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Sample records for environmental trace analysis

  1. Environmental sampling for trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, B.

    1994-01-01

    Often too little attention is given to the sampling before and after actual instrumental measurement. This leads to errors, despite increasingly sensitive analytical systems. This is one of the first books to pay proper attention to representative sampling. It offers an overview of the most common techniques used today for taking environmental samples. The techniques are clearly presented, yield accurate and reproducible results and can be used to sample -air - water - soil and sediments - plants and animals. A comprehensive handbook, this volume provides an excellent starting point for researchers in the rapidly expanding field of environmental analysis. (orig.)

  2. Trace-element analysis in environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.; Moschini, G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of charged-particle accelerators in trace-element analysis in the field of environmental sciences is described in this article. Nuclear reactions, charged-particle-induced X-ray emission as well as other nuclear and atomic processes can be used individually, or combined, in developing adequate analytical systems. In addition to concentration levels, concentration levels, concentration profiles can be measured, resulting in unique information. Some examples of experiments performed are described together with the suggestions for future measurements [pt

  3. Application of ion chemistry to environmental trace gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansel, A.; Wisthaler, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In Werner Lindingers laboratory we have developed a mass spectrometric technique, named proton-transfer-reaction mass-spectrometry (PTR-MS), which utilizes positive ion chemistry to measure trace neutral concentrations in air. During the last few years PTR-MS has been used in food research, in medical applications, and in environmental applications to gain gas phase information of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at parts per trillion (pptv) levels. The real time method relies on proton transfer reactions between H 3 O + primary ions and organic trace gases (VOCs) which have a higher proton affinity than water molecules. Organic trace gases such as hydrocarbons, carbonyls, alcohols, acetonitrile, and others can be monitored on-line. In this lecture we will discuss the mass spectrometric method and present recent results gained in the field of environmental trace gas analysis. (author)

  4. Preparation steps in environmental trace element analysis - facts and traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, M

    2001-07-06

    The laboratory of CERVA is for several decades involved in the Belgian environmental research. The activity was associated to national monitoring programs dealing with trace metal pollution of all compartments of the environment (sea and river waters, sediments and organisms but also soils, plants, animal and food samples). Such a monitoring dealing with the total analyte contents in samples needed a comprehensive development of the whole methodology associated to the analyses using atomic absorption and emission spectroscopy techniques. This includes measurement but also preparation steps. The latter is the subject of this work. Long-term experience has shown that precisely sample preparation is the most critical part of the analysis because it is responsible for the largest and often hidden sources of errors. Errors due to contaminations may be usually overcome if necessary precautions are taken concerning reagents, tools and the manner of working. The problem is different for analyte losses: in this case, the responsible factor is an inappropriate methodology. This is particularly true for preparation of solid samples that have to be brought in a solution in order to satisfy needs of introduction systems of most spectroscopic techniques utilized in routine laboratories. For some types of samples (e.g. animal tissues), the dissolution is not a problem: it may be readily achieved by several procedures. This is not the case for samples that contain silicates in their matrix (e.g. soils, sediments, plants) because their complete dissolution cannot be ensured by a simple procedure. This review describes the present knowledge regarding possibilities and errors that concern preparation steps. In addition, possible effects of the preparation procedure on the quality of measurement are also systematically discussed.

  5. Instrumental neutron activation analysis in environmental studies of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, L.

    1975-06-01

    The application of a routine instrumental nuclear method is described in relation to environmental surveys and studies. A working rather than formal review is made of the techniques applied with particular reference to the data processing methods involved. The elements measured by instrumental activation analysis were: Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, In, La, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Zn. (author)

  6. Determination of short-lived trace elements in environmental samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardani, S.; Sihombing, E.; Hamzah, A.; Rochidi; Hery, P.S.; Hartaman, S.; Iman, J.

    1998-01-01

    Concentration of a short-lived trace elements in environmental samples were determined by neutron activation analysis, a counting loss often occur due to the high counting rate. A Pile-Up Rejecter (PUR) electric circuit was installed in counting a short-lived trace elements by a γ-ray spectrometer in order to correct a counting loss. The samples were irradiated for 30∼60 seconds at neutron flux of 3.5 x 10 12 n.cm -2 .s -1 , then the samples cooled for 120 second and counted for 180 second using this system. The nuclides concentration in the varieties environmental samples have a difference analysis result, was more accurate and precise, which the measured result would be 30 % more higher by PUR system than the result would be counted using a conventional γ-ray spectrometry method

  7. Activation analysis of hair as an indicator of contamination of man by environmental trace element pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabukhin, Yu.S.

    1976-10-01

    The burning of fossil fuel, discharges from metallurgical and chemical plants, the wide use of chemicals, and other human activities, result in releasing into the biosphere large quantities of elements which are found in relatively low concentrations in the human organism. The pollution of the biosphere by such trace elements, and in particular heavy metals, has reached such proportions that on the scale of significance of the factors causing the 'stressed' state of the environment of heavy metals occupy the second place and, according to forecasts, may in the future move on to the first. In the problem of pollution of the biosphere, man himself undoubtedly occupies the central position as a target. The pollution of air, soil and water, the contamination of micro-organisms, plants and animals are certainly growing into a serious threat and leading to heavy losses. However, it would be a real disaster if man himself became contaminated to levels giving rise to large scale harmful somatic or genetic effects. It is therefore an urgent problem today to determine the initial levels of trace elements in man and the extent of his contamination in areas where these elements are expected to show anomalous concentrations. Attention should be paid in the first place to those trace elements which probably play no physiological role, are particularly abundant in the environment, and have high toxicity (arsenic, mercury, lead, cadmium, etc.). Moreover, it should be born in mind that in anomalously high concentrations even the physiologically necessary trace elements (copper, zinc, manganese, fluorine, etc.) cause harmful effects. This paper justifies the use of hair samples as a biological indicator of environmental pollutants from physiological and morphological aspect and recommends on sample preparation and analysis methods

  8. Liquid membrane extraction techniques for trace metal analysis and speciation in environmental and biological matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndungu, Kuria

    1999-04-01

    In this thesis, liquid-membrane-based methods for the analysis of trace metal species in samples of environmental and biological origin were developed. By incorporating extracting reagents in the membrane liquid, trace metal ions were selectively separated from humic-rich natural waters and urine samples, prior to their determination using various instrumental techniques. The extractions were performed in closed flow systems thus allowing easy automation of both the sample clean-up and enrichment. An acidic organophosphorus reagent (DEHPA) and a basic tetraalkylammonium reagent (Aliquat-336) were used as extractants in the membrane liquid to selectively extract and enrich cationic and anionic metal species respectively. A speciation method for chromium species was developed that allowed the determination of cationic Cr(III) species and anionic CR(VI) species in natural water samples without the need of a chromatographic separation step prior to their detection. SLM was also coupled on-line to potentiometric stripping analysis providing a fast and sensitive method for analysis of Pb in urine samples. A microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction (MMLLE) method was developed for the determination of organotin compounds in natural waters that reduced the number of manual steps involved in the LLE of organotin compounds prior to their CC separation. Clean extracts obtained after running unfiltered humic-rich river water samples through the MMLLE flow system allowed selective determination of all the organotin compounds in a single run using GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM) 171 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  9. Environmental trace-element analysis using a benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosnach, Hagen

    2005-07-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is an established technique for trace-element analysis in various types of samples. Though expensive large-scale systems restricted the applications in the past, in this study the capability of a benchtop system for trace elemental analysis is reported. The suitability of this system for the mobile on-site analysis of heavy metal contaminated soils and sediments is reported as well as the possibilities and restrictions of TXRF for additional applications, including trace-element analysis of water, glass and biological samples.

  10. Preconcentration of traces of radionuclides with sorbents based on spherical polyurethane membrane systems in the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palagyi, S.; Braun, T.

    1986-01-01

    In the paper the importance of preconcentration and a permanent need for efficient preconcentrating agents in environmental analysis are pointed out. The increased attention is devoted to the foamed polyurethane sorbents as a novel advance in the separation chemistry. The paper has two main aims. The first is to present a survey of recent applications of unloaded and reagent loaded open-cell type resilient polyurethane foams to the separation and preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples. The second is to show the newest results in the use of these foams for the preconcentration and determination of traces of some mainly inorganic species in environmental samples by radioanalytical techniques. Some future possibilities of the use of polyurethane foams in trace elemental determinations in environmental analysis are also outlined. (author)

  11. Tracing footprints of environmental events in tree ring chemistry using neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Dagistan

    The aim of this study is to identify environmental effects on tree-ring chemistry. It is known that industrial pollution, volcanic eruptions, dust storms, acid rain and similar events can cause substantial changes in soil chemistry. Establishing whether a particular group of trees is sensitive to these changes in soil environment and registers them in the elemental chemistry of contemporary growth rings is the over-riding goal of any Dendrochemistry research. In this study, elemental concentrations were measured in tree-ring samples of absolutely dated eleven modern forest trees, grown in the Mediterranean region, Turkey, collected and dated by the Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener Laboratory for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendrochronology laboratory at Cornell University. Correlations between measured elemental concentrations in the tree-ring samples were analyzed using statistical tests to answer two questions. Does the current concentration of a particular element depend on any other element within the tree? And, are there any elements showing correlated abnormal concentration changes across the majority of the trees? Based on the detailed analysis results, the low mobility of sodium and bromine, positive correlations between calcium, zinc and manganese, positive correlations between trace elements lanthanum, samarium, antimony, and gold within tree-rings were recognized. Moreover, zinc, lanthanum, samarium and bromine showed strong, positive correlations among the trees and were identified as possible environmental signature elements. New Dendrochemistry information found in this study would be also useful in explaining tree physiology and elemental chemistry in Pinus nigra species grown in Turkey. Elemental concentrations in tree-ring samples were measured using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) at the Pennsylvania State University Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC). Through this study, advanced methodologies for methodological, computational and

  12. Intelligent simultaneous quantitative online analysis of environmental trace heavy metals with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junjie; Wang, Yeyao; Yang, Qi; Liu, Yubing; Shi, Ping

    2015-05-06

    Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) has achieved remarkable success with the advantages of simultaneous multi-element analysis capability, decreased background noise, no matrix effects, wide dynamic range, ease of operation, and potential of trace analysis. Simultaneous quantitative online analysis of trace heavy metals is urgently required by dynamic environmental monitoring and management, and TXRF has potential in this application domain. However, it calls for an online analysis scheme based on TXRF as well as a robust and rapid quantification method, which have not been well explored yet. Besides, spectral overlapping and background effects may lead to loss of accuracy or even faulty results during practical quantitative TXRF analysis. This paper proposes an intelligent, multi-element quantification method according to the established online TXRF analysis platform. In the intelligent quantification method, collected characteristic curves of all existing elements and a pre-estimated background curve in the whole spectrum scope are used to approximate the measured spectrum. A novel hybrid algorithm, PSO-RBFN-SA, is designed to solve the curve-fitting problem, with offline global optimization and fast online computing. Experimental results verify that simultaneous quantification of trace heavy metals, including Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn, is realized on the online TXRF analysis platform, and both high measurement precision and computational efficiency are obtained.

  13. Intelligent Simultaneous Quantitative Online Analysis of Environmental Trace Heavy Metals with Total-Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Ma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF has achieved remarkable success with the advantages of simultaneous multi-element analysis capability, decreased background noise, no matrix effects, wide dynamic range, ease of operation, and potential of trace analysis. Simultaneous quantitative online analysis of trace heavy metals is urgently required by dynamic environmental monitoring and management, and TXRF has potential in this application domain. However, it calls for an online analysis scheme based on TXRF as well as a robust and rapid quantification method, which have not been well explored yet. Besides, spectral overlapping and background effects may lead to loss of accuracy or even faulty results during practical quantitative TXRF analysis. This paper proposes an intelligent, multi-element quantification method according to the established online TXRF analysis platform. In the intelligent quantification method, collected characteristic curves of all existing elements and a pre-estimated background curve in the whole spectrum scope are used to approximate the measured spectrum. A novel hybrid algorithm, PSO-RBFN-SA, is designed to solve the curve-fitting problem, with offline global optimization and fast online computing. Experimental results verify that simultaneous quantification of trace heavy metals, including Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn, is realized on the online TXRF analysis platform, and both high measurement precision and computational efficiency are obtained.

  14. Functional magnetic nanoshells integrated nanosensor for trace analysis of environmental uranium contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Reshmi [Nanobioengineering/Bioelectronics Lab, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Katsenovich, Yelena; Lagos, Leonel [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Senn, Mark [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, TX (United States); Naja, Melodie [Everglades Foundation, 18001 Old Cutler Road, Palmetto Bay, FL 33157 (United States); Balsamo, Vittoria [Dpto. Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Valle de Sartenejas, Baruta 1080, Edo. Miranda, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Pannell, Keith H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, TX (United States); Li Chenzhong, E-mail: licz@fiu.ed [Nanobioengineering/Bioelectronics Lab, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2010-11-30

    Transuranic radionuclides such as uranium tend to be a pervasive environmental contaminant. It is absorbed through the intestine or a lung, deposited in the tissues, predominantly kidney and bone, and is carcinogenic. A novel nanosensor system has been developed for voltammetric tracing of environmental uranium contamination. The sensor consists of an organophosphorous ligand, (t-butylphenyl)-N,N-di-(isobutyl) carbamoylmethylphosphineoxide (CMPO) functionalized superparamagnetic core-shell magnetic nanoparticles and magnet based electrodes. It exploits the natural affinity of uranium for phosphate molecules to fabricate a highly specific and reproducible sensor. The small dimension along with a dramatically increased contact surface has lead to a faster response and higher sensitivity. The system uses an external magnetic field gradient for preconcentration and removal of the analyte from the surrounding aqueous media. The redox properties of the analyte are exploited for enumeration of variables by electrochemical techniques such as square wave voltammetry. The detection limit of the system is observed to be in parts-per-billion (ppb) of the uranyl concentration.

  15. Ultra-sensitive trace element analysis of environmental samples using advanced TRXRF techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenke, H.; Knoth, J.; Michaelis, W.

    1980-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis is a widely adopted technique for measuring elemental concentrations in a variety of sample species. The particular advantages compared to other methods are simplicity in instrumentation, rapidity of measurement and the high degree of automation attainable. In trace element analysis, however, the sensitivity of conventional x-ray fluorescence analysis is often insufficient. The paper describes a new type of energy-dispersive equipment which reveals ultimate performance with respect to detection limits and which thus considerably extends the applicability of XRF analysis. The essential feature of the system is the utilization of multiple total reflection (TR) of the exciting x-ray beam from polished quartz glass surfaces. Since the refractive index is slightly smaller than 1, total reflection occurs if the radiation strikes the surface at angles of less than 5'. The grazing incident beam from a fine-structure x-ray tube is twice reflected and follows a zigzag path before it is directed to the sample prepared as a thin film on the third quartz glass surface. The direct beam and scattered radiation are eliminated by diaphragms. In this way, a further reduction of the background in the fluorescence spectrum is achieved compared to a previously published version with single reflection of the exciting beam. The performance of the instrument leads to detection limits for aqueous solutions below 10 -11 g or 0.1 ppB, respectively, for at least 20 elements

  16. Recent Improvements at CEA on Trace Analysis of Actinides in Environmental Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointurier, F.; Hubert, A.; Faure, A.L.; Pottin, A.C.; Mourier, W.; Marie, O.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present some results of R and D works conducted at CEA to improve on the one side the performance of the techniques already in use for detection of undeclared activities, and on the other side to develop new capabilities, either as alternative to the existing techniques or new methods that bring new information, complementary to the isotopic composition. For the trace analysis of plutonium in swipe samples by ICP-MS, we demonstrate that a thorough knowledge of the background in the actinide mass range is highly desirable. In order to avoid false plutonium detection in the femtogram range, correction from polyatomic interferences including mercury, lead or iridium atoms are in some case necessary. Efforts must be put on improving the purification procedure. Micro-Raman spectrometry allows determining the chemical composition of uranium compound at the scale of the microscopic object using a pre-location of the particles thanks to SEM and a relocation of these particles thanks to mathematical calculations. However, particles below 5 μm are hardly relocated and a coupling device between the SEM and the micro-Raman spectrometer for direct Raman analysis after location of a particle of interest is currently under testing. Lastly, laser ablation - ICP-MS is an interesting technique for direct isotopic or elemental analysis of various solid samples and proves to be a suitable alternative technique for particle analysis, although precision over isotopic ratio measurement is strongly limited by the short duration and irregularity of the signals. However, sensitivity and sample throughput are high and more developments are in progress to validate and improve this method. (author)

  17. Trace analysis by TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockett, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Total reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) originally was developed for trace analysis of small residues but has become a widespread method for measuring trace surface metal contamination an semiconductor substrates. It is estimated that approximately 100 TXRF instruments are in se in the semiconductor industry worldwide, and approximately half that for residue analysis x analytical laboratories. TXRF instrumentation is available today for reaching detection limits d the order of 10 9 atoms/cm 2 . This review emphasizes some of the more recent developments in TXRF for trace analysis, in particular with the use of synchrotron x-ray sources (SR-TXRF). There is some promise of reaching 10 7 atoms/cm 2 detection limits for surface analysis of semi-conductor substrates. 19 refs

  18. Additional considerations for trace element analysis of environmental matrices using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry with ultrasonic nebulization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, M.; Baeten, H. [Cerva, Tervuren (Belgium); Docekalova, H. [Brno Univ. Technical, Faculty of Chemistry (Czech Republic)

    2000-06-01

    This work compares efficiencies of pneumatic and ultrasonic nebulizers and discusses drawbacks observed in trace element analyses of environmental matrices using ICP-AES with ultrasonic nebulization. The interference observed is mainly due to variable calcium content in samples; in most cases the excessive plasma loading by Ca'is responsible for signal suppression of analyte elements. Such matrix effect may be managed to a certain extent using a classical internal standardisation that is discussed in details. Under well defined conditions, the ICP-AES-USN analysis of most trace elements leads to accurate results for matrices usually studied. However, due to chemical reactions occurring in the condensation stage of the ultrasonic nebulizer and subsequent analyte losses to the waste, the ICP-AES-USN analysis of copper and particularly of boron has to be avoided because it leads unavoidably to erroneous results. This drawback cannot be resolved by usual means of correction but may be overcome by using conventional pneumatic nebulizers. (authors)

  19. Atom trap trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O' Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-05-25

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications.

  20. Determination of trace elements in Tillandsia usneoides by neutron activation analysis for environmental biomonitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Saiki, M.; Ticianelli, R.B.; Domingos, M.; Alves, E.S.; Markert, B.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, As, Ba, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ti, Th, V, Zn and the rare earths La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb and Yb in the epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia usneoides. The samples were collected at an unpolluted area and exposed in different sites of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and in a control site outside Sao Paulo. The results obtained showed an accumulation of Al, As, Cr, Fe, Mo, Sb, Ti, V and Zn elements in Tillandsia usneoides exposed in polluted sites, indicating a promising potential of this species as a biomonitor of air pollution in Sao Paulo. (author)

  1. Trace analysis of semiconductor materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cali, J Paul; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Trace Analysis of Semiconductor Materials is a guidebook concerned with procedures of ultra-trace analysis. This book discusses six distinct techniques of trace analysis. These techniques are the most common and can be applied to various problems compared to other methods. Each of the four chapters basically includes an introduction to the principles and general statements. The theoretical basis for the technique involved is then briefly discussed. Practical applications of the techniques and the different instrumentations are explained. Then, the applications to trace analysis as pertaining

  2. Trace elements distribution in environmental compartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Juliana C. de; Peres, Sueli da Silva; Godoy, Maria Luiza D.P., E-mail: suelip@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Trace elements term defines the presence of low concentrations metals at environment. Some of them are considered biologically essential, as Co, Cu and Mn. Others can cause detriment to environment and human health, as Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Ti and U. A large number of them have radioactive isotopes, implying the evaluation of risks for human health should be done considering the precepts of environmental radiological protection. The ecosystem pollution with trace elements generates changes at the geochemistry cycle of these elements and in environmental quality. Soils have single characteristics when compared with another components of biosphere (air, water and biota), cause they introduce themselves not only as a drain towards contaminants, but also as natural buffer that control the transport of chemical elements and other substances for atmosphere, hydrosphere and biota. The main purpose of environmental monitoring program is to evaluate the levels of contaminants in the various compartments of the environment: natural or anthropogenic, and to assess the contribution of a potential contaminant source on the environment. Elemental Composition for the collected samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the map baseline of concentration of interest trace elements in environmental samples of water, sediment and soil from Environmental Monitoring Program of Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD). The samples were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) at IRD. >From the knowledge of trace elements concentrations, could be evaluated the environmental quality parameters at the studied ecosystems. The data allowed evaluating some relevant aspects of the study of trace elements in soil and aquatic systems, with emphasis at the distribution, concentration and identification of main anthropic sources of contamination at environment. (author)

  3. Trace elements distribution in environmental compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Juliana C. de; Peres, Sueli da Silva; Godoy, Maria Luiza D.P.

    2017-01-01

    Trace elements term defines the presence of low concentrations metals at environment. Some of them are considered biologically essential, as Co, Cu and Mn. Others can cause detriment to environment and human health, as Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Ti and U. A large number of them have radioactive isotopes, implying the evaluation of risks for human health should be done considering the precepts of environmental radiological protection. The ecosystem pollution with trace elements generates changes at the geochemistry cycle of these elements and in environmental quality. Soils have single characteristics when compared with another components of biosphere (air, water and biota), cause they introduce themselves not only as a drain towards contaminants, but also as natural buffer that control the transport of chemical elements and other substances for atmosphere, hydrosphere and biota. The main purpose of environmental monitoring program is to evaluate the levels of contaminants in the various compartments of the environment: natural or anthropogenic, and to assess the contribution of a potential contaminant source on the environment. Elemental Composition for the collected samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the map baseline of concentration of interest trace elements in environmental samples of water, sediment and soil from Environmental Monitoring Program of Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD). The samples were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) at IRD. >From the knowledge of trace elements concentrations, could be evaluated the environmental quality parameters at the studied ecosystems. The data allowed evaluating some relevant aspects of the study of trace elements in soil and aquatic systems, with emphasis at the distribution, concentration and identification of main anthropic sources of contamination at environment. (author)

  4. Urban environmental geochemistry of trace metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Coby S.C.; Li Xiangdong; Thornton, Iain

    2006-01-01

    As the world's urban population continues to grow, it becomes increasingly imperative to understand the dynamic interactions between human activities and the urban environment. The development of urban environmental geochemistry has yielded a significant volume of scientific information about geochemical phenomena found uniquely in the urban environment, such as the distribution, dispersion, and geochemical characteristics of some toxic and potentially toxic trace metals. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the development of urban environmental geochemistry as a field of scientific study and highlight major transitions during the course of its development from its establishment to the major scientific interests in the field today. An extensive literature review is also conducted of trace metal contamination of the urban terrestrial environment, in particular of urban soils, in which the uniqueness of the urban environment and its influences on trace metal contamination are elaborated. Potential areas of future development in urban environmental geochemistry are identified and discussed. - Urban environmental geochemistry as a scientific discipline provides valuable information on trace metal contamination of the urban environment and its associated health effects

  5. Environmental Risk Limits for Nine Trace Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaardingen PLA van; Posthumus R; Posthuma-Doodeman CJAM; SEC

    2005-01-01

    In this report, we present an update of environmental risk limits (ERLs), based on the literature, for nine trace elements, namely, beryllium (Be), vanadium (V), cobalt (Co), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), tin (Sn), antimony (Sb), barium (Ba) and thallium (Tl). The updated ERLs, established for

  6. Comparison of leaves of Nerium oleander collected the monitoring trace elements in environmental pollution in Rio de Janeiro and Campinas Cities using of synchrotron radiation fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simabuco, Silvana M.; Ferreira Pinto, Jefferson; Dos Anjos, Marcelino J.

    1999-01-01

    These works describes the use of synchrotron radiation fluorescence analysis as a technique for monitoring trace elements in bio-indicators for environmental pollution control. The analyses were made on leaves of Nerium oleander collected in streets with different traffic flow in Rio de Janeiro and Campinas Cities, Brazil, with one sample from rural zone. Part of the leaves were cleaned with 0,1% v/v detergent in deionized water and than all were dry at 60o C until constant weight. The leaves were than cut in small pieces and submitted to a nitric digestion in a open system. The liquid residue was pre-concentrated with ammonium pirrrolidine dithiocarbamate and filtrated by vacuum pump in cellulose membrane. The measurement was made with a white beam of synchrotron radiation calibrated with thin film standards. The results indicate that same metals like Ti, V, Fe and Zn have major content in sample that came from places with high traffic flow even in leaves that have been washed. The levels of Mn, Co, Cu and Ni did not show significant difference between the samples. The Pb level also did not vary significantly what was expected because in Brazil the gasoline did not use plumb as a additive from many years. The results seems to indicate that the leaves from Nerium oleander absorb metals from the atmosphere and may be used as one environmental indicator

  7. Gene expression analysis of 4 biomarker candidates in Eisenia fetida exposed to an environmental metallic trace elements gradient: A microcosm study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brulle, Franck; Lemiere, Sebastien [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); LGCgE, Equipe Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, Lille 1, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Waterlot, Christophe; Douay, Francis [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); LGCgE, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Groupe ISA, 48 boulevard Vauban, F-59046 Lille Cedex (France); Vandenbulcke, Franck, E-mail: franck.vandenbulcke@univ-lille1.fr [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); LGCgE, Equipe Ecologie Numerique et Ecotoxicologie, Lille 1, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2011-11-15

    Past activities of 2 smelters (Metaleurop Nord and Nyrstar) led to the accumulation of high amounts of Metal Trace Elements (TEs) in top soils of the Noyelles-Godault/Auby area, Northern France. Earthworms were exposed to polluted soils collected in this area to study and better understand the physiological changes, the mechanisms of acclimation, and detoxification resulting from TE exposure. Previously we have cloned and transcriptionally characterized potential biomarkers from immune cells of the ecotoxicologically important earthworm species Eisenia fetida exposed in vivo to TE-spiked standard soils. In the present study, analysis of expression kinetics of four candidate indicator genes (Cadmium-metallothionein, coactosin like protein, phytochelatin synthase and lysenin) was performed in E. fetida after microcosm exposures to natural soils exhibiting an environmental cadmium (Cd) gradient in a kinetic manner. TE body burdens were also measured. This microcosm study provided insights into: (1) the ability of the 4 tested genes to serve as expression biomarkers, (2) detoxification processes through the expression analysis of selected genes, and (3) influence of land uses on the response of potential biomarkers (gene expression or TE uptake). - Highlights: {yields} Expression biomarkers in animals exposed to Cadmium-contaminated field soils. {yields} Expression kinetics to test the ability of genes to serve as expression biomarkers. {yields} Study of detoxification processes through the expression analysis of selected genes.

  8. Ultra-Trace Analysis of Krypton-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daerr, H.; Kalinowski, M.; Kohler, M.; Sahling, P.

    2010-01-01

    To strengthen the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear safeguards for detecting undeclared nuclear material and activities we propose to use the radioactive krypton isotope Krypton-85 as a tracer for clandestine plutonium production. The main idea is to detect inexplicable atmospheric Kr85 concentration using the novel technology atom trap trace analysis (ATTA) in order to detect an undeclared reprocessing facility. The Additional Protocol (INFCIRC/540, 1997) establishes the possibility to take environmental samples. Krypton-85 has a combination of unique features which makes it an ideal tracer for plutonium separation activities anywhere in the world. It is always generated along with plutonium and 99.9% remains within the fuel cladding. Due to its half-life of 10.76 years, significant amounts of krypton-85 still remain in the spent fuel even after long cooling times. Krypton is not removed from the atmosphere by any processes like chemical reactions or wash-out. Furthermore, there are no other relevant sources of krypton-85 besides of reprocessing. The novel technology of atom trap trace analysis (ATTA) has been demonstrated by the physics group at Argonne National Laboratory in 1999. This is an ultra-sensitive trace analysis technique able to detect single krypton atoms. We are setting up an ATTA apparatus in our laboratory, which is designed to fulfill all requirements to detect clandestine plutonium production. Our goal is to determine Krypton-85 concentration of one liter samples of atmospheric air with an analysis time of 3 hours. This sample volume reduction is a significant step, since one liter can be taken as a grab sample by sucking it directly into pre-evacuated bottles at atmospheric pressure. The small samples size and the short analysis time of ATTA will make it possible to use krypton-85 as a tracer for clandestine plutonium production with routine operation. (author)

  9. Modified electrode voltammetric sensors for trace metals in environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Christopher M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nafion-modified mercury thin film electrodes have been investigated for the analysis of trace metals in environmental samples of waters and effluent by batch injection analysis with square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The method, involving injection over the detector electrode of untreated samples of volume of the order of 50 microlitres has fast response, blocking and fouling of the electrode is minimum as shown by studies with surface-active components. Comparison is made between glassy carbon substrate electrodes and carbon fibre microelectrode array substrates, the latter leading to a small sensitivity enhancement. Application to analysis of river water and industrial effluent for labile zinc, cadmium, lead and copper ions is demonstrated in collected samples and after acid digestion.

  10. Diagnosing MOV problems using comparative trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of comparative trace analysis and shows it to be very effective in diagnosing motor operated valve (MOV) problems. Comparative trace analysis is simply the process of interpreting simultaneously gathered traces, each presenting a different perspective on the same series of events. The opening and closing of a motor operated valve is such a series of events. The simultaneous traces are obtained using Liberty Technologies' Valve Operation Test and Evaluation System (VOTES)reg-sign. The traces include stem thrust, motor current, motor power factor, motor power, switch actuations, vibration in three different frequency bands, spring pack displacement, and spring pack force. Spare and auxiliary channels enable additional key parameters to be measured, such as differential pressure and stem displacement. Though not specifically illustrated in this paper, the VOTES system also provides for FFT analysis on all traces except switches

  11. Polyaniline/cyclodextrin composite coated stir bar sorptive extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection for the analysis of trace polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yun; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2016-04-01

    A novel polyaniline/α-cyclodextrin (PANI/α-CD) composite coated stir bar was prepared by sol-gel process for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in this work. The preparation reproducibility of the PANI/α-CD-coated stir bar was good, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 2.3% to 3.7% (n=7) and 2.0% to 3.8% (n=7) for bar to bar and batch to batch, respectively. Based on it, a novel method of PANI/α-CD-coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection was developed for the determination of trace PCBs in environmental waters. To obtain the best extraction performance for target PCBs, several parameters affecting SBSE, such as extraction time, stirring rate, and ionic strength were investigated. Under optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) of the proposed method for seven PCBs were in the range of 0.048-0.22 μg/L, and the RSDs were 5.3-9.8% (n=7, c=1 μg/L). Enrichment factors (EFs) ranging from 39.8 to 68.4-fold (theoretical EF, 83.3-fold) for target analytes were achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of seven target PCBs in Yangtze River water and East Lake water, and the recoveries were in the range of 73.0-120% for the spiked East Lake water samples and 82.7-121% for the spiked Yangtze River water samples, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Trace Element Analysis of Selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, M.S.A.

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis divided into four chapters as follows:Chapter (1):This chapter contains an introduction on different oxidation states of organic and inorganic species for selenium in environmental and biological samples, the process for separation of selenium from these samples and the importance of selenium as a component for these samples. Also gives notes about the techniques which are used in the elemental analysis for selenium species and the detection limits for selenium in these techniques, selenium species in human body and the importance of these species in protecting the body from the different types of cancer and the sources of selenium in environmental samples (soil and water) and distribution levels of selenium in these samples.Chapter (2):This chapter is divided into two parts :The first part deals with the sample collection process for environmental samples (underground water, soil) and the wet digestion ( microwave digestion ) process of soil samples. It also contains the theory of work of the closed microwave digestion system.The second part contains detailed information concerning the theoretical considerations of the used analytical techniques. These techniques include Hydride generation - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (HG-AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA).Chapter (3): This chapter includes the methods of sampling, sample preparation, and sample digesition. The measures of quality assurance are disscused in this chapter. It describes in details the closed microwave digestion technique and the analytical methods used in this study which are present in Central Laboratory for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis (CLEIA) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2). The described techniques are Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS 6 vario, Analytical Jena GmbH, Germany), JMS-PLASMAX2 Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (NAA).

  13. Environmental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering's environmental control study is assisted by NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center's programs in environmental analyses. Company is engaged primarily in design of such facilities as electrical utilities, industrial plants, wastewater treatment systems, dams and reservoirs and aviation installations. Company also conducts environmental engineering analyses and advises clients as to the environmental considerations of a particular construction project. Company makes use of many COSMIC computer programs which have allowed substantial savings.

  14. Present and Future Challenges in Trace and Ultra-Trace Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulhoat, P.

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of trace and ultra-trace elements is continuously stimulating the progress in analytical chemistry. Environmental chemistry, radiochemistry, biology, health, agri-food are prescribers of trace analyses, with continuously increasing exigencies: lowering detection limits, lowering costs and analysis time, improving the quality of analytical information. Precise data about the chemical identity and chemical environment of analytes are now requested. Such pieces of information, beyond simple numerical data and confidence intervals, are necessary to understand studied systems, and to predict their evolution. From environmental contamination cases, one can envisage the various aspects of a problem, with for each of them its own exigencies and specificities in terms of analytical methods and approaches. The detection of traces and ultra-traces of actinides and fission products has been recently revisited and stimulates new technological developments (non proliferation issues, waste management). Data on their speciation in geological and biological media are essential for evaluating the safety of nuclear waste repositories. Various techniques are now used to determine speciation in liquid samples or on surfaces, with tremendous spatial resolutions or sensitivities. A new revolution in analytical chemistry is expected with the development of micro- or nano-analytical technologies. (author)

  15. Capillary thermal desorption unit for near real-time analysis of VOCs at sub-trace levels. Application to the analysis of environmental air contamination and breath samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Mónica; Castellanos, Mar; Martín, José; Sanchez, Juan M

    2009-05-15

    A capillary microtrap thermal desorption module is developed for near real-time analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at sub-ppbv levels in air samples. The device allows the direct injection of the thermally desorbed VOCs into a chromatographic column. It does not use a second cryotrap to focalize the adsorbed compounds before entering the separation column so reducing the formation of artifacts. The connection of the microtrap to a GC-MS allows the quantitative determination of VOCs in less than 40 min with detection limits of between 5 and 10 pptv (25 degrees C and 760 mm Hg), which correspond to 19-43 ng m(-3), using sampling volumes of 775 cm(3). The microtrap is applied to the analysis of environmental air contamination in different laboratories of our faculty. The results obtained indicate that most volatile compounds are easily diffused through the air and that they also may contaminate the surrounding areas when the habitual safety precautions (e.g., working under fume hoods) are used during the manipulation of solvents. The application of the microtrap to the analysis of VOCs in breath samples suggest that 2,5-dimethylfuran may be a strong indicator of a person's smoking status.

  16. Application of trace element analysis to determine trace element concentrations in the field of medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperek, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis such as, e.g., neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilisators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicium in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalysators. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection. (orig./AK) [de

  17. Trace amount analysis using spark mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefani, Rene

    1975-01-01

    Characteristics of spark mass spectrometers (ion source, properties of the ion beam, ion optics, and performance) and their use in qualitative and quantitative analysis are described. This technique is very interesting for the semi-quantitative analysis of trace amounts, down to 10 -8 atoms. Examples of applications such as the analysis of high purity materials and non-conducting mineral samples, and determination of carbon and gas trace amounts are presented. (50 references) [fr

  18. Trace analysis of total naphthenic acids in aqueous environmental matrices by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry direct injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunswick, Pamela; Shang, Dayue; van Aggelen, Graham; Hindle, Ralph; Hewitt, L Mark; Frank, Richard A; Haberl, Maxine; Kim, Marcus

    2015-07-31

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight method has been established for the determination of total naphthenic acid concentrations in aqueous samples. This is the first methodology that has been adopted for routine, high resolution, high throughput analysis of total naphthenic acids at trace levels in unprocessed samples. A calibration range from 0.02 to 1.0μgmL(-1) total Merichem naphthenic acids was validated and demonstrated excellent accuracy (97-111% recovery) and precision (1.9% RSD at 0.02μgmL(-1)). Quantitative validation was also demonstrated in a non-commercial oil sands process water (OSPW) acid extractable organics (AEOs) fraction containing a higher percentage of polycarboxylic acid isomers than the Merichem technical mix. The chromatographic method showed good calibration linearity of ≥0.999 RSQ to 0.005μgmL(-1) total naphthenic acids with a precision <3.1% RSD and a calculated detection limit of 0.0004μgmL(-1) employing Merichem technical mix reference material. The method is well suited to monitoring naturally occurring and industrially derived naphthenic acids (and other AEOs) present in surface and ground waters in the vicinity of mining developments. The advantage of the current method is its direct application to unprocessed environmental samples and to examine natural naphthenic acid isomer profiles. It is noted that where the isomer profile of samples differs from that of the reference material, results should be considered semi-quantitative due to the lack of matching isomer content. The fingerprint profile of naphthenic acids is known to be transitory during aging and the present method has the ability to adapt to monitoring of these changes in naphthenic acid content. The method's total ion scan approach allows for data previously collected to be examined retrospectively for specific analyte mass ions of interest. A list of potential naphthenic acid isomers that decrease in response with aging is proposed

  19. Square wave voltametric method for the trace metal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viqar-un-Nisa; Ahmed, R.; Mohammand, M.

    1998-01-01

    Voltammetry is one of the most sensitive and cheaper analytical technique for the analysis of toxic metals, particularly at low levels and in water systems. Different pulse voltametry is relatively slow analytical technique, whereas square wave voltametry is faster. Thus the number of samples analysed can be appreciably increased by using square wave voltametry. Extensive studies were carried out to optimized the square wave voltametric method for trace analysis. Pulse amplitudes and scan rates were varied to find out most sensitive and reliable conditions. Comparative studies were performed to evaluate differential pulse and square wave voltametry. Advantages and disadvantages of both the techniques are discussed for trace analysis of heavy and toxic metals like lead, cadmium, copper and zinc. Effects of scan rates and pulse amplitude are discussed on the optimization of the technique for trace metals analysis. Effects of background electrolyte concentration were also studied. After optimizing the voltametric methods many environmental samples were also analysed. (author)

  20. Trace element analysis of nail polishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, G.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was used to measure the concentrations of various trace elements in nail polishes of popular Indian and foreign brands. The aim of the present experiment was to see whether trace elements could distinguish nail polishes of different Indian and foreign brands from forensic point of view. It was found that cesium can act as a marker to differentiate foreign and Indian brands. (author)

  1. Environmental responsibilities of livestock feeding using trace mineral supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brugger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are essential dietary components for livestock species. However, they also exhibit a strong toxic potential. Therefore, their fluxes through the animal organism are tightly regulated by a complex molecular machinery that controls the rate of absorption from the gut lumen as well as the amount of excretion via faeces, urine and products (e.g., milk in order to maintain an internal equilibrium. When supplemented in doses above the gross requirement trace elements accumulate in urine and faeces and, hence, manure. Thereby, trace element emissions represent a potential threat to the environment. This fact is of particular importance in regard to the widely distributed feeding practice of pharmacological zinc and copper doses for the purpose of performance enhancement. Adverse environmental effects have been described, like impairment of plant production, accumulation in edible animal products and the water supply chain as well as the correlation between increased trace element loads and antimicrobial resistance. In the light of discussions about reducing the allowed upper limits for trace element loads in feed and manure from livestock production in the European Union excessive dosing needs to be critically reconsidered. Moreover, the precision in trace element feeding has to be increased in order to avoid unnecessary supplementation and, thereby, heavy metal emissions from livestock production.

  2. 5th colloquium on atomic spectrometric trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welz, B.

    1989-01-01

    This book deals with apparatus, use-oriented and theoretical aspects of trace analysis and spectroscopy. General articles are concerned with the analysis of environmentally relevant samples; a comparison of modern spectroscopic techniques, the coupling of hydride production, chromatography and spectrometry; chemical modifiers for graphite tube furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and possible applications of flow injection to atomic spectrometric trace analysis - one of the outstanding subjects of the colloquium. About one quarter of the 85 contributions deals with new techniques including flow injection. Other priority subjects are the theory and application of graphite tube furnace AAS, and a comparison between different dissolution methods and direct solid analysis. Medicine and toxicology, analysis of biological materials and environmentally relevant samples are in the foreground of use-oriented papers. (orig./BBR) [de

  3. Tracing Young and Old Groundwater Using Atom Trap Trace Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, P.; Zappala, J. C.; O'Connor, T. P.; Bailey, K. G.; Bishof, M.; Lu, Z. T.

    2016-12-01

    Due to its simple production and transport in the terrestrial environment, 81Kr (half-life = 230,000 yr) is an ideal tracer for old water and ice with mean residence times in the range of 105-106 years. Likewise, the anthropogenic isotope 85Kr (half-life = 10.8 yrs), which is predominantly introduced into the atmopshere through nuclear fuel reprocessing activities, is a valuable tracer of respectively young groundwater. In recent years, the ultra-trace analysis of both isotopes has been made available to the earth science community at large thanks to the development of Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA), an efficient and selective laser-based atom counting method. Further upgrades and improvements to the ATTA instrument at Argonne National Laboratory have recently allowed us to measure Kr isotope ratios with relative uncertainties at the level of 1% while also significantly increasing sample throughput and reducing sample size requirements. As examples of recent achievements, we have placed a 1.4% limit on the anthropogenic contribution to 81Kr relative to its natural abundance by precisely comparing the 81Kr abundance in a 1940 athmospheric sample to that of modern air, we are now able to handle samples as small as 1µL of Kr gas (STP), and we can measure 85Kr isotope abundances in as little as four hours of measurement time enabling us to analyze six or more samples in 24 hrs. This work is supported by Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract No. DEAC02-06CH11357.

  4. Capillary thermal desorption unit for near real-time analysis of VOCs at sub-trace levels. Application to the analysis of environmental air contamination and breath samples

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Roura, Mònica; Castellanos, María del Mar; Martín García, José; Sánchez Navarro, Juan Manuel

    2009-01-01

    A capillary microtrap thermal desorption module is developed for near real-time analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at sub-ppbv levels in air samples. The device allows the direct injection of the thermally desorbed VOCs into a chromatographic column. It does not use a second cryotrap to focalize the adsorbed compounds before entering the separation column so reducing the formation of artifacts. The connection of the microtrap to a GC–MS allows the quantitative determination of VOCs...

  5. Analytical quality assessment and interpretation of the trace element data obtained in the frame of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the significance of hair mineral analysis as a means for assessing internal body burdens of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeij, J.J.M. de; Blaauw, M.; Zegers, C.

    1993-01-01

    At the request of the IAEA, the authors have performed an assessment of the analytical quality and the interpretation of the trace element data obtained within the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on The Significance of Hair Mineral Analysis as a Means of Assessing Internal Body Burdens of Environmental Pollutants. In this CRP research groups from various countries participated, using different analytical procedures, based on NAA, XRF and AAS. Data have been collected for Zn, CU, Pb, Cd, As, Hg, and Se in male human hair, liver, kidney, lung, brain, and bone. The samples analyzed originated from China, Hungary, Bulgaria, Japan, the former GDR, Sweden and Norway. The analytical quality of the data has been assessed on basis of the calculated limits of quantitation per trace element determined, per tissue analyzed and per participant, as well as from the trace element values found for reference materials and ''blind'' materials. The analytical quality of the data differs widely, from generally good to reasonable (Zn, Cu, and Se) to generally inadequate to strongly inadequate (Pb, Cd, As, and Hg). 15 refs, 29 tabs

  6. Monitoring environmental pollution of trace elements in tree-rings by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria B. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel S.; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mail: jeangm@esalq.usp.br; mtomazel@esalq.usp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, as a manner to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collecting was carry out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination of the water, soil and air, due industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. It was selected the Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') specie because its very used in urban arborization. It was employed the analytical technique named total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was done in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for characteristic X-ray detection. It was quantified the P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba e Pb elements. (author)

  7. Monitoring environmental pollution of trace elements in tree-rings by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de; Brienza, Sandra Maria B.; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel S.; Tomazello Filho, Mario; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D.; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, as a manner to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collecting was carry out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination of the water, soil and air, due industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. It was selected the Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') specie because its very used in urban arborization. It was employed the analytical technique named total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was done in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for characteristic X-ray detection. It was quantified the P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba e Pb elements. (author)

  8. Recent developments in trace analysis of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Urs [Stockholm University, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm (Sweden); Kaiser, Mary A. [DuPont Company, Corporate Center for Analytical Sciences, PO Box 80402, Wilmington, DE (United States); Kaerrman, Anna [Oerebro University, MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Oerebro (Sweden); Barber, Jonathan L. [Centre for the Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Lowestoft, Suffolk (United Kingdom); Leeuwen, Stefan P.J. van [VU University, Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15

    Recent developments, improvements, and trends in the ultra-trace determination of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in environmental and human samples are highlighted and the remaining challenges and uncertainties are outlined and discussed. Understanding the analytical implications of such things as adsorption of PFASs to surfaces, effects of differing matrices, varying PFAS isomer response factors, potential bias effects of sampling, sample preparation, and analysis is critical to measuring highly fluorinated compounds at trace levels. These intricate analytical issues and the potential consequences of ignoring to deal with them correctly are discussed and documented with examples. Isomer-specific analysis and the development of robust multi-chemical methods are identified as topical trends in method development for an ever-increasing number of PFASs of environmental and human interest. Ultimately, the state-of-the-art of current analytical method accuracy is discussed on the basis of results from interlaboratory comparison studies. (orig.)

  9. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring of trace element air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhodub, L.S.; Sulkio-Cleff, B.

    2001-01-01

    The review of application of lichens and mosses as biomonitors of air pollution have been presented. The neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy have been used for trace element content determination in lichens and mosses taken from different regions of Europe

  10. Software for computerised analysis of cardiotocographic traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, M; Bifulco, P; Ruffo, M; Improta, G; Clemente, F; Cesarelli, M

    2016-02-01

    Despite the widespread use of cardiotocography in foetal monitoring, the evaluation of foetal status suffers from a considerable inter and intra-observer variability. In order to overcome the main limitations of visual cardiotocographic assessment, computerised methods to analyse cardiotocographic recordings have been recently developed. In this study, a new software for automated analysis of foetal heart rate is presented. It allows an automatic procedure for measuring the most relevant parameters derivable from cardiotocographic traces. Simulated and real cardiotocographic traces were analysed to test software reliability. In artificial traces, we simulated a set number of events (accelerations, decelerations and contractions) to be recognised. In the case of real signals, instead, results of the computerised analysis were compared with the visual assessment performed by 18 expert clinicians and three performance indexes were computed to gain information about performances of the proposed software. The software showed preliminary performance we judged satisfactory in that the results matched completely the requirements, as proved by tests on artificial signals in which all simulated events were detected from the software. Performance indexes computed in comparison with obstetricians' evaluations are, on the contrary, not so satisfactory; in fact they led to obtain the following values of the statistical parameters: sensitivity equal to 93%, positive predictive value equal to 82% and accuracy equal to 77%. Very probably this arises from the high variability of trace annotation carried out by clinicians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Examination of paints by trace element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, S S

    1976-10-01

    Trace element analysis using neutron activation analysis is effective and valuable, particularly in the examination of white household paint. Although physical appearance and resin composition are generally similar in these paint samples, trace element composition provides an effective way of distinguishing among them. In the case of automobile paint samples, NAA serves as an important additional technique for discrimination. The technique is important when sample sizes are very small. The technique developed takes a few minutes for sample preparation, a few hours of irradiation time (during which the examiner's presence is not required), and then a few minutes for counting and obtaining quantitative multielement concentration patterns. A technician can easily handle 30 to 50 samples per day.

  12. Trace and ultratrace level elemental and speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate determination of elements present at parts per million and billion levels in various matrices is a growing requirement in different fields. In environmental sciences various trace elements need to be analyzed so as establish the dispersal models of pollutants or the adequacy of effluent treatment prior to discharge into water bodies. The issues of bioaccumulation and magnification are important in aquatic systems. In nutrition and biochemistry one has to establish the bio-availability of essential and toxic elemental species as toxic elements prevent assimilation of essential elements. Fission and fusion technologies use a variety of structural materials requiring many trace elements to be present at levels strictly below the specified levels. Ultra-pure bulk semiconductor materials are required for fabrication devices. In metallurgy and materials sciences too, various trace elements are known to influence the properties. In the emerging fields like nanotechnology, it is necessary to understand the passage and accumulation of nano-particles inside the cells, through trace analysis. Many analytical techniques exist which can provide the concentration information in the bulk materials with good accuracy. They include ICP-AES, FAAS, and ICP-MS, which are solution based techniques. Direct solid state analytical techniques are Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) and XRF. Accelerator based ion-beam analysis techniques can provide information on concentration and depth profiles of different elements in layered structures. Hyphenated techniques such as HPLC/lC-ICPMS, are helpful in identifying various chemical oxidation states in which a given element might be present in a matrix, which is termed as speciation analysis. This presentation will include the existing analytical competencies and the laboratory requirements for trace and ultra trace element elemental and speciation analyses and their applications. (author)

  13. Determination of artificial and natural radionuclides and others trace elements in environmental samples form Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, L.A.; Godoy, J.M.; Nordemann, D.J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The results of the radioactive elements concentrations, determined by gamma spectrometry and the others trace elements determined by neutron activation analysis of several environmental samples (soils, marine sediments, algae mosses and lichens) in Comandante Ferraz Antartica Station are presented. The high concentrations of Cs-137 were found in lichens and mosses samples and the soils and sediments showed concentrations of natural radionuclides. (C.G.C.). 8 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  14. Method development for trace and ultratrace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Method development, that is, selection of a mode of chromatography and the right column and mobile-phase combination for trace and ultratrace analysis, requires several main considerations. The method should be useful for resolving various trace and ultratrace components present in the sample. If the nature of these components is known, the choice of method may be straightforward, that is, a selection can be made from the following modes of HPLC: (1) adsorption chromatography; (2) normal-phase chromatography; (3) reversed-phase chromatography; (4) ion-pair chromatography; (5) ion-exchange chromatography; (6) ion chromatography. Unfortunately, the nature of all of the components is frequently unknown. However, several intelligent judgments can be made on the nature of impurities. This chapter deals with some basic approaches to mobile-phase selection and optimization. More detailed information may be found in basic texts. Techniques for separation of high-molecular-weight compounds (macromolecules) and chiral compounds may be found elsewhere. Mainly compounds with molecular weight lower than 2,000 are discussed here. 123 refs

  15. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wenyou; Weindorf, David C; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2014-02-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice-wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  16. Multivariant analyses of trace element patterns for environmental tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, R.E.; Ko, M.M.C.; Junliang Tian; Puling Liu

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear-based analytical techniques: INAA, PIXE and photon activation permit simultaneous multielemental determination of concentrations in environmental materials, which data are often found sufficiently precise and free of uncontrolled, random errors among the various elements such that the data sets can yield valuable information on elemental communality through multi-variant statistical 'factor' analysis. Characteristic factor patterns obtained in this way can provide clues to the likely sources in the environment of various components. Recent studies in three different environmental situations: solid waste incinerators , Chinese soils, and iron and steel industry, involving measurements of 30-35 elements, have yielded distinct elemental patterns or, environmental signatures, with factor loading coefficients ranging mostly in the ranges: 0.7-0.96. (author) 10 refs.; 2 figs.; 9 tabs

  17. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring trace-element air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloof, J.E.

    1993-09-27

    Chapter 1 describes the possibilities to study trace-element air pollution in order to get insight in the character and element levels of such pollution. Chapter 2 describes two monitoring surveys using Parmelia sulcata Taylor on a national scale, in which spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals were investigated. The surveys were carried out in 1982-1983 at 110 sampling sites and in 1986-1987 at 210 sampling sites. From these studies it was concluded that lichens are at least good qualitative biomonitors for atmospheric trace-element levels. Chapter 3 describes the response of lichens to the cesium-137 activity as a result of the Chernobyl accident, deposited by rainfall in the Netherlands. From this study it was concluded that lichens are good biomonitors for atmospheric cesium-137 activity too. Chapter 4 describes the application of factor analysis to a lichen data set from a monitoring survey on a national scale (1986-1987), for source apportionment. In Chapter 5 a field study is described on the contribution of a possible influence from the soil to element concentrations in Parmelia sulcata Taylor growing on trees in a an area with polluted soil. Chapter 6 describes a field study on the interchangeability of two tolerant lichen species (Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Lecanora conizaeoides Nyl.) in a polluted area. In Chapter 7 a field study is described in which the quantitative relationships between concentrations of cobalt, scandium and zinc in lichens and concentrations in air particulate matter and total deposition (wet and dry) were investigated. Chapter 8 describes a laboratory study on the kinetics of the uptake-and release of cadmium in a green algae species (Selenastrum capricornutum Printz), which is regarded to be representative for the algal symboint in the lichens used in this thesis. Chapter 9 presents the central conclusions of this thesis for the lichen species, elements and conditions under study. (orig./MG).

  18. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring trace-element air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloof, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Chapter 1 describes the possibilities to study trace-element air pollution in order to get insight in the character and element levels of such pollution. Chapter 2 describes two monitoring surveys using Parmelia sulcata Taylor on a national scale, in which spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals were investigated. The surveys were carried out in 1982-1983 at 110 sampling sites and in 1986-1987 at 210 sampling sites. From these studies it was concluded that lichens are at least good qualitative biomonitors for atmospheric trace-element levels. Chapter 3 describes the response of lichens to the cesium-137 activity as a result of the Chernobyl accident, deposited by rainfall in the Netherlands. From this study it was concluded that lichens are good biomonitors for atmospheric cesium-137 activity too. Chapter 4 describes the application of factor analysis to a lichen data set from a monitoring survey on a national scale (1986-1987), for source apportionment. In Chapter 5 a field study is described on the contribution of a possible influence from the soil to element concentrations in Parmelia sulcata Taylor growing on trees in a an area with polluted soil. Chapter 6 describes a field study on the interchangeability of two tolerant lichen species (Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Lecanora conizaeoides Nyl.) in a polluted area. In Chapter 7 a field study is described in which the quantitative relationships between concentrations of cobalt, scandium and zinc in lichens and concentrations in air particulate matter and total deposition (wet and dry) were investigated. Chapter 8 describes a laboratory study on the kinetics of the uptake-and release of cadmium in a green algae species (Selenastrum capricornutum Printz), which is regarded to be representative for the algal symboint in the lichens used in this thesis. Chapter 9 presents the central conclusions of this thesis for the lichen species, elements and conditions under study. (orig./MG)

  19. Analysis of trace gases at ppb levels by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindinger, W.; Hansel, A.

    1996-01-01

    A proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) system has been developed which allows for on-line measurements of trace gas components with concentrations as low as 1 ppb. The method is based on reactions of H 3 O + ions, which perform non-dissociative proton transfer to most of the common organic trace constituents but do not react with any of the components present in clean air. Examples of medical information obtained by means of breath analysis, of environmental trace analysis, and examples in the field of food chemistry demonstrate the wide applicability of the method. (Authors)

  20. Automated computer analysis of plasma-streak traces from SCYLLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteman, R.L.; Jahoda, F.C.; Kruger, R.P.

    1977-11-01

    An automated computer analysis technique that locates and references the approximate centroid of single- or dual-streak traces from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory SCYLLAC facility is described. The technique also determines the plasma-trace width over a limited self-adjusting region. The plasma traces are recorded with streak cameras on Polaroid film, then scanned and digitized for processing. The analysis technique uses scene segmentation to separate the plasma trace from a reference fiducial trace. The technique employs two methods of peak detection; one for the plasma trace and one for the fiducial trace. The width is obtained using an edge-detection, or slope, method. Timing data are derived from the intensity modulation of the fiducial trace. To smooth (despike) the output graphs showing the plasma-trace centroid and width, a technique of ''twicing'' developed by Tukey was employed. In addition, an interactive sorting algorithm allows retrieval of the centroid, width, and fiducial data from any test shot plasma for post analysis. As yet, only a limited set of the plasma traces has been processed with this technique

  1. Automated computer analysis of plasma-streak traces from SCYLLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, R.L.; Jahoda, F.C.; Kruger, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    An automated computer analysis technique that locates and references the approximate centroid of single- or dual-streak traces from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory SCYLLAC facility is described. The technique also determines the plasma-trace width over a limited self-adjusting region. The plasma traces are recorded with streak cameras on Polaroid film, then scanned and digitized for processing. The analysis technique uses scene segmentation to separate the plasma trace from a reference fiducial trace. The technique employs two methods of peak detection; one for the plasma trace and one for the fiducial trace. The width is obtained using an edge-detection, or slope, method. Timing data are derived from the intensity modulation of the fiducial trace. To smooth (despike) the output graphs showing the plasma-trace centroid and width, a technique of ''twicing'' developed by Tukey was employed. In addition, an interactive sorting algorithm allows retrieval of the centroid, width, and fiducial data from any test shot plasma for post analysis. As yet, only a limited set of sixteen plasma traces has been processed using this technique

  2. Radiokrypton dating with Atom Trap Trace Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Zappala, Jake; Bailey, Kevin; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    The long-lived noble-gas isotope 81Kr is the ideal tracer for old water and ice in the age range of 105-106 years, a range beyond the reach of 14C. 81Kr-dating, a concept pursued over the past four decades by numerous laboratories employing a variety of techniques, is now available for the first time to the earth science community at large. This is made possible by our development of the Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) method, in which individual atoms of the desired isotope are captured and detected with superior selectivity in a laser-based atom trap. Thus far, ATTA has been used to analyze 81Kr, 85Kr, and 39Ar, which have extremely low isotopic abundances (10-16 to 10-11) , and cover a wide range of ages and applications. In collaboration with earth scientists, we are dating groundwater in major aquifers around the world as well as polar ice from Antarctica. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  3. Isotope dilution analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.; Lesny, J.; Korenova, Z.; Klas, J.; Klehr, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    Isotope dilution analysis has been used for the determination of several trace elements - especially metals - in a variety of environmental samples, including aerosols, water, soils, biological materials and geological materials. Variations of the basic concept include classical IDA, substoichiometric IDA, and more recently, sub-superequivalence IDA. Each variation has its advantages and limitations. A periodic chart has been used to identify those elements which have been measured in environmental samples using one or more of these methods. (author)

  4. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yong [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Biao, E-mail: bhuang@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Wenyou [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao [Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Niedermann, Silvana [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Agricultural Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  5. Establishment of ultra trace nuclear material analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyuseok; Jee, Kwangyong; Lee, Changheon

    2012-05-01

    Highly accurate and precise analysis of ultra trace nuclear materials contained in swipe samples and environmental samples is required to improve the national nuclear transparency and the international nuclear security. The objectives of the first stage of this project are to develop the techniques for bulk analysis of environmental samples and the elemental techniques for particle analysis using FT-TIMS. To accomplish the objectives, state-of-the-art analytical instruments were set up followed by the development of the techniques for screening of nuclear materials, chemical treatement, particle handling, isotopic measurements using TIMS and ICP-MS, and fabrication of uranium microparticles. The verifications of the developed techniques were carried out by measurement of reference materials, and by participation to interlaboratory comparison programs. In additon, the establishement of a quality management system and the performance of the analysis of QC samples for IAEA-NWAL qualification were carried out to obtain the international accreditation for the related analytical system. In this report, the results of research and developments, and the achievements to obtain the international accreditation were summarized

  6. Survey of reference materials. V. 2: Environmentally related reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The present report presently contains over 250 reference materials with trace element and organic contaminant information on fuel, geological and mineral, anthropogenic disposal, soil reference and miscellaneous reference materials. Not included in the current report is information on most biological and environmental reference materials with trace element, stable isotope, radioisotope and organic contaminant information. 8 refs, tabs

  7. Instrumental trace element analysis of California market milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.; Langhorst, A.L.; Ralston, H.R.; Heft, R.

