduced growth rates, as compared to mussels experiencing marine conditions (p > 0.05). While the energy investment strategies of the 2 local populations resulted in similar net calcification rates, these rates decreased significantly when mussels were transplanted to the river-influenced site. Stressful conditions at the river-influenced site were evidenced by decreased survivorship across treatments. Freshwater inputs modify the organic composition of the shell periostracum through a significant reduction in polysaccharides. Although our field experiment did not identify specific environmental factors underlying these contrasting phenotypic changes, the results imply that plasticity plays a strong role when P. purpuratus is exposed to some combination of natural (e.g. salinity) and anthropogenic influences (e.g. pollution), and that the lack of exposure to freshwater may promote less tolerant mussels with greater potential for local adaptation. © The authors 2016.

  6. Environmental projects. Volume 14: Removal of contaminated soil and debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Len

    1992-01-01

    Numerous diverse activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of six parabolic dish antennas. Some of these activities can result in possible spills or leakages of hazardous materials and wastes stored both above ground in steel drums and below ground in underground storage tanks (UST's). These possible leaks or spills, along with the past practice of burial of solid debris and waste in trenches and pits, could cause local subsurface contamination of the soil. In 1987, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), retained Engineering-Science, Inc. (E-S), Pasadena, California, to identify the specific local areas within the GDSCC with subsurface soil contamination. The E-S study determined that some of the soils at the Apollo Site and the Mars Site were contaminated with hydrocarbons, while soil at a nonhazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base site was contaminated with copper. This volume is a JPL-expanded version of the PE209 E-S report, and it also reports that all subsurface contaminated soils at the GDSCC were excavated, removed, and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way, and the excavations were backfilled and covered in accordance with accepted Federal, State, and local environmental rules and regulations.

  7. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel. Volume 2 contains the appendices to the report and describe the following: Federal Register notices; contractor nondisclosure statement; adjunct melter

  8. Substituting HCFC-22 for HFC-410A: an environmental impact trade-off between the ozone depletion and climate change regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Fang, X.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    After the phase-out of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as ozone-depleting substances pursuant to the requirements of the Montreal Protocol, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are worldwide used as substitutes although the bulk of them are potent greenhouse gases (GHGs). Therefore, the alternation may bring side effect on global climate change. The trade-off of its environmental impacts between the ozone depletion and climate change regimes necessitates a quantification of the past and future consumption and emissions of both the original HCFCs and their alternative HFCs. Now a dilemma arise in China's RAC industry that HCFC-22, which has an ozone-depleting potential (ODP) of 0.055, has been replaced by HFC-410A, which is a blended potent GHG from respective 50% HFC-32 and HFC-125 with a global warming potential (GWP) of 1923.5. Here, we present our results of estimates of consumption and emissions of HCFC-22 and HFC-410A from 1994 to 2050. Historic emissions of HCFC-22 contributed to global total HCFCs by 4.0% (3.0%-5.6%) ODP-weighted. Projection under a baseline scenario shows future accumulative emissions of HFC-410A make up 5.9%-11.0% of global GWP-weighted HFCs emissions, and its annual contribution to national overall CO2 emissions can be 5.5% in 2050. This makes HCFC-22 and HFC-410A emissions of significant importance in ozone depletion and climate change regimes. Two mitigation scenarios were set to assess the mitigation performance under the North America Proposal and an accelerated schedule. In practice of international environmental agreement, "alternative to alternative" should be developed to avoid regrettable alternations.

  9. The impact of environmental conditions on human performance: A handbood of environmental exposures. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverria, D.; Barnes, V.; Bittner, A.

    1994-09-01

    A comprehensive review of the technical literature was conducted regarding the impact of environmental conditions on hyman performance applicable to nuclear power plant workers. The environmental conditions considered were vibration, noise, heat, cold, and light. Research staff identified potential human performance deficits (e.g., decreased dexterity, impaired vision, hearing loss, memory deficiency) along a continuum of increasing occupational exposure, ranging from exposures that result in no deficit to exposures that resulted in significant performance problems. Specific deficits were included in the report if there was sound scientific evidence that environmental exposure resulted in those performance deficits. The levels associated with each deficit were then compared to the protection afforded by existing occupational exposure standards. Volume 1 is a handbook for use by NRC inspectors to help them determine the impact of specific environmental conditions on licensee personnel performance. it discusses the units used to measure each condition, discusses the effects of the condition on task performance, presents an example of the assessment of each condition in a nuclear power plant, and discusses potential methods for reducing the effects of

  10. Investigating the Trade-Off Between Power Generation and Environmental Impact of Tidal-Turbine Arrays Using Array Layout Optimisation and Habitat Sustainability Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Feu, R. J.; Funke, S. W.; Kramer, S. C.; Hill, J.; Piggott, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    The installation of tidal turbines into the ocean will inevitably affect the environment around them. However, due to the relative infancy of this sector the extent and severity of such effects is unknown. The layout of an array of turbines is an important factor in determining not only the array's final yield but also how it will influence regional hydrodynamics. This in turn could affect, for example, sediment transportation or habitat suitability. The two potentially competing objectives of extracting energy from the tidal current, and of limiting any environmental impact consequent to influencing that current, are investigated here. This relationship is posed as a multi-objective optimisation problem. OpenTidalFarm, an array layout optimisation tool, and MaxEnt, habitat sustainability modelling software, are used to evaluate scenarios off the coast of the UK. MaxEnt is used to estimate the likelihood of finding a species in a given location based upon environmental input data and presence data of the species. Environmental features which are known to impact habitat, specifically those affected by the presence of an array, such as bed shear stress, are chosen as inputs. MaxEnt then uses a maximum-entropy modelling approach to estimate population distribution across the modelled area. OpenTidalFarm is used to maximise the power generated by an array, or multiple arrays, through adjusting the position and number of turbines within them. It uses a 2D shallow water model with turbine arrays represented as adjustable friction fields. It has the capability to also optimise for user created functionals that can be expressed mathematically. This work uses two functionals; power extracted by the array, and the suitability of habitat as predicted by MaxEnt. A gradient-based local optimisation is used to adjust the array layout at each iteration. This work presents arrays that are optimised for both yield and the viability of habitat for chosen species. In each scenario

  11. CADDIS Volume 4. Data Analysis: Biological and Environmental Data Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of PECBO Module, using scripts to infer environmental conditions from biological observations, statistically estimating species-environment relationships, methods for inferring environmental conditions, statistical scripts in module.

  12. Uranium milling: Draft generic environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    This volume contains appendices supporting the discussions in Volume 1. In some cases, the appendices expound upon arguments developed in the main document; in other cases, supplementary material considered to be relevant but not presented in Volume 1 is included. A third category encompasses reprinting of pertinent documents felt to be necessary for a comprehensive presentation of the current situation, e.g., Public Law 95-604

  13. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy, Volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, Matthew H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Kristen [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Stokes, Bryce [Allegheny Science & Technology, LLC, Bridgeport, WV (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davis, Maggie R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hellwinckel, Chad [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Kline, Keith L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eaton, Laurence M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Canter, Christina E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qin, Zhangcai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Scott, D. Andrew [USDA Forest Service, Normal, AL (United States); Jager, Henrietta I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ha, Miae [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Baskaran, Latha Malar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kreig, Jasmine A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rau, Benjamin [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Muwamba, Augustine [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Trettin, Carl [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Panda, Sudhanshu [Univ. of North Georgia, Oakwood, GA (United States); Amatya, Devendra M. [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Tollner, Ernest W. [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Sun, Ge [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Zhang, Liangxia [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Duan, Kai [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eberle, Annika [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hettinger, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Gangsheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sutton, Nathan J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Busch, Ingrid Karin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Donner, Deahn M. [USDA Forest Service, Aiken, SC (United States); Wigley, T. Bently [National Council for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Miller, Darren A. [Weyerhaeuser Company, Federal Way, WA (United States); Coleman, Andre [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wigmosta, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pattullo, Molly [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Mayes, Melanie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Daly, Christopher [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Halbleib, Mike [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Negri, Cristina [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Turhollow, Anthony F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bonner, Ian [Monsanto Company, Twin Falls, ID (United States); Dale, Virginia H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    other products, with the exception of including a few illustrative cases on potential reductions in GHG emissions and fossil energy consumption associated with using biomass supplies for fuel, power, heat, and chemicals. Most analyses in volume 2 show potential for a substantial increase in biomass production with minimal or negligible environmental effects under the biomass supply constraints assumed in BT16. Although corn ethanol has been shown to achieve GHG emissions improvements over fossil fuels, cellulosic biomass shows further improvements in certain environmental indicators covered in this report. The harvest of agricultural and forestry residues generally shows the smallest contributions to changes in certain environmental indicators investigated. The scenarios show national-level net SOC gains. When expanding the system boundary in illustrative cases that consider biomass end use, reductions in GHG emissions are estimated for scenarios in which biomass—rather than oil, coal, and natural gas—is used to produce fuel, power, heat, and chemicals. Analyses of water quality reveal that there could be tradeoffs between biomass productivity and some water quality indicators, but better outcomes for both biomass productivity and water quality can be achieved with selected conservation practices. Biodiversity analyses show possible habitat benefits to some species, with other species showing potential adverse effects that may require additional safeguards. Increasing productivity of algae can reduce GHG emissions and water consumption associated with producing algal biomass, though the effects of water consumption are likely of greater concern in some regions than in others. Moreover, the effects of climate change on potential biomass production show gains and losses in yield among feedstocks across the continental United States. Key research gaps and priorities include actions that can enhance benefits and reduce potential for negative effects of increased biomass

  14. Site Environmental Report for 2006. Volume I, Environment, Health, and Safety Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-09-30

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.1 The Site Environmental Report for 2006 summarizes Berkeley Lab’s environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2006. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as “Berkeley Lab,” “the Laboratory,” “Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,” and “LBNL.”) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I is organized into an executive summary followed by six chapters that contain an overview of the Laboratory, a discussion of the Laboratory’s environmental management system, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Volume II contains individual data results from surveillance and monitoring activities.

  15. Familial and environmental influences on brain volumes in twins with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchioni, Marco M; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Toulopoulou, Timothea; Chaddock, Christopher; Cole, James H; Ettinger, Ulrich; Oses, Ana; Metcalfe, Hugo; Murray, Robin M; McGuire, Philip

    2017-03-01

    Reductions in whole brain and grey matter volumes are robust features of schizophrenia, yet their etiological influences are unclear. We investigated the association between the genetic and environmental risk for schizophrenia and brain volumes. Whole brain, grey matter and white matter volumes were established from structural MRIs from twins varying in their zygosity and concordance for schizophrenia. Hippocampal volumes were measured manually. We conducted between-group testing and full genetic modelling. We included 168 twins in our study. Whole brain, grey matter, white matter and right hippocampal volumes were smaller in twins with schizophrenia. Twin correlations were larger for whole brain, grey matter and white matter volumes in monozygotic than dizygotic twins and were significantly heritable, whereas hippocampal volume was the most environmentally sensitive. There was a significant phenotypic correlation between schizophrenia and reductions in all the brain volumes except for that of the left hippocampus. For whole brain, grey matter and the right hippocampus the etiological links with schizophrenia were principally associated with the shared familial environment. Lower birth weight and perinatal hypoxia were both associated with lower whole brain volume and with lower white matter and grey matter volumes, respectively. Scan data were collected across 2 sites, and some groups were modest in size. Whole brain, grey matter and right hippocampal volume reductions are linked to schizophrenia through correlated familial risk (i.e., the shared familial environment). The degree of influence of etiological factors varies between brain structures, leading to the possibility of a neuroanatomically specific etiological imprint.

  16. A Unifying Mathematical Framework for Genetic Robustness, Environmental Robustness, Network Robustness and their Trade-offs on Phenotype Robustness in Biological Networks. Part III: Synthetic Gene Networks in Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Lin, Ying-Po

    2013-01-01

    Robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation are ubiquitous systematic properties that are observed in biological systems at many different levels. The underlying principles for robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation are universal to both complex biological systems and sophisticated engineering systems. In many biological networks, network robustness should be large enough to confer: intrinsic robustness for tolerating intrinsic parameter fluctuations; genetic robustness for buffering genetic variations; and environmental robustness for resisting environmental disturbances. Network robustness is needed so phenotype stability of biological network can be maintained, guaranteeing phenotype robustness. Synthetic biology is foreseen to have important applications in biotechnology and medicine; it is expected to contribute significantly to a better understanding of functioning of complex biological systems. This paper presents a unifying mathematical framework for investigating the principles of both robust stabilization and environmental disturbance attenuation for synthetic gene networks in synthetic biology. Further, from the unifying mathematical framework, we found that the phenotype robustness criterion for synthetic gene networks is the following: if intrinsic robustness + genetic robustness + environmental robustness ≦ network robustness, then the phenotype robustness can be maintained in spite of intrinsic parameter fluctuations, genetic variations, and environmental disturbances. Therefore, the trade-offs between intrinsic robustness, genetic robustness, environmental robustness, and network robustness in synthetic biology can also be investigated through corresponding phenotype robustness criteria from the systematic point of view. Finally, a robust synthetic design that involves network evolution algorithms with desired behavior under intrinsic parameter fluctuations, genetic variations, and environmental

  17. Site Environmental Report for 2010, Volumes 1 & 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskin, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bauters, Tim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Borglin, Ned [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fox, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Horst, Blair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jelinski, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lackner, Ginny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Philliber, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rothermich, Nancy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thorson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wahl, Linnea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Suying [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    LBNL is a multiprogram scientific facility operated by the UC for the DOE. LBNL’s research is directed toward the physical, biological, environmental, and computational sciences, in order to deliver scientific knowledge and discoveries pertinent to DOE’s missions. This annual Site Environmental Report covers activities conducted in CY 2010. The format and content of this report satisfy the requirements of DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting,1 and the operating contract between UC and DOE

  18. Instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Volume 1. Radiation. Second Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.; Nero, A.V.; Murphy, D.J.; Graven, R.

    1983-01-01

    This volume describes ionizing radiation and the instruments used for measurement. Units, sources, and effects of radiation are introduced, basic detection methods discussed, and measurement of alpha, beta, gamma and x-radiation described. Sources of anthropogenic radiation are discussed in detail: nuclear power plants, spent-fuel processing, and uranium mining and milling

  19. Environmental law and climate change : Volumes I & II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, Jonathan

    Two volume set that brings together 54 of the most influential and important scientific journal articles in the field of climate law, thematically grouped together as follows: introducing climate law, theories and approaches, climate change mitigation, climate change adaptation, climate justice,

  20. GENII (Generation II): The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 3, Code maintenance manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-09-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). This coupled system of computer codes is intended for analysis of environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil, on through the calculation of radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the serious user, including code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets to assist with hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. GENII [Generation II]: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 3, Code maintenance manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-09-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). This coupled system of computer codes is intended for analysis of environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil, on through the calculation of radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the serious user, including code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets to assist with hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. 7 figs., 5 tabs

  2. GENII: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 2, Users' manual: Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-11-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). The purpose of this coupled system of computer codes is to analyze environmental contamination of, air, water, or soil. This is accomplished by calculating radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. This second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The third volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the user who requires knowledge of code detail. It includes logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets, example hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. 27 refs., 17 figs., 23 tabs

  3. North Central Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed Federal-protected lands, proximity to Federal-protected lands, components of national forest lands, existing state-protected lands, proximity to state-protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas or to 1-mile square areas with 1000 or more persons, national and state forest lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered spcies, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that will be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10CFR 960) and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  4. Revised draft: Northeastern Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, northeastern and southeastern New York, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, northern New Jersey, and eastern Pennsylvania. For each of the states within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed federal protected lands, proximity to federal protected lands, existing state protected lands, proximity to state protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, national and state forest lands, state wildlife lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that may be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  5. Revised draft: Southeastern Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed federal protected lands, proximity to federal protected lands, existing state protected lands, proximity to state protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, national and state forest lands, state wild-life lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that may be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy (DOE) Siting Guidelines and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  6. Northeastern Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, northeastern and southeastern New York, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, northern New Jersey, and eastern Pennsylvania. For each of the States within the Northeastern Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed Federal-protected lands, components of National Forest Lands, proximity to Federal-protected lands, existing State-protected lands, proximity to State-protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, or to 1-mile-square areas with 1000 or more persons, National and State forest lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that will be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  7. Revised draft: North Central Regional environmental characterization report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposed federal protected lands, proximity to federal protected lands, existing state protected lands, proximity to state protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, national and state forest lands, state wildlife lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that may be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  8. Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report. Volume 1. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available environmental information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the States within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These environmental factors and variables include existing and proposd Federal-protected lands, components of National Forest Lands, proximity to Federal-protected lands, existing State-protected lands, proximity to State-protected lands, population density and distribution, proximity to highly populated areas, or to 1-mile-square areas with 1000 or more persons, national and State forest lands, designated critical habitats for threatened and endangered species, surface water bodies, and wetlands. In addition, supplementary descriptive information providing a general characterization of the region is presented, as is information on environmental parameters that will be of use at later phases of screening. Also included is a discussion of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and those environmental disqualifying factors and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process

  9. INEL environmental characterization report. Volume II. Appendices A-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This volume contains appendices: (1) a socioeconomic data base for southeastern Idaho; (2) an ecological characterization of the INEL; (3) site-specific climatology summary, NPR primary and alternate sites; (4) NPR site borehole completion; (5) an investigation of the principal lineament at the INEL; (6) an investigation of Clay Butte, Idaho; (7) Arco and Howe fault study; (8) seismology of the INEL; (9) geologic map of the INEL; and (1) geologic ages of the INEL

  10. Duquesne Light Company 1982 annual radiological environmental report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted during 1982 in the vicinity of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Radiological Environmental Program consists of on-site sampling of water and gaseous effluents and off-site monitoring of water, air, river sediments, soils, food pathway samples, and radiation levels in the vicinity of the site. This report discusses the results of this monitoring during 1982. The results show that Shippingport Atomic Power Station and Beaver Valley Power Station operations have not adversely affected the surrounding environment

  11. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.M.; Booth, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology

  12. Business plan: Supplemental draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This document contains the appendices for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Business Plan: Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Included are: BPA products and services; Rate design; Methodology and assumptions for numerical analysis; Retail utility operations; Comments and responses to the draft business plan EIS

  13. Superconducting Super Collider: Final environmental impact statement: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides as much information as possible at this stage of the project development regarding the potential environmental impacts of the proposed construction and operation of a Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) at each of the site alternatives. However, the DOE recognizes that further review under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is required prior to construction and operation of the proposed SSC project at the selected site based on more detailed design and to identify specific mitigation measures which can be incorporated into final design. Accordingly, following selection of a site for the proposed SSC, the DOE will prepare a Supplemental EIS to address in more detail the impacts of constructing and operating the proposed SSC at the selected site and alternatives for mitigating those impacts. To measure the effects of constructing the SSC at any of the seven alternative sites, the DOE determined which aspects of the human environment would be significantly affected. The EIS describes the baseline conditions at each of the seven site alternatives, the trends underway resulting in changes, the potential environmental impacts expected if the SSC were sited, possible mitigations of adverse impacts, and resulting residual adverse impacts

  14. Business Plan : Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    This document contains the appendices for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Business Plan: Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Included are: BPA products and services; Rate design; Methodology and assumptions for numerical analysis; Retail utility operations; Comments and responses to the draft business plan EIS.

  15. Code of accounts. Management overview volume: Environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.B.; Birkholz, H.L.

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this procedure is to provide the requirement for assigning cost collection codes and the structure of these codes for all costs incurred for the Environmental Restoration Contract. The coding structure will be used in the budgeting and control of project costs

  16. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor program. Volume IV. Environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-12-01

    A broad overview is presented of the many implications of LMFBR program implementation, up to and encompassing a fully developed LMFBR power plant economy, including the secondary impacts, the unavoidable adverse environmental impacts, cumulative environmental impacts, and cost-benefit analyses, and alternative energy strategies. Under the heading of secondary impacts, the national implications of the availability of electricity from LMFBRs, and the specific economic impacts of the LMFBR program are examined. The currently feasible alternatives and potential future alternatives for mitigating adverse environmental impacts of the LMFBR fuel cycle are described. The problems of safeguarding special nuclear material from potential diversion to unauthorized purposes are analyzed. The cumulative environmental effects of LMFBR operation to the Year 2020, the decommissioning of LMFBRs and fuel cycle facilities upon the completion of their useful life, the irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources that will accompany implementation of an LMFBR economy, and an analysis of the costs and benefits of implementing the LMFBR Program are included. (U.S.)

  17. Household environmental monitoring project, volume I : main report, volume 2 : appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.; Goemans, M.; Goemans, P.C.; Wisniowski, A. [Jane Thompson Architect, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Fugler, D. [Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-01-15

    Environmentally sustainable behaviour can be motivated by providing homeowners with a clear picture of their environmental impact, tangible reasons for improvement, and tailored solutions. This report presented the results of a study that established a study group of 20 households in an 85-year old community near downtown Ottawa, Ontario to test the above hypothesis. Each household completed surveys about environmental attitudes and household practices. Each household also tracked home heating, electricity and water consumption, and vehicle usage and waste generation over a monitoring period of one week. This report described the study in detail and presented the research plan and methods. It provided a review of related literature, including motivational techniques for encouraging sustainable behaviour; environmental monitoring tools including design tools, global impact assessment tools, federal environmental reduction tools and strategies; analyses of environmentally sustainable projects; and resource conservation techniques and manuals. The report also discussed the selection of the study group; development of monitoring method and forms; household monitoring; household assessment and reporting; community initiatives; and assessment of following year results. It was concluded that the research technique successfully produced reductions in environmental impact among the study group. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. QuEST: Qualifying Environmentally Sustainable Technologies. Volume 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2011-01-01

    QuEST is a publication of the NASA Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Principal Center (TEERM). This issue contains brief articles on: Risk Identification and Mitigation, Material Management and Substitution Efforts--Hexavalent Chrome-free Coatings and Low volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Coatings, Lead-Free Electronics, Corn-Based Depainting Media; Alternative Energy Efforts Hydrogen Sensors and Solar Air Conditioning. Other TEERM Efforts include: Energy and Water Management and Remediation Technology Collaboration.

  19. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west.

  20. Improving low power and shutdown PSA methods and data to permit better risk comparison and trade-off decision-making. Volume 1: summary of COOPRA and WGRISK surveys; Volume 2: responses to the WGRISK survey; Volume 3: responses to the COOPRA survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The COOPRA LPSD working group is charged with the responsibility to assess their Member country's plant operations at Low Power and Shutdown (LPSD) conditions. The sharing of information is expected to provide each of the Member country the means from which to render informed regulatory decisions for the benefit of public health and safety. Each organization had developed a questionnaire to gather information from Member countries on LPSD PSAs experiences. The responses cover a broad spectrum of LPSD PSA topics, and identifies work for improving risk-informed trade-off decisions, using PSA techniques, between LPSD and full power operational states. Each organization recognized potential benefit for improving the state-of-the-art by combining the wealth of experiences from the questionnaire responses into a common report. This report provides a summary of the current LPSD PSAs in Member countries, covering the elements which make up the PSAs. This report identifies the uses of the LPSD PSAs, summarizes current approaches, aspects, and good practices, identifies and defines differences between methods and data in full power and LPSD PSAs, and identifies guidance, methods, data, and basic research needs to address the differences. The responses to the questionnaires are provided in the Appendixes. The information contained in this report was gathered from two surveys, one by COOPRA and the other by WGRisk, which were performed over several years. Volume 2 of this report contains the responses from the CSNI / WGRisk Survey; Volume 3 contains the responses from the COOPRA Survey

  1. Health and Environmental Research: summary of accomplishments. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This is an account of some of the accomplishments of the health and environmental research program performed in national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. Both direct and indirect societal benefits emerged from the new knowledge provided by the health and environmental research program. In many cases, the private sector took this knowledge and applied it well beyond the mission of supporting the defense and energy needs of the Nation. Industrial and medical applications, for example, have in several instances provided annual savings to society of $100 million or more. The form of this presentation is, in fact, through ''snapshots'' - examples of significant, tangible accomplishments in each of the areas at certain times to illustrate the role and impact of the research program. The program's worth is not necessarily confined to such accomplishments; it extends, rather, to its ability to identify and help solve potential health and environmental problems before they become critical. This anticipatory mission has been pursued with an approach that combines applied problem solving with a commitment to fundamental research that is long-term and high-risk. The narrative of this research program concludes with a perspective of its past and a prospectus on its future

  2. Health and Environmental Research: summary of accomplishments. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    This is an account of some of the accomplishments of the health and environmental research program performed in national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. Both direct and indirect societal benefits emerged from the new knowledge provided by the health and environmental research program. In many cases, the private sector took this knowledge and applied it well beyond the mission of supporting the defense and energy needs of the Nation. Industrial and medical applications, for example, have in several instances provided annual savings to society of $100 million or more. The form of this presentation is, in fact, through ''snapshots'' - examples of significant, tangible accomplishments in each of the areas at certain times to illustrate the role and impact of the research program. The program's worth is not necessarily confined to such accomplishments; it extends, rather, to its ability to identify and help solve potential health and environmental problems before they become critical. This anticipatory mission has been pursued with an approach that combines applied problem solving with a commitment to fundamental research that is long-term and high-risk. The narrative of this research program concludes with a perspective of its past and a prospectus on its future.

  3. Regenerative energies - the environmentally friendly solution. Seminar volume. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haury, H.J.; Assmann, G.; Froese, B.; Jahn, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Information Environment organised its 16th journalists seminar on 9th March 1995 in Hamburg. In the second part of the seminar competent scientist gave an overview to the following questions: 1. Renewable energy as an solution from the dead end street? 2. What part of the energy demand could be covered by regenerative energy sources at all? 3. Ecology contra economy? 4. Inexhaustible energy source sun? 5. When do we start to import solar energy from the desert? 6. Move into the energy autarkic solar house in the year 2000? 7. Wind power plant park Germany? 8. Geothermal - component of the energy-mix 2005. The present volume contains the lectures which were given on these subjects. (orig./UA) [de

  4. Finite volume model for two-dimensional shallow environmental flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, F.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a two-dimensional, depth integrated, unsteady, free-surface model based on the shallow water equations. The development was motivated by the desire of balancing computational efficiency and accuracy by selective and conjunctive use of different numerical techniques. The base framework of the discrete model uses Godunov methods on unstructured triangular grids, but the solution technique emphasizes the use of a high-resolution Riemann solver where needed, switching to a simpler and computationally more efficient upwind finite volume technique in the smooth regions of the flow. Explicit time marching is accomplished with strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta methods, with additional acceleration techniques for steady-state computations. A simplified mass-preserving algorithm is used to deal with wet/dry fronts. Application of the model is made to several benchmark cases that show the interplay of the diverse solution techniques.

  5. Site Environmental Report for 2004. Volume 1, Environment, Health, and Safety Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-30

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory prepares an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.1 The Site Environmental Report for 2004 summarizes Berkeley Lab’s environmental management performance, presents environmental monitoring results, and describes significant programs for calendar year 2004. (Throughout this report, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is referred to as “Berkeley Lab,” “the Laboratory,” “Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,” and “LBNL.”) The report is separated into two volumes. Volume I contains an overview of the Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summarized results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Volume II contains individual data results from these activities. This year, the Site Environmental Report was distributed by releasing it on the Web from the Berkeley Lab Environmental Services Group (ESG) home page, which is located at http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/esg/. Many of the documents cited in this report also are accessible from the ESG Web page. CD and printed copies of this Site Environmental Report are available upon request.

  6. Environmental information volume: Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of the Liquid Phase Methanol Process using coal-derived synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This report describes the proposed actions, alternative to the proposed action, the existing environment at the coal gasification plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, environmental impacts, regulatory requirements, offsite fuel testing, and DME addition to methanol production. Appendices include the air permit application, solid waste permits, water permit, existing air permits, agency correspondence, and Eastman and Air Products literature.

  7. Environmental information volume: Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH trademark) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of the Liquid Phase Methanol Process using coal-derived synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This report describes the proposed actions, alternative to the proposed action, the existing environment at the coal gasification plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, environmental impacts, regulatory requirements, offsite fuel testing, and DME addition to methanol production. Appendices include the air permit application, solid waste permits, water permit, existing air permits, agency correspondence, and Eastman and Air Products literature

  8. QuEST: Qualifying Environmentally Sustainable Technologies. Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, in one of their first collaborative efforts, Centro Para Prevencao da Poluicao (Portuguese Center for Pollution Prevention or C3P). teamed with Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation Principal Center (TEERM) and two Portuguese entities, TAP Portugal (Portuguese National Airline) and OGMA Indtistria Aeron utica de Portugal (Portuguese Aeronautics Industry), to target the reduction of hexavalent chromium, cadmium, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in aircraft maintenance operations. This project focused on two coating systems that utilize non-chrome pretreatments and low-VOC primers and topcoats.

  9. QuEST: Qualifying Environmentally Sustainable Technologies, Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie

    2010-01-01

    This edition of the QuEST newsletter contains brief articles that discuss the NASA Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation (TEERM) program, and the importance of collaboration, efforts in materials management and substitution for coatings for launch structures, Low volatile organic compound (VOC) Coatings Field Testing, Non-Chrome Coating Systems, Life Cycle Corrosion Testing, Lead-Free Electronics Testing and Corn Based Depainting and efforts in Pollution Control in the area of Hypergolic Propellant Destruction Evaluation, efforts in development of alternative energy in particular Hydrogen Sensors, Energy and Water Management, and efforts in remediation in the removal of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) contamination

  10. Advances in environmental science and engineering. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfafflin, J.R.; Ziegler, E.N.

    1986-01-01

    Fundamental topics address such concerns as analysis and control of pollutants, possible health and occupational safety hazards, and a variety of resource management topics that delve into legal, design, and other vital aspects of ecosystem concepts. Contents: The Disposal of Polychlorinated Biphenyls; A Review of Dry Gaseous Deposition and its Relation to the Biogeochemical Cycles of Carbon, Nitrogen and Sulfur; Formation and Electrostatic Precipitation of Coal Fly Ash; Physical and Chemical Phenomena; The Chemistry of Seawater Chlorination; Recent Advances in Environmental Planning; Remote Sensing of Air Pollutants; Fly Ash Particle Size Distributions and Their Effect on Cold-Side Electrostatic Precipitator Emissions.

  11. Environmental Projects. Volume 8: Modifications of wastewater evaporation ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the Mojave Desert about 45 miles north of Barstow, California, and about 160 miles northeast of Pasadena, is part of NASA's Deep Space Network, one of the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation networks. The Goldstone Complex is managed, technically directed, and operated for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California. Activities at the GDSCC are carried out in support of seven parabolic dish antennas. These activities may give rise to environmental hazards: use of hazardous chemicals, asbestos, and underground storage tanks as well as the generation of hazardous wastes and the disposal of wastewater. Federal, state, and local laws governing the management of hazardous substances, asbestos, underground storage tanks and wastewater disposal have become so complex there is a need to devise specific programs to comply with the many regulations that implement these laws. In support of the national goal of the preservation of the environment and the protection of human health and safety, NASA, JPL, and the GDSCC have adopted a position that their operating installations shall maintain a high level of compliance with these laws. One of the environmental problems at the GDSCC involved four active, operational, wastewater evaporation ponds designed to receive and evaporate sewage effluent from upstream septic tank systems. One pair of active wastewater evaporation ponds is located at Echo Site, while another operational pair is at Mars Site.

  12. Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1, Section 1000 Addendum: Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannik, G.T.

    1994-01-01

    This document -- the Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Plan (SRS EM Plan) -- has been prepared according to guidance contained in the DOE 5400 Series orders, in 10 CFR 834, and in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and environmental Surveillance [DOE, 1991]. The SRS EM Plan's purpose is to define the criteria, regulations, and guideline requirements with which SRS will comply. These criteria and requirements are applicable to environmental monitoring activities performed in support of the SRS Environmental Monitoring Program (SRS EM Program), WSRC-3Q1-2, Volume 1, Section 1100. They are not applicable to monitoring activities utilized exclusively for process monitoring/control. The environmental monitoring program requirements documented in the SRS EM Plan incorporate all applicable should requirements of DOE/EH-0173T and expand upon them to include nonradiological environmental monitoring program requirements

  13. Environmental contaminants in food. Volume II-Part B: Working papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume contains working papers written for Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to assist in preparation of the report Environmental Contaminants in Food. The contents include: (1) Toxic substances in food information systems: design and management; (2) Assessment of carcinogenic risks from PCBs in food; (3) Economic analysis of alternative action levels in the regulation of environmental contaminants in food; (4) Analysis of foods for radioactivity; (5) Approaches to monitoring environmental contaminants in food; (6) Analytical systems for the determination of metals in food and water supplies; (7) Assessment of methods for regulating 'unavoidable' contaminants in the food supply; and (8) Consumer risk from environmental contaminants in food

  14. Preoperational baseline and site characterization report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. Volume 2, Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Lindsey, K.A.; Ford, B.H.; Jaeger, G.K.

    1996-12-01

    This document is Volume 2 in a two-volume series that comprise the site characterization report, the Preoperational Baseline and Site Characterization Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. Volume 1 contains data interpretation and information supporting the conclusions in the main text. This document presents original data in support of Volume 1 of the report. The following types of data are presented: well construction reports; borehole logs; borehole geophysical data; well development and pump installation; survey reports; preoperational baseline chemical data and aquifer test data. Five groundwater monitoring wells, six deep characterization boreholes, and two shallow characterization boreholes were drilled at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) site to directly investigate site-specific hydrogeologic conditions

  15. POWER-GEN '90 conference papers: Volume 3 (Environmental trends and issues) and Volume 4 (Case histories - Non-utility power generation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This is book 2 of a collection of papers presented at the Third International Power Generation Industries Conference on December 4-6, 1990. The book contains Volume 3, Environmental Trends and Issues, and Volume 4, Case Histories - Non-utility Power Generation. The topics of the papers include environmental legislative and regulatory trends, acid rain compliance strategies and technologies, other global environmental concerns, gas fired systems, solid and waste fuels, despatching and wheeling, and strategies for purchasing non-utility power

  16. 19th JANNAF Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchiaro, J. E. (Editor); Becker, D. L. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes, is a compilation of 22 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 19th Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. The meeting was held 18-21 March 2002 at the Sheraton Colorado Springs Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado. Topics covered include green energetic materials and life cycle pollution prevention; space launch range safety; propellant/munitions demilitarization, recycling, and reuse: and environmental and occupational health aspects of propellants and energetic materials.

  17. GENII: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 1, Conceptual representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-12-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). The purpose of this coupled system of computer codes is to analyze environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil. This is accomplished by calculating radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. The third volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the user who requires knowledge of code detail. It includes code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets, example hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. 72 refs., 15 figs., 34 tabs

  18. GENII: The Hanford Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Software System: Volume 1, Conceptual representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-12-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dosimetry Upgrade Project was undertaken to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in updated versions of the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. The resulting second generation of Hanford environmental dosimetry computer codes is compiled in the Hanford Environmental Dosimetry System (Generation II, or GENII). The purpose of this coupled system of computer codes is to analyze environmental contamination resulting from acute or chronic releases to, or initial contamination of, air, water, or soil. This is accomplished by calculating radiation doses to individuals or populations. GENII is described in three volumes of documentation. The first volume describes the theoretical considerations of the system. The second volume is a Users' Manual, providing code structure, users' instructions, required system configurations, and QA-related topics. The third volume is a Code Maintenance Manual for the user who requires knowledge of code detail. It includes code logic diagrams, global dictionary, worksheets, example hand calculations, and listings of the code and its associated data libraries. 72 refs., 15 figs., 34 tabs.