    1975-01-01

    Trace element analysis for 15 elements (Zn, Na, Br, Rb, Sr, Mg, Al, Ca, Cl, I, K, Fe, Co, Se, Cs) was carried out on 32 samples of California market milk and 6 samples of Colorado milk in a pilot study of toxic and nutrient trace elements in the soil-forage-cow-milk food chain. The techniques of instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence analysis are described. Sample collection, preparation, analysis, and data reduction procedures are discussed. The mean values and variations of trace element concentrations in milk are compared to data from other studies. (U.S.)

  8. Probing Trace-elements in Bitumen by Neutron Activation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    Trace elements and their concentrations play an important role in both chemical and physical properties of bitumen. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied to determine the concentration of trace elements in bitumen. This method requires irradiation of the material with

  9. Trace element analysis in soy sauce. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomita, Michio; Yoshida, Koji.

    1994-01-01

    Trace elements in four kinds of soybean and three kinds of salt have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. In soybeans, which were made in Japan, America, Canada and China, six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Br. The concentration of these elements varied depending on the place they were made. American soybean showed characteristic feature compared with other soybeans. As to the bromine concentration, American soybean contains ten times as much as Japanese one. In salts Br and Sr were detected. (author)

  10. Characterizing the Environmental Availability of Trace Metals in Savannah River Site Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-03-18

    An eight step sequential extraction technique was used to characterize the environmental availability of trace metals from background and waste site soil samples collected from the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS).

  11. Preparation of fingernails for trace element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, H L; Robson, J; Bigelow, J B; Morrison, J; Spell, L H; Kantor, R

    1981-10-26

    There are substantial differences in the reported elemental composition of human nails. Most investigators have used extensive washing procedures to minimize environmental contamination, however, such washing poses the risk of extraction of elements bound to the nail matrix. To determine if a portion of this variability could be accounted for by the "washing solutions" used by different investigators, nails were washed in nine solvents previously used for cleaning nails and their residual elemental composition measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy or energy dispersion analysis. In general, treatment with organic solvents resulted in less elemental loss than did treatment with aqueous detergents, while aqueous acids caused the greatest loss. Organic solvents more readily extracted iron and magnesium than calcium, copper and zinc. Virtually all of the magnesium was extracted by distilled water or aqueous detergents.

  12. Linking Environmental Magnetism to Geochemical Studies and Management of Trace Metals. Examples from Fluvial, Estuarine and Marine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Scoullos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Among the diverse research fields and wide range of studies encompassed by environmental magnetism, the present work elaborates on critical aspects of the geochemistry of trace metals that emerged through years of original research in a variety of environmental compartments. This review aims at sharing the insights gained on (a tracing metal pollution sources; and (b identifying processes and transport pathways from sources to depositional environments. Case studies on the Elefsis Gulf (Greece and the Gulf of Lions (France demonstrate the potential of combined magnetic measurements and chemical analysis to trace pollution signals resulting from land-based sources and atmospheric deposition. Case studies on estuarine environments, namely the Louros, Acheloos, and Asopos Estuaries (Greece, address modes of trace metal behavior under the influence of different hydrological regimes and elucidate in situ processes within the transitional estuarine zone, that define their ultimate fate. As sources, transport pathways, and processes of trace metals are fundamental in environmental management assessments, the involvement of magnetic measurements in the policy cycle could facilitate the development and implementation of appropriate regulatory measures for the integrated management of river basins, coastal, and marine areas.

  13. Biological and environmental reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and organic microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Toro, E.; Parr, R.M.; Clements, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    This report has been produced from a database on analytical reference materials of biological and environmental origin, which is maintained at the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is an updated version of an earlier report, published in 1985, which focussed mainly on reference materials for trace elements. In the present version of the report, reference materials for trace elements still constitute the major part of the data; however, information is also now included on a number of other selected analytes of relevance to IAEA programmes, i.e. radionuclides, stable isotopes and organic microcontaminants. The database presently contains 2,694 analyte values for 117 analytes in 116 biological and 77 environmental (non-biological) reference materials produced by 20 different suppliers. Additional information on the cost of the material, the unit size supplied, (weight or volume), and the minimum weight of material recommended for analysis is also provided (if available to the authors). It is expected that this report will help analysts to select the reference material that matches as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the analytes of interest, the ''real'' samples that are to be analysed. Refs, 12 tabs

  14. Compact Sensor for Isotope and Trace Gas Analysis, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and demonstrate a new sensor platform for isotope and trace-gas analysis that is appropriate for future planetary missions. Among other...

  15. X-ray Fluorescence Method for Trace Analysis and Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Shinjiro

    2000-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis has a long history as a conventional bulk elemental analysis with medium sensitivity. However, with the use of synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence method has become a unique analytical technique which can provide trace elemental information with the spatial resolution. To obtain quantitative information of trace elemental distribution by using the x-ray fluorescence method, theoretical description of x-ray fluorescence yield is described. Moreover, methods and...

  16. TCP Packet Trace Analysis. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Timothy J.

    1991-01-01

    Examination of a trace of packets collected from the network is often the only method available for diagnosing protocol performance problems in computer networks. This thesis explores the use of packet traces to diagnose performance problems of the transport protocol TCP. Unfortunately, manual examination of these traces can be so tedious that effective analysis is not possible. The primary contribution of this thesis is a graphical method of displaying the packet trace which greatly reduce, the tediousness of examining a packet trace. The graphical method is demonstrated by the examination of some packet traces of typical TCP connections. The performance of two different implementations of TCP sending data across a particular network path is compared. Traces many thousands of packets long are used to demonstrate how effectively the graphical method simplifies examination of long complicated traces. In the comparison of the two TCP implementations, the burstiness of the TCP transmitter appeared to be related to the achieved throughput. A method of quantifying this burstiness is presented and its possible relevance to understanding the performance of TCP is discussed.

  17. Health Risk Assessment of Trace Metals in Various Environmental Media, Crops and Human Hair from a Mining Affected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wushuang Xie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Long term exposure to trace metals in various media is of great concern for people living in known pollution sources, such as mining and industrial activities. Health risk assessment and human hair analysis can provide important information for local environmental management. Information on distribution characteristics of trace metals in soil, water, sediment, air, local crops, and human hair from a typical mining area in southern China was collected. Results show there exists severely trace metal contamination in soil, sediment, and air. Arsenic and Pb contents in the local children’s hair are higher than the upper reference values, and the accumulation of residents’ hair trace metals shows great correlation with the ingestion and inhalation pathways. Arsenic contributes 52.27% and 58.51% to the total non-cancer risk of adults and children, respectively. The cancer risk of Cd in adults and children are 4.66 and 3.22 times higher than the safe level, respectively. Ingestion exposure pathway of trace metals largely contributes to the total non-cancer and cancer effect. The metals As, Cd, and Pb are major risk sources and pollutants that should be given priority for management, and ingestion pathway exposure to trace metals through soil and crops should be controlled.

  18. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, T. E-mail: tsuyoshi@termite.kuwri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 {mu}g/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 {mu}g/g). A block of wood (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 {mu}g/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 {mu}g/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  19. Stir-bar-sorptive extraction and liquid desorption combined with large-volume injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for ultra-trace analysis of musk compounds in environmental water matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Rita M; Nogueira, J M F

    2010-03-01

    Stir-bar-sorptive extraction with liquid desorption followed by large-volume injection and capillary gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring acquisition mode (SBSE-LD/LVI-GC-MS(SIM)) has been developed to monitor ultra-traces of four musks (celestolide (ADBI), galaxolide (HHCB), tonalide (AHTN) and musk ketone (MK)) in environmental water matrices. Instrumental calibration (LVI-GC-MS(SIM)) and experimental conditions that could affect the SBSE-LD efficiency are discussed. Assays performed on 30-mL water samples spiked at 200 ng L(-1) under optimized experimental conditions yielded recoveries ranging from 83.7 ± 8.1% (MK) to 107.6 ± 10.8% (HHCB). Furthermore, the experimental data were in very good agreement with predicted theoretical equilibria described by octanol-water partition coefficients (K (PDMS/W) ≈ K (O/W)). The methodology also showed excellent linear dynamic ranges for the four musks studied, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9961, limits of detection and quantification between 12 and 19 ng L(-1) and between 41 and 62 ng L(-1), respectively, and suitable precision (ultra-trace level, overcoming several disadvantages presented by other sample-preparation techniques.

  20. PIXE analysis of trace elements in cetacean teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Yoko; Arai, Nobuaki; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yoshida, Koji

    1997-01-01

    PIXE was adopted for analysis of trace elements in teeth of two species of cetaceans, sperm whale (Physeter microcephalus) and pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The analyses were performed along with the growth layer of the teeth, which is formed annually, suitable for age determination. Mn, Fe, Cu, Zu and Sr were detected in the teeth of sperm whale and pantropical spotted dolphin. Among these trace elements, gradual increase was observed for Zn/Ca ratio in the sperm whale's teeth. (author)

  1. The reliability of radiochemical and chemical trace analyses in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, Jorma.

    1977-12-01

    After theoretically exploring the factors which influence the quality of analytical data as well as the means by which a sufficient quality can be assured and controlled, schemes of different kinds have been developed and applied in order to demonstrate the analytical quality assurance and control in practice. Methods have been developed for the determination of cesium, bromine and arsenic by neutron activation analysis at the natural ''background'' concentration level in environmental materials. The calibration of methods is described. The methods were also applied on practical routine analysis, the results of which are briefly reviewed. In the case of Ce the precision of a comprehensive calibration was found to vary between 5.2-9.2% as a relative standard deviation, which agrees well with the calculated statistical random error 5.7-8.7%. In the case of Br the method showed a reasonable precision, about 11% on the average, and accuracy. In employing the method to analyze died samples containing Br from 3 to 12 ppm a continuous control of precison was performed. The analysis of As demonstrates the many problems and difficulties associated with environmental analysis. In developing the final method four former intercomparison materials of IAEA were utilized in the calibration. The tests performed revealed a systematic error. In this case a scheme was developed for the continuous control of both precision and accuracy. The results of radiochemical analyses in environmental materials show a reliability somewhat better than that occuring in the determination of stable trace elements. According to a rough classification, 15% of the results of radiochemical analysis show excellent reliability, whereas 60% show a reliability adequate for certain purposes. The remaining 15% are excellent, 60% adequate for some purposes and 30% good-for-nothing. The reasons for often insufficient reliability of results are both organizational and technical. With reasonable effort and

  2. Derivative flame atomic absorption spectrometry and its application in trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, H. W.; Li, L. Q.

    2005-01-01

    Flame atomic absorption spectrometry is an accepted and widely used method for the determination of trace elements in a great variety of samples. But its sensitivity doesn't meet the demands of trace and ultra-trace analysis for some samples. The derivative signal processing technique, with a very high capability for enhancing sensitivity, was developed for flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The signal models of conventional flame atomic absorption spectrometry are described. The equations of derivative signals are established for flame atomic absorption spectrometry, flow injection atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-FAAS) and atom trapping flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AT-FAAS). The principle and performance of the derivative atomic absorption spectrometry are evaluated. The derivative technique based on determination of variation rate of signal intensity with time (dl/dt) is different from the derivative spectrophotometry based on determination of variation rate of signal intensity with wavelength (dl/dhλ). Derivative flame atomic absorption spectrometry has higher sensitivity, lower detection limits and better accuracy. It has been applied to the direct determination of trace elements without preconcentration. If the derivative technique was combined with several preconcentration techniques, the sensitivity would be enhanced further for ultra-trace analysis with good linearity. The applications of derivative flame atomic absorption spectroscopy are reviewed for trace element analysis in biological, pharmaceutical, environmental and food samples

  3. Column: The Science of Digital Forensics: Analysis of Digital Traces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Cohen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In part 1 of this series (Cohen, 2011a, Analysis of digital traces is a foundational process by which the examiner, typically using computer software tools, comes to understand and answer basic questions regarding digital traces.“Input sequences to digital systems produce outputs and state changes as a function of the previous state. To the extent that the state or outputs produce stored and/or captured bit sequences, these form traces of the event sequences that caused them. Thus the definition of a trace may be stated as: "A set of bit sequences produced from the execution of a finite state machine."(see PDF for full column

  4. Environmental analysis support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Activities in environmental analysis support included assistance to the Morgantown and Pittsburgh Energy Technology Centers (METC and PETC) in reviewing and preparing documents required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for several projects selected for the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. A key milestone was the completion for PETC of the final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP) in Healy, Alaska. This work is notable because it is the first site-specific EIS completed for the CCT Program. Another important activity was the preparation for METC of a draft Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Externally Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) Project in Warren, Pennsylvania. Also, the final EA was completed for the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF), a proposed project near Morgantown, West Virginia, which is part of METC's R ampersand D Program. In addition, ORNL staff members published a Technical Memorandum entitled open-quotes Potential Effects of Clean Coal Technologies on Acid Precipitation, Greenhouse Gases, and Solid Waste Disposalclose quotes which documents the findings of three open-quotes white papersclose quotes prepared for DOE/FE

  5. Environmental analysis and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Tracy, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the requirements of an environmental radiation surveillance program is to identify and determine long-lived radioactive elements which may be released to the environment during the operation of a uranium (or thorium) mine and mill. Radioanalytical techniques which are suitable for quantitative and qualitative determination of long-lived radionuclides of the natural uranium and thorium series are reviewed. The general features of an analytical program are discussed in terms of sample preparation, radiochemical separation of radioactive elements, and radioactive measurement. There are situations in environmental analysis to which high-resolution γ-spectrometry can be applied and the advantages and limitations of this technique are considered. Quality assurance is an essential component of any monitoring program in order to ensure that reliable and precise data are available for the assessment of the radiological impact of the mining and milling operation

  6. Pollution status of the Bohai Sea: an overview of the environmental quality assessment related trace metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuelu; Zhou, Fengxia; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that the ecosystem of the Bohai Sea is being rapidly degraded and the Sea has basically lost its function as a fishing ground. Billions of funds have been spent in slowing down, halting and finally reversing the environmental deterioration of the Bohai Sea. Although trace metals are routinely monitored, the data with high temporal resolution for a clear understanding of biogeochemical processes in the ecosystem of the Bohai Sea are insufficient, especially in the western literature. In this review, status of trace metal contamination in the Bohai Sea is assessed based on a comprehensive review of their concentrations recorded in the waters, sediments and organisms over the past decades. Studies show that metal contamination in the Bohai Sea is closely associated with the fast economic growth in the past decades. Concentrations of trace metals are high in coastal areas especially in the estuaries. Alarmingly high metal concentrations are observed in the waters, sediments and organisms from the western Bohai Bay and the northern Liaodong Bay, especially the coasts near Huludao in the northernmost area of the Bohai Sea, which is being polluted by industrial sewage from the surrounding areas. The knowledge of the speciation and fractionation of trace metals and the influence of submarine groundwater discharge on the biogeochemistry of trace metals in the Bohai Sea is far from enough and related work needs to be done urgently to get a better understanding of the influence of trace metals on the ecosystem of the Bohai Sea. A clear understanding of the trace metal pollution status of the Bohai Sea could not be achieved presently for lack of systematic cooperation in different research fields. It is quite necessary to apply the environmental and ecological modeling to the investigation of trace metals in the Bohai Sea and then provide foundations for the protection of the environment and ecosystem of the Bohai Sea. © 2013.

  7. Trace metal analysis for fingerprinting oil spill samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spotts, J.P.; Reilly, T.; Plourde, K.; Hendrick, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Coast Guard Central Oil Identification Laboratory (COIL) uses four organic analytical techniques to fingerprint oil spill samples: gas chromatography, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography; inorganic constituents are not addressed. Theoretically, trace metal analysis would enhance oil fingerprinting in cases in which the water-borne oil samples are significantly weathered, because of the low volatility of trace metals. The feasibility of fingerprinting spilled oil and suspected source sample pairs via trace metal analysis has been examined. A total of 14 pairs of light fuel oils, previously matched via COIL's organic fingerprinting methods, were analyzed by atomic absorption for nickel, iron, copper, manganese, lead, and chromium content and then qualitatively compared. Light fuels were selected because of their susceptibility to weathering

  8. Trace Elements in Dominant Species of the Fenghe River, China: Their Relations to Environmental Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhou, Zhengchao; Bai, Yanying; Jiao, Wentao; Chen, Weiping

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of trace elements (TEs) in water, sediment, riparian soil and dominant plants was investigated in the Fenghe River, Northwestern China. The Fenghe River ecosystem was polluted with Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb. There was a high pollution risk in the midstream and downstream regions and the risk level for Cd was much higher than that of the other elements. The average values of bioconcentration coefficient for Cd and Zn were 2.21 and 1.75, respectively, indicating a large accumulation of Cd and Zn in the studied species. With broad ecological amplitudes, L. Levl. et Vant. Trin., and L. had the greatest TE concentrations in aboveground and belowground biomass of the studied species and were potential biomonitors or phytoremediators for the study area. Multivariate techniques including cluster analysis, correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and canonical correspondence analysis were used to analyze the relations between TE concentrations in plants and various environmental factors. The soil element concentration is the main factor determining the accumulation of TEs in plants. The co-release behavior of common pollutants and TEs drove the accumulation of Hg, Cd, and As in the studied plants. Significant enrichment of some elements in the Fenghe River has led to a decline in the biodiversity of plants. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Multivariate statistical analysis of major and trace element data for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multivariate statistical analysis of major and trace element data for niobium exploration in the peralkaline granites of the anorogenic ring-complex province of Nigeria. PO Ogunleye, EC Ike, I Garba. Abstract. No Abstract Available Journal of Mining and Geology Vol.40(2) 2004: 107-117. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  10. Trace elements in higher fungi (mushrooms) determined by activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řanda, Zdeněk; Kučera, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 259, č. 1 (2004), s. 99-107 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV202/97/K038 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : trace elements * activation analysis * mushrooms Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.457, year: 2004

  11. Analysis of Trace Elements in South African Clinkers using Latent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trace element content of clinkers (and possibly of cements) can be used to identify the manufacturing factory. The Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn and V content of clinkers give detailed information for the determination of the origin of clinkers produced in different factories. However, for the analysis of such complex data there ...

  12. Possibilities of High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry in the Determination of Trace Elements in Environmental Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaya Velitchkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new quantitative data for the spectral interferences obtained by high resolution 40.68 MHz radial viewing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (HR-ICP-OES in the determination of Zn, Cd, Sb, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sn, Cr, U, and Ba in environmental materials in the presence of a complex matrix, containing Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti. The -concept for quantification of spectral interferences was used. The optimum line selection for trace analysis of a variety of multicomponent matrices requires the choice of prominent lines, which are free or negligibly influenced by line interference problems. The versatility of -concept as basic methodology was experimentally demonstrated in the determination of trace of elements in soil and drinking water. The detection limits are lower in comparison with corresponding threshold concentration levels for soil and drinking water in accordance with environmental regulations. This paper shows the possibilities of present day ICP-OES equipment in the direct determination of trace elements (without preconcentration of impurities in environmental samples.

  13. Tracing Environmental Change of Potrok Aike, Argentina using Beryllium Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Kim, Jun-Ho; Matsuzaki Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Ohlendorf, Christian; Zolitschka, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    We have examined the relationship between beryllium isotopes and the hydrological record of the Laguna Potrok Aike sediment record for the last 16 kyr. Our study shows that beryllium isotope concentrations are inversely correlated to the water balance of the lake. When the lake level was high, concentrations of beryllium-10 (Be-10) and beryllium-9 (Be-9) were relatively low, e.g. at around 13,000 cal. BP. At the same time, however, the Be-10/Be-9 ratio was the highest of the entire period studied, which indicates that the Be-10 concentration was relatively higher than at any other time of this record. This fluctuation coincides with the transition from the last glacial maximum to the Late-Glacial. Our study thus confirms that beryllium isotopes may be useful for climate change studies in a lacustrine environment. It is unclear if the Be-10 fluctuations represent a concentration mechanism in the lake or less precipitation. However, these lake sediment studies suggest that Be-10 studies will be useful in providing environmental and climatic change records from this and other lakes, similar to studies in Lake Malawi by McHargue et al.

  14. Analysis of trace metals in various brands of cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.

    1996-01-01

    The present work deals with the analysis of trace metals in various brands of cigarettes belonging to four different countries. In the present research seven trace elements have been determined spectrophotometrically by the use of suitable analytical reagent of the respective metal ions. The metals which has been analysed quantitatively in forty one brand of cigarettes are aluminium, copper, chromium, nickel, iron titanium and zinc. The concentration per cigarette of these metals are in tolerable range. The concentration of above mentioned metal ions is highest in Pakistani cigarettes tobacco while the concentration of nickel is highest in American cigarettes. (author) 221 refs

  15. Applicability of analytical instrument in trace evidence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Mukesh; Jha, Shailendra

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we explain the importance of the analytical instrument used in the field of forensic science for the analysis of the trace evidences collected from the scene of occurrence. The forensic scientist has to rely upon these instrumental analyses of trace amounts of materials like drugs, toxicological specimens, GSR, fibres, glass, paints, soil etc. Through this paper, reviews on these techniques which are extensively used in forensic sciences are reported. Our report summaries on the basis of analytical problem facing for a forensic expert and techniques employed to tackle them like XRD/XRF, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques, Raman spectroscopy and microscopy (optical, GRIM, electron microscopy, TEM). (author)

  16. Trace element analysis in rheumatoid arthritis under chrysotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, R.; Paradis, P.; Monaro, S.; Barrette, M.; Lamoureux, G.; Menard, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is used to measure trace element concentrations in blood serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Initially trace element contaminations in blood-collecting and storing devices are determined. Then mean values and nyctemeral cycles are measured both in normal subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other similar pathologies. Abnormal concentrations of Cu and Zn and anomalies in the nyctemeral cycle are found in the patients. In the second phase of the project, the special case of chrysotherapeutically treated (gold salt treatment) rheumatoid arthritis patients is studied for extended periods of time (up to 53 weeks). (orig.)

  17. Determination of trace transition metals in environmental matrices by chelation ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Sandro M; Selvaggi, Roberta; Poletti, Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Trace transition metals (Fe(3+), Mn, Cu, Cd, Co, Zn, Ni) in environmental samples were analyzed by chelation ion chromatography using a mixed bed ion-exchange column with pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA) and oxalic acid as eluent and large volume direct injection (1,000 μl). The two eluents, PDCA and oxalic acid, were tested, and repeatability and detection limits were compared. The total analysis time was ~15 min. The separation with PDCA was more successful than that obtained with acid oxalic. It was observed that utilizing PDCA resulted in lower detection limits, higher repeatability, and a quantitative detection of Cd and Mn, which coelute as a single peak when using the oxalic acid. At last, the PDCA calibration graphs resulted linear (r (2) > 0.999) in the range 0.4-1,000 μg/L. The procedure was applied to the analysis of metals in soils and in water samples. The results obtained from the analysis of natural waters have demonstrated that the method is simple and efficient, therefore, can be used for the determination of metals in natural waters using a continuous and automatic monitoring system.

  18. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  19. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs

  20. Geochemistry of environmentally sensitive trace elements in Permian coals from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Jiang, M.; Chou, C.-L.; Li, H.; Wu, B.; Zheng, Lingyun; Jiang, D.

    2011-01-01

    To study the geochemical characteristics of 11 environmentally sensitive trace elements in the coals of the Permian Period from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui province, China, borehole samples of 336 coals, two partings, and four roof and floor mudstones were collected from mineable coal seams. Major elements and selected trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HAAS). The depositional environment, abundances, distribution, and modes of occurrence of trace elements were investigated. Results show that clay and carbonate minerals are the principal inorganic constituents in the coals. A lower deltaic plain, where fluvial channel systems developed successively, was the likely depositional environment of the Permian coals in the Huainan coalfield. All major elements have wider variation ranges than those of Chinese coals except for Mg and Fe. The contents of Cr, Co, Ni, and Se are higher than their averages for Chinese coals and world coals. Vertical variations of trace elements in different formations are not significant except for B and Ba. Certain roof and partings are distinctly higher in trace elements than underlying coal bench samples. The modes of occurrence of trace elements vary in different coal seams as a result of different coal-forming environments. Vanadium, Cr, and Th are associated with aluminosilicate minerals, Ba with carbonate minerals, and Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Pb mainly with sulfide minerals. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  1. An image analyzer system for the analysis of nuclear traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuapio O, A.

    1990-10-01

    Inside the project of nuclear traces and its application techniques to be applied in the detection of nuclear reactions of low section (non detectable by conventional methods), in the study of accidental and personal neutron dosemeters, and other but, are developed. All these studies are based on the fact that the charged particles leave latent traces of dielectric that if its are engraved with appropriate chemical solutions its are revealed until becoming visible to the optical microscope. From the analysis of the different trace forms, it is possible to obtain information of the characteristic parameters of the incident particles (charge, mass and energy). Of the density of traces it is possible to obtain information of the flow of the incident radiation and consequently of the received dose. For carry out this analysis has been designed and coupled different systems, that it has allowed the solution of diverse outlined problems. Notwithstanding it has been detected that to make but versatile this activity is necessary to have an Image Analyzer System that allow us to digitize, to process and to display the images with more rapidity. The present document, presents the proposal to carry out the acquisition of the necessary components for to assembling an Image Analyzing System, like support to the mentioned project. (Author)

  2. Tracing freshwater nitrate sources in pre-alpine groundwater catchments using environmental tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoewer, M. M.; Knöller, K.; Stumpp, C.

    2015-05-01

    Groundwater is one of the main resources for drinking water. Its quality is still threatened by the widespread contaminant nitrate (NO3-). In order to manage groundwater resources in a sustainable manner, we need to find options of lowering nitrate input. Particularly, a comprehensive knowledge of nitrate sources is required in areas which are important current and future drinking water reservoirs such as pre-alpine aquifers covered with permanent grassland. The objective of the present study was to identify major sources of nitrate in groundwater with low mean nitrate concentrations (8 ± 2 mg/L). To achieve the objective, we used environmental tracer approaches in four pre-alpine groundwater catchments. The stable isotope composition and tritium content of water were used to study the hydrogeology and transit times. Furthermore, nitrate stable isotope methods were applied to trace nitrogen from its sources to groundwater. The results of the nitrate isotope analysis showed that groundwater nitrate was derived from nitrification of a variety of ammonium sources such as atmospheric deposition, mineral and organic fertilizers and soil organic matter. A direct influence of mineral fertilizer, atmospheric deposition and sewage was excluded. Since temporal variation in stable isotopes of nitrate were detected only in surface water and locally at one groundwater monitoring well, aquifers appeared to be well mixed and influenced by a continuous nitrate input mainly from soil derived nitrogen. Hydrogeological analysis supported that the investigated aquifers were less vulnerable to rapid impacts due to long average transit times, ranging from 5 to 21 years. Our study revealed the importance of combining environmental tracer approaches and a comprehensive sampling campaign (local sources of nitrate, soil water, river water, and groundwater) to identify the nitrate sources in groundwater and its vulnerability. In future, the achieved results will help develop targeted

  3. Trace-element geochemistry of coal resource development related to environmental quality and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses for decision makers and those involved in coal resource development the environmental and health impacts of trace-element effects arising from significant increases in the use of coal, unless unusual precautions are invoked. Increasing demands for energy and the pressing need for decreased dependence of the United States on imported oil require greater use of coal to meet the nation's energy needs during the next decade. If coal production and consumption are increased at a greatly accelerated rate, concern arises over the release, mobilization, transportation, distribution, and assimilation of certain trace elements, with possible adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is, therefore, important to understand their geochemical pathways from coal and rocks via air, water, and soil to plants, animals, and ultimately humans, and their relation to health and disease. To address this problem, the Panel on Trace Element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Health (PECH) was established. Certain assumptions were made by the Panel to highlight the central issues of trace elements and health and to avoid unwarranted duplication of other studies. Based on the charge to the Panel and these assumptions, this report describes the amounts and distribution of trace elements related to the coal source; the various methods of coal extraction, preparation, transportation, and use; and the disposal or recycling of the remaining residues or wastes. The known or projected health effects are discussed at the end of each section.

  4. Comparative pixe analysis of trace elements in archaeological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dazhong; Chen, Jianxuan; Chen, Suqing; Wang, Nengming

    1987-04-01

    Comparative analysis of trace elements in tomato seeds from the earlier Western Han dynasty (200 B.C.) tomb in suburban Chengdu and present tomato seeds in Chengdu Qingdao and Beijing has been performed. The intended purpose of this analysis is to provide some useful information for archaeologists and biologists to solve controversial problems involved in the place of origin of the ancient tomato seeds. In order to study the ancient agricultural technique, seed reservation and environment science, the trace elements in carbonized food and the wood of a coffin have also been analyzed. The experimental results demonstrate that there are significant differences between the elemental composition and relative contents of ancient tomato seeds. In this paper the analysis of trace elements in historic relics from the group tombs of the minority nationality in Aba Tibetan Autonomy State of Sichuan Province is also reported. It is found that in the glazed pearls there is much Ba and Pb which is significant for the study of glass manufacture techniques in ancient China All experiments were done in vacuum by nondestructive PIXE analysis using a 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator and a Si(Li) spectrometer at the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology of Sichuan University.

  5. PIXE analysis for bioaccumulation studies of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Y.; Satoh, A.; Sasaki, Y.; Ito, R.; Kuramachi, K.

    2005-01-01

    Bioaccumulation by micro-alga in the ocean was simulated in nutritive seawater containing known amounts of trace metals, and the concentration factors for Fe, Zn and Cd were measured by PIXE. Trace transition metals in nearshore seawater were removed by Chelex-100. Then a culture solution was prepared by adding known amounts of trace metals and nutritive salts to the purified seawater. Marine micro-algae (Nannochloropsis sp., and Phaeodactylum sp.,) were purely cultured in the culture solution. An interested metal ion was added to the culture solution (0.01-5.0 mg/l). Alga in 10 ml of the culture solution was collected on a polycarbonate filter (pore size: 1.0 ) by suction filtration and subjected to 2.9 MeV proton bombardment. Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cd were simultaneously determined. PIXE multi-element analysis was possible using less than 1 mg of analytical sample. The quantity of the metal in the alga was increased in proportion to the concentration in the culture solution. The concentration factors for Zn, Fe and Cd were measured, e.g., 10200 ± 300 ml/g to Zn for Phaeodactylum. The trend of the affinity for the trace metals in the case of Nannochloropsis was Fe 3+ > Zn 2+ > Pb 2+ > Cd 2+ . (author)

  6. Audit and trace log management consolidation and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Phillip Q

    2006-01-01

    As regulation and legislation evolve, the critical need for cost-effective and efficient IT audit and monitoring solutions will continue to grow. Audit and Trace Log Management: Consolidation and Analysis offers a comprehensive introduction and explanation of requirements and problem definition, and also delivers a multidimensional solution set with broad applicability across a wide range of organizations. Itprovidesa wealth of information in the form of processwalkthroughs. These include problem determination, requirements gathering,scope definition, risk assessment, compliance objectives,

  7. Separation of trace uranium from plutonium for subsequent analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.

    1980-08-01

    Trace uranium quantities are separated from plutonium metal and plutonium oxide for subsequent analysis. Samples are dissolved in hydrobromic acid or a hydrobromic acid-hydrofluoric acid mixture. The U(VI)-halide complex is separated from nonsorbed Pu(III) on an anion exchange column using sequential washes of 9M HBr, a 0.1M HI-12M HCl mixture and 0.1M HCl

  8. GC in Environmental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosink, Thomas A.

    1975-01-01

    Gas chromatography can be used to quantitate various gases, complex organic molecules, metals, anions, and pesticides in the lab or in the field. Important advances in gas chromatography and how they directly apply to environmental analyses plus suggestions where they will be of importance to environmental chemists are discussed. (BT)

  9. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annegarn, H.J.; Jodaikin, A.; Cleaton-Jones, P.E.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Madiba, C.C.P.; Bibby, D.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

    1981-01-01

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas suceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surface), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the carious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples require for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis. (orig.)

  10. [Spectral Analysis of Trace Fluorine Phase in Phosphogypsum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-tao; Li, Hui-quan; Bao, Wei-jun; Wang, Chen-ye; Li, Song-geng; Lin, Wei-gang

    2015-08-01

    Phosphogypsum, which contains more than 90% of the calcium sulfate dehydrate (CaSO4 · 2H2O), is a kind of important renewable gypsum resources. Unlike the natural gypsum, however, phosphorus, fluorine, organic matter and other harmful impurities in phosphogypsum limit its practical use. To ascertain the existence form, content and phase distribution of trace fluoride in phosphogypsum has important theoretical values in removing trace fluoride effectively. In this present paper, the main existence form and phase distribution of trace fluoride in phosphogypsum was investigated by the combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Electron microprobe analysis (EMPA). The results show that trace fluoride phase mainly includes NaF, KF, CaF2, K2SiF6, Na2SiF6, Na3AlF6, K3AlF6, AlF3 · 3H2O, AlF2.3(OH)0.7 · H2O, Ca5(PO4)3F, Ca10(PO4)6F2. Among them, 4.83% of fluorine exists in the form of fluoride (NaF, KF, CaF2); Accordingly, 8.43% in the form of fluoride phosphate (Ca5(PO4)3F, Ca10(PO4)6F2); 12.21% in the form of fluorine aluminate (Na3AlF6, K3AlF6); 41.52% in the form of fluorosilicate (K2SiF6, Na2SiF6); 33.02% in the form of aluminum fluoride with crystal water (AlF3 · 3H2O, AlF2.3(OH)0.7 · H2O). In the analysis of phase constitution for trace elements in solid samples, the method of combining XPS and EMPA has more advantages. This study also provides theoretical basis for the removal of trace fluorine impurity and the effective recovery of fluorine resources.

  11. Trace element analysis by PIXE in several biomedical fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, G.; Robaye, G.; Bartsch, P.; Collignon, A.; Beguin, Y.; Roelandts, I.; Delbrouck, J. M.

    1984-04-01

    Since 1980 in the University of Liége trace element analysis by PIXE has been developed in several directions, among these: the elemental composition of lung parenchyma, hilar lymph nodes, blood content in hematological disorders and renal insufficiency. The content in trace elements of lung tumor and surrounding tissue is measured and compared to similar content previously obtained on unselected patients of comparable ages. The normalization of the bromine deficiency observed in hemodialized patients is achieved by using a dialyzing bath doped with NaBr in order to obtain a normal bromine level of 5.7 μg/ml. The content of Cu, Zn, Br and Se in blood serum from more than 100 patients suffering from malignant hemopathy has been measured. The results are compared with a reference group. These oligoelements have also been measured sequentially for patients under intensive chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia.

  12. Study on correlation of trace elements in human hair and internal organs by nuclear methods. A final report of the co-ordinated research programme on the significance of hair mineral analysis as a means for assessing internal body burdens of environmental mineral pollutants. Final report for the period October 1985 - October 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yuandi

    1988-01-01

    Autopsy samples of hair, kidney-cortex, liver and lung were analysed by radiochemical neutron activation analysis to determine the trace elements As, Cd, Hg, Cu and Zn, by instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine the trace elements Se, Na, Mg, Cl, Br, S, Cr, Co, and Rb and by PIXE to determine Fe, Ca and Mn. 15 refs, 22 figs, 10 tabs

  13. Accurate and precise major and trace element determination in marine samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucgang, Raymond J.; Cao Dong Vu; Tran Quang Thien; Ho Van Doanh; Shirai, Naoki; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    The determination of elemental composition of marine samples has attracted a great deal of attention in environmental investigations,despite the obscurities presented by extremely low trace element concentrations and high calcium, sodium, and chloride interferences in those matrices. In this study, the expediency of instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, to measure major and trace elements in white sand, fish tissue, coral, and algae samples was evaluated. Sample irradiation was done at the IVV-9 nuclear research reactor in Dalat, Vietnam, using a fuel of WWR-M2, LEU (19.75% 2 '3 5 U), and neutron flux of 4.2x10 12 n/cm 2 /s for both short and long irradiation. Counts were determined using high purity coaxial type germanium detector, and quantified by K-zero method. The accuracy of the method was validated by a concurrent analyses of standard reference materials, NIST SRM 1646a (estuarine sediment) and NIST SRM 1400 (bone ash). No significant matrix effects were observed and the obtained results were in good agreement with certified values (accuracy of 5-15%). The less elaborate sample preparation in INAA compared to other wet techniques of trace element analysis has been shown to produce lesser risk of ultra trace element contamination and losses. Detection limits in the order of parts per billion, ppb, range can be reached. The relative standard deviations for most elements were found to be about or below zero, indicating good reproducibility. (author)

  14. Assessment of both environmental cytotoxicity and trace metal pollution using Populus simonii Carr. as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluchyk, Victor; Sluchyk, Iryna; Shyichuk, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    The level of environmental pollution in the city of Ivano-Frankivsk (Western Ukraine) has been assessed by means of roadside poplar trees as bioindicators. Dividable apical meristem cells of rudimentary leaves were quantitatively analysed for mitotic activity and distribution. Anaphases were further examined for chromosomal aberrations. Male catkins were also examined for sterile pollens. Accumulation of trace elements in vegetative buds was also evaluated in order to reveal source(s) of environmental pollution. Poplar trees growing in the urban environment proved to have increased chromosomal aberrations (up to 4-fold) and increased pollen sterility (up to 4-fold) as well as decreased mitotic activity (by factor 1.5) as compared to control sampling site. The biomarker data correlate moderately with increased (up to 4-fold) concentrations of Ni, Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu in vegetative tissues suggesting that probable cause of the environmental cytotoxicity may be vehicle emissions. The maximum increase in chromosomal aberrations (7-fold) and the minimum mitotic activity (half of the control one) were recorded in poplar trees growing in industrial suburb in vicinity of large cement production plant. Taking in mind insignificant bioaccumulation of trace elements in the industrial suburb, the high environmental toxicity has been ascribed to contamination in cement and asbestos particulates.

  15. Assurance and control of quality in trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, J.

    1979-01-01

    The study demonstrates in practice the assurance and control of the quality of results from trace analysis in biological materials. The performance of three analytical methods is studied: one involving the determination of Cs and two the determination of As by neutron activation techniques in biological materials at the natural background level. In the case of Cs, the validity of the analytical procedure was investigated by the means available in the laboratory of the Institute and by utilizing the specific properties of the determinant. In the establishment and control of accuracy, the analysis of precision was essential. The investigation of the two different methods applied for the determination of arsenic demonstrates the many problems connected with trace analysis. For the control of accuracy a number of different kinds of reference materials (RMs) were used, namely four former intercomparison materials of the IAEA and two certified RMs of the NBS. The various tests performed revealed two different types of systematic errors. The scheme applied for the long-term surveillance of systematic and random errors is found to be suitable for the continuous control of quality of results from routine analysis. (author)

  16. TXRF analysis of trace metals in thin silicon nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereecke, G.; Arnauts, S.; Verstraeten, K.; Schaekers, M.; Heyrts, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    As critical dimensions of integrated circuits continue to decrease, high dielectric constant materials such as silicon nitride are being considered to replace silicon dioxide in capacitors and transistors. The achievement of low levels of metal contamination in these layers is critical for high performance and reliability. Existing methods of quantitative analysis of trace metals in silicon nitride require high amounts of sample (from about 0.1 to 1 g, compared to a mass of 0.2 mg for a 2 nm thick film on a 8'' silicon wafer), and involve digestion steps not applicable to films on wafers or non-standard techniques such as neutron activation analysis. A novel approach has recently been developed to analyze trace metals in thin films with analytical techniques currently used in the semiconductor industry. Sample preparation consists of three steps: (1) decomposition of the silicon nitride matrix by moist HF condensed at the wafer surface to form ammonium fluosilicate. (2) vaporization of the fluosilicate by a short heat treatment at 300 o C. (3) collection of contaminants by scanning the wafer surface with a solution droplet (VPD-DSC procedure). The determination of trace metals is performed by drying the droplet on the wafer and by analyzing the residue by TXRF, as it offers the advantages of multi-elemental analysis with no dilution of the sample. The lower limits of detection for metals in 2 nm thick films on 8'' silicon wafers range from about 10 to 200 ng/g. The present study will focus on the matrix effects and the possible loss of analyte associated with the evaporation of the fluosilicate salt, in relation with the accuracy and the reproducibility of the method. The benefits of using an internal standard will be assessed. Results will be presented from both model samples (ammonium fluoride contaminated with metallic salts) and real samples (silicon nitride films from a production tool). (author)

  17. Environmental conditions analysis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, J.

    1991-01-01

    The PC-based program discussed in this paper has the capability of determining the steady state temperatures of environmental zones (rooms). A program overview will be provided along with examples of formula use. Required input and output from the program will also be discussed. Specific application of plant monitored temperatures and utilization of this program will be offered. The presentation will show how the program can project individual room temperature profiles without continual temperature monitoring of equipment. A discussion will also be provided for the application of the program generated data. Evaluations of anticipated or planned plant modifications and the use of the subject program will also be covered

  18. Study of trace impurities in heroin by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.Y.; Yang, J.H.; Ouyang, H.; Li, Z.J.; Chai, Z.F.; Zhu, J.; Xi'an JiaoTong Univ., Shaanxi; Zhao, J.Z.; Yu, Z.S.; Wang, J.

    2004-01-01

    Sixty-two heroin samples were analyzed for their contents of 15 trace elements (Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, and Zn) by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Large variations of elemental concentrations between samples were found to possess statistical significance. Of all the elements calcium was the most abundant element, followed by zinc and sodium. The concentrations of Au, Ce, Co, La, Sb, Sc, Sm, and Th in all the samples were below 1 μg x g -1 . Classification of these heroin samples was achieved by the application of hierarchical cluster analysis. The results show that NAA can provide useful information on the origin of the illicit drugs. (author)

  19. Use of activation analysis of hair in environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.

    1982-01-01

    Human hair is very suitable for use in environmental control monitoring because trace elements concentrate in it at higher levels than in most other organs. Unlike in other biological materials, the trace element contents in hair can be determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), as the interference by 24 Na can be eliminated by appropriate washing of hair, e.g., using the procedure recommended by IAEA. The methods of sampling, washing and sample analysis using INAA and neutron activation analysis with radiochemical separation are described including the recommended way of the presentation of results. The results are presented of analyses for trace elements in hair from both little and highly polluted areas. (Ha)

  20. Contribution to improving extreme trace analysis for platinum in biotic and environmentally relevant materials; Beitrag zur Verbesserung der extremen Spurenanalytik der Platinmetalle in biotischen und umweltrelevanten Materialien (VPT 01)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, F. [Institut fuer Spektrochemie und Angewandte Spektroskopie, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The declared aim of the present project was to develop reliable and powerful detection methods for platinum metals and in particular platinum. Special emphasis was placed on practicability and transferability to other applications. This meant that the sample preparation techniques and detection methods employed would have to be available to other laboratories without significant prior investment costs. On the hand the analysis method had to meet very exacting requirements because platinum metals are among the rarest substances contained in the Earth`s crust (1x10-7%-10x10-7%) and the element quantities and concentrations to be detected are in range of 10-12g or 10-9g/kg(L), respectively. These levels are approximately three orders of magnitude smaller than those relevant to other environmentally consequential elements (e.g., lead, cadmium). [Deutsch] Die Entwicklung zuverlaessiger und nachweisstarker Bestimmungsmethoden fuer Platinmetalle, besonders Platin, war das erklaerte Ziel dieses Vorhabens. Besonderer Wert sollte allerdings auch auf die Durchfuehrbarkeit und Uebertragbarkeit fuer andere Anwender gelegt werden. Dies bedeutete, dass moeglichst nur Probenvorbereitungstechniken und Bestimmungsmethoden integriert werden sollten, die ohne grosse Investitionskosten auch anderen Laboratorien zur Verfuegung stehen. Andererseits werden an die Analytik sehr hohe Anforderungen gestellt, da die Platinmetalle zu den seltensten Elementen in der Erdkruste gehoeren (1x10{sup -7}%-10x10{sup -7}%). Die Elementmengen bzw. -konzentrationen, die nachgewiesen und bestimmt werden muessen, liegen im Bereich von 10{sup -12} g, respektive 10{sup -9} g/kg(L). Im Vergleich zum Vorkommen anderer umweltrelevanter Elemente (z.B. Blei, Cadmium) sind dies um etwa drei Groessenordnungen niedrigere Konzentrationen. (orig.)

  1. Analysis of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  2. Investigation of trace elements in Elbe water by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motamedi, K.

    1977-01-01

    Investigations of trace elements in Elbe water were carried out as a contribution to environmental research, hydrology, and geochemistry. The method applied - instrumental neutron activation analysis - is described, and problems connected with the course of analysis - sample taking, handling and preparation as well as optimization of in-pile irradiation and measurement by means of γ spectrometry - are discussed and presented one by one. The computer programme set up for automatic evaluation is described in more detail. This programme AKAN has a very general concept which makes it applicable for general use. The reliability of the evaluation procedure - monostandard method - and the reproducibility of the results are discussed. For the studies, samples were taken at different times, every time from 8 positions along a long section of the Elbe. The content of solids was analyzed; in a number of samples, this was done by separating suspended and dissolved materials. Up to 38 elements were analyzed, whose local and time-dependent concentration curves are given. The contents of some elements are compared with the few available data from literature. Correlation calculations indicate a similar behaviour of single element groups and yield information on the natural origin of the trace elements and on anthropogenic influence to be noticed in the trace element contents. (orig.) [de

  3. Chemical analysis of useful trace elements in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Shunsaku; Fujii, Ayako; Miyai, Yoshitaka; Sakane, Kohji; Ogata, Noboru.

    1983-01-01

    The methods for the analysis of useful trace elements in sea water which have been tried so far are reviewed, and these methods are described briefly from the standpoint of studying the collection of resources. Ag and Au can be determined by concentrating sea water by ion-exchange method, solvent extraction method and electrodeposition method, then the elements are measured quantitatively by activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrochemical analysis. Sr, B and Li, which exist in relatively high concentration in sea water, are determined easily by atomic absorption spectrochemical analysis and absorption spectrometry. U, Mo and V are measured suitably by concentrating the elements by coprecipitation or solvent extraction method, and measuring by fluorescence analysis and arsenazo-3 method for U and through graphite-atomic absorption analysis for Mo and V. It has been revealed that the concentration of Ag and Au in sea water is extremely low, accordingly the recovery study is not conducted recently. On the other hand, the adsorption method using hydrated titanium oxide and amidoxim adsorbents for U, Mo and V, the adsorption method using aluminum adsorbent for Li, and the adsorption method using magnesium oxide and zirconium hydroxide and the solvent extraction method for B are hopeful to recover these elements. (Yoshitake, I.)

  4. LineVISAR. A fringe-trace data analysis program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furnish, Michael D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The line-imaging ORVIS or VISAR provides velocity as a function of position and time for a line on an experimental setup via a streak camera record of interference fringes. This document describes a Matlab-based program which guides the user through the process of converting these fringe data to a velocity surface. The data reduction is of the "fringe trace" type, wherein the changes in velocity at a given position on the line are calculated based on fringe motion past that point. The analyst must establish the fringe behavior up front, aided by peak-finding routines in the program. However, the later work of using fringe jumps to compensate for phase problems in other analysis techniques is greatly reduced. This program is not a standard GUI construction, and is prescriptive. At various points it saves the progress, allowing later restarts from those points.

  5. Computation and analysis of backward ray-tracing in aero-optics flow fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Xue, Deting; Lv, Xiaoyi

    2018-01-08

    A backward ray-tracing method is proposed for aero-optics simulation. Different from forward tracing, the backward tracing direction is from the internal sensor to the distant target. Along this direction, the tracing in turn goes through the internal gas region, the aero-optics flow field, and the freestream. The coordinate value, the density, and the refractive index are calculated at each tracing step. A stopping criterion is developed to ensure the tracing stops at the outer edge of the aero-optics flow field. As a demonstration, the analysis is carried out for a typical blunt nosed vehicle. The backward tracing method and stopping criterion greatly simplify the ray-tracing computations in the aero-optics flow field, and they can be extended to our active laser illumination aero-optics study because of the reciprocity principle.

  6. Research review trends of food analysis in Latvia: major and trace element content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane; Klavins, Maris; Rudovica, Vita; Viksna, Arturs

    2013-10-01

    The current paper involves overview of several studies concerning quantitative major and trace element analysis of different food samples, such as products of plant origin, e.g., locally grown vegetables (carrots, onions, potatoes) and products of animal origin derived with or without processing (cottage cheese, eggs, honey). Food samples were collected over the territory of Latvia in the time period 2009-2012. Sample pre-treatment was chosen according to the product specifics but mostly wet mineralization with concentrated nitric acid was applied. Analysis of major elements (e.g., Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na) and trace elements (e.g., As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) was performed by appropriate quantitative analytical technique: atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Not only the influence of environmental factors (e.g., geographical or seasonal impact) was detected in element dissemination in food, also botanical origin (if applicable) and applied agricultural praxis, product processing and storage specifics were found to be important. Possible food contamination by potentially toxic elements can be associated mostly with the consequences of anthropogenic activities. The studies revealed the significance of food research in the context of environmental science.

  7. Trace elements detection in whole food samples by Neutron Activation Analysis, k{sub 0}-method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathler, Márcia Maia; Menezes, Maria Ângela de Barros Correia, E-mail: maia.sathler@gmail.com, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Salles, Paula Maria Borges de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Inorganic elements, from natural and anthropogenic sources are present in foods in different concentrations. With the increase in anthropogenic activities, there was also a considerable increase in the emission of these elements in the environment, leading to the need of monitoring the elemental composition of foods available for consumption. Numerous techniques have been used to detect inorganic elements in biological and environmental matrices, always aiming at reaching lower detection limits in order to evaluate the trace element content in the sample. Neutron activation analysis (INAA), applying the k{sub 0}-method, produces accurate and precise results without the need of chemical preparation of the samples – that could cause their contamination. This study evaluated the presence of inorganic elements in whole foods samples, mainly elements on trace levels. For this purpose, seven samples of different types of whole foods were irradiated in the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 research reactor - located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte, MG. It was possible to detect twenty two elements above the limit of detection in, at least, one of the samples analyzed. This study reaffirms the INAA, k{sub 0} - method, as a safe and efficient technique for detecting trace elements in food samples. (author)

  8. Trace elements detection in whole food samples by Neutron Activation Analysis, k0-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathler, Márcia Maia; Menezes, Maria Ângela de Barros Correia; Salles, Paula Maria Borges de

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic elements, from natural and anthropogenic sources are present in foods in different concentrations. With the increase in anthropogenic activities, there was also a considerable increase in the emission of these elements in the environment, leading to the need of monitoring the elemental composition of foods available for consumption. Numerous techniques have been used to detect inorganic elements in biological and environmental matrices, always aiming at reaching lower detection limits in order to evaluate the trace element content in the sample. Neutron activation analysis (INAA), applying the k 0 -method, produces accurate and precise results without the need of chemical preparation of the samples – that could cause their contamination. This study evaluated the presence of inorganic elements in whole foods samples, mainly elements on trace levels. For this purpose, seven samples of different types of whole foods were irradiated in the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 research reactor - located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte, MG. It was possible to detect twenty two elements above the limit of detection in, at least, one of the samples analyzed. This study reaffirms the INAA, k 0 - method, as a safe and efficient technique for detecting trace elements in food samples. (author)

  9. Trace fossil analysis of lacustrine facies and basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buatois, L.A.; Mangano, M.G.

    1998-01-01

    Two ichnofacies are typical of lacustrine depositional systems. The Scoyenia ichnofacies characterizes transitional terrestrial/nonmarine aquatic substrates, periodically inundated or desiccated, and therefore is commonly present in lake margin facies. The Mermia ichnofacies is associated with well oxygenated, permanent subaqueous, fine-grained substrates of hydrologically open, perennial lakes. Bathymetric zonations within the Mermia ichnofacies are complicated by the wide variability of lacustrine systems. Detected proximal-distal trends are useful within particular lake basins, but commonly difficult to extrapolate to other lakes. Other potential ichnofacies include the typically marine Skolithos ichnofacies for high-energy zones of lakes and substrate-controlled, still unnamed ichnofacies, associated to lake margin deposits. Trace fossils are useful for sedimentologic analysis of event beds. Lacustrine turbidites are characterized by low-diversity suites, reflecting colonization by opportunistic organisms after the turbidite event. Underflow current beds record animal activity contemporaneous with nearly continuous sedimentation. Ichnologic studies may also help to distinguish between marine and lacustrine turbidites. Deep-marine turbidites host the Nereites ichnofacies that consists of high diversity of ornate grazing traces and graphoglyptids, recording highly specialized feeding strategies developed to solve the problem of the scarcity of food in the deep sea. Deep lacustrine environments contain the Mermia ichnofacies, which is dominated by unspecialized grazing and feeding traces probably related to the abundance and accessibility of food in lacustrine systems. The lower diversity of lacustrine ichnofaunas in comparison with deep-sea assemblages more likely reflects lower species diversity as a consequence of less stable conditions. Increase of depth and extent of bioturbation through geologic time produced a clear signature in the ichnofabric record of

  10. Mapping of Trace Elements in Coal and Ash Research Based on a Bibliometric Analysis Method Spanning 1971–2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the most important fossil energy used in China. The environmental impact of trace elements released in coal combustion has become one of the hottest issues in recent years. Based on a software named CiteSpace, and social network analysis (SNA, a bibliometric analysis of research into trace elements in coal and ash field during 1971–2017 is presented with the information of authors, countries, institutions, journals, hot issues and research trends in the present study. The study results indicate that: (1 Shifeng Dai, Robert B Finkelman, Guijian Liu and James C Hower have a large number of publications with great influence. (2 China (29.8% and USA (22.2% have high productivity in total publications. China and the USA correlate closely in the cooperative web system. (3 China University of Mining and Technology and Chinese Academy of Sciences take the leading position in the quantity of publications among all research institutions. (4 Energy and fuels, engineering and environmental science are three disciplines with the most studies in this field. (5 International Journal of Coal Geology, Fuel, Energy and Fuels and Fuel Processing Technology are the top four journals with the most publications in this field. (6 The enrichment origin and modes of occurrence of trace elements are the mainstream research related to trace elements in coal and ash. The environmental problems caused by coal combustion have promoted the development of trace elements in coal research, and human health is getting more and more popular in recent years. The study findings provide a better understanding of features of trace elements in coal and ash research, which could be taken as a reference for future studies in this field.