  19. Uranium milling, project M-25. Volume I. summary and text. Final generic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    The Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (GEIS) on Uranium Milling focuses primarily upon the matter of mill tailings disposal. It evaluates both the costs and benefits of alternative tailings disposal modes and draws conclusions about criteria which should be incorporated into regulations. Both institutional and technical controls are evaluated. Health impacts considered were both short and long term. Restatement and resolution of all public comments received on the draft (GEIS) are presented. There are three volumes: Volume I is the main text and Volumes II and III are supporting appendices

  20. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 1. Fossil energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume I contains papers relating to coal preparation, oil shales, coal combustion, advanced coal utilization (fluidized bed combustion, MHD generators, OCGT, fuel cells), coal gasification, coal liquefaction, and fossil resource extraction (enhanced recovery). Separate abstracts for individual papers are prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  1. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Volume 4: Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina's (MUSC) vision is to become the premier national resource for medical information and for environmental/health risk assessment. A key component to the success of the many missions of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) is timely access to large volumes of data. The significant growth in the number of environmental/health information systems that has occurred over the past few years has made data access challenging. This study documents the results of the needs assessment effort conducted to determine the information access and processing requirements of EHAP. The following topics are addressed in this report: immunological consequences of beryllium exposure; assessment of genetic risks to environmental diseases; low dose-rate radiation health effects; environmental risk perception in defined populations; information support and access systems; and environmental medicine and risk communication: curriculum and a professional support network-Department of Family Medicine

  2. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Volume 4: Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina`s (MUSC) vision is to become the premier national resource for medical information and for environmental/health risk assessment. A key component to the success of the many missions of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) is timely access to large volumes of data. The significant growth in the number of environmental/health information systems that has occurred over the past few years has made data access challenging. This study documents the results of the needs assessment effort conducted to determine the information access and processing requirements of EHAP. The following topics are addressed in this report: immunological consequences of beryllium exposure; assessment of genetic risks to environmental diseases; low dose-rate radiation health effects; environmental risk perception in defined populations; information support and access systems; and environmental medicine and risk communication: curriculum and a professional support network-Department of Family Medicine.

  3. Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume 3, Appendix A: Public response to revised NOI, Appendix B: Environmental restoration, Appendix C, Environmental impact analysis methods, Appendix D, Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    Volume three contains appendices for the following: Public comments do DOE's proposed revisions to the scope of the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement; Environmental restoration sensitivity analysis; Environmental impacts analysis methods; and Waste management facility human health risk estimates

  4. Life History Trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, I.M.; Kliman, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Trade-offs play a central role in life history theory. This article explains why they exist, how they arise, how they can be measured, and briefly discusses their evolution. Three important trade-offs are discussed in detail: the trade-off between current reproduction and survival, between current

  5. Tenth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: combustion 2000 session; advanced research and technology development session; commercial/industrial combustion systems session; alternative fuels utilization session; environmental control poster session; and advanced combustion technology poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. Tank Waste Remediation System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document, Volume 4, describes the current safety concerns associated with the tank waste and analyzes the potential accidents and associated potential health effects that could occur under the alternatives included in this Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

  7. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Annual Environmental Monitoring Report calendar year 1992: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report describes environmental monitoring and compliance at eight UMTRA sites where remedial action was underway during 1992 and at the ten sites that were complete at the end of 1992. Volume I contains information for Ambrosia Lake, NM; Cannonsburg/Burrell, PA; Durango, CO; Falls City, TX; Grand Junction, CO; Green River, UT; and Gunnison, CO. Each site report contains a site description, compliance summary, environmental program information, environmental radiological and non-radiological program information, water resources protection, and quality assurance information

  8. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Annual Environmental Monitoring Report calendar year 1992: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-12-31

    This report describes environmental monitoring and compliance at eight UMTRA sites where remedial action was underway during 1992 and at the ten sites that were complete at the end of 1992. Volume I contains information for Ambrosia Lake, NM; Cannonsburg/Burrell, PA; Durango, CO; Falls City, TX; Grand Junction, CO; Green River, UT; and Gunnison, CO. Each site report contains a site description, compliance summary, environmental program information, environmental radiological and non-radiological program information, water resources protection, and quality assurance information.

  9. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1995 site environmental report: Volume 2, Data appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory presents Volume II, Data Appendix as a reference document to supplement the 1995 Site Environmental Report. Volume II contains the raw environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate many of the summary results included in the main report. Supplemental data is provided for sitewide activities involving the media of stack and ambient air quality, rainwater, surface water, stormwater, wastewater, and soil and sediment. Volume II also contains supplemental data on the special preoperational monitoring study for the new Hazardous Waste Handling Facility. The Table of Contents provides a cross-reference to the data tables of the main report and this appendix. Data are given in System International (SI) units

  10. Coal use in the People's Republic of China. Volume 1: Environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, N.; Tompkins, M.M.; Simbeck, D.R.

    1994-11-01

    The People's Republic of China (hereafter referred to as China) is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world. Coal makes up 76% and 74% of China's primary energy consumption and production, respectively. This heavy dependence on coal has come at a high price for China, accounting for a large share of its environmental problems. This report examines the dominance of coal in China's energy balance, its impact on the environment, and the need for technical and financial assistance, specifically for two distinct aspects: the effect of coal use on the environment and the importance of coal to China's economy. The results of the analysis are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 focuses on full fuel cycle coal emissions and the environmental effects of coal consumption. Volume 2 provides a detailed analysis by sector of China's economy and examines the economic impact of constraints on coal use. 51 refs., 19 figs., 15 tabs

  11. Navigating environmental, economic, and technological trade-offs in the design and operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs)

    KAUST Repository

    Pretel, R.; Shoener, B.D.; Ferrer, J.; Guest, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    of submerged AnMBRs influence the technological, environmental, and economic sustainability of the system across its life cycle. Specific design and operational decisions evaluated included: solids retention time (SRT), mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS

  12. New Internet search volume-based weighting method for integrating various environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Changyoon, E-mail: changyoon@yonsei.ac.kr; Hong, Taehoon, E-mail: hong7@yonsei.ac.kr

    2016-01-15

    Weighting is one of the steps in life cycle impact assessment that integrates various characterized environmental impacts as a single index. Weighting factors should be based on the society's preferences. However, most previous studies consider only the opinion of some people. Thus, this research proposes a new weighting method that determines the weighting factors of environmental impact categories by considering public opinion on environmental impacts using the Internet search volumes for relevant terms. To validate the new weighting method, the weighting factors for six environmental impacts calculated by the new weighting method were compared with the existing weighting factors. The resulting Pearson's correlation coefficient between the new and existing weighting factors was from 0.8743 to 0.9889. It turned out that the new weighting method presents reasonable weighting factors. It also requires less time and lower cost compared to existing methods and likewise meets the main requirements of weighting methods such as simplicity, transparency, and reproducibility. The new weighting method is expected to be a good alternative for determining the weighting factor. - Highlight: • A new weighting method using Internet search volume is proposed in this research. • The new weighting method reflects the public opinion using Internet search volume. • The correlation coefficient between new and existing weighting factors is over 0.87. • The new weighting method can present the reasonable weighting factors. • The proposed method can be a good alternative for determining the weighting factors.

  13. New Internet search volume-based weighting method for integrating various environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Changyoon; Hong, Taehoon

    2016-01-01

    Weighting is one of the steps in life cycle impact assessment that integrates various characterized environmental impacts as a single index. Weighting factors should be based on the society's preferences. However, most previous studies consider only the opinion of some people. Thus, this research proposes a new weighting method that determines the weighting factors of environmental impact categories by considering public opinion on environmental impacts using the Internet search volumes for relevant terms. To validate the new weighting method, the weighting factors for six environmental impacts calculated by the new weighting method were compared with the existing weighting factors. The resulting Pearson's correlation coefficient between the new and existing weighting factors was from 0.8743 to 0.9889. It turned out that the new weighting method presents reasonable weighting factors. It also requires less time and lower cost compared to existing methods and likewise meets the main requirements of weighting methods such as simplicity, transparency, and reproducibility. The new weighting method is expected to be a good alternative for determining the weighting factor. - Highlight: • A new weighting method using Internet search volume is proposed in this research. • The new weighting method reflects the public opinion using Internet search volume. • The correlation coefficient between new and existing weighting factors is over 0.87. • The new weighting method can present the reasonable weighting factors. • The proposed method can be a good alternative for determining the weighting factors.

  14. Richland Environmental Restoration Project Baseline Multi Year Work Plan Volume 1 Richland Environmental Restoration Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintczak, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this project specification is to provide an overall scoping and document for the Environmental Restoration project, and to provide a link between the overall Hanford Site scope and the ER project. The purpose of this project specification is to provide an overall scoping document for the ER Project, and to provide a link between the overall Hanford Site scope and the ER Project. Additionally, this specification provides an integrated and consolidated source of information for the Richland ER Project. It identifies the ER Project vision, mission, and goals, as well as the operational history of the Hanford Site, along with environmental setting and hazards. This ER Project Specification is part of the overall ER Project baseline

  15. 2004 Power marketing program final EIS - final environmental impact statement. Volume 2 - appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This volume contains appendices to the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Power Marketing Program proposal of the Western Area Power Administration. The FEIS identified peaking power scheduling as the environmentally preferred alternative, and presented the analysis of alternatives and environmental impacts. Sixteen appendices to the FEIS are included in this document. The appendices are: Statutory and Legal Framework; Sierra Nevada Region Customer Groups and Economic Regions; Renewable Technology Cost Information Matrix; Hydrological Assumptions; Recreation Resources; Archaeological and Historical Resources; Incremental Power Resources; Air Quality Regulatory Structure; Energy Generation; Stage Contents Relationships for Regulating Reservoirs; Power Costs; Socioeconomic Impacts; Projected Air Resource Impacts; Land use, Water Quality, and Solid Waste Impact Factors; Draft Environmental Impact Statement Comments and Responses, and Contractor Disclosure Statements. 21 figs., 24 tabs

  16. Environmental gamma radiation monitoring system with a large volume air ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.; Strachotinsky, C.; Witzani, J.

    1986-01-01

    An improved environmental monitoring system has been designed and tested consisting of an ionization chamber with 120 l sensitive volume, operated at atmospheric pressure, and a commercial electrometer amplifier with digital voltmeter. The system is controlled by a desk calculator with printer for automated operation and calculation of dose and doserate. The ionization chamber provides superior dosimetric performance as compared to usual GM-counters and high pressure chambers. The system has been field-tested during the 'European Intercomparison Programme for Environmental Monitoring Instruments' organized by the Commission of the European Communities. (Author)

  17. Tritium-containment systems: a tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folkers, C.L.; Cena, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Various design parameters are evaluated that affect the performance of tritium-containment systems for fusion reactors. Our study included a review of such parameters as tritium forms, impurities, catalysts, adsorbents, getters, and as low as reasonably achievable principles. We organized these schemes, which can be considered for treating either air or inert atmospheres, so one could easily make orderly choices and tradeoffs for optimum performance. The relationships examined involved purification-system decontamination factors, flow rates, recycling and leakage, and environmental losses

  18. 2004 Power marketing program. Final environmental impact statement. Volume 1 - summary and environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The Sierra Nevada Region proposes to develop a plan to allocate power within its marketing areas of California and Nevada. Five alternatives were analyzed based on the possible range of operations of the Central Valley Project (CVP) hydroelectric system, levels of power purchases, and customer group allocations. Scheduling of the hydropower generating plants is the key difference across the alternatives. The peaking, preferred, renewables, and no-action alternatives are based on scheduling to emphasize peaking power. The baseload alternative assumes steady water releases. The analysis found no significant impacts overall. However, peaking operations tend to result in the greatest benefits and least negative effects to resources where impacts could be quantified. The peaking alternative was selected as the environmentally preferred alternative. The peaking alternative would add up to 317 MW of load-carrying capacity during August compared to taking no action. The preferred alternative results in up to a 262-MW gain and the baseload alternative results in a loss of 581 MW in comparison to the no-action alternative. Although it is not possible to determine where or when any lost capacity would be made up, building replacement capacity would result in land-use impacts and the use of natural and financial resources. The baseload alternative would result in more stable pool fluctuation within regulating reservoirs, which may benefit resident fish, recreation, and cultural resources; but these effects would be minor and could not be quantified. Environmental impacts within the CVP are limited to fluctuations in the regulating reservoirs. Changes in allocations to customer groups result in negligible regional economic effects. The renewables alternative is similar in CVP operation to the peaking alternative and melds 50 MW of renewables with CVP hydropower. Its environmental impacts vary, depending on the presence of biomass in the resource mix. 84 refs., 44 figs., 27 tabs

  19. Superconducting Super Collider: Final environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Comment/response document: Summary and index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This volume is divided into five parts as follows: Summary and Index; Letters submitted by commenters in response to the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) from date of issue through October 17, 1988; Transcripts of testimony at the public hearings conducted by the DOE in the vicinity of each site alternative; Letters postmarked after October 17, 1988; and Comment responses to both the letters and the testimony. This summary and index is published as a guide to the reader in reviewing this document. The summary is of the approximately 7000 comments received by the DOE from a total of about 5700 commenters. It was prepared as a general reference and guide to the readers of this volume. The Index follows the summary. The first index is an alphabetical listing of commenters (of both letters and transcripts) and indicates the number each commenter was assigned. The commenter numbers guide the reader to DOE comment responses in Volume 2B which are in numerical order

  20. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. This general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion.

  1. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing , M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. The general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion

  2. Estimating the cold war mortgage: The 1995 baseline environmental management report. Volume II: Site summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This volume, Volume II presents the site data that was used to generate the Department of Energy's (DOE) initial Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR). The raw data was obtained by DOE field personnel from existing information sources and anticipated environmental management strategies for their sites and was tempered by general assumptions and guidance developed by DOE Headquarters personnel. This data was then integrated by DOE Headquarters personnel and modified to ensure that overall constraints such as funding and waste management capacity were addressed. The site summaries are presented by State and broken out by discrete activities and projects. The Volume I Glossary has been repeated to facilitate the reader's review of Volume II. The information presented in the site summaries represents the best data and assumptions available as of February 1, 1995. Assumptions that have not been mandated by formal agreement with appropriate regulators and other stakeholders do not constitute decisions by the Department nor do they supersede existing agreements. In addition, actions requiring decisions from external sources regarding unknowns such as future land use and funding/scheduling alternatives, as well as internal actions such as the Department's Strategic Realignment initiative, will alter the basis and general assumptions used to generate the results for this report. Consequently, the numbers presented in the site summaries do not represent outyear budget requests by the field installations

  3. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 23. Environmental effluent analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/23, ''Environmental Effluent Analysis,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Drat Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume discusses the releases to the environment of radioactive and non-radioactive materials that arise during facility construction and waste handling operations, as well as releases that could occur in the event of an operational accident. The results of the analyses are presented along with a detailed description of the analytical methodologies employed

  4. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 2. Nuclear energy, conservation, and solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume II contains papers relating to: environmental control aspects of nuclear energy use and development; nuclear waste management; renewable energy sources; transportation and building conservation (fuel economy, gasohol, building standards, and industry); and geothermal energy, power transmission, and energy storage

  5. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 2. Nuclear energy, conservation, and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume II contains papers relating to: environmental control aspects of nuclear energy use and development; nuclear waste management; renewable energy sources; transportation and building conservation (fuel economy, gasohol, building standards, and industry); and geothermal energy, power transmission, and energy storage. (DMC)

  6. Site environmental report for 2000. Volume I, Environment, Health and Safety Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Robert [Environmental Services Group, Berkeley, CA (US); Javandel, Iraj [Environmental Services Group, Berkeley, CA (US); Lackner, Ginny [Environmental Services Group, Berkeley, CA (US); Ruggieri, Michael [Environmental Services Group, Berkeley, CA (US); Thorson, Patrick [Environmental Services Group, Berkeley, CA (US); Wahl, Linnea [Environmental Services Group, Berkeley, CA (US)

    2001-09-30

    Each year, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) prepared an integrated report on its environmental programs to satisfy the requirements of United States Department of Energy Order 231.1. The Site Environmental Report for 2000 is intended to summarize Berkeley Lab's compliance with environmental standards and requirements, characterize environmental management efforts through surveillance and monitoring activities, and highlight significant programs and efforts for calendar year 2000. Laboratory, the status of environmental programs, and summary results from surveillance and monitoring activities. Each chapter in Volume I begins with an outline of the sections that follow, including any tables or figures found in the chapter. Readers should use section numbers (e.g., §1.5) as navigational tools to find topics of interest in either the printed or the electronic version of the report. Volume II contains the individual data results from monitoring programs. Although a printed version of Volume II is not part of the report's initial distribution, it is available on request (see below). The report follows the Laboratory's policy of using the International System of Units (SI) or metric system of measurements. Whenever possible, results are also reported using the more conventional inch-pound system of measurements because this system is referenced by some current regulatory standards and may be more familiar to some readers. The tables included at the end of the Glossary are intended to help readers understand the various prefixes used with SI units of measurement and convert these units from one system to the other.

  7. 100 Areas soil washing tradeoff study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belden, R.D.

    1995-11-01

    The complex nature of cost analysis and systems work demands a level of effort to ensure that decisions made support the best interests of all parties. This tradeoff study will act as a formal decision analysis method for the evaluation of many variables. The documentation of the decision rationale and system design is essential for successful planning and implementation of any system. The Hanford Site offers unique problems for economic analysis of remediation alternatives. The variations in the size of sites, geographic locations, and possible cleanup scenarios all add to the complexity of the tradeoff analysis. A thorough examination of all alternatives must be held to a level of detail appropriate to current regulatory and budgetary considerations. This study will compare the economics of two specific alternatives for remediation of soils at the Hanford Site. Remove and dispose is compared to remove, treat, and dispose. The treatment analyzed in this study is volume reduction through soil washing

  8. High production volume chemical Amine Oxide [C8-C20] category environmental risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Tibazarwa, Caritas; Greggs, William

    2009-01-01

    and personal care products. Given the lack of persistence or bioaccumulation, and the low likelihood of these chemicals partitioning to soil, the focus of the environmental assessment is on the aquatic environment. In the United States, the E-FAST model is used to estimate effluent concentrations in the United......An environmental assessment of amine oxides has been conducted under the OECD SIDS High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Amine Oxides Consortium. Amine oxides are primarily used in conjunction with surfactants in cleaning...... States from manufacturing facilities and from municipal facilities resulting from consumer product uses. Reasonable worst-case ratios of predicted environmental concentration (PEC) to predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) range from 0.04 to 0.003, demonstrating that these chemicals are a low risk...

  9. Draft Environmental Impact Statement. MX Deployment Area Selection and Land Withdrawal/Acquisition DEIS. Volume IV. Part II. Environmental Consequences to the Study Regions and Operating Base Vicinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Draft Environmental Impact Statement-MX Draft-December 80 Deployment Alea Selection-Environmental...recreation, a weekend at the lake, the opportunity to be alone with yourself and your family, the clean air to see the next mountain and the freedom to...traffic volumes and projected traffic volumes during the peak construction year. In mountain passes, where capacity is severely reduced by steep grades

  10. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. Technology status report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    This is the first in a series of reports evaluating environmental control technologies applicable to the coal-to-electricity process. The technologies are described and evaluated from an engineering and cost perspective based upon the best available information obtained from utility experience and development work in progress. Environmental control regulations and the health effects of pollutants are also reviewed. Emphasis is placed primarily upon technologies that are now in use. For SO/sub 2/ control, these include the use of low sulfur coal, cleaned coal, or flue-gas desulfurization systems. Electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters used for the control of particulate matter are analyzed, and combustion modifications for NO/sub x/ control are described. In each area, advanced technologies still in the development stage are described briefly and evaluated on the basis of current knowledge. Fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a near-term technology that is discussed extensively in the report. The potential for control of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions by use of FBC is analyzed, as are the resulting solid waste disposal problems, cost estimates, and its potential applicability to electric utility systems. Volume II presents the detailed technology analyses complete with reference citations. This same material is given in condensed form in Volume I without references. A brief executive summary is also given in Volume I.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase final supplemental environmental impact statement. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) is to provide information on environmental impacts regarding the Department of Energy's (DOE) proposed disposal operations at WIPP. The Proposed Action describes the treatment and disposal of the Basic inventory of TRU waste over a 35-year period. The Action Alternatives proposed the treatment of the Basic Inventory and an Additional Inventory as well as the transportation of the treated waste to WIPP for disposal over a 150- to 190-year period. The three Action Alternatives include the treatment of TRU waste at consolidation sites to meet WIPP planning-basic Waste Acceptance Criteria, the thermal treatment of TRU waste to meet Land Disposal Restrictions, and the treatment of TRU waste by a shred and grout process. SEIS-II evaluates environmental impacts resulting from the various treatment options; the transportation of TRU waste to WIPP using truck, a combination of truck and regular rail service, and a combination of truck and dedicated rail service; and the disposal of this waste in the repository. Evaluated impacts include those to the general environment and to human health. Additional issues associated with the implementation of the alternatives are discussed to provide further understanding of the decisions to be reached and to provide the opportunity for public input on improving DOE's Environmental Management Program. This volume contains the following appendices: Waste inventory; Summary of the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement and its use in determining human health impacts at treatment sites; Air quality; Life-cycle costs and economic impacts; Transportation; Human health; Facility accidents; Long-term consequence analysis for proposed action and action alternatives; Long-term consequence analysis for no action alternative 2; and Updated estimates of the DOE's transuranic waste volumes

  12. The impact of environmental conditions on human performance: A critical review of the literature. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverria, D.; Barnes, V.; Bittner, A.

    1994-09-01

    The Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers (HARC) conducted a comprehensive review of the technical literature regarding the impact of environmental conditions on human performance applicable to nuclear power plant workers. The environmental conditions considered were vibration, noise, heat, cold, and light. Research staff identified potential human performance deficits along a continuum of increasing occupational exposure, ranging from deficits that occur at low exposures to deficits that occur at high exposures. Specific deficits were included in the review if scientists demonstrated the exposure caused an effect, using sound methodology. The levels associated with each deficit were then compared to the protection afforded by existing occupational exposure standards. Volume 2 presents several conclusions regarding the applicability of the research literature to environmental conditions in nuclear power plants. The findings presented suggest that occupational standards for vibration, noise, and heat, which were developed to protect health, are inadequate for preventing deficits in cognitive or motor performance in tasks likely to be performed in nuclear power plants. Also, there is little information in the literature on simultaneous conditions; for example, the effects of simultaneous exposure to heat and noise on cognition require more research. As many exposures in nuclear power plants will be simultaneous, this limitation should be kept in mind when using Volume 1

  13. Preliminary environmental assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS). Revision 1. Volume 2. Detailed assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is considering several options for generating electrical power to meet future energy needs. The satellite power system (SPS), one of these options, would collect solar energy through a system of satellites in space and transfer this energy to earth. A reference system has been described that would convert the energy to microwaves and transmit the microwave energy via directive antennas to large receiving/rectifying antennas (rectennas) located on the earth. At the rectennas, the microwave energy would be converted into electricity. The potential environmental impacts of constructing and operating the satellite power system are being assessed as a part of the Department of Energy's SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This report is Revision I of the Preliminary Environmental Assessment for the Satellite Power System published in October 1978. It refines and extends the 1978 assessment and provides a basis for a 1980 revision that will guide and support DOE recommendations regarding future SPS development. This is Volume 2 of two volumes. It contains the technical detail suitable for peer review and integrates information appearing in documents referenced herein. The key environmental issues associated with the SPS concern human health and safety, ecosystems, climate, and electromagnetic systems interactions. In order to address these issues in an organized manner, five tasks are reported: (I) microwave-radiation health and ecological effects; (II) nonmicrowave health and ecological effectss; (III) atmospheric effects; (IV) effects on communication systems due to ionospheric disturbance; and (V) electromagnetic compatibility. (WHK)

  14. Proceedings of the international symposium on environmental technologies: Plasma systems and applications. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayne, P.W.; Mulholland, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma technology is an extremely versatile and powerful means of obtaining very high temperatures that can be used in a variety of environmental situations. Since most types of waste products and contaminants can be treated effectively and efficiently, plasma systems have been developed to address the disposal and annihilation domestic of medical, hazardous, radioactive, military, and miscellaneous wastes. Plasma technologies can also be implemented to recycle and recover usable materials from metallic wastes. The International Symposium on Environmental Technologies: Plasma Systems and Applications was held at the Omni Hotel in Atlanta, Georgia on October 8--12, 1995 to bring together a large group of technical experts working on the use of plasma for solving environmental problems. The Symposium is a sequel to the 1994 Metatechnies Conference on Stabilization and Volarization of Ultimate Waste by Plasma Processes that was held in September of 1994 at Bordeaux Lac, France. The proceedings to this second international conference contain the written contributions from eleven sessions and are published in two volumes. A total of 65 papers address the use of plasma systems for environmental applications and include topics concerning the development and use of innovative technologies for waste treatment, environmental remediation, recycling, characterization of the plasma and solid residue, off-gas analyses, as well as case studies and regulatory policies

  15. Electrokinetic applications for environmental restoration, waste volume reduction, and contaminant containment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomasney, H.L.; Lomasney, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the US and all over the world, following over 50 years of nuclear arms production operations, the magnitude of resultant environmental damage is only beginning to surface. The US Department of Energy estimates that by the year 2070, the total volume of high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, and low-level mixed waste, generated as a result of past and current nuclear activities, will exceed 20 million cubic meters. In Russia, it is reported that more than 30% of all groundwater is contaminated with agricultural and industrial chemical waste. Government agencies today are faced with the responsibility of developing technologies that are suitable for dealing with severe environmental contamination and accumulating waste inventories. In response to this demand, applications of electrokinetics have emerged in the field of environmental waste management as alternatives for environmental decontamination and ecological protection. Electrokinetics involves the movement of charged species under the influence of an applied electric field and is applicable in several areas of environmental waste management, including cleanup of soil and groundwater, barrier detection, and emergency or protective fencing. The worldwide interest in this technology has steadily escalated over the past decade. Today, state-of-the-art applications of electrokinetics have been demonstrated in the US, The Netherlands, Russia, The Ukraine, and India. This paper addresses the latest advances in the various applications of this technology as well as the most significant breakthroughs in the history of electrokinetics

  16. Agribusiness opportunity costs and environmental legal protection: investigating trade-off on hotspot preservation in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igari, Alexandre Toshiro; Tambosi, Leandro Reverberi; Pivello, Vânia Regina

    2009-08-01

    Prior to deforestation, São Paulo State had 79,000 km(2) covered by Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) physiognomies, but today less than 8.5% of this biodiversity hotspot remains, mostly in private lands. The global demand for agricultural goods has imposed strong pressure on natural areas, and the economic decisions of agribusiness managers are crucial to the fate of Cerrado domain remaining areas (CDRA) in Brazil. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of Brazilian private protected areas policy, and to propose a feasible alternative to promote CDRA protection. This article assessed the main agribusiness opportunity costs for natural areas preservation: the land use profitability and the arable land price. The CDRA percentage and the opportunity costs were estimated for 349 municipal districts of São Paulo State through secondary spatial data and profitability values of 38 main agricultural products. We found that Brazilian private protected areas policy fails to preserve CDRA, although the values of non-compliance fines were higher than average opportunity costs. The scenario with very restrictive laws on private protected areas and historical high interest rates allowed us to conceive a feasible cross compliance proposal to improve environmental and agricultural policies.

  17. Tank Waste Remediation System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department Of Energy and the Washington State Department of Ecology added Appendix L (Volume 6), Response to Public Comments, to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, to fully address and respond to public comments on the Draft EIS. In addition, DOE considered public comments, along with other factors such as programmatic need, short- and long-term impacts, technical feasibility, and cost, in arriving at DOE's preferred alternative. During the public comment period for the Draft EIS, more than 350 individuals, agencies, Tribal Nations, and organizations provided comments. This volume represents a broad spectrum of private citizens; businesses; local, State, and Federal officials; Tribal Nations; and public interest groups

  18. Survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring: major update. Volume 3. Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This is the third volume of a four-volume (seven-part) series, the culmination of a comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to radiation monitoring. The results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored, their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls. The discussion is presented under sections entitled radiation sources; instrumentation: by type of radiation or instrument type; and, instrumentation for specific radionuclides. (JGB)

  19. Ceramic transactions: Environmental and waste management issues in the ceramic industry. Volume 39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellinger, G.B.

    1994-01-01

    A symposium on environmental and waste management issues in the ceramic industry took place in Cincinnati, Ohio, April 19-22, 1993. The symposium was held in conjunction with the 95th Annual Meeting of the American Ceramic Society and was sponsored by the Ceramic Manufacturing Council, Legislative and Regulatory Affairs Committee with the Glass and Optical Materials, Basic Science, Cements, Nuclear, Refractory Ceramics, Structural Clay Products, Whitewares, Design, Electronics, Engineering Ceramics, and Materials and Equipment Divisions. This volume documents several of the papers that were presented at the symposium. Papers presented in this volume are categorized under the following headings: vitrification of hazardous and mixed wastes; waste glass properties and microstructure; processing of nuclear waste disposal glasses; waste form qualification; glass dissolution: modeling and mechanisms; systems and field testing of waste forms

  20. Survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring: major update. Volume 3. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This is the third volume of a four-volume (seven-part) series, the culmination of a comprehensive survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring. Consideration is given to instruments and techniques presently in use and to those developed for other purposes but having possible applications to radiation monitoring. The results of the survey are given as descriptions of the physical and operating characteristics of available instruments, critical comparisons among instrumentation methods, and recommendations of promising methodology and development of new instrumentation. Information is also given regarding the pollutants to be monitored, their characteristics and forms, their sources and pathways, their effects on the ecosystem, and the means of controlling them through process and regulatory controls. The discussion is presented under sections entitled radiation sources; instrumentation: by type of radiation or instrument type; and, instrumentation for specific radionuclides

  1. Experimental Engineering Section semiannual progress report, March 1-August 31, 1976. Volume 2. Biotechnology and environmental programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, Jr., W. W.; Mrochek, J. E. [comps.

    1978-03-01

    This volume contains the progress report of the biotechnology and environmental programs in the Experimental Engineering Section of the Chemical Technology Division. Research efforts in these programs during this report period have been in five areas: (1) environmental research; (2) centrifugal analyzer development; (3) advanced analytical systems development; (4) bioengineering research; and (5) bioengineering development. Summaries of these programmatic areas are contained in Volume I.

  2. Draft Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement and Comprehensive Land Use Plan. Volume 3 of 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This volume of the Environmental Impact Statement contains ten appendices. These appendices contain the following: the ecological risk assessment methodology and calculations; the strategy for remediation of contaminated ground water; a description of the reference barrier and potential quarry sites that could be used to supply materials for barriers; the methodology for estimating socio-economic impacts; the methodology for evaluation of air quality impacts; an assessment of costs and physical impacts; the calculation of estimated industrial health and safety occupational losses; a floodplains and wetlands impact assessment; information about Hanford waste sites, and US EPA guidance on using land-use decisions in remediation

  3. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 4, Comments and Responses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This volume of the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) contains public comments addressing the Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts Draft EIS, August 1990 and Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) responses. The Introduction provides information about the process BPA follows in addressing these comments. Part I contains a listing of the Alternative Actions evaluated in the Final EIS; Part II is organized by Alternatives and includes summaries of the comments and BPA responses; Part III provides copies of the original comments letters, and, for ease of identification, are coded in the margins according to the alternative(s) addressed.

  4. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for stockpile stewardship and management: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has developed Stockpile Stewardship and Maintenance Program to provide a single highly integrated technical program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) describes and analyzes alternative ways to implement the proposed actions for the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. This document contains Volume I of the PEIS

  5. Rugged Large Volume Injection for Sensitive Capillary LC-MS Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Roberg-Larsen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A rugged and high throughput capillary column (cLC LC-MS switching platform using large volume injection and on-line automatic filtration and filter back-flush (AFFL solid phase extraction (SPE for analysis of environmental water samples with minimal sample preparation is presented. Although narrow columns and on-line sample preparation are used in the platform, high ruggedness is achieved e.g., injection of 100 non-filtrated water samples did not result in a pressure rise/clogging of the SPE/capillary columns (inner diameter 300 μm. In addition, satisfactory retention time stability and chromatographic resolution were also features of the system. The potential of the platform for environmental water samples was demonstrated with various pharmaceutical products, which had detection limits (LOD in the 0.05–12.5 ng/L range. Between-day and within-day repeatability of selected analytes were <20% RSD.

  6. Proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2: Public Involvement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    In regard to the proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project, the goal of the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) public involvement process is to determine the issues to be examined and pertinent analyses to be conducted and to solicit comments on the content and quality of information presented in the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS). Comments and questions are solicited from the public and government agencies during the scoping process and during the comment period and public hearing on the DEIS, to find out what is of most concern to them. The end product of the public involvement process is the Comment Report which follows in part of this volume on Public Involvement.

  7. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for stockpile stewardship and management: Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has developed a Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program to provide a single highly integrated technical program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) describes and analyzes alternative ways to implement the proposed actions for the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. This document consists of Volume III, Appendix I entitled ''National Ignition Facility Project-Specific Analysis,'' which investigates the environmental impacts resulting from constructing and operating the proposed National Ignition Facility

  8. Balanced program plan. Volume 10. Fusion: analysis for biomedical and environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.

    1976-06-01

    Development of the Balanced Program Plan for analysis for biomedical and environmental research was initiated in the spring of 1975. The goal was a redefinition of research efforts and priorities to meet ERDA's requirements for a program of health and environmental research to support the development and commercialization of energy technologies. As part of the Balanced Program planning effort the major ERDA-supported multidisciplinary laboratories were assigned responsibility for analyzing the research needs of each of nine energy technologies and describing a research program to meet these needs. The staff of the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research was assigned the task of defining a research program addressed to each of five biomedical and environmental research categories (characterization, measurement and monitoring; physical and chemical processes and effects; health effects; ecological effects; and integrated assessment and socioeconomic processes and effects) applicable to all energy technologies. The first drafts of these documents were available for a work-shop in June 1975 at which the DBER staff and scientists from the laboratories developed a comprehensive set of program recommendations. Pacific Northwest Laboratory was assigned responsibility for defining research needs and a recommended research program for fusion and fission technologies. This report, Volume 10, presents the input for fusion

  9. Tank Waste Remediation System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document, Volume 2, provides the inventory of waste addressed in this Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Tank Waste Remediation System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The inventories consist of waste from the following four groups: (1) Tank waste; (2) Cesium (Cs) and Strontium (Sr) capsules; (3) Inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs); and (4) Anticipated future tank waste additions. The major component by volume of the overall waste is the tank waste inventory (including future tank waste additions). This component accounts for more than 99 percent of the total waste volume and approximately 70 percent of the radiological activity of the four waste groups identified previously. Tank waste data are available on a tank-by-tank basis, but the accuracy of these data is suspect because they primarily are based on historical records of transfers between tanks rather than statistically based sampling and analyses programs. However, while the inventory of any specific tank may be suspect, the overall inventory for all of the tanks combined is considered more accurate. The tank waste inventory data are provided as the estimated overall chemical masses and radioactivity levels for the single-shell tanks (SSTs) and double-shell tanks (DSTs). The tank waste inventory data are broken down into tank groupings or source areas that were developed for analyzing groundwater impacts

  10. Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume 3, Appendix A: Public response to revised NOI, Appendix B: Environmental restoration, Appendix C, Environmental impact analysis methods, Appendix D, Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Volume three contains appendices for the following: Public comments do DOE`s proposed revisions to the scope of the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement; Environmental restoration sensitivity analysis; Environmental impacts analysis methods; and Waste management facility human health risk estimates.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase final supplemental environmental impact statement. Volume 3: Comment response document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) is to provide information on environmental impacts regarding the Department of Energy''s (DOE) proposed disposal operations at WIPP. The Proposed Action describes the treatment and disposal of the Basic inventory of TRU waste over a 35-year period. The Action Alternatives proposed the treatment of the Basic Inventory and an Additional Inventory as well as the transportation of the treated waste to WIPP for disposal over a 150- to 190-year period. The three Action Alternatives include the treatment of TRU waste at consolidation sites to meet WIPP planning-basic Waste Acceptance Criteria, the thermal treatment of TRU waste to meet Land Disposal Restrictions, and the treatment of TRU waste by a shred and grout process. SEIS-II evaluates environmental impacts resulting from the various treatment options; the transportation of TRU waste to WIPP using truck, a combination of truck and regular rail service, and a combination of truck and dedicated rail service; and the disposal of this waste in the repository. Evaluated impacts include those to the general environment and to human health. Additional issues associated with the implementation of the alternatives are discussed to provide further understanding of the decisions to be reached and to provide the opportunity for public input on improving DOE''s Environmental Management Program. This volume provides responses to public comments on the Draft SEIS-II. Comments are related to: Alternatives; TRU waste; DOE credibility; Editorial; Endorsement/opposition; Environmental justice; Facility accidents; Generator site operations; Health and safety; Legal and policy issues; NEPA process; WIPP facilities; WIPP waste isolation performance; Purpose and need; WIPP operations; Site characterization; Site selection; Socioeconomics; and Transportation

  12. Dual axis radiographic hydrodynamic test facility. Final environmental impact statement, Volume 2: Public comments and responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    On May 12, 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the draft Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test Facility Environmental Impact Statement (DARHT EIS) for review by the State of New Mexico, Indian Tribes, local governments, other Federal agencies, and the general public. DOE invited comments on the accuracy and adequacy of the draft EIS and any other matters pertaining to their environmental reviews. The formal comment period ran for 45 days, to June 26, 1995, although DOE indicated that late comments would be considered to the extent possible. As part of the public comment process, DOE held two public hearings in Los Alamos and Santa Fe, New Mexico, on May 31 and June 1, 1995. In addition, DOE made the draft classified supplement to the DARHT EIS available for review by appropriately cleared individuals with a need to know the classified information. Reviewers of the classified material included the State of New Mexico, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Defense, and certain Indian Tribes. Volume 2 of the final DARHT EIS contains three chapters. Chapter 1 includes a collective summary of the comments received and DOE`s response. Chapter 2 contains the full text of the public comments on the draft DARHT EIS received by DOE. Chapter 3 contains DOE`s responses to the public comments and an indication as to how the comments were considered in the final EIS.

  13. Gulf of Mexico Sales 139 and 141: Central and western planning areas. Final environmental impact statement. Volume 2: Sections 4.D. through 9. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The report is Volume II of two volumes. The EIS is a description of the environmental aspects and impacts of oil and gas activities resulting from these lease sales or the States bordering the Gulf of Mexico. The volume continues with Environmental Consequences; Consultation and Coordination; Bibliography and Special References; Preparers; Glossary; and the Appendices

  14. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1, Part B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel. This volume has chapters on environmental consequences; environmental regulations, permits, and consultations; a glossary; list of preparers; distribution list

  15. Proceedings of the environmental technology through industry partnership conference. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, V.P.

    1995-10-01

    The overall objective of this conference was to review the latest environmental and waste management technologies being developed under the sponsorship of METC. The focus of this conference was also to address the accomplishments and barriers affecting private sector, and lay the groundwork for future technology development initiatives and opportunities. 26 presentations were presented in: Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; Contaminant plume containment and remediation; and Decontamination and decommissioning. In addition there were 10 Focus Area presentations, 31 Poster papers covering all Focus Areas, and two panel discussions on: Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal issues; and the application, evaluation, and acceptance of in-situ and ex-situ plume remediation technologies. Volume 1 contains the keynote address, 15 poster papers, 5 papers on mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal, and 13 papers on decontamination and decommissioning. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  16. Proceedings of the environmental technology through industry partnership conference. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothari, V.P.

    1995-10-01

    The overall objective of this conference was to review the latest environmental and waste management technologies being developed under the sponsorship of METC. The focus of this conference was also to address the accomplishments and barriers affecting private sector, and lay the groundwork for future technology development initiatives and opportunities. 26 presentations were presented in: Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; Contaminant plume containment and remediation; and Decontamination and decommissioning. In addition there were 10 Focus Area presentations, 31 Poster papers covering all Focus Areas, and two panel discussions on: Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal issues; and the Application, evaluation, and acceptance of in-situ and ex-situ plume remediation technologies. Volume 2 contains 16 papers in a poster session and 8 papers in the contaminant plume containment and remediation and landfill stabilization Focus Areas. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. Proceedings of the environmental technology through industry partnership conference. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothari, V.P.

    1995-10-01

    The overall objective of this conference was to review the latest environmental and waste management technologies being developed under the sponsorship of METC. The focus of this conference was also to address the accomplishments and barriers affecting private sector, and lay the groundwork for future technology development initiatives and opportunities. 26 presentations were presented in: Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; Contaminant plume containment and remediation; and Decontamination and decommissioning. In addition there were 10 Focus Area presentations, 31 Poster papers covering all Focus Areas, and two panel discussions on: Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal issues; and the application, evaluation, and acceptance of in-situ and ex-situ plume remediation technologies. Volume 1 contains the keynote address, 15 poster papers, 5 papers on mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal, and 13 papers on decontamination and decommissioning. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source: Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    DOE proposes to construct and operate a state-of-the-art, short-pulsed spallation neutron source comprised of an ion source, a linear accelerator, a proton accumulator ring, and an experiment building containing a liquid mercury target and a suite of neutron scattering instrumentation. The proposed Spallation Neutron Source would be designed to operate at a proton beam power of 1 megawatt. The design would accommodate future upgrades to a peak operating power of 4 megawatts. These upgrades may include construction of a second proton accumulation ring and a second target. Volume 1 of this document analyzes the potential environmental impacts from the proposed action and the alternatives. The analysis assumes a facility operating at a power of 1 MW and 4 MW over the life of the facility. The two primary alternatives analyzed in this EIS are: the proposed action (to proceed with building the Spallation Neutron Source) and the No-Action Alternative. This volume contains the following appendices: (A) SNS accident source terms for EIS input; (B) Reports on the selection of alternative sites for the SNS; (C) Letters of consultation on protected species and cultural resources; (D) Ecological resource survey reports and summaries; (E) Descriptions of ORNL research projects in the Walker Branch Watershed; (F) Atmospheric dispersion and dose calculations for normal and accident conditions; (G) Projected air quality modeling effects at NOAA's Walker Branch Monitoring Tower

  19. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study. Volume 1. Summary of environmental effects, Savannah River Plant. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    This volume summarizes the technical content of Volumes II through XI of the annual report. Volume II provides a description of the SRP environment, facilities, and operation, and presents the objectives and design for the CCWS. Volume III presents information on water quality of SRP surface waters. Results of radionuclide and heavy metal transport studies are presented in Volume IV. Volume V contains findings from studies of wetland plant communities. Volume VI presents findings from studies of the lower food chain components of SRP aquatic habitats. The results of fisheries studies are reported in Volume VII. Studies of semi-aquatic vertebrate populations are reported in Volume VIII. Water-fowl utilization of SRP habitats is discussed in Volume IX. The status of endangered species that utilize SRP aquatic habitats is presented in Volume X. The findings from studies of Parr Pond ecosystem are presented in Volume XI

  20. Tank Waste Remediation System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document, Volume 1 of the Final Environmental Impact Statement, analyzes the potential environmental consequences related to the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) alternatives for management and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste, and the management and disposal of approximately 1,930 cesium and strontium capsules located at the Hanford Site. This waste is currently or projected to be stored in 177 underground storage tanks and approximately 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks. This document analyzes the following alternatives for remediating the tank waste: No Action, Long-Term Management, In Situ Fill and Cap, In Situ Vitrification, Ex Situ Intermediate Separations, Ex Situ No Separations, Ex Situ Extensive Separations, Ex Situ/In Situ Combination 1, and Ex Situ/In Situ Combination 2. This document also addresses a Phased Implementation alternative (the DOE and Ecology preferred alternative for remediation of tank waste). Alternatives analyzed for the cesium and strontium capsules include: No Action, Onsite Disposal, Overpack and Ship, and Vitrify with Tank Waste. The DOE and Ecology preferred alternative for the cesium and strontium capsules is the No Action alternative

  1. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). Volume 1, User`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-14

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is a consolidated set of automated resources that effectively manage the data gathered during environmental monitoring and restoration of the Hanford Site. HEIS includes an integrated database that provides consistent and current data to all users and promotes sharing of data by the entire user community. HEIS is an information system with an inclusive database. Although the database is the nucleus of the system, HEIS also provides user access software: query-by-form data entry, extraction, and browsing facilities; menu-driven reporting facilities; an ad hoc query facility; and a geographic information system (GIS). These features, with the exception of the GIS, are described in this manual set. Because HEIS contains data from the entire Hanford Site, many varieties of data are included and have.been divided into subject areas. Related subject areas comprise several volumes of the manual set. The manual set includes a data dictionary that lists all of the fields in the HEIS database, with their definitions and a cross reference of their locations in the database; definitions of data qualifiers for analytical results; and a mapping between the HEIS software functions and the keyboard keys for each of the supported terminals or terminal emulators.

  2. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This volume contains appendices of supplementary data on waste management systems, geologic disposal, radiological standards, radiation dose calculation models, related health effects, baseline ecology, socio-economic conditions, hazard indices, comparison of defense and commercial wastes, design considerations, and wastes from thorium-based fuel cycle alternatives. (DMC)

  3. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This volume contains appendices of supplementary data on waste management systems, geologic disposal, radiological standards, radiation dose calculation models, related health effects, baseline ecology, socio-economic conditions, hazard indices, comparison of defense and commercial wastes, design considerations, and wastes from thorium-based fuel cycle alternatives

  4. Environmental fate model for ultra-low-volume insecticide applications used for adult mosquito management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleier, Jerome J.; Peterson, Robert K.D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Marshall, Lucy M.; Weaver, David K.; Preftakes, Collin J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the more effective ways of managing high densities of adult mosquitoes that vector human and animal pathogens is ultra-low-volume (ULV) aerosol applications of insecticides. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses models that are not validated for ULV insecticide applications and exposure assumptions to perform their human and ecological risk assessments. Currently, there is no validated model that can accurately predict deposition of insecticides applied using ULV technology for adult mosquito management. In addition, little is known about the deposition and drift of small droplets like those used under conditions encountered during ULV applications. The objective of this study was to perform field studies to measure environmental concentrations of insecticides and to develop a validated model to predict the deposition of ULV insecticides. The final regression model was selected by minimizing the Bayesian Information Criterion and its prediction performance was evaluated using k-fold cross validation. Density of the formulation and the density and CMD interaction coefficients were the largest in the model. The results showed that as density of the formulation decreases, deposition increases. The interaction of density and CMD showed that higher density formulations and larger droplets resulted in greater deposition. These results are supported by the aerosol physics literature. A k-fold cross validation demonstrated that the mean square error of the selected regression model is not biased, and the mean square error and mean square prediction error indicated good predictive ability.

  5. Technical Note: New methodology for measuring viscosities in small volumes characteristic of environmental chamber particle samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Renbaum-Wolff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, a method for the determination of viscosities of small sample volumes is introduced, with important implications for the viscosity determination of particle samples from environmental chambers (used to simulate atmospheric conditions. The amount of sample needed is < 1 μl, and the technique is capable of determining viscosities (η ranging between 10−3 and 103 Pascal seconds (Pa s in samples that cover a range of chemical properties and with real-time relative humidity and temperature control; hence, the technique should be well-suited for determining the viscosities, under atmospherically relevant conditions, of particles collected from environmental chambers. In this technique, supermicron particles are first deposited on an inert hydrophobic substrate. Then, insoluble beads (~1 μm in diameter are embedded in the particles. Next, a flow of gas is introduced over the particles, which generates a shear stress on the particle surfaces. The sample responds to this shear stress by generating internal circulations, which are quantified with an optical microscope by monitoring the movement of the beads. The rate of internal circulation is shown to be a function of particle viscosity but independent of the particle material for a wide range of organic and organic-water samples. A calibration curve is constructed from the experimental data that relates the rate of internal circulation to particle viscosity, and this calibration curve is successfully used to predict viscosities in multicomponent organic mixtures.

  6. Acidic precipitation. Volume 3: Sources, deposition, and canopy interactions. Advances in environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, S.E.; Page, A.L.; Norton, S.A. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    As has been the case with many environmental issues of the twentieth century, acidic precipitation has its origin in emissions to the atmosphere of numerous compounds from both natural and man-made sources. This volume emphasizes the atmospheric aspects of acidic precipitation and all that this term has come to include (e.g. toxic gases such as ozone, trace metals, aluminum, and oxides of nitrogen). It progresses from emissions of the precursors of acidic precipitation to their eventual deposition on environmental surfaces. The chapters describe the sources of acidic and basic airborne substances, their interactions in the atmosphere and with rain droplets, and their reactions with other airborne constituents such as aluminum and other metals. Also discussed are the use of metals as tracers of sources of the precursors of acidic precipitation and as tracers of historical deposition rates, the processes controlling the removal of airborne material as dry deposition and deposition interactions with the forest canopy, and past and future trends in atmospheric emissions and options for their abatement.

  7. Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health and the Human Integration Design Handbook. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbec, Keith; Tillman, Barry; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    For decades, Space Life Sciences and NASA as an Agency have considered NASA-STD-3000, Man-Systems Integration Standards, a significant contribution to human spaceflight programs and to human-systems integration in general. The document has been referenced in numerous design standards both within NASA and by organizations throughout the world. With research program and project results being realized, advances in technology and new information in a variety of topic areas now available, the time arrived to update this extensive suite of requirements and design information. During the past several years, a multi-NASA center effort has been underway to write the update to NASA-STD-3000 with standards and design guidance that would be applicable to all future human spaceflight programs. NASA-STD-3001 - Volumes 1 and 2 - and the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH) were created. Volume 1, Crew Health, establishes NASA s spaceflight crew health standards for the pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight phases of human spaceflight. Volume 2, Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health, focuses on the requirements of human-system integration and how the human crew interacts with other systems, and how the human and the system function together to accomplish the tasks for mission success. The HIDH is a compendium of human spaceflight history and knowledge, and provides useful background information and research findings. And as the HIDH is a stand-alone companion to the Standards, the maintenance of the document has been streamlined. This unique and flexible approach ensures that the content is current and addresses the fundamental advances of human performance and human capabilities and constraints research. Current work focuses on the development of new sections of Volume 2 and collecting updates to the HIDH. The new sections in development expand the scope of the standard and address mission operations and support operations. This effort is again collaboration

  8. Trade-off analysis in the Northern Andes to study the dynamics in agricultural land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, J.J.; Antle, J.M.; Crissman, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we hypothesize that land use change can be induced by non-linearities and thresholds in production systems that impact farmers' decision making. Tradeoffs between environmental and economic indicators is a useful way to represent dynamic properties of agricultural systems. The Tradeoff

  9. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: East Florida, maps in portable document format, Volume 1, Volume 2 (NODC Accession 0004150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps in Portable Document Format (.PDF) for the shoreline of East Florida (to encompass the coastal...

  10. Environmental Toxicology: A Guide to Information Sources. Volume 7 in the "Man and the Environment Information Guide" Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Robert L.

    This annotated bibliography on environmental toxicology brings together a diverse set of information sources from the physical, social, and natural sciences. These sources include periodical literature, government documents, scientific journals, and teaching materials. The volume is divided into sixteen sections organized into four parts: (1)…

  11. Environmental assessment for the off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive waste from the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1061) for the proposed off-site volume reduction of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  12. Medical University of South Carolina Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Volume 6: Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994 deliverables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina`s vision is to become the premier national resource for medical information and for environmental/health risk assessment. A key component to the success of the many missions of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) is timely access to large volumes of data. This study documents the results of the needs assessment effort conducted to determine the information access and processing requirements of EHAP. This report addresses the Department of Environmental Health Science, education and training initiative.

  13. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1, Part A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel. This volume includes background information; purpose of and need for the proposed action; alternatives for disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium; and

  14. Automated high-volume aerosol sampling station for environmental radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T.; Ilander, T.; Leppaenen, A.; Nikkinen, M.; Poellaenen, R.; Ylaetalo, S.

    1998-07-01

    An automated high-volume aerosol sampling station, known as CINDERELLA.STUK, for environmental radiation monitoring has been developed by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Finland. The sample is collected on a glass fibre filter (attached into a cassette), the airflow through the filter is 800 m 3 /h at maximum. During the sampling, the filter is continuously monitored with Na(I) scintillation detectors. After the sampling, the large filter is automatically cut into 15 pieces that form a small sample and after ageing, the pile of filter pieces is moved onto an HPGe detector. These actions are performed automatically by a robot. The system is operated at a duty cycle of 1 d sampling, 1 d decay and 1 d counting. Minimum detectable concentrations of radionuclides in air are typically 1Ae10 x 10 -6 Bq/m 3 . The station is equipped with various sensors to reveal unauthorized admittance. These sensors can be monitored remotely in real time via Internet or telephone lines. The processes and operation of the station are monitored and partly controlled by computer. The present approach fulfils the requirements of CTBTO for aerosol monitoring. The concept suits well for nuclear material safeguards, too

  15. Sierra Pacific Power Company Alturas Transmission Line Project, Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Sierra Pacific Power Company has proposed the construction and operation of a 345,000 volt overhead electric power transmission line from Alturas, California to Reno, Nevada. This Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement will assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project and alternatives. This report contains Appendices A--I which contain the following: glossary/abbreviations; scoping report; structure coordinate summary; air quality; biological resources; geology; noise; visual contrast rating forms; and cultural resources

  16. CADDIS Volume 4. Data Analysis: Predicting Environmental Conditions from Biological Observations (PECBO Appendix)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of PECBO Module, using scripts to infer environmental conditions from biological observations, statistically estimating species-environment relationships, methods for inferring environmental conditions, statistical scripts in module.

  17. Risk tradeoffs and public health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnley, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: over the last 25 years, the traditional command-and-control, chemical-by-chemical environmental medium-by-environmental medium, risk-by-risk approach to protecting public health from environmental risks has worked well to greatly improve the quality of our food, air, water, and workplaces, but we are now left with the more complex problems, like urban air pollution or personal dietary behavior, that a chemical-by-chemical approach is not going to solve. Because current environmental regulatory programs have curbed the 'low-hanging fruit' and because of today's emphasis on achieving risk reductions cost-effectively, new and creative public health-based approaches to risk management are needed. Since public concern about pollution-related disease become serious in the 1960's and 1970's and regulatory agencies and laws began to proliferate, the public health goals of environmental protection have been obscured. As a society, we have made a tradeoff between environmental health and public health. The public health foundation of environmental health protection has been obscured by legalistic, technical, centralized decision-making processes that have often mistaken hazard for risk. A greater focus on public health would help us to assess aggregate risks and to target risk management resources by focusing on a problem and then identifying what is causing the problem as a guide to determining how best to solve it. Most of our current approaches start with a cause and then try to eliminate it without determining the extent to which it actually may contribute to a problem, making it difficult to set priorities among risks or to evaluate the impact of risk management actions on public health. (author)

  18. Global agriculture and carbon trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Justin Andrew; Runge, Carlisle Ford; Senauer, Benjamin; Foley, Jonathan; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-08-26

    Feeding a growing and increasingly affluent world will require expanded agricultural production, which may require converting grasslands and forests into cropland. Such conversions can reduce carbon storage, habitat provision, and other ecosystem services, presenting difficult societal trade-offs. In this paper, we use spatially explicit data on agricultural productivity and carbon storage in a global analysis to find where agricultural extensification should occur to meet growing demand while minimizing carbon emissions from land use change. Selective extensification saves ∼ 6 billion metric tons of carbon compared with a business-as-usual approach, with a value of approximately $1 trillion (2012 US dollars) using recent estimates of the social cost of carbon. This type of spatially explicit geospatial analysis can be expanded to include other ecosystem services and other industries to analyze how to minimize conflicts between economic development and environmental sustainability.

  19. Savannah River Plant environmental report: Volume 1, Text: Annual report for 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, C.C.; Heath, E.M.; Taus, L.B.; Todd, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities, summaries of environmental protection programs that are in progress, a summary of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities and a listing of environmental permits and their status issued by regulatory agencies

  20. Volume I. Environmental effects on contents of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in milk. Volume II. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Milk, animal fodders, soils, humans, livestock, and wildlife on or near 55 dairy farms in Utah were assayed for radionuclide content. Effects of soil chemistry, water supply, plant type, farming practices, geographic location, altitude, rainfall, and other ecological differences were sought by intensive analysis. Although many analyses have not been completed, several cause-effect relationships have been defined. Wet-lands yield more 137 Cs, 131 I, or 90 Sr to milk under like conditions of fallout intensity than dry-lands. In most cases, the station with the highest yield is also practicing wet grazing. 90 Sr and 137 Cs content of milk is enhanced by sandy soils. Increased altitude and higher rainfall lead to higher yields of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in milk. Levels of 137 Cs in milk increase from south to north, and Utah can be divided into several regions, each having a characteristic level of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in milk, meat, and fodders. Poor pastures (over-grazed to the extent that stem bases are eaten and much soil is exposed) yield more 137 Cs and 90 Sr than improved pastures. Feeding green chop alfalfa or putting the animals on the meadows causes marked but temporary increases in the 90 Sr and 137 Cs content of the milk. However, the annual yield for two stations of similar ecology in the same geographic area is essentially the same. Experimental details are presented in Volume I. The appendices in Volume II are made up primarily of the data compiled at the 78 stations

  1. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 2, Appendices A-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NW, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this EN there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constricting Section 8B with an interchange at SR 416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER, which consists of Appendices A, B, and C, assesses the potential geologic impacts of the proposed Section 8B construction, presents the results of the Section 8B soil survey, and describes the water quality studies and analyses performed for the ER. The following summary sections provide information for geology, soils, and water quality.

  2. Final waste management programmatic environmental impact statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposl of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Final Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS) examines the potential environmental and cost impacts of strategic management alternatives for managing five types of radioactive and hazardous wastes that have resulted and will continue to result from nuclear defense and research activities at a variety of sites around the United States. The five waste types are low-level mixed waste, low-level waste, transuranic waste, high-level waste, and hazardous waste. The WM PEIS provides information on the impacts of various siting alternatives which the Department of Energy (DOE) will use to decide at which sites to locate additional treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for each waste type.Volume II is an integral part of the Office of Environmental Management''s (EM''s) Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM PEIS), which portrays the impacts of EM''s waste management activities at each of the 17 major DOE sites evaluated in the WM PEIS

  3. Medical University of South Carolina Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Volume 5: Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994 deliverables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Medical University of South Carolina`s vision is to become the premier national resource for medical information and for environmental/health risk assessment. A key component to the success of the many missions of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP) is timely access to large volumes of data. This study documents the results of the needs assessment effort conducted to determine the information access and processing requirement of EHAP. The following topics are addressed in this report: environmental medicine and risk communication: curriculum and a professional support network-Department of Family Medicine; environmental hazards assessment and education program in pharmacy graduate education in risk assessment; and graduate education risk assessment.

  4. Indian Point Nuclear Generating Plant Unit No. 3 (Docket No. 50-286): Final environmental statement: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    This document contains nine appendices to Volume I, The Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Indian Point Nuclear Generating Plant Unit Number Three. Topics covered include thermal discharges to the Hudson River; supplemental information relating to biological models; radiation effects on aquatic biota; conditions, assumptions, and parameters used in calculating radioactive releases; meteorology for radiological dispersion calculations; life history information of important fish species in the Hudson River near Indian Point; additional information on cooling towers considered as alternatives; data and calculations for assessment of predicted electrical demand; and comments on draft environmental statement

  5. Proceedings of second geopressured geothermal energy conference, Austin, Texas, February 23--25, 1976. Volume V. Legal, institutional, and environmental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanston, J.H.; Elmer, D.B.; Gustavson, T.C.; Kreitler, C.W.; Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Rogers, K.E.; Williamson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    Three separate abstracts were prepared for Volume V of the Proceedings of the Conference. Sections are entitled: Legal Issues in the Development of Geopressured--Geothermal Resources of Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast; The Development of Geothermal Energy in the Gulf Coast; Socio-economic, Demographic, and Political Considerations; and Geothermal Resources of the Texas Gulf Coast--Environmental Concerns arising from the Production and Disposal of Geothermal waters. (MCW)

  6. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-02-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications.

  7. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Annual Environmental Monitoring Report calendar year 1992: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-12-31

    This report contains environmental monitoring information for the following UMTRA sites for the 1992 Calendar Year: Lakeview, OR; Lowman, ID; Mexican Hat, UT; Monument Valley, AZ; Rifle, CO; Riverton, WY; Shiprock, NM; Spook, WY; Tuba City, AZ. Each site report contains a site description, compliance summary, environmental program information, environmental radiological and non-radiological program information, water resources protection, and quality assurance information.

  8. The procedures manual of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Volume 2, 28. edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieco, N.A. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This report contains environmental sampling and analytical chemistry procedures that are performed by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. The purpose of environmental sampling and analysis is to obtain data that describe a particular site at a specific point in time from which an evaluation can be made as a basis for possible action.

  9. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Annual Environmental Monitoring Report calendar year 1992: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains environmental monitoring information for the following UMTRA sites for the 1992 Calendar Year: Lakeview, OR; Lowman, ID; Mexican Hat, UT; Monument Valley, AZ; Rifle, CO; Riverton, WY; Shiprock, NM; Spook, WY; Tuba City, AZ. Each site report contains a site description, compliance summary, environmental program information, environmental radiological and non-radiological program information, water resources protection, and quality assurance information

  10. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume II - Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume II of a two volume set of water pollution studies, contains seven appendices which support the studies. Appendix 1, Water Quality Parameters, consolidates the technical aspects of water quality including chemical, biological, computer program, and equipment information. Appendix 2, Implementation, outlines techniques…

  11. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy, Volume 2: Environmental Sustainability Effects of Select Scenarios from Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langholtz, Matthew H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-11

    With the goal of understanding environmental effects of a growing bioeconomy, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), national laboratories, and U.S. Forest Service research laboratories, together with academic and industry collaborators, undertook a study to estimate environmental effects of potential biomass production scenarios in the United States, with an emphasis on agricultural and forest biomass. Potential effects investigated include changes in soil organic carbon (SOC), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water quality and quantity, air emissions, and biodiversity. Effects of altered land-management regimes were analyzed based on select county-level biomass-production scenarios for 2017 and 2040 taken from the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy (BT16), volume 1, which assumes that the land bases for agricultural and forestry would not change over time. The scenarios reflect constraints on biomass supply (e.g., excluded areas; implementation of management practices; and consideration of food, feed, forage, and fiber demands and exports) that intend to address sustainability concerns. Nonetheless, both beneficial and adverse environmental effects might be expected. To characterize these potential effects, this research sought to estimate where and under what modeled scenarios or conditions positive and negative environmental effects could occur nationwide. The report also includes a discussion of land-use change (LUC) (i.e., land management change) assumptions associated with the scenario transitions (but not including analysis of indirect LUC [ILUC]), analyses of climate sensitivity of feedstock productivity under a set of potential scenarios, and a qualitative environmental effects analysis of algae production under carbon dioxide (CO2) co-location scenarios. Because BT16 biomass supplies are simulated independent of a defined end use, most analyses do not include benefits from displacing fossil fuels or other

  12. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 6, Appendix N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this ER, there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constructing Section 8B with an interchange at SR 416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER documents the results of the architectural, historical, and cultural resources assessment for the entire Section 8B ROW that was completed in May 1995 to document the architectural, historical, and cultural resources located within the project area. The assessment included evaluation of the potential for cultural (i.e., rural historic) landscapes in the area of the ROW. The assessment showed that one National Register-listed property is located 0.3 mile south of the ROW

  13. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 3, Appendix D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this ER, there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constructing Section 8B with an interchange at SR416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER inventories the fishes and benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting the aquatic ecosystems potentially affected by the proposed construction of Section 8B. Stream biological surveys were completed at 31 stream sites during the Fall of 1994. The sampling strategy for both invertebrates and fish was to survey the different taxa from all available habitats. For benthic invertebrates, a standardized qualitative manual collection technique was employed for all 31 stations. For fish

  14. Foothills Parkway Section 8B Final Environmental Report, Volume 4, Appendices E-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T.J.; Cada, G.F.; Carer, M.; Chin, S.M.; Dickerman, J.A.; Etnier, D.A.; Gibson, R.; Harvey, M.; Hatcher, B.; Lietzske, D.; Mann, L.K.; Mulholland, P.J.; Petrich, C.H.; Pounds, L.; Ranney, J.; Reed, R.M.; Ryan, P.F.; Schweitzer, M.; Smith, D.; Thomason, P.; Wade, M.C.

    1999-07-01

    In 1994, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the National Park Service (NPS) to prepare an Environmental Report (ER) for Section 8B of the Foothills Parkway in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). Section 8B represents 27.7 km (14.2 miles) of a total of 115 km (72 miles) of the planned Foothills Parkway and would connect the Cosby community on the east to the incorporated town of Pittman Center to the west. The major deliverables for the project are listed. From August 1995 through October 1996, NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff interacted with Federal Highway Administration staff to develop a conceptual design plan for Section 8B with the intent of protecting critical, resources identified during the ER process to the extent possible. In addition, ORNL arranged for bioengineering experts to discuss techniques that might be employed on Section 8B with NPS, GSMNP, and ORNL staff during September 1996. For the purposes of this ER, there are two basic alternatives under consideration: (1) a build alternative and (2) a no-build alternative. Within the build alternative are a number of options including constructing Section 8B with no interchanges, constructing Section 8B with an interchange at SR 416 or U.S. 321, constructing Section 8B with a spur road on Webb Mountain, and considering operation of Section 8B both before and after the operation of Section 8C. The no-build alternative is considered the no-action alternative and is not to construct Section 8B. This volume of the ER consists of Appendices E through I (all ecological survey reports), which are summarized individually in the sections that follow. The following conclusions result from the completion of these surveys and the ER impact analysis: (1) Forest clearing should be limited as much as possible; (2) Disturbed areas should be replanted with native trees; (3) Drainages should be bridged rather than leveled with cut and fill; (4) For areas of steep slopes and potential erosion

  15. Preliminary environmental assessment of selected geopressured - geothermal prospect areas: Louisiana Gulf Coast Region. Volume II. Environmental baseline data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bachman, A.L.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Newman, J.P. Jr.; Smith, C.G. Jr.; Bailey, J.I. Jr.; Kelly, G.G.; Reibert, K.C.

    1978-10-15

    A separate section is presented for each of the six prospect areas studied. Each section includes a compilation and discussion of environmental baseline data derived from existing sources. The data are arranged as follows: geology and geohydrology, air quality, water resources and flood hazards, ecological systems, and land use. When data specific to the prospect were not available, regional data are reported. (MHR)

  16. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 and Site Description (Volume 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills

    2007-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of nonradiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, a summary of compliance with environmental regulations, pollution prevention and waste minimization accomplishments, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2006 produced to be a more cost-effective means of distributing information contained in the NTSER to interested DOE stakeholders.

  17. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 and Site Description (Volume 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathy Wills

    2007-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of nonradiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, a summary of compliance with environmental regulations, pollution prevention and waste minimization accomplishments, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2006 produced to be a more cost-effective means of distributing information contained in the NTSER to interested DOE stakeholders

  18. Managing trade-offs in landscape restoration and revegetation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Martine; Cockfield, Geoff

    2008-12-01

    Landscape restoration projects often have multiple and disparate conservation, resource enhancement, and sometimes economic objectives, since projects that seek to meet more than one objective tend to be viewed more positively by funding agencies and the community. The degree to which there are trade-offs among desired objectives is an important variable for decision makers, yet this is rarely explicitly considered. In particular, the existence of ecological thresholds has important implications for decision-making at both the project level and the regional level. We develop a model of the possibilities and choices for an agency seeking to achieve two environmental objectives in a region through revegetation of a number of sites. A graphical model of the production possibilities sets for a single revegetation project is developed, and different trade-off relationships are discussed and illustrated. Then the model is used to demonstrate the possibilities for managing all such projects within a region. We show that, where there are thresholds in the trade-off relationship between two objectives, specialization (single- or dominant-objective projects) should be considered. This is illustrated using a case study in which revegetation is used to meet avian biodiversity and salinity mitigation objectives. We conclude that where there are sufficient scientific data, explicit consideration of different types of trade-offs can assist in making decisions about the most efficient mix and type of projects to better achieve a range of objectives within a region.

  19. Environmental projects. Volume 5, part 1: Study of subsurface contamination. Part 2: Guide to implement environmental compliance programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengelsdorf, I.

    1988-01-01

    In support of the national goal for the preservation of the environment and the protection of human health and safety, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex have adopted the position that their operating installations shall maintain a high level of compliance in regard to regulations concerning environmental hazards. An investigation carried out by Engineering Science, Inc. focused on possible underground contamination that may have resulted from leaks and/or spills from storage facilities at the Goldstone Communications Complex. It also involved the cleanup of a non-hazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base Site at the Goldstone complex. The report also includes details of the management duties and responsibilities needed to maintain compliance with environmental laws and regulations.

  20. Proposed Tenaska Washington II Generation Project : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1: Environmental Analysis and Technical Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    BPA is considering whether to purchase electrical power from a proposed privately-owned combustion-turbine electrical generation plant in Washington. The plant would be fired by natural gas and would use combined-cycle technology to generate 240 average megawatts (aMW) of energy. The plant would be developed, owned, and operated by Tenaska Washington Partners II, L.P. The project would be located about 19 kilometers (12 miles) southeast of downtown Tacoma in the Frederickson Industrial Area, Pierce County. The proposed plant would occupy about half of a 6.4-hectare (16-acre) parcel and would be consistent with the industrial character of its surroundings. The proposed site is currently undeveloped and zoned for industrial use by the county. Main environmental concerns identified in the scoping process and in comments on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) include: (1) potential air quality impacts, such as emissions and their contribution to the {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} effect; (2) potential health and safety impacts, such as nuisance odors, plant safety, visibility and heat-emission systems which may affect low-flying planes and potential health effects of electric and magnetic fields; and (3) potential water quality and quantity impacts, such as the amount of wastewater to be discharged, the source and amount of water required for plant operation. These and other issues are discussed in detail in the EIS. The proposed project already includes many features designed to reduce environmental impacts. Based on investigations performed for the EIS, no significant unavoidable adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed project were identified, and no evidence emerged to suggest that the proposed action is controversial. The EIS is being mailed to numerous agencies, groups, and individuals (see Section 8.0). There will be a 30-day no-action period before any decisions are made and the Record of Decision is signed.

  1. Environmental resource document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    This document contains information related to the environmental characterization of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL is a major US Department of Energy facility in southeastern Idaho dedicated to nuclear research, waste management, environmental restoration, and other activities related to the development of technology. Environmental information covered in this document includes land, air, water, and ecological resources; socioeconomic characteristics and land use; and cultural, aesthetic, and scenic resources.

  2. Environmental resource document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, J.S.

    1993-07-01

    This document contains information related to the environmental characterization of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The INEL is a major US Department of Energy facility in southeastern Idaho dedicated to nuclear research, waste management, environmental restoration, and other activities related to the development of technology. Environmental information covered in this document includes land, air, water, and ecological resources; socioeconomic characteristics and land use; and cultural, aesthetic, and scenic resources.

  3. Blood Volume: Importance and Adaptations to Exercise Training, Environmental Stresses and Trauma Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    because of limb atrophy, weight loss, and inactivity) because erythro- cyte levels of 2,3- diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) were in- creased. However...blood volume expansion during exercise training may partially be explained by factors such as initial fitness level , training intensity, exercise mode...335 and their hydration level when measurements are made (131). Plasma volume expansion seems to be greatest when performing upright exercise on about

  4. Savannah River Plant environmental report: Volume 2, Annual report for 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, C.C.; Heath, E.M.; Taus, L.B.; Todd, J.L.; Till, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Figures and tables contain graphic illustrations of sample locations and/or data plus summaries of the following types of data: federal and state standards and guides applicable to operations; concentrations of radioactivity in environmental media; the quantity of radioactivity released to the environment from operations; offsite radiation dose commitments from operations; measurements of physical properties, chemicals and nonradioactive metals concentrations in environmental media; and interlaboratory comparison of analytical results. No attempt has been made to include all data from environmental research programs. Variations in content from year to year reflect changes in the routine environmental monitoring program or the inability to obtain samples from a specific location

  5. Balancing ecosystem services with energy and food security - Assessing trade-offs from reservoir operation and irrigation investments in Kenya's Tana Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, A. P.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-08-01

    Competition for water between key economic sectors and the environment means agreeing allocations is challenging. Managing releases from the three major dams in Kenya's Tana River basin with its 4.4 million inhabitants, 567 MW of installed hydropower capacity, 33 000 ha of irrigation and ecologically important wetlands and forests is a pertinent example. This research seeks firstly to identify and help decision-makers visualise reservoir management strategies which result in the best possible (Pareto-optimal) allocation of benefits between sectors. Secondly, it seeks to show how trade-offs between achievable benefits shift with the implementation of proposed new rice, cotton and biofuel irrigation projects. To approximate the Pareto-optimal trade-offs we link a water resources management simulation model to a multi-criteria search algorithm. The decisions or "levers" of the management problem are volume-dependent release rules for the three major dams and extent of investment in new irrigation schemes. These decisions are optimised for eight objectives covering the provision of water supply and irrigation, energy generation and maintenance of ecosystem services. Trade-off plots allow decision-makers to assess multi-reservoir rule-sets and irrigation investment options by visualising their impacts on different beneficiaries. Results quantify how economic gains from proposed irrigation schemes trade-off against the disturbance of ecosystems and local livelihoods that depend on them. Full implementation of the proposed schemes is shown to come at a high environmental and social cost. The clarity and comprehensiveness of "best-case" trade-off analysis is a useful vantage point from which to tackle the interdependence and complexity of "water-energy-food nexus" resource security issues.