  11. Medical and health-related trace element analysis by TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, E.D.

    2000-01-01

    The advantages offered with TXRF analysis by direct irradiation with monochromatic X-rays of tissue homogenates and body fluids make the technique appropriate for a number of medical and health related applications. The ability to detect low levels of toxic heavy elements is being used as an aid in accidental poisoning diagnosis and treatment, in treatment-induced toxicity control and as an accessory in medical and health research. Thus lead-in-whole-blood analysis is used in confirmation of diagnosis of victims of poisoning, or monitoring the evolution and efficiency of the clinical treatment. Measurement and control of plasma platinum levels of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy with Pt-containing drugs includes: establishment of the drug level-tumor remission response, measurement of Pt plasma level curves and establishment of optimum dosage to minimize the nephrotoxicity of platinum, and bioequivalence comparisons of different commercially available platinum containing anticancer drugs. Analysis as an aid in clinical research applications includes: trace element determination of amniotic fluid in fetus malformation studies; analysis of brain specimens and cerebrospinal fluid in diagnosis of central nervous system disorders; the influence of trace elements in cataract genesis and the influence of heavy elements in semen quality in human reproduction studies. Human body samples require the use of monochromatized beams of x-rays in order to derive the special advantage of its use: i) The reduction in the spectrum background allowing direct irradiation of organic matter specimens. Hence human tissue and body fluids are prepared by simple procedures involving dilution, homogenization and standard addition avoiding the need for specimen digestion. This results in faster, cheaper methods that decrease sample contamination problems. ii) The presence of a large Compton scattered signal in the spectrum and its use as an internal standard reference allows further

  12. Contribution to optimisation of Environmental Isotopes tracing in Hydrogeology. Case study of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAJAOBELISON, J.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to suggest some improvements on the theory of interpretation and on the methodological approach for the optimum use of environmental isotopes tracing applied to hydrogeological investigation. A review of the theory of environmental isotopes used in hydrogeology has been made. The main constraints have been highlighted and led to some comments and proposals of improvement, in particular with regard to the continental effect on stable isotopes, to the seasonal variation of groundwater 1 4C content, and to the appropriate model for fractured crystalline aquifers. A literature survey on ten specific scientific papers, dealing with isotopic hydrology in miscellaneous types of aquifers and catchments, allowed to draw a synthesis of the hydrogeological, geochemical and isotopic constraints. A proposal of optimum methodological approach, taking into account the above mentioned constraints, have been inferred. The results of an on-going hydrogeological investigation carried out in the Southern crystalline basement and coastal sedimentary aquifers of Madagascar highlights an unusual methodological approach based on the lack of initial basic hydrogeological data. Besides, it shows to what extent the experience of the above mentioned research works can apply in the specific case of the complex aquifers of Madagascar. The lessons gained from this study contribute to enrich the synthesis of environmental isotopes constraints in hydrogeology and lead to a more realistic methodological approach proposal wich is likely to better make profitable the isotope hydrology technology

  13. Uncertainty analysis of environmental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, L.

    1990-01-01

    In the present paper an evaluation of the output uncertainty of an environmental model for assessing the transfer of 137 Cs and 131 I in the human food chain are carried out on the basis of a statistical analysis of data reported by the literature. The uncertainty analysis offers the oppotunity of obtaining some remarkable information about the uncertainty of models predicting the migration of non radioactive substances in the environment mainly in relation to the dry and wet deposition

  14. Evaluating the suitability of different environmental samples for tracing atmospheric pollution in industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francová, Anna; Chrastný, Vladislav; Šillerová, Hana; Vítková, Martina; Kocourková, Jana; Komárek, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Samples of lichens, snow and particulate matter (PM 10 , 24 h) are used for the source identification of air pollution in the heavily industrialized region of Ostrava, Upper Silesia, Czech Republic. An integrated approach that uses different environmental samples for metal concentration and Pb isotope analyses was applied. The broad range of isotope ratios in the samples indicates a combination of different pollution sources, the strongest among them being the metallurgical industry, bituminous coal combustion and traffic. Snow samples are proven as the most relevant indicator for tracing metal(loid)s and recent local contamination in the atmosphere. Lichens can be successfully used as tracers of the long-term activity of local and remote sources of contamination. The combination of PM 10 with snow can provide very useful information for evaluation of current pollution sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental analysis for pipeline gas demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, L.H.

    1978-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has implemented programs for encouraging the development and commercialization of coal-related technologies, which include coal gasification demonstration-scale activities. In support of commercialization activities the Environmental Analysis for Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plants has been prepared as a reference document to be used in evaluating potential environmental and socioeconomic effects from construction and operation of site- and process-specific projects. Effluents and associated impacts are identified for six coal gasification processes at three contrasting settings. In general, impacts from construction of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant are similar to those caused by the construction of any chemical plant of similar size. The operation of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant, however, has several unique aspects that differentiate it from other chemical plants. Offsite development (surface mining) and disposal of large quantities of waste solids constitute important sources of potential impact. In addition, air emissions require monitoring for trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and other emissions. Potential biological impacts from long-term exposure to these emissions are unknown, and additional research and data analysis may be necessary to determine such effects. Possible effects of pollutants on vegetation and human populations are discussed. The occurrence of chemical contaminants in liquid effluents and the bioaccumulation of these contaminants in aquatic organisms may lead to adverse ecological impact. Socioeconomic impacts are similar to those from a chemical plant of equivalent size and are summarized and contrasted for the three surrogate sites.

  16. Storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for trace-element analysis in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Rack, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    The problems regarding storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for the elements aluminum, calcium, vanadium, selenium, copper, iodine, zinc, manganese, and magnesium in a urine matrix are reviewed. The type of collection and storage procedure and pre-neutron activation analysis treatment of urine depend on the specific trace element; that is, its inherent physical and chemical properties. Specifically polyethylene in teflon containers are the most suitable for general determinations. Whether any preservative is added would depend upon the stability of the trace element and its tendency for surface adsorption. Preferably, preservatives should contain no radioactivatable elements for maximum efficacy. Freeze drying or packing urine shipments under dry ice needs to be explored on an individual basis. Each pre- or post-neutron activation analysis treatment is specific and optimized for the trace element analyzed

  17. Hyphenating multisyringe flow injection lab-on-valve analysis with atomic fluorescence spectrometry for on-line bead-injection preconcentration and determination of trace levels of hydride-forming elements in environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2006-01-01

    of the functional moieties, so that maximum benefit can be taken from the application of the bead renewal strategy. The proposed procedure is characterized by a high tolerance to metal species and interfering hydride forming elements. In fact, ratios of Se(IV) to As ≤ 5000 and Sb(V) to As ≤ 500 are tolerated...... for the bead-injection mode whenever the loading sample volume was affixed at 3.0 mL. The reliability and accuracy of the automated procedure was ascertained by determining total inorganic arsenic in both spiked environmental waters and certified reference materials of variable matrix complexity (TMDA-54...

  18. Timor-Leste : Country Environmental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) for Timor-Leste identifies environmental priorities through a systematic review of environmental issues in natural resources management and environmental health in the context of the country's economic development and environmental institutions. Lack of data has been the main limitation in presenting a more rigorous analysis. Nevertheless, the repor...

  19. Application of the neutron activation analysis technique in trace elements analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Sarheel, A.; Al-Somel, N.

    2006-12-01

    The main objective in this study is the implementation k 0 -standardization method (single comparator method) using gold comparator as a routine method in neutron activation analysis laboratory in Engineering Nuclear Department. Cadmium ratio Rcd; Cd-ratio = [A s p/(A s p) C d] and the nuclear reactor constants (f=φ t h/φ e pi subcadimum thermal- to- epithermal neutron flux ratio and α with describing the φ e (E)∼ 1/E 1+α neutron flux distribution) were determined in the inner and outer irradiation sites at MNS Reactor. K 0 -IAEA software, which provided by the Agency, has been installed and applied in our laboratory. Trace elements in many kinds of samples (biological, environmental, alloy ...etc) were determined using K 0 -IAEA software. The results of standard reference materials (SRM's) obtained in this work show a good agreement with the certified values, and we got these results with a good accuracy closer to results which we got from relative NAA method. (author)

  20. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelenz, R.; Bayat, I.; Fischer, E.

    1976-05-01

    For the determination of trace elements in foodstuffs with the aid of neutron activation analysis the separation of volatile radionuclides after digestion of the sample is of special interest for radiochemical processing. A distillation procedure was developed to give reproducable results, however optimal conditions were not found for all volatile radionuclides studied. The required selective separation of Br-82 from the distillate was best achieved by the application of an ion-exchange column-chromatography technique. The computer programs for the evaluation of complex gamma spectra have been developed further. The automatic peak search and peak area determination is based on a computer program using the correlation technique and carried out with a mini-computer coupled with a multi-channel gamma spectrometer. The results, which are presented in 3 earlier reports relating to this research program, reveal the advantages and disadvantages of the individual steps of the radiochemical separation scheme. Before neutron activation analysis can be introduced on a routine basis, some aspects of the radiochemical process remain to be tested; these studies will be published in a fourth and final report. (orig.) [de

  1. [Analysis of trace elements in limestone for archeological functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, A. [Lab. de Recherche des Monuments Historiques, Champs-sur-Marne (France); Holmes, L.; Harbottle, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (US). Chemistry Dept.

    1998-12-31

    Numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the Paris Basin provided stone for the building and the decoration of monuments from antiquity to the present. To determine the origin of stone used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 samples. Petrographic and paleontologic examination of thin sections allows geologists to distinguish Lutetian limestones from Jurassic and Cretaceous limestones. Geologists also seek to formulate hypotheses regarding the origin of Lutetian limestones used for building and sculpture in the Paris region. In the search for the sources of building and sculptural stone, the analytical methods of geologists are limited because often several quarries produce the same lithofacies. A new tool is now available, however, to attack questions of provenance raised by art historians. Because limestones from different sources have distinctive patterns of trace-element concentrations, compositional analysis by neutron activation allows one to compare building or sculptural stone from one monument with stone from quarries or other monuments. This analytical method subjects a powdered limestone sample to standard neutron activation analysis procedures at Brookhaven National Laboratory. With the help of computer programs, the compositional fingerprints of Lutetian limestones can be determined and stored in a database. The limestone database contains data for approximately 2,100 samples from monuments, sculptures and quarries. It is particularly rich in samples from the Paris Basin.

  2. X-ray trace element analysis with positive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.H.

    1973-01-01

    A new trace element analysis having the advantage that many elements may be detected in a single measurement, based on positive charged particle induced X-ray florescence and on the production of X-rays by heavy ions, is described. Because of the large cross-sections for the production of discrete X-ray and the low yield of continuum radiation, positive charged particle X-ray florescence is a competitive, fast, analytic tool. In the experiment a beam of positive charged particles from an accelerator was directed toward a target. X-rays induced by the bombardment were detected by a Si(Li) detector the ouput from which was amplified and sorted in a multichannel analyzer. For rapid data handling and analysis, the multichannel analyzer or ADC unit was connected to an on-line computer. A large variety of targets prepared in collaboration with the oceanographers have been studied and spectra obtained for different particles having the same velocity are presented to show that the yield of discrete X-rays increases at least as rapidly as Z 2 . While protons of several MeV appear to be already competitive further advantage may be gained by heavy ions at lower energies since the continuum is reduced while the peak ''signals'' retain strength due to the Z 2 dependence. (S.B.)

  3. LASER SPECTROSCOPY AND TRACE ELEMENT ANALYSIS Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various, Authors

    1981-05-01

    In order to control pollutants resulting from energy production and utilization, adequate methods are required for monitoring the level of various substances often present at low concentrations. The Energy and Environment Division Applied Research in Laser Spectroscopy & Analytical Techniques Program is directed toward meeting these needs, Emphasis is on the development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques. The advantages, now widely recognized, include ultra-high sensitivity coupled with minimal sample preparation. In some instances physical methods provide multi-parameter measurements which often provide the only means of achiev·ing the sensitivity necessary for the detection of trace contaminants. Work is reported in these areas: APPLIED PHYSICS AND LASER SPECTROSCOPY RESEARCH; MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLER ANODIC STRIPPING VOLTAMETER FOR TRACE METALS ANALYSIS IN WATER; THE SURVEY OF INSTRUMENTATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING; THE POSSIBLE CHRONDRITIC NATURE OF THE DANISH CRETACEOUS~TERTIARY BOUNDARY; IMPROVEMENT OF THE SENSITIVITY AND PRECISION OF NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS OF SOME ELEMENTS IN PLANKTON AND PLANKTONIC FISH; and SOURCES OF SOME SECONDARILY WORKED OBSIDIAN ARTIFACTS FROM TIKAL, GUATEMALA.

  4. Selected environmental applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.

    2001-01-01

    NAA is very useful for the determination of trace and minor elements in many environmental applications. While instrumental NAA (INAA) has a number of valid applications in this field, radiochemical NAA (RNAA) prior to, or post irradiation provides some significant advantages. One of the major focus points for environmental applications of NAA is to assess the magnitude of various pollutants. This paper discusses doing this via two methods, namely air monitoring and biological monitoring. (author)

  5. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in sea water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusaka, Yuzuru; Tsuji, Haruo; Imai, Sakingo; Ohmori, Sayoko.

    1979-01-01

    Analytical values of trace elements in sea water samples have been fluctuated according to the sampling locations, the analytical procedures and so on. It is very important in marine chemistry to elucidate the cause of such concentration variations. This report is the analytical results of the samples obtained in the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean and the Sea of Japan, by means of neutron activation analysis. As the preconcentration, 1-pyrrolidine carbothio acid (APDC)-chelate extraction and freeze-drying were adopted. The specimens obtained by this extraction from 500 or 800 ml samples were irradiated by KUR reactor for 1 min, 1 hr to 10 hrs and the gamma-ray spectrometry with a Ge(Li) detector was used for the determination of V, Mn, Cu, Zn, U, Fe, Co, Ni, Ag, Sb and Au. By about 80 hrs irradiation of the specimens obtained by freeze-drying from 20 ml samples and their gamma-ray spectrometry, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb and Cs were determined. The former procedure gives concentrations of elements in species reactable with APDC, but the latter method shows entire concentrations of the elements in the sea water samples. Some considerations on the analytical values and the comparisons of the both methods are described. (author)

  6. Tracing overhead transmission line corridors with regard to environmental and spatial qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Cof

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with possibilities for running the proposed overhead transmission line Okroglo-Italian border. The Slovene and Italian methods are shown as methods enabling consideration of environmental and spatial impact within the process of planning overhead transmission line corridors. The Slovene method consists of analyses of attractiveness and vulnerability, whereby the first considers those functional and economic factors that affect spatial attractiveness for overhead transmission lines. Thus we can assess the level of economic and functional suitability of alternative routes of the proposed 400 kilovolt overhead transmission line from transformation station Okroglo (Slovenia to Srednje, Golo Brdo and Vrtojba, three potential contact points on the Slovene–Italian border. In accordance with stipulations of the Law on spatial management vulnerability models were prepared, which were used to simulate the development’s potential negative environmental effects and to analyse suitability, which implies harmonisation of development and protection demands. Their result is a possible corridor that can be developed without significant conflicts. The Italian procedure was developed to trace the transmission line corridor from the Slovenian border to the transformation station in Udine. It was also applied on the Slovenian side. Three groups of factors were considered in the procedure: exclusion, repulsion, and attraction. The much simpler procedure enables comparisons, since it uses the same or at least similar spatial data. In conclusion a short commentary is added about the corridor concept as a planning tool.

  7. Isotopes in geobiochemistry: tracing metabolic pathways in microorganisms of environmental relevance with stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, Lorenz; Marco-Urrea, Ernest

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotopes are flexibly used as tracers to investigate environmental processes, microorganisms responsible for environmental transformations, syntrophic relationships in consortia, and metabolic pathways. With the advent of widely accessible high-resolution, highly accurate and sensitive mass spectrometers connected to liquid chromatography (LC-MS/MS) and the explosion of microbial genome sequence information the options to apply stable isotope tracers to geobiochemical topics have multiplied. With methods at hand to analyze biochemical pathways and enzymatic functions of yet-uncultivated microorganisms even in mixed cultures, a wide field of new discoveries can be expected. Applications rely both on the high sensitivity to detect trace amounts of biological material in slow or non-growing cultures and on the high multi-dimensional resolution of LC-MS/MS to allow the separation of complex samples and to retrieve phylogenetic information. Challenges and examples of stable isotope applications to describe geobiochemical processes are reviewed. Overall, the potential is not yet sufficiently deployed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION FOR TRACE ANALYSIS OF DIAZINON IN DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahiminejad ، S. J. Shahtaheri ، M. R. Ganjali ، A. Rahimi Forushani ، F. Golbabaei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Amongst organophosphate pesticides, the one most widely used and common environmental contaminant is diazinon; thus methods for its trace analysis in environmental samples must be developed. Use of diazinon imprinted polymers such as sorbents in solid phase extraction, is a prominent and novel application area of molecular imprinted polymers. For diazinon extraction, high performance liquid chromatography analysis was demonstrated in this study. During optimization of the molecular imprinted solid phase extraction procedure for efficient solid phase extraction of diazinon, Plackett-Burman design was conducted. Eight experimental factors with critical influence on molecular imprinted solid phase extraction performance were selected, and 12 different experimental runs based on Plackett-Burman design were carried out. The applicability of diazinon imprinted polymers as the sorbent in solid phase extraction, presented obtained good recoveries of diazinon from LC-grade water. An increase in pH caused an increase in the recovery on molecular imprinted solid phase extraction. From these results, the optimal molecular imprinted solid phase extraction procedure was as follows: solid phase extraction packing with 100 mg diazinon imprinted polymers; conditioning with 5 mL of methanol and 6 mL of LC-grade water; sample loading containing diazinon (pH=10; washing with 1 mL of LC-grade water, 1 mL LC- grade water containing 30% acetonitrile and 0.5 mL of acetonitrile, respectively; eluting with 1 mL of methanol containing 2% acetic acid. The percentage recoveries obtained by the optimized molecular imprinted solid phase extraction were more than 90% with drinking water spiked at different trace levels of diazinon. Generally speaking, the molecular imprinted solid phase extraction procedure and subsequent high performance liquid chromatography analysis can be a relatively fast and proper approach for qualitative and quantitative analysis of diazinon in

  9. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for trace element detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Noll, K. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Ion beam induced nuclear reactions can be used to analyse trace element concentrations in materials. The method is especially suited for the detection of light contaminants in heavy matrices. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  10. Modified interstitial water squeezer for trace metal analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Rajaraman, V.S.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    Hydraulic squeezer of Manheim, used in the extraction of pore water of sediments, has been modified by providing teflon inner lining and increasing the volume of squeezer. The modified version facilitates collection of pore water sample, for trace...

  11. Trace analysis of phosphates in small aqueous volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potman, W.; Lijklema, L.

    1979-01-01

    The indirect determination of trace amounts of phosphate through estimation of the molybdenum in the phosphomolybdic acid complex has been improved. The lower limit of spectrophotometric determination is about 0.10 μg P

  12. Cryomechanical preconcentration system for trace gas analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced cryogenic cooling systems are required to enable high-precision measurements of trace atmospheric gases and isotopes present at very low concentrations in...

  13. Hyperspectral imaging for non-contact analysis of forensic traces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, G. J.; Gaston, E.; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Cullen, P. J.; Aalders, M. C. G.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) integrates conventional imaging and spectroscopy, to obtain both spatial and spectral information from a specimen. This technique enables investigators to analyze the chemical composition of traces and simultaneously visualize their spatial distribution. HSI offers

  14. Chlorophenol's ultra-trace analysis in environmental samples by chitosan-zinc oxide nanorod composite as a novel coating for solid phase micro-extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a simple, novel, and efficient preconcentration method has been developed for the determination of some chlorophenols (4-chlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, 2,3-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) using a direct solid phase microextraction (D-SPME) based on chitosan-ZnO nanorod composite combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A one step-novel hydrothermal method was demonstrated on the fabrication of ZnO nanorods arrayed on the fused silica fiber in the chitosan hydrogel solution (CZNC) as a new coating of SPME fiber. The coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) instruments. The CZNC coating has combined the merits of both ZnO nanorods and chitosan hydrogel; it has several improvements such as increased extraction efficiency of chlorophenols and longer life time (over 80 cycles of D-SPME-HPLC operation). Experimental design method was used for optimization of extraction conditions and determination of four chlorophenols in water samples by SPME-HPLC-UV method. The calibration curves were linear from 5 to 1000 µg L(-1) for analytes, and the limits of detection were between 0.1 and 2 µg L(-1). Single fiber repeatability and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility were in the range of 5.8-10.2% and 8.8-14.5%, respectively. The spiked recoveries at 50 µg L(-1) for environmental water sample were in the range of 93-102%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Towards integrated environmental quality objectives for surface water, ground water, sediment and soil for nine trace metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plassche EJ van de; Bruijn JHM de

    1992-01-01

    This report is the result of the second sub-project of the project "Setting integrated environmental quality objectives", called exotic metals". These trace metals are antimony, barium, beryllium cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, thallium, tin and vanadium. This report is an integration of three

  16. Considerations on ultra trace analysis of carbamates in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, J M F; Sandra, Tom; Sandra, Pat

    2003-05-09

    A new routine method for the ultra trace analysis of carbamates in water samples is presented, using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-ESI-MS). Instrumental conditions of LC-ESI-MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, showed excellent linear response for the six N-methyl carbamates studied (aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran, methomyl, oxamyl and pirimicarb) in the range from 1 to 50 microg/l and a precision having a relative standard deviation below 7.8% was achieved. Instrumental limits of detection of 0.10 microg/l were found for these carbamates, with the exception of methomyl for which 0.50 microg/l was measured. The SPE assays were shown to be easy, fast, very sensitive, requiring a low volume (50 ml) of water sample. For laboratory-spiked water samples having 0.03 and 0.30 microg/l of individual N-methyl carbamates, higher selectivities were achieved in cartridges having octadecylsilica, polystyrene-divinylbenzene and N-vinylpyrrolidane-divinylbenzene as solid phases, for which reasonable average recoveries were obtained. Ten replicates using octadecylsilica SPE cartridges, showed average recoveries between 73.7 and 92.6% with a relative standard deviation lower than 14.7%. The present methodology evidences good robustness, accuracy and precision for monitoring of N-methyl carbamates in water samples, and is shown to be a suitable alternative to replace the currently dedicated analytical systems. The limits of detection for the analysis of N-methyl carbamates in water samples reached in the present methodology (0.5 to 3 ng/l), clearly cover the maximum concentration admissible for pesticides, established by the European Union directive on water quality.

  17. The effects of trace elements, cations, and environmental conditions on protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Scaramal da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenanthracene is a highly toxic organic compound capable of contaminating water and soils, and biodegradation is an important tool for remediating polluted environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of trace elements, cations, and environmental conditions on the activity of the protocatechol 3,4-dioxygenase (P3,4O enzyme produced by the isolate Leifsonia sp. in cell-free and immobilized extracts. The isolate was grown in Luria Bertani broth medium (LB amended with 250 mg L-1 of phenanthrene. Various levels of pH (4.0-9.0, temperature (5-80 °C, time (0-90 min, trace elements (Cu2+, Hg2+ and Fe3+, and cations (Mg2+, Mn2+, K+ and NH4+ were tested to determine which conditions optimized enzyme activity. In general, the immobilized extract exhibited higher enzyme activity than the cell-free extract in the presence of trace elements and cations. Adding iron yielded the highest relative activity for both cell-free and immobilized extracts, with values of 16 and 99 %, respectively. Copper also increased enzyme activity for both cell-free and immobilized extracts, with values of 8 and 44 %, respectively. Enzyme activity in the phosphate buffer was high across a wide range of pH, reaching 80 % in the pH range between 6.5 and 8.0. The optimum temperatures for enzyme activity differed for cell-free and immobilized extracts, with maximum enzyme activity observed at 35 ºC for the cell-free extract and at 55 ºC for the immobilized extract. The cell-free extract of the P3,4O enzyme exhibited high activity only during the first 3 min of incubation, when it showed 50 % relative activity, and dropped to 0 % after 60 min of incubation. By contrast, activity in the immobilized extract was maintained during 90 min of incubation. This isolate has important characteristics for phenanthrene biodegradation, producing high quantities of the P3,4O enzyme that forms part of the most important pathway for PAH biodegradation.

  18. Using matrix isolation FTIR for trace atmospheric gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mutawah, Jameela

    1998-01-01

    The matrix isolation technique combined with FTIR spectroscopy has been used for trace atmospheric gas analysis. The main objective was to develop this technique into a simple, reliable field method using the simplest possible apparatus to give reliable results. As a preliminary to the research, calibration curves of the intensity of IR absorptions of acetone, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, formic acid, N 2 O, SO 2 and ethylene were constructed for a range of concentrations of these reagents in CO 2 . All spectra were recorded on solid films at 77 K. Linear responses were observed for absorbance vs. concentration and the technique showed the best sensitivity for N 2 O which was detected at a minimum atmospheric concentration of ca. 32.5 ppb. Acetone, acetaldehyde, acetic acid and ethylene were detected at a minimum atmospheric concentration of ca. 3.3 ppm while formic acid was detected at a minimum atmospheric concentration of ca. 2.3 ppm. SO 2 was detected at a minimum atmospheric concentration of ca. 325 ppb. A thorough spectroscopic study was done on some carbonyl compounds in CO 2 matrices including the effect of CO 2 matrix on the IR spectra as in most cases spectra have never previously been recorded for these species in CO 2 matrices. Another study of some isotopic species of these compounds in CO 2 matrices was then done to see the presence of any interaction between the compounds and CO 2 matrix which could lead to slightly different spectra from those of the gas-phase or even from the spectra of the same compounds isolated in different matrices which have been reported in other studies. A new method for infrared analysis of multicomponent gas mixtures which involves a condensed phase sampling technique employing commercially available cryogenic equipment is described. Molecules are characterized by a small number of well defined infrared absorptions. As a method of pre-concentrating the atmospheric carbonyl compounds, different adsorbent materials were

  19. Instrumental neutron activation analysis in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, M. de.

    1985-01-01

    The main characteristics of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA),relevant for environmental research and monitoring, was reviewed and discussed-sensitivity, suitable for detection of many toxic elements, the low risks of contamination of element loss, lack of matrix effects, lack of light element interference except for 24 Na, capability for multi-element determination, comparatively low costs. A detailed description of the IRI analysis system for routine INAA is given. The system is based on the single comparator method of standartization to take full advantage of multi-element without preparation and use the trace element standards. Zinc was used as mono element standard, the element concentrations are calculated on the basis of 65 Zn and 69m Zn-activities. The irradiations were carried out in a thermal neutron flux of 1.10 13 n/cm 2 .s. The gamma spectra is converted into element concentrations using a set of dedicated software, performing the following functions: spectrum analysis and interpretation, comparison and combination of the intermediate results from different decay times, generation of the final report, bookkeeping of the results obtained. The main applications of the INAA system mentioned are: identification of sources of heavy metal air pollution using air filters or biological indicators such as mosses, lichens, toe-nails, bird feathers, molusks and waterplants; and study of the uptake and translocation of heavy element in plants. Special attention was paid to mathematical techniques for a reliable interpretation of the element concentration patterns observed in sets of lichen samples. Future developments in INAA in environmental science are briefly mentioned

  20. Environmental and Ecological Risk Assessment of Trace Metal Contamination in Mangrove Ecosystems: A Case from Zhangjiangkou Mangrove National Nature Reserve, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Du, Huihong; Xu, Ye; Chen, Kai; Liang, Junhua; Ke, Hongwei; Cheng, Sha-Yen; Liu, Mengyang; Deng, Hengxiang; He, Tong; Wang, Wenqing

    2016-01-01

    Zhangjiangkou Mangrove National Nature Reserve is a subtropical wetland ecosystem in southeast coast of China, which is of dense population and rapid development. The concentrations, sources, and pollution assessment of trace metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, As, and Hg) in surface sediment from 29 sites and the biota specimen were investigated for better ecological risk assessment and environmental management. The ranges of trace metals in mg/kg sediment were as follows: Cu (10.79–26.66), Cd (0.03–0.19), Pb (36.71–59.86), Cr (9.67–134.51), Zn (119.69–157.84), As (15.65–31.60), and Hg (0.00–0.08). The sequences of the bioaccumulation of studied metals are Zn > Cu > As > Cr > Pb > Cd > Hg with few exceptions. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis revealed that the trace metals in the studied area mainly derived from anthropogenic activities, such as industrial effluents, agricultural waste, and domestic sewage. Pollution load index and geoaccumulation index were calculated for trace metals in surface sediments, which indicated unpolluted status in general except Pb, Cr, and As. PMID:27795956

  1. Analysis of trace element in intervertebral disc by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry techniques in degenerative disc disease in the Polish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Nowakowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Although trace elements are regarded crucial and their content has been determined in number of tissue there are only few papers addressing this problem in intervertebral disc in humans. Most of the trace elements are important substrates of enzymes influencing metabolism and senescence process. Others are markers of environmental pollution. Therefore the aim of the research was to analyzed of the trace element content in the intervertebral disc, which may be a vital argument recognizing the background of degenerative changes to be the effect of the environment or metabolic factors. Materials and methods. Material consist of 18 intervertebral disc from 15 patients, acquired in surgical procedure of due to the degenerative disease with Atomic Absorption Spectrometry content of Al, Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Ni, Mo, Mg, Zn was evaluated. Results. Only 4 of the trace elements were detected in all samples. The correlation analysis showed significant positive age correlation with Al and negative in case of Co. Among elements significant positive correlation was observed between Al/Pb, Co/Mo, Al/Mg, Al/Zn Pb/Zn and Mg/Zn. Negative correlation was observed in Al/Co, Cd/Mg, Co/Mg, Mo/Mg, Co/Zn and Mo/Zn. Conclusions. This study is the first to our knowledge that profiles the elements in intervertebral disc in patients with degenerative changes. We have confirmed significant differences between the trace element contents in intervertebral disc and other tissue. It can be ground for further investigation.

  2. Trace analysis for 300 MM wafers and processes with TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutsch, A.; Erdmann, V.; Zielonka, G.; Pfitzner, L.; Ryssel, H.

    2000-01-01

    Efficient fabrication of semiconductor devices is combined with an increasing size of silicon wafers. The contamination level of processes, media, and equipment has to decrease continuously. A new test laboratory for 300 mm was installed in view of the above mentioned aspects. Aside of numerous processing tools this platform consist electrical test methods, particle detection, vapor phase decomposition (VPD) preparation, and TXRF. The equipment is installed in a cleanroom. It is common to perform process or equipment control, development, evaluation and qualification with monitor wafers. The evaluation and the qualification of 300 mm equipment require direct TXRF on 300 mm wafers. A new TXRF setup was installed due to the wafer size of 300 mm. The 300 mm TXRF is equipped with tungsten and molybdenum anode. This combination allows a sensitive detection of elements with fluorescence energy below 10 keV for tungsten excitation. The molybdenum excitation enables the detection of a wide variety of elements. The detection sensitivity for the tungsten anode excited samples is ten times higher than for molybdenum anode measured samples. The system is calibrated with 1 ng Ni. This calibration shows a stability within 5 % when monitored to control system stability. Decreasing the amount of Ni linear results in a linear decrease of the measured Ni signal. This result is verified for a range of elements by multielement samples. New designs demand new processes and materials, e.g. ferroelectric layers and copper. The trace analysis of many of these materials is supported by the higher excitation energy of the molybdenum anode. Reclaim and recycling of 300 mm wafers demand for an accurate contamination control of the processes to avoid cross contamination. Polishing or etching result in modified surfaces. TXRF as a non-destructive test method allows the simultaneously detection of a variety of elements on differing surfaces in view of contamination control and process

  3. Application of micro-PIXE to fish life history analyses: trace element analysis of otoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfman, M.; Limburg, K.E.; Kristiansson, P.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.

    1999-01-01

    Otoliths are biogenic, carbonate concretions which form part of the hearing/balance system in fishes. The radial growth of otoliths and the variation of trace elements along the radius appear to capture important aspects of fishes' environmental history. At the Lund Nuclear Microprobe Laboratory, we have begun to use Proton-Induced X-ray Emission spectroscopy (PIXE) for micro-elemental analysis of otoliths. The experimental procedure is discussed and a number of examples of what can be investigated are presented. In particular, movement of diadromous species (eel, menhaden, and anadromous brown trout) can be detected between fresh and brackish water by Sr/Ca ratio. This technique has also been used to identify fish that were raised in freshwater hatcheries and then released to brackish water (pike-perch example)

  4. Reconstruction of baseline time-trace under changing environmental and operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryan, P; Kotousov, A; Ng, C T; Wildy, S

    2016-01-01

    Compensation of changing environmental and operational conditions (EOC) is often necessary when using guided-wave based techniques for structural health monitoring in real-world applications. Many studies have demonstrated that the effect of changing EOC can mask damage to a degree that a critical defect might not be detected. Several effective strategies, specifically for compensating the temperature variations, have been developed in recent years. However, many other factors, such as changing humidity and boundary conditions or degradation of material properties, have not received much attention. This paper describes a practical method for reconstruction of the baseline time-trace corresponding to the current EOC. Thus, there is no need for differentiation or compensation procedures when using this method for damage diagnosis. It is based on 3D surface measurements of the velocity field near the actuator using laser vibrometry, in conjunction with high-fidelity finite element simulations of guided wave propagation in free from defects structure. To demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method we provide several examples of the reconstruction and damage detection. (paper)

  5. Reconstruction of baseline time-trace under changing environmental and operational conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, P.; Kotousov, A.; Ng, C. T.; Wildy, S.

    2016-03-01

    Compensation of changing environmental and operational conditions (EOC) is often necessary when using guided-wave based techniques for structural health monitoring in real-world applications. Many studies have demonstrated that the effect of changing EOC can mask damage to a degree that a critical defect might not be detected. Several effective strategies, specifically for compensating the temperature variations, have been developed in recent years. However, many other factors, such as changing humidity and boundary conditions or degradation of material properties, have not received much attention. This paper describes a practical method for reconstruction of the baseline time-trace corresponding to the current EOC. Thus, there is no need for differentiation or compensation procedures when using this method for damage diagnosis. It is based on 3D surface measurements of the velocity field near the actuator using laser vibrometry, in conjunction with high-fidelity finite element simulations of guided wave propagation in free from defects structure. To demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method we provide several examples of the reconstruction and damage detection.

  6. Rapid screening of heavy metals and trace elements in environmental samples using portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, Jacqueline Q.; Rogers, Christian; Han, Fengxiang X.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    With industrialization, great amounts of trace elements and heavy metals have been excavated and released on the surface of the earth and dissipated into the environments. Rapid screening technology for detecting major and trace elements as well as heavy metals in variety of environmental samples is most desired. The objectives of this study were to determine the detection limits, accuracy, repeatability and efficiency of a X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (Niton XRF analyzer) in comparison with the traditional analytical methods, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-MS) in screening of major and trace elements of environmental samples including estuary soils and sediments, contaminated soils, and biological samples. XRF is a fast and non-destructive method in measuring the total concentration of multi--elements simultaneously. Contrary to ICP-OES and ICP-MS, XRF analyzer is characterized by the limited preparation required for solid samples, non-destructive analysis, increased total speed and high throughout, the decreased production of hazardous waste and the low running costs as well as multi-elemental determination and portability in the fields. The current comparative study demonstrates that XRF is a good rapid non-destructive method for contaminated soils, sediments and biological samples containing higher concentrations of major and trace elements. Unfortunately, XRF does not have sensitive detection limits of most major and trace elements as ICP-OES or ICP-MS but it may serve as a rapid screening tool for locating hot spots of uncontaminated field soils and sediments. PMID:25861136

  7. Environmental trace analysis by means of supersensitive GC-IMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, J.W. [IUTLimited, Berlin, (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    The effective control of pollutants in ambient air requires their fast in situ identification and concentration determination of chemical compounds in the range of micrograms per m{sup 3}. There are attempts to use conventional analytical techniques as portable GC and GC-MS. These systems are relatively expensive. A new supersensitive ion Mobility Sensor (IMS) was developed and checked by IUT Ltd, which meets the new demands. The use of tritium sources is an advantage in comparison with other IMS being equipped by nickel-63, the application of which is rather critical in respect of the radiation protection. On the other hand an integrated separation column allows to reduce interferences by matrix effects. The technical parameters of the IUT GC- IMS and some of its most important applications are briefly presented 6 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  8. Environmental trace analysis by means of supersensitive GC-IMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The effective control of pollutants in ambient air requires their fast in situ identification and concentration determination of chemical compounds in the range of micrograms per m 3 . There are attempts to use conventional analytical techniques as portable GC and GC-MS. These systems are relatively expensive. A new supersensitive ion Mobility Sensor (IMS) was developed and checked by IUT Ltd, which meets the new demands. The use of tritium sources is an advantage in comparison with other IMS being equipped by nickel-63, the application of which is rather critical in respect of the radiation protection. On the other hand an integrated separation column allows to reduce interferences by matrix effects. The technical parameters of the IUT GC- IMS and some of its most important applications are briefly presented

  9. Trace element analysis in silicon by accelerator SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ender, R.M.; Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Doebeli, M.; Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The accelerator SIMS technique has been applied to Si samples implanted with different elements. It has been shown that concentrations of several trace elements can be analysed down to about 1 ppb in depth profiling mode. (author) 2 figs., 1 ref.

  10. PIXE analysis of trace elements in Genus Hippophae L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Zhongli; Jiang Xiangzhou; Ma Chengjun; Hao Jifang

    1993-01-01

    Trace elements in four kinds of the Genus Hippophae L pulps were analysed by PIXE. Optimization of the system performance was done by carefully selecting the absorbers. Analytical sensitivities of the PIXE system were obtained by means of 'external standard method'

  11. Analysis of Trace Elements in South African Clinkers using Latent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of two-dimensional probabilistic PCA, and hierarchical clustering of the latent variables. 4.1. Model 1. The clustering algorithm is sensitive to variations in the numerical ranges of different features. Hence, the obtained clusters can be negatively influenced by the different magnitude of the trace element contents.

  12. Chemical Analysis of Tire Traces in Traffic Accidents Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Gueissaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the forensic investigation of traffic accidents is to help establish the nature and/or the circumstances of the event. This might be done with the purpose of determining the legal responsibilities of each person involved or to provide families, with a reconstruction of the events, to help understand why their relatives were injured or killed. A methodology for the comparison of chemical profiles of tire traces and tire tread samples obtained by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry has been developed. Chemical profiles are represented by relative abundances of 86 compounds. The variability of the tread within and between 12 tires was assessed. Considering the level of the source as "brand and model" the intra-variability was found to be smaller than the inter-variability, leading to the complete discrimination of the 12 tires of the sample set. Braking tests were carried out on a racetrack in order to produce tire traces which origin was known. The results obtained with a supervised classification method showed that more than 94% of the replicates of the traces were correctly assigned to the class membership (i.e., brand and model of the tire at their origin. These results support that the chemical profile of one trace does not differ from the chemical profile of the tire at its origin but differs generally from the other chemical profiles of the sample set.

  13. Metals in environmental media: A study of trace and platinum group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Pt and Pd. The study further investigated the correlation between these trace metals in roadside soils and vegetation in order to infer the potential impacts of roadside trace metals contamination of vegetation. Collected surface soil and vegetation samples were analysed with atomic absorption spectrophotometer for Zn, ...

  14. Neutron activation analysis as applied to instrumental analysis of trace elements from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniforti, R.; Moauro, A.; Madaro, M.

    1983-01-01

    Particulate matter collected from the coastal area delimited by the mouth of the river Volturno and the Sabaudia lake has been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for its content of twenty-two trace elements. The results for surface water and bottom water are reported separately, thus evidencing the effect of sampling depth on the concentration of many elements. The necessity of accurately 'cleaning' the filters before use is stressed

  15. Improvement of the ultra-trace voltammetric determination of Rh in environmental samples using signal transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almécija, C; Cobelo-García, A; Santos-Echeandía, J

    2016-01-01

    Rhodium (Rh) is present at the Earth's surface at ultra-trace concentrations (0.06 ng g(-1)); however, its use in catalytic converters has increased its deposition nearby traffic pressure and therefore the interest in analytical techniques for Rh determination has raised in the recent years. In this study we propose an improvement of Rh measurement by adsorptive voltammetry applying second-derivative signal transformation. The optimization of experimental parameters affecting the voltammetric analysis were carried out using sediment samples; these include the amount of sample digest used, the hydrochloric acid and formaldehyde concentrations, deposition potential and equilibration time. The use of the second derivative transformation provided well-defined peaks due to the minimization of background interferences, leading to a significant decrease in the detection limits. Accordingly, a detection limit of 200 fM Rh in the cell was obtained, which corresponds to 14 pg g(-1) of Rh for 200mg of sediments. The optimized methodology was applied to the analysis of Rh in a sediment core collected close to a motorway bridge from Tagus Estuary (Lisbon, Portugal). Here, Rh concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 0.47 ng g(-1), showing a surface Rh-enrichment linked to traffic, which was consistent with a Pt superficial peak. Reference materials were also analyzed, including road dust (BCR-723) and river sediment (JSD-2), and values obtained were in agreement with certified concentrations and previously values reported in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Polymers on the crime scene forensic analysis of polymeric trace evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Causin, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    This book approaches the analysis of forensic contact traces from a polymer science perspective. The development of characterization methods of new or unusual traces and the improvement of existing protocols is described. The book starts with a general introduction to polymers and the issues related to transfer, persistence and recovery of polymeric traces. The chapters present a distinctive feature of polymers, discussing how it can be measured, what the practical difficulties which can be encountered in the analysis, and how useful that information is for comparison or identification purposes. Practical tips for the realization of the forensic analyses are included.

  17. [Determination and correlation analysis of trace elements in Boletus tomentipes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Yuan-zhong; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Yan-li; Liu, Hong-gao

    2011-07-01

    The contents of eleven trace elements in Boletus tomentipes were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results showed that the fruiting bodies of B. tomentipes were very rich in Mg and Fe (>100 mg x kg(-1)) and rich in Mn, Zn and Cu (>10 mg x kg(-1)). Cr, Pb, Ni, Cd, and As were relatively minor contents (0.1-10.0 mg x kg(-1)) of this species, while Hg occurred at the smallest content (< 0.1 mg x kg(-1)). Among the determined 11 trace elements, Zn-Cu had significantly positive correlation (r = 0.659, P < 0.05), whereas, Hg-As, Ni-Fe, and Zn-Mg had significantly negative correlation (r = -0.672, -0.610, -0.617, P < 0.05). This paper presented the trace elements properties of B. tomentipes, and is expected to be useful for exploitation and quality evaluation of this species.

  18. Visualizing data for environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Environmental Restoration Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has over 11,000 sampling locations in a 44 square mile area. The sample analyses contain raw analytical chemistry values for over 2,300 analytes and compounds used to define and remediate contaminated areas at LANL. The data consist of 2.5 million records in an oracle database. Maps are often used to visualize the data. Problems arise when a client specifies a particular kind of map without fully understanding the limitations of the data or the map. The ability of maps to convey information is dependent on many factors, though all maps are data dependent. The quantity, spatial distribution, and numerical range of the data can limit use with certain kinds of maps. To address these issues and educate the clients, several types of statistical maps (e.g., choropleth, isarithm, and graduated symbol such as bubble and spike) used for environmental analysis were chosen to show the advantages, disadvantages, and data limitations of each. By examining both the complexity of the analytical data and the limitations of the map type, it is possible to consider how reality has been transformed through the map, and if that transformation accurately conveys the information present

  19. Assessment of the environmental fate of cycloxaprid in flooded and anaerobic soils by radioisotopic tracing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xuanqi; Xu, Xiaoyong; Li, Chao [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China, University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhang, Hanxue; Fu, Qiuguo [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Shao, Xusheng [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China, University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Ye, Qingfu, E-mail: qfye@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Li, Zhong, E-mail: lizhong@ecust.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China, University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2016-02-01

    Cycloxaprid (CYC) is a novel broad-spectrum neonicotinoid insecticide that has been developed for agricultural pest control. The fate of the {sup 14}C-labeled racemic and enantio-pure CYC isomers in flooded and anaerobic soil was investigated using radioisotope tracing techniques. After 100 d of incubation, only a minor portion (< 1%) of the applied CYC isomers is mineralized by each of the four tested soil types. The fraction of initially applied radioactive CYC dissipated into the bound or non-extractable residues (BR) increases with increase in the length of the incubation period, reaching up to 53.0–81.6%. The dissipation of the CYC through mineralization or formation of BR is strongly influenced by soil properties, such as humic content, pH value, and retained microbial activity. Amongst the soils studied, the fluvio-marine yellow loamy soil displayed the highest tendency to mineralize CYC while the coastal saline soil exhibited the strongest tendency to form BR. The observation that the water phase retained the large portion(> 60%) of the radioactivity attributed to the total extractable residue suggested that under the experimental condition, the initially applied {sup 14}C-labeled CYC residues were readily available for leaching or offsite transport. Additionally, no enantiomer-specific behaviors are observed. The results from this study provide a framework for assessing the environmental impact resulting from the use of this pesticide. - Highlights: • Only a minor portion (<1%) of the applied CYC was mineralized. • The bound residue increased over time, reaching up to 53.0-81.6%. • CYC residues were readily available for leaching. • No enantiomer-specific behaviors were observed.

  20. Cloud point extraction and spectrophotometric determination of mercury species at trace levels in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Halil İbrahim; Gürkan, Ramazan; Ulusoy, Songül

    2012-01-15

    A new micelle-mediated separation and preconcentration method was developed for ultra-trace quantities of mercury ions prior to spectrophotometric determination. The method is based on cloud point extraction (CPE) of Hg(II) ions with polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether (Triton X-114) in the presence of chelating agents such as 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) and 4-(2-thiazolylazo) resorcinol (TAR). Hg(II) ions react with both PAN and TAR in a surfactant solution yielding a hydrophobic complex at pH 9.0 and 8.0, respectively. The phase separation was accomplished by centrifugation for 5 min at 3500 rpm. The calibration graphs obtained from Hg(II)-PAN and Hg(II)-TAR complexes were linear in the concentration ranges of 10-1000 μg L(-1) and 50-2500 μg L(-1) with detection limits of 1.65 and 14.5 μg L(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1.85% and 2.35% in determinations of 25 and 250 μg L(-1) Hg(II), respectively. The interference effect of several ions were studied and seen commonly present ions in water samples had no significantly effect on determination of Hg(II). The developed methods were successfully applied to determine mercury concentrations in environmental water samples. The accuracy and validity of the proposed methods were tested by means of five replicate analyses of the certified standard materials such as QC Metal LL3 (VWR, drinking water) and IAEA W-4 (NIST, simulated fresh water). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Particle induced X-ray emission for quantitative trace-element analysis using the Eindhoven cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivits, H.

    1980-01-01

    Development of a multi-elemental trace analysis technique using PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission), was started almost five years ago at the Eindhoven University of Technology, in the Cyclotron Applications Group of the Physics Department. The aim of the work presented is to improve the quantitative aspects of trace-element analysis with PIXE, as well as versatility, speed and simplicity. (Auth.)

  2. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, P.O.

    1964-06-01

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected

  3. Major and trace elements assessment in sediment from Ituparanga reservoir, by activation analysis and ICP OES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sharlleny A., E-mail: sharllenya@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Quimica Inorganica; Bevilacqua, Jose Eduardo [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Diretoria de Tecnologia, Qualidade e Avaliacao Ambiental; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2011-07-01

    The Ituparanga reservoir was built to generate electric power by the LIGHT Company and started its operation in 1912. It is fed by the Una, Sorocamirim and Sorocabucu rivers. This reservoir supplies water to a population of 600.000. This water system is affected by irregular soil occupation and urban development which has caught CETESB's (Environmental Company of Sao Paulo State) attention. In this study four geo-referenced sampling points were used and bottom sediment samples were collected. The sediment samples were dried at 400 deg C, ground in an agate mortar, sieved (200 mesh) and again homogenized. The instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the sediment samples in order to determine some major elements (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements. By using ICP OES metals determination for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni was undertaken after digestion procedure according to the 3051 method from US EPA. The methodology validation for precision and accuracy was carried out by reference material analyses. For metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni the concentration values were compared to the oriented values from Environmental Canada (TEL and PEL). The Enrichment Factor (EF) was calculated for sediment contamination assessment. (author)

  4. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in Japanese hormesis cosmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, E.; Nakahara, H.; Hatsukawa, Y.; Matsue, H.; Sakane, H.

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, cosmetics claiming hormesis effect are available through Internet. Although these cosmetics show the contents, they never mention the minor elements and radioactive sources. The existence of radioisotopes, however, was observed by measurements of the gamma-rays with a HPGe detector. In this study, in order to clarify the contents of trace elements, the hormesis cosmetics including radioactive sources were analyzed using INAA, PGAA and NAA with multiple gamma-ray detection (NAAMG). Nineteen elements were analyzed quantitatively in hormesis cosmetics by INAA, PGAA and NAAMG and 16 elements were detected qualitatively by SEM-EPMA. (author)

  5. X-ray fluorescent analysis of iodin traces in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, I.F.; Baturin, A.A.; Mikhajlov, A.I.; Borisova, S.S.; Reshetnyak, M.V.; Shlyakhova, N.V.; Budrejko, E.A.; Galata, D.I.

    2015-01-01

    Using XFA method, determination of iodine concentration in urine for 35 children of 10-15 with endocrine pathology (delay of sexual development, diffuse goiter, obesity) and 10 practically healthy children being observed under conditions of the consultative polyclinic and the department of endocrinology of SI ''ISHCJ NAMSU''. The proposed optimized XFA method allows by 1-2 orders increasing detection sensitivity for micro-elements measurements in biology objects and attaining the iodine trace contents in urine in the range from 50 to 200 gg/dm 3

  6. Infrared spectrophotometric analysis of medicinal gases for trace impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, W L; Benson, W R; Schwartzman, G

    1976-11-01

    The feasibility of examining medical gases for trace impurities, using an infrared spectrophotometer in conjunction with a 10 m gas cell, was investigated. Many of the impurities for which the USP includes limits were detected and measured at concentrations at or below those permitted by the USP; these include sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and water. However, others (hydrogen sulfide, nitric oxide, and nitrogen dioxide) were not detected at these levels by this technique. Methane was found at low levels in some samples.

  7. Using portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and GIS to assess environmental risk and identify sources of trace metals in soils of peri-urban areas in the Yangtze Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Jing; Wang, Dejian; Wang, Can; Zhang, Gang; Yao, Lipeng

    2014-08-01

    Portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) spectrometry may be very suitable for a fast and effective environmental assessment and source identification of trace metals in soils. In this study, topsoils (0-10 cm) at 139 sites were in situ scanned for total trace metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and arsenic concentrations by PXRF in a typical town in Yangtze Delta region of Jiangsu province, China. To validate the utility of PXRF, 53 samples were collected from the scanning sites for the determination of selected trace metals using conventional methods. Based on trace metal concentrations detected by in situ PXRF, the contamination extent and sources of trace metals were studied via geo-accumulation index, multivariate analysis and geostatistics. The trace metal concentrations determined by PXRF were similar to those obtained via conventional chemical analysis. The median concentration of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in soils were 10.8, 56.4, 41.5, 43.5, 33.5, and 77.7 mg kg(-1), respectively. The distribution patterns of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were mostly affected by anthropogenic sources, while As was mainly derived from lithogenic sources. Overall, PXRF has been successfully applied to contamination assessment and source identification of trace metals in soils.

  8. The analysis of trace elements in new superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comtois, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    Dramatic advances in the engineering and performance of the new superconducting oxides have lead to the need for in depth material characterization. Although physical measurements have been the rule by which improvements have been measured it is imperative that studies be conducted to obtain information on the chemical makeup and structure of each superconducting test sample. This data is key to establishing a basis for the next stage of development. Recent technological innovation in the developmental engineering of Zeeman-corrected, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry has resulted in an instrument that is capable of directly determining trace elements in solid material. The Grun SM-20 has been tested for its applicability to the direct determination of six trace elements in SC materials. The ability to achieve accurate results in total methodology time of several minutes will be discussed, as well as performance figures of merit and problems encountered. Recommended future developments and further areas of study resulting from this study are also covered

  9. Trace element evaluation of different varieties of chewing gum by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.; Ahmad, S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive use of chewing gums, by children in particular, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in them. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 35 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in eight different brands of chewing gum generally consumed in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. Comparison of trace element data of our work with literature has been presented. None of the elements detected in the brands of chewing gum examined was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element. (author)

  10. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-01-01

    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x10 12 n cm -2 s -1 for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and non-dyed hair

  11. Metal and trace element assessment of sediments from Guarapiranga reservoir, Sao Paulo State, by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme M.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J.; Bevilacqua, Jose E.

    2009-01-01

    Guarapiranga Reservoir is extremely important due to the fact that it is one of the main water reservoirs for South America's largest city, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Guarapiranga Basin is located within the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo - RMSP, and occupies an area of approximately 630 km 2 , and the reservoir itself is located in the northern part of the basin occupying approximately 26 km 2 . This reservoir is characterized by environmental impacts from urban invasion, industrial and sewage wastes, all of which seriously affect its water quality. Due to its vulnerability CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State) regularly monitors the contamination levels of waters and once a year sediment samples. In order to better understand geochemical and environmental processes and their possible changes due to anthropogenic activities trace metals analyses and their distribution in sediments are commonly undertaken. The present study reports results concerning the distribution of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements in sediments from the Guarapiranga Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cr and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values) and adopted by CETESB. (author)

  12. Trends and applications of integrated automated ultra-trace sample handling and analysis (T9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, H.M.S.; Ye Han; Stewart, L.; Link, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Automated analysis, sub-ppt detection limits, and the trend toward speciated analysis (rather than just elemental analysis) force the innovation of sophisticated and integrated sample preparation and analysis techniques. Traditionally, the ability to handle samples at ppt and sub-ppt levels has been limited to clean laboratories and special sample handling techniques and equipment. The world of sample handling has passed a threshold where older or 'old fashioned' traditional techniques no longer provide the ability to see the sample due to the influence of the analytical blank and the fragile nature of the analyte. When samples require decomposition, extraction, separation and manipulation, application of newer more sophisticated sample handling systems are emerging that enable ultra-trace analysis and species manipulation. In addition, new instrumentation has emerged which integrate sample preparation and analysis to enable on-line near real-time analysis. Examples of those newer sample-handling methods will be discussed and current examples provided as alternatives to traditional sample handling. Two new techniques applying ultra-trace microwave energy enhanced sample handling have been developed that permit sample separation and refinement while performing species manipulation during decomposition. A demonstration, that applies to semiconductor materials, will be presented. Next, a new approach to the old problem of sample evaporation without losses will be demonstrated that is capable of retaining all elements and species tested. Both of those methods require microwave energy manipulation in specialized systems and are not accessible through convection, conduction, or other traditional energy applications. A new automated integrated method for handling samples for ultra-trace analysis has been developed. An on-line near real-time measurement system will be described that enables many new automated sample handling and measurement capabilities. This

  13. Santos estuarine sediments, Brazil - metal and trace element assessment by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Eduardo P.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: ducamorim@yahoo.com.b, E-mail: defavaro@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Berbel, Glaucia; Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos nos Oceanos (LABNUT)

    2009-07-01

    The Santos estuary system is an intricate pattern of tidal channels and small rivers originating from the adjacent Pre-Cambrian slopes. These two major estuaries share a common area in the upper portion of the region which interacts with each other. The largest harbor in Latin America is located at the eastern outlet of the Santos estuary. This intricate and sensitive ecosystem is highly susceptible to human impact from industrial activities, urban sewage and polluted solid wastes disposal. Due to its high vulnerability CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State) sporadically monitors the contamination levels of water, sediment and marine organisms in this region. The present study reports results concerning the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements in the Santos estuarine marine sediments. Thirty two bottom sediment samples (SS0601 to SS0616 (summer) and SW0601 to SW0616 (winter) were collected in this estuary, including regions of Sao Vicente, Santos, Cubatao and Vicente de Carvalho, by a vanVeen sampler in the summer and winter of 2006. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The concentration values obtained for As and metals Cr and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values) and are adopted by CETESB. (author)

  14. Santos estuarine sediments, Brazil - metal and trace element assessment by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Eduardo P.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Berbel, Glaucia; Braga, Elisabete S.

    2009-01-01

    The Santos estuary system is an intricate pattern of tidal channels and small rivers originating from the adjacent Pre-Cambrian slopes. These two major estuaries share a common area in the upper portion of the region which interacts with each other. The largest harbor in Latin America is located at the eastern outlet of the Santos estuary. This intricate and sensitive ecosystem is highly susceptible to human impact from industrial activities, urban sewage and polluted solid wastes disposal. Due to its high vulnerability CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State) sporadically monitors the contamination levels of water, sediment and marine organisms in this region. The present study reports results concerning the distribution of some major, trace and rare earth elements in the Santos estuarine marine sediments. Thirty two bottom sediment samples (SS0601 to SS0616 (summer) and SW0601 to SW0616 (winter) were collected in this estuary, including regions of Sao Vicente, Santos, Cubatao and Vicente de Carvalho, by a vanVeen sampler in the summer and winter of 2006. Multielemental analysis was carried out by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The concentration values obtained for As and metals Cr and Zn in the sediment samples were compared to Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL values) and are adopted by CETESB. (author)

  15. Cadmium (II) imprinted 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane coated stir bar for selective extraction of trace cadmium from environmental water samples followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Nan [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hu Bin, E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2012-04-20

    deviation (RSD) was 3.38% (c = 1 {mu}g L{sup -1}, n = 7). The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of trace Cd(II) in rain water, East Lake and Yangtze River water. To validate the proposed method, certified reference material of GSBZ 50009-88 environmental water was analyzed and the determined value is in a good agreement with the certified value. The developed method is rapid, selective, sensitive and applicable for the analysis of trace Cd(II) in environmental water samples.

  16. Characterization of atmospheric trace elements in the Puruogangri ice core: a preliminary account of Tibetan Plateau environmental and contamination histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudon, E.; Gabrielli, P.; Sierra Hernandez, R.; Wegner, A.; Thompson, L. G.

    2014-12-01

    Asia is facing enormous challenges including large-scale environmental changes, rapid population growth and industrialization. The inherent generated pollution contributes to half of all Earth's anthropogenic trace metals emissions that, when deposited to glaciers of the surrounding mountains of the Third Pole region, leave a characteristic chemical fingerprint. Records of past atmospheric deposition preserved in snow and ice from Third Pole glaciers provide unique insights into changes of the chemical composition of the atmosphere and into the nature and intensity of the regional atmospheric circulation systems. The determination of the elemental composition of aeolian dust stored in Himalayan and Tibetan Plateau glaciers can help to qualify the potential contamination of glacial meltwater as a part of the greater fresh Asian water source. The 215 m long Puruogangri ice core retrieved in 2000 at 6500 m a.s.l. in central Tibetan Plateau (Western Tanggula Shan, China) provides one of the first multi-millennium-long environmental archives (spanning the last 7000 years and annually resolved for the last 400 years) obtained from the Tibetan Plateau region. The Puruogangri's area is climatologically of particular interest because of its location at the boundary between the monsoon (wet) and the westerly (dry) dominated atmospheric circulation. The major objective of this study is to determine the concentration of trace and ultra-trace elements in the Puruogangri ice core between 1600 and 2000 AD in order to characterize the atmospheric aerosols entrapped in the ice. Particular attention is given to assess the amount of trace elements originating from anthropogenic sources during both the pre-industrial and industrial periods. The distinction between the anthropogenic contribution and the crustal background may rely on the precise decoupling of the dry and wet seasons signals, the former being largely influenced by dust contribution.