  6. Preoperational baseline and site characterization report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility: Volume 1. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Ford, B.H.; Jaeger, G.K.

    1996-09-01

    This site characterization report provides the results of the field data collection activities for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility site. Information gathered on the geology, hydrology, ecology, chemistry, and cultural resources of the area is presented. The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility is located at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington

  7. Final environmental statement, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-12-01

    Included are copies of thirty-four comment letters on the Proposed Final Environmental Statement together with the ERDA replies to these letters. The letters were received from Federal, State, and local agencies, environmental and public interest groups, members of the academic and industrial communities, and individual citizens

  8. Final environmental statement, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-12-01

    Information is presented under the following section headings: LMFBR program options and their compatibility with the major issues affecting commercial development, Proposed Final Environmental Statement for the LMFBR program, December 1974, WASH-1535, supplemental material, and material relating to Proposed Final Environmental Statement review

  9. Final environmental statement, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-12-01

    Included are copies of fifty-six comment letters on the Proposed Final Environmental Statement together with the ERDA replies to these letters. The letters were received from Federal, State, and local agencies, environmental and public interest groups, members of the academic and industrial communities, and individual citizens

  10. The environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Volume 1, Appendices A-F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This volume contains appendices to the named document. The Appendices are entitled (A) Description of Projects and Activities, (2) Federal Register Notice, (C) Relevant Regulatory Requirements, (D) Distribution Lists, (E) Impact Assessment Methods, and (F) Project-Specific Environmental Analysis

  11. Estimating the Cold War mortgage: The 1995 baseline environmental management report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This is the first annual report on the activities and potentials costs required to address the waste, contamination, and surplus nuclear facilities that are the responsibility of the Department of Energy's Environmental Management program. The Department's Office of Environmental Management, established in 1989, manages one of the largest environmental programs in the world--with more than 130 sites and facilities in over 30 States and territories. The primary focus of the program is to reduce health and safety risks from radioactive waste and contamination resulting from the production, development, and testing of nuclear weapons. The program also is responsible for the environmental legacy from, and ongoing waste management for, nuclear energy research and development, and basic science research. In an attempt to better oversee this effort, Congress required the Secretary of Energy to submit a Baseline Environmental Management Report with annual updates. The 1995 Baseline Environmental Management Report provides life-cycle cost estimates, tentative schedules, and projected activities necessary to complete the Environmental Management program

  12. Gulf of Mexico Sales 139 and 141: Central and western planning areas. Final environmental impact statement. Volume 1: Sections 1 through 4.C. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The report is Volume I of two volumes. The EIS is a description of the environmental aspects and impacts of oil and gas activities resulting from these lease sales or the States bordering the Gulf of Mexico. It provides a description of the areas, the affected environment, and the environmental consequences; it describes the proposed actions, issues and areas of concern, and the major differences of holding these lease sales

  13. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant expansion, Piketon, Ohio. Volume 1. Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    Subject to authorizing legislation and funding, ERDA will proceed with steps for additional uranium enrichment capacity at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant near Piketon, Ohio. This environmental statement was prepared by ERDA to cover this action. The statement was prepared in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, and ERDA's implementing regulations, 10 CFR Chapter III, Part 711. The statement describes the reasonably foreseeable environmental, social, economic and technological costs and benefits of the construction and operation of the expanded enrichment plant and its reasonably available alternatives and their anticipated effects

  14. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant expansion, Piketon, Ohio. Volume 1. Draft environmental statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    Subject to authorizing legislation and funding, ERDA will proceed with steps for additional uranium enrichment capacity at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant near Piketon, Ohio. This environmental statement was prepared by ERDA to cover this action. The statement was prepared in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, and ERDA's implementing regulations, 10 CFR Chapter III, Part 711. The statement describes the reasonably foreseeable environmental, social, economic and technological costs and benefits of the construction and operation of the expanded enrichment plant and its reasonably available alternatives and their anticipated effects.

  15. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the tank waste remediation system. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This appendix describes the current safety concerns associated with the tank waste and analyzes the potential accidents and associated potential health effects that could occur under the alternatives included in this Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

  16. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: West Peninsular Florida Volume 1 (NODC Accession 0006377)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps in Portable Document Format (.PDF) for the shoreline of West Peninsular Florida (to encompass...

  17. Beaver Valley Power Station and Shippingport Atomic Power Station. 1984 Annual environmental report, radiological. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted during 1984 in the vicinity of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Radiological Environmental Program consists of on-site sampling of water and gaseous effluents and off-site monitoring of water, air, river sediments, soils, food pathway samples, and radiation levels in the vicinity of the site. This report discusses the results of this monitoring during 1984. The environmental program outlined in the Beaver Valley Power Station Technical Specifications was followed throughout 1984. The results of this environmental monitoring program show that Shippingport Atomic Power Station and Beaver Valley Power Station operations have not adversely affected the surrounding environment. 23 figs., 18 tabs

  18. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Hawaii, December 2001, 2002, Volume 1 and 2 (NODC Accession 0002828)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently, the most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the United States is the NOAA Environmental Sensitivity Index or ESI. This approach...

  19. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 3: Environmental issues and evaluation criteria for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental issues and evaluation criteria relating to the suitability of sites proposed for photovoltaic (PV) system deployment are identified. The important issues are defined, briefly discussed and then developed into evaluation criteria. System designers are provided with information on the environmental sensitivity of PV systems in realistic applications, background material which indicates the applicability of the siting issues identified, and evaluation criteria are defined to facilitate the selection of sites that maximize PV system operation.

  20. Beaver Valley Power Station and Shippingport Atomic Power Station. 1977 annual environmental report: radiological. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The environmental monitoring conducted during 1977 in the vicinity of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station is described. The environmental monitoring program consists of onsite sampling of water, gaseous, and air effluents, as well as offsite monitoring of water, air, river sediments, and radiation levels in the vicinity of the site. The report discusses releases of small quantities of radioactivity to the Ohio River from the Beaver Valley Power Station and Shippingport Atomic Power Station during 1977

  1. Proceedings of the US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 1. Plenary session and fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    Volume one of the proceedings (Plenary Session and Fossil Fuels) contains papers on environmental pollution control which resulted mainly from US DOE's research programs in coal (preparation, desulfurization, gasification, liquefaction, combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, and pollution control methods with respect to SO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/, and CO/sub 2/ (global effects and feasibility studies); a few papers deal with oil shale operations and the enhanced recovery of petroleum. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA, with 3 also into EAPA; six papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  2. Tenth annual coal preparation, utilization, and environmental control contractors conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: high efficiency preparation; advanced physical coal cleaning; superclean emission systems; air toxics and mercury measurement and control workshop; and mercury measurement and control workshop. Selected papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant expansion: final environmental statement. Volume 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    Volume 2 is comprised of appendices: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Existing Facilities; Ecology; Civic Involvement; Social Analysis; Population Projections; Toxicity of Air Pollutants to Biota at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; and Assessment of Noise Effects of an Add-On to the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

  4. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant expansion: final environmental statement. Volume 2. Appendices. [Appendices only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liverman, James L.

    1977-09-01

    Volume 2 is comprised of appendices: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Existing Facilities; Ecology; Civic Involvement; Social Analysis; Population Projections; Toxicity of Air Pollutants to Biota at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant; and Assessment of Noise Effects of an Add-On to the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. (LK)

  5. Projections for the Production of Bulk Volume Bio-Based Polymers in Europe and Environmental Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, M.K.; Crank, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of the most important emerging groups of bio-based polymers for bulk volume applications and we discuss market projections for these types of bio-based polymers in the EU, thereby distinguishing between three scenarios. Bio-based polymers are projected to reach a

  6. Draft Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement and Comprehensive Land Use Plan. Volume 4 of 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) is preparing this ''Hanford Site Comprehensive Land Use Plan'' (Comprehensive Plan), Appendix M to address future land uses for the Hanford Site. The DOE has integrated this land-use planning initiative with the development of the HRA-EIS to facilitate and expedite land-use and remediation decision making, reduce time and cost of remediation, and optimize the usefulness of the planning process. The HRA-EIS is being developed to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with remediation, create a remedial baseline for the Environmental Restoration Program, and provide a framework for future uses at the Hanford Site. This Comprehensive Plan identifies current assets and resources related to land-use planning, and provides the analysis and recommendations for future land sues and accompanying restrictions at the Hanford Site over a 50-year period. This Comprehensive Plan relies on the analysis of environmental impacts in the HRA-EIS. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) Record of Decision (ROD) issued for the HRA-EIS will be the decision process for finalization and adoption of this Comprehensive Plan. The HRA-EIS and this Comprehensive Plan will provide a basis for remediation decisions to be identified and contained in site- and area-specific Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 ROD

  7. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor. Supplement to Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a replacement research reactor at Lucas Heights, was available for public examination and comment for some three months during 1998. A Supplement to the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (Draft EIS) has been completed and was lodged with Environment Australia on 18 January 1999. The Supplement is an important step in the overall environmental assessment process. It reviews submissions received and provides the proponent`s response to issues raised in the public review period. General issues extracted from submissions and addressed in the Supplement include concern over liability issues, Chernobyl type accidents, the ozone layer and health issues. Further studies, relating to issues raised in the public submission process, were undertaken for the Supplementary EIS. These studies confirm, in ANSTO`s view, the findings of the Draft EIS and hence the findings of the Final EIS are unchanged from the Draft EIS

  8. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Environmental Information Document - Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GUERRERO, JOSEPH V.; KUZIO, KENNETH A.; JOHNS, WILLIAM H.; BAYLISS, LINDA S.; BAILEY-WHITE, BRENDA E.

    1999-09-01

    This Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Environmental Information Document (EID) compiles information on the existing environment, or environmental baseline, for SNUNM. Much of the information is drawn from existing reports and databases supplemented by new research and data. The SNL/NM EID, together with the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Facilities and Safety Information Document, provide a basis for assessing the environment, safety, and health aspects of operating selected facilities at SNL/NM. The environmental baseline provides a record of the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic environment at SNL/NLM prior to being altered (beneficially or adversely) by proposed programs or projects. More specifically, the EID provides information on the following topics: Geology; Land Use; Hydrology and Water Resources; Air Quality and Meteorology; Ecology; Noise and Vibration; Cultural Resources; Visual Resources; Socioeconomic and Community Services; Transportation; Material Management; Waste Management; and Regulatory Requirements.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Environmental Information Document - Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAYLISS, LINDA S.; GUERRERO, JOSEPH V.; JOHNS, WILLIAM H.; KUZIO, KENNETH A.; BAILEY-WHITE, BRENDA E.

    1999-09-01

    This Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Environmental Information Document (EID) compiles information on the existing environment, or environmental baseline, for SNUNM. Much of the information is drawn from existing reports and databases supplemented by new research and data. The SNL/NM EID, together with the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Facilities and Safety Information Document, provide a basis for assessing the environment, safety, and health aspects of operating selected facilities at SNL/NM. The environmental baseline provides a record of the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic environment at SNL/NLM prior to being altered (beneficially or adversely) by proposed programs or projects. More specifically, the EID provides information on the following topics: Geology; Land Use; Hydrology and Water Resources; Air Quality and Meteorology; Ecology; Noise and Vibration; Cultural Resources; Visual Resources; Socioeconomic and Community Services; Transportation; Material Management; Waste Management; and Regulatory Requirements.

  10. Uranium milling: Volume 1, Summary and text: Generic environmental impact statement: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    This generic environmental impact statement on uranium milling has been prepared in accordance with a notice of intent published by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The purpose of the statement is to assess the potential environmental impacts of uranium milling operations, in a programmatic context, including the management of uranium mill tailings, and to provide an opportunity for public participation in decisions on any proposed changes in NRC regulations based on this assessment. The principal objectives of the statement are to assess the nature and extent of the environmental impacts of uranium milling in the United states from local, regional, and national perspectives on both short- and long-term bases, to determine what regulatory actions are needed; to provide information on which to determine what regulatory requirements for management and disposal of mill tailings and mill decommissioning should be; and to support any rule makings that may be determined to be necessary. 39 figs., 130 tabs

  11. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) Operator`s Manual. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, R.I.

    1991-10-01

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is a consolidated set of automated resources that effectively manage the data gathered during environmental monitoring and restoration of the Hanford Site. The HEIS includes an integrated database that provides consistent and current data to all users and promotes sharing of data by the entire user community. This manual describes the facilities available to the operational user who is responsible for data entry, processing, scheduling, reporting, and quality assurance. A companion manual, the HEIS User`s Manual, describes the facilities available-to the scientist, engineer, or manager who uses the system for environmental monitoring, assessment, and restoration planning; and to the regulator who is responsible for reviewing Hanford Site operations against regulatory requirements and guidelines.

  12. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor. Supplement to Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a replacement research reactor at Lucas Heights, was available for public examination and comment for some three months during 1998. A Supplement to the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (Draft EIS) has been completed and was lodged with Environment Australia on 18 January 1999. The Supplement is an important step in the overall environmental assessment process. It reviews submissions received and provides the proponent's response to issues raised in the public review period. General issues extracted from submissions and addressed in the Supplement include concern over liability issues, Chernobyl type accidents, the ozone layer and health issues. Further studies, relating to issues raised in the public submission process, were undertaken for the Supplementary EIS. These studies confirm, in ANSTO's view, the findings of the Draft EIS and hence the findings of the Final EIS are unchanged from the Draft EIS

  13. Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident of March 1979. Environmental radiation data: Volume III. A report to the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretthauer, E.W.; Grossman, R.F.; Thome, D.J.; Smith, A.E.

    1981-03-01

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corporation. This volume consists of Table 9 Computer printout of environmental data collected NRC

  14. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program. Final reports of principal investigators. Volume 74

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The volume contains: synthesis of seismicity studies for western Alaska; bottom and near-bottom sediment dynamics in Norton Sound; integration of circulation data in the Beaufort Sea; numerical modeling of storm surges in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas; numerical modeling of storm surges in Norton Sound; Yukon delta oceanography and meteorology; and superstructure icing and wave hindcast statistics in the Navarin and St. George Basin areas

  15. EU Energy Law. Volume 3. EU Environmental Law and Energy Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werring, L.; Bertoldi, P.; Bowie, R.; Hodson, P.; Lorentzen, J.; Vaggen Malvik, H.; Toth, A.; Yordi, B.; Hancher, L.

    2006-03-01

    In recent years an unprecedented range of legislation has been adopted by the Council and European Parliament giving effect to Euope's commitment to tackle climate change. This has resulted in important new obligations being placed on almost all levels of business as well as providing major new business opportunities and creating new markets. The volume is written for lawyers and specialist advisers as well as those involved in business responsible for implementing these new laws on a daily basis

  16. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant expansion, Piketon, Ohio. Volume 2. Draft environmental statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, W. H.

    1976-06-01

    The need for additional uranium enrichment facilities and the environmental impacts of the add-on gaseous diffusion plant proposed for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are discussed. A detailed description of the proposed facilities is included and unavoidable adverse environmental effects, possible alternatives, and anticipated benefits from the proposed facilities are considered. The flora and fauna of the area are tabulated and possible effects of air and water pollution on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are postulated. The extent of anticipated noise impact on the vicinity and the anticipated extent of civic envolvement are discussed. (CH)

  17. Cook Inlet Planning Area oil and gas lease sale 149: Final environmental impact statement. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This environmental impact statement discusses a proposed oil and gas lease sale in the Cook Inlet Planning Area, analyzes its potential effects on the environment, describes alternatives, presents major issues determined through the scoping process and staff analyses, and evaluates potential mitigating measures. During the Draft Environmental Impact Statement comment period, written statements and oral testimonies were provided by various governmental agencies, organizations, businesses, and individuals. This report contains a review and analysis of comments received on the above issues. Appendices are included which contain resource estimates and various issues relating to oil spills

  18. Measurement of environmental gamma radiation by means of a large volume ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, Daniel; Caput, Claude.

    1980-02-01

    A device for the measurement of the intensity of environmental gamma radiation has been realized and set up inside a vehicle especially fitted to that purpose. Because of its characteristics of sensitivity and time of response light and very local anomalies due for instance to foreign materials or punctual geological bassets can be detected and maps of dose rates at a regional scale can be drawn up. Such maps drawn before and after the operation of nuclear plants make it possible to assess their impact on environmental radiation levels [fr

  19. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant expansion, Piketon, Ohio. Volume 2. Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    The need for additional uranium enrichment facilities and the environmental impacts of the add-on gaseous diffusion plant proposed for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are discussed. A detailed description of the proposed facilities is included and unavoidable adverse environmental effects, possible alternatives, and anticipated benefits from the proposed facilities are considered. The flora and fauna of the area are tabulated and possible effects of air and water pollution on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are postulated. The extent of anticipated noise impact on the vicinity and the anticipated extent of civic envolvement are discussed

  20. Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement for the Environmental Restoration Program. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This quarterly progress report satisfies requirements for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program that are specified in the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) established between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The reporting period covered is July through September 1993 (fourth quarter of FY 1993). Sections 1.1 and 1.2 provide respectively the milestones scheduled for completion during the reporting period and a list of documents that have been proposed for transmittal during the following quarter but have not been approved as FY 1994 commitments

  1. Preoperational baseline and site characterization report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. Volume 1, Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Lindsey, K.A.; Ford, B.H.; Jaeger, G.K.

    1996-12-01

    This document is the first in a two-volume series that comprise the site characterization report. Volume 1 contains data interpretation and information supporting the conclusions in the text (Appendices A through G). Volume 2 provides raw data. A site located between 200 East and 200 West Areas, in the central portion of the Hanford Site, was selected as the prime location for the ERDF. Modifications to the facility design minimize the footprint and have resulted in a significant reduction in the areal size. This change was initiated in part as a response to recommendations of the Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group to limit waste management activities to an exclusive zone within the squared-off boundary of the 200 Areas. Additionally, the reduction in size of the footprint was initiated to minimize impacts to ecology. The ERDF is designed for disposal of remediation wastes generated during the cleanup of Hanford Site and could be expanded to hold as much as 28 million yd 3 (21.4 million m 3 ) of solid waste

  2. Blood Volume: Importance and Adaptations to Exercise Training, Environmental Stresses and Trauma/Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N.; Convertino, Victor A.; Eichner, E. Randy; Schnieder, Suzanne M.; Young, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the influence of several perturbations (physical exercise, heat stress, terrestrial altitude, microgravity, and trauma/sickness) on adaptations of blood volume (BV), erythrocyte volume (EV), and plasma volume (PV). Exercise training can induced BV expansion; PV expansion usually occurs immediately, but EV expansion takes weeks. EV and PV expansion contribute to aerobic power improvements associated with exercise training. Repeated heat exposure induces PV expansion but does not alter EV. PV expansion does not improve thermoregulation, but EV expansion improves thermoregulation during exercise in the heat. Dehydration decreases PV (and increases plasma tonicity) which elevates heat strain and reduces exercise performance. High altitude exposure causes rapid (hours) plasma loss. During initial weeks at altitude, EV is unaffected, but a gradual expansion occurs with extended acclimatization. BV adjustments contribute, but are not key, to altitude acclimatization. Microgravity decreases PV and EV which contribute to orthostatic intolerance and decreased exercise capacity in astronauts. PV decreases may result from lower set points for total body water and central venous pressure, which EV decrease bay result form increased erythrocyte destruction. Trauma, renal disease, and chronic diseases cause anemia from hemorrhage and immune activation, which suppressions erythropoiesis. The re-establishment of EV is associated with healing, improved life quality, and exercise capabilities for these injured/sick persons.

  3. Performance trade-offs and ageing in the 'world's greatest athletes'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careau, Vincent; Wilson, Robbie S

    2017-08-16

    The mechanistic foundations of performance trade-offs are clear: because body size and shape constrains movement, and muscles vary in strength and fibre type, certain physical traits should act in opposition with others (e.g. sprint versus endurance). Yet performance trade-offs are rarely detected, and traits are often positively correlated. A potential resolution to this conundrum is that within -individual performance trade-offs can be masked by among -individual variation in 'quality'. Although there is a current debate on how to unambiguously define and account for quality, no previous studies have partitioned trait correlations at the within- and among-individual levels. Here, we evaluate performance trade-offs among and within 1369 elite athletes that performed in a total of 6418 combined-events competitions (decathlon and heptathlon). Controlling for age, experience and wind conditions, we detected strong trade-offs between groups of functionally similar events (throwing versus jumping versus running) occurring at the among-individual level. We further modelled individual (co)variation in age-related plasticity of performance and found previously unseen trade-offs in throwing versus running performance that manifest through ageing. Our results verify that human performance is limited by fundamental genetic, environmental and ageing constraints that preclude the simultaneous improvement of performance in multiple dimensions. Identifying these constraints is fundamental to understanding performance trade-offs and predicting the ageing of motor function. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. JANNAF 28th Propellant Development and Characterization Subcommittee and 17th Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Joint Meeting. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Mulder, Edwin J. (Editor); Gomez-Knight, Sylvia J. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume contains 37 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers that were presented at the JANNAF 28th Propellant Development & Characterization Subcommittee (PDCS) and 17th Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee (S&EPS) Joint Meeting, held 26-30 April 1999 at the Town & Country Hotel and the Naval Submarine Base, San Diego, California. Volume II contains 29 unclassified/limited-distribution papers that were presented at the 28th PDCS and 17th S&EPS Joint Meeting. Volume III contains a classified paper that was presented at the 28th PDCS Meeting on 27 April 1999. Topics covered in PDCS sessions include: solid propellant rheology; solid propellant surveillance and aging; propellant process engineering; new solid propellant ingredients and formulation development; reduced toxicity liquid propellants; characterization of hypergolic propellants; and solid propellant chemical analysis methods. Topics covered in S&EPS sessions include: space launch range safety; liquid propellant hazards; vapor detection methods for toxic propellant vapors and other hazardous gases; toxicity of propellants, ingredients, and propellant combustion products; personal protective equipment for toxic liquid propellants; and demilitarization/treatment of energetic material wastes.

  5. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail

  6. The procedures manual of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Volume 1, 28. edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieco, N.A. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This manual covers procedures and technology currently in use at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. An attempt is made to be sure that all work carried out will be of the highest quality. Attention is focused on the following areas: quality assurance; sampling; radiation measurements; analytical chemistry; radionuclide data; special facilities; and specifications.

  7. International Performance Measurement & Verification Protocol: Concepts and Practices for Improved Indoor Environmental Quality, Volume II (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-03-01

    This protocol serves as a framework to determine energy and water savings resulting from the implementation of an energy efficiency program. It is also intended to help monitor the performance of renewable energy systems and to enhance indoor environmental quality in buildings.

  8. The procedures manual of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. Volume 1, 28. edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chieco, N.A.

    1997-02-01

    This manual covers procedures and technology currently in use at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory. An attempt is made to be sure that all work carried out will be of the highest quality. Attention is focused on the following areas: quality assurance; sampling; radiation measurements; analytical chemistry; radionuclide data; special facilities; and specifications

  9. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

  10. Draft Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement and Comprehensive Land Use Plan: Volume 2 of 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This appendix discusses the scope of actions addressed in the Draft Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement and Comprehensive Land Use Plan. To address the purpose and need for agency action identified in Chapter 2.0 of the HRA-EIS, the scope includes an evaluation of the potential environmental impacts associated with the remedial actions to be conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the provisions of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1989). These remedial actions would bring the Hanford Site into compliance with the applicable requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). The DOE program responsible for conducting remedial actions at the Hanford Site is referred to as the Richland Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. The Richland ER Project encompasses the following projects: radiation area remedial actions and underground storage tanks (UST); RCRA closures; single-shell tank (SST) closures; past-practice waste site operable unit (source and groundwater) remedial actions; surplus facility decommissioning; and waste storage and disposal facilities

  11. Probabilistic risk assessment course documentation. Volume 7. Environmental transport and consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, L.T.; Alpert, D.J.; Burke, R.P.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Kaiser, G.D.; Runkle, G.E.; Woodard, K.

    1985-08-01

    Consequence models have been designed to assess health and economic risks from potential accidents at nuclear power plants. These models have been applied to an ever increasing variety of problems with ever increasing demands to improve modeling capabilities and provide greater realism. This course discusses the environmental transport of postulated radiological releases and the elements and purpose of accident consequence evaluation

  12. Portsmouth Gasseous Diffusion Plant site, Piketon, Ohio. Final environmental impact statement. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    This environmental statement provides a detailed analysis of the environmental effects associated with continued operation of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, one of the three government-owned uranium enrichment plants operated by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The Portsmouth facility, which has been operating for over twenty years, is located in Pike County, Ohio, on a 4000-acre federally owned reservation. The uranium enrichment capacity of the plant is currently being increased through a cascade improvement program (CIP) and a cascade uprating program (CUP). This environmental statement evaluates the Portsmouth facility at the fully uprated CUP production level. Environmental impacts of the production of offsite electric power for the Portsmouth facility are also assessed. The bulk of this power is supplied by the Ohio Valley Electric Corporation (OVEC) from two coal-fired plants, the Clifty Creek Power Plant near Madison, Indiana, and the Kyger Creek Power Plant near Cheshire, Ohio. The remaining required power will be obtained on a system basis through OVEC from the 15 sponsoring utilities of OVEC. The draft statement was issued for public comment on February 15, 1977, and public hearing to afford the public further opportunity to comment was held in Cincinnati, Ohio, on April 5, 1977

  13. US Department of Energy, Savannah River Plant environmental report. Annual report, 1985. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, C.C.; Lawrimore, I.B.; Heath, E.M.; Till, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    In 1985, as in previous years, the radiological impact of SRP operations on public health was insignificant. The radiation dose commitment to a hypothetical individual on the SRP boundary from 1985 SRP atmospheric releases of radioactive materials was 0.9 millirem (mrem) (0.009 mSv) maximum and 0.35 mrem (0.0035 mSv) average. To obtain the maximum dose commitment, this individual would have had to reside on the SRP boundary at the location of highest dose commitment for 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. The average dose commitment from SRP atmospheric releases to persons living within 50 miles (80 km) of SRP was 0.08 mrem (0.0008 mSv) per year. The maximum radiation dose commitment to an individual downriver of SRP who consumed Savannah River water was 0.14 mrem (0.0014 mSv) at the Cherokee Hill water treatment plant at Port Wentworth, GA (near Savannah), and at the Beaufort-Jasper County water treatment plant near Beaufort, SC. These radiation dose commitments from SRP operations are small compared with the annual dose from natural radiation, which averages 93 mrem (0.93 mSv) per year near SRP. Additionally, dose commitments from SRP operations are small compared to the geographical differences in natural radiation. The annual natural radiation dose to Georgia and South Carolina residents within 100 miles of SRP varies from place to place by as much as 55 mrem (0.55 mSv). This expanded report provides a broader discussion of environmental protection programs at SRP and includes both onsite and offsite data. This 1985 report contians monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities, summaries of environmental research and management programs, a summary of national Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities, and a listing and status of environmental permits, orders, and notices issued by regulatory sgencies

  14. Environmental contaminants in food. Volume II-part a: working papers. I. Priority setting of toxic substances for guiding monitoring programs. II. Five case studies of environmental food contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume contains working papers written for Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to assist in preparation of the report Environmental Contaminants in Food. The contents include: (1) Priority setting of toxic substances for guiding monitoring programs; and (2) Five case studies of environmental food contamination

  15. Monterey Peninsula Water Supply Project. Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Report/Statement II. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Fueled 7,634,0(X) 51 Geothermal 1,302,M(K) 9 Nuclear 2,160,(MX) 14 Total Thermal 11,096,(kM) 74 Hydroelectric 3,877,M(X) 26 Solar 0 0t Total Company...Nuclear 16,273,963 17 "Total Thermal 48,094,316 50 Hydroelectric 8,007,631 8 Solar 35 0 Total Company Generation 56,101,982 58 Helms Pumpback Energy...returnable beverage containers, prohibition of disposable diapers , and other measures to reduce the volume of the urban solid waste streams. Appeaidix 19-B

  16. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U. S. Volume 2. Public health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, H.W. (comp.)

    1976-06-01

    While health hazards from air pollution are observed there is little documenting research for specific toxicity levels. This volume is an attempt to compile all relevant information in one place as a data bank of information that will aid in the required cost-benefit analysis for an energy production or utilization project. Sources include textbooks, journal articles, technical reports, memoranda, letters, and personal communications. The compilation is organized into air pollution, water pollution and land use considerations and cover both radioactive and chemical pollutants. (PCS)

  17. Acidic precipitation. Volume 4: Soils, aquatic processes, and lake acidification. Advances in environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, S.A.; Lindberg, S.E.; Page, A.L. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    Acidic precipitation and its effects have been the focus of intense research for over two decades. Recently, research has focused on a greater understanding of dose-response relationships between atmospheric loading of acidifying material and lake acidity. This volume of the subseries Acidic Precipitation emphasizes acid neutralizing processes and the capacity of terrestrial and aquatic systems to assimilate acidifying substances and, conversely, the ability of systems to recover after acid loading diminishes. Eight chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  18. Monitored retrievable storage submission to Congress: Volume 2, Environmental assessment for a monitored retrievable storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) supports the DOE proposal to Congress to construct and operate a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) of spent fuel at a site on the Clinch River in the Roane County portion of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first part of this document is an assessment of the value of, need for, and feasibility of an MRS facility as an integral component of the waste management system. The second part is an assessment and comparison of the potential environmental impacts projected for each of six site-design combinations. The MRS facility would be centrally located with respect to existing reactors, and would receive and canister spent fuel in preparation for shipment to and disposal in a geologic repository. 207 refs., 57 figs., 132 tabs

  19. Environmental aspects of the transuranics. A selected, annotated bibliography. Volume 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Fore, C.S.; Dailey, N.S.

    1978-09-01

    This ninth published bibliography of 589 references is compiled from the Nevada Applied Ecology Information Center's Data Base on the Environmental Aspects of the Transuranics. The data base was built to provide information support to the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) of DOE's Nevada Operations Office. The general scope covers environmental aspects of uranium and the transuranic elements, with emphasis on plutonium. This annotated bibliography highlights literature on plutonium 238 and 239 and americium 241 in the critical organs of man and animals. Studies on the migration of plutonium and the transplutonics through the environment are also emphasized. Supporting information on ecology of the Nevada Test Site and reviews and summarizing literature on other radionuclides have been included at the request of the NAEG. The references are arranged by subject category with leading authors appearing alphabetically within each category. Indexes are provided for author(s), geographic location, keywords, taxonomic name, title, and publication description

  20. Liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors: Preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Information is presented concerning LMFBR design characteristics; uranium-plutonium/uranium recycle homogeneous core; uranium-plutonium/uranium spiked recycle heterogeneous core; uranium-plutonium/uranium spiked recycle homogeneous core; uranium-plutonium/thorium spiked recycle heterogeneous core; uranium-plutonium/thorium spiked recycle homogeneous core; thorium-plutonium/thorium spiked recycle homogeneous core; denatured uranium-233/thorium cycle homogeneous core; safety consideration for the LMFBR; and environmental considerations

  1. Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident of March 1979. Environmental radiation data: Update 2, Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, B.A.; Grossman, R.F.

    1981-03-01

    The original report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The original report was printed in September 1979 and the update was released in December 1979. This final update consists of additional data for 1979 by the same participating organizations, which has not been previously reported

  2. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 1 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This EIS reflects the public review of and comments offered on the draft statement. Included are descriptions of the characteristics of nuclear waste, the alternative disposal methods under consideration, and potential environmental impacts and costs of implementing these methods. Because of the programmatic nature of this document and the preliminary nature of certain design elements assumed in assessing the environmental consequences of the various alternatives, this study has been based on generic, rather than specific, systems. At such time as specific facilities are identified for particular sites, statements addressing site-specific aspects will be prepared for public review and comment.

  3. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 1 of 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This EIS reflects the public review of and comments offered on the draft statement. Included are descriptions of the characteristics of nuclear waste, the alternative disposal methods under consideration, and potential environmental impacts and costs of implementing these methods. Because of the programmatic nature of this document and the preliminary nature of certain design elements assumed in assessing the environmental consequences of the various alternatives, this study has been based on generic, rather than specific, systems. At such time as specific facilities are identified for particular sites, statements addressing site-specific aspects will be prepared for public review and comment

  4. Medical Isotopes Production Project: Molybdenum-99 and related isotopes: Environmental Impact Statement, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides environmental and technical information concerning the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) proposal to establish a domestic source to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and related medical isotopes (iodine-131, xenon-133 and iodine-125). Mo-99, a radioactive isotope of the element molybdenum, decays to form metastable technetium-99 (Tc-99m), a radioactive isotope used thousands of times daily in medical diagnostic procedures in the U.S. Currently, all Mo-99 used in the U.S. is obtained from a single Canadian source. DOE is pursuing the Medical Isotopes Production Project in order to ensure that a reliable supply of Mo-99 is available to the U.S. medical community. Under DOE's preferred alternative, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Annular Core Research Reactor and Hot Cell Facility at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) would be used for production of the medical isotopes. In addition to the preferred alternative, three other reasonable alternatives and a no action alternative are analyzed in detail. The sites for the three reasonable alternatives are LANL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The analyses in this EIS indicate no significant difference in the potential environmental impacts among the alternatives. Each of the alternatives would use essentially the same technology for the production of the medical isotopes. Minor differences in environmental impacts among alternatives relate to the extent of activity necessary to modify and restart (as necessary) existing reactors and hot cell facilities at each of the sites, the quantities, of low-level radioactive waste generated, how such waste would be managed, and the length of time needed for initial and full production capacity

  5. Characterizing Coastal Ecosystem Service Trade-offs with Future Urban Development in a Tropical City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Daniel R; Friess, Daniel A

    2017-11-01

    With rapid urbanization in the coastal zone and increasing habitat losses, it is imperative to understand how urban development affects coastal biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Furthermore, it is important to understand how habitat fragments can best be incorporated into broader land use planning and coastal management, in order to maximize the environmental benefits they provide. In this study, we characterized the trade-offs between (a) urban development and individual mangrove environmental indicators (habitat quality and ecosystem services), and (b) between different environmental indicators in the tropical nation of Singapore. A range of biological, biophysical, and cultural indicators, including carbon, charcoal production, support for offshore fisheries, recreation, and habitat quality for a threatened species were quantified using field-based, remote sensing, and expert survey methods. The shape of the trade-off Pareto frontiers was analyzed to assess the sensitivity of environmental indicators for development. When traded off individually with urban development, four out of five environmental indicators were insensitive to development, meaning that relatively minor degradation of the indicator occurred while development was below a certain threshold, although indicator loss accelerated once this threshold was reached. Most of the pairwise relationships between the five environmental indicators were synergistic; only carbon storage and charcoal production, and charcoal production and recreational accessibility showed trade-offs. Trade-off analysis and land use optimization using Pareto frontiers could be a useful decision-support tool for understanding how changes in land use and coastal management will impact the ability of ecosystems to provide environmental benefits.

  6. Characterizing Coastal Ecosystem Service Trade-offs with Future Urban Development in a Tropical City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Daniel R.; Friess, Daniel A.

    2017-11-01

    With rapid urbanization in the coastal zone and increasing habitat losses, it is imperative to understand how urban development affects coastal biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Furthermore, it is important to understand how habitat fragments can best be incorporated into broader land use planning and coastal management, in order to maximize the environmental benefits they provide. In this study, we characterized the trade-offs between (a) urban development and individual mangrove environmental indicators (habitat quality and ecosystem services), and (b) between different environmental indicators in the tropical nation of Singapore. A range of biological, biophysical, and cultural indicators, including carbon, charcoal production, support for offshore fisheries, recreation, and habitat quality for a threatened species were quantified using field-based, remote sensing, and expert survey methods. The shape of the trade-off Pareto frontiers was analyzed to assess the sensitivity of environmental indicators for development. When traded off individually with urban development, four out of five environmental indicators were insensitive to development, meaning that relatively minor degradation of the indicator occurred while development was below a certain threshold, although indicator loss accelerated once this threshold was reached. Most of the pairwise relationships between the five environmental indicators were synergistic; only carbon storage and charcoal production, and charcoal production and recreational accessibility showed trade-offs. Trade-off analysis and land use optimization using Pareto frontiers could be a useful decision-support tool for understanding how changes in land use and coastal management will impact the ability of ecosystems to provide environmental benefits.

  7. Final environmental impact statement, construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    DOE issued the ''Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Construction and Operation of the Spallation Neutron Source'' in December 1998. This document was made available for review by federal agencies; tribal governments; the state of Tennessee, New Mexico, Illinois, and New York; local governments; and the general public. DOE invited comments on the accuracy and adequacy of the DEIS and any other matters pertaining to environmental review of the document. The formal review and comment period extended from December 24, 1998 until February 8, 1999. DOE considered all comments submitted after the review and comment period. This appendix to the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) contains the 206 comments received and the DOE responses to these comments. It consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the contents of this appendix and discusses the general methodology DOE used for documenting, considering, and responding to the review comments on the DEIS. Chapter 2 summarizes the principal issues of public concern collectively reflected by the comments and presents DOE's responses to these issues. The full texts of the comments on the DEIS are presented in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 contains DOE's written responses to these comments and the locations of textual changes in the FEIS that were made in response to the comments

  8. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 12. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The 664 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the twelfth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects, analyzes, and disseminates information on environmental restoration and remedial actions. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at FTS 624-7764 or (615) 574-7764.

  9. Predicted costs of environmental controls for a commercial oil shale industry. Volume 1. An engineering analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevens, T.D.; Culbertson, W.J. Jr.; Wallace, J.R.; Taylor, G.C.; Jovanovich, A.P.; Prien, C.H.; Hicks, R.E.; Probstein, R.F.; Domahidy, G.

    1979-07-01

    The pollution control costs for a commercial oil shale industry were determined in a joint effort by Denver Research Institute, Water Purification Associates of Cambridge, and Stone and Webster Engineering of Boston and Denver. Four commercial oil shale processes were considered. The results in terms of cost per barrel of syncrude oil are predicted to be as follows: Paraho Process, $0.67 to $1.01; TOSCO II Process, $1.43 to $1.91; MIS Process, $2.02 to $3.03; and MIS/Lurgi-Ruhrgas Process, $1.68 to $2.43. Alternative pollution control equipment and integrated pollution control strategies were considered and optimal systems selected for each full-scale plant. A detailed inventory of equipment (along with the rationale for selection), a detailed description of control strategies, itemized costs and predicted emission levels are presented for each process. Capital and operating cost data are converted to a cost per barrel basis using detailed economic evaluation procedures. Ranges of cost are determined using a subjective self-assessment of uncertainty approach. An accepted methodology for probability encoding was used, and cost ranges are presented as subjective probability distributions. Volume I presents the detailed engineering results. Volume II presents the detailed analysis of uncertainty in the predicted costs.

  10. Evolutionary trade-offs in kidney injury and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yutian; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2017-11-01

    Evolutionary medicine has proven helpful to understand the origin of human disease, e.g. in identifying causal roles of recent environmental changes impacting on human physiology (environment-phenotype mismatch). In contrast, diseases affecting only a limited number of members of a species often originate from evolutionary trade-offs for usually physiologic adaptations assuring reproductive success in the context of extrinsic threats. For example, the G1 and G2 variants of the APOL1 gene supporting control of Trypanosoma infection come with the trade-off that they promote the progression of kidney disease. In this review we extend the concept of evolutionary nephrology by discussing how the physiologic adaptations (danger responses) to tissue injury create evolutionary trade-offs that drive histopathological changes underlying acute and chronic kidney diseases. The evolution of multicellular organisms positively selected a number of danger response programs for their overwhelming benefits in assuring survival such as clotting, inflammation, epithelial healing and mesenchymal healing, i.e. fibrosis and sclerosis. Upon kidney injury these danger programs often present as pathomechanisms driving persistent nephron loss and renal failure. We explore how classic kidney disease entities involve insufficient or overshooting activation of these danger response programs for which the underlying genetic basis remains largely to be defined. Dissecting the causative and hierarchical relationships between danger programs should help to identify molecular targets to control kidney injury and to improve disease outcomes.

  11. Coding-Spreading Tradeoff in CDMA Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolas, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    .... Comparing different combinations of coding and spreading with a traditional DS-CDMA, as defined in the IS-95 standard, allows the criteria to be defined for the best coding-spreading tradeoff in CDMA systems...

  12. Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff in Olfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rinberg, Dmitry; Koulakov, ALexel; Gelperin, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The basic psychophysical principle of speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) has been used to understand key aspects of neuronal information processing in vision and audition, but the principle of SAT is still debated in olfaction...

  13. Information-disturbance tradeoff in quantum measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccone, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    We present a simple information-disturbance tradeoff relation valid for any general measurement apparatus: The disturbance between input and output states is lower bounded by the information the apparatus provides in distinguishing these two states

  14. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723). DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations: Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  15. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723).DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations:Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho;Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  16. Balanced biomedical program plan. Volume X. Fusion analysis for and environmental research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    In this draft planning document for health and environmental research needs relevant to the development of fusion technology, an attempt is made to integrate input from the participating laboratories on the basis of the King-Muir study categories. The general description covers only those concepts and features that are considered important to an understanding of possible and probable effects of thermonuclear reactors on health and the environment. Appendixes are included which reflect an understanding of three areas of special interest: materials requirements, effects from magnetic fields, and tritium effects.

  17. Information Management Architecture for an Integrated Computing Environment for the Environmental Restoration Program. Volume 1, Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    As part of the Environmental Restoration Program at Martin Marietta, IEM (Information Engineering Methodology) was developed as part of a complete and integrated approach to the progressive development and subsequent maintenance of automated data sharing systems. This approach is centered around the organization's objectives, inherent data relationships and business practices. IEM provides the Information Systems community with a tool kit of disciplined techniques supported by automated tools. It includes seven stages: Information Strategy Planning; Business Area Analysis; Business System Design; Technical Design; Construction; Transition; Production

  18. Balanced biomedical program plan. Volume X. Fusion analysis for and environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    In this draft planning document for health and environmental research needs relevant to the development of fusion technology, an attempt is made to integrate input from the participating laboratories on the basis of the King-Muir study categories. The general description covers only those concepts and features that are considered important to an understanding of possible and probable effects of thermonuclear reactors on health and the environment. Appendixes are included which reflect an understanding of three areas of special interest: materials requirements, effects from magnetic fields, and tritium effects

  19. Near field and altered zone environmental report Volume I: technical bases for EBS design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, D. G., LLNL

    1997-08-01

    This report presents an updated summary of results for the waste package (WP) and engineered barrier system (EBS) evaluations, including materials testing, waste-form characterization, EBS performance assessments, and near-field environment (NFE) characterization. Materials testing, design criteria and concept development, and waste-form characterization all require an understanding of the environmental conditions that will interact with the WP and EBS. The Near-Field Environment Report (NFER) was identified in the Waste Package Plan (WPP) (Harrison- Giesler, 1991) as the formal means for transmitting and documenting this information.

  20. Balanced program plan. Volume XI. Fission analysis for biomedical and environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, R.F.

    1976-06-01

    Factors involved in the formulation of an ERDA-sponsored program for health and environmental research in connection with the fission fuel cycle are discussed under the following section headings: major issues associated with the use of nuclear power; fission fuel cycle technology: milling, UF 6 production, uranium enrichment, plutonium fuel fabrication, power production (reactors), fuel reprocessing, waste management, fuel and waste transportation; problem definition: characterization, measurement and monitoring, transport processes, health effects, ecological processes and effects, and integrated assessment; budget; characterization, measuring and monitoring program units; transport processes program units; health effects program units; ecological processes and effects program units; and integrated assessment program units

  1. Draft Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement and Comprehensive Land Use Plan: Volume 1 of 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts associated with establishing future land-use objectives for the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Impact analysis is performed by examining the consequences (primarily from remediation activities) of the actions determined necessary to achieve a desired future land-use objective. It should be noted that site-specific decisions regarding remediation technologies and remediation activities would not be made by this document, but rather by processes specified in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976. To facilitate the establishment of future land-use objectives, the Hanford Site was divided into four geographic areas: (1) Columbia River; (2) reactors on the river; (3) central plateau; (4) all other areas. The future land-use alternatives considered in detail for each of the geographic areas are as follows: Columbia River--unrestricted and restricted; reactors on the river--unrestricted and restricted; central plateau--exclusive; all other areas--restricted. A No-Action Alternative also is included to provide a baseline against which the potential impacts of the proposed action can be assessed

  2. Large-volume and room-temperature gamma spectrometer for environmental radiation monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Coulon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of a room-temperature gamma spectrometer is an issue in environmental radiation monitoring. To monitor radionuclides released around a nuclear power plant, suitable instruments giving fast and reliable information are required. High-pressure xenon (HPXe chambers have range of resolution and efficiency equivalent to those of other medium resolution detectors such as those using NaI(Tl, CdZnTe, and LaBr3:Ce. An HPXe chamber could be a cost-effective alternative, assuming temperature stability and reliability. The CEA LIST actively studied and developed HPXe-based technology applied for environmental monitoring. Xenon purification and conditioning was performed. The design of a 4-L HPXe detector was performed to minimize the detector capacitance and the required power supply. Simulations were done with the MCNPX2.7 particle transport code to estimate the intrinsic efficiency of the HPXe detector. A behavioral study dealing with ballistic deficits and electronic noise will be utilized to provide perspective for further analysis.

  3. Low-rank coal study. Volume 4. Regulatory, environmental, and market analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The regulatory, environmental, and market constraints to development of US low-rank coal resources are analyzed. Government-imposed environmental and regulatory requirements are among the most important factors that determine the markets for low-rank coal and the technology used in the extraction, delivery, and utilization systems. Both state and federal controls are examined, in light of available data on impacts and effluents associated with major low-rank coal development efforts. The market analysis examines both the penetration of existing markets by low-rank coal and the evolution of potential markets in the future. The electric utility industry consumes about 99 percent of the total low-rank coal production. This use in utility boilers rose dramatically in the 1970's and is expected to continue to grow rapidly. In the late 1980's and 1990's, industrial direct use of low-rank coal and the production of synthetic fuels are expected to start growing as major new markets.

  4. Draft site-wide environmental impact statement for Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. Volume 2: Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    The DOE proposes to continue operating the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) located in central New Mexico. The DOE has identified and assessed three alternatives for the operation of SNL/NM: (1) No Action, (2) Expanded Operations, and (3) Reduced Operations. In the No Action Alternative, the DOE would continue the historical mission support activities SNL/NM has conducted at planned operational levels. In the Expanded Operations Alternative, the DOE would operate SNL/NM at the highest reasonable levels of activity currently foreseeable. Under the Reduced Operations Alternative, the DOE would operate SNL/NM at the minimum levels of activity necessary to maintain the capabilities to support the DOE mission in the near term. Under all of the alternatives, the affected environment is primarily within 50 miles (80 kilometers) of SNL/NM. Analyses indicate little difference in the environmental impacts among alternatives. This volume contains Appendices A--H

  5. Assessment of the health and environmental effects of power generation in the Midwest. Volume II. Ecological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, A J; Pentecost, E D

    1977-04-01

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the major health and environmental issues associated with increased coal use in the six Midwestern states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. Using an integrated assessment approach, the evaluation proceeds from a base-line scenario of energy demand and facility siting for the period 1975 to 2020. Emphasis is placed on impacts from coal extraction, land reclamation, coal combustion for electrical generation, and coal gasification. The range of potential impacts and constraints is illustrated by a second scenario that represents an expected upper limit for coal utilization in Illinois. Volume I of the report includes a characterization of the energy demand and siting scenarios, coal related technologies, and coal resources, and the related impacts on air quality, water quality, and human health. Volume II includes background information on the native ecosystems, climate, soils, and agricultural land use and a description of the ecological impacts expected from coal utilization in southern Illinois, which as ecosystems representative of a large segment of the six-state area.

  6. Literature review of environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables: Literature analysis and appendices. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofaro, R.; Bowerman, B.; Carbonaro, J.

    1996-04-01

    In support of the US NRC Environmental Qualification (EQ) Research Program, a literature review was performed to identify past relevant work that could be used to help fully or partially resolve issues of interest related to the qualification of low-voltage electric cable. A summary of the literature reviewed is documented in Volume 1 of this report. In this, Volume 2 of the report, dossiers are presented which document the issues selected for investigation in this program, along with recommendations for future work to resolve the issues, when necessary. The dossiers are based on an analysis of the literature reviewed, as well as expert opinions. This analysis includes a critical review of the information available from past and ongoing work in thirteen specific areas related to EQ. The analysis for each area focuses on one or more questions which must be answered to consider a particular issue resolved. Results of the analysis are presented, along with recommendations for future work. The analysis is documented in the form of a dossier for each of the areas analyzed

  7. Disposition and transportation of surplus radioactive low specific activity nitric acid. Volume 1, Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    DOE is deactivating the PUREX plant at Hanford; this will involve the disposition of about 692,000 liters (183,000 gallons) of surplus nitric acid contaminated with low levels of U and other radionuclides. The nitric acid, designated as low specific activity, is stored in 4 storage tanks at PUREX. Five principal alternatives were evaluated: transfer for reuse (sale to BNF plc), no action, continued storage in Hanford upgraded or new facility, consolidation of DOE surplus acid, and processing the LSA nitric acid as waste. The transfer to BNF plc is the preferred alternative. From the analysis, it is concluded that the proposed disposition and transportation of the acid does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required

  8. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 6. Zoobenthos of Lake Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozley, S.C.; Howmiller, R.P.

    1977-09-01

    This report summarizes Lake Michigan zoobenthic studies up to 1974, including reports of power-plant surveys. It describes ecologies of macroinvertebrate species and some microfauna, partly through use of data from other Great Lakes. The following are discussed: methodology of field surveys; zoobenthic indicators of pollution; zoobenthic effects on sediment-water exchanges; and numbers, biomass, and production of total macroinvertebrates. Prominent features of Lake Michigan zoobenthos include predominance of the amphipod Pontoporeia affinis, usefulness of tubificid oligochaetes in mapping environmental quality, and pronounced qualitative gradients in zoobenthos in relation to depth. Further research is needed on sampling methods, energy flow rates and pathways through benthic communities, factors limiting distribution of species near shore, and effects of macroinvertebrates on sediment chemistry and structure.

  9. Balanced program plan: analysis for biomedical and environmental research. Volume 7. Conservation and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    Energy conservation technologies encompass the entire spectrum of human activities: electrical supply, industry, commercial and residential buildings, transportation and various overlapping combinations of these. This report is concerned with those conservation technologies that appear to be most important in the near and intermediate terms. Many of the specific R and D programs are contained in the preliminary ''Conservation Program Plan'' of the ERDA Assistant Administrator for Conservation. However, some projects are included that are supported by other Federal agencies and private industry. Section 1 contains a brief description of each conservation technology and an enumeration of health/safety/environmental impacts, both beneficial and adverse, that are expected to accrue from the new technology. Section 2 contains a brief discussion of problems, priorities and programs. Section 3 contains ''Problem Definitions'' and ''Program Units'' that are recommended to become a part of the ''BER Balanced Program Plan.''

  10. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). Volume 7: Sample and Data Tracking subject area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) Sample and Data Tracking subject area allows insertion of tracking information into a central repository where the data is immediately available for viewing. For example, a technical coordinator is able to view the current status of a particular sampling effort, from sample collection to data package validation dates. Four major types of data comprise the Sample and Data Tracking subject area: data about the mechanisms that groups a set of samples for a particular sampling effort; data about how constituents are grouped and assigned to a sample; data about when, where, and how samples are sent to a laboratory for analysis; and data bout the status of a sample's constituent analysis requirements, i.e., whether the analysis results have been returned from the laboratory

  11. US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office annual site environmental report, 1992. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S.C.; Latham, A.R.; Townsend, Y.E. [eds.

    1993-09-01

    This report contains the environmental monitoring and assessment results for the Nevada Test Site for 1992. Monitoring and surveillance on and around the NTS by DOE contractors and Site user organizations during 1992 indicated that underground nuclear testing operations were conducted in compliance with regulations, i.e., the dose the maximally exposed offsite individual could have received was less than 0.15 percent of the guideline for air exposure. All 1992 nuclear events took place during the first three quarters of the calendar year prior to the Congressional testing moratorium. All discharges of radioactive liquids remained onsite in containment ponds, and there was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater. Surveillance around the NTS indicated that airborne radioactivity from test operations was not detectable offsite, and no measurable net exposure to members of the offsite population was detected through the offsite dosimetry program. Using the CAP88-PC model and NTS radionuclide emissions data, the calculated maximum effective dose equivalent offsite would have been 0.012 mrem. Any person receiving this dose was also exposed to 78 mrem from natural background radiation. There were no nonradiological releases to the offsite area. Hazardous wastes were shipped to EPA-approved disposal facilities. Compliance with the various regulations stemming from the National Environmental Policy Act is being achieved and, where mandated, permits for air and water discharges and waste management have been obtained from the appropriate agencies. Non-NTS support facilities complied with the requirements of air quality permits and state or local wastewater discharge and hazardous waste permits.

  12. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors. Semiannual report, October 1993--March 1994. Volume 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.; Chopra, O.K.; Erck, R.A.; Kassner, T.F.; Michaud, W.F.; Ruther, W.E.; Sanecki, J.E.; Shack, W.J.; Soppet, W.K.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRs) during the six months from October 1993 to March 1994. EAC and fatigue of piping, pressure vessels, and core components in LWRs are important concerns in operating plants and as extended reactor lifetimes are envisaged. Topics that have been investigated include (a) fatigue of low-alloy steel used in piping, steam generators, and reactor pressure vessels, (b) EAC of wrought and cast austenitic stainless steels (SSs), and (c) radiation-induced segregation and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of Type 304 SS after accumulation of relatively high fluence. Fatigue tests have been conducted on A302-Gr B low-alloy steel to verify whether the current predictions of modest decreases of fatigue life in simulated pressurized water reactor water are valid for high-sulfur heats that show environmentally enhanced fatigue crack growth rates. Additional crack growth data were obtained on fracture-mechanics specimens of austenitic SSs to investigate threshold stress intensity factors for EAC in high-purity oxygenated water at 289 degrees C. The data were compared with predictions based on crack growth correlations for wrought austenitic SS in oxygenated water developed at ANL and rates in air from Section XI of the ASME Code. Microchemical and microstructural changes in high- and commercial-purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-blade absorber tubes and a control-blade sheath from operating boiling water reactors were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine whether trace impurity elements, which are not specified in the ASTM specifications, may contribute to IASCC of solution-annealed materials

  13. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing -- Final environmental impact statement. Volume 1: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Colorado River Storage Project Customer Service Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Colorado, Green, Gunnison, and Rio Grande rivers and on Plateau Creek in Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The environmental impact statement (EIS) alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Western's firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this EIS include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources. Western has identified commitment-level alternative 1, the Post-1989 commitment level, as its preferred alternative. The impact evaluations indicate that this commitment level is also the environmentally preferred alternative

  14. Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident of March 1979. Environmental radiation data: Volume V. A report to the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretthauer, E.W.; Grossman, R.F.; Thome, D.J.; Smith, A.E.

    1981-03-01

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corporation. This volume consists of the following 2 volumes: Table 16 Summary of Metropolitan Edison Company (Met-Ed) sampling and analytical procedures; and Table 17 Computer printout of data collected by Met-Ed

  15. Balancing ecosystem services with energy and food security - assessing trade-offs for reservoir operation and irrigation investment in Kenya's Tana basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, A. P.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Competition for water between key economic sectors and the environment means agreeing on allocation is challenging. Managing releases from the three major dams in Kenya's Tana River basin with its 4.4 million inhabitants, 567 MW of installed hydropower capacity, 33 000 ha of irrigation and ecologically important wetlands and forests is a pertinent example. This research seeks to identify and help decision-makers visualise reservoir management strategies which result in the best possible (Pareto-optimal) allocation of benefits between sectors. Secondly we seek to show how trade-offs between achievable benefits shift with the implementation of new proposed rice, cotton and biofuel irrigation projects. To identify the Pareto-optimal trade-offs we link a water resources management model to a multi-criteria search algorithm. The decisions or "levers" of the management problem are volume dependent release rules for the three major dams and extent of investment in new irrigation schemes. These decisions are optimised for objectives covering provision of water supply and irrigation, energy generation and maintenance of ecosystem services which underpin tourism and local livelihoods. Visual analytic plots allow decision makers to assess multi-reservoir rule-sets by understanding their impacts on different beneficiaries. Results quantify how economic gains from proposed irrigation schemes trade-off against disturbance of the flow regime which supports ecosystem services. Full implementation of the proposed schemes is shown to be Pareto-optimal, but at high environmental and social cost. The clarity and comprehensiveness of "best-case" trade-off analysis is a useful vantage point from which to tackle the interdependence and complexity of water-energy-food "nexus" challenges.

  16. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Appendix C, Savannah River Site Spent Nuclear Fuel Mangement Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is engaged in two related decision making processes concerning: (1) the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which will focus on the next 10 years; and (2) programmatic decisions on future spent nuclear fuel management which will emphasize the next 40 years. DOE is analyzing the environmental consequences of these spent nuclear fuel management actions in this two-volume Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Volume 1 supports broad programmatic decisions that will have applicability across the DOE complex and describes in detail the purpose and need for this DOE action. Volume 2 is specific to actions at the INEL. This document, which limits its discussion to the Savannah River Site (SRS) spent nuclear fuel management program, supports Volume 1 of the EIS. Following the introduction, Chapter 2 contains background information related to the SRS and the framework of environmental regulations pertinent to spent nuclear fuel management. Chapter 3 identifies spent nuclear fuel management alternatives that DOE could implement at the SRS, and summarizes their potential environmental consequences. Chapter 4 describes the existing environmental resources of the SRS that spent nuclear fuel activities could affect. Chapter 5 analyzes in detail the environmental consequences of each spent nuclear fuel management alternative and describes cumulative impacts. The chapter also contains information on unavoidable adverse impacts, commitment of resources, short-term use of the environment and mitigation measures.

  17. Give 'til it hurts: trade-offs between immunity and male reproductive effort in the decorated cricket, Gryllodes sigillatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, S N; Barnett, C A; Pettinger, A M; Weddle, C B; Hunt, J; Sakaluk, S K

    2010-04-01

    Trade-offs between life-history variables can be manifested at either the phenotypic or genetic level, with vastly different evolutionary consequences. Here, we examined whether male decorated crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) from eight inbred lines and the outbred founder population from which they were derived, trade-off immune effort [lytic activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity or encapsulation] to produce spermatophylaxes: costly nuptial food gifts essential for successful sperm transfer. Canonical correlation analysis of the outbred population revealed a trade-off between spermatophylax mass and lytic activity. Analysis of our inbred lines, however, revealed that although PO activity, encapsulation, body mass, spermatophylax mass and ampulla (sperm capsule) mass were all highly heritable, lytic activity was not, and there was, therefore, no negative genetic correlation between lytic activity and spermatophylax mass. Thus, males showed a phenotypic but not a genetic trade-off between spermatophylax mass and lytic activity, suggesting that this trade-off is mediated largely by environmental factors.

  18. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 3. Public comments hearing board report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This volume contains written public comments and hearing board responses and reports offered on the draft statement

  19. Final environmental impact statement. Management of commercially generated radioactive waste. Volume 3. Public comments hearing board report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This EIS analyzes the significant environmental impacts that could occur if various technologies for management and disposal of high-level and transuranic wastes from commercial nuclear power reactors were to be developed and implemented. This EIS will serve as the environmental input for the decision on which technology, or technologies, will be emphasized in further research and development activities in the commercial waste management program. The action proposed in this EIS is to (1) adopt a national strategy to develop mined geologic repositories for disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste (while continuing to examine subseabed and very deep hole disposal as potential backup technologies) and (2) conduct a R and D program to develop such facilities and the necessary technology to ensure the safe long-term containment and isolation of these wastes. The Department has considered in this statement: development of conventionally mined deep geologic repositories for disposal of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors and/or radioactive fuel reprocessing wastes; balanced development of several alternative disposal methods; and no waste disposal action. This volume contains written public comments and hearing board responses and reports offered on the draft statement.

  20. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VI. Safety and environmental considerations for licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program report addresses safety and environmental considerations in licensing the principal alternative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles in the United States for large-scale commercial nuclear power plants. In addition, this volume examines the safety and environmental considerations for licensing fuel service centers. These centers, which have been proposed for controlling sensitive fuel-cycle facilities and special nuclear materials, would contain a combination of such facilities as reprocessing plants, fabrication plants, and reactors. For this analysis, two fuel service center concepts were selected - one with power - generating capability and one without

  1. Analysis of the Perfect Table Fuzzy Rainbow Tradeoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Il Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptanalytic time memory tradeoff algorithms are tools for inverting one-way functions, and they are used in practice to recover passwords that restrict access to digital documents. This work provides an accurate complexity analysis of the perfect table fuzzy rainbow tradeoff algorithm. Based on the analysis results, we show that the lesser known fuzzy rainbow tradeoff performs better than the original rainbow tradeoff, which is widely believed to be the best tradeoff algorithm. The fuzzy rainbow tradeoff can attain higher online efficiency than the rainbow tradeoff and do so at a lower precomputation cost.

  2. Environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors. Semiannual report, April 1994--September 1994, Volume 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Gavenda, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors from April to September 1994. Topics that have been investigated include (a) fatigue of carbon and low-alloy steel used in piping and reactor pressure vessels, (b) EAC of austenitic stainless steels (SSs) and Alloy 600, and (c) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of Type 304 SS. Fatigue tests have been conducted on A106-Gr B and A533-Gr B steels in oxygenated water to determine whether a slow strain rate applied during different portions of a tensile-loading cycle are equally effective in decreasing fatigue life. Crack growth data were obtained on fracture-mechanics specimens of SSs and Alloy 600 to investigate EAC in simulated boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor environments at 289 degrees C. The data were compared with predictions from crack growth correlations developed at ANL for SSs in water and from rates in air from Section XI of the ASME Code. Microchemical changes in high- and commercial-purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-blade absorber tubes and a control-blade sheath from operating BWRs were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine whether trace impurity elements may contribute to IASCC of these materials

  3. Environmentally assisted cracking in Light Water Reactors: Semiannual report, October 1994--March 1995. Volume 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.M.; Chopra, O.K.; Gavenda, D.J.; Hins, A.G.; Kassner, T.F.; Ruther, W.E.; Shack, W.J.; Soppet, W.K.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRS) from October 1994 to March 1995. Topics that have been investigated include (a) fatigue of carbon and low-alloy steel used in reactor piping and pressure vessels, (b) EAC of Alloy 600 and 690, and (c) irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) of Type 304 SS. Fatigue tests were conducted on ferritic steels in water with several dissolvedoxygen (DO) concentrations to determine whether a slow strain rate applied during different portions of a tensile-loading cycle are equally effective in decreasing fatigue life. Tensile properties and microstructures of several heats of Alloy 600 and 690 were characterized for correlation with EAC of the alloys in simulated LWR environments. Effects of DO and electrochemical potential on susceptibility to intergranular cracking of high- and commercial-purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-blade absorber tubes and a control-blade sheath irradiated in boiling water reactors were determined in slow-strain-rate-tensile tests at 289 degrees C. Microchemical changes in the specimens were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine whether trace impurity elements may contribute to IASCC of these materials

  4. Immunodeficiency syndromes: Disorder of lymphocytopoiesis caused by environmental agents: Volume 1, comprehensive progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosse, C.

    1988-01-01

    The studies we have performed have provided a substantial database that supports these beliefs. Our work sponsored by DOE has defined experimental tumor systems in which we have known that there is interaction between the bone marrow and certain neoplasms. We have documents that these interactions are important in host responses against tumors, and that certain tumors profoundly alter the production of several types of cells in the lymphopoiesis in an experimental model of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) that develops as a consequence of bone marrow transplantation between H-2 identical mouse strains that differ in monorhistocompatibility antigens (minor HA). Parallel with the experimental systems that investigated interactions between the bone marrow and tumors, we have maintained an active program concerned with fundamental studies of lymphocyte production and differentation in the bone marrow, thymus, and periphery. The elucidation of the mechanisms that regulate the differentiation program of T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells remains a requisite for understanding at what level carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic environmental factors exert their influence on the lymphomyeloid complex. We have made notable progress with studies concerning the regulation of B lymphocyte production, the maintenance of T cell precursors in the bone marrow and thymus and the cell traffic between these organs, and especially in unravelling the lineage relationship, turnover, and functional heterogeneity of NK cells. 173 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs

  5. Environmental assessment: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada; Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE`s General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  6. Environmentally assisted cracking in Light Water Reactors: Semiannual report, April 1993--September 1993. Volume 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Karlsen, T.; Kassner, T.F.; Michaud, W.F.; Ruther, W.E.; Sanecki, J.E.; Shack, W.J.; Soppet, W.K.

    1994-06-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in light water reactors (LWRS) during the six months from April 1993 to September 1993. EAC and fatigue of piping, pressure vessels, and core components in LWRs are important concerns as extended reactor lifetimes are envisaged. Topics that have been investigated include (a) fatigue of low-alloy steel used in piping, steam generators, and reactor pressure vessels; (b) EAC of cast stainless steels (SSs); and (c) radiation-induced segregation and irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of Type 304 SS after accumulation of relatively high fluence. Fatigue tests were conducted on medium-sulfur-content A106-Gr B piping and A533-Gr B pressure vessel steels in simulated PWR water and in air. Additional crack growth data were obtained on fracture-mechanics specimens of cast austenitic SSs in the as-received and thermally aged conditions in simulated boiling-water reactor (BWR) water at 289 degree C. The data were compared with predictions based on crack growth correlations for wrought austenitic SS in oxygenated water developed at ANL and rates in air from Section 11 of the ASME Code. Microchemical and microstructural changes in high- and commercial-purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-blade absorber tubes and a control-blade sheath from operating BWRs were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

  7. Cook Inlet Planning Area oil and gas lease sale 149: Final environmental impact statement. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) discusses a proposed oil and gas lease sale in the Cook Inlet Planning Area, analyzes its potential effects on the environment, describes alternatives, presents major issues determined through the scoping process and staff analyses, and evaluates potential mitigating measures. Descriptions of the (1) leasing and scoping process are given in Section 1, (2) alternatives and mitigating measures in Section 2, and (3) description of the environment in Section 3. The potential effects of the lease sale are analyzed in Section 4. Alternative 1, the proposed action, is based on offering for lease 402 blocks (approximately 0.8 million hectares--1.98 million acres) in lower Cook Inlet that range from about 5 to 50 kilometers (3 to 25 mi) offshore. Alterative 2 (No Lease Sale) would cancel the proposed lease sale tentatively scheduled for April 1996. Alternative 2 (Delay the Sale) would delay the proposed sale for 2 years. Alternatives 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 would defer from leasing areas adjacent to the lower Cook Inlet and northwestern Shelikof Strait: the size of areas deferred ranges from about 5 to 45% of the area proposed for Alternative 1. After a thorough review, the Secretary of the Interior will decide which alternative or combination of alternatives will be included in the Notice of Sale

  8. Final environmental impact statement, construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    DOE proposes to construct and operate a state-of-the-art, short-pulsed, spallation neutron source comprised of an ion source, a linear accelerator, a proton accumulator ring, and an experiment building containing a liquid mercury target and a suite of neutron scattering instrumentation. The proposed Spallation neutron Source would be designed to operate at a proton beam power of 1 megawatt. The design would accommodate future upgrades to a peak operating power of 4 megawatts. These upgrades may include construction of a second proton accumulator ring and a second target. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts from the proposed action and the alternatives. The analysis assumes a facility operating at a power of 1 MW and 4 MW over the life of the facility. The two primary alternatives analyzed in this FEIS are: the proposed action (to proceed with building the Spallation Neutron Source) and the No-Action Alternative. The No-Action Alternative describes the expected condition of the environment if no action were taken. Four siting alternatives for the Spallation Neutron Source are evaluated: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, (preferred alternative); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY; and Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

  9. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the tank waste remediation system. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This document analyzes the potential environmental consequences related to the Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) alternatives for management and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste. This waste is currently or projected to be stored in 177 underground storage tanks and approximately 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks, and the management and disposal of approximately 1,930 cesium and strontium capsules located at the Hanford Site. This document analyzes the following alternatives for remediating the tank waste: No Action, Long-Term Management, In Situ Fill and Cap, In Situ Vitrification, Ex Situ Intermediate Separations, Ex Situ No Separations, Ex Situ Extensive Separations, and Ex Situ/In Situ Combination. This document also addresses a Phased Implementation alternative (the DOE and Ecology preferred alternative for remediation of tank waste). Alternatives analyzed for the cesium and strontium capsules include: No Action, Onsite Disposal, Overpack and Ship, and Vitrify with Tank Waste. At this time, DOE and Ecology do not have a preferred alternative for the cesium and strontium capsules

  10. Rocky Flats Plant Site, Golden, Colorado. Volume I. Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    Two previous environmental statements have been issued for the Rocky Flats Plant site. One concerned a new plutonium recovery facility (WASH-1517, USAEC, January 1972); the second concerned land acquisition (WASH-1518, USAEC, April 1972). This document responds to those who indicated concerns and also ERDA's anticipated concerns about activities associated with the Rocky Flats Plant. Most concerns focus on two points including the Plant's involvement in the production of nuclear weapons and the Plant's handling of hazardous materials, particularly the radioactive element plutonium. The production of nuclear weapons, in which the Rocky Flats Plant maintains a vital role, will probably continue for as long as the world situation suggests that this country must have a strong defense. Operations at the Rocky Flats Plant have resulted in some plutonium being released to the environment, but evidence does not indicate that the amounts involved have presented any measurable hazard to human health. Ongoing improvements to the Plant's facilities and operational procedures are intended to preclude any recurrence of past releases. Despite these improvements, some public concern has resulted from past releases and the potential adverse effects from any possible future releases. This DEIS addresses that concern. It comments on past mishaps along with their causes and effects. It discusses current operations plus related costs and benefits to the region. Various alternatives to continuing present operations are explored, and the costs and benefits of the different options are compared

  11. Environmental assessment: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada; Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE`s General Guideline for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EA), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as of five sites suitable for characterization.

  12. Environmental assessment: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada; Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE`s General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that is is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  13. Cadmium in the aquatic environment. Volume 19. Advances in environmental science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nriagu, J.O.; Sprague, J.B. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    This book addresses the biogeochemistry of cadmium in the marine and freshwater aquatic environment and comprises 10 chapters on: distribution and cycling of cadmium in the environment; evidence for anthropogenic modification of global transport of cadmium; cadmium in fresh water: The Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River; cadmium associations in freshwater and marine sediment; biological cycling of cadmium in fresh water; toxicity of cadmium to freshwater microorganisms, phytoplankton, and invertebrates; effects of cadmium on freshwater fish; effects of cadmium on marine biota; biological cycling of cadmium in marine environment; and methods of cadmium detection. Although there is some overlap of chapter topics, the major compartments of the aquatic system are addressed: atmosphere, water, sediment, phytoplankton, macrophytes, zooplankton, and fish. These chapters are well written and critically review the available data in each area. The research cited is heavily dominated by studies of the Great Lakes and Western European rivers such as the Rhine, but this reflects the degree of cadmium contamination of these important water bodies and the environmental concerns they have raised. Many of the chapters strive to critically address the problems of data quality, which are a result of the great difficulty in detecting cadmium at the ng/L or ..mu..g/kg levels at which cadmium contamination occurs.