  17. Determination and analysis of trace metals and surfactant in air particulate matter during biomass burning haze episode in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Manan; Guo, Xinxin; Zhao, Xing-Min

    2016-09-01

    Trace metal species and surface active agent (surfactant) emitted into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic source can cause various health related and environmental problems. Limited data exists for determinations of atmospheric particulate matter particularly trace metals and surfactant concentration in Malaysia during biomass burning haze episode. We used simple and validated effective methodology for the determination of trace metals and surfactant in atmospheric particulate matter (TSP & PM2.5) collected during the biomass burning haze episode in Kampar, Malaysia from end of August to October 2015. Colorimetric method of analysis was undertaken to determine the concentration of anionic surfactant as methylene blue active substance (MBAS) and cationic surfactant as disulphine blue active substance (DBAS) using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Particulate samples were also analyzed for trace metals with inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) followed by extraction from glass microfiber filters with close vessel microwave acid digestion. The result showed that the concentrations of surfactant in both samples (TSP & PM2.5) were dominated by MBAS (0.147-4.626 mmol/m3) rather than DBAS (0.111-0.671 mmol/m3) and higher than the other researcher found. Iron (147.31-1381.19 μg/m3) was recorded leading trace metal in PM followed by Al, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr and others. During the haze period the highest mass concentration of TSP 313.34 μg/m3 and 191.07 μg/m3 for PM2.5 were recorded. Furthermore, the backward air trajectories from Kampar in north of peninsular Malaysia confirmed that nearly all the winds paths originate from Sumatera and Kalimantan, Indonesia.

  18. TRACEing the roots: a diagnostic "Tool for Retrospective Analysis of Critical Events".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannawa, Annegret F; Roter, Debra L

    2013-11-01

    The lack of interdisciplinary clarity in the conceptualization of medical errors discourages effective incident analysis, particularly in the event of harmless outcomes. This manuscript integrates communication competence theory, the criterion of reasonability, and a typology of human error into a theoretically grounded Tool for Retrospective Analysis of Critical Events (TRACE) to overcome this limitation. A conceptual matrix synthesizing foundational elements pertinent to critical incident analysis from the medical, legal, bioethical and communication literature was developed. Vetting of the TRACE through focus groups and interviews was conducted to assure utility. The interviews revealed that TRACE may be useful in clinical settings, contributing uniquely to the current literature by framing critical incidents in regard to theory and the primary clinical contexts within which errors may occur. TRACE facilitates a comprehensive, theoretically grounded analysis of clinical performance, and identifies the intrapersonal and interpersonal factors that contribute to critical events. The TRACE may be used as (1) the means for a comprehensive, detailed analysis of human performance across five clinical practice contexts, (2) an objective "fact-check" after a critical event, (3) a heuristic tool to prevent critical incidents, and (4) a data-keeping system for quality improvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Trace element determination in beauty products by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneyers, L.; Verheyen, L.; Vermaercke, P.; Bruggeman, M.

    2009-01-01

    A recent study on trace elements in beauty products and cosmetics sold on the Asian market has shown the presence of high levels of U, Th and rare earth elements in so called 'Hormesis cosmetics'. For the purpose of comparison, some more information about trace elements in European cosmetics would be useful. In this paper the results obtained using k 0 -standardised Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (k 0 -INAA) for more than 20 trace elements in 20 different beauty products collected from the European market are presented. We found traces of Ba, As and Sb which is in breach with European legislation. For some of the other elements like Cr and Co further speciation is needed in order to evaluate their presence in beauty products. (author)

  20. Elemental analysis of biological materials. Current problems and techniques with special reference to trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Selected techniques were reviewed for the assay of trace and minor elements in biological materials. Other relevant information is also presented on the need for such analyses, sampling, sample preparation and analytical quality control. In order to evaluate and compare the applicability of the various analytical techniques on a meaningful and objective basis, the materials chosen for consideration were intended to be typical of a wide range of biological matrics of different elemental compositions, namely Bowen's kale, representing a plant material, and NBS bovine liver, IAEA animal muscle, and blood serum, representing animal tissues. The subject is reviewed under the following headings: on the need for trace element analyses in the life sciences (4 papers); sampling and sample preparation for trace element analysis (2 papers); analytical techniques for trace and minor elements in biological materials (7 papers); analytical quality control (2 papers)

  1. A Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis for trace metal assessment of sediments in the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragbirsingh, Y.; Norville, W.

    2005-01-01

    The Gulf of Paria is a semi-enclosed shallow basin with increasing coastal development activities along Trinidad's west coast. Sediments present a host for trace metal pollutants from overlying waters, therefore determination of their content is critical in evaluating and detecting sources of marine pollution. This paper presents a Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis of geochemical assessment for trace metals in coastal sediments of the Gulf of Paria. This GIS approach facilitates interpretation of the spatial relationships among key environmental processes. The GIS development involves the integration of spatial and attribute data pertaining to bathymetry, current systems, topography, rivers, land use/land cover and coastal sediments. It employs spatial interpolation and retrieval operations to analyze the total trace metal concentrations of aluminum, copper and lead in the sediments and the clay-enriched sediments, to determine whether they are related to sediment type or are affected by the discharge from anthropogenic sources. Spatial distribution modeling of element concentrations are produced to indicate contamination plumes from possible anthropogenic sources such as rivers entering the Gulf of Paria, and to reveal potential hot spots and dispersion patterns. A direct spatial correlation between clay-enriched sediments and high concentrations of aluminum and lead is detected, however regions of high concentrations of copper and lead indicate a relationship to anthropogenic sources. The effectiveness of GIS for visualization, spatial query and overlay of geochemical analysis is demonstrated [es

  2. Analysis of traces at ORNL's new high-flux neutron activation laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, E.; Handley, T.H.; Dyer, F.F.

    1974-01-01

    The investigations are outlined, which are carried out in order to develop (preferably instrumental) methods for multielement analysis of various trace elements. For this reason a new High-Flux NAA Laboratory was constructed at ORNL's. A general review is given on the Laboratory, further some methods and applications are shown. In the field of comparator activation analysis comparative data are given on mercury determinations in various matrices, and on arsenic determination in grasshoppers. This later method was used to trace the transport of arsenic containing pesticides. Some data are given on absolute activation analysis of Na, Ci, Mn, Br, and Au, too. (K.A.)

  3. Present status of neutron activation analysis in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, E.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis, in spite of its many advantageous features, is less widely used than some alternative trace element techniques, and has been losing ground during the last decade. In the environmental field however there are still many problems which can be solved in a better way by the contribution of NAA. The combination of multi-element capability and high accuracy is of great importance in many studies related to atmospheric trace elements. Also in aquatic studies NAA still has a significant role to play. Applications to soils, sediments, and plant material have so far been limited, but there is a place for further development. The scope of NAA in environmental research may be extended by further use of pre-irradiation separations. NAA is particularly important in the certification of analytical reference materials in the environmental field. In future applications of NAA an appropriate combination with other analytical techniques will often be a requisite for success. The general future of NAA is dependent on the availability of nuclear reactors, radiochemical laboratoties and appropriate competence. 21 references

  4. Environmental Gradient Analysis, Ordination, and Classification in Environmental Impact Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    associations. The proposed methodology can also be applied to land-use management, maintenance and monitoring programs, and to environmental impact...analysis. Analytical results were then examined and the advantages and disadvantages of each stastistical analysis method used were noted. Mode of Technology...and S. Wearden, Statistics for Research (John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 1983). 20a. Draper, N. R., and H. Smith, Applied Regression Analysis, 2nd

  5. Optical selection of trace elements for discriminant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, S.E.; Erasmus, C.S.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    This report describes different methods of element selection; a combination of stepwise multivariate analysis of variance for primary element selection, and principle component analysis regression for the element interrelationship analysis. These offer a satisfactory solution to the problem of element selection

  6. TRACE ANALYSIS BY LASER-EXCITED ATOMIC FLUORESCENCE WITH ATOMIZATION IN A PULSED PLASMA

    OpenAIRE

    Lunyov , O.; Oshemkov , S.; Petrov , A.

    1991-01-01

    The possibilities of plasma atomization for laser fluorescence trace analysis are discussed. Pulsed hot hollow cathode discharge was used for analysis of solutions and powdered samples. The high voltage spark and laser-induced breakdown (laser spark) were used as atomizers of metal-containing atmospheric aerosols. Detection limits were improved by means of temporal background selection.

  7. The position of NAA among the methods of inorganic trace analysis in the past and now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    A short review of the possibilities and significance of the reactor based neutron activation analysis (NAA) over the past 60 years is presented on the background of development of other techniques of inorganic trace analysis. Some unique features of NAA which still make this method important and attractive are emphasized. (author)

  8. Digital Stratigraphy: Contextual Analysis of File System Traces in Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Eoghan

    2017-12-28

    This work introduces novel methods for conducting forensic analysis of file allocation traces, collectively called digital stratigraphy. These in-depth forensic analysis methods can provide insight into the origin, composition, distribution, and time frame of strata within storage media. Using case examples and empirical studies, this paper illuminates the successes, challenges, and limitations of digital stratigraphy. This study also shows how understanding file allocation methods can provide insight into concealment activities and how real-world computer usage can complicate digital stratigraphy. Furthermore, this work explains how forensic analysts have misinterpreted traces of normal file system behavior as indications of concealment activities. This work raises awareness of the value of taking the overall context into account when analyzing file system traces. This work calls for further research in this area and for forensic tools to provide necessary information for such contextual analysis, such as highlighting mass deletion, mass copying, and potential backdating. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Clean laboratories and clean rooms for analysis of radionuclides and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    requirements are summarized of clean laboratory environments, for construction materials as well as for materials used during routine analysis, maintenance, and pitfalls in the analysis of radionuclides and elements at trace- and ultra trace levels. Current methodologies and practices are described for planning the installation of a clean environment as well as protocols for maximizing the benefit-to-cost ratio and for achieving QA/QC. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of radionuclides, and measurement of trace, minor and major elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as NAA and XRF. Also included are papers contributed by experts from India, the Netherlands, the United States of America and the IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf

  10. Environmental analysis in small and medium enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, R.; Andriola, L.; Di Franco, N.

    2001-01-01

    An environmental analysis is considered to be one of the primary goals for an enterprise environmental management. Nevertheless the complexity of the environmental problems and of its regulations prevents the small enterprises the possibility to perform an environmental policy (EMAS, ISO 14001). One of the most correct evaluation instrument for creating a datum-point standard could be the filling up a questionnaire, built up in according to the industrial enterprises need. It has the function of creating a primary step for a subsequent environmental management [it

  11. Predicting Individual Characteristics from Digital Traces on Social Media: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settanni, Michele; Azucar, Danny; Marengo, Davide

    2018-04-01

    The increasing utilization of social media provides a vast and new source of user-generated ecological data (digital traces), which can be automatically collected for research purposes. The availability of these data sets, combined with the convergence between social and computer sciences, has led researchers to develop automated methods to extract digital traces from social media and use them to predict individual psychological characteristics and behaviors. In this article, we reviewed the literature on this topic and conducted a series of meta-analyses to determine the strength of associations between digital traces and specific individual characteristics; personality, psychological well-being, and intelligence. Potential moderator effects were analyzed with respect to type of social media platform, type of digital traces examined, and study quality. Our findings indicate that digital traces from social media can be studied to assess and predict theoretically distant psychosocial characteristics with remarkable accuracy. Analysis of moderators indicated that the collection of specific types of information (i.e., user demographics), and the inclusion of different types of digital traces, could help improve the accuracy of predictions.

  12. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar, E-mail: m-azfar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che [Blok 18, Makmal Analisis Kimia (Aca/Bas), Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents’ material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  13. Application of micro-PIXE analysis to investigate trace elements in deciduous teeth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igari, K.; Takahashi, A.; Ando, H.

    2010-01-01

    The early life environment has widespread consequences for later health and disease. To prevent the disease in later life, the assessment of fetal environment is very important. In Japan, birthweight has fallen rapidly during recent two decades. The reduction of birthweight represents reduced fetal nutrition. Deciduous tooth enamel contains pre- and postnatal enamel and its chemical composition reflects the status of metabolism of trace elements during formation period. Deciduous tooth enamel is considered to be a suitable indicator of trace elements exposure in utero. We applied micro-PIXE analysis to investigate the trace elemental content in deciduous tooth enamel. Two deciduous canines from one healthy Japanese boy were used for this study. The enamel section including pre- and postnatal enamel was prepared for micro-PIXE analysis. Five trace elements (Na, Mg, Cl, Zn, and Sr) were detected in the scanning area of tooth. The distribution profiles of 5 elements were obtained as X-ray maps. The distribution profiles of zinc and chlorine were specific, and showed higher concentration in surface enamel. No elements showed different profiles of X-ray maps between pre- and postnatal enamel in this sample. The results of this study suggested that micro-PIXE analysis would be able to estimate the trace elements in prenatal and postnatal enamel, respectively. (author)

  14. Forensic Analysis of Cigarette Ash-Brand Determination Through Trace-metal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Anja C; Barnes, James H; Lewis, Cris; Murray, Cynthia K; Albahadily, Fakhrildeen; Jourdan, Thomas H

    2016-07-01

    The information inherent in cigarette ash in the form of trace-metal concentrations may be of use in a forensic context as it can indicate the brand from which the ash originated. This knowledge might help place suspects at crime scenes or determine how many people may have been present. To develop and test statistical models capable of classifying ash samples according to brand, commercial cigarettes procured in the U.S. and overseas were "smoked" using a peristaltic pump, mimicking the range of human smoking habits. Ash samples were digested in a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acid applying microwave digestion and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis of the elemental data showed intrinsic differences between brands. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis demonstrated that brand classification yields good sensitivity and specificity for a number of models tested. Varying smoking parameters did not impact the classification of ash samples. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, S.A.; Osae, E.K.; Aboh, I. J.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.; Ofosu, F.; Odamtten, G.T.

    1999-04-01

    Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done bearing in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)

  16. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, S.A.; Osae, E.K.; Aboh, I.J.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.; Odamtten, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard and certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done beating in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)

  17. [Distribution Characteristics and Source Analysis of Dustfall Trace Elements During Winter in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Chen, Fan-tao; Shu, Tong-tong; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Wen-hui

    2015-08-01

    The dustfall content is one of the evaluation indexes of atmospheric pollution. Trace elements especially heavy metals in dustfall can lead to risks to ecological environment and human health. In order to study the distribution characteristics of trace elements, heavy metals pollution and their sources in winter atmospheric dust, 49 dustfall samples were collected in Beijing City and nearby during November 2013 to March 2014. Then the contents (mass percentages) of 40 trace elements were measured by Elan DRC It type inductively coupled plasma mass (ICP-MS). Test results showed that more than half of the trace elements in the dust were less than 10 mg x kg(-1); about a quarter were between 10-100 mg x kg-1); while 7 elements (Pb, Zr, Cr, Cu, Zn, Sr and Ba) were more than 100 mg x kg(-1). The contents of Pb, Cu, Zn, Bi, Cd and Mo of winter dustfall in Beijing city.were respectively 4.18, 4.66, 5.35, 6.31, 6.62, and 8.62 times as high as those of corresponding elements in the surface soil in the same period, which went beyond the soil background values by more than 300% . The contribution of human activities to dustfall trace heavy metals content in Beijing city was larger than that in the surrounding region. Then sources analysis of dustfall and its 20 main trace elements (Cd, Mo, Nb, Ga, Co, Y, Nd, Li, La, Ni, Rb, V, Ce, Pb, Zr, Cr, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ba) was conducted through a multi-method analysis, including Pearson correlation analysis, Kendall correlation coefficient analysis and principal component analysis. Research results indicated that sources of winter dustfall in Beijing city were mainly composed of the earth's crust sources (including road dust, construction dust and remote transmission of dust) and the burning of fossil fuels (vehicle emissions, coal combustion, biomass combustion and industrial processes).

  18. Illustration and analysis of a coordinated approach to an effective forensic trace evidence capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoney, David A; Stoney, Paul L

    2015-08-01

    An effective trace evidence capability is defined as one that exploits all useful particle types, chooses appropriate technologies to do so, and directly integrates the findings with case-specific problems. Limitations of current approaches inhibit the attainment of an effective capability and it has been strongly argued that a new approach to trace evidence analysis is essential. A hypothetical case example is presented to illustrate and analyze how forensic particle analysis can be used as a powerful practical tool in forensic investigations. The specifics in this example, including the casework investigation, laboratory analyses, and close professional interactions, provide focal points for subsequent analysis of how this outcome can be achieved. This leads to the specification of five key elements that are deemed necessary and sufficient for effective forensic particle analysis: (1) a dynamic forensic analytical approach, (2) concise and efficient protocols addressing particle combinations, (3) multidisciplinary capabilities of analysis and interpretation, (4) readily accessible external specialist resources, and (5) information integration and communication. A coordinating role, absent in current approaches to trace evidence analysis, is essential to achieving these elements. However, the level of expertise required for the coordinating role is readily attainable. Some additional laboratory protocols are also essential. However, none of these has greater staffing requirements than those routinely met by existing forensic trace evidence practitioners. The major challenges that remain are organizational acceptance, planning and implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study on trace element determination in liver samples of great-white-egret Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758 (Ardeidae, Aves) for environmental contamination biomionitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: rcsilva@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Predatory birds such as herons have been used as bioindicators of pollution since they are at the top of their food webs. The tissues of these animals are analyzed for assessing environmental pollution caused by toxic elements. In the present study, adequate experimental conditions were established for determination of trace elements concentrations in the liver samples of Great-white-egret (Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758) for further application of this specimens as a bioindicator of environmental contamination. Four liver samples were collected from Greatwhite- egrets found in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo and were they analyzed by the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Concentrations of the elements Br, Co, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were measured in these liver tissues. The findings of this present study demonstrated that the established procedure for liver sample treatment was appropriate to obtain a homogeneous sample. The method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was very promising for liver sample analysis for evaluation of environmental contamination. (author)

  20. Study on trace element determination in liver samples of great-white-egret Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758 (Ardeidae, Aves) for environmental contamination biomionitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2009-01-01

    Predatory birds such as herons have been used as bioindicators of pollution since they are at the top of their food webs. The tissues of these animals are analyzed for assessing environmental pollution caused by toxic elements. In the present study, adequate experimental conditions were established for determination of trace elements concentrations in the liver samples of Great-white-egret (Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758) for further application of this specimens as a bioindicator of environmental contamination. Four liver samples were collected from Greatwhite- egrets found in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo and were they analyzed by the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Concentrations of the elements Br, Co, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were measured in these liver tissues. The findings of this present study demonstrated that the established procedure for liver sample treatment was appropriate to obtain a homogeneous sample. The method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was very promising for liver sample analysis for evaluation of environmental contamination. (author)

  1. Recent advances and perspectives in analytical methodologies for monitoring the bioavailability of trace metals in environmental solid substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2006-01-01

    In the last decades, researchers have realised that the impact of trace elements (TE) in environmental solid substrates on ecological systems and biota cannot be ascertained appropriately by means of total metal content measurements. Assessment of TE chemical forms, types of binding and reactivity...... of their associations with particulate forms has, thus, been commonly performed via batch-wise equilibrium-based sequential extraction fractionation methods able to discern TE bound to different soil-phase compartments. In this paper, novel analytical strategies for monitoring the mobility, bioavailability...... and the eventual impact of anthropogenic TE in environmental solids are addressed. The potential of passive dosimeters based on microdialysis sampling for on-site, real-time monitoring of chemical contaminants in pore soil solution is thoroughly discussed and critically compared with active microsamplers. Recent...

  2. Speciation of trace elements in river water utilizing activation analysis and size fractionation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanizaki, Yoshiyuki [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1994-07-01

    It is significant to elucidate the forms of existence of trace elements in natural water for knowing the physical and chemical behaviors of respective elements in hydrosphere, and evaluating the usefulness or toxicity for living bodies. But it is very difficult to analyze directly the chemical forms of many trace elements by ordinary chemical techniques. The authors pay attention to the fact that the particle size of the trace elements in natural water is different according to their forms of existence, and have carried out the examination of a simple and convenient form analysis method `Particle size fractionation method`. This is to fractionate the trace elements in natural water, classifying them by particle size using the millipore filters and ultrafilters having various pore diameter, and to presume the forms of existence according to the state of particle size distribution of respective elements. The information on chemical forms cannot be obtained by this method, therefore, the irradiation of sample water with gamma ray is carried out. Gamma ray irradiation treatment, particle size fractionation treatment, activation analysis, the form classification method for trace elements, and the results of fractionation of respective elements are reported. (K.I.).

  3. Biomonitoring of air pollution in Jamaica through trace-element analysis of epiphytic plants using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vutchkov, Mitko

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of the Coordinated Research Project (No:9937/R0), entitled 'Biomonitoring of Air Pollution in Jamaica Through Trace-Element Analysis of Epiphytic Plants Using Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques', is to identify and validate site specific epiphytic plants for biomonitoring the atmospheric pollution in Jamaica using nuclear analytical techniques at the International Centre for Environmental and Nuclear Sciences (ICENS). The specific objectives for the second year of the project were: Development of HOP for sampling epiphytic plants in Jamaica; Sampling design and sample collection; Sample preparation and analysis; Development of an in-house SRM and participation in the NAT-5 inter-laboratory study; Data analysis and interpretation of the results; Development of a work plan of the third year of the project

  4. Method development for trace analysis of heteroaromatic compounds in contaminated groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sys Stybe; Hansen, Asger B.; Mosbæk, Hans

    1996-01-01

    Water analysis,environmental analysis,extraction methods,aromatic compounds,heteroaromatic compounds,creosote,dichloromethane,diethyl ether,pentane......Water analysis,environmental analysis,extraction methods,aromatic compounds,heteroaromatic compounds,creosote,dichloromethane,diethyl ether,pentane...

  5. Environmental Management Strategy: Four Forces Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Martin W.; Von Windheim, Jesko

    2015-01-01

    We develop an analytical approach for more systematically analyzing environmental management problems in order to develop strategic plans. This approach can be deployed by agencies, non-profit organizations, corporations, or other organizations and institutions tasked with improving environmental quality. The analysis relies on assessing the underlying natural processes followed by articulation of the relevant societal forces causing environmental change: (1) science and technology, (2) governance, (3) markets and the economy, and (4) public behavior. The four forces analysis is then used to strategize which types of actions might be most effective at influencing environmental quality. Such strategy has been under-used and under-valued in environmental management outside of the corporate sector, and we suggest that this four forces analysis is a useful analytic to begin developing such strategy.

  6. Mass spectrometric methods for trace analysis of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, U.; Schulten, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    A brief outline is given of the principles of mass spectrometry (MS) and the fundamentals of qualitative and quantitative mass spectrometric analysis emphasizing recent developments and results. Classical methods of the analysis of solids, i.e. spark-source MS and thermal ionization MS, as well as recent methods of metal analysis are described. Focal points in this survey of recently developed techniques include secondary ion MS, laser probe MS, plasma ion source MS, gas discharge MS and field desorption MS. Here, a more detailed description is given and the merits of these emerging methods are discussed more explicitly. In particular, the results of the field desorption techniques in elemental analyses are reviewed and critically evaluated

  7. Improved PIXE analysis of micro- and trace elements in dental composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E. A.; Ciortea, C.; Fluerasu, D.; Enescu, S. E.; Preoteasa, E.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the interactions occurring at the solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces of a tooth's filling, the mineral elements of the restorative composite may induce a complex response of the organism. To study such problems, sensitive surface trace element analysis is required. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has a detection limit one order of magnitude lower than XRF and has been used for hard dental tissues, but not yet for dental composites. We evaluated the potential of PIXE in a study of ten types of composites used in restorative dentistry, some of them with two color shades each. The samples were prepared as described for XRF. The measurements were performed with 3 MeV protons from a van de Graaff tandem linear accelerator, using a hyper pure Ge detector and collecting the spectra for 1.5-4 hours. The spectra were processed with the program Leone. The proton route in the sample calculated with the Trim program (∼ 50-100 μm) exceeded the size of mineral particles (0.02-30 μm), thus granularity did not affect the analysis. The PIXE analysis detected Z ≥ 19 elements in all composites, and Z≥14 elements in only one low Z material. PIXE detected generally the same dominant elements, but many more trace elements than XRF. Thus both Charisma (Kulzer) and Pekafill (Bayer) contained Ba as the major element, but trace elements were Ni, Zn, In, in the first, and Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ag in the second. In other glass- and ceramics-based materials we found: Ca, Zr, Ba, Yb and traces of Sr, In, and possibly Ti in Tetric Ceram and in Ariston (both from Vivadent); Ca, Zr, Ba, Hf, possibly Mn, and traces of Ni, Ho, Ti, Fe, Cr in Valux Plus (3M Dental); Sr, Ba (major), K, Fe, Mn (minor), and traces of Ni, Zn, In, in F2000 Compomer (3M Dental); Ba (major) and traces of Fe, Ni, Sr in Surefil (Dentsply). In quartz-based materials we detected: Si, Ca, Ti, Fe and traces of K, Cl, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn in Evicrol (Spofa); low and trace levels of Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu in

  8. Neutron activation analysis as analytical tool of environmental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otoshi, Tsunehiko

    2004-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) ia applicable to the sample of wide range of research fields, such as material science, biology, geochemistry and so on. However, respecting the advantages of NAA, a sample with small amounts or a precious sample is the most suitable samples for NAA, because NAA is capable of trace analysis and non-destructive determination. In this paper, among these fields, NAA of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) sample is discussed emphasizing on the use of obtained data as an analytical tool of environmental issue. Concentration of PM in air is usually very low, and it is not easy to get vast amount of sample even using a high volume air sampling devise. Therefore, high sensitive NAA is suitable to determine elements in PM samples. Main components of PM is crust oriented silicate, and so on in rural/remote area, and carbonic materials and heavy metals are concentrated in PM in urban area, because of automobile exhaust and other anthropogenic emission source. Elemental pattern of PM reflects a condition of air around the monitoring site. Trends of air pollution can be traced by periodical monitoring of PM by NAA method. Elemental concentrations in air change by season. For example, crustal elements increase in dry season, and sea salts components increase their concentration when wind direction from sea is dominant. Elements that emitted from anthropogenic sources are mainly contained in fine portion of PM, and increase their concentration during winter season, when emission from heating system is high and air is stable. For further analysis and understanding of environmental issues, indicator elements for various emission sources, and elemental concentration ratios of some environmental samples and source portion assignment techniques are useful. (author)

  9. 23 CFR 710.305 - Environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Project Development § 710.305 Environmental analysis. The National Environmental Policy Act... agreement for acquisition of right-of-way. Where applicable, a State also must complete Clean Air Act (42 U...

  10. Multivariate cluster analysis of some major and trace elements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFUOMA

    This study comprises soils formed on Paleoproterozoic Birimian Basement rocks (poorly graded silty sand, gravely sand and silty clays) from the unsaturated zone of the Densu River Basin, taken from a five meter depth. Elemental analysis of the soils samples were carried out by Energy Dispersive X-ray. Fluorescence ...

  11. Trace element analysis at the Livermore pool-type reactor using neutron activation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.; Ralston, R.; Garvis, D.

    1975-01-01

    The capabilities of trace element analysis at the Livermore Pool-Type Reactor (LPTR) using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) are discussed. A description is given of the technology and the methods employed, including sample preparation, irradiation, and analysis. Applications of the INAA technique in past and current projects are described. A computer program, GAMANAL, has been used for nuclide identification and quantification. (U.S.)

  12. Selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (sift-MS) for on-line trace gas analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2005), s. 661-700 ISSN 0277-7037 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0827; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0737 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : SIFT-MS * chemical ionization * trace gas analysis * breath analysis * urine headspace analysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 13.273, year: 2005

  13. Environmental exposure of Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) early life stages to essential trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Aaron K; Dutton, Jessica; Sclafani, Matthew; Santangelo, Nicholas

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the accumulation Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, and Zn in Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) early life stages (egg, embryo and larvae) and compared the concentrations to the concentration of each element in sediment, pore water and overlying water for 5 sites across Long Island, NY. For the majority of the sites, all essential trace elements accumulated in the embryos and larvae. However, many of the embryos and larvae at specific sites presented different concentration patterns which had no apparent relationship with the local habitat sediment and water values. Generally, Cu, Fe, and Se sequentially increased from egg stage through larval stages for the majority of sites, while Co, Mn, and Ni only did for a few sites. Zinc also showed an increase across sites from embryo to larval stage, however was the only one to show a decrease in concentration from egg to embryo stage at all sites. Interestingly, Mn at Manhasset Bay presented embryo and larval stages to be 50 fold greater than all other sites while the egg stage showed similar values to other sites; this high degree of uptake could be due to a high concentration in the overlying water. All essential trace elements can be accumulated from the environment but greater concentrations may be influenced by abiotic factors and the predominant uptake route (aqueous versus diet) at each life stage. Future laboratory experiments are required to investigate factors that influence essential trace element accumulation and loss in horseshoe crab early life stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Charting the trends in nuclear techniques for analysis of inorganic environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, T.

    1986-01-01

    Publications in Analytical Abstracts in the period 1975-1984 and papers presented at the Modern Trends in Activation Analysis international conferences series in the period 1961-1986 have been used as an empirical basis for assessing general trends in research and publication activity. Some ebbs and flows in the speciality of instrumental techniques for analysis of environmental trace pollutants are revealed by a statistical analysis of the publications. (author)

  15. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akoto Bamford, Samuel; Osae, E.K.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.; Ofosu, F.; Aboh, I.J.; Odamtten, G.T.

    2001-01-01

    Research work is currently going on to determine the suitability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The study areas being investigated are the gold-mining areas situated in the Moist Evergreen and Semi-Deciduous forests in Ghana. The nuclear analytical techniques being used in this work are instrumental neutron activation analysis and tube-excited x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The present report covers results of quality control exercise carried out to validate the quantitative methods being used. This includes our participation in an intercomparison exercise carried out among participants of the IAEA coordinated research project. The samples analyzed were two lichen samples from two completely different areas using neutron activation analysis. Only short- and medium-lived irradiations were carried out. Satisfactory results were obtained for most of the elements identified and quantified. (author)

  16. Trace elements in Turkish tobacco determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelovali, M.C.; Guenduez, G.

    1983-01-01

    The concentration of 20 trace elements in nine brands of Turkish cigarette tobacco and in a brand of pipe tobacco ash has been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The percent transference of elements into smoke has been estimated from the amounts remaining in the ash. (author)

  17. Archaeological significance of trace element analysis of South West African potsherds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boule, G.J.; Peisach, M.; Jacobson, L.

    1979-01-01

    The archaeological study of early population movements in South West Africa/Namibia has been aided by trace element analysis of potsherds. The results suggest that the central areas of the country were populated by mobile groups of pastoralists and hunter-gatherers, while the northern areas were settled by sedentary peoples [af

  18. Trace elements monitored with neutron activation analysis durig neurodegeneration in brains of mutant mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kranda, Karel; Kučera, Jan; Bäurle, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 269, č. 3 (2006), s. 555-559 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : trace elements * neutron activation analysis * brain neurodegeneration * mutant mice Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.509, year: 2006

  19. Analysis of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on DNA traces from plasma and dried blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catsburg, Arnold; van der Zwet, Wil C.; Morre, Servaas A.; Ouburg, Sander; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Reliable analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA derived from samples containing low numbers of cells or from suboptimal sources can be difficult. A new procedure to characterize multiple SNPs in traces of DNA from plasma and old dried blood samples was developed. Six SNPs in the

  20. Detecting errors in micro and trace analysis by using statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, K.

    1993-01-01

    By assigning a standard deviation to each step in an analytical method it is possible to predict the standard deviation of each analytical result obtained by this method. If the actual variability of replicate analytical results agrees with the expected, the analytical method is said...... to results for chlorine in freshwater from BCR certification analyses by highly competent analytical laboratories in the EC. Titration showed systematic errors of several percent, while radiochemical neutron activation analysis produced results without detectable bias....

  1. Trace element analysis in liquids by proton induced x-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deconninck, G.

    Proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) from liquid has been developed for quantitative and simultaneous analysis of trace elements. Liquid drops and trickles are bombarded at atmospheric pressure, x-rays are detected in a non dispersive Si(Li) solid state detector. Absolute determinations are made by comparison with standard solutions. Detection limits in a 5 minutes run are in the ppm range for a single drop (0.05 ml). The application of this technique to the determination of trace elements in biological liquids is investigated (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, in plant extracts, haemocyanine, albumins...). (author)

  2. Studies of sand drift by neutron activation analysis of trace elements in natural sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J.; Chai, Z.; Ma, S.; Mao, X.; Qian, Q.; Mao, Z.; Yan, P.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of the inhomogeneous distribution of trace elements in nature and essential characteristics of the sand drift, the authors have proposed a so-called mix-model of trace elements as a law of the sand drift, and developed a few calculation methods to determine the drift directions, possible sources as well as their contributions to the sand. Using neutron activation analysis method for determining the concentrations of the trace elements in natural sand samples from different sources, they have investigated three areas, the Shantou Harbor, the Shanghai Harbor and a section of the Great Canal of China, to decipher the movement and sedimentation tendency of the sands there. Their results agree with those by conventional measurement methods in water conservancy works, and their method has provided some obvious advantages of time-saving, cost-saving, sampling without restriction of time and ease to be implemented

  3. Application of neutron activation analysis for determination of trace element Pt in the rat's tissue sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardani, S.; Mulyaningsih, R.

    1996-01-01

    The neutron activation analysis (NAA) have been developed as an analytical method with fast, high sensitivity, high accuracy and high precision for medical research purposes to determine the trace elements in the rat's tissue sample. Determination of the trace elements Pt and Se have done using bovine liver standard of NBS as a reference. This standard has used also as a tool to verify an equipment and method will be used further. The measurement results shows that using the available equipment and method, the lower limit of detection for Pt was 1 ppm. Distribution of the trace elements Pt and Se in the different rat's tissue previously treated with cisplatin can be determined. The results shows that Pt content in the several rat's tissue previously treated cisplatin plus sodium selenite is much bigger than that previously treated with cisplatin only. (author)

  4. Development and application of mass spectrometric techniques for ultra-trace determination of236U in environmental samples-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Ketterer, Michael E; Hu, Sheng; Uchida, Shigeo; Wang, Xiaolin

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of the long-lived radionuclide 236 U are an important endeavor, not only in nuclear safeguards work, but also in terms of using this emerging nuclide as a tracer in chemical oceanography, hydrology, and actinide sourcing. Depending on the properties of a sample and its neutron irradiation history, 236 U/ 238 U ratios from different sources vary significantly. Therefore, this ratio can be treated as an important fingerprint for radioactive source identification, and in particular, affords a definitive means of discriminating between naturally occurring U and specific types of anthropogenic U. The development of mass spectrometric techniques makes it possible to determine ultra-trace levels of 236 U in environmental samples. In this paper, we review the current status of mass spectrometric approaches for determination of 236 U in environmental samples. Various sample preparation methods are summarized and compared. The mass spectrometric techniques emphasized herein are thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The strategies or principles used by each technique for the analysis of 236 U are described. The performances of these techniques in terms of abundance sensitivity and detection limit are discussed in detail. To date, AMS exhibits the best capability for ultra-trace determinations of 236 U. The levels and behaviors of 236 U in various environmental media are summarized and discussed as well. Results suggest that 236 U has an important, emerging role as a tracer for geochemical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The trace element analysis in freshwater fish species, water and sediment in Iyidere stream (Rize-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verep, Bulent; Mutlu, Cengiz; Apaydin, Gokhan; Cevik, Ugur

    2012-07-15

    Many environmental problems like dam construction, agricultural debris, flooding and industrial establishments threaten Iyidere stream (Rize, Turkey) on the southeastern coast of the Black Sea (Turkey). The trace element concentrations in water, fish and sediments in lyidere stream (Rize, Turkey) were investigated in this study. The concentration of six different elements in ten freshwater fish species and sediment was determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method. A radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence analysis using the method of multiple standard addition is applied for the elemental analysis of fish and sediments. Water samples for trace metals were analyzed using standard spectrophotometry methods. A qualitative analysis of spectral peaks showed that ten different freshwater fish samples (Chondrostoma colchicum, Chalcalburnus chalcoides, Salmo trutta labrax, Alburnoides bipunctatus, Leuciscus cephalus, Barbus taurus escherichia, Capoeta tinca, Neogobius kessleri, Rutilus frisii, Lampetra lanceolata) and sediment contained phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), chlorine (Cl), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and titanium (Ti). Heavy metals as toxic elements for biota (Pb, Cd, Hg, Zn and Mn etc.) were not detected in fish, water and sediments. Thus, It can be declared that freshwater fish of Iyidere does not contains health risks for consumers in terms of metal pollution.

  6. Neutron activation analysis of traces of metallic elements in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinte, G.; Lefol, N.; May, S.; Darras, R.

    1975-01-01

    The application of neutron activation analysis is examined for the elements iron, nickel, chromium and cobalt which are constituents of the aqueous corrosion products of stainless steels and which are present in very low concentrations in the water used in the heat transfer systems of nuclear reactors. The best results were obtained by slow evaporation of the water sample in a quartz ampoule in an oven followed by irradiation of the dry sample in the same ampoule. The problems of blanks, of losses during concentration, and of conservation of solutions at very low concentrations were studied. Good agreement was found between the theoretical quantities and experimental results with standard samples containing 50ppb of each of the studied elements. There was also excellent agreement between neutron activation and spectrophotometric methods in the case of determinations of iron in solution [fr

  7. Development of a new method for hydrogen isotope analysis of trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibin Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method had been developed for the analysis of hydrogen isotopic composition of trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples by using solid phase microextraction (SPME combined with gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS. In this study, the SPME technique had been initially introduced to achieve the enrichment of trace content of hydrocarbons with low abundance and coupled to GC/IRMS for hydrogen isotopic analysis. The main parameters, including the equilibration time, extraction temperature, and the fiber type, were systematically optimized. The results not only demonstrated that high extraction yield was true but also shows that the hydrogen isotopic fractionation was not observed during the extraction process, when the SPME device fitted with polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene/carbon molecular sieve (PDMS/DVB/CAR fiber. The applications of SPME-GC/IRMS method were evaluated by using natural gas samples collected from different sedimentary basins; the standard deviation (SD was better than 4‰ for reproducible measurements; and also, the hydrogen isotope values from C1 to C9 can be obtained with satisfying repeatability. The SPME-GC/IRMS method fitted with PDMS/DVB/CAR fiber is well suited for the preconcentration of trace hydrocarbons, and provides a reliable hydrogen isotopic analysis for trace hydrocarbons in natural gas samples.

  8. Comparing Distributions of Environmental Outcomes for Regulatory Environmental Justice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Sheriff

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Economists have long been interested in measuring distributional impacts of policy interventions. As environmental justice (EJ emerged as an ethical issue in the 1970s, the academic literature has provided statistical analyses of the incidence and causes of various environmental outcomes as they relate to race, income, and other demographic variables. In the context of regulatory impacts, however, there is a lack of consensus regarding what information is relevant for EJ analysis, and how best to present it. This paper helps frame the discussion by suggesting a set of questions fundamental to regulatory EJ analysis, reviewing past approaches to quantifying distributional equity, and discussing the potential for adapting existing tools to the regulatory context.

  9. Trace element analysis of old exposed air filters: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattenden, N.J.; Fisher, E.M.R.; Bones, E.M.

    1979-10-01

    A limited number of old exposed air filters from a network of sampling stations extending the length of North and South America have been analysed for many trace elements. (The network is run by the United States Department of Energy Environmental Measurements Laboratory). The objective was to assess the possible value of a large program of such measurements for providing information on the trace element concentrations in airborne particulates existing at the time of sample collection. On the basis of the evidence obtained, it is considered that valid information could be extracted in this way. In view of the extent of the store of old filters, which cover about a 10 year period up to the present day from stations spread over the North and South American continents and elsewhere, such a program appears to be well worthwhile. (author)

  10. Application of the neutron activation analysis method for determing trace elements in Brazilian food sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Recently there has been an increase of consciousness about the importance of trace elements in human health and disease as well as rising concern about food contamination. The development of sensitive, accurate and price methods is one of the most important of the knowledge of trace elements contents in foods and in biological samples. Neutron activation analysis is one of the most suitable tecniques because a great number of elements can be determined in concentrations in the range of μg/g to ng/g. The present work is a part of an AIEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the applications of nuclear techniques for toxic elements in foodstuffs. Neutron activation analysis is applied to analysis of bread, milk powder and rice that are considered essential foods in the Brazilian diet. Some aspects of the activation analysis of biological matrices are discussed. (author) [pt

  11. From consumption to harvest: Environmental fate prediction of excreted ionizable trace organic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio; Plósz, Benedek G.; Trapp, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    consumption/excretion up to the accumulation in soil and plant, following field amendment with sewage sludge or irrigation with river water (assuming dilution of WWTP effluent). The simulation tool combines the SimpleTreat model modified for fate prediction of ionizable chemicals in a generic WWTP......Excreted trace organic chemicals, e.g., pharmaceuticals and biocides, typically undergo incomplete elimination in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and are released to surface water via treated effluents and to agricultural soils through sludge amendment and/or irrigation...... and a recently developed dynamic soil-plant uptake model. The simulation tool was tested using country-specific (e.g., consumption/emission rates, precipitation and temperature) input data. A Monte Carlo-based approach was adopted to account for the uncertainty associated to physico-chemical and biokinetic model...

  12. Environmental exergy analysis of wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Bejarano, C.H.; Oliveira Junior, S. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: carlos.bejarano@poli.usp.br; silvio.oliveira@poli.usp.br

    2006-12-15

    This work evaluates the environmental impact of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WTP) based on data generated by the exergy analysis, calculating and applying environmental impact indexes for two WTP located in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo. The environmental impact of the waste water treatment plants was done by means of evaluating two environmental impact exergy based indexes: the environmental exergy efficiency and the total pollution rate (Rpol,t). The environmental exergy efficiency is defined as the ratio of the exergy of the useful effect of the WTP to the total exergy consumed by human and natural resources, including all the exergy inputs. That relation is an indication of the theoretical potential of future improvements of the process. Besides the environmental exergy efficiency, it is also used the total pollution rate, based on the definition done by Makarytchev (1997), as the ratio of the destroyed exergy associated to the process wastes to the exergy of the useful effect of the process. The analysis of the results shows that this method can be used to quantify and also optimise the environmental performance of Wastewater Treatment Plants. (author)

  13. Data analysis and interpretation for environmental surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Data Analysis and Interpretation for Environmental Surveillance Conference was held in Lexington, Kentucky, February 5--7, 1990. The conference was sponsored by what is now the Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Participants included technical professionals from all Martin Marietta Energy Systems facilities, Westinghouse Materials Company of Ohio, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and several technical support contractors. Presentations at the conference ranged the full spectrum of issues that effect the analysis and interpretation of environmental data. Topics included tracking systems for samples and schedules associated with ongoing programs; coalescing data from a variety of sources and pedigrees into integrated data bases; methods for evaluating the quality of environmental data through empirical estimates of parameters such as charge balance, pH, and specific conductance; statistical applications to the interpretation of environmental information; and uses of environmental information in risk and dose assessments. Hearing about and discussing this wide variety of topics provided an opportunity to capture the subtlety of each discipline and to appreciate the continuity that is required among the disciplines in order to perform high-quality environmental information analysis

  14. Neutron activation analysis applied to the determination of trace elements in human nails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Amilton Reinaldo

    2001-01-01

    There is a considerable interest in the determination of trace elements in human nails in order to use this tissue as a monitor of nutritional and healthy status of individuals, of occupational exposure diseases and of the environmental contamination. In this work, instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to determine trace elements in finger nail clippings to make comparisons between the elemental concentrations obtained in nails from healthy individuals of a control group and those from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Firstly, a protocol for sample collection and preparation for analysis was established. Finger and toe nail samples from CF patients were collected at the Instituto da Crianca of Medicine School, University of Sao Paulo, SP. The nail samples from control group were collected from healthy adults and from children living in Sao Paulo city, SP. These samples were cleaned by stirring them witha a diluted Triton X100 solution and then by washing with distilled water and acetone. The analytical procedure consisted of irradiation nail samples and elemental standards in the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor under thermal neutro flux of about 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 , for short and long period irradiations. The activities of the radionuclides were measured using a gamma-ray spectrometer comprising an hyperpure Ge detector and associated electronic system. The biological reference materials Bovine Liver 1577b and Oyster Tissue 1566a, both from National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA were analysed in order to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the results. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and F-test at the significance level of 5% were used to make a comparison between the sets of results obtained in this work. In the comparison of the results obtained for finger and toe nails from CF patients, the Br concentrations were higher in finger nails that those obtained for toe nails. For the control group of children, the finger nails presented different

  15. Methods for analysis of trace elements in coal, coal fly ash, soil, and plant samples. [59 refs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slates, R.V.

    1976-11-01

    Results of a literature search are presented, and analytical methods are proposed for studies of trace elements in coal, coal ash residue, soil, and vegetation. Increased trace element levels in soils and plants collected near power plants have been reported by several investigators. Many sample dissolution and analysis techniques were used in the reported studies. A nine-laboratory comparison of trace element analyses for a variety of methods showed excessive variation relative to quoted uncertainty limits. Analysis results from a subsequent four-laboratory comparison of instrumental nuclear techniques for trace element analysis agreed with the National Bureau of Standards certified values for all nine elements determined. Instrumental neutron activation analysis, spark source mass spectrometry, and atomic absorption spectrometry are proposed as primary analysis methods for coal, coal ash, soil, and plants in a Savannah River Laboratory study of trace elements. Bomb procedures are proposed for dissolution of samples.

  16. Examination of Environmental Trends in Hawaii Based on the Trace Element Distributions in Cores of the Kiawe tree (Prosopis pallida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Y. S.; de Carlo, E. H.; Spengler, S. R.

    2003-12-01

    Annual growth rings of trees have the potential for providing a chronology of bioavailable contaminants extant in the environment in which the trees grow. Recent studies have documented a significant correlation between concentrations of metals in atmospheric particulate matter and those observed in surface and groundwater. The Kiawe (Prosopis pallida), a hardwood tree commonly found in Hawaii, represents a potential environmental tape recorder because of its life span on the order of multiple decades. Because the Kiawe is phreatophytic and has high transpiration rates, it may be ideally suited to examine past (temporal) and current (spatial) variability in the quality of groundwater where these trees grow. Because of the potential correlation between airborne and groundwater pollution we hypothesize that growth rings of Kiawe may yield clues to help unravel recent (50-100 yrs) changes in contamination patterns in Hawaii. We will present concentrations of trace elements (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sb, and Pb) in cores of Kiawe trees growing on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Oahu, the locus of more than 80 percent of the population of the State of Hawaii, is heavily urbanized, but other land uses include agriculture, conservation (rainforest), and military reservations, where live-fire military training activities over the past 60 years have raised public concern about potential contamination of natural resources. Preliminary analyses indicate that trace element concentrations in Kiawe wood range from a less than one to tens of micrograms per kilogram, depending on the element and the provenance of the tree.

  17. Trace metals of an acid mine drainage stream using a chemical model (WATEQ) and sediment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, K.A.; Wilson, T.P.

    1992-01-01

    The high metal contents common to the discharge of acid-mine drainage (AMD) from mines and mine spoils is an environmental concern to both government and industry. This paper reports the results of investigation of the behavior of metals in an AMD system at a former surface coal mine in Tuscarawas County, Oh. AMD discharges from seeps travels, in respective order through a laminar flow stream; a Typha-dominated wetland; a turbulent flow stream; and a sediment retention pond. Dissolved metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cr, Cd, Cu, and Al) major and minor components, and other parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen and Eh) were measured in the AMD water at each sample location. A chemical mineral equilibrium model (WATEQ) was used to predict the minerals which should precipitate at each site. Results suggest that the seeps are supersaturated and should be precipitating hematite, goethite and magnetite (iron oxides), and siderite (iron carbonate), whereas water of the other downstream sites were at or below equilibrium conditions for these minerals. The hydrogeochemistry of the AMD was further studied using sequential chemical attacks on the precipitate sediment surface coatings, in order to determine metal concentrations in the exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide, and oxidizable fractions. The carbonate and exchangeable fractions of the precipitate are dominated by Ca and Fe, as well as Mg in the carbonate fraction. The Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide fraction contained Fe, Al, Mn, Mg, and trace metals, and also contained the greatest concentration of total elements in the system. The Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide is therefore, the major sink for metals of this AMD system. The decrease in the concentration of metals in the sediment precipitates in the downstream locations, is consistent with WATEQ and water analysis results

  18. Analysis of trace metals and perfluorinated compounds in 43 representative tea products from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hai; Li, Jian-Long; Li, Hai-Hang; Hu, Guo-Cheng; Li, Hua-Shou

    2014-06-01

    Six trace metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Mn) and 2 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), were analyzed in 43 representative tea products (including 18 green, 12 Oolong, and 13 black teas) from 7 main tea production provinces in China, using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer for trace metals analysis and HPLC-MS/MS for PFOS and PFOA analysis. The average contents of the 3 essential metals Mn, Cu, and Zn ions in the tea samples were 629.74, 17.75, and 37.38 mg/kg, whereas 3 toxic metals Cd, Cr, and Pb were 0.65, 1.02, and 1.92 mg/kg, respectively. The contents of heavy metals in the 3 types of tea were in the order of black tea > Oolong tea > green tea. Both PFOS and PFOA contents were low and PFOA content was higher than PFOS in the tea samples. The highest concentration of PFOA was 0.25 ng/g dry weight found in a Hunan green tea. The Principal component analysis was performed with the trace metals and PFCs to analyze the relationships of these indices. The results showed that black teas had higher trace metals and PFCs than green and Oolong teas, and the teas from Hunan and Zhejiang provinces had higher Pb and Cr than others. This paper reports trace metals, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in wide range of tea products produced in the south China area. This paper also warns the low PFOS and PFOA pollution in tea. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: FY 1993 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center

    1994-01-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provide technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC (including World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases) during the period October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of NDPS, CMPS, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints are provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also presented.

  20. Food for Thought: A Critical Overview of Current Practical and Conceptual Challenges in Trace Element Analysis in Natural Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Filella

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The practical and conceptual challenges faced by the analysis of trace elements present in natural waters are not merely, as is often thought, an endless race towards lower detection limits or to the development of techniques allowing the determination of any possible chemical species formed by all chemical elements. Rather, as discussed in this paper, they include the development of (i robust, cheap, and reliable methods that could also be used by laypeople (the experience gained in the development of field kits for As is discussed as an example from which similar developments for other elements may be drawn; (ii more environmentally-friendly methods (the current guiding criteria probably being too simplistic; and (iii methods making it possible to follow diel concentration changes and sharp concentration variations caused by the probable increase of heavy rainfall events. This paper also claims that neither the measurement of total concentrations (reliable methods are lacking for many elements of the periodic table of trace elements, as illustrated through the cases of Bi, Te, and Sb, nor chemical speciation analysis, are as mature as often thought. In particular, chemical speciation studies demand the development of a better, comprehensive conceptual framework. A trial is carried out to lay the basis of such a framework.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: FY 1993 activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushman, R.M.; Stoss, F.W.; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN

    1994-01-01

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC's staff also provide technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC's staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC (including World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases) during the period October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC's response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of NDPS, CMPS, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints are provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC's information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also presented

  2. Analysis procedure for americium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, R.W.; Hayes, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Several methods for the analysis of 241 Am in environmental samples were evaluated and a preferred method was selected. This method was modified and used to determine the 241 Am content in sediments, biota, and water. The advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The method is also suitable for 244 Cm analysis

  3. FORTRAN 4 programs for summarization and analysis of fracture trace and lineament patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podwysocki, M. H.; Lowman, P. D., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Systematic and detailed analysis of lineament and fracture trace patterns has long been neglected because of the large number of observations involved in such an analysis. Three FORTRAN 4 programs were written to facilitate this manipulation. TRANSFORM converts the initial fracture map data into a format compatible with AZMAP, whose options allow repetitive manipulation of the data for optimization of the analysis. ROSE creates rose diagrams of the fracture patterns suitable for map overlays and tectonic interpretation. Examples are given and further analysis techniques using output from these programs are discussed.

  4. Dithizone modified magnetic nanoparticles for fast and selective solid phase extraction of trace elements in environmental and biological samples prior to their determination by ICP-OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guihong; He, Man; Peng, Hanyong; Hu, Bin

    2012-01-15

    A fast and simple method for analysis of trace amounts of Cr(III), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) in environmental and biological samples was developed by combining magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) detection. Dithizone modified silica-coated magnetic Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (H(2)Dz-SCMNPs) were prepared and used for MSPE of trace amounts of Cr(III), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II). The prepared magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The factors affecting the extraction of the target metal ions such as pH, sample volume, eluent, and interfering ions had been investigated and the adsorption mechanism of the target metals on the self-prepared H(2)Dz-SCMNPs was investigated by FT-IR and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS). Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of the developed method for Cr(III), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) were 35, 11, 62, and 8ngL(-1), respectively, with the enrichment factor of 100. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, c=10μgL(-1), n=7) were in the range of 1.7-3.1% and the linear range was 0.1-100μgL(-1). The proposed method had been validated by two certified reference materials (GSBZ50009-88 environmental water and GBW07601 human hair), and the determined values were in good agreement with the certified values. The method was also applied for the determination of trace metals in real water and human hair samples with recoveries in the range of 85-110% for the spiked samples. The developed MSPE-ICP-OES method has the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, selectivity, high extraction efficiency and is suitable for the analysis of samples with large volume and complex matrix. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The episodic evolution of fibritin: traces of ancient global environmental alterations may remain in the genomes of T4-like phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letarov, A V; Krisch, H M

    2013-09-01

    The evolutionary adaptation of bacteriophages to their environment is achieved by alterations of their genomes involving a combination of both point mutations and lateral gene transfer. A phylogenetic analysis of a large set of collar fiber protein (fibritin) loci from diverse T4-like phages indicates that nearly all the modular swapping involving the C-terminal domain of this gene occurred in the distant past and has since ceased. In phage T4, this fibritin domain encodes the sequence that mediates both the attachment of the long tail fibers to the virion and also controls, in an environmentally sensitive way, the phage's ability to infect its host bacteria. Subsequent to its distant period of modular exchange, the evolution of fibritin has proceeded primarily by the slow vertical divergence mechanism. We suggest that ancient and sudden changes in the environment forced the T4-like phages to alter fibritin's mode of action or function. The genome's response to such episodes of rapid environmental change could presumably only be achieved quickly enough by employing the modular evolution mechanism. A phylogenetic analysis of the fibritin locus reveals the possible traces of such events within the T4 superfamily's genomes.

  6. Membrane solid phase microextraction with alumina hollow fiber on line coupled with ICP-OES for the determination of trace copper, manganese and nickel in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chao; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2011-03-15

    A novel alumina hollow fiber was synthesized by sol-gel template method and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, N(2) adsorption technique and X-ray diffraction. With the use of prepared alumina hollow fiber as extraction membrane, a new method of flow injection (FI)-membrane solid phase microextraction (MSPME) on-line coupled to inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was developed for simultaneous determination of trace metals (Cu, Mn and Ni) in environmental water samples. The adsorption capacities of the alumina hollow fiber for Cu, Mn and Ni were found to be 6.6, 8.7 and 13.3 mg g(-1), respectively. With a preconcentration factor of 10, the limits of detection (LODs) for Cu, Mn and Ni were found to be 0.88, 0.61 and 0.38 ng mL(-1), respectively, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were ranging from 6.2 to 7.9% (n = 7, c = 10 ng mL(-1)). To validate the accuracy, the proposed method was applied to the analysis of certified reference material GSBZ50009-88 environmental water and the determined values are in good agreement with the certified values. The developed method was also employed for the analysis of Yangtze River water and East Lake water, and the recoveries for the spiked samples were in the range of 87.4-110.2%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Major and Trace Element Analysis of Natural and Experimental Igneous Systems using LA-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Frances E.; Arevalo, Ricardo D., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Major- and trace-element compositions of minerals provide valuable information on a variety of global Earth-system processes, including melting of distinct mantle reservoirs, the growth and evolution of the Earths crust and the formation of economically viable ore deposits. In the mid-1980s and early 1990s, attempts were made to couple laser ablation (LA) systems to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) instruments (e.g. Fryer et al. 1995; Jackson et al. 1992). The goal was to develop a rapid, highly sensitive in situ analytical technique to measure abundances and spatial distributions of trace elements in minerals and other geological samples. Elemental analysis using LAICPMS was envisaged as a quicker and less destructive means of chemical analysis (requiring only g quantities) than labour-intensive sample digestion and solution analysis (requiring mg-levels of material); and it would be a more cost-effective method than secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for the routine analysis of trace elements from solid samples. Furthermore, it would have lower limits-of-detection than electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) (e.g. Jackson et al. 1992; Eggins 2003).