  14. Draft Environmental Impact Statement on a proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy and United States Department of State are jointly proposing to adopt a policy to manage spent nuclear fuel from foreign research reactors. Only spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States would be covered by the proposed policy. The purpose of the proposed policy is to promote U.S. nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives, specifically by seeking to reduce highly-enriched uranium from civilian commerce. Environmental effects and policy considerations of three Management Alternative approaches for implementation of the proposed policy are assessed. The three Management Alternatives analyzed are: (1) acceptance and management of the spent nuclear fuel by the Department of Energy in the United States, (2) management of the spent nuclear fuel at one or more foreign facilities (under conditions that satisfy United States nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives), and (3) a combination of components of Management Alternatives 1 and 2 (Hybrid Alternative). A No Action Alternative is also analyzed. For each Management Alternative, there are a number of alternatives for its implementation. For Management Alternative 1, this document addresses the environmental effects of various implementation alternatives such as varied policy durations, management of various quantities of spent nuclear fuel, and differing financing arrangements. Environmental impacts at various potential ports of entry, along truck and rail transportation routes, at candidate management sites, and for alternate storage technologies are also examined. For Management Alternative 2, this document addresses two subalternatives: (1) assisting foreign nations with storage; and (2) assisting foreign nations with reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel. Management Alternative 3 analyzes a hybrid alternative. This document is Vol. 1 of 2 plus summary volume

  15. Construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source: Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    DOE proposes to construct and operate a state-of-the-art, short-pulsed spallation neutron source comprised of an ion source, a linear accelerator, a proton accumulator ring, and an experiment building containing a liquid mercury target and a suite of neutron scattering instrumentation. The proposed Spallation Neutron Source would be designed to operate at a proton beam power of 1 megawatt. The design would accommodate future upgrades to a peak operating power of 4 megawatts. These upgrades may include construction of a second proton accumulation ring and a second target. The US needs a high-flux, short-pulsed neutron source to provide the scientific and industrial research communities with a much more intense source of pulsed neutrons for neutron scattering research than is currently available, and to assure the availability of a state-of-the-art facility in the decades ahead. This next-generation neutron source would create new scientific and engineering opportunities. In addition, it would help replace the neutron science capacity that will be lost by the eventual shutdown of existing sources as they reach the end of their useful operating lives in the first half of the next century. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts from the proposed action and the alternatives. The analysis assumes a facility operating at a power of 1 MW and 4 MW over the life of the facility. The two primary alternatives analyzed in this EIS are: the proposed action (to proceed with building the Spallation Neutron Source) and the No-Action Alternative. The No-Action Alternative describes the expected condition of the environment if no action were taken. Four siting alternatives for the Spallation Neutron Source are evaluated: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, (preferred alternative); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY; and Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

  16. US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office annual site environmental report: 1993. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S.C.; Glines, W.M.; Townsend, Y.E. [eds.

    1994-09-01

    Monitoring and surveillance on and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) by DOE contractors and NTS user organizations during 1993 indicated that operations on the NTS were conducted in compliance with applicable federal and DOE guidelines, i.e., the dose the maximally exposed offsite individual could have received was less than 0.04 percent of the 10 mrem per year guide for air exposure. No nuclear tests were conducted due to the moratorium. All discharges of radioactive liquids remained onsite in containment ponds, and there was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater. Surveillance around the NTS indicated that airborne radioactivity from diffusion, evaporation of effluents, or resuspension was not detectable offsite, and no measurable net exposure to members of the offsite population was detected through the offsite dosimetry program. Using the CAP88-PC model and NTS radionuclide emissions data, the calculated effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual offsite would have been 0.004 mrem. Any person receiving this dose would also have received 97 mrem from natural background radiation. There were no nonradiological releases to the offsite area. Hazardous wastes were shipped offsite to approved disposal facilities. Compliance with the various regulations stemming from the National Environmental Policy Act is being achieved and, where mandated, permits for air and water discharges and waste management have been obtained from the appropriate agencies. Support facilities at off-NTS locations compiled with the requirements of air quality permits and state or local wastewater discharge and hazardous waste permits.

  17. US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office annual site environmental report: 1993. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Glines, W.M.; Townsend, Y.E.

    1994-09-01

    Monitoring and surveillance on and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) by DOE contractors and NTS user organizations during 1993 indicated that operations on the NTS were conducted in compliance with applicable federal and DOE guidelines, i.e., the dose the maximally exposed offsite individual could have received was less than 0.04 percent of the 10 mrem per year guide for air exposure. No nuclear tests were conducted due to the moratorium. All discharges of radioactive liquids remained onsite in containment ponds, and there was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater. Surveillance around the NTS indicated that airborne radioactivity from diffusion, evaporation of effluents, or resuspension was not detectable offsite, and no measurable net exposure to members of the offsite population was detected through the offsite dosimetry program. Using the CAP88-PC model and NTS radionuclide emissions data, the calculated effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual offsite would have been 0.004 mrem. Any person receiving this dose would also have received 97 mrem from natural background radiation. There were no nonradiological releases to the offsite area. Hazardous wastes were shipped offsite to approved disposal facilities. Compliance with the various regulations stemming from the National Environmental Policy Act is being achieved and, where mandated, permits for air and water discharges and waste management have been obtained from the appropriate agencies. Support facilities at off-NTS locations compiled with the requirements of air quality permits and state or local wastewater discharge and hazardous waste permits

  18. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume II. Environmental baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (ASFI) and Airco Energy Company, Inc. (AECI) have recently formed the Breckinridge Project and are currently conducting a process and economic feasibility study of a commercial scale facility to produce synthetic liquid fuels from coal. The coal conversion process to be used is the H-COAL process, which is in the pilot plant testing stage under the auspices of the US Department of Energy at the H-COAL Pilot Plant Project near Catlettsburg, Kentucky. The preliminary plans for the commercial plant are for a 18,140 metric ton/day (24,000 ton/day) nominal coal assumption capacity utilizing the abundant high sulfur Western Kentucky coals. The Western Kentucky area offers a source of the coal along with adequate water, power, labor, transportation and other factors critical to the successful siting of a plant. Various studies by federal and state governments, as well as private industry, have reached similar conclusions regarding the suitability of such plant sites in western Kentucky. Of the many individual sites evaluated, a site in Breckinridge County, Kentucky, approximately 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) west of the town of Stephensport, has been identified as the plant location. Actions have been taken to obtain options to insure that this site will be available when needed. This report contains an overview of the regional setting and results of the baseline environmental studies. These studies include collection of data on ambient air and water quality, sound, aquatic and terrestrial biology and geology. This report contains the following chapters; introduction, review of significant findings, ambient air quality monitoring, sound, aquatic ecology, vegetation, wildlife, geology, soils, surface water, and ground water.

  19. A major trade-off between structural and photosynthetic investments operative across plant and needle ages in three Mediterranean pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusk, Vivian; Niinemets, Ülo; Valladares, Fernando

    2018-04-01

    Pine (Pinus) species exhibit extensive variation in needle shape and size between juvenile (primary) and adult (secondary) needles (heteroblasty), but few studies have quantified the changes in needle morphological, anatomical and chemical traits upon juvenile-to-adult transition. Mediterranean pines keep juvenile needles longer than most other pines, implying that juvenile needles play a particularly significant role in seedling and sapling establishment in this environment. We studied needle anatomical, morphological and chemical characteristics in juvenile and different-aged adult needles in Mediterranean pines Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinea L. and Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold subsp. salzmannii (Dunal) Franco hypothesizing that needle anatomical modifications upon juvenile-to-adult transition lead to a trade-off between investments in support and photosynthetic tissues, and that analogous changes occur with needle aging albeit to a lower degree. Compared with adult needles, juvenile needles of all species were narrower with 1.6- to 2.4-fold lower leaf dry mass per unit area, and had ~1.4-fold thinner cell walls, but needle nitrogen content per dry mass was similar among plant ages. Juvenile needles also had ~1.5-fold greater mesophyll volume fraction, ~3-fold greater chloroplast volume fraction and ~1.7-fold greater chloroplast exposed to mesophyll exposed surface area ratio, suggesting overall greater photosynthetic activity. Changes in needle traits were similar in aging adult needles, but the magnitude was generally less than the changes upon juvenile to adult transition. In adult needles, the fraction in support tissues scaled positively with known ranking of species tolerance of drought (P. halepensis > P. pinea > P. nigra). Across all species, and needle and plant ages, a negative correlation between volume fractions of mesophyll and structural tissues was observed, manifesting a trade-off between biomass investments in different needle functions. These

  20. Information management architecture for an integrated computing environment for the Environmental Restoration Program. Environmental Restoration Program, Volume 3, Interim technical architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This third volume of the Information Management Architecture for an Integrated Computing Environment for the Environmental Restoration Program--the Interim Technical Architecture (TA) (referred to throughout the remainder of this document as the ER TA)--represents a key milestone in establishing a coordinated information management environment in which information initiatives can be pursued with the confidence that redundancy and inconsistencies will be held to a minimum. This architecture is intended to be used as a reference by anyone whose responsibilities include the acquisition or development of information technology for use by the ER Program. The interim ER TA provides technical guidance at three levels. At the highest level, the technical architecture provides an overall computing philosophy or direction. At this level, the guidance does not address specific technologies or products but addresses more general concepts, such as the use of open systems, modular architectures, graphical user interfaces, and architecture-based development. At the next level, the technical architecture provides specific information technology recommendations regarding a wide variety of specific technologies. These technologies include computing hardware, operating systems, communications software, database management software, application development software, and personal productivity software, among others. These recommendations range from the adoption of specific industry or Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) standards to the specification of individual products. At the third level, the architecture provides guidance regarding implementation strategies for the recommended technologies that can be applied to individual projects and to the ER Program as a whole

  1. Drought-induced trans-generational tradeoff between stress tolerance and defence: consequences for range limits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdurf, Jacob D; Ripley, Tayler J; Matzner, Steven L; Siemens, David H

    2013-01-01

    Areas just across species range boundaries are often stressful, but even with ample genetic variation within and among range-margin populations, adaptation towards stress tolerance across range boundaries often does not occur. Adaptive trans-generational plasticity should allow organisms to circumvent these problems for temporary range expansion; however, range boundaries often persist. To investigate this dilemma, we drought stressed a parent generation of Boechera stricta (A.Gray) A. Löve & D. Löve, a perennial wild relative of Arabidopsis, representing genetic variation within and among several low-elevation range margin populations. Boechera stricta is restricted to higher, moister elevations in temperate regions where generalist herbivores are often less common. Previous reports indicate a negative genetic correlation (genetic tradeoff) between chemical defence allocation and abiotic stress tolerance that may prevent the simultaneous evolution of defence and drought tolerance that would be needed for range expansion. In growth chamber experiments, the genetic tradeoff became undetectable among offspring sib-families whose parents had been drought treated, suggesting that the stress-induced trans-generational plasticity may circumvent the genetic tradeoff and thus enable range expansion. However, the trans-generational effects also included a conflict between plastic responses (environmental tradeoff); offspring whose parents were drought treated were more drought tolerant, but had lower levels of glucosinolate toxins that function in defence against generalist herbivores. We suggest that either the genetic or environmental tradeoff between defence allocation and stress tolerance has the potential to contribute to range limit development in upland mustards.

  2. Payload system tradeoffs for mobile communications satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    System level trade-offs carried out during Mobile Satellite (M-SAT) design activities are described. These trade-offs relate to the use of low level beam forming, flexible power and spectrum distribution, and selection of the number of beams to cover the service area. It is shown that antenna performance can be improved by sharing horns between beams using a low level beam forming network (BFN). Additionally, greatly increased power utilization is possible using a hybrid matrix concept to share power between beams.

  3. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VI. Safety and environmental considerations for licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    Volume 6 of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program report addresses safety and environmental considerations in licensing the principal alternative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles in the United States for large-scale commercial nuclear power plants. In addition, this volume examines the safety and environmental considerations for licensing fuel service centers. These centers, which have been proposed for controlling sensitive fuel-cycle facilities and special nuclear materials, would contain a combination of such facilities as reprocessing plants, fabrication plants, and reactors. For this analysis, two fuel service center concepts were selected - one with power-generating capability and one without. This volume also provides estimates of the time required for development of large-scale commercial reactor systems to reach the construction permit application stage and for fuel-cycle facilities to reach the operating license application stage, which is a measure of the relative technical status of alternative nuclear systems

  4. Draft environmental impact statement siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 4, Appendices D-R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains 15 appendices.

  5. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  6. Strategic environmental safety inspection for the National disposal program. Description of the inspection volume. Documentation for the scoping team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Strategic environmental safety inspection for the National disposal program covers the following topics: Legal framework: determination of the requirement for an environmental inspection program, coordination of the scoping team into the overall context; environmental targets; approach for assessment and evaluation of environmental impact, description of the inspection targets for the strategic environmental inspection; consideration of alternatives.

  7. Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident of March 1979. Environmental radiation data: Volume I. A report to the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretthauer, E.W.; Grossman, R.F.; Thome, D.J.; Smith, A.E.

    1981-03-01

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The original report was printed in September 1979 and the update was released in December 1979. Volume 1 consists of the following 5 tables: Table 1-Measurements made by principal participants; Table 2-Cross-check program instituted by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for iodine-131 in milk. Table 3-Comparison of EPA and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) air data collected at the Three Mile Island (TMI) Observation Center; Table 4-Summary of EPA Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas (EMSL-LV) and EPA Eastern Environmental Radiation Facility-Montgomery (EERF-Montgomery) sampling and analytical procedures; Table 5-Computer printout of environmental data collected by EPA

  8. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Lakeview Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Lakeview, Oregon: Volume 2, Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    This document assesses and compares the environmental impacts of various alternatives for remedial action at the Lakeview uranium mill tailings site located one mile north of Lakeview, Oregon. The site covers 256 acres and contains 30 acres of tailings, 69 acres of evaporation ponds, and 25 acres of windblown materials. Remedial actions must be performed in accordance with standards and with the concurrence of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Three alternatives have been addressed in this document. The first alternative (the proposed action) is relocation of all contaminated materials to the Collins Ranch site. The contaminated materials would be consolidated into an embankment constructed partially below grade and covered with radon protection and erosion protection covers. A second alternative would relocate the tailings to the Flynn Ranch site and dispose of the contaminated materials in a slightly below grade embankment. A radon protection and erosion protection cover system would also be installed. The no-action alternative is also assessed. Stabilization in place is not considered due to potential seismic and geothermal hazards associated with the current tailings site, and the inability to meet EPA standards. Volume 2 contains 11 appendices

  9. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-10-01

    Volume II of the programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) is a comment and response document; it is the collection of the comments received on the draft PElS. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) response to each comment is provided after each comment. If the comment resulted in a change to the PElS, the affected section number of the PElS is provided in the response. Comments 1 through 259 were received at public hearings. The name of the hearing at which the comment was received is listed after each comment. Comments were recorded on flip charts and by notetakers. DOE representatives were present to hear the comments and respond to them. The DOE's written response is provided after each comment. Comments 260 through 576 were received in writing at the hearings, and from various federal, tribal, and state agencies and from individuals during the public comment period. Copies of the written comments follow the comments and responses.

  10. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the uranium mill tailings remedial action ground water project. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Volume II of the programmatic environmental impact statement (PElS) is a comment and response document; it is the collection of the comments received on the draft PElS. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) response to each comment is provided after each comment. If the comment resulted in a change to the PElS, the affected section number of the PElS is provided in the response. Comments 1 through 259 were received at public hearings. The name of the hearing at which the comment was received is listed after each comment. Comments were recorded on flip charts and by notetakers. DOE representatives were present to hear the comments and respond to them. The DOE's written response is provided after each comment. Comments 260 through 576 were received in writing at the hearings, and from various federal, tribal, and state agencies and from individuals during the public comment period. Copies of the written comments follow the comments and responses

  11. Exploration of tradeoffs in intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, David; Halabi, Tarek; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to calculate Pareto surfaces in multi-criteria radiation treatment planning and to analyse the dependency of the Pareto surfaces on the objective functions used for the volumes of interest. We develop a linear approach that allows us to calculate truly Pareto optimal treatment plans, and we apply it to explore the tradeoff between tumour dose homogeneity and critical structure sparing. We show that for two phantom and two clinical cases, a smooth (as opposed to kinked) Pareto tradeoff curve exists. We find that in the paraspinal cases the Pareto surface is invariant to the response function used on the spinal cord: whether the mean cord dose or the maximum cord dose is used, the Pareto plan database is similar. This is not true for the lung studies, where the choice of objective function on the healthy lung tissue influences the resulting Pareto surface greatly. We conclude that in the special case when the tumour wraps around the organ at risk, e.g. prostate cases and paraspinal cases, the Pareto surface will be largely invariant to the objective function used to model the organ at risk

  12. Reassessing the Trade-off Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas, Guillermo; Manzetti, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Do economic conditions drive voters to punish politicians that tolerate corruption? Previous scholarly work contends that citizens in young democracies support corrupt governments that are capable of promoting good economic outcomes, the so-called trade-off hypothesis. We test this hypothesis based...

  13. Time and Outcome Framing in Intertemporal Tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Marc; Read, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A robust anomaly in intertemporal choice is the delay-speedup asymmetry: Receipts are discounted more, and payments are discounted less, when delayed than when expedited over the same interval. We developed 2 versions of the tradeoff model (Scholten & Read, 2010) to address such situations, in which an outcome is expected at a given time but…

  14. Rate-cost tradeoffs in control

    KAUST Repository

    Kostina, Victoria; Hassibi, Babak

    2017-01-01

    function is the mean-square deviation of the system state from the desired state. We study the fundamental tradeoff between the communication rate r bits/sec and the limsup of the expected cost b, and show a lower bound on the rate necessary to attain b

  15. Optimizing time and resource allocation trade-offs for investment into morphological and behavioral defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Pfeiffer, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    pronounced at intermediate environmental conditions. Optimizing single traits generally leads to a more pronounced response of the defense traits, which implies that studying single traits leads to an overestimation of their response to predation. Behavioral defense and morphological defense compensate......Prey organisms are confronted with time and resource allocation trade-offs. Time allocation trade-offs partition time, for example, between foraging effort to acquire resources and behavioral defense. Resource allocation trade-offs partition the acquired resources between multiple traits...... for and augment each other depending on predator densities and the effectiveness of the defense mechanisms. In the presence of time constraints, the model shows peak investment into morphological and behavioral defense at intermediate resource levels....

  16. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: South Carolina - Volume 1, geographic information systems data, Volume 2, maps and data in portable document format (NODC Accession 0013822)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of South Carolina. ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife...

  17. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Puerto Rico - Volume 1, geographic information systems data, Volume 2, maps in portable document format (NODC Accession 0006584)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently, the most widely used approach to sensitive environment mapping in the United States is the NOAA Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI). This approach...

  18. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Western Alaska - volume 1, geographic information systems data and data tables and volume 2, maps in portable document format (PDF) (NODC Accession 0046030)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Western Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by their...

  19. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: North Carolina - Volume 1, geographic information systems data, Volume 2, maps and data in portable document format (NODC Accession 0013821)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps for the shoreline of North Carolina. ESI data characterize coastal environments and wildlife...

  20. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Southeast Alaska - volume 1, geographic information systems data and volume 2, maps in portable document format (NODC Accession 0046029)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Northwest Arctic, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  1. A possible tradeoff between developmental rate and pathogen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    related tradeoffs is that they are mediated via the conflict- ... Keywords. life-history evolution; tradeoff; development time; immune function; pathogen; Drosophila. Journal of Genetics .... This work was supported in parts by funds from Depart-.

  2. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1, Appendix B: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this report to assist its management in making two decisions. The first decision, which is programmatic, is to determine the management program for DOE spent nuclear fuel. The second decision is on the future direction of environmental restoration, waste management, and spent nuclear fuel management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1 of the EIS, which supports the programmatic decision, considers the effects of spent nuclear fuel management on the quality of the human and natural environment for planning years 1995 through 2035. DOE has derived the information and analysis results in Volume 1 from several site-specific appendixes. Volume 2 of the EIS, which supports the INEL-specific decision, describes environmental impacts for various environmental restoration, waste management, and spent nuclear fuel management alternatives for planning years 1995 through 2005. This Appendix B to Volume 1 considers the impacts on the INEL environment of the implementation of various DOE-wide spent nuclear fuel management alternatives. The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, which is a joint Navy/DOE program, is responsible for spent naval nuclear fuel examination at the INEL. For this appendix, naval fuel that has been examined at the Naval Reactors Facility and turned over to DOE for storage is termed naval-type fuel. This appendix evaluates the management of DOE spent nuclear fuel including naval-type fuel.

  3. Criteria for the development and use of the methodology for environmentally-acceptable fossil energy site evaluation and selection. Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckstein, L.; Northrop, G.; Scott, R.

    1980-02-01

    This report serves as a companion document to the report, Volume 1: Environmentally-Acceptable Fossil Energy Site Evaluation and Selection: Methodology and Users Guide, in which a methodology was developed which allows the siting of fossil fuel conversion facilities in areas with the least environmental impact. The methodology, known as SELECS (Site Evaluation for Energy Conversion Systems) does not replace a site specific environmental assessment, or an environmental impact statement (EIS), but does enhance the value of an EIS by thinning down the number of options to a manageable level, by doing this in an objective, open and selective manner, and by providing preliminary assessment and procedures which can be utilized during the research and writing of the actual impact statement.

  4. 48 CFR 15.101-1 - Tradeoff process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tradeoff process. 15.101-1... AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection Processes and Techniques 15.101-1 Tradeoff process. (a) A tradeoff process is appropriate when it may be in the best interest of the...

  5. The hyperspectral imaging trade-off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Jens Michael

    , this will be the standard situation, and it enables the detection of small spectral features like peaks, valleys and shoulders for a wide range of chemistries. Everything else being equal this is what you would wish for, and hyperspectral imaging is often used in research and in remote sensing because of the needs and cost......Although it has no clear-cut definition, hyperspectral imaging in the UV-Visible-NIR wavelength region seems to mean spectral image sampling in bands from 10 nm width or narrower that enables spectral reconstruction over some wavelength interval. For non-imaging spectral applications...... structures in these projects. However, hyperspectral imaging is a sampling choice within spectral imaging that typically will impose some trade-offs, and these trade-offs will not be optimal for many applications. The purpose of this presentation is to point out and increase the awareness of these trade...

  6. Time-Space Trade-Offs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagter, Jakob Illeborg

    . The area of time-space trade-offs deals with both upper and lower bounds and both are interesting, theoretically as well as practically. The viewpoint of this dissertation is theoretical, but we believe that some of our results can find applications in practice as well. The last four years has witnessed...... perspective hierarchical memory layout models are the most interesting. Such models are called external memory models, in contrast to the internal memory models discussed above. Despite the fact that space might be of great relevance when solving practical problems on real computers, no theoretical model...... capturing space (and time simultaneously) has been defined. We introduce such a model and use it to prove so-called IOspace trade-offs for Sorting. Building on the abovementioned techniques for time-space efficient internal memory Sorting, we develop the first IO-space efficient external memory Sorting...

  7. Temporal trade-offs in psychophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barack, David L; Gold, Joshua I

    2016-04-01

    Psychophysical techniques typically assume straightforward relationships between manipulations of real-world events, their effects on the brain, and behavioral reports of those effects. However, these relationships can be influenced by many complex, strategic factors that contribute to task performance. Here we discuss several of these factors that share two key features. First, they involve subjects making flexible use of time to process information. Second, this flexibility can reflect the rational regulation of information-processing trade-offs that can play prominent roles in particular temporal epochs: sensitivity to stability versus change for past information, speed versus accuracy for current information, and exploitation versus exploration for future goals. Understanding how subjects manage these trade-offs can be used to help design and interpret psychophysical studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Speed-Accuracy Tradeoffs in Speech Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    capacity of discrete motor responses under different cognitive sets. Journal of Experimental Psychology , 71 (4), 475. SPEED-ACCURACY TRADEOFFS IN HUMAN...space defined by vocal tract constriction degree and location, as in Articulatory Phonology Browman & Goldstein (1992). These high-level spaces are...relationship between speech gestures varies as a function of their positions within the syllable Browman & Goldstein (1995); Krakow (1999); Byrd et al

  9. Uses And Characteristics Of Dynamic Tradeoff Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.

    1995-01-01

    Report discusses basic concepts, some applications, and performance characteristics of dynamic tradeoff evaluation (DTE). Basic concepts of DTE also described in "Dynamic Restructuring of Problems in Artificial Intelligence" (NPO-18488). DTE is method of enhancing real-time performance of artificial-intelligence system such as might be used to monitor data from multiple sensors in factory, aircraft, spacecraft, or other complex system of equipment. Report presents evaluation of DTE as applied to spacecraft-monitoring problems.

  10. Design trade-offs for homing missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Allen; Moore, William

    1992-05-01

    Major design considerations, trade-offs and technology issues for future hypervelocity, anti-missile interceptors are presented in an overview format. Two classes of interceptors are considered: a low altitude interceptor using an active radar seeker for defense against tactical ballistic missiles (TBMs) and a higher altitude interceptor using a passive infra-red seeker for defense against ICBMs. Considerations are presented in the areas of mission requirements, seeker selection, aerodynamic and aerothermal environments, control systems, and guidance performance.

  11. Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway Navigation Season Extension. Volume 3. Appendix C. Public Views and Responses on the Report and Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    current economic conditions; - The use of a ship trafflc volume projection and a cargo wix that may possibly result in an overstatement of beneftzs-due...34 Web r’ecommend "no action" as the program to adopt; i.e., halting ice breaking activities writil environmental baseline data can be collected...spawning sites and aquatic food webs During 1976, we were all made painfully aware of the problem shipping can bring to the enviornmrent of The River

  12. Gulf of Mexico sales 157 and 161: Central and Western Planning areas. Final environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections IV.D through IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This volume of the environmental impact statement for sales in the Gulf of Mexico presents information dealing with impacts on the costal regions due to planned operations of the petroleum industry. Topics discussed include: impacts on sensitive coastal environments; coastal barrier beaches and associated dunes; wetlands; offshore resources; water quality; air quality; impacts to aquatic environments; impacts on marine birds; impacts on archaeological resources; impacts on socioeconomic conditions; topography; and analysis of a large oil spill

  13. Sierra Pacific Power Company Alturas Transmission Line Project, Final Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2: Comments and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Sierra Pacific Power Company has proposed the construction and operation of a 345,000 volt overhead electric power transmission line from Alturas, California to Reno, Nevada. This Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement will assess the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project and alternatives. This report contains public comments which were received on the Draft EIR/S. Significant issues may be identified through public and agency comments

  14. Adhesive bonds for optics: analysis and trade-offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, John G.; Hawk, Matthew D.

    2017-08-01

    Fastening optical elements with adhesives presents challenges when dissimilar materials (almost always the case) are encountered and environmental exposures from temperature changes, shock and vibration must be met. A brief review of standard processes will be followed by a selection criteria for the optic, its substrate, the bond geometry, surface preparation, application and cure. Common analysis practices will be compared to Finite Element models. The impact of stress in terms of distortion and level of risk of bond failure is highlighted. Trade-offs will be presented as aids in determination of the best approach. Some areas addressed will be different adhesive types, matching CTE's, stress effects, athermal bonds, monolithic designs, and the use of flexures.

  15. Advanced Technology Section semiannual progress report, April 1-September 30, 1977. Volume 1. Biotechnology and environmental programs. [Lead Abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, W.W. Jr.; Mrochek, J.E. (comps.)

    1980-06-01

    Research efforts in six areas are reported. They include: centrifugal analyzer development; advanced analytical systems; environmental research; bioengineering research;bioprocess development and demonstration; and, environmental control technology. Individual abstracts were prepared for each section for ERA/EDB. (JCB)

  16. Integrating ecosystem-service tradeoffs into land-use decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joshua H; Caldarone, Giorgio; Duarte, Thomas Kaeo; Ennaanay, Driss; Hannahs, Neil; Mendoza, Guillermo; Polasky, Stephen; Wolny, Stacie; Daily, Gretchen C

    2012-05-08

    Recent high-profile efforts have called for integrating ecosystem-service values into important societal decisions, but there are few demonstrations of this approach in practice. We quantified ecosystem-service values to help the largest private landowner in Hawaii, Kamehameha Schools, design a land-use development plan that balances multiple private and public values on its North Shore land holdings (Island of O'ahu) of ∼10,600 ha. We used the InVEST software tool to evaluate the environmental and financial implications of seven planning scenarios encompassing contrasting land-use combinations including biofuel feedstocks, food crops, forestry, livestock, and residential development. All scenarios had positive financial return relative to the status quo of negative return. However, tradeoffs existed between carbon storage and water quality as well as between environmental improvement and financial return. Based on this analysis and community input, Kamehameha Schools is implementing a plan to support diversified agriculture and forestry. This plan generates a positive financial return ($10.9 million) and improved carbon storage (0.5% increase relative to status quo) with negative relative effects on water quality (15.4% increase in potential nitrogen export relative to status quo). The effects on water quality could be mitigated partially (reduced to a 4.9% increase in potential nitrogen export) by establishing vegetation buffers on agricultural fields. This plan contributes to policy goals for climate change mitigation, food security, and diversifying rural economic opportunities. More broadly, our approach illustrates how information can help guide local land-use decisions that involve tradeoffs between private and public interests.

  17. Life-history tradeoffs and reproductive cycles in Spotted Owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Kendall, William L.; Peery, M. Zachariah

    2015-01-01

    The study of tradeoffs among life-history traits has long been key to understanding the evolution of life-history strategies. However, more recently, evolutionary ecologists have realized that reproductive costs have the potential to influence population dynamics. Here, we tested for costs of reproduction in the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis), and assessed whether costs of reproduction in year t − 1 on reproduction in year t could be responsible for regionally synchronized biennial cycles in reproductive output. Logistic regression analysis and multistate mark–recapture models with state uncertainty revealed that breeding reduced the likelihood of reproducing in the subsequent year by 16% to 38%, but had no influence on subsequent survival. We also found that costs of reproduction in year t − 1 were correlated with climatic conditions in year t, with evidence of higher costs during the dry phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Using a simulation-based population model, we showed that strong reproductive costs had the potential to create biennial cycles in population-level reproductive output; however, estimated costs of reproduction appeared to be too small to explain patterns observed in Spotted Owls. In the absence of strong reproductive costs, we hypothesize that observed natural cycles in the reproductive output of Spotted Owls are related to as-yet-unmeasured, regionally concordant fluctuations in environmental conditions or prey resources. Despite theoretical evidence for demographic effects, our analyses illustrate that linking tradeoffs to actual changes in population processes will be challenging because of the potential confounding effects of individual and environmental variation.

  18. Clonal growth and sexual reproduction: tradeoffs and environmental constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herben, Tomáš; Šerá, Božena; Klimešová, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 4 (2015), s. 469-475 ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G; GA ČR GAP505/12/1296; GA ČR GA13-17118S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : phylogenetics analysis * anginosperms * evolution Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; EH - Ecology, Behaviour (UEK-B) Impact factor: 3.586, year: 2015

  19. Tradeoffs for Renewable Energy Projects: Environmental, Planning, and Mission Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    parabolic trough solar system for heating, cooling and hot water at Fort Huachuca, AZ from October 1979 (est.)  a solar pool heating system at Fort... collectors commercially applied Passive solar energy use Heat, cold, light, ventila- tion Demonstrations and applica- tions Artificial photosynthesis H2...the technologies that convert those energies into more usable forms is that renewable en- ERDC/CERL SR-10-2 36 ergy generally emits fewer compounds

  20. Sexual conflict and environmental change: trade-offs within and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    specific selection on a shared genome. With several notable exceptions, intralocus sexual conflict has been investigated in constant environments to which the study organisms have had an opportunity to adapt. However, a change in the environment ...

  1. Sexual conflict and environmental change: trade-offs within and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-23

    Dec 23, 2008 ... eration, after having grown and lived in relatively rich food, .... were allowed to oviposit on food plates, which were transferred to culture bottles, and in test- ...... Trust to AKC and Lavoisier Award from the French government.

  2. Environmental and ice volume changes based on seismic stratigraphy in Sabrina Coast, East Antarctica: Preliminary results from NBP1402

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, S. P. S.; Fernandez-Vasquez, R. A.; Frederick, B.; Saustrup, S., Sr.; Domack, E. W.; Lavoie, C.; Shevenell, A.; Blankenship, D. D.; Leventer, A.

    2014-12-01

    In 2014, the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer (NBP1402) sailed to a virtually unexplored continental shelf along the Sabrina Coast, East Antarctica. The shelf contains the sedimentary record of environmental and ice volume changes within the Aurora Subglacial Basin (ASB), which is presently occupied by ~7 m sea level-rise equivalent of ice. We acquired 750 km of high-resolution seismic data proximal to the Reynolds Trough and Moscow University Ice Shelf glacial systems west of the Dalton Ice Tongue using dual 45/45 cu. in. G.I. guns and a 24 ch. streamer with 3.125 m groups providing a vertical resolution of ~3 m simultaneously with CHIRP data. These are the first images of this margin acquired and show a remarkable set of sequence stratigraphic transitions. Crystalline basement is at the seafloor landward and buried seaward with a transition to smoother reflection interface. Reflective sedimentary strata overlie the basement, dip seaward, and are capped by a landward-dipping regional angular unconformity. Above this are a series of transparent seismic facies that, along with the middle to outer shelf seafloor, dip landward towards a shelf-oblique glacial trough. The older, seaward-dipping strata include a deeper series of units that display at least three stratal architectures interpreted to be shelf deltas implying a pre-glacial, fluvial environment within the drainage basin. Above these sequences, the seismic facies transition to surfaces exhibiting significant erosion, small u-shaped valleys, and channel fill sequences, all of which are reminiscent of temperate glacial features. We interpret these sequences as including sub-ice tunnel valleys and grounding zone wedges with interspersed non-glacial to pro-glacial deposits. Increasing glaciogenic facies upsection suggests a gradual fluvial to glacial transition and increasing glacial extent with time. The subsequent transition to ice sheets is marked by erosion to basement landward and the angular unconformity seaward

  3. Environmental Restoration/Waste Management - applied technology. Semiannual report, July 1992--June 1993, Volume 1, Number 2, and Volume 2, Number 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.W.; Bruner, J.M.; Price, M.E.; Talaber, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Restoration/Waste Management-Applied Technology (ER/WM-AT) Program is developing restoration and waste treatment technologies needed for the ongoing environmental cleanup of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and treatment technologies for wastes generated in the nuclear weapons production complex. These technologies can find application to similar problems nationally and even worldwide. They can be demonstrated at the Livermore site, which mirrors (on a small scale) many of the environmental and waste management problems of the rest of the DOE complex. Their commercialization should speed cleanup, and the scope of the task should make it attractive to US industry. The articles in this semi-annual report cover the following areas: ceramic final forms for residues of mixed waste treatment; treatment of wastes containing sodium nitrate; actinide volatility in thermal oxidation processes; in situ microbial filters for remediating contaminated soils; collaboration with scientists in the former Soviet Union on new ER/WM technologies; and fiber-optic sensors for chlorinated organic solvents

  4. Ionic Resistance and Permselectivity Tradeoffs in Anion Exchange Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2013-10-23

    Salinity gradient energy technologies, such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) and capacitive mixing based on Donnan potential (Capmix CDP), could help address the global need for noncarbon-based energy. Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) are a key component in these systems, and improved AEMs are needed in order to optimize and extend salinity gradient energy technologies. We measured ionic resistance and permselectivity properties of quaternary ammonium-functionalized AEMs based on poly(sulfone) and poly(phenylene oxide) polymer backbones and developed structure-property relationships between the transport properties and the water content and fixed charge concentration of the membranes. Ion transport and ion exclusion properties depend on the volume fraction of water in the polymer membrane, and the chemical nature of the polymer itself can influence fine-tuning of the transport properties to obtain membranes with other useful properties, such as chemical and dimensional stability. The ionic resistance of the AEMs considered in this study decreased by more than 3 orders of magnitude (i.e., from 3900 to 1.6 Ω m) and the permselectivity decreased by 6% (i.e., from 0.91 to 0.85) as the volume fraction of water in the polymer was varied by a factor of 3.8 (i.e., from 0.1 to 0.38). Water content was used to rationalize a tradeoff relationship between the permselectivity and ionic resistance of these AEMs whereby polymers with higher water content tend to have lower ionic resistance and lower permselectivity. The correlation of ion transport properties with water volume fraction and fixed charge concentration is discussed with emphasis on the importance of considering water volume fraction when interpreting ion transport data. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. Three Mile Island nuclear reactor accident of March 1979. Environmental radiation data: Volume IV. A report to the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretthauer, E.W.; Grossman, R.F.; Thome, D.J.; Smith, A.E.

    1981-03-01

    This report contains a listing of environmental radiation monitoring data collected in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) following the March 28, 1979 accident. These data were collected by the EPA, NRC, DOE, HHS, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, or the Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The original report was printed in September 1979 and the update was released in December 1979. This volume consists of the following: Table 10 Summary of US Department of Energy (DOE) sampling and analytical procedures; Table 11 Computer printout of environmental data collected by DOE; Table 12 Summary of Commonwealth of Pennsylvania sampling and analytical procedures; Table 13 Computer printout of environmental data collected by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania; Table 14 Summary of State of New Jersey sampling and analytical procedures; Table 15 Computer printout of data collected by the State of New Jersey

  6. Fifth international conference on radioactive waste management and environmental remediation -- ICEM '95: Proceedings. Volume 2: Management of low-level waste and remediation of contaminated sites and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.; Baker, R.; Benda, G.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this conference is the broad international exchange of information on technologies, operations, management approaches, economics, and public policies in the critical areas of radioactive waste management and environmental remediation. The ICEM '95 technical program includes four parallel program tracks: Low/intermediate-level waste management; High-level waste, spent fuel, nuclear material management; Environmental remediation and facility D and D; and Major institutional issues in environmental management. Volume 2 contains approximately 200 papers divided into the following topical sections: Characterization of low and intermediate level waste; Treatment of low and intermediate level waste; LLW disposal and near-surface contaminant migration; Characterization and remediation of contaminated sites; and Decontamination and decommissioning technologies and experience. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  7. Feasibility study report for Operable Unit 4: Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio: Remedial investigation and feasibility study: Volume 3: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the Feasibility Study (FS) phase of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Operable Unit 4 Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program. The FEMP, formerly known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility that operated from 1952 to 1989. The facility's primarily function was to provide high purity uranium metal products to support United States defense programs. Production operations were suspended in 1989 to focus on environmental restoration and waste management activities at the facility. The RI/FS is being conducted pursuant to the terms of a Consent Agreement between DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under Sections 120 and 106(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) is also participating in the RI/FS process at the FEMP through direct involvement in program review meetings and technical review of project documentation. The objective of the RI/FS process is to gather information to support an informed risk management decision regarding which remedy appears to be the most appropriate action for addressing the environmental concerns identified at the FEMP. This volume contains appendices F--J

  8. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Volume 1, Appendices A-F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This sitewide EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of four possible land-use alternatives being considered for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Tonopah Test Range, and the formerly operated DOE sites in the state of Nevada: the Project Shoal Area, the Central Nevada Test Area, and portions of the Nellis Air Force Range Complex. Three additional sites in Nevada-Eldorado Valley, Dry Lake Valley, and Coyote Spring Valley-are evaluated for collocation of solar energy production facilities. The four alternatives include Continue Current Operations (No Action, continue to operate at the level maintained for the past 3 to 5 years); Discontinue Operations 1 (discontinue operations and interagency programs); Expanded Use (increased use of NTS and its resources to support defense and nondefense programs); and Alternate Use of Withdrawn Lands (discontinue all defense-related activities at NTS; continue waste management operations in support of NTS environmental restoration efforts; expand nondefense research). Environmental impacts were assessed for each alternative by analyzing, to the extent possible, the discrete and cumulative environmental impacts associated with Defense Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Nondefense Research and Development, and Work for Others Programs. A framework for a Resource Management Plan is included as Volume 2 of this EIS and represents the development of an ecosystem based planning process closely integrated with the National Environmental Policy Act process. This EIS, among other things, analyzed the impacts of transportation of low level waste, and site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain Project but did not analyze the suitability of the site as a repository. This EIS does not analyze the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site as a repository as this is an action beyond the scope of the EIS. Volume 3 of this EIS contains the public comments and the responses to the comments

  9. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the State of Nevada. Volume 1, Chapters 1-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This sitewide EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of four possible land-use alternatives being considered for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Tonopah Test Range, and the formerly operated DOE sites in the state of Nevada: the Project Shoal Area, the Central Nevada Test Area, and portions of the Nellis Air Force Range Complex. Three additional sites in Nevada-Eldorado Valley, Dry Lake Valley, and Coyote Spring Valley-are evaluated for collocation of solar energy production facilities. The four alternatives include Continue Current Operations (No Action, continue to operate at the level maintained for the past 3 to 5 years); Discontinue Operations 1 (discontinue operations and interagency programs); Expanded Use (increased use of NTS and its resources to support defense and nondefense programs); and Alternate Use of Withdrawn Lands (discontinue all defense-related activities at NTS; continue waste management operations in support of NTS environmental restoration efforts; expand nondefense research). Environmental impacts were assessed for each alternative by analyzing, to the extent possible, the discrete and cumulative environmental impacts associated with Defense Waste Management, Environmental Restoration, Nondefense Research and Development, and Work for Others Programs. A framework for a Resource Management Plan is included as Volume 2 of this EIS and represents the development of an ecosystem based planning process closely integrated with the National Environmental Policy Act process. This EIS, among other things, analyzed the impacts of transportation of low level waste, and site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain Project but did not analyze the suitability of the site as a repository. This EIS does not analyze the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site as a repository as this is an action beyond the scope of the EIS. Volume 3 of this EIS contains the public comments and the responses to the comments

  10. Environmental and other evaluations of alternatives for management of defense transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Volume 1 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for developing and implementing methods for the safe and environmentally acceptable disposal of radioactive wastes. In connection with this responsibility, the DOE is formulating a program for the long-term management of transuranic (TRU) waste buried and stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This report has been prepared to document the results of environmental and other evaluations for three decisions that the DOE is considering: (1) the selection of a general method for the long-term management of the buried TRU waste; (2) the selection of a method for processing the stored waste and for processing the buried waste, if it is retrieved; (3) the selection of a location for the waste-processing facility. This document pertains only to the contact-handled TRU waste buried in pits and trenches and the contact-handled TRU waste held in aboveground storage at the INEL. A decision has previously been made on a method for the long-term management of the stored waste; it will be retrieved and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP is also used in this report as a reference repository for evaluation purposes for the buried waste. This report is contained in two volumes. Volume I is arranged as follows: the summary is an overview of the analyses contained in this document. Section 1 is a statement of the underlying purpose and need to which the report is responding. Section 2 describes the alterntives. Section 3 describes the affected environment at the INEL and the WIPP sites. Section 4 analyzes the environmental effects of each alternative. The appendices in Volume II contain data and discussions supporting the material presented in Volume I

  11. A tradeoff frontier for global nitrogen use and cereal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Nathaniel D; West, Paul C; Gerber, James S; MacDonald, Graham K; Foley, Jonathan A; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer use across the world’s croplands enables high-yielding agricultural production, but does so at considerable environmental cost. Imbalances between nitrogen applied and nitrogen used by crops contributes to excess nitrogen in the environment, with negative consequences for water quality, air quality, and climate change. Here we utilize crop input-yield models to investigate how to minimize nitrogen application while achieving crop production targets. We construct a tradeoff frontier that estimates the minimum nitrogen fertilizer needed to produce a range of maize, wheat, and rice production levels. Additionally, we explore potential environmental consequences by calculating excess nitrogen along the frontier using a soil surface nitrogen balance model. We find considerable opportunity to achieve greater production and decrease both nitrogen application and post-harvest excess nitrogen. Our results suggest that current (circa 2000) levels of cereal production could be achieved with ∼50% less nitrogen application and ∼60% less excess nitrogen. If current global nitrogen application were held constant but spatially redistributed, production could increase ∼30%. If current excess nitrogen were held constant, production could increase ∼40%. Efficient spatial patterns of nitrogen use on the frontier involve substantial reductions in many high-use areas and moderate increases in many low-use areas. Such changes may be difficult to achieve in practice due to infrastructure, economic, or political constraints. Increases in agronomic efficiency would expand the frontier to allow greater production and environmental gains

  12. Assessing indoor air quality options: Final environmental impact statement on new energy-efficient home programs: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This report discusses the impact of energy conservation measures on indoor air quality in various size residential buildings. This volume includes appendices on ventilation rates, indoor pollutant levels, health effects, human risk assessment, radon, fiberglass hazards, tobacco smoke, mitigation

  13. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U.S. Volume I. Sources, trends, and costs of control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newkirk, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Volume I deals with sources (what the emissions are and where they come from), trends (quantities of emissions and their dispersion with time), and costs of control (what it takes in time, energy, and money to meet minimum standards). Volume II concerns itself with the public health effects of energy production and utilization. Volume III summarizes the various techniques for controlling emissions, technological as well as economic, social, and political. Each volume is divided into sections dealing with the atmosphere, water, land, and social activities--each division indicating a particular sphere of man's environment affected by energy production and use. The sources of information that were used in this study included textbooks, journal articles, technical reports, memoranda, letters, and personal communications. These are cited in the text at the end of each subsection and on the applicable tables and figures

  14. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U. S. Volume I. Sources, trends, and costs of control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, H.W. (comp.)

    1976-05-01

    Volume I deals with sources (what the emissions are and where they come from), trends (quantities of emissions and their dispersion with time), and costs of control (what it takes in time, energy, and money to meet minimum standards). Volume II concerns itself with the public health effects of energy production and utilization. Volume III summarizes the various techniques for controlling emissions, technological as well as economic, social, and political. (For abstracts of Vols. II and III, see ERDA Energy Research Abstracts, Vol. 2, Absts. 5764 and 5670, respectively) Each volume is divided into sections dealing with the atmosphere, water, land, and social activities--each division indicating a particular sphere of man's environment affected by energy production and use. The sources of information that were used in this study included textbooks, journal articles, technical reports, memoranda, letters, and personal communications. These are cited in the text at the end of each subsection and on the applicable tables and figures.

  15. The Environmental Compliance Assessment Management Program (ECAMP) Air National Guard Supplement for The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide. Volume 2. (Revised)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krooks, David

    1997-01-01

    ... (The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide), the ECAMP-ANG supplement was developed to examine Air Force Instructions, Air Force Manuals, and Air Force Policies in conjunction with the TEAM Guide...

  16. Environmental program planning for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    Environmental protection during the course of siting and constructing a repository is mandated by NWPA in conjunction with various phases of repository siting and development. However, DOE has issued no comprehensive, integrated plan for environmental protection. Consequently, it is unclear how DOE will accomplish environmental assessment, monitoring, impact mitigation, and site reclamation. DOE should, therefore, defer further implementation of its current characterization program until a comprehensive environmental protection plan is available. To fulfill its oversight responsibilities the State of Nevada has proposed a comprehensive environmental program for the Yucca Mountain site that includes immediately undertaking studies to establish a 12-month baseline of environmental information at the site; adopting the DOE Site Characterization Plan (SCP) and the engineering design plans it will contain as the basis for defining the impact potential of site characterization activities; using the environmental baseline and the SCP to evaluate the efficacy of the preliminary impact analyses reported by DOE in the EA; using the SCP as the basis for discussions with federal, state, and local regulatory authorities to decide which environmental requirements apply and how they can be complied with; using the SCP, the EA impact review, and the compliance requirements to determine the scope of reclamation measures needed; and developing environmental monitoring and impact mitigation plans based on the EA impact review, compliance requirements, and anticipated reclamation needs

  17. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U.S. Volume 3. Techniques for controlling emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newkirk, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Technological, social, economic and political techniques for controlling emission are summarized for environmental pollutants introduced into air, water and land resources. Chemical, radiological and physical factors are discussed

  18. Nuclear propulsion tradeoffs for manned Mars missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, L.A.; Malloy, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    A conjunction class split/sprint manned Mars exploration mission was studied to evaluate tradeoffs in performance characteristics of nuclear thermal rockets. A Particle Bed Reactor-based nuclear thermal rocket was found to offer a 38% to 52% total mass savings compared with a NERVA-based nuclear thermal rocket for this mission. This advantage is primarily due to the higher thrust-to-weight ratio of the Particle Bed Reactor nuclear rocket. The mission is enabled by nuclear thermal rockets. It cannot be performed practically using chemical propulsion

  19. Financing Investment: The Cost Trade-Off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Flor, Christian Riis

    Intuition suggests that corporate investment should be decreasing in financing constraints. We show that even when financing is obtained using a standard debt contract and there is symmetric information between the firm and outside investors, the relation is actually U-shaped. We thus provide a new...... theoretical explanation for the recent empirical findings of Cleary et al. (2007). We split up the endogenously implied financing costs and propose a trade-off between expected liquidation costs and second-best investment costs. For rather unconstrained firms, the risk of costly liquidation dominates the cost...

  20. Hazard Ranking System evaluation of CERCLA [Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act] inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 1, Evaluation methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, R.D.; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.; Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the individual site Hazard Ranking System (HRS) evaluations conducted as part of the preliminary assessment/site inspection (PA/SI) activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that describe the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program addressing the cleanup of inactive waste sites. These orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The methodology includes six parts: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the HRS methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 34 refs., 43 figs., 47 tabs

  1. Hazard Ranking System evaluation of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 1, Evaluation methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.; Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the individual site Hazard Ranking System (HRS) evaluations conducted as part of the preliminary assessment/site inspection (PA/SI) activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that describe the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program addressing the cleanup of inactive waste sites. These orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The methodology includes six parts: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the HRS methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 34 refs., 43 figs., 47 tabs.

  2. Testing the competition-colonization trade-off with a 32-year study of a saxicolous lichen community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, A I; Prather, C M; Gornish, E S; Ryan, W H; Ellis, R D; Milleri, T E

    2014-02-01

    Competition-colonization trade-offs are theorized to be a mechanism of coexistence in communities structured by environmental fluctuations. But many studies that have tested for the trade-off have failed to detect it, likely because a spatiotemporally structured environment and many species assemblages are needed to adequately test for a competition-colonization trade-off. Here, we present a unique 32-year study of rock-dwelling lichens in New Mexico, USA, in which photographs were used to quantify lichen life history traits and interactions through time. These data allowed us to determine whether there were any trade-offs between traits associated with colonization and competition, as well as the relationship between diversity and disturbance in the community. We did not find evidence for a trade-off between competitive ability and colonization rate or any related life history traits. Interestingly, we did find a peak in all measures of species diversity at intermediate levels of disturbance, consistent with the intermediate disturbance hypothesis pattern. We suggest that the coexistence of the dominant species in this system is regulated by differences in persistence and growth rate mediating overgrowth competition rather than a competition-colonization trade-off.

  3. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Volume 1, Appendix F, Nevada Test Site and Oak Ridge Reservation Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    This volume addresses the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at two US Department of Energy sites, the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). These sites are being considered to provide a reasonable range of alternative settings at which future SNF management activities could be conducted. These locations are not currently involved in management of large quantities of SNF; NTS has none, and ORR has only small quantities. But NTS and ORR do offer experience and infrastructure for the handling, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and they do exemplify a broad spectrum of environmental parameters. This broad spectrum of environmental parameters will provide, a perspective on whether and how such location attributes may relate to potential environmental impacts. Consideration of these two sites will permit a programmatic decision to be based upon an assessment of the feasible options without bias, to the current storage sites. This volume is divided into four parts. Part One is the volume introduction. Part Two contains chapters one through five for the NTS, as well as references contained in chapter six. Part Three contains chapters one through five for the ORR, as well as references contained in chapter six. Part Four is summary information including the list of preparers, organizations contacted, acronyms, and abbreviations for both the NTS and the ORR. A Table of Contents, List of Figures, and List of Tables are included in parts Two, Three, and Four. This approach permitted the inclusion of both sites in one volume while maintaining consistent chapter numbering.

  4. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project is to eliminate, reduce, or address to acceptable levels the potential health and environmental consequences of milling activities. One of the first steps in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). This report contains the comments and responses received on the draft PEIS

  5. Medical University of South Carolina Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Deliverables: Volume 2, Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-18

    This reference is concerned with the Crossroads of Humanity workshop which is part of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program at the Medical University of South Carolina. This workshop was held during the months of June and July 1994. Topics discussed include: Radioactive contamination, aging, medical ethics, and environmental risk analysis.

  6. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2, Part B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Two types of projects in the spent nuclear fuel and environmental restoration and waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are described. These are: foreseeable proposed projects where some funding for preliminary planning and/or conceptual design may already be authorized, but detailed design or planning will not begin until the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act process for the project have been completed; planned or ongoing projects not yet completed but whose National Environmental Policy Act documentation is already completed or is expected to be completed before the Record of Decision for this Envirorunental Impact Statement (EIS) is issued. The section on project summaries describe the projects (both foreseeable proposed and ongoing).They provide specific information necessary to analyze the environmental impacts of these projects. Chapter 3 describes which alternative(s) each project supports. Summaries are included for (a) spent nuclear fuel projects, (b) environmental remediation projects, (c) the decontamination and decommissioning of surplus INEL facilities, (d) the construction, upgrade, or replacement of existing waste management facilities, (e) infrastructure projects supporting waste management activities, and (f) research and development projects supporting waste management activities.

  7. A social-ecological analysis of ecosystem services supply and trade-offs in European wood-pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Tibor

    2018-01-01

    Wood-pastures are complex social-ecological systems (SES), which are the product of long-term interaction between society and its surrounding landscape. Traditionally characterized by multifunctional low-intensity management that enhanced a wide range of ecosystem services (ES), current farm management has shifted toward more intensive farm models. This study assesses the supply of ES in four study areas dominated by managed wood-pastures in Spain, Sweden, and Romania. On the basis of 144 farm surveys and the use of multivariate techniques, we characterize farm management and structure in the study areas and identify the trade-offs in ES supply associated with this management. We link these trade-offs to multiple factors that characterize the landholding: economic, social, environmental, technological, and governance. Finally, we analyze how landholders’ values and perspectives have an effect on management decisions. Results show a differentiated pattern of ES supply in the four study areas. We identified four types of trade-offs in ES supply that appear depending on what is being promoted by the farm management and that are associated with different dimensions of wood-pasture management: productivity-related trade-offs, crop production–related trade-offs, multifunctionality-related trade-offs, and farm accessibility–related trade-offs. These trade-offs are influenced by complex interactions between the properties of the SES, which have a direct influence on landholders’ perspectives and motivations. The findings of this paper advance the understanding of the dynamics between agroecosystems and society and can inform system-based agricultural and conservation policies. PMID:29732404

  8. Quantifying uncertainty and trade-offs in resilience assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. Allen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Several frameworks have been developed to assess the resilience of social-ecological systems, but most require substantial data inputs, time, and technical expertise. Stakeholders and practitioners often lack the resources for such intensive efforts. Furthermore, most end with problem framing and fail to explicitly address trade-offs and uncertainty. To remedy this gap, we developed a rapid survey assessment that compares the relative resilience of social-ecological systems with respect to a number of resilience properties. This approach generates large amounts of information relative to stakeholder inputs. We targeted four stakeholder categories: government (policy, regulation, management, end users (farmers, ranchers, landowners, industry, agency/public science (research, university, extension, and NGOs (environmental, citizen, social justice in four North American watersheds, to assess social-ecological resilience through surveys. Conceptually, social-ecological systems are comprised of components ranging from strictly human to strictly ecological, but that relate directly or indirectly to one another. They have soft boundaries and several important dimensions or axes that together describe the nature of social-ecological interactions, e.g., variability, diversity, modularity, slow variables, feedbacks, capital, innovation, redundancy, and ecosystem services. There is no absolute measure of resilience, so our design takes advantage of cross-watershed comparisons and therefore focuses on relative resilience. Our approach quantifies and compares the relative resilience across watershed systems and potential trade-offs among different aspects of the social-ecological system, e.g., between social, economic, and ecological contributions. This approach permits explicit assessment of several types of uncertainty (e.g., self-assigned uncertainty for stakeholders; uncertainty across respondents, watersheds, and subsystems, and subjectivity in

  9. Issues related to uncertainty in projections of hazardous and mixed waste volumes in the U.S. Department of Energy's environmental restoration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picel, K.C.

    1995-01-01

    Projected volumes of contaminated media and debris at US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental restoration sites that are potentially subject to the hazardous waste provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act are needed to support programmatic planning. Such projections have been gathered in various surveys conducted under DOE's environmental restoration and waste management programs. It is expected that reducing uncertainty in the projections through review of existing site data and process knowledge and through further site characterization will result in substantially lowered projections. If promulgated, the US Environmental Protection Agency's Hazardous Waste Identification Rule would result in potentially even greater reductions in the projections when site conditions are reviewed under the provisions of the new rule. Reducing uncertainty in projections under current and future waste identification rules may be necessary to support effective remediation planning. Further characterization efforts that may be conducted should be designed to limit uncertainty in identifying volumes of wastes to the extent needed to support alternative selection and to minimize costs of remediation

  10. UNOCAL Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental Monitoring Plan - supplemental environmental. Volume 1. Trip 2 report. Rept. for 1988-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. These activities are described in a series of quarterly and annual reports. The report contains results of three years of supplemental environmental sampling (Trial Trip, 1988; Trip 1, 1989; and Trip 2, 1990); Trip 2 sampling and analytical methods; quality assurance and quality control procedures; sampling and analytical methods; and corrected data from 1988 and 1989 gas and particulate concentrations

  11. Visualisation of uncertainty for the trade-off triangle used in sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Takahashi, Taro; Lee, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture at the global-scale is at a critical juncture where competing requirements for maximal production and minimal pollution have led to the concept of sustainable intensification. All farming systems (arable, grasslands, etc.) are part of this debate, where each have particular associated environmental risks such as water and air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and soil degradation, as well as issues affecting production efficiency, product quality and consumer acceptability, reflected in the development of agricultural sustainability policies. These challenges necessitate multidisciplinary solutions that can only be properly researched, implemented and tested in real-world production systems which are suited to their geographical and climatic production practice. In this respect, various high-profile agricultural data collection experiments have been set up, such as the North Wyke Farm Platform (http://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/farmplatform) to research agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices. In this farm-scale grasslands experiment, data on hydrology, emissions, nutrient cycling, biodiversity, productivity and livestock welfare/health are collected, that in turn, are converted to trade-off metrics with respect to: (i) economic profits, (ii) societal benefits and (iii) environmental concerns, under the umbrella of sustainable intensification. Similar agriculture research platforms have similar objectives, where data collections are ultimately synthesised into trade-off metrics. Trade-offs metrics can then be usefully visualized via the usual sustainable triangle, with a new triangle for each key time period (e.g. baseline versus post-baseline). This enables a visual assessment of change in sustainability harmony or discord, according to the remit of the given research experiment. In this paper, we discuss different approaches to calculation of the sustainability trade-off metrics that are required from the farm

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Environmental Data and Models. Volume 1. Theory and Methodology Based Upon Bootstrap Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, H. Christopher [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Rhodes, David S. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1999-04-30

    This is Volume 1 of a two-volume set of reports describing work conducted at North Carolina State University sponsored by Grant Number DE-FG05-95ER30250 by the U.S. Department of Energy. The title of the project is “Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Acid Rain Assessments.” The work conducted under sponsorship of this grant pertains primarily to two main topics: (1) development of new methods for quantitative analysis of variability and uncertainty applicable to any type of model; and (2) analysis of variability and uncertainty in the performance, emissions, and cost of electric power plant combustion-based NOx control technologies. These two main topics are reported separately in Volumes 1 and 2.

  13. Guidance for implementing an environmental, safety and health assurance program. Volume 2. A model plan for environmental, safety and health staff audits and appraisals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, A.C.

    1980-09-01

    This is 1 of 15 documents designed to illustrate how an Environmental, Safety and Health (ES and H) Assurance Program may be implemented. The generic definition of ES and H Assurance Programs is given in a companion document entitled An Environmental, Safety and Health Assurance Program Standard. This document is concerned with ES and H audit and appraisal activities of an ES and H Staff Organization as they might be performed in an institution whose ES and H program is based upon the ES and H Assurance Program Standard. An annotated model plan for ES and H Staff audits and appraisals is presented and discussed

  14. Guidance for implementing an environmental, safety, and health assurance program. Volume 10. Model guidlines for line organization environmental, safety and health audits and appraisals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, A.C.

    1981-10-01

    This is 1 of 15 documents designed to illustrate how an Environmental, Safety and Health (ES and H) Assurance Program may be implemented. The generic definition of ES and H Assurance Programs is given in a companion document entitled An Environmental, Safety and Health Assurance Program Standard. The Standard specifies that the operational level of an institution must have an internal assurance function, and this document provides guidance for the audit/appraisal portion of the operational level's ES and H program. The appendixes include an ES and H audit checklist, a sample element rating guide, and a sample audit plan for working level line organization internal audits

  15. Guidance for implementing an environmental, safety, and health-assurance program. Volume 15. A model plan for line organization environmental, safety, and health-assurance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, A.C.; Trauth, C.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This is 1 of 15 documents designed to illustrate how an Environmental, Safety and Health (ES and H) Assurance Program may be implemented. The generic definition of ES and H Assurance Programs is given in a companion document entitled An Environmental, Safety and Health Assurance Program Standard. This particular document presents a model operational-level ES and H Assurance Program that may be used as a guide by an operational-level organization in developing its own plan. The model presented here reflects the guidance given in the total series of 15 documents.

  16. Fuel Rod Consolidation Project: Phase 2, Final report: Volume 2, Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This document, Volume 2, provides the appendices to Volume 1 of the Fuel Rod Consolidation Project. It provides information on the following: References; Trade-off Studies; Instrument List; RAM Data; Fabrication Specifications; Software Specifications; and Design Requirements

  17. Metabolic enzyme cost explains variable trade-offs between microbial growth rate and yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike T Wortel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbes may maximize the number of daughter cells per time or per amount of nutrients consumed. These two strategies correspond, respectively, to the use of enzyme-efficient or substrate-efficient metabolic pathways. In reality, fast growth is often associated with wasteful, yield-inefficient metabolism, and a general thermodynamic trade-off between growth rate and biomass yield has been proposed to explain this. We studied growth rate/yield trade-offs by using a novel modeling framework, Enzyme-Flux Cost Minimization (EFCM and by assuming that the growth rate depends directly on the enzyme investment per rate of biomass production. In a comprehensive mathematical model of core metabolism in E. coli, we screened all elementary flux modes leading to cell synthesis, characterized them by the growth rates and yields they provide, and studied the shape of the resulting rate/yield Pareto front. By varying the model parameters, we found that the rate/yield trade-off is not universal, but depends on metabolic kinetics and environmental conditions. A prominent trade-off emerges under oxygen-limited growth, where yield-inefficient pathways support a 2-to-3 times higher growth rate than yield-efficient pathways. EFCM can be widely used to predict optimal metabolic states and growth rates under varying nutrient levels, perturbations of enzyme parameters, and single or multiple gene knockouts.

  18. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 1, Cell and battery safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J M

    1992-09-01

    This report is the first of four volumes that identify and assess the environmental, health, and safety issues involved in using sodium-sulfur (Na/S) battery technology as the energy source in electric and hybrid vehicles that may affect the commercialization of Na/S batteries. This and the other reports on recycling, shipping, and vehicle safety are intended to help the Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division of the Office of Transportation Technologies in the US Department of Energy (DOE/EHP) determine the direction of its research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program for Na/S battery technology. The reports review the status of Na/S battery RD&D and identify potential hazards and risks that may require additional research or that may affect the design and use of Na/S batteries. This volume covers cell design and engineering as the basis of safety for Na/S batteries and describes and assesses the potential chemical, electrical, and thermal hazards and risks of Na/S cells and batteries as well as the RD&D performed, under way, or to address these hazards and risks. The report is based on a review of the literature and on discussions with experts at DOE, national laboratories and agencies, universities, and private industry. Subsequent volumes will address environmental, health, and safety issues involved in shipping cells and batteries, using batteries to propel electric vehicles, and recycling and disposing of spent batteries. The remainder of this volume is divided into two major sections on safety at the cell and battery levels. The section on Na/S cells describes major component and potential failure modes, design, life testing and failure testing, thermal cycling, and the safety status of Na/S cells. The section on batteries describes battery design, testing, and safety status. Additional EH&S information on Na/S batteries is provided in the appendices.

  19. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U. S. Volume 3. Techniques for controlling emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, H.W. (comp.)

    1976-06-14

    Technological, social, economic and political techniques for controlling emission are summarized for environmental pollutants introduced into air, water and land resources. Chemical, radiological and physical factors are discussed. (PCS)

  20. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Northwest Arctic, Alaska, volume 2, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0046028)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Northwest Arctic, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  1. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel: Appendix A, environmental justice analysis. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This is Appendix A to a draft Environmental Impact Statement on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. This appendix addresses environmental justice for the acceptance of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States. Analyses of environmental justice concerns are provided in three areas: (1) potential ports of entry, (2) potential transportation routes from candidate ports of entry to interim management sites, and (3) areas surrounding potential interim management sites. These analyses lead to the conclusion that the alternatives analyzed in this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) would result in no disproportionate adverse effects on minority populations or low-income communities surrounding the candidate ports, transport routes, or interim management sites

  2. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: West Peninsular Florida Volume 2, maps in portable document format (pdf) (NODC Accession 0006394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps in Portable Document Format (.PDF) for the shoreline of lower West Peninsular Florida (to...

  3. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Prince William Sound, Alaska, Volumes 1 and 2, geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0019218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  4. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2, Appendices A--L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This report consists of appendices A-L of the final environmental impact statement for the Bonneville Power Administration. The appendices provide information on the following: Ninth circuit Court opinion in Forelaws on Board v. Johnson; guide to Northwest Power act contracts; guide to hydro operations; glossary; affected environment supporting documentation; environmental impacts of generic resource types; information on models used; technical information on analysis; public involvement activities; bibliography; Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act; and biological assessment. (CBS)

  5. Volume of baseline data on radioactivity in drinking water, ground water, waste water, sewage sludge, residues and wastes of the annual report 1988 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelmann, S.; Buenger, T.; Fusban, H.U.; Ruehle, H.; Viertel, H.; Gans, I.

    1991-01-01

    This WaBoLu volume is a shortened version of the annual report by the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety 'Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure' and gives an overview of the data on radioactivity in drinking water, ground water, waste water, sewage sludge, residues and wastes, compiled for the area of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1988 by the Institute of Water, Soil and Air Hygiene (WaBoLu) of the Federal Health Office. (BBR) With 22 figs., 15 tabs [de

  6. Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement. Handling and storage of spent light water power reactor fuel. Volume 1. Executive summary and text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    The Generic Environmental Impact Statement on spent fuel storage was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in response to a directive from the Commissioners published in the Federal Register, September 16, 1975 (40 FR 42801). The Commission directed the staff to analyze alternatives for the handling and storage of spent light water power reactor fuel with particular emphasis on developing long range policy. Accordingly, the scope of this statement examines alternative methods of spent fuel storage as well as the possible restriction or termination of the generation of spent fuel through nuclear power plant shutdown. Volume 1 includes the executive summary and the text

  7. Assessing trade-offs in large marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Tammy E; Epstein, Graham; Aguilera, Stacy E; Brooks, Cassandra M; Cox, Michael; Evans, Louisa S; Maxwell, Sara M; Nenadovic, Mateja; Ban, Natalie C

    2018-01-01

    Large marine protected areas (LMPAs) are increasingly being established and have a high profile in marine conservation. LMPAs are expected to achieve multiple objectives, and because of their size are postulated to avoid trade-offs that are common in smaller MPAs. However, evaluations across multiple outcomes are lacking. We used a systematic approach to code several social and ecological outcomes of 12 LMPAs. We found evidence of three types of trade-offs: trade-offs between different ecological resources (supply trade-offs); trade-offs between ecological resource conditions and the well-being of resource users (supply-demand trade-offs); and trade-offs between the well-being outcomes of different resource users (demand trade-offs). We also found several divergent outcomes that were attributed to influences beyond the scope of the LMPA. We suggest that despite their size, trade-offs can develop in LMPAs and should be considered in planning and design. LMPAs may improve their performance across multiple social and ecological objectives if integrated with larger-scale conservation efforts.

  8. Urban Forest Ecosystem Service Optimization, Tradeoffs, and Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnaruk, E.; Kroll, C. N.; Endreny, T. A.; Hirabayashi, S.; Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Urban land area and the proportion of humanity living in cities is growing, leading to increased urban air pollution, temperature, and stormwater runoff. These changes can exacerbate respiratory and heat-related illnesses and affect ecosystem functioning. Urban trees can help mitigate these threats by removing air pollutants, mitigating urban heat island effects, and infiltrating and filtering stormwater. The urban environment is highly heterogeneous, and there is no tool to determine optimal locations to plant or protect trees. Using spatially explicit land cover, weather, and demographic data within biophysical ecosystem service models, this research expands upon the iTree urban forest tools to produce a new decision support tool (iTree-DST) that will explore the development and impacts of optimal tree planting. It will also heighten awareness of environmental justice by incorporating the Atkinson Index to quantify disparities in health risks and ecosystem services across vulnerable and susceptible populations. The study area is Baltimore City, a location whose urban forest and environmental justice concerns have been studied extensively. The iTree-DST is run at the US Census block group level and utilizes a local gradient approach to calculate the change in ecosystem services with changing tree cover across the study area. Empirical fits provide ecosystem service gradients for possible tree cover scenarios, greatly increasing the speed and efficiency of the optimization procedure. Initial results include an evaluation of the performance of the gradient method, optimal planting schemes for individual ecosystem services, and an analysis of tradeoffs and synergies between competing objectives.

  9. Technical procedures for water resources: Volume 4, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the water Resources Site Study Plan: including Collection, Preservation, and Shipment of Ground-Water Samples; Inventory Current Water Use and Estimating Projected Water Use; Estimation of Precipitation Depth, Duration, Frequence; Estimation of Probable Maximum Precipitation; Calculation of Floodplains

  10. Technical procedures for water resources, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Volume 1: Environmental Field Program: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This volume contains Technical Procedures pursuant to the Water Resources Site Study Plan including, determination of basin topographic characteristics, determination of channel and playa lake characteristics, operation of a stream gaging station, operation of a playa lake stage gaging system, and processing of data from a playa lake stage gaging system

  11. Drivers, Constraints and Trade-Offs Associated with Recultivating Abandoned Cropland in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Meyfroidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Further cropland expansion might be unavoidable to satisfy the growing demand for land- based products and ecosystem services. A crucial issue is thus to assess the trade-offs between social and ecological impacts and the benefits of converting additional land to cropland. In the former Soviet Union countries, where the transition from state-command to market-driven economies resulted in widespread agricultural land abandonment, cropland expansion may incur relatively low costs, especially compared with tropical regions. Our objectives were to quantify the drivers, constraints and trade-offs associated with recultivating abandoned cropland to assess the potentially available cropland in European Russia, western Siberia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan - the region where the vast majority of post- Soviet cropland abandonment took place. Using spatial panel regressions, we characterized the socio-economic determinants of cropland abandonment and recultivation. We then used recent maps of changes in cropland to 1 spatially characterize the socio-economic, accessibility and soil constraints associated with the recultivation of abandoned croplands and 2 investigate the environmental trade-offs regarding carbon stocks and habitat for biodiversity. Less cropland abandonment and more recultivation after 2000 occurred in areas with an increasing rural population and a younger labor force, but also improved yields. Synergies were observed between cropland recultivation and intensification over the 2000s. From 47.3 million hectares (Mha of cropland abandoned in 2009, we identified only 8.5 (7.1-17.4 Mha of potentially available cropland with low environmental tradeoffs and low to moderate socio-economic or accessibility constraints that were located on high-quality soils (Chernozems. These areas represented an annual wheat production potential of 14.3 (9.6-19.5 million tons (Mt. Conversely, 8.5 (4.2-12.4 Mha had high carbon or biodiversity trade-offs, of which 10

  12. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a pregrammatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For pregrammatic spent nuclear fuel management, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes.

  13. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2, Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This document analyzes at a programmatic level the potential environmental consequences over the next 40 years of alternatives related to the transportation, receipt, processing, and storage of spent nuclear fuel under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy. It also analyzes the site-specific consequences of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory sitewide actions anticipated over the next 10 years for waste and spent nuclear fuel management and environmental restoration. For programmatic spent nuclear fuel management this document analyzes alternatives of no action, decentralization, regionalization, centralization and the use of the plans that existed in 1992/1993 for the management of these materials. For the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this document analyzes alternatives of no action, ten-year plan, minimum and maximum and maximum treatment, storage, and disposal of US Department of Energy wastes.

  14. Application for approval of the Cold Lake Expansion Project: volume 2: environmental impact assessment: Part 1: biophysical and resource use assessment. Part 2: impact model descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.; Eccles, R.; Hegmann, G.; Morrison, L.; Salter, R.; van Egmond, T.; Vonk, P.; Ash, G.; Crowther, R.; Dance, T.; Edwards, W.; Veldman, W.