  8. Representativeness of laboratory sampling procedures for the analysis of trace metals in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Jean-Sébastien; Boudreault, Jean-Philippe; Bost, Régis; Sona, Mirela; Duhaime, François; Éthier, Yannic

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to assess the representativeness of laboratory sampling protocols for purposes of trace metal analysis in soil. Five laboratory protocols were compared, including conventional grab sampling, to assess the influence of sectorial splitting, sieving, and grinding on measured trace metal concentrations and their variability. It was concluded that grinding was the most important factor in controlling the variability of trace metal concentrations. Grinding increased the reproducibility of sample mass reduction by rotary sectorial splitting by up to two orders of magnitude. Combined with rotary sectorial splitting, grinding increased the reproducibility of trace metal concentrations by almost three orders of magnitude compared to grab sampling. Moreover, results showed that if grinding is used as part of a mass reduction protocol by sectorial splitting, the effect of sieving on reproducibility became insignificant. Gy's sampling theory and practice was also used to analyze the aforementioned sampling protocols. While the theoretical relative variances calculated for each sampling protocol qualitatively agreed with the experimental variances, their quantitative agreement was very poor. It was assumed that the parameters used in the calculation of theoretical sampling variances may not correctly estimate the constitutional heterogeneity of soils or soil-like materials. Finally, the results have highlighted the pitfalls of grab sampling, namely, the fact that it does not exert control over incorrect sampling errors and that it is strongly affected by distribution heterogeneity.

  9. A simulation model for the analysis of Space Station gas-phase trace contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Dana A.; Hall, John B., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A simulation model for the analysis of gas-phase trace contaminants in the cabin air of the NASA Space Station Reference Configuration was developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The model predicts changes in trace contaminant concentrations from both physical and chemical sources and sinks as a function of time. Simulations were performed in which values for relative humidity, temperature, radiation intensity, pressure, and initial species concentrations were constrained to values for these parameters measured and modeled in the continental tropics at the earth's surface. Species concentrations simulated using the model compared favorably with concentrations in the continental tropics which demonstrated that the chemical mechanism in the trace contaminant model approximates changes in atmospheric species concentrations. The sensitivity of initial species concentrations to producing changes in additional species concentrations was also assessed. Results from the model indicated that chemical reactions will be important in determining the composition of cabin air in the Space Station. It is anticipated that the trace contaminant model will be useful in assessing the impact of experiments and commercial operations on the composition of the cabin air in the Space Station.

  10. Solvent extraction of oil-sand components for determination of trace elements by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, F.S.; Filby, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to measure the concentrations of 30 elements in Athabasca oil sands and oil-sand components. The oil sands were separated into solid residue, bitumen, and fines by Soxhlet extraction with toluene-bitumen extract. The mineral content of the extracted bitumen was dependent on the treatment of the oil sand prior to extraction. The geochemically important and organically associated trace element contents of the bitumen (and asphaltenes) were determined by subtracting the mineral contributions from the total measured concentrations. The method allows analysis of the bitumen without the necessity of ultracentrifugation or membrane filtration, which might remove geochemically important components of the bitumen. The method permits classification of trace elements into organic and inorganic combinations

  11. Trace analysis of aerosol bound particulates and noble gases at the BfS in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieringer, J.; Schlosser, C.; Sartorius, H.; Schmid, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) performs trace analysis measurements in both the frameworks of the German Integrated Measuring and Information system as well as of the International Monitoring System for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Therefore, different kinds of measurements of aerosol bound radionuclides as well as of radioactive noble gases in the atmosphere are performed. BfS as coordinating laboratory for trace analysis is responsible for the quality control. A quality assurance programme was set up with German institutions and expanded to European laboratories. The existing quality assurance programme of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation for measurements of aerosol bound radionuclides will be extended for noble gas measurements. Applied methods, achieved measurement results and the different kinds of quality assurance are presented and discussed.

  12. Trace analysis of aerosol bound particulates and noble gases at the BfS in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieringer, J; Schlosser, C; Sartorius, H; Schmid, S

    2009-05-01

    The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) performs trace analysis measurements in both the frameworks of the German Integrated Measuring and Information system as well as of the International Monitoring System for verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Therefore, different kinds of measurements of aerosol bound radionuclides as well as of radioactive noble gases in the atmosphere are performed. BfS as coordinating laboratory for trace analysis is responsible for the quality control. A quality assurance programme was set up with German institutions and expanded to European laboratories. The existing quality assurance programme of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation for measurements of aerosol bound radionuclides will be extended for noble gas measurements. Applied methods, achieved measurement results and the different kinds of quality assurance are presented and discussed.

  13. Critical review of forensic trace evidence analysis and the need for a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoney, David A; Stoney, Paul L

    2015-06-01

    The historical development, contributions and limitations of the two traditional approaches to trace evidence analysis are reviewed. The first approach was as generalist practitioner, looking broadly at an assemblage of many different particle types. The second was that of specialist practitioner, with attention focused on one specific particle type. Four factors have significantly impacted the effectiveness of these approaches: (1) increasing technological capabilities, (2) increasing complexity in the character of manufactured materials, (3) changes in forensic laboratory management, and (4) changing scientific and legal expectations. The effectiveness of each approach is assessed within the context of these changes. More recently, new technologies have been applied to some trace evidence problems, intended to address one or more limitations. This has led to a third approach founded on discrete, highly technical methods addressing specific analytical problems. After evaluating the contributions and limitations of this third approach, we consider the different ways that technologies could be developed to address unmet needs in forensic trace evidence analysis. The route toward effective use of new technologies is contrasted with how forensic science laboratories are currently choosing and employing them. The conclusion is that although new technologies are contributing, we are not on a path that will result in their most effective and appropriate use. A new approach is required. Based on an analysis of the contributions of each of the three exisiting approaches, seven characteristics of an effective trace evidence analysis capability were determined: (1) particle traces should be a major problem-solving tool, (2) there should be readily available, straightforward methods to enable their use, (3) all available and potentially useful particle types should be considered, (4) decisions to use them should be made in the context of each case, guided by what they can

  14. Alleviation of environmental risks associated with severely contaminated mine tailings using amendments: Modeling of trace element speciation, solubility, and plant accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Tania; Bes, Cleménce; Bernal, Maria Pilar; Clemente, Rafael

    2016-11-01

    Tailings are considered one of the most relevant sources of contamination associated with mining activities. Phytostabilization of mine spoils may need the application of the adequate combination of amendments to facilitate plant establishment and reduce their environmental impact. Two pot experiments were set up to assess the capability of 2 inorganic materials (calcium carbonate and a red mud derivate, ViroBind TM ), alone or in combination with organic amendments, for the stabilization of highly acidic trace element-contaminated mine tailings using Atriplex halimus. The effects of the treatments on tailings and porewater physico-chemical properties and trace-element accumulation by the plants, as well as the processes governing trace elements speciation and solubility in soil solution and their bioavailability were modeled. The application of the amendments increased tailings pH and decreased (>99%) trace elements solubility in porewater, but also changed the speciation of soluble Cd, Cu, and Pb. All the treatments made A. halimus growth in the tailings possible; organic amendments increased plant biomass and nutritional status, and reduced trace-element accumulation in the plants. Tailings amendments modified trace-element speciation in porewater (favoring the formation of chlorides and/or organo-metallic forms) and their solubility and plant uptake, which were found to be mainly governed by tailing/porewater pH, electrical conductivity, and organic carbon content, as well as soluble/available trace-element concentrations. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2874-2884. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  15. Speciation analysis of 129I and its applications in environmental research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Luyuan; Hou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    been reported for speciation analysis of 129I in a variety of environmental samples. These methods have been applied in many researches, including conversion processes of iodine species in marine and terrestrial systems, migration and retention of iodine in soil and sediment, geochemical cycling......129I, a long-lived radionuclide, is important in view of geological repository of nuclear waste, and environmental tracing applications related to diverse natural processes of iodine. The environmental behaviors and bioavailability of 129I are highly related to its species. A number of methods have...

  16. Trace element analysis in the serum and hair of Antarctic leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Rachael; Canfield, Paul; Rogers, Tracey

    2008-01-01

    Leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii, occupy an upper trophic level within the Antarctic ecosystem and are useful indicator species in the Southern Ocean of trace element concentrations. Reference values for the concentration of 19 trace elements were determined in the serum and hair of leopard and Weddell seals sampled in Eastern Antarctica. These reference values can be used as 'baseline' levels for monitoring trace element concentrations in these species. Greater trace element concentrations were determined in hair compared to serum, indicating different time scales of trace element accumulation in these samples. For the majority of trace elements, except for Se in the leopard seal samples and Cr in the Weddell seal samples, significant regression relationships for trace element concentrations in hair and serum were not elucidated. Significant differences were determined in the concentrations of seven out of 15 elements with hair type, moult and new, in the leopard seal; concentrations in moult hair were determined to be greater than in new hair for all elements except Zn. Hair analysis was determined to be useful for monitoring exposure to trace elements and when collected off the ice from moulting seals, hair can be employed as a non-invasive sample for trace element analysis in leopard and Weddell seals

  17. Trace element analysis in the serum and hair of Antarctic leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Rachael [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia (Australia); Australian Marine Mammal Research Centre PO Box 20 Mosman, NSW 2088 (Australia)], E-mail: rgray@vetsci.usyd.edu.au; Canfield, Paul [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Rogers, Tracey [Australian Marine Mammal Research Centre PO Box 20 Mosman, NSW 2088 (Australia); Evolution and Ecology Research Centre and School of Biological Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2008-07-25

    Leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii, occupy an upper trophic level within the Antarctic ecosystem and are useful indicator species in the Southern Ocean of trace element concentrations. Reference values for the concentration of 19 trace elements were determined in the serum and hair of leopard and Weddell seals sampled in Eastern Antarctica. These reference values can be used as 'baseline' levels for monitoring trace element concentrations in these species. Greater trace element concentrations were determined in hair compared to serum, indicating different time scales of trace element accumulation in these samples. For the majority of trace elements, except for Se in the leopard seal samples and Cr in the Weddell seal samples, significant regression relationships for trace element concentrations in hair and serum were not elucidated. Significant differences were determined in the concentrations of seven out of 15 elements with hair type, moult and new, in the leopard seal; concentrations in moult hair were determined to be greater than in new hair for all elements except Zn. Hair analysis was determined to be useful for monitoring exposure to trace elements and when collected off the ice from moulting seals, hair can be employed as a non-invasive sample for trace element analysis in leopard and Weddell seals.

  18. Trace element analysis in the serum and hair of Antarctic leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rachael; Canfield, Paul; Rogers, Tracey

    2008-07-25

    Leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii, occupy an upper trophic level within the Antarctic ecosystem and are useful indicator species in the Southern Ocean of trace element concentrations. Reference values for the concentration of 19 trace elements were determined in the serum and hair of leopard and Weddell seals sampled in Eastern Antarctica. These reference values can be used as 'baseline' levels for monitoring trace element concentrations in these species. Greater trace element concentrations were determined in hair compared to serum, indicating different time scales of trace element accumulation in these samples. For the majority of trace elements, except for Se in the leopard seal samples and Cr in the Weddell seal samples, significant regression relationships for trace element concentrations in hair and serum were not elucidated. Significant differences were determined in the concentrations of seven out of 15 elements with hair type, moult and new, in the leopard seal; concentrations in moult hair were determined to be greater than in new hair for all elements except Zn. Hair analysis was determined to be useful for monitoring exposure to trace elements and when collected off the ice from moulting seals, hair can be employed as a non-invasive sample for trace element analysis in leopard and Weddell seals.

  19. Environmentally based Cost-Benefit Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnell, M.

    1993-11-01

    The fundamentals of the basic elements of a new comprehensive economic assessment, MILA, developed in Sweden with inspiration from the Total Cost Assessment-model are presented. The core of the MILA approach is an expanded cost and benefit inventory. But MILA also includes a complementary addition of an internal waste stream analysis, a tool for evaluation of environmental conflicts in monetary terms, an extended time horizon and direct allocation of costs and revenues to products and processes. However, MILA does not ensure profitability for environmentally sound projects. Essentially, MILA is an approach of refining investment and profitability analysis of a project, investment or product. 109 refs., 38 figs

  20. Leaching Behavior and Potential Environmental Effects of Trace Elements in Coal Gangue of an Open-Cast Coal Mine Area, Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the role of coal gangue in potential environmental and ecological risks, the leaching behavior of trace elements from coal gangue has been investigated in an open-cast coal mine, Inner Mongolia, China. Four comparative column leaching experiments were conducted to investigate the impacts of leaching time, pH values and sample amount on the leaching behavior of trace elements. Enrichment factors (EF, maximum leached amount (Lam, maximum leachability (Lrm, effects range low (ERL and effects range median (ERM were employed to evaluate potential environmental and ecological hazards resulting from the leaching behavior of environment-sensitive trace elements from coal gangue. Leaching time and sample amount display important effects on trace element concentrations, leached amounts and leachability. The pH values exhibit a weak influence on the leaching behavior of the selected trace elements (e.g., As, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd, Sn, Pb and Hg. The coal gangue are enriched in As, Co, Se and Pb and, in particular, show higher environmental pollution levels of As and Se (EF > 2. Lam values suggest that all of the elements investigated do not show potential risk to soils and vegetation, but have a high hazard risk for ground water. Elements including Ni, As, Cr and Zn are inclined to show high or moderate biological toxicity.

  1. Determination of trace elements in chewing gum by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Six trace elements of nutritional or toxicological interest (Al, Ca, Cl, Mn, Na and Sr) were determined in three different brands of chewing gum by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For the particular brands of gum examined, none of the detected elements was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element for an American adult. (author) 11 refs.; 3 tabs

  2. Determination of trace element impurities in aspirin tablets by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, F.Y.; Klein, D.E.; Bauer, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-five trace and minor elements in five different Egyptian aspirin brands (Aspo, Askin, Aspocid, Aspeol and Rivo) were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. It was concluded that the concentration of As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Fe (except in Aspocid), Mg, Mn, Rb, Se, Sr and Zn in the Egyptian brands is below or within the concentration range reported for these elements in 16 American aspirin and aspirin-like brands. (author)

  3. Accurate determination of trace elements in sediment CRMs by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    The accurate determination of major, minor and trace elements in two sediment reference materials is described. One material is from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (SRM 1646a), and the other is from the National Research Council of Canada (HISS-1). The analytical technique used was high accuracy instrumental neutron activation analysis. The procedures used are described, the problems found are discussed, and the results obtained are compared to the certified values for both CRMs. (author)

  4. X-ray fluorescence analysis for trace element determination in foodstuff chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildanger, W.

    The physical fundamentals of X-ray fluorescence analysis are given and the routine spectrometers described. The basic principles are given of analytical methods used in qualitative and quantitative fluorescence analyses. Examples are given of the use of the method in a number of fields and the possibility and usefulness is discussed for the determination of trace elements in foodstuffs. The preparation of samples, preliminary concentration of components and calibration methods are discussed. (M.K.)

  5. Analysis of trace elements by means of accelerator secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ender, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    The analysis of material composition and trace element concentration is of increasing interest primarily in semiconductor technology but also in metallurgy, geology, biology and medicine. At present, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is in many respects the best technique to provide 3-dimensional information on the distribution of trace elements with concentrations below 1 ppm. However, due to the presence of molecular ions the detectability of many trace elements it restricted because of molecular mass interferences. In addition, detectors used in SIMS have a background counting rate of 0.1-1 Hz, which further limits trace element analysis. In Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) long-lived radionuclides are detected free of molecular interferences and detector background at isotopic ratios as low as 10 -15 . Moreover, isobaric interferences can be reduced as well. In order to benefit from these advantages a combination of SIMS and AMS (Accelerator SIMS) has been proposed almost 20 years ago, but no facility has ever been fully developed. It has been the aim of this work to add a new sputtering chamber for AMS measurements of ultrapure semiconductor material to the existing PSI/ETH AMS facility. To fulfill the requirements of material analysis, an UHV chamber with special precautions against contamination has been built and adapted to the existing AMS setup. For sputtering, a commercial Cs gun with an ExB filter and a 1 o beam bend for neutral particle suppression is used to obtain a pure Cs ion beam. The gun is equipped with different apertures for varying the diameter of the beam spot. With the integrated scanning unit the 10 keV Cs beam can be rastered over approximately 1 mm 2 . This allows different applications such as bulk analysis, depth profiling and imaging. The secondary ion extraction is matched to the ion optical and geometrical requirements of the existing accelerator mass spectrometer. (author) figs., tabs., 67 refs

  6. Determination of trace elements in a cigarette paper by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedinzadeh, Z.; Khalkhali, Zh.; Razeghi, M.; Parsa, B.

    The concentration of 19 trace elements in a cigarette paper (Zig-Zag Paper Company, France) which is used in making different brands of Iranian cigarettes, has been measured by neutron activation analysis, employing a high-resolution Ge(Li) detector. They include Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Br, Sr, Sb, Ba, Ce, Eu, Gd, Au, Hg, and Th. (author)

  7. Volatile trace compounds released from municipal solid waste at the transfer stage: Evaluation of environmental impacts and odour pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongtao

    2015-12-30

    Odour pollution caused by municipal solid waste is a public concern. This study quantitatively evaluated the concentration, environmental impacts, and olfaction of volatile trace compounds released from a waste transfer station. Seventy-six compounds were detected, and ethanol presented the highest releasing rate and ratio of 14.76 kg/d and 12.30 g/t of waste, respectively. Life cycle assessment showed that trichlorofluoromethane and dichlorodifluoromethane accounted for more than 99% of impact potentials to global warming and approximately 70% to human toxicity (non-carcinogenic). The major contributor for both photochemical ozone formation and ecotoxicity was ethanol. A detection threshold method was also used to evaluate odour pollution. Five compounds including methane thiol, hydrogen sulphide, ethanol, dimethyl disulphide, and dimethyl sulphide, with dilution multiples above one, were considered the critical compounds. Methane thiol showed the highest contribution to odour pollution of more than 90%, as indicated by its low threshold. Comparison of the contributions of the compounds to different environmental aspects indicated that typical pollutants varied based on specific evaluation targets and therefore should be comprehensively considered. This study provides important information and scientific methodology to elucidate the impacts of odourant compounds to the environment and odour pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Establishment of a clean chemistry laboratory at JAERI. Clean laboratory for environmental analysis and research (CLEAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzawa, Yukiko; Magara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-02-01

    The JAERI has established a facility with a cleanroom: the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR). This report is an overview of the design, construction and performance evaluation of the CLEAR in the initial stage of the laboratory operation in June 2001. The CLEAR is a facility to be used for analyses of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental samples for the safeguards, for the CTBT verification and for researches on environmental sciences. One of the special features of the CLEAR is that it meets double requirements of a cleanroom and for handling of nuclear materials. As another feature of the CLEAR, much attention was paid to the construction materials of the cleanroom for trace analysis of metal elements using considerable amounts of corrosive acids. The air conditioning and purification system, specially designed experimental equipment to provide clean work surfaces, utilities and safety systems are also demonstrated. The potential contamination from the completed cleanroom atmosphere during the analytical procedure was evaluated. It can be concluded that the CLEAR has provided a suitable condition for reliable analysis of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials and other heavy elements in environmental samples. (author)

  9. Soil, climate and the environment - an indissociable threesome. Soil carbon and global changes: reciprocal impacts; Carbon in all its forms; Echomicadas, a new tool to analyse carbon 14; Biotransformation of metallic trace elements by soil micro-organisms; Absorption and distribution of metallic elements in plants; Dynamics of metallic contaminants in agricultural systems; Is photo-remediation for tomorrow? Hyper-accumulator plants; Sediments, tell me the Seine history... The complex history of plant feeding by the soil; The environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatte, Christine; Tisnerat-Laborde, Nadine; Ayrault, Sophie; Balesdent, Jerome; Chapon, Virginie; Bourguignon, Jacques; Alban, Claude; Ravanel, Stephane; Denaix, Laurence; Nguyen, Christophe; Vavasseur, Alain; Sarrobert, Catherine; Gasperi, Johnny; Latrille, Christelle; Savoye, Sebastien; Augusto, Laurent; Conan Labbe, Annie; Bernard Michel, Bruno; Douysset, Guilhem; Toqnelli, Antoine; Vailhen, Dominique; Moulin, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The articles of this file on the relationships between soils, climate and the environment discuss the reciprocal impacts of soil carbon and global changes with the objective of reduction of greenhouse effect and of increase of carbon sequestration; the various forms of carbon are presented and their properties commented ; a compact radiocarbon system (ECHoMiCADAS) is presented, developed by the Laboratory of sciences of climate and environment (LSCE) and designed for the analysis of carbon 14; an article describes how micro-organisms can play a crucial role in the transformation of soil pollutants by modifying their chemical speciation and thus their toxicity; strategies based on the absorption of metallic trace elements present in the soil to control physiological processes in plants are discussed, with applications to agriculture, food supply and to the environment; researches related to the study of effects of metallic contaminants in agricultural systems are evoked, and the reasons for a slow development of phyto-technologies, notably phyto-remediation, for pollution control and decontamination of soils and liquid media, are explained. Other themes are presented : hyper-accumulator plants which present very high contents of non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Se) or essential (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni) elements, are slowly growing, and display a limited biomass, but could be used for a phyto-extraction of metals from contaminated soils; how analysis and dating of sediments can reveal the presence of contaminants, and therefore give an insight into human activities and regulations, and into their impact on the river; how plants are able to develop strategies in their search for nutrients in different types of soils, even poor ones, and presentation of the various disciplines, methods and techniques used for environmental analysis with their applications to installation and site control, or to the study of pollutant migration

  10. Distribution of trace elements in whole blood of Syrian lymphomas patients using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, M. A.; Serhil, A.; Mohammad, A.; Habil, K.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, there had been much interest in the concentrations of trace metals occurring in human and animal tissues and in the manner in which these concentrations may alter in malignant and other diseases. Neutron activation analysis is consider one of several methods that have been described for the determination of trace elements in biological materials. This method possesses the sensitivity and specificity necessary for the estimation at the concentrations existing naturally in most tissues, particularly when only small samples are available for analysis. The purpose of this study was to compare blood concentrations of trace elements Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Sc, Se, Th, and Zn of lymphomas Syrian patients with those of healthy volunteers. Also, determine the relationships between trace elements concentration and the histological type of lymphomas. The blood samples were collected from 39 healthy volunteers and 49 patients with histologically confirmed lymphomas (29 Hodgkin's HL and 20 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas NHL), and analyzed to obtain the concentration of the trace elements in blood. Then, comparison between the healthy volunteers and lymphomas patients (both HL and NHL) was made to elucidate differences of the concentration distributions of the elements in blood. However, statistical analysis using Student's t test revealed significantly high concentrations of Co, Cr, Sc, and Th in lymphoma patients. Whereas Fe and Rb were found significantly decreased in lymphomas patient comparing to control group. Increasing or decreasing concentrations of Se and Zn in lymphoma patients was found not significant. Comparison between the healthy volunteers and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas patients reveled that Co, Cr, Sc, and Th were significantly elevated whereas, Rb only one trace element was decreased and all change in concentrations (elevating or decreasing) of Se and Zn were not significant. Comparison between the healthy volunteers and Hodgkin

  11. [Analysis of trace elements in chrysanthemum from different habitats with ICP-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jiu-Sheng; Zhai, Hong-Yan; Wu, De-Ling; Zhang, Ya-Zhong; Fang, Cheng-Wu; Yu, Nian-Jun

    2013-03-01

    To establish a method for determination of trace elements in chrysanthemum and analyze trace elements in chrysanthemum from different habitats. The preprocessing for determination of trace elements in chrysanthemum was carried out by microwave digestion,the content of trace elements in chrysanthemum was determined by ICP-MS. The content of trace elements of chryscmthemum varied with the habitats. The contents of trace elements as well as heavy metals of Chrysanthemum relate to its species and habitats to a certain degree.

  12. Development of methods for analysis of trace rare earths and uranium using high resolution ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anitha, M.; Kotekar, M.K.; Ambare, D.N.; Singh, H.

    2008-01-01

    The matrix components present in analyte influence the results of determination by ICP-AES. This paper reports results of methods development for trace element analysis using ICP-AES of high resolution, JY Ultima 2. Methods were developed for analysis of rare earths (RE) in Dy 2 O 3 for Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR), rare earths (RE) in phosphate medium and trace uranium analysis

  13. IR-RF dating on K-feldspar: tracing environmental changes in the Middle Pleistocene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Sebastian; Frouin, Marine; Krishna Murari, Madhav; Fuchs, Markus; Mercier, Norbert

    2017-04-01

    In Quaternary sciences, luminescence dating (OSL, TL, RF) yielded paramount importance due to its capability to trace the geomorphological process itself. However, every method has its own limitation and, e.g., the choice of a mineral depends on its local availability and mineral specific characteristic. Since quartz has been proved as reliable dosimeter, but its usual dose saturation level of ca. 150 Gy might be not sufficient in particular cases, feldspar grains are preferred for dating events where higher saturation limits are desired or quartz is not available. However, feldspar suffers from anomalous fading and the efforts undertaken during the last decades to overcome this challenge varied in their success. By contrast, infrared radiofluorescence (IR-RF) of K-feldspar (Trautmann et al., 1999) seems to offer a promising alternative, but until date it has been rarely applied. Likely reasons for this lack of attention are a shortage of commercially available measurement equipment until the recent past and serious methodological doubts that had been raised in the literature (e.g., Buyleart et al., 2012). At the IRAMAT-CRP2A the formerly proposed IR-RF single aliquot regenerative dose (SAR) protocol approach (IRSAR, Erfurt et al., 2003) for K-feldspar grains have been adapted and enhanced (Frouin et al., 2015; Huot et al., 2015; Frouin et al., 2017) using (a) sample adapted bleaching settings and (b) a stimulation at higher temperatures. Together with more recent methodological findings, we present the advantage and the limitations of using the IR-RF dating approach for establishing reliable chronologies on believed Middle Pleistocene sediments. References. Buylaert, J.P., Jain, M., Murray, A.S., Thomsen, K.J., Lapp, T., 2012. IR-RF dating of sand-sized K-feldspar-extracts: A test of accuracy. Radiation Measurements 47, 759-765. Erfurt, G., Krbetschek, M.R., 2003. IRSAR - A single-aliquot regenerative-dose dating protocol applied to the infrared radiofluorescence

  14. Trace elements in Turkish tobacco determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulovali, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the concentration of trace elements in nine different brands of Turkish cigarette tobacco, pipe tobacco and tobacco ash. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed, and a gamma-ray spectrometer consisting of 40 cm 3 Ge(Li) detector coupled to 1024 and 4096-channel analyzers were used. Samples were irradiated at a thermal neutron flux of about 10 13 cm -2 sec -1 . Concentrations of Na, K, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Eu, Hf, Hg and Th were determined in tobacco and ash; percent transference of these elements into ash were calculated. It was found out that trace elements in cigarette tobacco are left in the ash but only a small percentage is transferred into the smoke

  15. Trace element analysis in ants collected in Japan, Finland and Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitao, K. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1992-12-31

    Particle induced x-ray emission has been used to determine the concentration of trace elements in ants (Formicidae). Scanning PIXE analysis was also used to determine the distribution of these elements. Samples of ants were collected from gardens, buildings or from the roadway in Japan. Finland and Sweden. The only pre-treatments were dusting and washing. In each run of experiments we used only one individual ant and have obtained the analytical results of a reasonable accuracy. We have detected chemical minor elements, i.e., Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Br and Sr. The PIXE, and scanning PIXE method proved to be useful and sensitive enough to measure trace elements in such small insects as ants. (author).

  16. Trace element analysis in ants collected in Japan, Finland and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitao, K.

    1992-01-01

    Particle induced x-ray emission has been used to determine the concentration of trace elements in ants (Formicidae). Scanning PIXE analysis was also used to determine the distribution of these elements. Samples of ants were collected from gardens, buildings or from the roadway in Japan. Finland and Sweden. The only pre-treatments were dusting and washing. In each run of experiments we used only one individual ant and have obtained the analytical results of a reasonable accuracy. We have detected chemical minor elements, i.e., Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Br and Sr. The PIXE, and scanning PIXE method proved to be useful and sensitive enough to measure trace elements in such small insects as ants. (author)

  17. Analytical analysis of soil-moisture and trace-contaminant transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, N.M.; Reeves, M.

    1976-03-01

    A transport model is presented which predicts the coupled movement of both water and trace contaminants through a layered and unsaturated soil-moisture zone. In order to achieve computation speeds suitable for watershed implementations, moisture properties are approximated as exponential functions of pressure head, and lateral flows are treated as sinks in a basically vertical one-dimensional analysis. In addition, only advection by the Darcy-flow velocities and linear adsorption by the soil matrix are considered in depicting movement of the trace contaminant. Formal solution of the resulting transport equations is obtained through use of both eigenfunction-expansion and coordinate-transformation methods. Numerical solution is effected by means of a program written in FORTRAN IV and implemented on an IBM 360/91 computer. Two example calculations illustrate both strengths and weaknesses of our model

  18. Survey of currently available reference materials for use in connection with the determination of trace elements in biological and environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Y.; Parr, R.M.

    1985-12-01

    This report focuses on analytical reference materials which have been developed for use in connection with the determination of toxic and essential trace elements in biomedical and health-related environmental samples. Data are reported on 60 biological and 40 environmental (non-biological) reference materials from 11 suppliers. Certified concentration values (or their equivalents) and non-certified concentration values (or information values) are presented in various tables which are intended to help the user select a reference material that matches as closely as possible (i.e. with respect to matrix type and concentration of the element of interest) the ''real'' samples that are to be analysed. These tables have been generated from a database characterized by the following parameters: total number of reference materials=100; total number of elements recorded=69; total number of concentration values recorded=1771. Also included in the report is information (where available) on the cost of each material, the unit weight or volume supplied, and the minimum weight of material recommended for analysis. (author)

  19. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Ribeira do Iguape river, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Francisco J.V. de; Quinaglia, Gilson A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    The watershed region of the Ribeira do Iguape River and the estuarine complex of the Paranagua-Iguape- Cananeia and the various river basins located between this region and the Atlantic Ocean, is known as the Ribeira Valley. The Ribeira do Iguape River runs a total length of approximately 470 km, being the main source of fresh water in the Estuarine Complex of the Iguape-Cananeia-Paranagua (Lagamar). The Ribeira do Iguape River is the last major river in the State of Sao Paulo that has not been altered by dams. During virtually the entire 20th century, the region of the Ribeira Valley was the scene of constant environmental degradation resulting from the intense exploration and refining of lead, zinc and silver ores that were processed in the mines of the region, in a rudimentary way and without any control over environmental impacts. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aims to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals and semi-metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the sediment and water of aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The determination of these elements was carried out by GF AAS technique for water samples and ICP OES for the sediment samples. This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, according to precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb were compared to the Canadian Environmental oriented values (TEL and PEL). The results obtained for multielemental analyses in the sediment samples were compared to UCC values (Upper Continental Crust). (author)

  20. Environmental impact analysis for typical office facades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolokotroni, M.; Robinson-Gayle, S.; Tanno, S.; Cripps, A.

    2004-02-01

    The design of a building facade influences internal thermal and lighting conditions and use associated with the provision of these conditions. Key decisions about the building are usually taken during the concept design stage of a building, while decisions about method of providing the environmental conditions are often made later in the design. This dilemma is addressed by the development of a concept design tool that allows the team to investigate the effect of facade design on the resulting internal environmental conditions, energy use and environmental impact. The concept design tool was developed performing detailed thermal, lighting and environmental modelling for a number of office building facade designs and a range of parameters that affect directly the environmental performance of an office building. The results are presented in a user-friendly interface as a minimum number of inputs. Key parameter outputs (such as temperature, lighting, heating/cooling energy demand, embodied energy and eco-points) can then be viewed, more detailed analysis can also be created for specified facade designs. A parametric analysis of the summary result outputs for selected facade parameters indicates that natural ventilation and cooling can reduce the environmental impact of offices by up to 16%, although the energy demand could increase significantly. Improving the construction standard and reducing the internal heat loads can reduce the environmental impact by up to 2 this tool at early design stages will benefit the design team through an improved understanding of the dynamics between facade design and building services and assist with a more integrated approach. (author)

  1. Enhancing effect of marine oligotrophy on environmental concentrations of particle-reactive trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffree, R.A.; Szymczak, R.

    2000-01-01

    A biogeochemical model has been previously developed that explains the inverse and nonlinear relationship between Po-210 concentration in zooplankton and their biomass, under oligotrophic conditions in French Polynesia. In this study the model structure was reviewed to determine a set of biogeochemical behaviors of Po-210, proposed to be critical to its environmental enhancement under oligotrophy: this set was then used to identify 25 other elements with comparable behaviors to Po-210. Field investigation in the Timor Sea showed that four of these a priori identified elements, viz. Cd, Co, Pb, and Mn as well as Cr and Ni, showed elevated water concentrations with reduced particle removal rates in the euphotic zone, results that are consistent with those previously obtained for Po-210 and the proposed explanatory model. These findings point to the enhanced susceptibility to contamination with particle-reactive elements of oligotrophic marine systems, whose degree and geographic extent may be enhanced by projected increases in sea surface temperatures from global warming

  2. Sampling and sample preparation methods for the analysis of trace elements in biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, B.; Iyengar, V.

    1978-05-01

    The authors attempt to give a most systamtic possible treatment of the sample taking and sample preparation of biological material (particularly in human medicine) for trace analysis (e.g. neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry). Contamination and loss problems are discussed as well as the manifold problems of the different consistency of solid and liquid biological materials, as well as the stabilization of the sample material. The process of dry and wet ashing is particularly dealt with, where new methods are also described. (RB) [de

  3. Microcalorimeter Q-spectroscopy for rapid isotopic analysis of trace actinide samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croce, M.P.; Bond, E.M.; Hoover, A.S.; Kunde, G.J.; Mocko, V.; Rabin, M.W.; Weisse-Bernstein, N.R.; Wolfsberg, L.E.; Bennett, D.A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Schmidt, D.R.; Ullom, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    We are developing superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters that are optimized for rapid isotopic analysis of trace actinide samples by Q-spectroscopy. By designing mechanically robust TESs and simplified detector assembly methods, we have developed a detector for Q-spectroscopy of actinides that can be assembled in minutes. We have characterized the effects of each simplification and present the results. Finally, we show results of isotopic analysis of plutonium samples with Q-spectroscopy detectors and compare the results to mass spectrometry

  4. Microcalorimeter Q-spectroscopy for rapid isotopic analysis of trace actinide samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croce, M.P., E-mail: mpcroce@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bond, E.M.; Hoover, A.S.; Kunde, G.J.; Mocko, V.; Rabin, M.W.; Weisse-Bernstein, N.R.; Wolfsberg, L.E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, D.A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Schmidt, D.R.; Ullom, J.N. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We are developing superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters that are optimized for rapid isotopic analysis of trace actinide samples by Q-spectroscopy. By designing mechanically robust TESs and simplified detector assembly methods, we have developed a detector for Q-spectroscopy of actinides that can be assembled in minutes. We have characterized the effects of each simplification and present the results. Finally, we show results of isotopic analysis of plutonium samples with Q-spectroscopy detectors and compare the results to mass spectrometry.

  5. Uncertainties in measuring trace amounts of cobalt and europium with low-flux neutron activation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnham Steven

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron activation analysis is widely used for identification of elements and their quantities even in trace amounts in the samples of almost any type. The challenges in detecting trace amounts of particular elements are often associated with the neutron flux produced at the research reactors. Low-flux neutron activation analysis usually presents the biggest challenge when analyzing trace quantities of elements with lower magnitude of radiative capture cross-sections. In this paper, we present the methodology and the quantified uncertainties associated with the detection of trace amounts of cobalt and europium, using as an example concrete aggregates. Recent growing interest is in improving structural concrete (increasing its strength but reducing its activation in nuclear power plant environments. Aside from buildings, structural concrete is also used as a biological shield in nuclear power plant that become radioactive after exposure to neutron flux. Due to radiative capture interactions, artificial radionuclides are generated to high enough concentrations that classify concrete as low-level radioactive waste at the time of the plant's decommissioning. Disposal of this concrete adds to the expense of nuclear power plant financing and its construction. Three radionuclides, 60Co, 152Eu, and 154Eu, account for 99 % of total residual radioactivity of nuclear power plant decommissioned concrete. IAEA document RS-G-1.7, Application of the Concepts of Exclusion, Exemption, and Clearance, specifies clearance levels of radionuclides specific activities: a specific activity lower than 0.1 Bqg-1 for 60Co and 152Eu, and 154Eu allows for a concrete to be recycled after decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Therefore, low-flux neutron activation analysis is used to test the detection limits of trace elements in samples of cement, coarse, and fine concrete aggregates. These samples are irradiated at the University of Utah's 100 kW TRIGA Reactor at

  6. Trace element analysis of human blood serum by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, H.; Nagame, Y.; Yoshizawa, Y.; Oda, H.; Gotoh, S.; Murakami, Y.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt was made to determine if there is any correlation between trace element concentrations in human blood serum and some specific diseases. The serum samples of the patients suffering from cancer, Down syndrome, and Banti syndrome were analyzed by the neutron activation method and compared with the trace element concentrations observed among clinically healthy men. The cancer patients had concentrations in Rb, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Al and Se below normal. The Down syndrome patients were found to have similar deficiencies in Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Cu and Sb. (author)

  7. Materials of the 3.Poznan analytical meeting: The novel methods of samples preparation and analysis of trace amounts of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The conference on Novel Methods of Samples Preparation and Analysis of Trace Amounts of Elements was the eight of succeeding meetings organized annually since 1985 by the Committee of Analytical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The following groups of topics have been extensively discussed: accuracy and precision in trace amounts analysis, sample preparation methods, certification and application of standards and many other topics important for analytical chemistry of trace amount of different elements. Total 43 lectures have been presented in the course of meeting

  8. Trace Elements in Human Myocardial Infarction Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P.O.

    1965-05-15

    By means of neutron activation analysis, injured and adjacent uninjured human heart tissue from 12 autopsy cases with myocardial infarction are investigated with respect to the concentration of 23 trace elements. The bulk elements K, Na and P are also determined. A recently developed ion-exchange technique, combined with subsequent y-spectrometry, is used. The following trace elements are determined: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Zn and W. In the injured tissue compared to the uninjured, calculation on a wet weight basis showed a decrease in Co, Cs, K, Mo, P, Rb and Zn, and an increase in Br, Ca, Ce, La, Na, Sb and Sm. The differences in Ca, La, Mo, P and Zn are dependent on the age of the myocardial infarction, and the regression lines for these elements are given. The concentration of the trace elements in uninjured tissue from infarcted hearts is compared to the concentration of these elements in normal heart tissue, determined in a previous study. In the uninjured tissue from infarcted hearts a decrease is found in Cu and Mo, and an increase in As and Ce.

  9. Trace Elements in Human Myocardial Infarction Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, P.O.

    1965-05-01

    By means of neutron activation analysis, injured and adjacent uninjured human heart tissue from 12 autopsy cases with myocardial infarction are investigated with respect to the concentration of 23 trace elements. The bulk elements K, Na and P are also determined. A recently developed ion-exchange technique, combined with subsequent y-spectrometry, is used. The following trace elements are determined: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Zn and W. In the injured tissue compared to the uninjured, calculation on a wet weight basis showed a decrease in Co, Cs, K, Mo, P, Rb and Zn, and an increase in Br, Ca, Ce, La, Na, Sb and Sm. The differences in Ca, La, Mo, P and Zn are dependent on the age of the myocardial infarction, and the regression lines for these elements are given. The concentration of the trace elements in uninjured tissue from infarcted hearts is compared to the concentration of these elements in normal heart tissue, determined in a previous study. In the uninjured tissue from infarcted hearts a decrease is found in Cu and Mo, and an increase in As and Ce

  10. PIXE analysis of trace and other mineral elements in phytopharmaceutical drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E. A.; Harangus, Livia; Iordan, Andreea; Gugiu, M.

    2002-01-01

    Despite of ongoing progress in the biochemistry of phytopharmaceutical drugs, their mineral micro- and trace elements have not been studied in detail. These elements may have therapeutic or toxic activity which should be assessed by sensitive investigations. The latter can be done by multielemental analysis with nuclear and atomic methods. We previously found 28 elements in some Romanian plant drugs by nuclear activation analysis. The availability of this method is, however, limited by the access to a nuclear reactor. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is an alternative method with high performances in biomedicine and requiring no sample preparation for drugs' studies. We applied PIXE in the qualitative analysis of three plant drugs - Liv52, Mentat, and Geriforte - used as invigorators, protectors and prophylactics in oxidative stress diseases. Measurements with 3 MeV protons at the 8.5 MV NIPNE-HH (Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering) tandem accelerator, using a hyper-pure Ge detector and no additional absorber foil, evidenced unusually complex elemental compositions of drugs. Up to 31 elements with Z > 15 were found: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Hg, and As and/or Pb, from major to trace levels. The three drugs' qualitative composition were found to be rather similar. Relative concentrations were well evaluated with X-ray yields calculated for another kind of light element thick target. Drug's toxic elements - As and/or Pb, Hg, and possibly Ga - were all at trace levels, but their accumulation might be harmful. Some essential elements like K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr can be biologically useful. X-ray yields improvement and other ways for PIXE quantitative analysis of the phytotherapeutic drugs are outlined. (authors)

  11. Use of a neutron activation analysis for studying the behavior of trace elements in river water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanizaki, Yoshiyuki [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The determination of the physicochemical forms of trace elements, therefore, is of great importance not only to estimate the availability and toxicity toward aquatic organisms but to substantiate the geochemical behavior of trace elements in river waters. The trace element species in river water can be classified according to their size or molecular weight ranging. I tried to speciate 40 elements in river waters using both the filtration and ultrafiltration techniques combined with neutron activation analysis. Trace elements were first separated by size between two fractions, the suspended size (>0.45{mu}m) and the dissolved size (<0.45{mu}m) fractions using a Millipore filter. The constituents fractionated in the dissolved size fraction were further classified into three fractions by molecular weight (MW) ranging, colloidals (MW>10{sup 4}), complexes (MW10{sup 4}-500), and simple ions (MW<500), using ultrafilters. The colloidal and complex species were further separated organic and/or inorganic species using a gamma-ray irradiation technique. It was clarified that the dissolved species of the alkali and alkaline earth elements, Al, V, Mn, Sb and Au were mainly present as simple inorganic ions in river waters. The dissolved heavy rare earth elements, Sc, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn and Se predominantly existed as soluble organic complexes, even though significant amounts of Cr, Co, Ni, Zn and Se were also present as simple ions. The dissolved light rare earth elements, Fe, Ag, and Th were chiefly associated with organic colloids. The elements As, Mo and W which tend to form their oxoanions, on the other hand, may be held on inorganic colloids having small size. (J.P.N.)

  12. Environmental Resources Analysis System, A Prototype DSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flug, M.; Campbell, S.G.; Bizier, P.; DeBarry, P.

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1960's, an increase in the public's environmental ethics, federal species preservation, water quality protection, and interest in free flowing rivers have evolved to the current concern for stewardship and conservation of natural resources. This heightened environmental awareness creates an appetite for data, models, information management, and systematic analysis of multiple scientific disciplines. A good example of this information and analysis need resides in the Green and Yampa Rivers, tributary to the Upper Colorado River. These rivers are home to endangered native fish species including the pikeminnow and razorback sucker. Two dams, Fontenelle and Flaming Gorge, impound the Green River headwaters. The respective reservoirs store water supplies as well as generate hydropower. Conversely, the Yampa River is considered unregulated and encompasses most of Dinosaur National Monument. Recreation is highly regarded on both rivers including fishing, whitewater rafting, and aesthetic values. Vast areas of irrigated agriculture, forestry, and mineral extraction also surround these rivers. To address this information need, we developed a prototype Environmental Resources Analysis System (ERAS) spreadsheet-based decision support system (DSS). ERAS provides access to historic data sets, scientific information, statistical analysis, model outputs, and comparative methods all in a familiar and user-friendly format. This research project demonstrates a simplified decision support system for use by a diverse mix of resource managers, special interest groups, and individuals concerned about the sustainability of the Green and Yampa River ecosystem.

  13. Experimental and molecular docking investigation on metal-organic framework MIL-101(Cr) as a sorbent for vortex assisted dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction of trace 5-nitroimidazole residues in environmental water samples prior to UPLC-MS/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Nan; Wang, Ting; Zhao, Pan; Zhang, Lianjun; Lun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xueli; Hou, Xiaohong

    2016-11-01

    In the presented work, metal-organic framework (MOF) material MIL-101(Cr) (MIL, Matérial Institute Lavoisier) was used as a sorbent for vortex assisted dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction (VA-D-μ-SPE) of trace amount of metronidazole (MNZ), ronidazole (RNZ), secnidazole (SNZ), dimetridazole (DMZ), tinidazole (TNZ), and ornidazole (ONZ) in different environmental water samples. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used to quantify the target analytes. The extraction conditions, including type of sorbents, amount of MIL-101(Cr), solution pH, extraction method, extraction time, effect of salt, and elution conditions were investigated. Upon the optimal conditions, the developed method showed an excellent extraction performance with the average recovery ranging from 75.2 to 98.8 %. Good sensitivity levels were achieved with the detection limits of 0.03∼0.06 μg/L and the quantitation limits of 0.09∼0.20 μg/L. The linear ranges were varied from 0.1 to 20 for SNZ and ONZ and from 0.2 to 40 μg/L for MNZ, RNZ, DMZ, and TNZ (r 2  > 0.992), and repeatability of the method was satisfactory with the relative standard deviations (RSD) <8 %. Ultimately, the applicability of the method was successfully confirmed by the extraction and determination of 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NDZs) in 12 real water samples, showing the positive findings of MNZ and TNZ ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 μg/L. Furthermore, molecular docking was applied to explain the molecular interactions and free binding energies between MIL-101(Cr) and 5-NDZs, providing a deep insight into the adsorption mechanism. The proposed method exhibited the advantages of simplicity, rapidly, less solvent consumption, ease of operation, higher sensitivity, and lower matrix effect. Graphical abstract Schematic diagram of the extraction process and molecular docking investigation.

  14. Proton induced X-Ray fluorescence study as a tool trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kady, Ahmed A.

    1978-01-01

    Usefulness and limitations of trace elemental analysis by high energy charged particles and photon induced X-ray have been discussed. Comparison with the well established neutron activation analysis technique is also given. Back-ground radiation due to bremsstrahlung from secondary electrons and due to charged particle bremsstrahlung have been reviewed for different projectiles. The sensitivity of elemental analysis by proton induced X-ray fluorescence have been examined by measuring the characteristic X-ray emission cross section for K and L transitions of many elements and for different proton energies and compared with theroretical values. The discussion given in this report show that with suitable proton generator and a high resolution X-ray detector, proton X-ray fluorescence technique is capable of analyzing many elements simultaneously at the part per million level and offers a rapid and reliable method for trace element analysis. Data on water, blood and tissue samples given in this report are few examples of many possible applications

  15. Historical economic and environmental policies influencing trace metal inputs in Montevideo Bay, Río de la Plata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, C; Brugnoli, E; Figueira, R C L; Muniz, P; Ferreira, P A L; García Rodríguez, F

    2016-12-15

    Montevideo Bay is located in the middle zone of the Rio de la Plata, and since the foundation of the city, several key economic and environmental policies affected the industry, and thus, metal inputs into this ecosystem. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sedimentary geochemical record of Montevideo Bay, in order to determine the historical inputs of anthropogenic metals to the system. In addition, environmental and economic policies of the country were taken into account to infer the relationship between them and the historic metal input. Concentrations of aluminum, chromium, copper, lead, scandium and zinc were analyzed and the EF and SPI indices were calculated. The analysis showed that since Montevideo foundation, metal concentrations increased in accordance with industry development, and the indices as well as the metal concentration represent a reliable footprint of the history of different economic and environmental policies influencing historical industrial activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear techniques for analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The main purposes of this meeting were to establish the state-of-the-art in the field, to identify new research and development that is required to provide an adequate framework for analysis of environmental samples and to assess needs and possibilities for international cooperation in problem areas. This technical report was prepared on the subject based on the contributions made by the participants. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers

  17. Determination of trace elements in leaves of tropical trees in Malaysia by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aidid, S.B.

    1988-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to measure 17 elements in 2 families of leaves of tropical plants. The concentrations of most of the trace elements measured, especially toxic elements like As, Br, Cr, Hg, Sb and Zn, were found to correlate well with the polluted nature of the locations where the trees were grown and also with the age of the plants. It was observed that the trees used in this study could be used as bioindicators for the pollution state of the surrounding environment. (author) 9 refs.; 6 tabs

  18. Trace elements in cigarette tobacco by a method of instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordin Ibrahim

    1986-01-01

    A total of ten cigarette brands were investigated for determining the trace elemental concentrations in tobacco so as to assess their role in the induction of related diseases through smoking. A method instrumental Neutron Activation analysis was employed due to high sensitivity, speed and ability to analyse sample for a wide spectrum of elements simultaneously. A total of 18 elements were detected of which the majority are toxic elements. A full result and conclusion will be reported in the forthcoming paper. (A.J.)

  19. The determination of trace elements in new food grain SRM's using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gills, T.E.; Gallorini, M.; Rook, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    Potentially toxic metals in the food chain that can lead to deleterious effects on human health have been well documented. Because of the toxicity of some metals, levels of 1 ppm or less must be routinely monitored in foods to ensure human safety. To ensure the accuracy of measurement, NBS in a cooperative interagency agreement with the Food and Drug Administration is involved in developing and certifying selected elements in food grain as a part of the Standard Reference Material program. Both instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis were used to analyze two food grain standard reference materials (Rice and Wheat Flours) for trace element certification. (author)

  20. Evaluation of trace elements in different species of lichens by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccaro, D.M.B.; Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    2000-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied for the determination of trace elements in five epiphytic lichens: Canoparmelia texana, Canoparmelia caroliniana, Parmotrema tinctorum, Parmotrema sancti-angeli and Usnea sp. that were collected at the same sampling area of the Botanic Institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The elemental concentration results showed that these five lichens can be chosen in the species intercalibration for biomonitoring studies. Also, some aspects related to the occurrence, tolerance to pollution, treatment and ease of sampling of the species are presented. (author)

  1. Determination of trace metals and analysis of arsenic species in tropical marine fishes from Spratly islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingxi; Sun, Chengjun; Zheng, Li; Jiang, Fenghua; Wang, Shuai; Zhuang, Zhixia; Wang, Xiaoru

    2017-09-15

    Trace metal contents in 38 species of tropical marine fishes harvested from the Spratly islands of China were determined by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. The average levels of Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb, and U in the fish samples were 1.683, 0.350, 0.367, 2.954, 36.615, 0.087, 0.319, 1.566, 21.946, 20.845, 2.526, 3.583, 0.225, 0.140, and 0.061mg·kg -1 , respectively; Fe, Zn, and As were found at high concentrations. The trace metals exhibited significant positive correlation between each other, with r value of 0.610-0.852. Further analysis indicated that AsB (8.560-31.020mg·kg -1 ) was the dominant arsenic species in the fish samples and accounted for 31.48% to 47.24% of the total arsenic. As(III) and As(V) were detected at low concentrations, indicating minimal arsenic toxicity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Trace element analysis by EPMA in geosciences: detection limit, precision and accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batanova, V. G.; Sobolev, A. V.; Magnin, V.

    2018-01-01

    Use of the electron probe microanalyser (EPMA) for trace element analysis has increased over the last decade, mainly because of improved stability of spectrometers and the electron column when operated at high probe current; development of new large-area crystal monochromators and ultra-high count rate spectrometers; full integration of energy-dispersive / wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS/WDS) signals; and the development of powerful software packages. For phases that are stable under a dense electron beam, the detection limit and precision can be decreased to the ppm level by using high acceleration voltage and beam current combined with long counting time. Data on 10 elements (Na, Al, P, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn) in olivine obtained on a JEOL JXA-8230 microprobe with tungsten filament show that the detection limit decreases proportionally to the square root of counting time and probe current. For all elements equal or heavier than phosphorus (Z = 15), the detection limit decreases with increasing accelerating voltage. The analytical precision for minor and trace elements analysed in olivine at 25 kV accelerating voltage and 900 nA beam current is 4 - 18 ppm (2 standard deviations of repeated measurements of the olivine reference sample) and is similar to the detection limit of corresponding elements. To analyse trace elements accurately requires careful estimation of background, and consideration of sample damage under the beam and secondary fluorescence from phase boundaries. The development and use of matrix reference samples with well-characterised trace elements of interest is important for monitoring and improving of the accuracy. An evaluation of the accuracy of trace element analyses in olivine has been made by comparing EPMA data for new reference samples with data obtained by different in-situ and bulk analytical methods in six different laboratories worldwide. For all elements, the measured concentrations in the olivine reference sample

  3. Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    This report presents a summary of results of the strategic research project “Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis” (CEESA) which was conducted in the period 2007-2011 and funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council together with the participating parties. The project was interdis......This report presents a summary of results of the strategic research project “Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis” (CEESA) which was conducted in the period 2007-2011 and funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council together with the participating parties. The project...... energy and environmental analysis tools as well as analyses of the design and implementation of future renewable energy systems. For practical reasons, the work has been carried out as an interaction between five work packages, and a number of reports, papers and tools have been reported separately from...... of the different project parts in a coherent way by presenting tools and methodologies as well as analyses of the design and implementation of renewable energy systems – including both energy and environmental aspects. The authors listed in the report represent those who have contributed directly as well...

  4. Trace elemental analysis of carcinoma kidney and stomach by PIXE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S. Bhuloka; John Charles, M.; Naga Raju, G.J.; Vijayan, V.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Sundareswar, B.

    2003-01-01

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in the biological samples of carcinoma kidney and stomach using particle induced X-ray emission technique. A 2 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results, the levels of elements K, Ca, Fe, Ni and Se are lower and those of the elements Ti, Co, Zn, As and Cd are higher in the cancer tissue of kidney than those observed in the normal tissue. In the case of stomach, the concentrations of elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu and Zn are lower while concentrations of elements Cr, Ni, As and Br are higher in the cancer tissue of stomach than those observed in the normal tissue. The observed deficiency or excess of certain elements is correlated to carcinogenesis of that organ. The present results of carcinoma stomach support the previous observations that nickel and chromium are carcinogenic agents. The low levels of selenium observed in the carcinoma tissue of kidney and the low levels of manganese observed in the carcinoma tissue of stomach support the view that selenium and manganese inhibit the growth of cancer in kidney and stomach respectively. The observed high levels of zinc in the cancer tissue of kidney suggest that zinc is involved in the tumor growth and development of neoplastic transformation in kidney while the observed low levels of zinc in the carcinoma tissue of stomach suggest that zinc inhibits the growth of cancer in this organ. For correctly assessing the role played by the trace elements in initiating, promoting or inhibiting cancer in various organs, there is a need for acquisition of more data by trace elemental analysis from several investigations of this type undertaken in different regions

  5. Trace fossils from Jurassic lacustrine turbidites of the Anyao Formation (Central China) and their environmental and evolutionary significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buatois, Luis A.; Mángano, M. Gabriela; Wu, Xiantao; Zhang, Guocheng

    1996-01-01

    The Lower Jurassic Anyao Formation crops out near Jiyuan city, western Henan Province, central China. It is part of the infill of the nonmarine early Mesozoic Jiyuan‐Yima Basin. In the Jiyuan section, this unit is about 100 m thick and consists of laterally persistent, thin and thick‐bedded turbidite sandstones and mudstones displaying complete and base‐or top‐absent Bouma sequences, and thick‐bedded massive sandstones. The Anyao Formation records sedimentation within a lacustrine turbidite system developed in a pull‐apart basin. Processes involved include high and low density turbidity currents, sometimes affected by liquefaction or fluidization. Facies analysis suggests that this succession is formed by stacked aggradational turbidite lobes. The absence of thick mudstone packages indicates that background sedimentation was subordinate to high frequency turbidite deposition.The Anyao Formation hosts a moderately diverse ichnofauna preserved as hypichnial casts on the soles of thin‐bedded turbidite sandstones. The ichnofauna consists of Cochlichnus anguineus, Hel‐minthoidichnites tenuis, Helminthopsis abeli, H. hieroglyphica, Mono‐morphichnus lineatus, Paracanthorhaphe togwunia, Tuberculichnus vagans, Vagorichnus anyao, tiny grazing trails, and irregularly branching burrows. Vagorichnus anyao occurs not only as a discrete trace, but also as a compound ichnotaxon intergrading with Gordia marina and Tuberculichnus vagans. Both predepositional and post‐depositional traces are present on the soles of turbidites.This ichnofauna comprises both feeding and grazing traces produced by a deposit‐feeding lacustrine benthic biota. Crawling traces are rare. Although certain ichnofossils (e.g. V. anyao, P. togwunia) show overall similarities with deep‐sea agrichnia, they differ in reflecting remarkably less specialized feeding strategies, displaying overcrossing between specimens (and to a lesser extent, self‐crossing), and in the case of V

  6. Trace element analysis on Si wafer surfaces by TXRF at the ID32 ESRF undulator beamline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, L; Comin, F; Formoso, V; Stierle, A

    1998-05-01

    Synchrotron radiation total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) has been applied to the impurity analysis of Si wafers using a third-generation synchrotron radiation undulator source. A lower limit of detectability (LLD) for Ni atoms of 17 fg (1.7 x 10(8) atoms cm(-2)) has been achieved with an optical set-up based on an Si(111) double-crystal monochromator and a horizontal sample geometry. These first results are very promising for synchrotron radiation trace element analysis since we estimate that it is possible to lower the LLD by a factor of about 25 by employing appropriate optics and detectors. The use of a crystal monochromator opens new possibilities to perform absorption and scattering experiments (NEXAFS and X-ray standing-wave methods) for chemical and structural analysis of ultratrace elements.

  7. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of site-dependent uptake and distribution of trace elements in the saltmarsh plant Aster tripolium from marsh fields in the Schelde estuary, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.