    1997-02-01

    An environmental assessment of the Cold Lake Expansion Project has been conducted to identify major issues of concern by public and government agencies, to determine means to eliminate or reduce those impacts, and to recommend any further efforts required to obtain missing information or monitor impacts. Volume 2 of the environmental impact assessment is divided into two parts. Part 1 (biophysical and resource use assessment) constitutes the primary environmental impact assessment document for the Cold Lake expansion project. It includes technical support documentation in regard to: (1) an assessment of noise impacts, (2) an assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, (3) a conceptual conservation and reclamation plan, (4) a historical resource impact assessment, and (5) a description of effects of oil spills on fish. Part 2 (impact model description) serves a reference document for part 1. It describes the approach taken in developing and assessing the impact models, discusses proposed methods for mitigation and management of residual impacts, and the recommended monitoring requirements for each of the major resource disciplines. The impact models describe the specific pathways through which impacts will occur as a result of interactions between project-related activities and important environmental components. 476 refs., 58 tabs., 23 figs

  15. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 1, Main text. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This publication contains 1035 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. These citations constitute the thirteenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types. There are 13 major sections of the publication, including: (1) DOE Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (6) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (7) DOE Site-Specific Remedial Actions; (8) Contaminated Site Restoration; (9) Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater; (10) Environmental Data Measurements, Management, and Evaluation; (11) Remedial Action Assessment and Decision-Making; (12) Technology Development and Evaluation; and (13) Environmental and Waste Management Issues. Bibliographic references are arranged in nine subject categories by geographic location and then alphabetically by first author, corporate affiliation, or publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal phase final supplemental environmental impact statement. Volume 1, Chapters 1--6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II) is to provide information on environmental impacts regarding the Department of Energy's (DOE) proposed disposal operations at WIPP. The Proposed Action describes the treatment and disposal of the Basic inventory of TRU waste over a 35-year period. The Action Alternatives proposed the treatment of the Basic Inventory and an Additional Inventory as well as the transportation of the treated waste to WIPP for disposal over a 150- to 190-year period. The three Action Alternatives include the treatment of TRU waste at consolidation sites to meet WIPP planning-basic Waste Acceptance Criteria, the thermal treatment of TRU waste to meet Land Disposal Restrictions, and the treatment of TRU waste by a shred and grout process. SEIS-II evaluates environmental impacts resulting from the various treatment options; the transportation of TRU waste to WIPP using truck, a combination of truck and regular rail service, and a combination of truck and dedicated rail service; and the disposal of this waste in the repository. Evaluated impacts include those to the general environment and to human health. Additional issues associated with the implementation of the alternatives are discussed to provide further understanding of the decisions to be reached and to provide the opportunity for public input on improving DOE's Environmental Management Program. Chapters 1--6 include an introduction, background information, description of the proposed action and alternatives, description of the affected environments, environmental impacts, and consultations and permits

  17. Environmental monitoring at major U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration contractor sites: calendar year 1976. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    The purpose of this compilation is to present, in a central reference document, all of the individual annual reports summarizing the results of the environmental monitoring programs conducted at each of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) sites having a potential for environmental impact or which release a significant quantity of radioactivity or nonradioactive pollutants. Data on the levels of radioactivity and nonradioactive pollutants in effluents and the environs at each site are given, and effluent and environmental measurements and sampling results are evaluated in relation to the appropriate standards for environmental protection, including estimates of potential radiation exposures offsite. It is noteworthy that, in most cases, the potential offsite exposures are so low they cannot be determined by direct measurement methods but must be estimated by calculational techniques. All potential offsite exposures to members of the public from routine effluent releases in 1976 were less than 5 mrem/yr (i.e., less than one percent of the established radiation protection guidelines for exposure of the public). Additionally, the estimated collective man-rem dose potential to all members of the public within an 80 Km radius at all ERDA sites is less than .02 percent of the estimated man-rem dose due to natural and background environmental radiation

  18. Environmental monitoring at major U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration contractor sites: calendar year 1976. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    The purpose of this compilation is to present, in a central reference document, all of the individual annual reports summarizing the results of the environmental monitoring programs conducted at each of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) sites having a potential for environmental impact or which release a significant quantity of radioactivity or nonradioactive pollutants. Data on the levels of radioactivity and nonradioactive pollutants in effluents and the environs at each site are given, and effluent and environmental measurements and sampling results are evaluated in relation to the appropriate standards for environmental protection, including estimates of potential radiation exposures offsite. It is noteworthy that, in most cases, the potential offsite exposures are so low they cannot be determined by direct measurement methods but must be estimated by calculational techniques. All potential offsite exposures to members of the public from routine effluent releases in 1976 were less than 5 mrem/yr (i.e., less than one percent of the established radiation protection guidelines for exposure of the public). Additionally, the estimated collective man-rem dose potential to all members of the public within an 80 Km radius at all ERDA sites is less than .02 percent of the estimated man-rem dose due to natural and background environmental radiation

  19. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project is to eliminate, reduce, or address to acceptable levels the potential health and environmental consequences of milling activities by meeting Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. One of the first steps in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The EPA standards allow the use of different strategies for achieving compliance with the standards. This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. Each of the four alternatives evaluated in the PEIS is based on a different mix of strategies to meet EPA ground water standards. The PEIS is intended to serve as a programmatic planning document that provides an objective basis for determining site-specific ground water compliance strategies and data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impact analyses more efficiently. DOE will prepare appropriate further National Environmental Policy Act documentation before making site-specific decisions to implement the Ground Water Project. Affected States, Tribes, local government agencies, and members of the public have been involved in the process of preparing this PEIS; DOE encourages their continued participation in the site-specific decision making process

  20. Environmental monitoring at major U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration contractor sites: calendar year 1976. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The purpose of this compilation is to present, in a central reference document, all of the individual annual reports summarizing the results of the environmental monitoring programs conducted at each of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) sites having a potential for environmental impact or which release a significant quantity of radioactivity or nonradioactive pollutants. Data on the levels of radioactivity and nonradioactive pollutants in effluents and the environs at each site are given, and effluent and environmental measurements and sampling results are evaluated in relation to the appropriate standards for environmental protection, including estimates of potential radiation exposures offsite. It is noteworthy that, in most cases, the potential offsite exposures are so low they cannot be determined by direct measurement methods but must be estimated by calculational techniques. All potential offsite exposures to members of the public from routine effluent releases in 1976 were less than 5 mrem/yr (i.e., less than one percent of the established radiation protection guidelines for exposure of the public). Additionally, the estimated collective man-rem dose potential to all members of the public within an 80 Km radius at all ERDA sites is less than .02 percent of the estimated man-rem dose due to natural and background environmental radiation.

  1. Operational trade-offs in reservoir control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakakos, Aris P.

    1993-11-01

    Reservoir operation decisions require constant reevaluation in the face of conflicting objectives, varying hydrologic conditions, and frequent operational policy changes. Optimality is a relative concept very much dependent on the circumstances under which a decision is made. More than anything else, reservoir management authorities need the means to assess the impacts of various operational options. It is their responsibility to define what is desirable after a thorough evaluation of the existing circumstances. This article presents a model designed to generate operational trade-offs common among reservoir systems. The model avoids an all-encompassing problem formulation and distinguishes three operational modes (levels) corresponding to normal, drought, and flood operations. Each level addresses only relevant system elements and uses a static and a dynamic control module to optimize turbine performance within each planning period and temporally. The model is used for planning the operation of the Savannah River System.

  2. Rate-cost tradeoffs in control

    KAUST Repository

    Kostina, Victoria

    2017-02-13

    Consider a distributed control problem with a communication channel connecting the observer of a linear stochastic system to the controller. The goal of the controller is minimize a quadratic cost function. The most basic special case of that cost function is the mean-square deviation of the system state from the desired state. We study the fundamental tradeoff between the communication rate r bits/sec and the limsup of the expected cost b, and show a lower bound on the rate necessary to attain b. The bound applies as long as the system noise has a probability density function. If target cost b is not too large, that bound can be closely approached by a simple lattice quantization scheme that only quantizes the innovation, that is, the difference between the controller\\'s belief about the current state and the true state.

  3. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Volume 2: Chapters 1 through 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska (Corps) to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. The Corps determined that issuance of a permit for BPXA's proposed project constituted a major federal action that may significant affect the quality of the human environment pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In addition, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), upon review of BPXA's permit application, determined under provisions of the Clean Water Act and 40 CFR Part 6 Subpart F that permitting for BPXA's proposed project constituted a major federal action that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment. As a result, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) under NEPA was undertaken to identify and evaluate a range of reasonable alternatives and evaluate the potential effects the alternatives, including BPXA's proposed project, may have on the human environment

  4. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration-Plant Program. Volume II. The environment (Deliverable No. 27). [Baseline environmental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    The proposed site of the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant (IFGDP) is located on a small peninsula extending eastward into Lake McKeller from the south shore. The peninsula is located west-southwest of the City of Memphis near the confluence of Lake McKeller and the Mississippi River. The environmental setting of this site and the region around this site is reported in terms of physical, biological, and human descriptions. Within the physical description, this report divides the environmental setting into sections on physiography, geology, hydrology, water quality, climatology, air quality, and ambient noise. The biological description is divided into sections on aquatic and terrestrial ecology. Finally, the human environment description is reported in sections on land use, demography, socioeconomics, culture, and visual features. This section concludes with a discussion of physical environmental constraints.

  5. Trends in Genetic and Environmental Parameters for Height, Diameter, and Volume in a Multilocation Clonal Study with Loblolly Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. Paul; G. Sam Foster; T. Caldwell; J. McRae

    1997-01-01

    Seedlings from 30 full-sib families (contained in 2,4 x 4 factorials) of loblollynine(Pinus taeda L.) were cloned and planted in three test sites in Georgia. Analyses were conducted on total height at ages 1 to 5 yr in the field, dbh at age 5, and individual tree volume at age 5. Four sources of genetic control were tested: male parent, female parent, male x female...

  6. Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement. Handling and storage of spent light water power reactor fuel. Volume 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    This volume contains the following appendices: LWR fuel cycle, handling and storage of spent fuel, termination case considerations (use of coal-fired power plants to replace nuclear plants), increasing fuel storage capacity, spent fuel transshipment, spent fuel generation and storage data, characteristics of nuclear fuel, away-from-reactor storage concept, spent fuel storage requirements for higher projected nuclear generating capacity, and physical protection requirements and hypothetical sabotage events in a spent fuel storage facility

  7. Potential use of geothermal resources in the Snake River Basin: an environmental overview. Volume II. Annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F.; Sullivan, J.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    This volume is a partially annotated bibliography of reference materials pertaining to the seven KGRA's. The bibliography is divided into sections by program element as follows: terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, heritage resources, socioeconomics and demography, geology, geothermal, soils, hydrology and water quality, seismicity, and subsidence. Cross-referencing is available for those references which are applicable to specific KGRA's. (MHR)

  8. Tradeoffs between image quality and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Image quality takes on different perspectives and meanings when associated with the concept of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), which is chiefly focused on radiation dose delivered as a result of a medical imaging procedure. ALARA is important because of the increased radiosensitivity of children to ionizing radiation and the desire to keep the radiation dose low. By the same token, however, image quality is also important because of the need to provide the necessary information in a radiograph in order to make an accurate diagnosis. Thus, there are tradeoffs to be considered between image quality and radiation dose, which is the main topic of this article. ALARA does not necessarily mean the lowest radiation dose, nor, when implemented, does it result in the least desirable radiographic images. With the recent widespread implementation of digital radiographic detectors and displays, a new level of flexibility and complexity confronts the technologist, physicist, and radiologist in optimizing the pediatric radiography exam. This is due to the separation of the acquisition, display, and archiving events that were previously combined by the screen-film detector, which allows for compensation for under- and overexposures, image processing, and on-line image manipulation. As explained in the article, different concepts must be introduced for a better understanding of the tradeoffs encountered when dealing with digital radiography and ALARA. In addition, there are many instances during the image acquisition/display/interpretation process in which image quality and associated dose can be compromised. This requires continuous diligence to quality control and feedback mechanisms to verify that the goals of image quality, dose and ALARA are achieved. (orig.)

  9. Quantifying policy tradeoffs to support aging populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Scherbov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coping with aging populations is a challenge for most developed countries. Supporting non-working adults can create an unsustainable burden on those working. One way of dealing with this is to raise the normal pension age, but this has proven unpopular. A complementary approach is to raise the average labor force participation rate. These policies are generally more politically palatable because they often remove barriers, allowing people who would like to work to do so. Objective: To conceptualize and estimate the trade-off between pension age and labor force participation rate policies. Methods: We project the populations of European countries and apply different levels of labor force participation rates to the projected populations. We introduce the notion of a relative burden, which is the ratio of the fraction of the income of people in the labor market in 2050 that they transfer to adults out of the labor market to the same fraction in 2009. We use this indicator to investigate the trade-offs between changes in normal pension ages and the general level of labor force participation rates. Results: We show that, in most European countries, a difference in policies that results in an increase in average labor force participation rates by an additional one to two percentage points by 2050 can substitute for a one-year increase in the normal pension age. This is important because, in many European countries, without additional increases in labor force participation rates, normal pension ages would have to be raised well above 68 by 2050 to keep the burden on those working manageable. Conclusions: Because of anticipated increases in life expectancy and health at older ages as well as because of financial necessity, some mix of increases in pension ages and in labor force participation rates will be needed. Pension age changes by themselves will not be sufficient.

  10. Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement. Quarterly report for the Environmental Restoration Program. Volume 4, July 1995--September 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This quarterly progress report satisfies requirements for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program that are specified in the Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) established between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The reporting period covered herein is July through September 1995 (fourth quarter of FY 1995). Sections 1.1 and 1.2 provide respectively the milestones scheduled for completion during the reporting period and a list of documents that have been proposed for transmittal during the following quarter but have not been approved as FY 1995 commitments

  11. Supplement to the Final Environmental Statement related to the decommissioning of the Rare Earths Facility, West Chicago, Illinois (Docket No. 40-2061): Volume 2, Appendix H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This Supplement to the Final Environmental Statement is issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in response to the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board's ruling that the staff must supplement the Final Environmental Statement in order to evaluate the impact of permanent disposal of the Kerr-McGee Rare Earths Facility wastes located at West Chicago, Illinois. The statement considers the Kerr-McGee preferred plan and various alternatives to the plan. The action proposed by the Commission is the renewal of the Kerr-McGee license to allow disposal of wastes onsite and for possession of the wastes under license for an indeterminate time. The license could be terminated at a later date if certain specified requirements were met. NUREG-0904 was published in draft for comment in June 1987. Comments have been received and are published with their responses in this report. Volume 1 contains the main text and Appendices A thru G. Volume 2 contains the comments received and their responses

  12. Environmental surveillance of the US Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding environs during 1986: Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Wiehle, W.E.; Valentine, B.L.

    1987-04-01

    This report provides monitoring data for the installation and surrounding environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site; provides detailed information about the installation; provides detailed information on input and assumption used in all calculations; integrates monitoring data and related studies in one document to pull together, highlight, and summarize the information contained in many documents; provides trend analyses, where possible, to indicate increases and decreases in environmental conditions; and provides general information on the plant site and quality assurance. Routine monitoring and sampling for radiation, radioactive materials, and chemical substances on and off the DOE reservation and PORTS are used to document compliance with appropriate standards, identify trends, provide information for the public, and contribute to general environmental knowledge. The surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of protecting the public, employees, and the environment from harm that could be caused by its activities and reducing negative environmental impacts to the greatest degree practicable. Environmental monitoring information complements data on specific releases, trends, and summaries. 68 refs., 203 figs., 112 tabs

  13. Medical University of South Carolina Environmental Hazards Assessment Program. Deliverables: Volume 3, Annual report, July 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-18

    This reference is concerned with the Crossroads of Humanity workshop which is part of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program at the Medical University of South Carolina. This workshop was held during the month of June and July 1994. Topics discussed include: Perceived Risk Advisory Committee Meeting, surveys of public opinion about hazardous and radioactive materials, genetics,antibodies, and regulatory agencies.

  14. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-04-01

    The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. One of these alternatives is the proposed action. These alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies because the PEIS is a planning document only. It assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project, provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies, and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. In a traditional environmental impact statement, an impacts analysis leads directly to the defined alternatives. The impacts analysis for implementing alternatives in this PEIS first involves evaluating a ground water compliance strategy or strategies, the use of which will result in site-specific impacts. This PEIS impacts analysis assesses only the potential impacts of the various ground water compliance strategies, then relates them to the alternatives to provide a comparison of impacts.

  15. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The first step in the UMTRA Ground Water Project is the preparation of this programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This document analyzes the potential impacts of four alternatives for conducting the Ground Water Project. One of these alternatives is the proposed action. These alternatives do not address site-specific ground water compliance strategies because the PEIS is a planning document only. It assesses the potential programmatic impacts of conducting the Ground Water Project, provides a method for determining the site-specific ground water compliance strategies, and provides data and information that can be used to prepare site-specific environmental impacts analyses more efficiently. This PEIS differs substantially from a site-specific environmental impact statement because multiple ground water compliance strategies, each with its own set of potential impacts, could be used to implement all the alternatives except the no action alternative. In a traditional environmental impact statement, an impacts analysis leads directly to the defined alternatives. The impacts analysis for implementing alternatives in this PEIS first involves evaluating a ground water compliance strategy or strategies, the use of which will result in site-specific impacts. This PEIS impacts analysis assesses only the potential impacts of the various ground water compliance strategies, then relates them to the alternatives to provide a comparison of impacts

  16. Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway Navigation Season Extension. Volume 1. Main Report and Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    of navigation season extension. The Federal Clean Air Act sets forth National Ambient Air Quality Standards, defining maximum allowable ambient ...programmatic EIS reduces excessive paper work’by covee-ing a specific p rogram within a broad geological area, su- ..i~gthe environmental impactO within

  17. Radiological health review of the final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volumes 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Pursuant to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the Department of Energy has provided in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) a comprehensive review of the potential radiological impact of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, referred to in the FEIS as, the authorized alternative. The EEG has reviewed this document to determine (a) the changes made in comparison with the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS); (b) the adequacy of the DOE's evaluation of the potential radiological impact; (c) the thoroughness of the DOE's response to the comments of the EEG on the DEIS; and (d) other issues which should be addressed by DOE more fully prior to beginning construction of the WIPP. Based on our review of the FEIS, the Department of Energy has incorporated and addressed the majority of the concerns, questions and recommendations that the EEG provided to them in our August 1979 review of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement on WIPP and the FEIS provides a generally satisfactory evaluation of the potential radiological impact. There are, however, a number of areas that have yet to be adequately treated by DOE and should be acted upon and resolved prior to beginning construction of the WIPP. The more important issues are included and are discussed in more detail in our December 8, 1980 and January 15, 1981 comments on the FEIS

  18. Department of Energy Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs, Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1, Appendix D: Part A, Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Volume 1 to the Department of Energy`s Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement evaluates a range of alternatives for managing naval spent nuclear fuel expected to be removed from US Navy nuclear-powered vessels and prototype reactors through the year 2035. The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) considers a range of alternatives for examining and storing naval spent nuclear fuel, including alternatives that terminate examination and involve storage close to the refueling or defueling site. The EIS covers the potential environmental impacts of each alternative, as well as cost impacts and impacts to the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program mission. This Appendix covers aspects of the alternatives that involve managing naval spent nuclear fuel at four naval shipyards and the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Kesselring Site in West Milton, New York. This Appendix also covers the impacts of alternatives that involve examining naval spent nuclear fuel at the Expended Core Facility in Idaho and the potential impacts of constructing and operating an inspection facility at any of the Department of Energy (DOE) facilities considered in the EIS. This Appendix also considers the impacts of the alternative involving limited spent nuclear fuel examinations at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. This Appendix does not address the impacts associated with storing naval spent nuclear fuel after it has been inspected and transferred to DOE facilities. These impacts are addressed in separate appendices for each DOE site.

  19. On the Verge: Costs and Tradeoffs Facing Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Debbie; Szabo-Kubitz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    "On the Verge: Costs and Tradeoffs Facing Community College Students" documents California community college students' struggles to cover college expenses beyond tuition, their experiences with financial aid, and the troubling tradeoffs they face when available resources do not stretch far enough. Consistent with a growing body of…

  20. Trade-off analysis of ecosystem services in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.; Wossink, Ada; Kortelainen, M.; Alkemade, R.; Schulp, C.J.E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we assess trade-offs between ecosystem services in a spatially explicit manner. From a supply side perspective, we estimate opportunity costs, which reflect in monetary terms the trade-offs between ecosystem services due to a marginal land use change. These are based on estimation of

  1. Conceptualising and managing trade-offs in sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Pope, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    One of the defining characteristics of sustainability assessment as a form of impact assessment is that it provides a forum for the explicit consideration of the trade-offs that are inherent in complex decision-making processes. Few sustainability assessments have achieved this goal though, and none has considered trade-offs in a holistic fashion throughout the process. Recent contributions such as the Gibson trade-off rules have significantly progressed thinking in this area by suggesting appropriate acceptability criteria for evaluating substantive trade-offs arising from proposed development, as well as process rules for how evaluations of acceptability should occur. However, there has been negligible uptake of these rules in practice. Overall, we argue that there is inadequate consideration of trade-offs, both process and substantive, throughout the sustainability assessment process, and insufficient considerations of how process decisions and compromises influence substantive outcomes. This paper presents a framework for understanding and managing both process and substantive trade-offs within each step of a typical sustainability assessment process. The framework draws together previously published literature and offers case studies that illustrate aspects of the practical application of the framework. The framing and design of sustainability assessment are vitally important, as process compromises or trade-offs can have substantive consequences in terms of sustainability outcomes delivered, with the choice of alternatives considered being a particularly significant determinant of substantive outcomes. The demarcation of acceptable from unacceptable impacts is a key aspect of managing trade-offs. Offsets can be considered as a form of trade-off within a category of sustainability that are utilised to enhance preferred alternatives once conditions of impact acceptability have been met. In this way they may enable net gains to be delivered; another imperative

  2. Conceptualising and managing trade-offs in sustainability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: A.Morrison-Saunders@murdoch.edu.au [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North West University (South Africa); School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University (Australia); Pope, Jenny [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North West University (South Africa); Integral Sustainability (Australia); Curtin University (Australia)

    2013-01-15

    One of the defining characteristics of sustainability assessment as a form of impact assessment is that it provides a forum for the explicit consideration of the trade-offs that are inherent in complex decision-making processes. Few sustainability assessments have achieved this goal though, and none has considered trade-offs in a holistic fashion throughout the process. Recent contributions such as the Gibson trade-off rules have significantly progressed thinking in this area by suggesting appropriate acceptability criteria for evaluating substantive trade-offs arising from proposed development, as well as process rules for how evaluations of acceptability should occur. However, there has been negligible uptake of these rules in practice. Overall, we argue that there is inadequate consideration of trade-offs, both process and substantive, throughout the sustainability assessment process, and insufficient considerations of how process decisions and compromises influence substantive outcomes. This paper presents a framework for understanding and managing both process and substantive trade-offs within each step of a typical sustainability assessment process. The framework draws together previously published literature and offers case studies that illustrate aspects of the practical application of the framework. The framing and design of sustainability assessment are vitally important, as process compromises or trade-offs can have substantive consequences in terms of sustainability outcomes delivered, with the choice of alternatives considered being a particularly significant determinant of substantive outcomes. The demarcation of acceptable from unacceptable impacts is a key aspect of managing trade-offs. Offsets can be considered as a form of trade-off within a category of sustainability that are utilised to enhance preferred alternatives once conditions of impact acceptability have been met. In this way they may enable net gains to be delivered; another imperative

  3. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the construction and operation of Claiborne Enrichment Center, Homer, Louisiana (Docket No. 70-3-70). Volume 2, Public comments and NRC response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitoun, A.

    1994-08-01

    The Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) (Volume 1), was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accordance with regulation 10 CFR Part 51, which implements the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), to assess the potential environmental impacts for licensing the construction and operation of a proposed gaseous centrifuge enrichment facility to be built in Claiborne Parish, Louisiana by Louisiana Energy Services, L.P. (LES). The proposed facility would have a production capacity of about 866 metric tons annually of up to 5 weight percent enriched UF 6 , using a proven centrifuge technology. Included in the assessment are co on, both normal operations and potential accidents (internal and external events), and the eventual decontamination and decommissioning of the site. In order to help assure that releases from the operation of the facility and potential impacts on the public are as low as reasonably achievable, an environmental monitoring program was developed by LES to detect significant changes in the background levels of uranium around the site. Other issues addressed include the purpose and need for the facility, the alternatives to the proposed action, potential disposition of the tails, the site selection process, and environmental justice. The NRC staff concludes that the facility can be constructed and operated with small and acceptable impacts on the public and the environment, and proposes to issue a license to the applicant, Louisiana Energy Services, to authorize construction and operation of the proposed facility. The letters in this Appendix have been divided into three sections. Section One contains letters to which the NRC responded by addressing specific comments. Section Two contains the letters that concerned the communities of Forest Grove and Center Springs. Section Three is composed of letters that required no response. These letters were generally in support of the facility

  4. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the construction and operation of Claiborne Enrichment Center, Homer, Louisiana (Docket No. 70-3-70). Volume 2, Public comments and NRC response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitoun, A. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) (Volume 1), was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accordance with regulation 10 CFR Part 51, which implements the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), to assess the potential environmental impacts for licensing the construction and operation of a proposed gaseous centrifuge enrichment facility to be built in Claiborne Parish, Louisiana by Louisiana Energy Services, L.P. (LES). The proposed facility would have a production capacity of about 866 metric tons annually of up to 5 weight percent enriched UF{sub 6}, using a proven centrifuge technology. Included in the assessment are co on, both normal operations and potential accidents (internal and external events), and the eventual decontamination and decommissioning of the site. In order to help assure that releases from the operation of the facility and potential impacts on the public are as low as reasonably achievable, an environmental monitoring program was developed by LES to detect significant changes in the background levels of uranium around the site. Other issues addressed include the purpose and need for the facility, the alternatives to the proposed action, potential disposition of the tails, the site selection process, and environmental justice. The NRC staff concludes that the facility can be constructed and operated with small and acceptable impacts on the public and the environment, and proposes to issue a license to the applicant, Louisiana Energy Services, to authorize construction and operation of the proposed facility. The letters in this Appendix have been divided into three sections. Section One contains letters to which the NRC responded by addressing specific comments. Section Two contains the letters that concerned the communities of Forest Grove and Center Springs. Section Three is composed of letters that required no response. These letters were generally in support of the facility.

  5. Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS). Volume 2; Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Factors" and Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Fitts, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the standards for space flight hardware based on human capabilities and limitations. The contents include: 1) Scope; 2) Applicable documents; 3) General; 4) Human Physical Characteristics and Capabilities; 5) Human Performance and Cognition; 6) Natural and Induced Environments; 7) Habitability Functions; 8) Architecture; 9) Hardware and Equipment; 10) Crew Interfaces; 11) Spacesuits; 12) Operatons: Reserved; 13) Ground Maintenance and Assembly: Reserved; 14) Appendix A-Reference Documents; 15) Appendix N-Acronyms and 16) Appendix C-Definition. Volume 2 is supported by the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)s.

  6. National environmental/energy workforce assessment. national summary. Volume Four: South Dakota-Virgin Islands. Final report on phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    This study is one of 70 volumes assessing the workforce needs (manpower needs) for pollution control and abatement in the United States for the five-year period of 1976 through 1981. Seven fields for pollution control -- air, noise, pesticides, potable water, radiation, solid waste, and wastewater -- are analyzed, together with energy-related programs currently accentuated by the national effort to solve energy supply problems. The report identifies existing workforce levels, training programs, career opportunities, and future staffing level projections (1976 to 1982) based on the information available for the states of South Dakota through Wyoming and also the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands

  7. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U.S. Volume 2. Public health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newkirk, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    While health hazards from air pollution are observed there is little documenting research for specific toxicity levels. This volume is an attempt to compile all relevant information in one place as a data bank of information that will aid in the required cost-benefit analysis for an energy production or utilization project. Sources include textbooks, journal articles, technical reports, memoranda, letters, and personal communications. The compilation is organized into air pollution, water pollution and land use considerations and cover both radioactive and chemical pollutants

  8. National environmental/energy workforce assessment. national summary. Volume Three: Nevada-South Carolina. Final report on phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    This study is one of 70 volumes assessing the workforce needs (manpower needs) for pollution control and abatement in the United States for the five-year period of 1976 through 1981. Seven fields for pollution control -- air, noise, pesticides, potable water, radiation, solid waste, and wastewater -- are analyzed, together with energy-related programs currently accentuated by the national effort to solve energy supply problems. The report identifies existing workforce levels, training programs, career opportunities, and future staffing level projections (1976 to 1982) based on the information available for the states of Nevada through South Carolina

  9. Sustainability Orientation and Entrepreneurship Orientation: Is There a Tradeoff Relationship between Them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Soo Sung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability and entrepreneurship are often regarded as binary concepts that have a tradeoff relationship, meaning that the higher the social and environmental consideration, the lower the private and economic benefits. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of individual sustainability orientation on opportunity recognition and sustainable entrepreneurship intention, and examine whether it has a tradeoff relationship with entrepreneurship orientation. The result of this study shows that sustainability orientation has a positive relationship with opportunity recognition and entrepreneurship intention related to sustainability. Analysis of the moderating effects of entrepreneurship orientation reveals the positive effect with sustainability orientation but negative effect with opportunity recognition on sustainable entrepreneurship intention. This study would suggest implications to entrepreneurs on how to balance sustainability and entrepreneurship and promote sustainability entrepreneurship.

  10. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Volume 1: Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to comply with Section 404 of the Clean Water Act and Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska (Corps). The application initiated the review process for BPXA's proposed project to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) prior to any federal action that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment. The EIS is intended to provide federal agencies with information about the consequences of a proposed project and to disclose that information to the public, soliciting their comments, prior to the agencies making decisions on the project

  11. Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement quarterly report for the Environmental Restoration Program, Volume 1, October--December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly progress report satisfies requirements for the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program which are specified in the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) established between the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The reporting period covered is October through December 1992(first quarter of FY 1993). Sections 1.1 and 1.2 provide respectively the milestones scheduled for completion during the reporting period and a list of documents that have been proposed for transmittal during the following quarter but have not been formally approved as FY 1993 commitments. This first section is followed by: significant accomplishments; technical status at Y-12 operable units, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge K-25 site, Clinch River, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, and technical oversight and technical programs; and response action contractor assignments

  12. Monitored retrievable storage submission to Congress: Volume 2, Environmental assessment for a monitored retrievable storage facility. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) supports the DOE proposal to Congress to construct and operate a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) of spent fuel at a site on the Clinch River in the Roane County portion of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first part of this document is an assessment of the value of, need for, and feasibility of an MRS facility as an integral component of the waste management system. The second part is an assessment and comparison of the potential environmental impacts projected for each of six site-design combinations. The MRS facility would be centrally located with respect to existing reactors, and would receive and canister spent fuel in preparation for shipment to and disposal in a geologic repository. 207 refs., 57 figs., 132 tabs.

  13. Integrated Safety Management System Phase 1 and 2 Verification for the Environmental Restoration Contractor Volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARTER, R.P.

    2000-04-04

    DOE Policy 450.4 mandates that safety be integrated into all aspects of the management and operations of its facilities. The goal of an institutionalized Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) is to have a single integrated system that includes Environment, Safety, and Health requirements in the work planning and execution processes to ensure the protection of the worker, public, environment, and the federal property over the life cycle of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. The purpose of this Environmental Restoration Contractor (ERC) ISMS Phase MI Verification was to determine whether ISMS programs and processes were institutionalized within the ER Project, whether these programs and processes were implemented, and whether the system had promoted the development of a safety conscious work culture.

  14. Environmental Inventory and Analysis for Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Volume I. Pine Bluff Metropolitan Area, Arkansas Urban Water Management Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-03

    knowledge of the terminology, methodology and study purpose, which are essential to the assessment of the engineering and environmental elements of the...non-conforming land usage. Pathogens carried into Lake Langhofer could constitute a health hazard to bathers and water skiers in this area. 4. Urban...the threat of the irretrievable loss of a particular species, we have no certain knowledge regarding the possible effects of such a loss on our ecology

  15. Initial Northwest Power Act Power Sales Contracts : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3, Appendix M, Contract Copies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    This report, is part of the final environmental impact statement of the Bonneville Power Administration, consists of an appendix of contract copies related to the following: Detailed Index to Generic Utility Power Sales Contracts, Text of Generic Utility Contract, Detailed Index to Generic DSI Power Sales Contracts, Text of Generic DSI Contract, Text of Residential Purchase and Sale Agreement (Residential Exchange), and Detailed Index to General Contract Provisions -- GCP Form PSC-2 (Incorporated into all three types of contracts as an Exhibit).

  16. Medical Isotopes Production Project: Molybdenum-99 and related isotopes - environmental impact statement. Volume II, comment response document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides environmental and technical information concerning the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) proposal to establish a domestic source to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and related isotopes (iodine-131, xenon-133, and iodine-125). Mo-99, a radioactive isotope of the element molybdenum, decays to form metastable technetium-99 (Tc-99m), a radioactive isotope used thousands of times daily in medical diagnostic procedures in the U.S. Currently, all Mo-99 used in the U.S. is obtained from a single Canadian source. DOE is pursuing the Medical Isotopes Production Project in order to ensure that a reliable supply of Mo-99 is available to the U.S. medical community as soon as practicable. Under DOE's preferred alternative, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Annular Core Research Reactor and Hot Cell Facility at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) would be used for production of the medical isotopes. In addition, three other reasonable alternatives and a No Action alternative are analyzed in detail, The sites for these three reasonable alternatives are LANL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The analyses in this EIS indicate no significant difference in the potential environmental impacts among the alternatives. Each of the alternatives would use essentially the same technology for the production of the medical isotopes. Minor differences in environmental impacts among alternatives relate to the extent of activity necessary to modify and restart (as necessary) existing reactors and hot cell facilities at each of the sites, the quantities of low-level radioactive waste generated, how such waste would be managed, and the length of time needed for initial and full production capacity. This document contains comments recieved from meetings held regarding the site selection for isotope production

  17. Final environmental impact statement, Beaufort Sea oil and gas development/Northstar Project. Volume 3: Chapters 5 through 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. (BPXA) submitted a permit application to the US Army Engineer District, Alaska to initiate the review process for BPXA's plans to develop and produce oil and gas from the Northstar Unit. This report contains chapters 5--7 of an Environmental Impact Statement which was undertaken to identify and evaluate the potential effects the proposed project may have on the environment. Attention is focused on the effects of oil on the physical, biological, and human environments

  18. Proceedings of the international conference on mathematics and computations, reactor physics, and environmental analyses. Volume 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The International Conference on Mathematics and Computations, Reactor Physics, and Environmental Analyses marks the sixteenth biennial topical meeting of the Mathematics and Computation (M ampersand C) Division of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). This conference combines many traditional features of M ampersand C conferences with several new aspects. The meeting is, for the first time, being held in Portland, Oregon and sponsored by the ANS Eastern Washington Section. Three of the cosponsors - the ANS Reactor Physics Division, the European Nuclear Society, and the Atomic Energy Society of Japan - have participated in a series of such meetings, with very successful results. The fourth cosponsor, the ANS Environmental Science Division, is participating for the first time as a cosponsor of a M ampersand C topical meeting, as a result of the M ampersand C Division's decision to formally include the area of environmental analyses as a major focus of the conference, another 'first.' Separate abstracts have been submitted to the energy database for contributions to this conference

  19. Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement for the Environmental Restoration Program. Volume 1, Quarterly report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement Quarterly Report for the Environmental Restoration Program was prepared to satisfy requirements for progress reporting on Environmental Restoration Program (ER) activities as specified in the Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) established between the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The reporting period covered in this document is October through December 1995. This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.2.3.04 (Activity Data Sheet 8304). Publication of this document meets two FFA milestones. The FFA Quarterly Report meets an FFA milestone defined as 30 days following the end of the applicable reporting period. Appendix A of this report meets the FFA milestone for the Annual Removal Action Report for the period FYs 1991--95. This document provides information about ER Program activities conducted on the Oak Ridge Reservation under the FFA. Specifically, it includes information on milestones scheduled for completion during the reporting period, as well as scheduled for completion during the next reporting period (quarter); accomplishments of the ER Program; concerns related to program work; and scheduled activities for the next quarter. It also provides a listing of the identity and assigned tasks of contractors performing ER Program work under the FFA.

  20. Environmental monitoring at major U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration contractor sites: calendar year 1975. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    This report describes environmental monitoring conducted during 1975 in the vicinity of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The environmental monitoring program consists of onsite sampling of water, gaseous, and air effluents, as well as offsite monitoring of water, air, soil, and radiation levels in the vicinity of the site. The report discusses releases of small quantities of radioactivity to the Ohio River from the Shippingport Atomic Power Station during 1975. The Beaver Valley Power Station was under construction during the report year, and therefore, made no radioactive releases. Additional analyses of the effluent from the reactor portion of Shippingport were performed to ensure that the water quality standards specified by Energy Research and Development Administration Manual Chapter 0510 and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania have been met. The results of environmental monitoring described by this report show that Shippingport operations and the pre-operational phase of the Beaver Valley Power Station have not adversely affected the surrounding environment