    1986-07-01

    As part of an environmental chemical investigation the uptake of heavy metals by a saltmarsh plant Aster tripolium from two differently polluted salt marsh sites of the North Sea between 20 to 30 trace elements were determined in soil and plant organs. A sensitive gamma ray counting system was installed and tested for instrumental activation analyses (INAA). Installations to improve sensitivity as well as conditions necessary for reliable trace element analysis with the aid of Anticompton spectrometers (ACS) are described. The accuracy and reproducibility of the method was determined by the analysis of reference- and control materials of the german environmental specimen bank. In order to characterise the state of pollution of the salt marsh soils pollution-factors for single elements as well as interelemental correlations were evaluated. In addition, uptake and translocation factors of the biological samples were calculated. The many highly significant correlations between elements within the plant organs indicated that uptake appears to be physiologicaly controlled and not dependent on soil concentration. In order to detect further consequences of differing pollution influences within these plants biochemical separation techniques were applied and trace element levels in selected extracts were determined. For the specification of heavy metals gelpermeation chromatography of ethanolic extracts proved to be the most promising method. Furthermore, propositions for the use of trace elements as a fingerprint for pollution status and characterisation of species for referenz- and specimenbank materials have been developed. Aster tripolium as a cadmium accumulating plant can probably be used as an indicator in the monitoring of cadmium polluted salt marsh areas. (orig.) [de

  8. Radiochemical neutron-activation analysis of uncertified ultra-trace rare earth elements in two biological certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Lei; Tian, Weizhi; Ni, Bangfa; Wang, Pingsheng; Zhang, Yangmei

    2002-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) has been used for the determination of eight rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, and Lu) in two Chinese certified reference materials (CRM), GBW 08503 (wheat powder) and GBW 09101 (human hair). These determinations are important for possible certification of the above mentioned ultra-trace elements, so far not certified. A simple one-step (REE)F 3 precipitation was used. Chemical yields were determined for all relevant elements by means of tracer experiments. The two CRM were also analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to compare the merits and drawbacks of these two major trace analytical techniques for these particular elements. RNAA was proven to be a reliable technique for ultra-trace analysis, especially in the certification of some ultra-trace elements. (orig.)

  9. Determination of trace/ultratrace rare earth elements in environmental samples by ICP-MS after magnetic solid phase extraction with Fe3O4@SiO2@polyaniline-graphene oxide composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shaowei; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Hu, Bin; Xiao, Zuowei

    2014-02-01

    A novel Fe3O4@SiO2@polyaniline-graphene oxide composite (MPANI-GO) was prepared through a simple noncovalent method and applied to magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of trace rare earth elements (REEs) in tea leaves and environmental water samples followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. The prepared MPANI-GO was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. Various parameters affecting MPANI-GO MSPE of REEs have been investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, 3σ) for REEs were in the range of 0.04-1.49 ng L(-1) and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, c=20 ng L(-1), n=7) were 1.7-6.5%. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated by analyzing a Certified Reference Material of GBW 07605 tea leaves. The method was also successfully applied for the determination of trace REEs in tea leaves and environmental water samples. The developed MPANI-GO MSPE-ICP-MS method has the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, high sensitivity, high enrichment factor and is suitable for the analysis of trace REEs in samples with complex matrix. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental systems analysis of wastewater management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerrman, Erik

    2000-01-01

    The history of wastewater management tells us that efforts have been made at solving only one problem at the time; sanitation during the first half of the 20th Century followed by eutrophication of lakes and sea and, for the past ten years, recycling of nutrients. After the 'Brundtland Report', 1987, a reversal of the debate occurred where water management was discussed in a more holistic manner than before. The concept sustainable development became widely accepted and was put into practice. This thesis suggests a framework for evaluating the sustainability of wastewater systems, which contains the use of criteria and system analytical evaluation methods matching each criterion. The main categories of criteria are identified as: Health and Hygiene, Social and Cultural, Environmental, Economic and Functional and Technical. The usability of different concepts of Environmental Systems Analysis for evaluating environmental criteria of wastewater systems is also investigated. These studies show that a substance-flow model combined with evaluation methods from Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), sometimes complemented with Exergy Analysis or Analysis of Primary Energy, is a beneficial approach for evaluating environmental impacts and the usage of resources. The substance-flow model ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch) combined with LCA was used to compare four systems structures for the management of household wastewater and solid organic waste, namely Conventional System, Irrigation of Energy Forests, Liquid Composting and Urine Separation. This study shows a potential for further development of the three alternative systems. The comparative study also included some development of system analytical methods. This thesis shows how the contribution from oxidation of ammonia should be included in the eutrophication impact category. Furthermore, a method is given for prioritization of the most relevant impacts from wastewater management by using normalisation of these impacts in

  11. Effects of exercise and environmental complexity on deficits in trace and contextual fear conditioning produced by neonatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, W B; St Cyr, S A; Jablonski, S A; Hunt, P S; Klintsova, A Y; Stanton, M E

    2013-07-01

    In rodents, voluntary exercise and environmental complexity increases hippocampal neurogenesis and reverses spatial learning and long-term potentiation deficits in animals prenatally exposed to alcohol. The present experiment extended these findings to neonatal alcohol exposure and to delay, trace, and contextual fear conditioning. Rats were administered either 5.25 g/kg/day alcohol via gastric intubation or received sham-intubations (SI) between Postnatal Day (PD) 4 and 9 followed by either free access to a running wheel on PD 30-41 and housing in a complex environment on PD 42-72 (wheel-running plus environmental complexity; WREC) or conventional social housing (SHSH) from PD 30 to 72. Adult rats (PD 80 ± 5) received 5 trials/day of a 10-s flashing-light conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with .8 mA footshock either immediately (delay conditioning) or after a 10-s trace interval (trace conditioning) for 2 days. Neonatal alcohol exposure impaired context and trace conditioning, but not short-delay conditioning. The WREC intervention did not reverse these deficits, despite increasing context-related freezing in ethanol-exposed and SI animals. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Environmental characterization of a semiarid hyper saline system based on dissolved trace metal-macronutrient synergy: A multivariate spatio-temporal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Said, Turki; Madhusoodhanan, Rakhesh; Pokavanich, Tanuspong; Al-Yamani, Faiza; Kedila, Raziya; Al-Ghunaim, Aws; Al-Hashem, Ali

    2017-10-12

    Trace metals and macronutrients play key roles in marine biogeochemical processes. Despite their higher availability, no reliable information is available on their ecological role in the hypersaline waters of NW Arabian Gulf. The present study identifies their synergistic effect on environmental characteristics and autotrophic biomass in the shallow coastal and offshore waters, off Kuwait on a seasonal basis. Surface water samples collected along four predefined transects were analyzed for physico-chemical and biological variables during summer (n=27) and winter (n=27) seasons. Multivariate analyses revealed clear spatial and seasonal trends, and identified the best suit of environmental variables responsible for the seasonal variability in phytoplankton biomass. Using statistically derived supply to demand ratios, carbon-trace metal stoichiometry, and bioavailability of trace metals, we propose possible growth regulating factors for phytoplankton on a seasonal basis in the NW Arabian Gulf, off Kuwait. This is the first report on trace metals from the entire Arabian Gulf, using clean techniques and multivariate statistical approach. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Analysis of DOE international environmental management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategic Plan (April 1994) states that DOE`s long-term vision includes world leadership in environmental restoration and waste management activities. The activities of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) can play a key role in DOE`s goals of maintaining U.S. global competitiveness and ensuring the continuation of a world class science and technology community. DOE`s interest in attaining these goals stems partly from its participation in organizations like the Trade Policy Coordinating Committee (TPCC), with its National Environmental Export Promotion Strategy, which seeks to strengthen U.S. competitiveness and the building of public-private partnerships as part of U.S. industrial policy. The International Interactions Field Office task will build a communication network which will facilitate the efficient and effective communication between DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, and contractors. Under this network, Headquarters will provide the Field Offices with information on the Administration`s policies and activities (such as the DOE Strategic Plan), interagency activities, as well as relevant information from other field offices. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will, in turn, provide Headquarters with information on various international activities which, when appropriate, will be included in reports to groups like the TPCC and the EM Focus Areas. This task provides for the collection, review, and analysis of information on the more significant international environmental restoration and waste management initiatives and activities which have been used or are being considered at LLNL. Information gathering will focus on efforts and accomplishments in meeting the challenges of providing timely and cost effective cleanup of its environmentally damaged sites and facilities, especially through international technical exchanges and/or the implementation of foreign-development technologies.

  14. Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede Kloster; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    This report presents a summary of results of the strategic research project “Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis” (CEESA) which was conducted in the period 2007-2011 and funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council together with the participating parties. The project...... energy and environmental analysis tools as well as analyses of the design and implementation of future renewable energy systems. For practical reasons, the work has been carried out as an interaction between five work packages, and a number of reports, papers and tools have been reported separately from...... each part of the project. A list of the separate work package reports is given at the end of this foreword while a complete list of all papers and reports can be found at the end of the report as well as at the following website: www.ceesa.dk. This report provides a summary of the results...

  15. Solar UV Photooxidation as Pretreatment for Stripping Voltammetric Trace Metal Analysis in River Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelaneh Woldemichael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of solar ultraviolet radiation as sample pretreatment or preparation step in stripping voltammetric analysis of trace metals in presence of low levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC natural water samples (river water was studied. River water samples were collected from downstream of Warnow river (Germany and acidified to pH of 2±0.2 (by addition of 1 mL of ultrapure 65% HNO3 per liter sample. Furthermore, 100 μL/L of hydrogen peroxide solution (ultrapure, 30% H2O2 was added to the samples as photochemical reaction initiator. The samples were transferred to polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles and irradiated with solar radiation of UV-A intensity of 3.6 mW/m2 for six hours, and the concentrations of Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cu were determined by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV. The comparison of the values with the results obtained for the original untreated sample and artificial UV-treated one proved that solar UV radiation can be applied to the digestion of dissolved organic carbon in trace metal analysis in natural waters like river water, lake waters, well waters, and so forth.

  16. Dual-Section DFB-QCLs for Multi-Species Trace Gas Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Süess

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on the dynamic behavior of dual-wavelength distributed feedback (DFB quantum cascade lasers (QCLs in continuous wave and intermittent continuous wave operation. We investigate inherent etaloning effects based on spectrally resolved light-current-voltage (LIV characterization and perform time-resolved spectral analysis of thermal chirping during long (>5 µs current pulses. The theoretical aspects of the observed behavior are discussed using a combination of finite element method simulations and transfer matrix method calculations of dual-section DFB structures. Based on these results, we demonstrate how the internal etaloning can be minimized using anti-reflective (AR coatings. Finally, the potential and benefits of these devices for high precision trace gas analysis are demonstrated using a laser absorption spectroscopic setup. Thereby, the atmospherically highly relevant compounds CO2 (including its major isotopologues, CO and N2O are simultaneously determined with a precision of 0.16 ppm, 0.22 ppb and 0.26 ppb, respectively, using a 1-s integration time and an optical path-length of 36 m. This creates exciting new opportunities in the development of compact, multi-species trace gas analyzers.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of environmental samples by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorov, N B; Popov, A M; Zaytsev, S M; Labutin, T A

    2015-01-01

    The key achievements in the determination of trace amounts of components in environmental samples (soils, ores, natural waters, etc.) by laser-induced breakdown spectrometry are considered. Unique capabilities of this method make it suitable for rapid analysis of metals and alloys, glasses, polymers, objects of cultural heritage, archaeological and various environmental samples. The key advantages of the method that account for its high efficiency are demonstrated, in particular, a small amount of analyzed material, the absence of sample preparation, the possibility of local and remote analysis of either one or several elements. The use of chemometrics in laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for qualitative sample classification is described in detail. Various approaches to improving the figures of merit of quantitative analysis of environmental samples are discussed. The achieved limits of detection for most elements in geochemical samples are critically evaluated. The bibliography includes 302 references

  18. Next Generation Offline Approaches to Trace Gas-Phase Organic Compound Speciation: Sample Collection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, R.; Marcotte, A.; Khare, P.; Ditto, J.; Charan, S.; Gentner, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) are major precursors to secondary organic aerosol, and contribute to tropospheric ozone formation. Their wide volatility range, chemical complexity, behavior in analytical systems, and trace concentrations present numerous hurdles to characterization. We present an integrated sampling-to-analysis system for the collection and offline analysis of trace gas-phase organic compounds with the goal of preserving and recovering analytes throughout sample collection, transport, storage, and thermal desorption for accurate analysis. Custom multi-bed adsorbent tubes are used to collect samples for offline analysis by advanced analytical detectors. The analytical instrumentation comprises an automated thermal desorption system that introduces analytes from the adsorbent tubes into a gas chromatograph, which is coupled with an electron ionization mass spectrometer (GC-EIMS) and other detectors. In order to optimize the collection and recovery for a wide range of analyte volatility and functionalization, we evaluated a variety of commercially-available materials, including Res-Sil beads, quartz wool, glass beads, Tenax TA, and silica gel. Key properties for optimization include inertness, versatile chemical capture, minimal affinity for water, and minimal artifacts or degradation byproducts; these properties were assessed with a diverse mix of traditionally-measured and functionalized analytes. Along with a focus on material selection, we provide recommendations spanning the entire sampling-and-analysis process to improve the accuracy of future comprehensive I/SVOC measurements, including oxygenated and other functionalized I/SVOCs. We demonstrate the performance of our system by providing results on speciated VOCs-SVOCs from indoor, outdoor, and chamber studies that establish the utility of our protocols and pave the way for precise laboratory characterization via a mix of detection methods.

  19. Trace elements determination in municpal water supply in Damaturu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the presence of trace elements in the municipal water supplies of Damaturu Metropolis, Yobe state. The trace elements were determined using standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater from the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The result of the analysis shows that ...

  20. Post-construction environmental and social impact analysis (ESIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    harcourt – Eungu highway in Southeastern Nigeria. The impact study focused on the Environmental and Social Impact Analysis (ESIA) because of the social and environmental impacts of road projects. The basic tool used in this analysis is ...

  1. Chitosan-coated octadecyl-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles: preparation and application in extraction of trace pollutants from environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaole; Niu, Hongyun; Pan, Yuanyuan; Shi, Yali; Cai, Yaqi

    2010-03-15

    In the present study, chitosan-coated octadecyl-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)-C(18)-chitosan MNPs) are synthesized and used as an adsorbent to extract trace analytes from environmental water samples. The magnetic nanoparticles, 20 nm in diameter, are of uniform size and have a high magnetic saturation value of 52 emu g(-1), which endue the adsorbent with a large surface area and convenience of isolation. The anionic pollutants, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), are trapped by the octadecyl group of the interior hydrophobic layer. The positively charged chitosan polymer coating also contributes to PFC enrichment. At the same time, the coating improves the dispersibility of MNPs in aqueous solution and enhances the anti-interference ability of the adsorbent to natural organic macromolecules in complex samples by size exclusion or electrostatic repulsion. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system is employed in the determination of PFCs after preconcentration with the MNP adsorbent. The predominant factors affecting preconcentration are investigated and optimized. Under the selected conditions, concentration factors of 1000 are achieved by extracting the analytes from 500 mL of several environmental water samples and concentrating the eluants to 0.5 mL with a nitrogen flow. The method detection limits obtained for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA), and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTA) in Gaobeidian wastewater are 0.24, 0.093, 0.24, 0.14, 0.075, 0.24, and 0.17 ng L(-1), respectively. Recoveries of PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, and PFTA are in the ranges of 88-108%, 63-112%, 79-109%, 56-107%, 66-106%, 56-106%, and 66-103% for four spiked water samples with low relative standard deviation (2-8%), which indicates good method precision. The advantages of this novel

  2. Trace elemental analysis of Indian natural moonstone gems by PIXE and XRD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswara Rao, R.; Venkateswarulu, P.; Kasipathi, C.; SivaJyothi, S.

    2013-01-01

    A selected number of Indian Eastern Ghats natural moonstone gems were studied with a powerful nuclear analytical and non-destructive Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Thirteen elements, including V, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ba and Pb, were identified in these moonstones and may be useful in interpreting the various geochemical conditions and the probable cause of their inceptions in the moonstone gemstone matrix. Furthermore, preliminary XRD studies of different moonstone patterns were performed. The PIXE technique is a powerful method for quickly determining the elemental concentration of a substance. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The chemical constituents of moonstones from parts of the Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India were determined, and gemological studies were performed on those gems. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters of the moonstones were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies, trace and minor elements were determined using the PIXE technique, and major compositional elements were confirmed by XRD. In the present work, the usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique for research in geo-scientific methodology is established. - Highlights: • For the first time, PIXE technique was employed to analyze the East Indian natural moonstone gems. • The trace and minor elements are estimated using PIXE technique whereas major compositional elements are confirmed by XRD. • Adularia variety of moonstone is found to be abundant in the present study. • The PIXE analysis concludes that Eastern Ghats of India are rich not only in gemstones but also in trace elements

  3. Multivariate statistical analysis to characterize/discriminate between anthropogenic and geogenic trace elements occurrence in the Campania Plain, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busico, Gianluigi; Cuoco, Emilio; Kazakis, Nerantzis; Colombani, Nicolò; Mastrocicco, Micòl; Tedesco, Dario; Voudouris, Konstantinos

    2018-03-01

    Shallow aquifers are the most accessible reservoirs of potable groundwater; nevertheless, they are also prone to various sources of pollution and it is usually difficult to distinguish between human and natural sources at the watershed scale. The area chosen for this study (the Campania Plain) is characterized by high spatial heterogeneities both in geochemical features and in hydraulic properties. Groundwater mineralization is driven by many processes such as, geothermal activity, weathering of volcanic products and intense human activities. In such a landscape, multivariate statistical analysis has been used to differentiate among the main hydrochemical processes occurring in the area, using three different approaches of factor analysis: (i) major elements, (ii) trace elements, (iii) both major and trace elements. The elaboration of the factor analysis approaches has revealed seven distinct hydrogeochemical processes: i) Salinization (Cl - , Na + ); ii) Carbonate rocks dissolution; iii) Anthropogenic inputs (NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , U, V); iv) Reducing conditions (Fe 2+ , Mn 2+ ); v) Heavy metals contamination (Cr and Ni); vi) Geothermal fluids influence (Li + ); and vii) Volcanic products contribution (As, Rb). Results from this study highlight the need to separately apply factor analysis when a large data set of trace elements is available. In fact, the impact of geothermal fluids in the shallow aquifer was identified from the application of the factor analysis using only trace elements. This study also reveals that the factor analysis of major and trace elements can differentiate between anthropogenic and geogenic sources of pollution in intensively exploited aquifers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of trace elements in wool fibre by instrumental neutron activation analysis and relation between trace element contents and quality of wool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eozyol, H.

    1990-01-01

    Wool samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis and 17 elements, Al, Ag, Au, As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Sb, Se and Zn were measured quantitatively. The presence of seven others, Ce, Eu, I, Mo, Te and W was noted. Since several elements, such as Cd, Hg and Pb could not be conveniently determined by NAA, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) was used instead. Cu and Zn were also analyzed by NAA and AAS to compare these two methods. Mechanical properties of samples were measured and the relations between the trace element contents and properties were investigated. (author) 16 refs.; 7 tabs

  5. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2011-01-01

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  6. Tracing transfer processes of metal pollutants from soils to surface water using environmental magnetic techniques - results from Paris suburbia (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Christine; Lamy, Isabelle; van Oort, Folkert; Thiesson, Julien; Barsalini, Luca

    2015-04-01

    Major river systems in Europe are potential sinks for environmental pollutions and therefore reflect the consequences of European industrialization and urbanization. Surface water pollution is a major concern for the health of the population and its related ecosystems as well as for the water quality. Within the variety of different typical pollutants in a river watershed, the metallic fraction embraces many toxic/dangerous contaminants. Each of these elements comprises different sources and follows specific processes throughout its pathways from its origin to and within the river system. But the detection, estimation and follow up of the different contaminants is highly complex. Physico-chemical techniques such as environmental and rock magnetics are powerful complementary tools to traditional methods because they comprise the possibility to trace the entire metal fraction and do offer the possibility to perform spatio-temporal analyze campaigns directly in the field and on a relative high number of samples from both the river and the adjacent areas (suspended particular matter, soils, dust, sediments, etc). In this study, we took advantages of the recent results on the Seine river (France) that have shown the high potential of environmental magnetic methods to estimate the metal fraction in suspended particular matter samples, and to allow the discrimination of its natural detrital, biogenic or anthropogenic origin (see parallel EGU abstract of Kayvantash et al. in this session). We focused on a suburban agricultural area west of Paris (Pierrelaye-Bessancourt) adjacent to the Seine river, which suffers from a high accumulation of heavy metal pollutants caused by long-term historical irrigation with urban waste waters. For the time being, these heavy metals seem to be geochemically fixed in the surface layer mainly by the soil organic matter. Future land use planning, however, arises questions on the fate of these pollutants and their potential remobilization by

  7. Sample preparation techniques in trace element analysis by X-ray emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.

    1983-11-01

    The report, written under a research contract with the IAEA, contains a detailed presentation of the most difficult problem encountered in the trace element analysis by methods of the X-ray emission spectroscopy, namely the sample preparation techniques. The following items are covered. Sampling - with specific consideration of aerosols, water, soil, biological materials, petroleum and its products, storage of samples and their handling. Pretreatment of samples - preconcentration, ashing, solvent extraction, ion exchange and electrodeposition. Sample preparations for PIXE - analysis - backings, target uniformity and homogeneity, effects of irradiation, internal standards and specific examples of preparation (aqueous, biological, blood serum and solid samples). Sample preparations for radioactive sources or tube excitation - with specific examples (water, liquid and solid samples, soil, geological, plants and tissue samples). Finally, the problem of standards and reference materials, as well as that of interlaboratory comparisons, is discussed

  8. Development of an LC/MS method for the trace analysis of triacetone triperoxide (TATP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Leo; Watson, Stuart; Schlatter, Konrad; Crowson, Andrew

    2002-12-01

    The detection and quantification of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) using LC/MS is investigated. GC/MS analysis of TATP is hindered by stationary phase activation in very short periods of time. Due to the lower temperatures used in LC. this problem is not encountered. This study presents a method that is suitable for the detection of TATP at levels as low as 100 pg microl(-1) (10 ng per 100 microl). Initial findings are also reported for the investigation of a secondary chromatographic peak, which is thought to be caused by separation of two conformers. This study concludes that LC/MS is a suitable technique for the analysis of trace levels of TATP.

  9. Determination of trace elements of Egyptian crops by neutron activation analysis Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherif, M.K.; Awadallah, R.M.; Amrallah, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    Multielemental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of Al, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, W and Zn in African tea and lady's fingers (Malvaceae Family), ginger (Zingiperanceae Family), canella bark (Laureceae Family), black pepper (Piperaceae Family), cucumber seeds and vegetable marrow seeds (Cucurbitaceae Family), tomatos seed (Solanaceae Family), safflower seeds (Compositae Family), jew's mallow seed (Tiliaceae Family) and sesame (Pedaliaceae Family). Trace elements determination was made for the analysis of destructive (using super pure nitric acid and adsorbing the metal-APDC and metal-Dz complexes on activated charcoal) and nondestructive (dry seeds) samples. The method is simple, precise and sensitive for the determination of microamounts of the elements (ppm to ppb). (author)

  10. Analysis of internal doses to Mole voles inhabiting the East-Ural radioactive trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinovsky, G.; Yarmoshenko, I. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS (Russian Federation); Chibiryak, M.; Vasil' ev, A. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Substantial task of development of approaches to radiation protection of non-human biota is investigation of relationships of exposure to dose, and dose to effects. Small mammals inhabiting territory of the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) are affected to ionizing radiation for many generations after accident at Mayak plutonium production in 1957. According to results of numerous studies a number of effects of exposure are observed. It is remarkable that the revealed effects are both negative and adaptive. In particular, the analysis of the variability of morphological structures of the axial skull and lower jaw in the population of northern mole vole (Ellobius talpinus Pall.), the burrowing rodent inhabiting the EURT, is of great interest. At the same time there is no reliable assessment of the radiation doses to these animals. Earlier we developed the approach to assess internal doses to mouse-like rodents (mice and voles) caused by incorporated {sup 90}Sr, which is the main dose contributing radionuclide at the EURT. Dose assessments are based on the results of beta-radiometry of intact bone. Routine methods for measuring the activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in skeleton require ashing of samples, however in morphometric studies the destruction of material should be avoided: the skulls of mole voles are stored in the environmental samples depository of IPAE. Coefficients linking results of beta-radiometry of intact bone and activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in skull of mouse was obtained basing on comparison of results of beta-radiometry of intact bone and bone ash. Obtained coefficients cannot be directly applied for calculating activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in mole vole skulls because they are significantly larger. Therefore the additional study is required to assess proper coefficient of conversion from beta-radiometry to activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr. Developed dose assessment procedure includes application of the published values of

  11. Analysis of a full-scale integral test in PERSEO facility by using TRACE code

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Amico, S.; Lombardo, C.; Moscato, I.; Polidori, M.; Vella, G.

    2017-11-01

    Over the last decades a lot of experimental researches have been done to increase the reliability of passive decay heat removal systems implementing in-pool immersed heat exchanger. In this framework, a domestic research program on innovative safety systems was carried out leading the design and the development of the PERSEO facility at the SIET laboratories. The configuration of the system consists of an heat exchanger contained in a small pool which is connected both at the bottom and at the top to a large water reservoir pool. Within the frame of a national research program funded by the Italian minister of economic development, the DEIM department of the University of Palermo in cooperation with ENEA has developed a computational model of the PERSEO facility in order to simulate its behaviour during an integrated test. The analysis here presented has been performed by using the best-estimate TRACE code and - in order to highlight the capabilities and limits of the TRACE model in reproducing qualitatively and quantitatively the experimental trends - the main results have been compared with the experimental data. The comparison shows that the model is able to predict the overall behaviour of the plant during the meaningful phases of the transient analysed. Nevertheless, some improvements in the modelling of certain components in which take place complex three-dimensional phenomena are suggested in order to reduce some discrepancies observed between code results and test measurements.

  12. Trace element contents in atmospheric suspended particles: inferences from instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Boix, A.; Sanfeliu, T.; Martynov, V.V.; Piven, P.I.; Kabina, L.P.; Souschov, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study focuses on the determination of trace element concentrations in total suspended particles by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in two different areas in Northeastern Spain (a rural area influenced by the emissions of a large coal-fired power station, and the urban and industrial areas of Castellon). Total suspended particles were sampled by means of standard MCV high- and medium-volume captors, using cellulose membrane filters of 0.8 and 0.45 μm pore size. Preliminary research was performed on the homogeneous distribution of elements in the sample filters and on the study of blank filters for the calculations of the background average element contents. The results obtained allowed to distinguish different major anthropogenic sources of trace elements in the atmosphere at the sampling sites: (a) Zr, Hf, Sc, U and Th are related to atmospheric pollution derived from the ceramic industry of the Castellon area; (b) As, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Se, Zn are related to traffic and other industrial emission in the Castellon area, and As, Cr, Sb and Zn to power generation emissions in the rural area. (orig.). With 3 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Trace elements determinations in cancerous and non-cancerous human tissues using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Insup.

    1989-01-01

    Recent improvements in analyzing techniques when coupled to the growing knowledge of trace element biochemistry provide a powerful tool to investigate the relationship between trace elements and cancer. It is hoped that selective delivery or restriction of specific minerals may aid in cancer prevention or treatment. Tissues were collected at the time of surgery of various cancer patients including colon cancer and breast cancer. Three kinds of tissues were taken from a patient; cancerous, noncancerous, and transitional tissue obtained from a region located between the cancer and healthy tissues. A total of 57 tissues were obtained from 19 cancer patients. Seven of them were colon cancer patients, and 5 of them were breast cancer patients. Nine elements were determined using instrumental activation analysis. Cancerous colon tissue had significantly higher concentrations of selenium and iron than healthy tissues. Cancerous breast tissue had significantly higher concentrations of selenium, iron, manganese, and rubidium than healthy tissues. Iron can be enriched in cancer tissue because cancer tissue retains more blood vessels. Selenium is enriched in cancer tissue, possibly in an effort of the body to inhibit the growth of tumors. The manganese enrichment can be explained in the same manner as selenium considering its suspected anticarcinogenicity. It is not certain why rubidium was enriched in cancer tissue. It could be that this is the result of alteration of cell membrane permeability, change in extracellular matrix, or increased metabolism in cancer tissue

  14. Trace Elements in the Conductive Tissue of Beef Heart Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, P.O.

    1965-08-01

    By means of neutron activation analysis, samples of four beef hearts taken from the bundle of His and adjacent ventricular muscle, the AV node and adjacent atrial muscle are investigated with respect to the concentration of 23 trace elements. The bulk elements K, Na and P are also determined. A recently developed ion-exchange technique, combined with subsequent γ-spectrometry, is used. The following trace elements are determined: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, .Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, W and Zn. In the conductive tissue compared to adjacent muscle tissue, calculations on a wet weight basis show a lower concentration of Cs, Cu, Fe, K, P, Rb and Zn in the former, and a higher concentration of Ag, Au, Br, Ca and Na. The mean differences (μg/g wet tissue), as well as their degree of significance, between the bundle of His and adjacent tissue from the ventricular septum, between the AV node and adjacent atrial muscle, between the ventricular septum and the right atrium, and between the bundle of His and the AV node are given for the elements Cu, Fe, K, Na, P and Zn

  15. Microbial population analysis improves the evidential value of faecal traces in forensic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaak, Frederike C A; de Graaf, Mei-Lan M; Weterings, Rob; Kuiper, Irene

    2017-01-01

    The forensic science community has a growing interest in microbial population analysis, especially the microbial populations found inside and on the human body. Both their high abundance, microbes outnumber human cells by a factor 10, and their diversity, different sites of the human body harbour different microbial communities, make them an interesting tool for forensics. Faecal material is a type of trace evidence which can be found in a variety of criminal cases, but is often being ignored in forensic investigations. Deriving a human short tandem repeat (STR) profile from a faecal sample can be challenging. However, the microbial communities within faecal material can be of additional criminalistic value in linking a faecal trace to the possible donor. We present a microarray technique in which the faecal microbial community is used to differentiate between faecal samples and developed a decision model to predict the possible common origin of questioned samples. The results show that this technique may be a useful additional tool when no or only partial human STR profiles can be generated.

  16. Development of Ray Tracing Algorithms for Scanning Plane and Transverse Plane Analysis for Satellite Multibeam Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Abd Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflector antennas have been widely used in many areas. In the implementation of parabolic reflector antenna for broadcasting satellite applications, it is essential for the spacecraft antenna to provide precise contoured beam to effectively serve the required region. For this purpose, combinations of more than one beam are required. Therefore, a tool utilizing ray tracing method is developed to calculate precise off-axis beams for multibeam antenna system. In the multibeam system, each beam will be fed from different feed positions to allow the main beam to be radiated at the exact direction on the coverage area. Thus, detailed study on caustics of a parabolic reflector antenna is performed and presented in this paper, which is to investigate the behaviour of the rays and its relation to various antenna parameters. In order to produce accurate data for the analysis, the caustic behaviours are investigated in two distinctive modes: scanning plane and transverse plane. This paper presents the detailed discussions on the derivation of the ray tracing algorithms, the establishment of the equations of caustic loci, and the verification of the method through calculation of radiation pattern.

  17. Certified sediment reference materials for trace element analysis from the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Kazumi; Takatsu, Akiko; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Nakama, Atsuko; Eyama, Sakae; Chiba, Koichi; Okamoto, Kensaku

    2004-03-01

    Two types of sediment reference material (NMIJ 7302-a and 7303-a) for trace elements analysis have been prepared and certified by the National Metrology Institute of Japan in the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST). The original materials were collected from a bay near industrial activity in Kyushu (NMIJ CRM 7302-a; marine sediment) and from Lake Biwa (NMIJ CRM 7303-a; lake sediment). The sediment materials were air-dried, sieved, homogenized, packaged in 1000 glass bottles (60 g each), and radiation sterilized. Certification of these CRM for trace elements was conducted by NMIJ, where each element was determined by at least two independent analytical techniques. Isotope-dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied for certification of all the elements except mono-nuclide elements such as As and Co. Other techniques such as ICP-MS with quadrupole mass spectrometry and sector-field mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), were also used. Certified values have been provided for 14 elements (Sb, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Ag, Sn, and Zn) in both CRM.

  18. Determination of minor-and trace elements in magnesite samples, by activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda Munita, C.J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method employing activation analysis with thermal neutron was developed for the determination of minor and trace elements in magnesite samples from the states of Ceara and Bahia (Brazil). Ten samples were analyzed. A qualitative analysis of the samples indicated the presence of Mn, Fe, Sc, Ca, Cu, Co and some of the lanthanides. The experimental part includes a non-destructive analysis of manganese and analysis with chemical separation of the other elements, individually or in groups, after sample dissolution, The dissolutions were made with concentrated HCl and the further separations were carried out in 8 N HCl medium. Iron was separated by means of an extraction of HFeCl 4 with isopropyl ether. Scandium and calcium were determined by retention of scandium with di-(2-ehylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP). The activities of 46 Sc and 47 Sc (a 47 Ca descendant) were employed for the analysis of scandium and calcium in the sample. In the effluent of the kieselguhr column copper and cobalt were determined, after retention in an anionic resin of the CuCl - 3 and CoCl - 3 complexes. Finally, in the effluent of the resin, the lanthanide group was separated by oxalate precipitation. In the gamma-ray spectrum of this precipitate the elements europium, cerium, samarium and lanthanum were determined. A detailed study of the possible interferences in the neutron activation analysis of the elements analysed was also made. The precision and accuracy of the results obtained and the sensitivity of the method are discussed. (Author) [pt

  19. Trace analysis in complex mixtures using a high-component filtering strategy with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Shao-Qing; Liu, Ying; Luo, Li-Ping; Liu, Peng; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2012-11-01

    Trace constituents are widely present in complex mixtures, and trace analysis is challenging because of the unpredictable matrix. In this work, a high-component filtering strategy was developed for improved analysis of trace constituents in complex sample by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Using a specifically designed chromatographic apparatus, the high-abundant fractions were filtered prior to LC-MS analysis. The samples complexity was reduced and the sample-loading amount for the rest low-level fractions can be considerably increased. The application of this approach was illustrated with an analytically challenging sample, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine named Compound Danshen Sample. We observed that the loss rate for 12 analytes during the filtering procedure ranged from 6.54 to 26.11%, but showed a stable repeatability with RSDanalysis, allowing six low compounds that cannot be quantified by the traditional methods to be tested by the filtering method. It can be predicted that the qualitative and quantitative trace analysis will be greatly improved when the loading samples is increased resulting from the filtration of high-level targets. The proposed strategy is promising to monitor trace constituents in diverse complex mixtures in the analytical field of pharmaceutics, metabonomics and environments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Tracing diffuse anthropogenic Pb sources in rural soils by means of Pb isotope analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, N.; Gaans, P.F.M. van; Veer, G. van der; Os, B.J.H. van; Klaver, G.T.; Vriend, S.P.; Middelburg, J.J.; Davies, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the cause and source of Pb pollution is important to abate environmental Pb pollution by taking source-related actions. Lead isotope analysis is a potentially powerful tool to identify anthropogenic Pb and its sources in the environment. Spatial information on the variation of

  1. Collection and preparation of bottom sediment samples for analysis of radionuclides and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    The publication is the first in a series of TECDOCs on sampling and sample handling as part of the IAEA support to improve reliability of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in Member State laboratories. The purpose of the document is to provide information on the methods for collecting sediments, the equipment used, and the sample preparation techniques for radionuclide and elemental analysis. The most appropriate procedures for defining the strategies and criteria for selecting sampling locations, for sample storage and transportation are also given. Elements of QA/QC and documentation needs for sampling and sediment analysis are discussed. Collection and preparation of stream and river bottom sediments, lake bottom sediments, estuary bottom sediments, and marine (shallow) bottom sediments are covered. The document is intended to be a comprehensive manual for the collection and preparation of bottom sediments as a prerequisite to obtain representative and meaningful results using NATs. Quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) is emphasized as an important aspect to ensure proper collection, transportation, preservation, and analysis since it forms the basis for interpretation and legislation. Although there are many approaches and methods available for sediment analyses, the scope of the report is limited to sample preparation for (1) analysis of radionuclides (including sediment dating using radionuclides such as Pb-210 and Cs-137) and (2) analysis of trace, minor and major elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as NAA, XRF and PIXE

  2. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis for trace elements evaluation of human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, K.P.; Zaidi, J.H.; Ahmad, S.

    2003-01-01

    The principal objective pursued in this study is to establish the base-line data on the status of elemental composition in human milk from Pakistani subjects of Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) methodology was developed and successfully employed to determine the concentration of 18 minor and trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in human milk. This methodology has significantly improved the detection limits of most of these elements due to suppression of Compton background. The data provide the base-line values of these elements in human milk of low- and medium-income group subjects of the region. The results obtained show good compatibility with the data reported by the WHO on elemental composition of human milk from different geological regions. (orig.)

  3. Adaptation and implementation of the TRACE code for transient analysis in designs lead cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, A.; Ammirabile, L.; Martorell, S.

    2015-01-01

    Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) has been identified as one of promising future reactor concepts in the technology road map of the Generation IVC International Forum (GIF)as well as in the Deployment Strategy of the European Sustainable Nuclear Industrial Initiative (ESNII), both aiming at improved sustainability, enhanced safety, economic competitiveness, and proliferation resistance. This new nuclear reactor concept requires the development of computational tools to be applied in design and safety assessments to confirm improved inherent and passive safety features of this design. One approach to this issue is to modify the current computational codes developed for the simulation of Light Water Reactors towards their applicability for the new designs. This paper reports on the performed modifications of the TRACE system code to make it applicable to LFR safety assessments. The capabilities of the modified code are demonstrated on series of benchmark exercises performed versus other safety analysis codes. (Author)

  4. Analysis of trace elements in scalp hair of mentally retarded children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, C.K.; Zheng, Y.H.

    2002-01-01

    Hair samples of mildly mentally retarded (LR), moderately mentally retarded (MR), severely mentally retarded (SR) and normal children were collected and measured, using neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence to determine the concentrations of Al, Sb, As, Ca, Cu, I, Fe Pb, Mg, Mn, Hg, K, Sr, S, V and Zn. The groups of children were of ages between 5 and 13. Difference in the mean concentration of each element between groups was tested by Student's t-test. No trend, either decreasing or increasing, has been established as the degree of severity increased from normal to SR children, except for the case of Cu. The present work may shed some light in the interpretation of findings on the effects of trace elements on neurobehavioral functions. (author)

  5. Diode laser based resonance ionization mass spectrometry for spectroscopy and trace analysis of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakimi, Amin

    2013-01-01

    In this doctoral thesis, the upgrade and optimization of a diode laser system for high-resolution resonance ionization mass spectrometry is described. A frequency-control system, based on a double-interferometric approach, allowing for absolute stabilization down to 1 MHz as well as frequency detunings of several GHz within a second for up to three lasers in parallel was optimized. This laser system was used for spectroscopic studies on uranium isotopes, yielding precise and unambiguous level energies, total angular momenta, hyperfine constants and isotope shifts. Furthermore, an efficient excitation scheme which can be operated with commercial diode lasers was developed. The performance of the complete laser mass spectrometer was optimized and characterized for the ultra-trace analysis of the uranium isotope 236 U, which serves as a neutron flux dosimeter and tracer for radioactive anthropogenic contaminations in the environment. Using synthetic samples, an isotope selectivity of ( 236 U)/( 238 U) = 4.5(1.5) . 10 -9 was demonstrated.

  6. Investigation of different types of filters for atmospheric trace elements analysis by three analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.E.; Bacso, J.

    1996-01-01

    Different atmospheric aerosol samples were collected on three types of filters. Disks of both loaded and clean areas of each kind of filter were investigated by XRF, PIXE and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) methods. The blank concentration values of the elements Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br and Pb in the three types of filters are discussed. It is found that for trace elemental analysis, the Nuclepore membrane filters are the most suitable for sampling. These have much lower blank element concentration values than the glass fibres and ash free filters. It was found also that the PIXE method is a more reliable analytical technique for atmospheric aerosol particles than the other methods. (author). 20 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Statistically sound evaluation of trace element depth profiles by ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, K.; Toussaint, U. von

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the underlying physics and statistical models that are used in the newly developed program NRADC for fully automated deconvolution of trace level impurity depth profiles from ion beam data. The program applies Bayesian statistics to find the most probable depth profile given ion beam data measured at different energies and angles for a single sample. Limiting the analysis to % level amounts of material allows one to linearize the forward calculation of ion beam data which greatly improves the computation speed. This allows for the first time to apply the maximum likelihood approach to both the fitting of the experimental data and the determination of confidence intervals of the depth profiles for real world applications. The different steps during the automated deconvolution will be exemplified by applying the program to artificial and real experimental data.

  8. Trace elemental analysis of adenoma and carcinoma thyroid by PIXE method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S. Bhuloka; John Charles, M.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Reddy, B. Seetharami; Anjaneyulu, Ch.; Naga Raju, G. J.; Sundareswar, B.; Vijayan, V.

    2002-11-01

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in the biological samples of normal, adenoma and carcinoma thyroids using particle induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE). A 2 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, I, Hg and Pb were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The concentrations of the elements Ca, Cu, Zn, As, I and Hg are found to be much lower in carcinoma thyroid than those in the normal thyroid while the concentration of the elements K, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Sr in carcinoma thyroid are higher than the concentrations in normal thyroid. The lower and higher values of some of the elements in carcinoma thyroid may be attributed to some pathological factors.

  9. Analysis of toxic trace elements in sea food samples by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmani, S.; Majid, A.A.; Wood, A.K.; Hamzah, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The contents of toxic and essential trace element were analysed such as As, Hg, Se and Zn by neutron activation analysis in coastal fishes consumed by the general population of Malaysia. The mean values of the elements analysed expressed in mg/kg fresh weight ranged 1.42-5.61, 0.06-0.42, 4.2-20.6, 0.41-1.28 for As, Hg, Zn and Se, respectively. The maximum permissible limit for As in food was set at 1.0 mg/kg under the Malaysian Food Regulations. The results showed that consumption of coastal fishes is not permitted under the regulations, while the levels of Hg, Se and Zn were within the permissible limits. The daily dietary intake of As and Hg at 400 μg and 30 μg respectively are still within the tolerance levels. (author) 9 refs.; 2 tabs

  10. Applications of mass spectrometry in the trace element analysis of biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moens, L.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of mass spectrometry for the analysis of biological material is illustrated by reviewing the different mass spectrometric methods applied and describing some typical applications published recently. Though atomic absorption spectrometry is used in the majority of analyses of biological material, most mass spectrometric methods have been used to some extent for trace element determination in biomedical research. The relative importance of the different methods is estimated by reviewing recent research papers. It is striking that especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is increasingly being applied, partly because the method can be used on-line after chromatographic separation, in speciation studies. Mass spectrometric methods prove to offer unique possibilities in stable isotope tracer studies and for this purpose also experimentally demanding methods such as thermal ionization mass spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry are frequently used. (orig.)

  11. Neutron activation analysis in forensic investigations. Trace elements characterization of cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordani, L.; Rizzio, E.; Brandone, A.

    2005-01-01

    Police investigations of the Italian Ministry of Treasury Police involving the illicit sale of tobacco lead to the confiscation of large quantities of smuggled cigarettes. Thousands of tons of cigarettes of different manufacturers are sequestrated yearly in many regions of Italy and different criminal organizations have been identified as unlawful importers. In order to verify whether the recovered smuggled lots of cigarettes come from the official manufacturers, or they have produced illicitly, usually chemical analysis are carried out. By the determination of trace elements content, specific information can be obtained by comparing different brands of cigarettes and different batches of tobacco. Samples of tobacco of cigarettes manufactured by the Italian State Monopoly, taken as 'reference samples', have been compared with those of illicit origin. Elements such as Co, Br, Cr and Sc have been found to be useful for the selective characterization. The results, submitted to statistical elaboration, provided important information on the origin of smuggled cigarettes. (author)

  12. Trace elemental analysis of drugs of abuse using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratsu, Seiji; Ninomiya, Toshio; Kagoshima, Yasushi; Matsui, Junji

    2002-09-01

    Synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SR-TXRF) was utilized to analyze various trace elements in small amounts of drugs of abuse. Sample amounts of 1 microL solutions containing 10 microg of drugs (methamphetamine, amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, cocaine, and heroin) were spotted on silicon wafers for direct analysis. In addition, a leaflet of marijuana was set directly on a silicon wafer, and opium in the form of a soft lump was smeared on another silicon wafer for analysis. In these experiments, about 10 pg of contaminant elements could be detected. For example, in a seized methamphetamine sample, iodine was found, which could be indicative of synthetic route. In seized 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine samples, variable amounts of phosphorus, calcium, sulfur, and potassium were found, which could not be detected in a control 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine sample. For marijuana and opium, two spectral patterns were obtained that were far different from each other and could be easily discriminated. Using SR-TXRF, pg amounts of each trace element in 10 microg of various drugs can be easily detected, which is not the case either for a standard TXRF experimental system or for other elemental analysis techniques.

  13. Analysis of Process Gases and Trace Contaminants in Membrane-Aerated Gaseous Effluent Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Lunn, Griffin Michael; Meyer, Caitlin E.

    2015-01-01

    In membrane-aerated biofilm reactors (MABRs), hollow fibers are used to supply oxygen to the biofilms and bulk fluid. A pressure and concentration gradient between the inner volume of the fibers and the reactor reservoir drives oxygen mass transport across the fibers toward the bulk solution, providing the fiber-adhered biofilm with oxygen. Conversely, bacterial metabolic gases from the bulk liquid, as well as from the biofilm, move opposite to the flow of oxygen, entering the hollow fiber and out of the reactor. Metabolic gases are excellent indicators of biofilm vitality, and can aid in microbial identification. Certain gases can be indicative of system perturbations and control anomalies, or potentially unwanted biological processes occurring within the reactor. In confined environments, such as those found during spaceflight, it is important to understand what compounds are being stripped from the reactor and potentially released into the crew cabin to determine the appropriateness or the requirement for additional mitigation factors. Reactor effluent gas analysis focused on samples provided from Kennedy Space Center's sub-scale MABRs, as well as Johnson Space Center's full-scale MABRs, using infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography techniques. Process gases, such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrous oxide, were quantified to monitor reactor operations. Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) GC-MS analysis was used to identify trace volatile compounds. Compounds of interest were subsequently quantified. Reactor supply air was examined to establish target compound baseline concentrations. Concentration levels were compared to average ISS concentration values and/or Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) levels where appropriate. Based on a review of to-date results, current trace contaminant control systems (TCCS) currently on board the ISS should be able to handle the added load from bioreactor systems without the need

  14. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for trace analysis of agrochemicals in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Reyes, Juan F; Jackson, Ayanna U; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Cooks, R Graham

    2009-01-15

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is applied to the rapid, in situ, direct qualitative and quantitative (ultra)trace analysis of agrochemicals in foodstuffs. To evaluate the potential of DESI mass spectrometry (MS) in toxic residue testing in food, 16 representative multiclass agricultural chemicals (pesticides, insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides) were selected (namely, ametryn, amitraz, azoxystrobin, bitertanol, buprofezin, imazalil, imazalil metabolite, isofenphos-methyl, malathion, nitenpyram, prochloraz, spinosad, terbuthylazine, thiabendazole, and thiacloprid). The DESI-MS experiments were performed using 3 microL of solution spotted onto conventional smooth poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) surfaces, with examination by MS and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an ion trap mass spectrometer. Optimization of the spray solvent led to the use of acetonitrile/water (80:20) (v/v), with 1% formic acid. Most of the compounds tested showed remarkable sensitivity in the positive ion mode, approaching that attainable with conventional direct infusion electrospray mass spectrometry. To evaluate the potential of the proposed approach in real samples, different experiments were performed including the direct DESI-MS/MS analysis of fruit peels and also of fruit/vegetable extracts. The results proved that DESI allows the detection and confirmation of traces of agrochemicals in actual market-purchased samples. In addition, MS/MS confirmation of selected pesticides in spiked vegetable extracts was obtained at absolute levels as low as 1 pg for ametryn. Quantitation of imazalil residues was also undertaken using an isotopically labeled standard. The data obtained were in agreement with those from the liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) reference method, with relative standard deviation (RSD) values consistently below 15%. The results obtained demonstrate the sensitivity of DESI as they meet the stringent European Union pesticide regulation

  15. Practical using of TXRF spectrometers with slitless collimators for the trace analysis of targets surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V.K.; Zuev, A.P.; Kondratiev, O.S.; Egorov, E.V.

    2000-01-01

    TXRF spectrometer with the slitless collimator used for a formation of the x-ray excitating beam (TXRF-SC spectrometer) is a new variety of an instrument been destined for the trace analysis of surfaces by x-ray fluorescence method at the total reflection of the x-ray incident beam. Some theoretical concepts are introduced for a characterization of the x-ray optics been unique to the TXRF-SC spectrometer. The principle design of the TXRF-SC spectrometer used for the trace quantitative analysis of a surface are discussed. Spectra of a secondary x-ray radiation yield for typical targets been collected by using of the TXRF-SC spectrometer and calculation of surface trace elements concentrations are presented. The analytical and operating parameters of the TXRF-SC spectrometer and one characterized by standard optical scheme are compared. The slitless collimator of the x-ray radiation is formed by two quartz polished plates mated together. Lengths of the plates are not equal. The target is placed on the surface of the long quartz plate and produces the continuation of the initial slitless collimator. Target orientation problem vanishes but problem of the surface contact effect appears. The secondary x-ray radiation excitated in a surface of the target is led out across the hole in the long quartz plate. The radiation is registered by a standard Si (Li) semiconductor detector and is collected by a multi-channel analyzer. The fundamental difference of the x-ray optical scheme been unique to TXRF-SC spectrometer from the standard one is the excitation of a studied surface by a flared x-ray beam with angle ΔΘ = 2Θ c , where Θ c is the critical angle of the total reflection. The vital peculiarity of a x-ray slitless collimation is the absence of a radiation monochromatism in output of the collimator. The sensible divergence of the x-ray excitating beam and the availability in it of monochromatic and white radiation alike allow to get in the surface layer of target the

  16. Trace Analysis of Pharmaceutical Residues in Wastewater Treatment Plants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and fate of trace-level contamination of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has been recognized as one of the emerging issues in environmental chemistry. The effluents of wastewater treatment plants, usually directly emitted to the environment, often contain the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. Diclofenac was chosen because it is of high consumption; by background literature indicate toxic effects on biota and the lack of profile in sewage removal provided by the city. For this purpose, a survey on the presence of diclofenac in urban wastewater of Rio de Janeiro was carried out. It were evaluated diclofenac concentration in the affluent and effluent from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP Penha and Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were collected along the line of treatment of each WWTP, and for clean up the samples were solid phase extraction (SPE, analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, assisted by diode array detector (DAD techniques. The removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in the wastewater treatment plants was roughly evaluated. Diclofenac was detected in all samples analysed wastewater (treated and raw, which confirms the low removal efficiency of conventional treatment systems, aerobes and anaerobes.

  17. 10 CFR 503.13 - Environmental impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental impact analysis. 503.13 Section 503.13... Exemptions § 503.13 Environmental impact analysis. In order to enable OFE to comply with NEPA, a petitioner..., and land resources; (3) Direct and indirect environmental impacts of the proposed action including...

  18. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, S; Morris, G; Fleming, L E; Beck, S; Taylor, T; White, M; Depledge, M H; Steinle, S; Sabel, C E; Cowie, H; Hurley, F; Dick, J McP; Smith, R I; Austen, M

    2015-10-01

    Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose a new conceptual model, the ecosystems-enriched Drivers, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, Actions or 'eDPSEEA' model, to address this shortcoming. The model recognizes convergence between the concept of ecosystems services which provides a human health and well-being slant to the value of ecosystems while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession. It will require outreach to political and other stakeholders including a currently largely disengaged general public. The need for an effective and robust science-policy interface has

  19. Advancing the diagnostic analysis of environmental problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cox

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Social-ecological systems exhibit patterns across multiple levels along spatial, temporal, and functional scales. The outcomes that are produced in these systems result from complex, non-additive interactions between different types of social and biophysical components, some of which are common to many systems, and some of which are relatively unique to a particular system. These properties, along with the mostly non-experimental nature of the analysis, make it difficult to construct theories regarding the sustainability of social-ecological systems. This paper builds on previous work that has initiated a diagnostic approach to the analysis of these systems. The process of diagnosis involves asking a series of questions of a system at increasing levels of specificity based on the answers to previous questions. The answer to each question further unpacks the complexity of a system, allowing an analyst to explore patterns of interactions that produce outcomes. An important feature of this approach is the use of multilevel analysis. This paper explores this concept and introduces another – multilevel causation – to further develop the diagnostic approach. It demonstrates that these concepts can be used to analyze a diversity of environmental problems.

  20. Analysis of trace elements in scalp hair for long-lived people, hypertensives and healthy students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaofeng; Zhang Yurong; Zhang Longxing; Zhang Agen

    1989-01-01

    The XRF method was used to analyse nine kinds of trace elements in hair samples for three groups of people. While the information on long-lived people is used to explore the secret of long life, the work on hypertensives helps understand the effect of some trace elements on the disease. The normal values of trace elements for university students have been also set up

  1. PIXE analysis of trace elements in relation to chlorophyll concentration in Plantago ovata Forsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Priyanka; Sen Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal

    2010-01-01

    Plantago ovata Forsk - an economically important medicinal plant - was analyzed for trace elements and chlorophyll in a study of the effects of gamma radiation on physiological responses of the seedlings. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used to quantify trace elements in unirradiated and gamma-irradiated plants at the seedling stage. The experiments revealed radiation-induced changes in the trace element and chlorophyll concentrations.

  2. Rapid detection of polychlorinated biphenyls at trace levels in real environmental samples by surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Xian; Huang, Yu; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2011-01-01

    Detection of trace levels of persistent pollutants in the environment is difficult but significant. Organic pollutant homologues, due to their similar physical and chemical properties, are even more difficult to distinguish, especially in trace amounts. We report here a simple method to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil and distilled spirit samples by the surface-enhanced Raman scattering technique using Ag nanorod arrays as substrates. By this method, polychlorinated biphenyls can be detected to a concentration of 5 μg/g in dry soil samples within 1 minute. Furthermore, based on simulation and understanding of the Raman characteristics of PCBs, we recognized homologues of tetrachlorobiphenyl by using the surface-enhance Raman scattering method even in trace amounts in acetone solutions, and their characteristic Raman peaks still can be distinguished at a concentration of 10(-6) mol/L. This study provides a fast, simple and sensitive method for the detection and recognition of organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls.

  3. Determination of trace elements in total particulate matter of cigarette smoke by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.; Shaikh, G.N.

    1985-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains many trace elements hazardous for human body. Tobacco samples were analyzed for their trace element contents and the results were reported earlier. This paper presents results on the trace element content analyzed in cigarette smoke using an automatic smoking machine developed in laboratory to simulate actual smoking pattern. The trace element levels in the total particulate matter samples of the cigarette smoke collected on filter papers were measured and compared with those of cigarette smoke condensate reported in the literature. Both methods of collection give comparable results. (author)

  4. Full mode and attribution mode in environmental analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Udo Haes, Helias A.; Heijungs, Reinout; Huppes, Gjalt; Van Der Voet, Ester; Hettelingh, Jean Paul

    2000-01-01

    Several tools exist for the analysis of the environmental impacts of chains or networks of processes. These relatively simple tools include materials flow accounting (MFA), substance flow analysis (SFA), life-cycle assessment (LCA), energy analysis, and environmentally extended input-output analysis

  5. Applications of short-lived activation products in neutron activation analysis of bio-environmental specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages, special techniques, and actual and potential applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA) utilizing short-lived neutron-induced products, with special reference to the analysis of samples of biological and environmental origin. Attention is devoted mainly to products having half-lives in roughly the range of 10 milliseconds to 60 seconds, but with some discussion of the usefulness of even shorter-lived species, and ones with half-lives as long as a few minutes. Important aspects of the analytical methodology include sample preparation, irradiation/transfer systems, activity measurements, data processing and analytical quality assurance. It is concluded that several trace elements can be determined in bio-environmental samples (as well as in samples of industrial, geochemical and other origin). In particular, this method provides analytical possibilities for several elements (e.g. B, F, Li and V) that are difficult to determine in some matrices at trace levels by any other technique. These conclusions are illustrated in an annex by results of calculations in which the applicability of the techniques to the analysis of several biological and environmental reference materials is evaluated by means of an advance computer prediction program. The report concludes with an annotated bibliography of relevant publications (including abstracts, where available) taken from the INIS database. (author)

  6. Fast GC-analysis of selected organic compounds at trace levels with the novel RAPID-MS/MS-technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poell, S.

    2002-03-01

    The main topic of the present thesis was the development of rapid analytical procedures for the environmental analysis of a steel producing company, to speed up the sample throughput for the daily routine work. Additionally, high precision of analysis results was requested. This brought a certain effort concerning the validation of the results which was supported by the analysis of certified reference materials. Special interest was laid on the optimization of the trace analysis of dioxins and furans (PCDD/DF). An expansion of the established methods with powerful techniques like single ion storage and tandem-mass spectrometry resulted in an obvious improvement of the limits of quantitation and the reliability of analysis. Further advances could be achieved with the simplification of the clean-up procedure by the application of a new sampling technique which reduced the demand on sample preparation time as well. Analysis were also carried out with brominated Dioxins and Furans (PBrDD/DF). The next item focused on the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with the implementation of five new representatives with a highly carcinogenic potential. In this case, the coupling of three detectors resulted in a robust and precise HPLC-method with a highly qualitative and quantitative analytical reliability. Furthermore, the aim was to promote the routine analysis of alkylated aromatics (BTEX) and halogenated volatile organic (VOC) compounds. By the use of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection a common analytical technique for both classes of substances could be found with an enhancement of sensitivity due to application of the single ion storage technique. The existing method for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) was improved by replacing the electron capture detector with mass spectrometry. Due to an optimization of the single ion storage and tandem mass spectrometry parameters the requested demands on low detection

  7. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases Fiscal Year 2001 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.

    2002-10-15

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). More than just an archive of data sets and publications, CDIAC has, since its inception in 1982, enhanced the value of its holdings through intensive quality assurance, documentation, and integration. Whereas many traditional data centers are discipline-based (for example, meteorology or oceanography), CDIAC's scope includes potentially anything and everything that would be of value to users concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea levels. CDIAC is located within the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. CDIAC is co-located with ESD researchers investigating global-change topics, such as the global carbon cycle and the effects of carbon dioxide on climate and vegetation. CDIAC staff are also connected with current ORNL research on related topics, such as renewable energy and supercomputing technologies. CDIAC is supported by the Environmental Sciences Division (Jerry Elwood, Director) of DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research. CDIAC represents DOE in the multi-agency Global Change Data and Information System (GCDIS). Wanda Ferrell is DOE's Program Manager with overall responsibility for CDIAC. Roger Dahlman is responsible for CDIAC's AmeriFlux tasks, and Anna Palmisano for CDIAC's Ocean Data tasks. CDIAC is made

  8. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases Fiscal Year 1999 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.

    2000-03-31

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which includes the World Data Center (WDC) for Atmospheric Trace Gases, is the primary global-change data and information analysis center of the Department of Energy (DOE). More than just an archive of data sets and publications, CDIAC has--since its inception in 1982--enhanced the value of its holdings through intensive quality assurance, documentation, and integration. Whereas many traditional data centers are discipline-based (for example, meteorology or oceanography), CDIAC's scope includes potentially anything and everything that would be of value to users concerned with the greenhouse effect and global climate change, including concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and other radiatively active gases in the atmosphere; the role of the terrestrial biosphere and the oceans in the biogeochemical cycles of greenhouse gases; emissions of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases to the atmosphere; long-term climate trends; the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on vegetation; and the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea level. CDIAC is located within the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. CDIAC is co-located with ESD researchers investigating global-change topics, such as the global carbon cycle and the effects of carbon dioxide on vegetation. CDIAC staff are also connected with current ORNL research on related topics, such as renewable energy and supercomputing technologies. CDIAC is supported by the Environmental Sciences Division (Jerry Elwood, Acting Director) of DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research. CDIAC's FY 1999 budget was 2.2M dollars. CDIAC represents the DOE in the multi-agency Global Change Data and Information System. Bobbi Parra, and Wanda Ferrell on an interim basis, is DOE's Program Manager with responsibility for CDIAC. CDIAC comprises three groups, Global Change Data, Computer Systems, and

  9. Trace analysis of actinides in the environment using resonance ionization mass spectrometry; Spurenanalyse von Aktiniden in der Umwelt mittels Resonanzionisations-Massenspektrometrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, Sebastian

    2011-04-12

    In this work the resonant ionization of neutral atoms using laser radiation was applied and optimized for ultra-trace analysis of the actinides thorium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium. The sensitive detection of these actinides is a challange for the monitoring and quantification of radioactive releases from nuclear facilities. Using resonance ionization spectroscopy combined with a newly developed quadrupole-mass-spectrometer, numerous energy levels in the atomic structure of these actinides could be identified. With this knowledge efficient excitation schemes for the mentioned actinides could be identified and characterised. The applied in-source-ionization ensures for a high detection efficiency due to the good overlap of laser radiation with the atomic beam and allows therefore for a low sample consumption which is required for the analysis of radio nuclides. The selective excitation processes in the resonant ionization method supresses unwanted contaminations and was optimized for analytical detection of ultra-trace amounts in environmental samples as well as for determination of isotopic compositions. The efficient in-source-ionization combined with high power pulsed laser radiation allows for detections efficiency up to 1%. For plutonium detection limits in the range of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} atoms could be demonstrated for synthetic samples as well as for first environmental samples. The usage of narrow bandwidth continuous wave lasers in combination with a transversal overlap of the laser radiation and the free propagating atomic beam enable for resolving individual isotopic shifts of the resonant transitions. This results in a high selectivity against dominant neighboring isotopes but with a significant loss in detection efficiency. For the ultra-trace isotope {sup 236}U a detection limit down to 10{sup -9} for the isotope ratio N ({sup 236}U)/N ({sup 238}U) could be determined.

  10. Benefit-cost framework for analysis of trace element emissions from coal-fired power plants. [103 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-11-01

    The major conclusions of this report may be summarized in the following four points: (1) It is probable that atmospheric emissions of trace elements from Southwestern coal-fired power plants will not cause major problems over the next 20 years. But monitoring for trace element build-up (especially mercury, selenium, and arsenic) in the mountains of southern Colorado, Navajo Reservoir, and other local hot spots would be an important and desirable step. (2) It appears that damage from trace elements in disposed ash is more likely than damage from atmospheric trace element emissions. But whether damage from disposed ash will actually occur is highly uncertain. We recommend that additional research be conducted on the entire range of issues surrounding ash disposal. (3) In the area of legislation and regulation, there may be some need for review of regulations concerning trace element atmospheric emissions. Present regulation of ash disposal is very likely to need revision and extension. (4) Future research on the environmental problems of coal-fired power plants should place emphasis on atmospheric emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides; consequent problems of acid precipitation also need exploration. Environmental research on coal-fired power plants does not need to exclude other problems. But issues surrounding sulfur emissions, nitrogen emissions, sulfate transformations, and acid precipitation appear to merit major emphasis. Perhaps the most important aspect of the preceding list of conclusions is that more questions are raised than are answered. As work on the subject proceeded, it became apparent that an important task was to point future research in the right direction.

  11. Tracing environmental aetiological factors of chronic kidney diseases in the dry zone of Sri Lanka-A hydrogeochemical and isotope approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramarathna, Sudeera; Balasooriya, Shyamalie; Diyabalanage, Saranga; Chandrajith, Rohana

    2017-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiologies (CKDu) is increasingly recognized in tropical regions and is now considered a global health problem. A detailed hydrogeochemical investigation has been performed in three CKDu hotspots in Sri Lanka to assess the geo-environmental aetiological factors influencing this disease. A total of 71 ground- and 26 surface water samples were collected from Girandurukotte, Wilgamuwa and Nikawewa regions and analysed for major constituents and trace elements. The affected regions are dominated by Ca-Mg-HCO 3 facies groundwater that is mainly controlled by silicate weathering. Higher levels of fluoride associated with higher hardness is the main feature of groundwater from CKDu regions compared to non-CKDu regions. Results showed that 65% of the wells in the affected regions exceeded the fluoride concentration of 0.5mg/L. Environmental isotopes of groundwater in the CKDu regions are represented by the regression line of δ 2 H=5.42δ 18 O-3.59 (r 2 =0.916) with a clear isotopic differentiation between local precipitation and groundwater. None of the trace elements exceeded the recommended scales and in most cases levels are negligible in both surface and groundwater in study areas. Therefore, the involvement of trace elements such as Cd, As and Pb can be ignored as causative factors for CKDu. This study highlights the synergistic influence of fluoride and hardness that could enhance the disease, and thereby refute earlier theories that attribute trace elements as causative factors for CKDu. Higher hardness in drinking water also restricts sufficient water uptake, particularly by farmers and which affects the physiological, biochemical and nutritional requirements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of trace elements in Turkish tea leaves by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, R.

    1986-01-01

    The human body continuously assimilates a variety of inorganic elements from food and the environment. Some of these elements are closely related to human health and disorder. Tea is one of the most popular stimulating beverages which is consumed by low and high income family groups in many countries. Instrumental neutron activation analysis is one of the preferred methods because information on a large number of elements can be obtained simultaneously. Five packets each of the seven commonly used brands of tea were obtained from the market. In order to determine the transfer of trace elements into the drinkable portion about 2-3g. of the tea leaves were boiled in hot water for 2 min. After filtration the used tea leaves were dried at 65 deg. C in an oven and a portion, about 200mg was used for analysis. Samples and standards were irradiated 10 min. and 2 hrs. at pneumatic system and central thimble in the TRIGA MARK-II research reactor. After irradiation, the activities of samples and standards were measured with a aoaxial Ge detector coupled to a spectroscopic amplifier. A Canbera 90 model multi- channel analyzer with an 8K memory was used for pulse height analysis. The system has a resolution of 2.0 KeV. for the 1332.5 KeV gamma ray of 60 Co. The activity of the sample and standard was compared and the element contst of the sample was calculated. (author)

  13. Gas chromatography/trace analysis of derivatized azelaic acid as a stability marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzweiri, Muhammed; Tarawneh, Ruba; Khanfar, Mohammad A

    2013-10-01

    Azelaic acid, a naturally occurring saturated dicarboxylic acid, is found in many topical formulations for its various medical benefits or as a byproduct of the oxidative decomposition of unsaturated fatty acids. The poor volatility of azelaic acid hinders its applicability in GC analysis. Therefore, azelaic acid was derivatized by methylation and silylation procedures to enhance its volatility for GC analysis. Accordingly, dimethyl azelate (DMA) and di(trimethylsilyl) azelate were synthesized and characterized by GC-MS. Subsequently, a GC with flame ionization detection method was developed and validated to analyze trace amounts of azelaic acid in some marketed skin creams. Unlike DMA, di(trimethylsilyl) azelate was chemically unstable and degraded within few hours. Nonane was used as a stable internal standard. Variability due to derivatization and extraction was controlled by a standard addition procedure. DMA analysis was linear in a wide concentration range (100 ng/mL to 100 mg/mL). Moreover, the method was accurate (96.4-103.4%) and precise with inter- and intraday variability <2.0% and LOQ and LOD of 100 and 10 ng/mL, respectively. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Laser photoacoustic analysis of trace gases emitted during electro-knife surgery on human tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Markus W.; Naegele, Markus; Lauchenauer, Daniel; Hollmann, Ralph; Kammer, Erich

    2002-06-01

    We present a fully automated mobile laser spectrometer with photoacoustic (PA) detection for trace gas analysis. A novel PA cell design permits extracavity measurements with detection limits in the sub-ppb concentration range. The setup also allows measurements with low-power sources such as quantum cascade lasers (QCL). The multicomponent capability as an important feature of the spectrometer is realized by the implementation of two sealed-off CO2 lasers with 12CO2 and 13CO2 fillings covering the spectral range between 868 cm-1 and 1088 cm-1 with 132 laser lines. The performance is demonstrated with measurements on air samples with a priori unknown composition. In particular we report on the analysis of samples taken during surgery on human breast tissue with a high-frequency (HF) electro-knife in a hospital. Besides advantages of less bleeding and lower risk of infection, the drawback of this technique is the generated fume, which in general contains dozens of species at low concentrations, some of them presumably harmful to the patient and the medical team. Our analysis of an unfiltered fume sample revealed a total of 15 species. Most of their concentrations were below the allowed workplace concentrations (if at all available). 2-Furan-carboxaldehyde (C5H4O2), however, exceeded this value of 2 ppm considerably.

  15. Determination of minor and trace elements in kidney stones by x-ray fluorescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anjali; Heisinger, Brianne J.; Sinha, Vaibhav; Lee, Hyong-Koo; Liu, Xin; Qu, Mingliang; Duan, Xinhui; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2014-03-01

    The determination of accurate material composition of a kidney stone is crucial for understanding the formation of the kidney stone as well as for preventive therapeutic strategies. Radiations probing instrumental activation analysis techniques are excellent tools for identification of involved materials present in the kidney stone. In particular, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) can be very useful for the determination of minor and trace materials in the kidney stone. The X-ray fluorescence measurements were performed at the Radiation Measurements and Spectroscopy Laboratory (RMSL) of department of nuclear engineering of Missouri University of Science and Technology and different kidney stones were acquired from the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Presently, experimental studies in conjunction with analytical techniques were used to determine the exact composition of the kidney stone. A new type of experimental set-up was developed and utilized for XRF analysis of the kidney stone. The correlation of applied radiation source intensity, emission of X-ray spectrum from involving elements and absorption coefficient characteristics were analyzed. To verify the experimental results with analytical calculation, several sets of kidney stones were analyzed using XRF technique. The elements which were identified from this techniques are Silver (Ag), Arsenic (As), Bromine (Br), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Gallium (Ga), Germanium (Ge), Molybdenum (Mo), Niobium (Nb), Rubidium (Rb), Selenium (Se), Strontium (Sr), Yttrium (Y), Zirconium (Zr). This paper presents a new approach for exact detection of accurate material composition of kidney stone materials using XRF instrumental activation analysis technique.

  16. Practical In-Depth Analysis of IDS Alerts for Tracing and Identifying Potential Attackers on Darknet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungsuk Song

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The darknet (i.e., a set of unused IP addresses is a very useful solution for observing the global trends of cyber threats and analyzing attack activities on the Internet. Since the darknet is not connected with real systems, in most cases, the incoming packets on the darknet (‘the darknet traffic’ do not contain a payload. This means that we are unable to get real malware from the darknet traffic. This situation makes it difficult for security experts (e.g., academic researchers, engineers, operators, etc. to identify whether the source hosts of the darknet traffic are infected by real malware or not. In this paper, we present the overall procedure of the in-depth analysis between the darknet traffic and IDS alerts using real data collected at the Science and Technology Cyber Security Center (S&T CSC in Korea and provide the detailed in-depth analysis results. The ultimate goal of this paper is to provide practical experience, insight and know-how to security experts so that they are able to identify and trace the root cause of the darknet traffic. The experimental results show that correlation analysis between the darknet traffic and IDS alerts is very useful to discover potential attack hosts, especially internal hosts, and to find out what kinds of malware infected them.

  17. Simple approach to sediment provenance tracing using element analysis and fundamental principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matys Grygar, Tomas; Elznicova, Jitka; Popelka, Jan

    2016-04-01

    slightly but systematically element ratios in solids, (3) the geochemistry and fates of the finest particles, neoformed by weathering and reactive during transport and storage in fluvial system, are different than those of the parent material and its less mature coarse weathering products, and (4) most inter-element ratios and some grain-size effects are non-linear that endanger assumption on additivity of properties in components mixing. We are aware we offer only a conceptual model and not a novel algorithm for quantification of sediment sources, which could be tested in practical studies. On the other hand, we consider element fractionation by exogenic processes fascinating as they are poorly described but relevant not only for provenance tracing but also for general environmental geochemistry.

  18. Trace analysis measurements in high-purity aluminium by means of radiochemical neutron and proton activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egger, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the study consisted in the development of efficient radiochemical composite processes and activation methods for the multi-element determination of traces within the lower ng range in high-purity aluminium. More than 50 elements were determined with the help of activation with reactor neutrons; the selective separation of matrix activity (adsorption with hydrated antimony pentoxide) led to a noticeable improvement of detectability, as compared with instrumental neutron activation analysis. Further improvements were achieved with the help of radiochemical group separations in ion exchangers or with the help of the selective separation of the pure beta-emitting elements. Over 20 elements up to high atomic numbers were determined by means of activating 13 MeV protons and 23 Me protons. In this connection, improvements of the detection limit by as a factor of 10 were achieved with radiochemical separation techniques, as compared with pure instrumental proton activation analysis. (RB) [de

  19. Analysis of fog in an urban area: II. Organic acids and trace metals; Analuse des brouillards en milieu urbain: II. Acides organiques et metaux en traces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millet, M.; Wortham, H.; Sanusi, A.; Mirabel, P. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France)

    1995-07-01

    The results of the analysis of two organic acids (formate and acetate) and four metals (Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) are presented in 18 fog events which occurred in Strasbourg in 1991. For each of these events two droplets size categories have been simultaneously collected (2-6 {mu}m and 5-8 {mu}m). The principal results shows the influence of the automobile traffic on the quality of the fog water by the using of tractor: the acetate/formate ratio. The study of the trace metals concentrations also seems to show the influence of a refuse incinerator and of a steel industry near to the center of the town. (authors)

  20. Nuclear spectrometry for environmental analysis and mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Aliz

    2013-01-01

    visits, and provision of equipment. This talk gives an overview of the lAEA Physics Section activities with a special emphasis on the following activities: 1)Improving the analytical performance of PIXE and other IBA techniques; 2)Networking for environmental analysis; 3)Radioisotope environmental mapping; 4)Future perspectives for new IBA methods, especially Heavy lon PIXE combined with MeVSIMS. (author)

  1. Past 140-year environmental record in the northern South China Sea: Evidence from coral skeletal trace metal variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yinxian; Yu, Kefu; Zhao, Jianxin; Feng, Yuexing; Shi, Qi; Zhang, Huiling; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Frost, Ray L.

    2014-01-01

    About 140-year changes in the trace metals in Porites coral samples from two locations in the northern South China Sea were investigated. Results of PCA analyses suggest that near the coast, terrestrial input impacted behavior of trace metals by 28.4%, impact of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) was 19.0%, contribution of war and infrastructure were 14.4% and 15.6% respectively. But for a location in the open sea, contribution of War and SST reached 33.2% and 16.5%, while activities of infrastructure and guano exploration reached 13.2% and 14.7%. While the spatiotemporal change model of Cu, Cd and Pb in seawater of the north area of South China Sea during 1986–1997 were reconstructed. It was found that in the sea area Cu and Cd contaminations were distributed near the coast while areas around Sanya, Hainan had high Pb levels because of the well-developed tourism related activities. -- Highlights: • Geochemical behaviors of trace elements in corals from South China Sea were investigated. • Terrestrial input, SST, war and infrastructure explain about 77.4% of elements behaviors in coral. • Changes of trace elements in coral of Xisha Islands were mainly impacted by local activities. • Spatial change of elements in seawater by was evaluated in 1986–1997 using distribution coefficient K D of coral. -- 140-year changes in the trace metals in corals from South China Sea were investigated. The spatiotemporal change model of the metals in seawater was reconstructed using coral record

  2. Fixed volume particle trace emission for the analysis of left atrial blood flow using 4D Flow MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Stephen; Dyverfeldt, Petter; Eriksson, Jonatan; Carlhäll, Carl-Johan; Ebbers, Tino; Bolger, Ann F

    2018-04-01

    4D Flow MRI has been used to quantify normal and deranged left ventricular blood flow characteristics on the basis of functionally distinct flow components. However, the application of this technique to the atria is challenging due to the presence of continuous inflow. This continuous inflow necessitates plane-based emission of particle traces from the inlet veins, leading to particles that represents different amounts of blood, and related quantification errors. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel fixed-volume approach for particle tracing and employ this method to develop quantitative analysis of 4D blood flow characteristics in the left atrium. 4D Flow MRI data were acquired during free-breathing using a navigator-gated gradient-echo sequence in three volunteers at 1.5T. Fixed-volume particle traces emitted from the pulmonary veins were used to visualize left atrial blood flow and to quantitatively separate the flow into two functionally distinct flow components: Direct flow=particle traces that enter and leave the atrium in one heartbeat, Retained flow=particle traces that enter the atrium and remains there for one cardiac cycle. Flow visualization based on fixed-volume traces revealed that, beginning in early ventricular systole, flow enters the atrium and engages with residual blood volume to form a vortex. In early diastole during early ventricular filling, the organized vortical flow is extinguished, followed by formation of a second transient atrial vortex. Finally, in late diastole during atrial contraction, a second acceleration of blood into the ventricle is seen. The direct and retained left atrial flow components were between 44 and 57% and 43-56% of the stroke volume, respectively. In conclusion, fixed-volume particle tracing permits separation of left atrial blood flow into different components based on the transit of blood through the atrium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental Technology (Laboratory Analysis and Environmental Sampling) Curriculum Development Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Oscar V.; Guillen, Alfonso

    A project assessed the need and developed a curriculum for environmental technology (laboratory analysis and environmental sampling) in the emerging high technology centered around environmental safety and health in Texas. Initial data were collected through interviews by telephone and in person and through onsite visits. Additional data was…

  4. Carbon dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center: A for Atmospheric trace gases. Annual progress report, FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B.; Nelson, T.R.; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases during the fiscal year 1994. Topics discussed in this report include; organization and staff, user services, systems, communications, Collaborative efforts with China, networking, ocean data and activities of the World Data Center-A.

  5. Determination of natural radioactive elements in building materials by gamma spectroscopy, trace dosimetry and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Desdin, L.F.; Hernandez, A.T.; Gonzalez, D.; Labrada, A.; Tenreiro, J.J.; Capote, G.; Perelyguin, V.P.; Herrera, H.; Tellez, E.

    1993-01-01

    Five types of Cuban concretes and their main components (minerals aggregates and cement) were investigated in order to analyze the content of uranium, thorium, radium, potassium and radon 220,222, using gamma spectroscopy, trace dosimetry and neutron activation analysis. The comparative evaluation of different concretes, aggregates and two types of cements according to natural radioactivity is shown

  6. Determination of trace elements in tea leaves by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasrai, M.; Shoushtarian, M.J.; Bozorgzadeh, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    Instrumental neutron-activation analysis has been employed to determine 14 trace elements in two brands of Iranian and foreign tea. A popular local brand (Ghoncheh) and a foreign brand (Lipton tea bags) were randomly purchased. The samples were dried in an oven (100 deg C) and used without further treatment. In order to measure the concentration of elements in tea solution, weighed amounts of tea were mixed with double-distilled boiling water. After cooling the leaves were separated by centrifugation. Aliquots of clear solution were dried for analysis. Three sets of standards containing the following elements using the spec-pure materials were prepared: (a) Cl, Mn, Na, K; (b) Br, La, Au; (c) Cr, Fe, Rb, Sc, Cs, Zn, Co. In each irradiation, one set of standards, along with the sample, was neutron irradiated at a thermal flux of approximately 2x10 13 ncm -2 sec -1 in the Research Reactor of the Nuclear Research Centre. The period of irradiation ranged from 10 min to 4 hrs, depending on the radionuclides to be measured. The transference ratio of the elements into solution, when tea is leached by percolation, is also reported. It was found that some elements are totally transferred into solution and some are partially retained by the leaves. (T.G.)

  7. Multi-element analysis of mineral and trace elements in medicinal herbs and their infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytlakowska, K; Kita, A; Janoska, P; Połowniak, M; Kozik, V

    2012-11-15

    Twelve mineral and trace elements (Al, B, Ba, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Na, P, Cu, Sr, and Ca) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Poland such as chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), peppermint (Mentha xpiperita), melissa (Melissa officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica), linden (Tilia vulgaris) and St. John's wort (Hypericum calycinum). Dry digestion procedure for total concentration and wet digestion procedure for infusions were applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in herbs and their infusions were determined by ICP-OES. The accuracy and precision were verified against NCS DC 73349 - bush branches and leaves certified reference material. The result of total concentrations of elements in herb leaves shows that all herbs contain most of the elements, except K and P, in the μg/g range, and that elemental concentrations varied widely. Moreover, on the basis of experimental results for the extraction efficiencies, the elements in herb infusions were classified into three specific groups: highly-extractable (>55%) including K; moderately-extractable (20-55%) including Mg, Na, P, B, Zn and Cu and poorly-extractable (<20%) including Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Ca and Sr. The results of analysis were evaluated statistically using ANOVA one-way and three-way analysis of variance, variance correlation test and Spearman's test. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. All-optical atom trap trace analysis for rare krypton isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woelk, Pablo; Kohler, Markus; Sieveke, Carsten; Hebel, Simon; Sahling, Peter [Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker Centre for Science and Peace Research, University of Hamburg (Germany); Becker, Christoph; Sengstock, Klaus [Institut fuer Laser-Physik, University of Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The isotope Krypton-85 is an excellent indicator for the detection of nuclear reprocessing activities. However, for the analysis of atmospheric air samples, sensitive measuring methods down to the single atom level are required because of the small concentrations. Furthermore, for a practical and effective detection of clandestine reprocessing, small sample sizes and a high sample throughput rate are desirable. Established methods using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA) allow high sensitivity but have a limited throughput of about 200 samples per year, since the vacuum chambers have to be flushed for several hours after each measurement to avoid cross contamination due to the RF-driven excitation of metastable states. Here we present an enhanced ATTA apparatus, which in contrast to the established methods, produces metastable Kr all-optically. This avoids cross contamination, therefore allowing a much higher throughput rate. The apparatus is based on a self-made VUV-lamp and a 2D-3D magneto-optical trap setup. In the 2D trap metastable krypton is produced and a beam of atoms is formed by Doppler-cooling simultaneously.

  9. Determination of trace elements in drinking water by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munita, C.S.; Abe, R.M.; Andrade e Silva, L.G. de.

    1988-10-01

    The concentracao of Hg, Cr, Zn, Fe and Co has been determined in fresh drinking water by a combination of preconcentration and neutron activation analysis. In order to preconcentrate the trace metals, a Chelex-100 resin in the NH + - form has been employed and it was not necessary to use special NH 4 + - form has been employed and it was not necessary to use special agents for the adsorption of the elements which are practically quantitatively retained by the resin. The retention of each element during the preconcentration was investigated using radioactive tracers. Selenium is known as a strongly interferent element for the analysis since the (n,Π) produced 75 Se has a Π-line at 0.279 MeV which coincides with the only Π-line of 203 Hg. The separation was made by a selective retention of mercury. After the sample had passed through the resin, the column was transfered to a polythylene envelope and irradiated at a neutron flux of about 5.10 12 ncm -2 s -1 for 8 h. For Hg the resin was irradiated in quartz ampoules. The samples were counted 15 days after the irradiation. The present method is superior to most other Chelex-100 separation procesures where elements of interest are eluted from the resin prior determinations thereby introducing the possibility of additional reagent blanks and incomplete as well as non-reproducible recoveries. (author) [pt

  10. Development of a compact grazing exit X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for fast trace elemental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashida, Takafumi, E-mail: ashidatakafumi@gmail.com; Tsuji, Kouichi

    2014-11-01

    A compact grazing exit X-ray fluorescence (GE-XRF) spectrometer was developed in the laboratory. An Al cylindrical collimator for the primary X-rays was placed just above the sample stage. This collimator also played the role of an exit slit to detect fluorescent X-rays at small grazing exit angles. Therefore, no additional exit slit was used in this setup, leading to a compact design. The entire size of the analysis equipment was 80 mm × 200 mm × 170 mm (horizontal × vertical × height). The maximum exit angle was adjusted to the height of the sample stage. The background was drastically reduced at grazing exit angles, enabling trace elemental analysis. A calibration curve was obtained using 10 μL Ga solutions. Accordingly, the detection limit for Ga was evaluated to be 20 ppb. - Highlights: • We developed a compact GE-XRF spectrometer. • The dimension of GE-XRF spectrometer was 80 mm × 200 mm × 170 mm. • A detection limit of 20 ppb for Ga was obtained. • Analytical performance was comparable with that of a table-top TXRF spectrometer.

  11. Adaptation and implementation of the TRACE code for transient analysis on designs of cooled lead fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, A.; Ammirabile, L.; Martorell, S.

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the changes implemented in the TRACE code to include thermodynamic tables of liquid lead drawn from experimental results. He then explains the process for developing a thermohydraulic model for the prototype ALFRED and analysis of a selection of representative transient conducted within the framework of international research projects. The study demonstrates the applicability of TRACE code to simulate designs of cooled lead fast reactors and exposes the high safety margins are there in this technology to accommodate the most severe transients identified in their security study. (Author)

  12. Trace element determination in fingernails, hair and blood serum in patients with Crohn's disease using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschmann, H.

    1984-01-01

    The determination of trace elements and electrolyte concentrations in blood serum, hair and fingernails of 16 patients with Crohn's disease was carried out by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis. In the serum a significant decline in the zinc content could be registered, while the remaining trace elements remained in the normal range. The parenteral nutrition also showed a zinc deficiency. There was, however, also an iron deficiency. The studies of the hair and fingernails gave the following results: Rubidium and antimony in the normal range; zinc, selenium, iron and cobalt below normal values. (orig./PW) [de

  13. Removal of trace organic contaminants from domestic wastewater: A meta-analysis comparison of sewage treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Steven D; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2016-01-01

    Trace organic contaminants (TrOCs), such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), represent global threats to aquatic animals and ecosystems. A major source of TrOCs in the aquatic environment is via the discharge of treated sewage, so there is an urgent need to evaluate the comparative efficiencies of the most widely used sewage treatment technologies as regards elimination of these compounds from wastewater. To address this need, 976 published articles were compiled focusing on estimates of removal (%) for 20 common environmental TrOCs, from five major sewage treatment technologies: conventional activated sludge (CAS), oxidation ditch (OD), membrane bioreactor (MBR), ponds and constructed wetlands (PCW), and trickling biological filters (TBF). A quantitative meta-analysis was performed to compare standardized relative removal efficiencies (SREs) of the compounds amongst these technologies, and where possible potential sources of heterogeneity were considered (e.g., flow rates and chemical sorption potential). The results indicate that the most widely used CAS treatment and the less common TBF provide comparatively poor overall removal of common organic micropollutants. Membrane bioreactors appear to be capable of achieving the greatest overall removal efficiencies, but the sustainability and economic viability of this option has been questioned. Treatment with OD systems may be more economical while still achieving comparatively high removal efficiencies, and the analysis revealed OD to be the best option for targeting highly potent estrogenic EDCs. This study offers a unique global assessment of TrOC removal via leading sewage treatment technologies, and is an important step in the identification of effective options for treating municipal sewage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioclim Deliverable D1: environmental change analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The BIOCLIM project on modelling sequential Biosphere systems under Climate change for radioactive waste disposal is part of the EURATOM fifth European framework programme. The project was launched in October 2000 for a three-year period. The project aims at providing a scientific basis and practical methodology for assessing the possible long term impacts on the safety of radioactive waste repositories in deep formations due to climate and environmental change. The project brings together a number of representatives from both European radioactive waste management organisations which have national responsibilities for the safe disposal of radioactive waste, either as disposers or regulators, and several highly experienced climate research teams. In particular, BIOCLIM aims to address the important objective of how to represent the development of future biosphere systems by addressing both how to model long-term climate change, the relevant environmental consequences of such changes and the implementation of a sequential approach to such changes. The results from the development of this sophisticated approach will be of great benefit for improving long term radiological impact calculations and the information presented in a safety case. Simulations will be conducted to represent the time series of long-term climate in three European areas within which disposal sites may be established (i.e. Central/Southern Spain, Northeast of France and Central Britain). Two complementary strategies will provide representations of future climate predictions together with associated vegetation patterns using either an analysis of distinct climate states or a continuous climate simulation over at least one glacial-interglacial cycle and possibly for other selected periods over the next 1,000,000 years. These results will be used to derive the characteristics of possible future human environments (i.e. biosphere systems) through which radionuclides, emerging from the repository, may

  15. Selected industrial and environmental applications of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the applications of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in the industrial and environmental fields is given. Detection limits for different applications are also given. (author)

  16. Trace analysis of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in various materials using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.; Viqar-un-Nisa; Tanwir, R.

    1988-09-01

    Sampling and sample preparation methods have been described. Digestion methods for different types of materials and acid purification systems have been developed. For trace analysis purposes cleaning methods for glassware etc. have been described. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltametric (DPASV) method has been worked out for the trace analysis of zn, cd, pb and Cu in different types of materials. Linearity of the method has been checked by drawing concentration versus currents (peak height) curves. Precision of the method has been checked by analysing a number of actual samples. of the method has been verified by analysing standards of U.S.A. Comparative studies have been done between Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric method and Atomic Absorption spectroscopic method. Problems of contamination and systematic errors during trace and ultra-trace analysis have been discussed. A variety of samples including soil, spinach, wheat flour, rice flour, dry milk, coriander, kidney stones, bladder stones etc. have been analysed and preliminary results have been reported. (author)

  17. 32 CFR 651.10 - Actions requiring environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) National Environmental Policy Act and..., renewal, or amendment), in accordance with AR 95-50. (f) Materiel development, operation and support... engineering, laser testing, and electromagnetic pulse generation. (i) Leases, easements, permits, licenses, or...

  18. 15 CFR 971.204 - Environmental and use conflict analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental and use conflict... Applications Contents § 971.204 Environmental and use conflict analysis. (a) Environmental information... parameters listed in NOAA's Technical Guidance Document pertaining to the upper and lower water column should...

  19. Rapid Detection of Polychlorinated Biphenyls at Trace Levels in Real Environmental Samples by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Zhang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Detection of trace levels of persistent pollutants in the environment is difficult but significant. Organic pollutant homologues, due to their similar physical and chemical properties, are even more difficult to distinguish, especially in trace amounts. We report here a simple method to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in soil and distilled spirit samples by the surface-enhanced Raman scattering technique using Ag nanorod arrays as substrates. By this method, polychlorinated biphenyls can be detected to a concentration of 5 μg/g in dry soil samples within 1 minute. Furthermore, based on simulation and understanding of the Raman characteristics of PCBs, we recognized homologues of tetrachlorobiphenyl by using the surface-enhance Raman scattering method even in trace amounts in acetone solutions, and their characteristic Raman peaks still can be distinguished at a concentration of 10-6 mol/L. This study provides a fast, simple and sensitive method for the detection and recognition of organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls.

  20. Statistical analysis of aerosol species, trace gasses, and meteorology in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binaku, Katrina; O'Brien, Timothy; Schmeling, Martina; Fosco, Tinamarie

    2013-09-01

    Both canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to atmospheric aerosol and trace gas concentrations and meteorological data collected in Chicago during the summer months of 2002, 2003, and 2004. Concentrations of ammonium, calcium, nitrate, sulfate, and oxalate particulate matter, as well as, meteorological parameters temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and humidity were subjected to CCA and PCA. Ozone and nitrogen oxide mixing ratios were also included in the data set. The purpose of statistical analysis was to determine the extent of existing linear relationship(s), or lack thereof, between meteorological parameters and pollutant concentrations in addition to reducing dimensionality of the original data to determine sources of pollutants. In CCA, the first three canonical variate pairs derived were statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Canonical correlation between the first canonical variate pair was 0.821, while correlations of the second and third canonical variate pairs were 0.562 and 0.461, respectively. The first canonical variate pair indicated that increasing temperatures resulted in high ozone mixing ratios, while the second canonical variate pair showed wind speed and humidity's influence on local ammonium concentrations. No new information was uncovered in the third variate pair. Canonical loadings were also interpreted for information regarding relationships between data sets. Four principal components (PCs), expressing 77.0 % of original data variance, were derived in PCA. Interpretation of PCs suggested significant production and/or transport of secondary aerosols in the region (PC1). Furthermore, photochemical production of ozone and wind speed's influence on pollutants were expressed (PC2) along with overall measure of local meteorology (PC3). In summary, CCA and PCA results combined were successful in uncovering linear relationships between meteorology and air pollutants in Chicago and

  1. A Lexical Analysis of Environmental Sound Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Lemaitre, Guillaume; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick; Urdapilleta, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    In this article we report on listener categorization of meaningful environmental sounds. A starting point for this study was the phenomenological taxonomy proposed by Gaver (1993b). In the first experimental study, 15 participants classified 60 environmental sounds and indicated the properties shared by the sounds in each class. In a second…

  2. Geochemical study of trace vanadium in water by preconcentrational neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Y.; Ohshita, K.; Koshimizu, S.; Tomura, K.

    1997-01-01

    By preconcentrational neutron activation analysis, trace vanadium was determined in natural water samples such as ground water, river water, lake water and so on. Preconcentration was accomplished by adsorption of vanadium on activated carbon surfaces using 8-quinolinol as an adjunct. As an analytical line, the 1434 keV γ-photopeak of 52 V(T 1/2 = 3.75 m) produced in the 51 V(n, γ) 52 V reaction was measured with a conventional γ-ray spectrometer. The present analytical results show that the vanadium contents in natural water range widely from several tens ppt to about 100 ppb. A relatively larger amount of vanadium was observed in the ground water samples from the locations with basaltic soils or rocks, for example, around Mt Fuji. This suggests that the geochemical interactions of ground water with such soils or rocks could enhance the vanadium concentrations. As an application, the vanadium contents were measured in the lake water from the five lakes surrounding Mt. Fuji in order to clarify geochemical and geological behaviors of natural water by probing vanadium as an indicator. (author)

  3. Analysis of trace elements responsible for antioxidant protection by SRXFA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchar, A.; Kolmogorov, Yu; Dikalova, A.; Yelinova, V.; Kondratev, V.

    2001-09-01

    The possibilities of using the energy dispersion synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SRXFA) for control of blood plasma and liver trace element (TE) content in rats with hyperproduction of oxygen radicals and hair TE content in women with mammary hyperplasia and cancer are demonstrated. Our data show that activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in the blood and liver depends on the amount of TE incorporated into the structure of the active center of these enzymes, which are responsible for antioxidant protection. A decrease of activity of these enzymes is accompanied by an increase of production of free OH radicals in the tissues. Clinical data demonstrated that scalp hair of patients with oncological mammary pathology was characterized by a significant decrease of concentrations of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) and by an increase of chromium (Cr). The Se deficit was more pronounced in patients with cancer than in those with mammary hyperplasia ( p<0.05). The SRXFA method permits one to carry out a controllable correction of TE imbalance in many diseases whose development is caused by oxygen radical injury.

  4. Determination of arsenic and other trace elements in cosmetics by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Cepeda, A.M.; Cienfuegos Silva, E.E.

    1978-01-01

    A general survey of trace-elements in different types of cosmetics, in particular arsenic, was carried out in order to detect elements that might be detrimental to human health. The samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis and high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with Ge(Li) detectors. Different amounts of Br and Sb, detected in almost all the samples, produced interferencies in the determination of As when the 559 KeV photopeak was used. Since the triplet formed could not be resolved by the Ge(Li) detector, a mathematical procedure was developed using the 776 KeV gamma-ray emission of 82-Br and various factors found experimentally. This procedure was checked using laboratory-made samples of known concentrations and the results obtained had good precision and accuracy. In addition to arsenic the elements Co, Cr, Br, Sc, Fe and Zn were also quantitatively determined. Those cosmetics made from inorganic raw materials have an As concentration higher than those elaborated from organic materials. (EC)

  5. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis of Trace Elements in Some Food Spices Consumed In Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali asghar fathivand

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There is a growing interest in determining the concentration of various elements in food spices. In the present study, the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA was employed to measure the trace elements in 11 commonly food spices consumed in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods The levels of K, Mn, Na, Cl, V, Br, Al, and As were determined and their effects on human health were discussed. The results were compared with the values reported in the literature. The accuracy and precision of the analytical procedure was estimated by analyzing the Lichen (IAEA-336 reference material. Results The concentrations of the measured elements in the spices were 3850-29157, 10-335, 153-2849, 186-3063, 0.2-2.8, 2.1-58.7, and 72-2102 ppm for K, Mn, Na, Cl, V, Br, and Al, respectively. As was only detected in thyme (0.8 ppm and plantain (0.42 ppm. Conclusion As the findings of the present study indicated, the concentrations of K and Na in the black pepper, garlic, and ginger were significantly higher than the values reported in other countries. The Mn levels in the black pepper and garlic consumed in Tehran were comparable with those in Poland. Furthermore, the concentration of As in these spices were lower than the maximum permissible limit.

  6. Studies of trace element determinations in nails by neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Amilton Reinaldo; Saiki, Mitiko

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop the neutron activation analysis for trace element determinations in nails in order to apply this method to the study of the cystic fibrosis disease. It was verified that the elements Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn can be determined by using short and long irradiations with thermal neutron flux from 10 11 to 10 13 n.cm -2 . -1 at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The washing solutions of triton-X100, NH 4 OH and acetone were tested in order to eliminate external contaminants from the nail samples. The nail analyses of the individual fingers from both of hands showed that the samples must be collected from all the fingers from both of hands to have a representative sample. The precision and the accuracy of the results were also examined by analyzing NIES 10C Rice Flour, IUPAC Bowen's Kale and NIST 1572 Citrus Leaves reference materials. (author)

  7. Trace and ultratrace analysis methods for the determination of phosphorus by flow-injection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomizu, Shoji; Li, Zhen-Hai

    2005-04-15

    Trace (phosphorus determination by flow-injection analysis are reviewed. Most of the methods cited in this review are fundamentally based on the reaction of orthophosphate with molybdate to form heteropoly acids, such as molybdenum yellow and molybdenum blue, and some of the methods are based on the formation of such secondary reactions as ion associates and their aggregates with bulky cations, such as cationic dyes and quaternary ammonium ions. The heteropoly acids themselves can be measured by spectrophotometry, and the ion associate formed with a cationic dye, Malachite Green (MG), can be measured based on the coloration of MG. Light scattering detection methods can be used for measuring the aggregates of ion associates formed with bulky cations. Highly sensitive detection of phosphorus can be accomplished by fluorophotometry; Rhodamine B (RB) and its analogues react with molybdophosphate to form ion associates, which shows fluorescence quenching of RB: LOD is about 5 nM. The detection method based on the chemiluminescence of luminal oxidized with molybdophosphoric acids is probably the most sensitive of all the detection methods reported so far: LOD of the method is as low as 1nM. The LOD of the molybdenum blue method can be improved by using a liquid core waveguide: LOD is 0.5 nM.

  8. Analysis of trace dicyandiamide in stream water using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography UV spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huidong; Sun, Dongdi; Gunatilake, Sameera R; She, Jinyan; Mlsna, Todd E

    2015-09-01

    An improved method for trace level quantification of dicyandiamide in stream water has been developed. This method includes sample pretreatment using solid phase extraction. The extraction procedure (including loading, washing, and eluting) used a flow rate of 1.0mL/min, and dicyandiamide was eluted with 20mL of a methanol/acetonitrile mixture (V/V=2:3), followed by pre-concentration using nitrogen evaporation and analysis with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectroscopy (HPLC-UV). Sample extraction was carried out using a Waters Sep-Pak AC-2 Cartridge (with activated carbon). Separation was achieved on a ZIC(®)-Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) (50mm×2.1mm, 3.5μm) chromatography column and quantification was accomplished based on UV absorbance. A reliable linear relationship was obtained for the calibration curve using standard solutions (R(2)>0.999). Recoveries for dicyandiamide ranged from 84.6% to 96.8%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=3) were below 6.1% with a detection limit of 5.0ng/mL for stream water samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Analysis of trace metals in sodium by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalingam, T.R.; Geetha, R.; Thiruvengadasamy, A.; Mathews, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of trace metallic impurities in sodium is normally carried out by distilling off the sodium in vacuuum and analysing the residue by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). This paper describes the direct determination of the following impurities (viz.) Fe, Co, Ni, Cr, Mn, Ca, and Cu in sodium without going through the distillation step. Here sodium is simply dissolved and the solution is subjected to analysis by AAS using flameless atomisation in a graphite furnace. The method of standard additions is employed. Preliminary experiments were carried out to study the matrix effect of sodium on the atomic absorption of cobalt. It has been found that if pyrolysis is done at 1250 0 C for 20 seconds prior to atomisation, the bulk of the sodium nitrate matrix could be successfully removed. The use of the optimum pyrolysis temperatures for the various elements listed above and the matrix interference on the absorbances of these analytes are discussed in this paper. The precision and accuracy of our analytical procedure is also presented. (orig.)

  10. Method for analysis of polar volatile trace components in aqueous samples by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Johan; Roeraade, Johan

    2005-05-15

    A new method has been developed for direct analysis of volatile polar trace compounds in aqueous samples by gas chromatography. Water samples are injected onto a short packed precolumn containing anhydrous lithium chloride. A capillary column is coupled in series with the prefractionation column for final separation of the analytes. The enrichment principle of the salt precolumn is reverse to the principles employed in conventional methods such as SPE or SPME in which a sorbent or adsorbent is utilized to trap or concentrate the analytes. Such methods are not efficient for highly polar compounds. In the LiCl precolumn concept, the water matrix is strongly retained on the hygroscopic salt, whereas polar as well as nonpolar volatile organic compounds show very low retention and are eluted ahead of the water. After transfer of the analytes to the capillary column, the retained bulk water is removed by backflushing the precolumn at elevated temperature. For direct injections of 120 microL of aqueous samples, the combined time for injection and preseparation is only 3.5 min. With this procedure, direct repetitive automated analyses of highly volatile polar compounds such as methanol or tetrahydrofuran can be performed, and a limit of quantification in the low parts-per-billion region utilizing a flame ionization detector is demonstrated.

  11. Discrimination of trace nitroaromatics using linear discriminant analysis on aerosol jet printed fluorescent sensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolse, N.; Eckstein, R.; Schend, M.; Habermehl, A.; Hernandez-Sosa, G.; Eschenbaum, C.; Lemmer, U.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we report on fluorescent sensor arrays fabricated by aerosol jet printing on glass substrates to detect explosives-related nitroaromatic species. The printed sensor arrays consist of six different fluorescent polymers responding to nitroaromatic vapors through a photo-induced electron transfer. This results in a quenched fluorescence proportional to the vapor concentration. Distinct fluorescence quenching patterns are detected for nitroaromatic species including nitrobenzene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene and 2,4-dinitrotoluene. The detected fingerprints are evaluated at low concentrations of only 1, 3 and 10 parts-per-billion in air. Linear discriminant analysis is used to train each sensor array enabling the discrimination of the target analyte vapors. To investigate the reproducibility of multiple sensor arrays on a single substrate, the measured fluorescence quenching patterns are used to benchmark the linear discriminant models. For this purpose, the target analytes and vapor concentrations are predicted for each sensor array. On average, we report low and reproducible misclassification rates of about 4 % indicating excellent discriminatory abilities at low concentrations close to the detection limits. We conclude that digital printing of fluorescent polymers offers the potential to realize low-cost sensor arrays for a reliable detection of trace explosives.

  12. Evaluation of a tungsten coil atomization-laser-induced fluorescence detection approach for trace elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezer, Muhsin; Elwood, Seth A.; Jones, Bradley T.; Simeonsson, Josef B.

    2006-01-01

    The analytical utility of a tungsten (W)-coil atomization-laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) approach has been evaluated for trace level measurements of elemental chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), copper (Cu), thallium (Tl), indium (In), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) and mercury (Hg). Measurements of As, Cr, In, Se, Sb, Pb, Tl, and Sn were performed by laser-induced fluorescence using a single dye laser operating near 460 nm whose output was converted by frequency doubling and stimulated Raman scattering to wavelengths ranging from 196 to 286 nm for atomic excitation. Absolute limits of detection (LODs) of 1, 0.3, 0.3, 0.2, 1, 6, 1, 0.2 and 0.8 pg and concentration LODs of 100, 30, 30, 20, 100, 600, 100, 20, and 80 pg/mL were achieved for As, Se, Sb, Sn, In, Cu, Cr, Pb and Tl, respectively. Determinations of Hg, Pb, Zn and Cd were performed using two-color excitation approaches and resulted in absolute LODs of 2, 30, 5 and 0.6 pg, respectively, and concentration LODs of 200, 3000, 500 and 60 pg/mL, respectively. The sensitivities achieved by the W-coil LIF approaches compare well with those reported by W-coil atomic absorption spectrometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and graphite furnace electrothermal atomization-LIF approaches. The accuracy of the approach was verified through the analysis of a multielement reference solution containing Sb, Pb and Tl which each had certified performance acceptance limits of 19.6-20.4 μg/mL. The determined concentrations were 20.05 ± 2.60, 20.70 ± 2.27 and 20.60 ± 2.46 μg/mL, for Sb, Pb and Tl, respectively. The results demonstrate that W-coil LIF provides good analytical performance for trace analyses due to its high sensitivity, linearity, and capability to measure multiple elements using a single tunable laser and suggest that the development of portable W-coil LIF instrumentation using compact, solid-state lasers is feasible

  13. Evaluation of a tungsten coil atomization-laser-induced fluorescence detection approach for trace elemental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Muhsin; Elwood, Seth A; Jones, Bradley T; Simeonsson, Josef B

    2006-06-30

    The analytical utility of a tungsten (W)-coil atomization-laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) approach has been evaluated for trace level measurements of elemental chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), copper (Cu), thallium (Tl), indium (In), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) and mercury (Hg). Measurements of As, Cr, In, Se, Sb, Pb, Tl, and Sn were performed by laser-induced fluorescence using a single dye laser operating near 460 nm whose output was converted by frequency doubling and stimulated Raman scattering to wavelengths ranging from 196 to 286 nm for atomic excitation. Absolute limits of detection (LODs) of 1, 0.3, 0.3, 0.2, 1, 6, 1, 0.2 and 0.8 pg and concentration LODs of 100, 30, 30, 20, 100, 600, 100, 20, and 80 pg/mL were achieved for As, Se, Sb, Sn, In, Cu, Cr, Pb and Tl, respectively. Determinations of Hg, Pb, Zn and Cd were performed using two-color excitation approaches and resulted in absolute LODs of 2, 30, 5 and 0.6 pg, respectively, and concentration LODs of 200, 3000, 500 and 60 pg/mL, respectively. The sensitivities achieved by the W-coil LIF approaches compare well with those reported by W-coil atomic absorption spectrometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and graphite furnace electrothermal atomization-LIF approaches. The accuracy of the approach was verified through the analysis of a multielement reference solution containing Sb, Pb and Tl which each had certified performance acceptance limits of 19.6-20.4 microg/mL. The determined concentrations were 20.05+/-2.60, 20.70+/-2.27 and 20.60+/-2.46 microg/mL, for Sb, Pb and Tl, respectively. The results demonstrate that W-coil LIF provides good analytical performance for trace analyses due to its high sensitivity, linearity, and capability to measure multiple elements using a single tunable laser and suggest that the development of portable W-coil LIF instrumentation using compact, solid-state lasers is feasible.

  14. Development of a subcritical water extraction approach for trace analysis of chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, florfenicol, and florfenicol amine in poultry tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiming; Song, Rong; Rao, Zhenghua; Wei, Shulin; Jia, Zheng; Suo, Decheng; Fan, Xia

    2015-10-30

    Subcritical water extraction was investigated as a novel and alternative technology for the separation of trace amounts of chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, florfenicol and its major metabolite florfenicol amine from poultry tissues and its results were compared with those of conventional shaking extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and pressurized liquid extraction. Decreasing the polarity of water by successively increasing the extraction temperature from 50°C to 200°C at the moderate pressure enabled selective, highly effective extractions to be performed. Rapid quantification of the target compounds was carried out by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The critical parameters of subcritical water extraction such as solvent modifier, temperature, pressure, extraction time, and static cycles were varied with control. The optimized extraction procedures using subcritical water as extraction solvent, were carried out on a pressurized liquid extractor operated at 150°C and 100bar, applying two static cycles for 3min. Average recoveries of the four analytes from fortified samples ranged between 86.8% and 101.5%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 7.7%. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) for the target compounds were in the ranges of 0.03-0.5μgkg(-1) and 0.1-2.0μgkg(-1), respectively. The proposed method is fast, sensitive, water-based thus more environmental acceptable, making it a suitable replacement for conventional organic solvent extraction in veterinary drug residue analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Trace-level mercury ion (Hg2+) analysis in aqueous sample based on solid-phase extraction followed by microfluidic immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Yasumoto; Aota, Arata; Terakado, Shingo; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Norio; Watanabe, Yoshitomo; Matsue, Tomokazu; Ohmura, Naoya

    2013-01-02

    Mercury is considered the most important heavy-metal pollutant, because of the likelihood of bioaccumulation and toxicity. Monitoring widespread ionic mercury (Hg(2+)) contamination requires high-throughput and cost-effective methods to screen large numbers of environmental samples. In this study, we developed a simple and sensitive analysis for Hg(2+) in environmental aqueous samples by combining a microfluidic immunoassay and solid-phase extraction (SPE). Using a microfluidic platform, an ultrasensitive Hg(2+) immunoassay, which yields results within only 10 min and with a lower detection limit (LOD) of 0.13 μg/L, was developed. To allow application of the developed immunoassay to actual environmental aqueous samples, we developed an ion-exchange resin (IER)-based SPE for selective Hg(2+) extraction from an ion mixture. When using optimized SPE conditions, followed by the microfluidic immunoassay, the LOD of the assay was 0.83 μg/L, which satisfied the guideline values for drinking water suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2 μg/L; total mercury), and the World Health Organisation (WHO) (6 μg/L; inorganic mercury). Actual water samples, including tap water, mineral water, and river water, which had been spiked with trace levels of Hg(2+), were well-analyzed by SPE, followed by microfluidic Hg(2+) immunoassay, and the results agreed with those obtained from reduction vaporizing-atomic adsorption spectroscopy.

  16. Methodology to carry out a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for cross sections using a coupled model Trace-Parcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, M. C.; Del Valle G, E.; Gomez T, A. M.; Sanchez E, V.

    2015-09-01

    A methodology was implemented to carry out a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for cross sections used in a coupled model for Trace/Parcs in a transient of control rod fall of a BWR-5. A model of the reactor core for the neutronic code Parcs was used, in which the assemblies located in the core are described. Thermo-hydraulic model in Trace was a simple model, where only a component type Chan was designed to represent all the core assemblies, which it was within a single vessel and boundary conditions were established. The thermo-hydraulic part was coupled with the neutron part, first for the steady state and then a transient of control rod fall was carried out for the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. To carry out the analysis of cross sections used in the coupled model Trace/Parcs during the transient, the Probability Density Functions for 22 parameters selected from the total of neutronic parameters that use Parcs were generated, obtaining 100 different cases for the coupled model Trace/Parcs, each one with a database of different cross sections. All these cases were executed with the coupled model, obtaining in consequence 100 different output files for the transient of control rod fall doing emphasis in the nominal power, for which an uncertainty analysis was realized at the same time generate the band of uncertainty. With this analysis is possible to observe the ranges of results of the elected responses varying the selected uncertainty parameters. The sensitivity analysis complements the uncertainty analysis, identifying the parameter or parameters with more influence on the results and thus focuses on these parameters in order to better understand their effects. Beyond the obtained results, because is not a model with real operation data, the importance of this work is to know the application of the methodology to carry out the sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. (Author)

  17. Environmental analysis of biomass-ethanol facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbus, D.; Putsche, V.

    1995-12-01

    This report analyzes the environmental regulatory requirements for several process configurations of a biomass-to-ethanol facility. It also evaluates the impact of two feedstocks (municipal solid waste [MSW] and agricultural residues) and three facility sizes (1000, 2000, and 3000 dry tons per day [dtpd]) on the environmental requirements. The basic biomass ethanol process has five major steps: (1) Milling, (2) Pretreatment, (3) Cofermentation, (4) Enzyme production, (5) Product recovery. Each step could have environmental impacts and thus be subject to regulation. Facilities that process 2000 dtpd of MSW or agricultural residues would produce 69 and 79 million gallons of ethanol, respectively.

  18. Analysis of Trace Elements in Rat Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Wajhul; Al-Ghadeer, Abdul Rahman; Ali, Raisuddin; Abuelizz, Hatem A

    2017-08-01

    The main objective was to determine the elemental profile of the lung lining fluid of rats which are used as model animals in various experiments. Lung lining fluid elemental constitution obtained after bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine the biological trace elements along with calcium and magnesium. BALF was collected from healthy rats using a tracheal cannula. However, cells in BALF were counted to monitor any underlying inflammatory lung condition. Cell free BALF samples were processed and analyzed for the elements including magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), bromine (Br), and iodine (I). In view of this, calcium concentration was the highest (6318.08 ± 3094.3 μg/L) and copper concentration was the lowest (0.89 ± 0.21 μg/L). The detected elements, from high to low concentration, include Ca > Mg > Fe > Br > I > Cr > Ni > Zn > Mn > Se > Cu. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed no significant correlation between cell count and concentration of any of the element detected in BALF. Correlation analysis also revealed significant positive correlation among Fe, I, Cr, Ni, and Mn. Ca was found to be correlated negatively with Cu and positively with Se. Br and Mg found to be positively correlated with each other. Zn remained the only element that was not found to be correlated with any of the elements in the rat BALF.

  19. Minerals and trace elements determination in diets by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiras, Maria Izabel O.; Favaro, Debora I.T.; Ribeiro, Marisilda; Cozzolino, Silvia M.F.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study 12 diets, each one consisting of a pool of seven day diets, composed by four meals: breakfast, lunch, dinner and snack, adequate in energy and macro nutrients according to the RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) recommendations, were elaborated and offered to a group of 12 men (19-42 years). The diets were collected by duplicate portion technique and dried by two different processes: freeze drying and 60 deg C ventilated oven drying. In the total, 24 diets were analyzed. The content of some minerals and trace elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn) were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The validation of methodology was made by analysis of the reference materials Typical Diet (NIST SRM 1548 a ), Orchard Leaves (NIST SRM 1541) and Peach Leaves (NIST SRM 1547). The results observed by two different drying processes used were statistically compared by test T of Student. It was possible to conclude that the concentration means can be considered as statistically equal, within a significance level of 0.05. The daily intake values calculated from the concentration results were: 712 (± 59) mg Ca/day; 10.7 (± 0.8) mg Fe/ day; 3387 (± 16) mg K/ day; 275 (± 6) mg Mg/ day; 3.0 (± 0.5) mg Mn/ day; 3656 (± 699) mg Na/ day; 42 (± 6) μg Se/ day e 11.6 (± 2.4) mg Zn/ day. The calculated intake was compared to the new daily recommended values set by RDA (National Research Council-USA) for the range age of individuals studied. It was possible to conclude that the diets were adequate in Fe and Zn and inadequate for the other elements. Concerning the minerals Na and K we verified high daily intake levels and this was already observed in other Brazilian regional diets. (author)

  20. Opportunity for verbalization does not improve visual change detection performance: A state-trace analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sense, Florian; Morey, Candice C; Prince, Melissa; Heathcote, Andrew; Morey, Richard D

    2017-06-01

    Evidence suggests that there is a tendency to verbally recode visually-presented information, and that in some cases verbal recoding can boost memory performance. According to multi-component models of working memory, memory performance is increased because task-relevant information is simultaneously maintained in two codes. The possibility of dual encoding is problematic if the goal is to measure capacity for visual information exclusively. To counteract this possibility, articulatory suppression is frequently used with visual change detection tasks specifically to prevent verbalization of visual stimuli. But is this precaution always necessary? There is little reason to believe that concurrent articulation affects performance in typical visual change detection tasks, suggesting that verbal recoding might not be likely to occur in this paradigm, and if not, precautionary articulatory suppression would not always be necessary. We present evidence confirming that articulatory suppression has no discernible effect on performance in a typical visual change-detection task in which abstract patterns are briefly presented. A comprehensive analysis using both descriptive statistics and Bayesian state-trace analysis revealed no evidence for any complex relationship between articulatory suppression and performance that would be consistent with a verbal recoding explanation. Instead, the evidence favors the simpler explanation that verbal strategies were either not deployed in the task or, if they were, were not effective in improving performance, and thus have no influence on visual working memory as measured during visual change detection. We conclude that in visual change detection experiments in which abstract visual stimuli are briefly presented, pre-cautionary articulatory suppression is unnecessary.

  1. Environmental insurance: research information support

    OpenAIRE

    Rykova Valentina V.

    2015-01-01

    he article describes information resources to support research on the issue of environmental insurance. It represents a brief analysis of a documentary flow, traces its dynamics and typical-thematic structures, shows the most productive journals

  2. Environmental Impact Analysis Process Chemical Release Experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force proposes to conduct an experiment to identify the potential environmental consequences of an inadvertent release of hydrazine rocket propellant in space, during orbital or suborbital operations...

  3. Applied research of environmental monitoring using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Young Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Young Ju

    1997-08-01

    This technical report is written as a guide book for applied research of environmental monitoring using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The contents are as followings; sampling and sample preparation as a airborne particulate matter, analytical methodologies, data evaluation and interpretation, basic statistical methods of data analysis applied in environmental pollution studies. (author). 23 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  4. Sustainable Process Design under uncertainty analysis: targeting environmental indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L. Gargalo, Carina; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on uncertainty analysis of environmental indicators used to support sustainable process design efforts. To this end, the Life Cycle Assessment methodology is extended with a comprehensive uncertainty analysis to propagate the uncertainties in input LCA data to the environmental...

  5. Regional environmental analysis and management: New techniques for current problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honea, R. B.; Paludan, C. T. N.

    1974-01-01

    Advances in data acquisition and processing procedures for regional environmental analysis are discussed. Automated and semi-automated techniques employing Earth Resources Technology Satellite data and conventional data sources are presented. Experiences are summarized. The ERTS computer compatible tapes provide a very complete and flexible record of earth resources data and represent a viable medium to enhance regional environmental analysis research.

  6. California geothermal resource development environmental implications for ERCDC Environmental Analysis Office. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J.A.

    1977-02-01

    The results of an analysis of the environmental implications for ERCDC Environmental Analysis Office (EAO) in relation to the development of California's geothermal resources are reported. While focusing primarily on environmental implications, particularly the natural, social, and economic elements, the report includes some ERCDC-wide policy and program considerations. The primary thrusts of the work have been in the development of an understanding of the interagency and intergovernmental environmental data and data-management roles and responsibilities and in the formulation of recommendations related thereto. Five appendices are included, one of which is a tax credit agreement between a power company and Skagit County, Washington. (JGB)

  7. Analysis of impurities at trace levels in metallic niobium by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaro, D.I.T.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Santos, C.

    1989-10-01

    The interest in obtaining niobium of high purity has increased due to the recent applications of this material in both vacuum and high temperature technologies and to its potential uses in the aeronautic and aerospacial industries and in the nuclear energy field. In the present work, a procedure of analysis of impurities in the parts per million level, in eletrolitic and non-eletrolitic niobium samples has been established. The method of neutron activation analysis followed by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry has been used. The elements Al, Na, Mn, Cl and In, in ppm level and Y, in the percentage level, were determined after irradiation from 1 to 20 minutes, under a thermal neutron flux of 10 11 n.cm -2 .s -1 at the IEA-Rl reactor of the IPEN-CNEN/SP. The γ-rays from the radioactive products were measured with a Ge(Li) detector coupled to a 4096 channel analyzer. The elements Ta, Cr and W, in the parts per million level, were determined with irradiation of 8 hours under a thermal neutron flux of 10 12 n.cm -2 .s -1 . (autor) [pt

  8. Determination of trace elements in lichen samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, Mitiko; Coccaro, D.M.B.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Marcelli, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    Epiphytic lichens have been used as bioindicators of environmental pollution studies because of their ability to accumulate metals present in the atmosphere at very low concentrations. In this work, experimental conditions for collection and preparation of the lichen samples as well as the experimental procedure for neutron activation analysis were established in order to obtain reliable and useful data for environmental monitoring purposes. Lichen samples were collected from the barks of trees. They were first examined in a stereo microscope, cleaned and then they were washed with water, freeze-dried and ground for analysis. Out of the five species Usnea sp, Parmotrena tinctorum, Canoparmelia caroliniana, Parmotrema sanctiangeli and Canoparmelia texana analysed, the latter was chosen for this work since this species is very abundant on the Brazilian territory except for the coast. The samples and synthetic standards of elements were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor and the concentrations of the elements Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, lanthanides, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, U, V and Zn were determined by using short and long irradiations. Results obtained in the washed and unwashed lichen samples showed that the cleaning with water can be used in order to eliminate adhering materials. Indeed, most of elements of interest for the environmental contamination accumulated by the lichens were not removed. The study of the influence of the age of the lichen indicated that its elemental concentrations increase with its age or with the length of exposure. Results obtained for lichens collected from four different trees in the same sampling area varied from about 3.4 to 50%. The homogeneity of the sample was checked by analyzing replicates. The precision and the accuracy of the method were evaluated by analyzing IAEA 336 Lichen and NIST 1752 Citrus Leaves. (author)

  9. PM2.5 in Urban and Rural Nursery Schools in Upper Silesia, Poland: Trace Elements Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mainka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ in nursery schools is an emerging public health challenge. Particular attention should be paid to younger children, because they are more vulnerable to air pollution than older children. Among air pollutants, fine particulate matter (PM2.5 is of the greatest interest mainly due to its strong association with acute and chronic effects on children’s health. In this paper, we present concentrations of PM2.5 and the composition of its trace elements at naturally ventilated nursery schools located in the area of Gliwice, Poland. The nursery schools were selected to characterize areas with different degrees of urbanization and traffic densities during the winter and spring seasons. The results indicate there is a problem with elevated concentrations of PM2.5 inside the examined classrooms. The children’s exposure to trace elements was different based on localization and season. PM2.5 concentration and its trace element composition have been studied using correlation coefficients between the different trace elements, the enrichment factor (EF and principal component analysis (PCA. PCA allowed the identification of the three components: anthropogenic and geogenic sources (37.2%, soil dust contaminated by sewage sludge dumping (18.6% and vehicular emissions (19.5%.

  10. Determination of essential trace elements in wine by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniele, Anna Paula

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been carried out for determining essential elements in foodstuffs, including wine, due to its important nutritional role in human body functions. It was shown that daily consumption of wine in moderation contributes significantly to the needs of essential elements in human body such as Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Zn, V, among others, and has health benefits in the prevention of numerous diseases and longer life expectancy, related in particular to the intake of antioxidants such as polyphenolic compounds. Trace elements are good indicators of origin of wines and their concentrations can be used as criteria to ensure authenticity, quality and show that the tolerance limits established by law were respected throughout the production process. However, although Brazilian wine industry is among the 15 largest in the world, analytical studies for organic and inorganic compounds of wine content are still small when compared to other major producers. In this sense, this study aimed to evaluate some procedures of wine sample preparation to determine essential elements by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and compare the results with those determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES). Three sample preparation procedures were studied: freeze-drying, evaporation and dry ashing. The parameters studied were precision, accuracy and detection limit. ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer tests were applied to verify the statistical differences between the mean values obtained by the three wine preparation procedures for INAA with those means obtained by ICP OES. It was noticed that about 60% of results obtained by freeze-drying agreed with those obtained by ICP OES. (author)

  11. Analysis of Indian mint (Mentha spicata) for essential, trace and toxic elements and its antioxidant behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, R Paul; Kumar, A; Garg, A N

    2006-06-07

    Mint, belonging to the genus Mentha in the family Labiatae (Lamiaceae) is pungent in taste with post digestive effects and hot potency. Ten samples of mint leaves, collected from four different locations in North-West parts of India (Roorkee, Dehradun, Baghpat and Uttarkashi) were analysed for seven minor (Al, Na, K, Ca, Cl, Mg, and P) and 20 trace (As, Au, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, La, Mn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sn, Th and Zn) elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Also Ni, Cu and Cd were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Samples along with reference materials (RMs) and synthetic primary standard were irradiated at approximately 10(13) n cm-2s-1 and its gamma-activity was measured using HPGe detector and MCA system. Most elements were found in widely varying amounts depending on the location, e.g. Na (0.21-0.86 mg/g), K (12.4-53.3 mg/g) and Ca (5.82-16.8 mg/g) whereas mean contents of other nutrient elements in mint were: Fe (108+/-22 microg/g), Mg (4.83+/-0.92 mg/g), Mn (53.5+/-9.6 microg/g), P (3.88+/-0.94 mg/g), Cu (16.9+/-1.8 microg/g), Zn (21.0+/-4.7 microg/g) and Se (0.18+/-0.03 microg/g). Further, DPPH free radical scavenging activity test in diethyl ether extract showed 100% activity at approximately 40 microg/L suggesting it to be antioxidant in accordance with literature reports.

  12. Changes in growth rate and macroelement and trace element accumulation in Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L. during the growing season in relation to environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polechońska, Ludmiła; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Dambiec, Małgorzata

    2017-02-01

    The temporal variations in plant chemistry connected with its life cycle may affect the cycling of elements in an ecosystem as well as determine the usefulness of the species in phytoremediation and bioindication. In this context, there is a gap in knowledge on the role of floating plants for elements cycling in aquatic reservoirs. The aim of the study was to determine if there are variations in Hydrocharis morsus-ranae (European frog-bit) bioaccumulation capacity and the growth rate of its population during the growing season and to test the impact of environmental pollution on these features. The content of macroelements (Ca, K, Mg, N, Na, P, S) and trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Hg, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) was determined in H. morsus-ranae collected monthly from June to October from habitats differing in environmental contamination. The results showed that the highest content of most trace metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Zn) and some nutrients (N, P) in plants as well as the greatest bioaccumulation efficiency occurred simultaneously in the beginning of the growing season. In the following months, a dilution effect (manifested by a decrease in content) related to the rapid growth was observed. Co, Mn, and Ni content in plant tissues reflected the level of environmental contamination throughout the growing season which makes H. morsus-ranae a potential biomonitor of pollution for these metals. Considering the great bioaccumulation ability, high sensitivity to contamination, and low biomass of European frog-bit in polluted systems, further investigation is required to assess the real phytoremediation capability of the species.

  13. Metrological role of reactor neutron activation analysis in contemporary inorganic trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Weizhi

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the inherent characteristics of relative instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as a primary ratio method of measurement, the unique functions of parametric INAA as an ideal back-up method of the relative INAA, and the valuable role of INAA in characterization of sampling behavior of individual elements in certified reference materials (CRMs) will be discussed. In the second of this series, traceability and uncertainty of measurement results by k 0 -INAA will be described. The role of k 0 -INAA as a back-up to relative INAA will be discussed. In the final series, minimum sample size, usually 100 mg or larger, is often the only information given in certificates of the existing certified reference materials (CRMs) to describe sampling behavior. This value is not only too large to cope with the quality control (QC) requirements of microanalysis, but also too general to reflect the strong element-specific nature of sampling behavior of solid materials. The need for CRMs with sampling behavior characterized for individual elements is explained, and the unique role INAA can play in this aspect is described. (J.P.N.)

  14. First dating of groundwater with Atom Trap Trace Analysis of 39Ar - application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Thomas; Kersting, Arne; Ritterbusch, Florian; Ebser, Sven; Bender, Klaus; Purtschert, Roland; Oberthaler, Markus; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater from the intermediate aquifer layers of the Rhine Graben sediments in the Rhein-Neckar metropolitan region is strongly exploited for the purpose of drinking water supply. Isotope hydrological investigations of the regional groundwater dynamics have been initiated with the ultimate goal of improving the protection of this important water resource. However, these studies are hampered by the fact that the groundwater falls in the age dating gap of classical isotope methods between about 50 and 1000 years of water age, which can only be bridged by the extremely rare isotope 39Ar. Here we report and discuss the first 39Ar groundwater ages obtained by the new analytical method Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). Groundwater samples from the Upper Rhine Graben aquifers were collected and analysed by established methods for a large range of tracers, including tritium, stable isotopes, noble gases, and 14C. For 39Ar analysis, several tons of water were degassed in the field using a membrane contactor. In the laboratory, a gas-chromatographic system at cryogenic temperatures was used to separate pure argon from the extracted gas. ATTA was then used to isolate and count 39Ar atoms from these samples. In parallel, samples for 39Ar analysis by low-level counting at the University of Bern were taken to enable comparison of the two analytical techniques. The resulting 39Ar groundwater ages in the range of several hundred years are in accordance with the indications obtained from the classical dating tracers. They provide quantitative information on the groundwater travel time for an important, strongly exploited part of the investigated aquifer system, which could not be obtained from the other tracers. These results significantly improve the knowledge of the time scale of groundwater renewal in the aquifer layers of intermediate depth. Furthermore, the combination of the 39Ar age scale with noble gas recharge temperatures and stable isotope data has the potential to

  15. EFFECTIVENESS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TREATIES: TREND ANALYSIS OF TREATY-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS

    OpenAIRE

    CHENAZ B. SEELARBOKUS

    2005-01-01

    The literature on environmental regime effectiveness has shown a predilection for behaviour modification studies, whereby effectiveness is associated with a change in the behaviour of relevant actors. There has not been a systematic endeavour to link the implementation of international environmental agreements (IEAs) with improvement in environmental conditions. This article shifts away from the paradigm of behavioural analysis and focuses instead on linking IEA effectiveness with positive en...

  16. Environmental Sustainability Analysis of Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Michael Zwicky; Birkved, Morten

    like these require a life cycle perspective on the biofuel - from the cradle (production of the agricultural feedstock) to the grave (use as fuel). An environmental life cycle assessment is performed on biodiesel to compare different production schemes including chemical and enzymatic esterification...... with the use of methanol or ethanol. The life cycle assessment includes all processes needed for the production, distribution and use of the biodiesel (the product system), and it includes all relevant environmental impacts from the product system, ranging from global impacts like climate change and loss...... of non-renewable resources over regional impacts like acidification, eutrophication and photochemical ozone to more local impacts like ecotoxicity and physical impacts like land use, to allow judging on the overall environmental sustainability of the biodiesel and to support identification of the main...

  17. Application of a portable total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometer to a trace elemental analysis of wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunimura, Shinsuke; Kawai, Jun

    2009-01-01

    A portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer has been applied to a trace elemental analysis of wines. Sulfur, K, Mn, Fe, and Rb were detected. These five elements were quantified by using 1 ppm of Co as an internal standard. The quantified concentrations ranged from sub-ppm to several hundred ppm. Because of organic substances in wines, the scattering of the incident X-rays from the dry residues of wines becomes strong. Therefore, a high spectral background appears in TXRF spectra of wines. Because of this background, relative standard deviations of the quantified concentrations were from 4 to 28%. Although the high spectral background appeared in the TXRF spectra of the wines, a detection limit down to several tens of ppb was achieved. The present portable spectrometer can be applied to screening for trace elements in wines before an accurate and precise analysis using a large elemental analyzer. (author)

  18. An Adaptive Single-Well Stochastic Resonance Algorithm Applied to Trace Analysis of Clenbuterol in Human Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaofei Xie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory of stochastic resonance, an adaptive single-well stochastic resonance (ASSR coupled with genetic algorithm was developed to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of weak chromatographic signals. In conventional stochastic resonance algorithm, there are two or more parameters needed to be optimized and the proper parameters values were obtained by a universal searching within a given range. In the developed ASSR, the optimization of system parameter was simplified and automatic implemented. The ASSR was applied to the trace analysis of clenbuterol in human urine and it helped to significantly improve the limit of detection and limit of quantification of clenbuterol. Good linearity, precision and accuracy of the proposed method ensure that it could be an effective tool for trace analysis and the improvement of detective sensibility of current detectors.

  19. Analysis of trace elements in scalp hair of healthy people, hyperplasia and breast cancer patients with XRF method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmogorov, Yuriy; Kovaleva, Valentina; Gonchar, Alexandr

    2000-06-01

    The possibilities of using the energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SRXFA) for the control of trace elements (TE) content in the hair of women with mammary hyperplasia and cancer are demonstrated. Ten hair samples were taken from 25- to 60-year-old women who have been operated for mammary cancer and from 23 patients under oncologist's observation on the occasion of hyperplastic process in the mammary gland (fibrocystous mastopathy). The results of the analyses of trace elements content in the hair of 52 practically healthy women were used as control. The results demonstrated that scalp hair of patients with oncological mammary pathology are characterized by the significant decrease of the concentration of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and by the increase of chromium (Cr). The Se deficit was more pronounced in patients with cancer than in those with hyperplasia (fiducial probability p<0.05)

  20. Numerical discretization analysis of a HTR steam generator model for the thermal-hydraulics code trace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esch Markus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For future high temperature reactor projects, e. g., for electricity production or nuclear process heat applications, the steam generator is a crucial component. A typical design is a helical coil steam generator consisting of several tubes connected in parallel forming cylinders of different diameters. This type of steam generator was a significant component used at the thorium high temperature reactor. In the work presented the temperature profile is being analyzed by the nodal thermal hydraulics code TRACE for the thorium high temperature reactor steam generator. The influence of the nodalization is being investigated within the scope of this study and compared to experimental results from the past. The results of the standard TRACE code are compared to results using a modified Nusselt number for the primary side. The implemented heat transfer correlation was developed within the past German HTR program. This study shows that both TRACE versions are stable and provides a discussion of the nodalization requirements.

  1. Tracing social interactions in Pleistocene North America via 3D model analysis of stone tool asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Gingerich, Joseph A M; Schlager, Stefan; Stanford, Dennis J; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2017-01-01

    Stone tools, often the sole remnant of prehistoric hunter-gatherer behavior, are frequently used as evidence of ancient human mobility, resource use, and environmental adaptation. In North America, studies of morphological variation in projectile points have provided important insights into migration and interactions of human groups as early as 12-13 kya. Using new approaches to 3D imaging and morphometric analysis, we here quantify bifacial asymmetry among early North American projectile point styles to better understand changes in knapping technique and cultural transmission. Using a sample of 100 fluted bifaces of Clovis and post-Clovis styles in the eastern United States ca. 13,100-9,000 cal BP (i.e., Clovis, Debert-Vail, Bull Brook, Michaud-Neponset/Barnes, and Crowfield), we employed two different approaches for statistical shape analysis: our previously presented method for analysis of 2D flake scar contours, and a new approach for 3D surface analysis using spherical harmonics (SPHARM). Whereas bifacial asymmetry in point shape does not vary significantly across this stylistic sequence, our measure of asymmetric flake scar patterning shows temporal variation that may signify the beginning of regionalization among early New World colonists.

  2. Trace, isotopic analysis of micron-sized grains -- Mo, Zr analysis of stardust (SiC and graphite grains).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellin, M. J.; Nicolussi, G. K.

    1998-02-19

    Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry using resonant laser ionization can provide for both high useful yields and high discrimination while maintaining high lateral and depth resolutions. An example of the power of the method is measurement of the isotopic composition of Mo and Zr in 1-5 {micro}m presolar SiC and graphite grains isolated from the Murchison CM2 meteorite for the first time. These grains have survived the formation of the Solar System and isotopic analysis reveals a record of the stellar nucleosynthesis present during their formation. Mo and Zr, though present at less than 10 ppm in some grains, are particularly useful in that among their isotopes are members that can only be formed by distinct nucleosynthetic processes known as s-, p-, and r-process. Successful isotopic analysis of these elements requires both high selectivity (since these are trace elements) and high efficiency (since the total number of atoms available are limited). Resonant Ionization Spectroscopy is particularly useful and flexible in this application. While the sensitivity of this t.edmique has often been reported in the past, we focus hereon the very low noise properties of the technique. We further demonstrate the efficacy of noise removal by two complimentary methods. First we use the resonant nature of the signal to subtract background signal. Second we demonstrate that by choosing the appropriate resonance scheme background can often be dramatically reduced.

  3. Temporal and diurnal analysis of trace elements in the Cryospheric water at remote Laohugou basin in northeast Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhiwen; Kang, Shichang; Qin, Dahe; Qin, Xiang; Yan, Fangping; Du, Wentao; Wei, Ting

    2017-03-01

    An evaluation of glacial meltwater chemistry is needed under recent dramatic glacier melting when water resources might be significantly impacted. This study investigated trace elements variation in the meltwater stream, and its related aquatic environmental information, at the Laohugou (LHG) glacier basin (4260 m a.s.l.) at a remote location in northeast Tibetan Plateau. We focused on the spatial, temporal and diurnal change of trace elements during the glacier ablation period. Results showed evident elements spatial difference on the glacier surface meltwater, as most of the elements showed increased concentration at the terminus compared to higher elevations sites. Dominant elements in the meltwater were Ba, Sr and Cr, whereas elements with high enrichment factors (EFs) were Sb, Ni, Mo and Zn. Temporal change of some trace elements concentration (e.g. Sc, Cu, and Rb) indicated increasing trend with accelerated snow-ice melting, whereas others (e.g. Ni, Zn, and Pb) showed decreasing trend. We find that, trace elements showed evident diurnal change and a peak value of concentration was observed each day at about 15:00-17:00, and the diurnal change was influenced by runoff level and pH. Moreover, EFs calculations revealed that heavy metals were partially originated from regional anthropogenic sources. Overall, the accelerated diurnal and temporal snow-ice melting (with high runoff level) were correlated to increased elemental concentration, pH, EC and elemental change mode, and thus this work is of great importance for evaluating the impacts of accelerated glacier melting to meltwater chemistry and downstream ecosystem in the northeast Tibetan Plateau. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of high resolution resonance ionization mass spectrometry for trace analysis of {sup 93m}Nb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsuka, Takaaki; Tomita, Hideki, E-mail: tomita@nagoya-u.jp [Nagoya University (Japan); Sonoda, Tetsu [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Sonnenschein, Volker [Johannes Gutenberg University (Germany); Sakamoto, Chika [Nagoya University (Japan); Mita, Hiroki [University of Tsukuba, Institute of Physics (Japan); Noto, Takuma [Nagoya University (Japan); Ito, Chikara; Maeda, Shigetaka [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center (Japan); Iguchi, Tetsuo [Nagoya University (Japan); Wada, Michiharu [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Wendt, Klaus [Johannes Gutenberg University (Germany); Moore, Iain [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    {sup 93}Nb(n, n Prime ){sup 93m}Nb reaction allows retrospective estimation of integrated fast neutron dose in nuclear reactor. We proposed isomer-selective trace analysis of {sup 93m}Nb by Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry (RIMS) combined with a gas-jet atomic source and an injection locked Ti:Sapphire laser system operated at several kHz. Resonant ionization spectroscopy of Nb in gas-jet using Ti:Sapphire laser was demonstrated.

  5. [Determination of polysaccharide from Chinese medicine Morinda officinalis how and its trace elements analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong-Jun; Liu, Jie; Wu, Yu-Ming; Liu, Li-E; Zhang, Hong-Quan

    2005-12-01

    Polysaccharide was extracted from morinda officinalis how by back-flowing with 80% ethanol for 1 h, and the method of improved phenol-sulfuric acid spectroscopy was adopted to determine the content of morinda officinalis how polysaccharide. As for its trace elements, the atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to detect the content of Zn, Fe and Cu, which were compared with its fake; and cold atomic fluorometry was applied to determine the trace mercury. The results were satisfactory, which can give reference about the effective components of morinda officinalis how, and will help to exploit it.

  6. [Impact of specimen collection and storage consumable products on trace element quantitative analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan-shuang; Gu, Yong-en; Ba, Te; Zhai, Min; Pu, Ji; Shen, Zhen-lin; Tang, Shi-chuan; Jia, Guang

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to explore the impact of specimen collection and storage consumable products on trace element quantitative analysis. Devices and consumable products of different brands used in specimen collection or storage were selected and treated separately as below:urine collection and storage tubes (Brand A, B, C and D, 2 samples for each brand) were treated with 1% of HNO(3) volume fraction for 2 - 4 h; blood taking device (Brand O, P and Q, 3 samples for each brand) were used for ultra-pure water samples collecting as simulation of blood sampling;dust sampling filters (Brand X, Y and Z, 2 samples for each brand) were cold digested by nitric acid for 12 h, followed by microwave digestion. Then cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, stannum, titanium, vanadium and zinc concentrations in the solutions obtained during the course of collect or storage were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. For the urine collection and storage consumable products, background values of elements were described as mean of parellel samples. The consentration of 14 quantified elements were relatively low for 5 ml cryogenic vials (brand B) with background values range of 0.001 - 0.350 ng/ml. The background values of copper of 50 ml centrifuge tubes (brand A), chromium of 5 ml cryogenic vials (brand C) and zinc of 1.5 ml centrifuge tubes (brand D) were relatively high, which were 1.900, 1.095 and 1.368 ng/ml, respectively. Background values of elements in blood sampling devices were described as x(-) ± s. Background values of chromium for brand O, P and Q were (0.120 ± 0.017), (0.337 ± 0.093) and (0.360 ± 0.035) ng/ml; for copper were (0.050 ± 0.001), (0.017 ± 0.012) and (0.103 ± 0.015) ng/ml; for lead were (0.057 ± 0.072), (0.183 ± 0.118) and (0.347 ± 0.006) ng/ml; for titanium were (7.883 ± 0.145), (8.863 ± 0.190) and (8.613 ± 0.274) ng/ml; zinc were (2.240 ± 0.573), (42.140 ± 22.756) and (8

  7. Assessment of trace metal air pollution in Paris using slurry-TXRF analysis on cemetery mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Marco; Zanella, Augusto; Rankovic, Aleksandar; Banas, Damien; Cantaluppi, Chiara; Abbadie, Luc; Lata, Jean -Christophe

    2016-12-01

    elements in mosses was determined by a total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique coupled with a slurry sampling method. Statistical analysis revealed that: - Urbanized Parisian areas crossed by traffic roads have the highest polluted cemeteries with a strong influence of main wind direction on the distribution of air pollutants - As expected, small cemeteries with low tree density were heavily polluted - Less obvious, large green spaces such as large cemeteries (Père Lachaise, Montmartre, Montparnasse) in the center of a dense metropolis like Paris present the same level of atmospheric trace metal pollution as cemeteries in less urbanized areas or nearing a very large forest. This suggests that even in densely urbanized areas, there is more spatial variability in pollution distribution than usually assumed and that large urban areas with low traffic and green filters such as trees are likely to intercept air pollutants.

  8. Approaching messy problems: strategies for environmental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. M. Reid; R. R. Ziemer; T. E. Lisle

    1996-01-01

    Environmental problems are never neatly defined. Instead, each is a tangle of interacting processes whose manifestation and interpretation are warped by the vagaries of time, weather, expectation, and economics. Each problem involves livelihoods, values, and numerous specialized disciplines. Nevertheless, federal agencies in the Pacific Northwest have been given the...

  9. Procedures for Environmental Impact Analysis and Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Novak, E., and R. Riggins, Computer-Aided Environmental Impact AnLysis : MIS- sion Change, O&M, and Training: User Manual, Technical Report E-85...there is mixed sentiment has a better chance of establishing a positive relationship with the audience. (8) Avoid using technical jargon or words that

  10. Analysis of Corporate Environmental Management: Methodological Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2001-01-01

    Human activities cannot avoid influencing conditions in the natural environment one way or the other. This includes as well common activities in the business sector. But during the past few decades, environmental disasters in Seveso and Bhopal, and the Exxon Valdes oil spill in Alaska have...

  11. Community succession analysis and environmental biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... on abandoned hilly lands and implications for vegetation restoration strategy in Shanxi, China. X.Z Liu1, F. Zhang1*, H.B. Shao2,3* and J.T. Zhang4. 1Institute of Loess Plateau, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China. 2The CAS / Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes ...

  12. Analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts by single pump cycling-column-switching ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongping; Ni, Chengzhu; Zhu, Zhuyi; Pan, Zaifa; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The application of ion chromatography with the single pump cycling-column-switching technique was described for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts within a single run. Due to the hydrogen ions provided by an anion suppressor electrolyzing water, weak acid anions could be transformed into weak acids, existing as molecules, after passing through the suppressor. Therefore, an anion suppressor and ion-exclusion column were adopted to achieve on-line matrix elimination of weak acid anions with high concentration for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts. A series of standard solutions consisting of target anions of various concentrations from 0.005 to 10 mg/L were analyzed, with correlation coefficients r ≥ 0.9990. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.67 to 1.51 μg/L, based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and a 25 μL injection volume. Relative standard deviations for retention time, peak area, and peak height were all less than 2.01%. A spiking study was performed with satisfactory recoveries between 90.3 and 104.4% for all anions. The chromatographic system was successfully applied to the analysis of trace inorganic anions in five weak acid salts. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Characterisation of the weapon used in a patricide by SEM/EDS analysis of a microscopic trace from the object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccino, Enrico; Giovanetti, Giulio Federico; Crudele, Graziano Domenico Luigi; Gentile, Guendalina; Marchesi, Matteo; Rancati, Alessandra; Zoja, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    This article presents a case of patricide. The murder was characterised by multiple blunt traumas and asphyxia. A mass of contused wounds was localised to the head and neck, and included the complete avulsion of the left eye (by an unknown tool), which was recovered near the cadaver. This case is of interest due to the possibility of identifying microscopic traces of the object that was used for the homicide by examining the skin margins around the ocular injury. The analysis was conducted using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). Analysis of the skin margins allowed microscopic inorganic traces to be detected, which were identified as ceramic material. This result focused the attention of the investigation on a small fish-shaped statue that had been previously found by the police when examining the crime scene. The use of SEM/EDX was therefore essential in determining a match between the microscopic traces detected on the perilesional skin and the composition of the statue. This led to the suspicion that the statue was the murder weapon. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Advancement and application of gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry techniques for atmospheric trace gas analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Brian M.

    2011-12-01

    The use of gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) for compound specific stable isotope analysis is an underutilized technique because of the complexity of the instrumentation and high analytical costs. However stable isotopic data, when coupled with concentration measurements, can provide additional information on a compounds production, transformation, loss, and cycling within the biosphere and atmosphere. A GC-IRMS system was developed to accurately and precisely measure delta13C values for numerous oxygenated volatile organic compounds having natural and anthropogenic sources. The OVOCs include methanol, ethanol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, 2-pentanone, and 3-pentanone. Guided by the requirements for analysis of trace components in air, the GC-IRMS system was developed with the goals of increasing sensitivity, reducing dead-volume and peak band broadening, optimizing combustion and water removal, and decreasing the split ratio to the IRMS. The technique relied on a two-stage preconcentration system, a low-volume capillary reactor and water trap, and a balanced reference gas delivery system. Measurements were performed on samples collected from two distinct sources (i.e. biogenic and vehicle emissions) and ambient air collected from downtown Miami and Everglades National Park. However, the instrumentation and the method have the capability to analyze a variety of source and ambient samples. The measured isotopic signatures that were obtained from source and ambient samples provide a new isotopic constraint for atmospheric chemists and can serve as a new way to evaluate their models and budgets for many OVOCs. In almost all cases, OVOCs emitted from fuel combustion were enriched in 13C when compared to the natural emissions of plants. This was particularly true for ethanol gas emitted in vehicle exhaust, which was observed to have a uniquely enriched isotopic signature that was attributed to ethanol's corn origin and use as an alternative

  15. Application of neutron activation analysis to trace element determinations in lung samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocero, Sizue Ota

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to apply the instrumental neutron activation analysis method to determine trace elements in lung samples from smokers and non smokers. Samples of lung tissues and lymph nodes from pulmonary hilum analyzed were collected from autopsies by researchers from the Medicine College of the University of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Adequate conditions for preparation and analysis of samples were previously established. The preparation of samples consisted of homogenization, lyophilization and sterilization in 60 Co source. The samples and standards were irradiated in the IEA-R1 reactor under thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 10 11 n.cm -2 .s -1 for 30 min to determine Cl, K, Mn and Na and for 16 h under flux of 10 19 n.cm -2 .s -1 for the determination of Au, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Th and Zn. The counting were carried out with a hiperpure (ge) detector connected to a 4096 channels analyzer and a microcomputer. the results obtained for lung sample analyses indicated a good reproducibility of the method for most of the elements determined with relative standard deviations lower than 10.5%. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by analyzing reference materials such as IAEA Animal Muscle H-4, NIST Bovine Liver 1577a, IUPAC Bowen's Kale and NIES Vehicle Exhaust Particulates. The results obtained from these analyzes agreed with the values of the literature for several elements with relative errors less than 20%. Less precise and accurate results were obtained for elements with concentrations at the Mup/Kg levels. Elemental concentrations obtained in the lung tissue analyses were within the range of reference values for normal subjects presented in the literature, except for the Cl concentrations for non smokers, Hf in both groups and Sb for the smokers. By comparing results obtained for lung samples from smokers and non smokers, the concentrations of Ce, Cr and Sb were higher in lungs from smokers and the others elements were

  16. Toxic trace element assessment for soils/sediments deposited during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita from southern Louisiana, USA: a sequential extraction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Honglan; Witt, Emitt C; Shu, Shi; Su, Tingzhi; Wang, Jianmin; Adams, Craig

    2010-07-01

    Analysis of soil/sediment samples collected in the southern Louisiana, USA, region three weeks after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita passed was performed using sequential extraction procedures to determine the origin, mode of occurrence, biological availability, mobilization, and transport of trace elements in the environment. Five fractions: exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to iron (Fe)-manganese (Mn) oxides, bound to organic matter, and residual, were subsequently extracted. The toxic trace elements Pb, As, V, Cr, Cu, and Cd were analyzed in each fraction, together with Fe in 51 soil/sediment samples. Results indicated that Pb and As were at relatively high concentrations in many of the soil/sediment samples. Because the forms in which Pb and As are present tend to be highly mobile under naturally occurring environmental conditions, these two compounds pose an increased health concern.Vanadium and Cr were mostly associated with the crystal line nonmobile residual fraction. A large portion of the Cu was associated with organic matter and residual fraction. Cadmium concentrations were low in all soil/sediment samples analyzed and most of this element tended to be associated with the mobile fractions. An average of 21% of the Fe was found in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction, indicating that a substantial part of the Fe was in an oxidized form. The significance of the overall finding of the present study indicated that the high concentrations and high availabilities of the potentially toxic trace elements As and Pb may impact the environment and human health in southern Louisiana and, in particular, the New Orleans area. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  17. Determination of trace elements in scallop and fish otolith by instrumental neutron activation analysis using anti-coincidence and coincidence counting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shogo; Okada, Yukiko; Hirai, Shoji

    2005-01-01

    Trace element concentrations in scallop reference material and fish otolith certified reference materials prepared at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Nine aliquots of scallop sample (ca. 252∼507 mg) and five aliquots of fish otolith sample (ca. 502 ∼ 988 mg) and comparative standards were irradiated for a short time (10 s) at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 (pneumatic transfer) and for a long time (6 h) at a thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 (central thimble) in the Rikkyo University Research Reactor (100 kW). The irradiated samples were measured by conventional γ-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, and by anti-coincidence and coincidence γ-ray spectrometry with a coaxial Ge detector and a well-type NaI (Tl) detector to determine as many trace elements as possible with high sensitivity. The concentrations of 34 elements of the NIES No.15 scallop reference material and 16 elements of the NIES No.22 fish otolith CRM were determined. Using the coincidence counting method to determine Se, Ba and Hf, the lower limit of the determination was improved by 2 times compared with the conventional counting method. (author)

  18. Modern Trends in Neutron Activation Analysis. Applications to some African Environmental Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This review covers the results of several published articles which deal with the modern trends in neutron activation analysis techniques using some of African research reactors for some environmental samples. The samples used have been collected from different areas in Egypt, South Africa, Ghana, Morocco, Nigeria, and Algeria. The neutron irradiation facilities and the advanced detection systems in each country are outlined. The prompt and delayed gamma-rays emitted due to neutron capture have been applied for investigation of the elemental constituents of such samples. Covered applications include exploration, mining, industrial environment, pollution of air, foodstuffs, soils and irrigation water samples. Some of the developed software programmes as well as the modern methods of data analysis are presented. The thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis techniques have been applied for estimation of major, minor and trace elements in each material. Some of these data are presented with several comments.

  19. Toxic trace element content of local fruits using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, N.; Ahmed, S.; Rahman, A; Waheed, S.; Chaudhary, M.M.; Qureshi, I.H.

    1997-01-01

    An important route of entry of environmental contaminants into the human system is through food intake. To study the effect of environmental pollution on the food chain, base line levels of toxic element content of commonly available food articles must be established. This study was undertaken to determine the toxic meal content of Pakistani fruits. The techniques of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) were employed for this purpose. Fourteen fruits apple, apricot, banana, data guava, kino, mango, melon, orange, peach, pear, plum, pomegranate and watermelon, as well as, the peels of apple and pear have been investigated and the results are discussed in this paper. The results were found to lie within 95 % confidence limit using Student's t test. Hg, As and Sb were detected, using INAA, in pear, pomegranate and water melon in low amounts (ppb levels) but were not detected in orange, plum and melon. Lesser amounts of toxic elements were detected in the peels of pear and high amounts were detected in apple peel as compared to the edible part of the fruit. Cadmium and lead were determined using Graphite Furnace atomic absorption Spectrometry. Cadmium was found to lie in the range of 18-42 ppb, in most fruits, whereas the amount of lead varied between 39-128 ppb. Lead was below detection limit in melon, guava, mango, and peach contained the highest amount of As, Cd, Hg and Pb. (author)

  20. Trace metal characterization and speciation in geothermal effluent by multiple scanning anodic stripping voltammetry and atomic absorption analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, B.R.

    1979-05-25

    Recent studies have shown geothermal power plants to have a significant environmental impact on the ground water of the area. The heavy metals arsenic and mercury are special problems, as both are concentrated by flora and fauna exposed to the effluent waters. Because the toxicity of these and other metallic pollutants present in geothermal effluent depends on the chemical form, or speciation, of the particular metal, any serious study of the environmental impact of a geothermal development should include studies of trace metal speciation, in addition to trace metal concentration. This proposal details a method for determining metal speciation in dilute waters. The method is based on ion-exchange and backed by atomic absorption spectrometry and multiple scanning anodic stripping voltammetry. Special laboratory studies will be performed on mercury, arsenic and selenium speciation in synthetic geothermal water. The method will be applied to three known geothermal areas in Washington and Oregon, with emphasis on the speciation of mercury, arsenic and selenium in these waters. The computer controlled electrochemical instrumentation was built and tested. Using this instrumentation, a new experimental procedure was developed to determine the chemical form (speciation) of metal ions in very dilute solutions (ng/ml). This method was tested on model systems including Pb, Cd, and As with C1/sup -/, CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ and glycine ligands. Finally, the speciation of lead in a geothermal water was examined and the PbC1/sup +/ complex was observed and quantified.

  1. Environmental analysis of higher brominated diphenyl ethers and decabromodiphenyl ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Sellström, Ulla; McLachlan, Michael S

    2009-01-16

    Methods for environmental analysis of higher brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in particular decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209), and the recently discovered environmental contaminant decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) are reviewed. The extensive literature on analysis of BDE209 has identified several critical issues, including contamination of the sample, degradation of the analyte during sample preparation and GC analysis, and the selection of appropriate detection methods and surrogate standards. The limited experience with the analysis of deBDethane suggests that there are many commonalities with BDE209. The experience garnered from the analysis of BDE209 over the last 15 years will greatly facilitate progress in the analysis of deBDethane.

  2. Environmental analysis applied to schools. Methodologies for data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriola, L.; Ceccacci, R.

    2001-01-01

    The environment analysis is the basis of environmental management for organizations and it is considered as the first step in EMAS. It allows to identify, deal with the issues and have a clear knowledge on environmental performances of organizations. Schools can be included in the organizations. Nevertheless, the complexity of environmental issues and applicable regulations makes very difficult for a school, that wants to implement an environmental management system (EMAS, ISO 14001, etc.), to face this first step. So, it has been defined an instrument, that is easy but complete and coherent with reference standard, to let schools choose their process for elaborating the initial environmental revue. This instrument consists, essentially, in cards that, if completed, facilitate the drafting of the environmental analysis report [it

  3. Poly(1-vinylimidazole) functionalized magnetic ion imprinted polymer for fast and selective extraction of trace gold in geological, environmental and biological samples followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingshan; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Xu, Hongrun; Hu, Bin

    2018-05-01

    In this study, poly(1-vinylimidazole) functionalized gold ion imprinted polymer coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs@PVIM-Au-IIP) were prepared and characterized. The adsorption behaviors of the prepared MNPs@PVIM-Au-IIP toward gold ions (Au(III)) were studied, it was found that MNPs@PVIM-Au-IIP has good selectivity, high adsorption capacity (185.4 mg g-1) and fast adsorption kinetic for Au(III). Based on it, a new method of ion imprinted magnetic solid phase extraction (II-MSPE) coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection was proposed for the analysis of trace Au(III) in real samples with complicated matrix. Factors affecting MSPE including sample pH, desorption reagent, elution concentration and volume, elution time, sample volume and adsorption time were optimized. With high enrichment factor of 100-fold, the detection limit of the proposed method is 7.9 ng L-1 for Au(III) with the relative standard deviation of 7.4% (c = 50 ng L-1, n = 7). In order to validate the accuracy of the proposed method, the Certified Reference Material of GBW07293 geological sample (platinpalladium ore) was analyzed, and the determined value was in good agreement with the certified value. The proposed II-MSPE-GFAAS method is simple, fast, selective, sensitive and has been successfully applied in the determination of trace Au in ore, sediment, environmental water and human urine samples with satisfactory results.

  4. Proton induced X-ray emission analysis of trace elements in human blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheek, D.B.; Hay, H.J.; Newton, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    Proton induced x-ray emission has been used for quantitative analyses of trace elements in blood serum samples. This work is part of a survey concerned with Zn, Cu, Fe, Cr, Mn and Se in Australian Aboriginal people not receiving optimal diet. Special attention is being directed to Cr because of the high incidence of diabetes mellitus in these people

  5. Combining ray tracing and CFD in the thermal analysis of a parabolic dish tubular cavity receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Ken J.; Marsberg, Justin; Meyer, Josua P.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the numerical evaluation of a tubular receiver used in a dish Brayton cycle. In previous work considering the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to perform the calculation of the absorbed radiation from the parabolic dish into the cavity as well as the resulting conjugate heat transfer, it was shown that an axi-symmetric model of the dish and receiver absorbing surfaces was useful in reducing the computational cost required for a full 3-D discrete ordinates solution, but concerns remained about its accuracy. To increase the accuracy, the Monte Carlo ray tracer SolTrace is used to perform the calculation of the absorbed radiation profile to be used in the conjugate heat transfer CFD simulation. The paper describes an approach for incorporating a complex geometry like a tubular receiver generated using CFD software into SolTrace. The results illustrate the variation of CFD mesh density that translates into the number of elements in SolTrace as well as the number of rays used in the Monte Carlo approach and their effect on obtaining a resolution-independent solution. The conjugate heat transfer CFD simulation illustrates the effect of applying the SolTrace surface heat flux profile solution as a volumetric heat source to heat up the air inside the tube. Heat losses due to convection and thermal re-radiation are also determined as a function of different tube absorptivities.

  6. Total reflection PIXE (TPIXE) and RBS for surface and trace element analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kan, J.A.; Vis, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    MeV proton and α beams at small incident angles (0-35 mrad) were used to analyse flat surfaces such as Si wafers and coated quartz substrates. X-rays and backscattered particles were detected in a total reflection geometry. Using TPIXE a quick and simultaneous detection of different trace elements

  7. Trace element characterization of Indian vegetarian diet and its constituents by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.K.N.; Garg, A.N.; Burte, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Nutritive trace elements have been determined in a typical vegetarian diet and its various components. A hospital diet, pulses and vegetables have been characterised for 18 elements. Daily intake of elements have been compared with the International diet standards. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab

  8. Trace element-protein interactions in endolymph from the inner ear of fish: implications for environmental reconstructions using fish otolith chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Oliver R B; Ganio, Katherine; Roberts, Blaine R; Swearer, Stephen E

    2017-03-22

    Otoliths, the biomineralised hearing "ear stones" from the inner ear of fish, grow throughout the lifespan of an individual, with deposition of alternating calciferous and proteinaceous bands occurring daily. Trace element : calcium ratios within daily increments measured by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are often used in fisheries science to reconstruct environmental histories. There is, however, considerable uncertainty as to which elements are interacting with either the proteinaceous or calciferous zones of the otolith, and thus their utility as indicators of environmental change. To answer this, we used size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) of endolymph, the otolith growth medium, to determine the binding interactions for a range of elements. In addition, we used solution ICP-MS to quantify element concentrations in paired otolith and endolymph samples and determined relative enrichment factors for each. We found 12 elements that are present only in the proteinaceous fraction, 6 that are present only in the salt fraction, and 4 that are present in both. These findings have important implications for the reconstruction of environmental histories based on changes in otolith elemental composition: (1) elements occurring only in the salt fraction are most likely to reflect changes in the physico-chemical environment experienced during life; (2) elements occurring only in the proteinaceous fraction are more likely to reflect physiological rather than environmental events; and (3) elements occurring in both the salt and proteinaceous fractions are likely to be informative about both endogenous and exogenous processes, potentially reducing their utility in environmental reconstructions.

  9. Managing the environmental impacts of land transport: integrating environmental analysis with urban planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, Paul; Moncrieff, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Ecological systems have limits or thresholds that vary by pollutant type, emissions sources and the sensitivity of a given location. Human health can also indicate sensitivity. Good environmental management requires any problem to be defined to obtain efficient and effective solutions. Cities are where transport activities, effects and resource management decisions are often most focussed. The New Zealand Ministry of Transport has developed two environmental management tools. The Vehicle Fleet Model (VFM) is a predictive database of the environmental performance of the New Zealand traffic fleet (and rail fleet). It calculates indices of local air quality, stormwater, and greenhouse gases emissions. The second is an analytical process based on Environmental Capacity Analysis (ECA). Information on local traffic is combined with environmental performance data from the Vehicle Fleet Model. This can be integrated within a live, geo-spatially defined analysis of the overall environmental effects within a defined local area. Variations in urban form and activity (traffic and other) that contribute to environmental effects can be tracked. This enables analysis of a range of mitigation strategies that may contribute, now or in the future, to maintaining environmental thresholds or meeting targets. A case study of the application of this approach was conducted within Waitakere City. The focus was on improving the understanding of the relative significance of stormwater contaminants derived from land transport

  10. Managing the environmental impacts of land transport: integrating environmental analysis with urban planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Paul; Moncrieff, Ian

    2004-12-01

    Ecological systems have limits or thresholds that vary by pollutant type, emissions sources and the sensitivity of a given location. Human health can also indicate sensitivity. Good environmental management requires any problem to be defined to obtain efficient and effective solutions. Cities are where transport activities, effects and resource management decisions are often most focussed. The New Zealand Ministry of Transport has developed two environmental management tools. The Vehicle Fleet Model (VFM) is a predictive database of the environmental performance of the New Zealand traffic fleet (and rail fleet). It calculates indices of local air quality, stormwater, and greenhouse gases emissions. The second is an analytical process based on Environmental Capacity Analysis (ECA). Information on local traffic is combined with environmental performance data from the Vehicle Fleet Model. This can be integrated within a live, geo-spatially defined analysis of the overall environmental effects within a defined local area. Variations in urban form and activity (traffic and other) that contribute to environmental effects can be tracked. This enables analysis of a range of mitigation strategies that may contribute, now or in the future, to maintaining environmental thresholds or meeting targets. A case study of the application of this approach was conducted within Waitakere City. The focus was on improving the understanding of the relative significance of stormwater contaminants derived from land transport.

  11. An Analysis of Base Level Environmental Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Success," Engineering and Services Update, 1: 1-2 (January 1991). 35. Sutermeister , Robert A. People and Productivity (Second Edition). New York: McGraw...some form. Sutermeister includes Formal Organization, which is influenced by Structure, as a major factor affecting productivity (35). In his total...Department of Defense (DoD) there is a growing commitment towards environmental quality and compliance. As of 1988, DoD had more than 5,000 people working

  12. Comparative trace elemental analysis of cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of rectal cancer patients using PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Raju, G. J.; Sarita, P.; Murthy, K. S. R.

    2017-08-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), an accelerator based analytical technique has been employed in this work for the analysis of trace elements in the cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of rectal cancer patients. A beam of 3 MeV protons generated from 3 MV Pelletron accelerator at the Ion Beam Laboratory of Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India was used as projectile to excite the atoms present in the tissues samples. PIXE technique, with its capability to detect simultaneously several elements present at very low concentrations, offers an excellent tool for trace element analysis. The characteristic X-rays emitted by the samples were recorded by a high resolution Si (Li) detector. On the basis of the PIXE spectrum obtained for each sample, the elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Br were identified and their relative concentrations were estimated in the cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of rectum. The levels of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and As were higher (p cancer tissues relative to the normal tissues. The alterations in the levels of the trace elements observed in the present work are discussed in this paper with respect to their potential role in the initiation, promotion and inhibition of cancer of the rectum.

  13. Analysis of PWI footprint traces and material damage on the first walls of the spherical tokamak QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.K., E-mail: sksharma@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [IGSES, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816 8580 (Japan); Zushi, H.; Yoshida, N.; Watanabe, H. [Research Institute of Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816 8580 (Japan); Osakabe, M.; Takeri, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509 5292 (Japan); Hasegawa, M. [Research Institute of Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816 8580 (Japan); Tanabe, T. [IGSES, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816 8580 (Japan); Tokunaga, K.; Hanada, K.; Idei, H. [Research Institute of Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816 8580 (Japan); Sakamoto, M. [PRC, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 3058577 (Japan); Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A. [Research Institute of Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816 8580 (Japan); Ishiguro, M.; Tashima, S. [IGSES, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816 8580 (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    After several non-inductive current startup experimental campaigns in the spherical tokamak QUEST, its metallic first walls have revealed various kinds of damages as a signature of strong plasma wall interaction (PWI). Several types of footprint traces, namely colored regions formed due to material erosion/redeposition, melting of plasma facing components (PFCs) and numerous arc tracks on the chamber walls are recognized. Analysis of the re-deposited materials on collector probes is carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). Redeposition of several impurity materials such as carbon, oxygen and tungsten is identified. The footprint traces are majorly formed on the lower side PFCs, showing a large up/down asymmetry. Both toroidally symmetric and asymmetric footprint traces are formed on the bottoms side divertor plate and the lower part of the outboard side walls, respectively. Localized melting occurred on the outboard side limiters is attributed to the loss of energetic electrons produced via electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating. The observed damages are discussed in view of localized PWI, loss of energetic electrons, particle drifts, sputtering, arcing and redeposition of eroded materials. Material analysis and numerically calculated guiding center orbits of the charge particles are used to discuss these damages.

  14. Analysis of PWI footprint traces and material damage on the first walls of the spherical tokamak QUEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.K.; Zushi, H.; Yoshida, N.; Watanabe, H.; Osakabe, M.; Takeri, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Tanabe, T.; Tokunaga, K.; Hanada, K.; Idei, H.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Ishiguro, M.; Tashima, S.

    2012-01-01

    After several non-inductive current startup experimental campaigns in the spherical tokamak QUEST, its metallic first walls have revealed various kinds of damages as a signature of strong plasma wall interaction (PWI). Several types of footprint traces, namely colored regions formed due to material erosion/redeposition, melting of plasma facing components (PFCs) and numerous arc tracks on the chamber walls are recognized. Analysis of the re-deposited materials on collector probes is carried out using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). Redeposition of several impurity materials such as carbon, oxygen and tungsten is identified. The footprint traces are majorly formed on the lower side PFCs, showing a large up/down asymmetry. Both toroidally symmetric and asymmetric footprint traces are formed on the bottoms side divertor plate and the lower part of the outboard side walls, respectively. Localized melting occurred on the outboard side limiters is attributed to the loss of energetic electrons produced via electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating. The observed damages are discussed in view of localized PWI, loss of energetic electrons, particle drifts, sputtering, arcing and redeposition of eroded materials. Material analysis and numerically calculated guiding center orbits of the charge particles are used to discuss these damages.

  15. Trace metal analysis in sea grasses from Mexican Caribbean Coast by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, C.; Issac O, K.; Martinez, A.; Lavoisier, E.; Martinez, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The growing urban and tourist activity in the Mexican Caribbean coasts has resulted in an increase of chemical substances, metals in particular, discharged to the coastal waters. In order to reach an adequate management and conservation of these marine ecosystems it is necessary to perform an inventory of the actual conditions that reflect the vulnerability and the level of damage. Sea-grasses are considered good biological indicators of heavy metal contamination in marine systems. The goal of this preliminary work is to evaluate the concentrations of trace metals such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Pb in Thalassia testudinum, a very common sea-grass in the Mexican Caribbean Sea. Samples were collected from several locations in the coasts of the Yucatan Peninsula: Holbox, Blanquizal and Punta Allen, areas virtually uninfluenced by anthropogenic activities. Trace elements in different part plants were determined by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This is a very suitable technique since it offers a fast, accurate and multi-element analysis. Also, the analysis by PIXE can be performed directly on powdered leaves without a laborious sample preparation. The trace metal concentration determined in sea-grasses growing in Caribbean generally fall in the range of the lowest valuables reported for sea grasses from the Gulf of Mexico. The results indicate that the studied areas do not present contamination by heavy metals. (Author)

  16. Possible applications of neutron activation analysis at the RB reactor for the environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, D.; Pesic, M.; Milosevic, M.; Dasic, N.; Antic, D.; Kostic, Lj.; Ljubenov, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the possibilities of performing neutron activation analysis in Yugoslavia for the purpose of environmental pollution monitoring. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an established method for the determination of trace elements in a broad range of samples. It is non-destructive method used in a routine manner with gamma-ray spectrometry for various applications in biology, environmental toxicology, radiation assessment, mineral exploration, trace elements monitoring regarding human health studies. As a complex, powerful analytical tool, it might give results even when other analytical methods fail. NAA has been performed at the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory (NET), the VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, for various applications in the reactor physics research. The samples are irradiated in the RB research reactor, which is the zero-power, bear, heavy water critical facility utilising three fuel element types. The reactor system is very flexible and allows for different core configurations, resulting in various neutron fields, with energy spectra ranging from thermal to fast (in the coupled fast-thermal system HERBE). There are several vertical and horizontal experimental channels available for sample's irradiation. The achievable thermal neutron flux is approximately 1 0 7 n/(cm 2 s) per 1 W of fission power. We believe the RB reactor could be successfully used for neutron activation analysis of trace elements in the environmental samples, comprising short-lived isotopes. Although the flux level and restricted irradiation time pose a certain limitation to NAA applications at the RB reactor, it can be compensated by the specific methodology advancement. That involves overcoming the main sources of error in the instrumental NAA evaluation methodology which utilises generally valid k 0 , and Q 0 factors. In particular, the computational accuracy of required nuclear parameters (e.g. neutron flux distribution, effective nuclear cross sections) can

  17. Environmental Education in Macedonian Schools: A Comparative Analysis of Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srbinovski, Mile

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss an analysis of the extent to which environmental issues are addressed in the textbooks in the schools of the Republic of Macedonia. Research has analyzed a range of textbooks (279) published in the past 15 years. Our fundamental conclusion is that the inclusion of environmental issues in the…

  18. Extractable sulphate-sulphur, total sulphur and trace-element determinations in plant material by flow injection analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heanes, D.L. (South Australian Department of Agriculture, Adelaide (Australia))

    1990-01-01

    A rapid, accurate and reproducible procedure for determining total sulphur(S) and trace elements (copper, zinc, manganese and iron) in plant material is described. Plant material is digested in culture tubes with a mixture of nitric and perchloric acids containing ammonium metavanadate and calcium chloride. In the acid digest, concentrations of total-S as sulphate are determined by turbidimetry and trace-elements by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry using flow injection analysis. The results for a range of plant materials compare well with those obtained by conventional procedures for the same elements. The microprocessor controlled digestion and multielement assay procedure described here offers improved laboratory efficiencies in materials, time and cost effectiveness. The techniques should be particularly useful when plant tissues are in limited supply.

  19. Determination of several trace metals in biological materials by PIXE analysis after solvent extraction and polystyrene-film collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Yoshihiro; Korenaga, Tatsumi; Suzuki, Nobuo

    1991-01-01

    Traces of vanadium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc were quantitatively extracted with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) in benzene from a digested solution of biological materials and the metal-DDTC complexes were collected into a small amount of polystyrene foam produced by lyophilization of the benzene extract after addition of polystyrene. The polystyrene foam was dissolved in benzene and spread on Mylar film. After drying, a polystyrene film containing metal-DDTC complexes was produced on Mylar film, and then the polystyrene film was peeled from the Mylar film. This film was subjected to PIXE analysis. This method was applied to NBS SRM 1572 citrus leaves and a marine macroalgal sample, and 6 trace metals were simultaneously and accurately determined. (author)

  20. Determination of trace elements and heavy metals in the Zarka River sediments by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jundi, J.

    2000-09-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was employed to analyze the sediments from several sites along the Zarka River (Jordan). Measurements of heavy and trace metals in the river are reported. The results show that the concentration of the elements is site dependent. Almost all the toxic and trace elements show a high level concentration in certain sites. The data suggest that an anthropogenic input into the river for elements such as Zn, Cr, As, V, Co and Zr occurred. These elements, however, found their ways into the river from different sources. The main sources were the presence of textile, paint and tier plants, in addition to the waste sewage discharges and water treatment stations.