WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental tobacco smoking

  1. Environmental tobacco smoke in commercial aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatough, Delbert J.; Caka, Fern M.; Crawford, John; Braithwaite, Scott; Hansen, Lee D.; Lewis, Edwin A.

    Environmental tobacco smoke and other pollutants present in both smoking and nonsmoking cabin sections during commercial passenger flights on DC-10 aircraft were determined on four, 5-h smoking flights. The average concentrations of nicotine, 3-ethenylpyridine, CO 2, CO, NO x, NO 2, O 3, PM2.5 and environmental tobacco smoke particles during a flight were determined with a briefcase sampling system. Concentrations of nicotine, 3-ethenylpyridine and CO as well as temperature, humidity and pressure were determined as a function of time during the flight. A model to predict penetration of environmental tobacco smoke from the smoking to the nonsmoking section of the passenger cabin under a variety of flight conditions is derived from the data.

  2. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polanska, K.; Hanke, W.; Ronchetti, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Zuurbier, M.; Koppe, J.G.; Bartonova, A.

    2006-01-01

    Almost half of the child population is involuntarily exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The ETS exposure gives rise to an excessive risk of several diseases in infancy and childhood, including sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory infections, asthma and middle ear

  3. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS, active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life.

  4. Simulation supported field study of environmental tobacco smoke leakage from smoking rooms in 19 Dutch pubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Opperhuizen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is produced during smoking and smoldering of tobacco products. This field study has measured how much ETS is leaking from smoking rooms into smoke free areas in 19 Dutch cafes. Nicotine, 3-EP and PM2,5 have been used as tracer compounds for ETS. The use of smoking

  5. Environmental tobacco smoke: health policy and focus on Italian legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldi, G; Fovi De Ruggiero, G; Marsella, L T; De Luca d'Alessandro, E

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide tobacco smoking kills nearly 6 million people each year, including more than 600,000 non-smokers who die from smoke exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, also called secondhand smoke, involuntary smoke, or passive smoke) is the combination of sidestream smoke, the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and mainstream smoke, the smoke exhaled by smokers. People may be exposed to ETS in homes, cars, workplaces, and public places, such as bars, restaurants, and recreational settings. In addition, there is another type of smoke which until now has not been recognized: the so-called thirdhand smoke, that comes from the reaction of mainstream smoke and environmental nitrous acid (HNO2) making carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). The effects of ETS on human health are well-known, passive smoking is harmful to those who breathe the toxins and it is a serious problem for public health. The smoking ban in Italy had reduced ETS pollution, as in the United States and in other countries all over the world. However, the implementation of comprehensive legislation on smoking policy will necessitate other tobacco control measures for its successful fulfillment: increased media awareness, telephone smoking cessation helplines and smoking cessation support services could be an opportunity to ensure awareness, comprehension and support to those who want to quit smoking. The effectiveness of legislative efforts will also depend on successful enforcement of smoking bans and compliance with the legislation. This review summarizes the evidences about the effect of ETS and provides an overview of smoke-free laws and policies.

  6. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and its health impacts: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of ETS on human health are well-known, passive smoking is harmful to those who breathe the toxins and it is a serious problem for public health. Therefore, the decrease in smoking prevalence could provide substantial health gains in humans. This article reviews information on environmental tobacco smoke ...

  7. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among adolescents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) inside or outside the home among school-going adolescents in Kampala, Uganda. Methods: Data from the Kampala Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) of 2002 was used. We estimated frequencies and proportions of self reported exposure to ...

  8. Exposure to and risk awareness of environmental tobacco smoke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and twenty-one (95.3%) medical students and 1221 (85.9%) non medical students (ƒÓ2=11.80, p=0.001) think that environmental tobacco smoke exposure was harmful to them. Most of the students think that active smoking can cause lung cancer, heart diseases, erectile problems and stroke in smokers but on ...

  9. Environmental tobacco smoke and children`s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyun Hwang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Passive exposure to tobacco smoke significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in children. Children, in particular, seem to be the most susceptible population to the harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS. Paternal smoking inside the home leads to significant maternal and fetal exposure to ETS and may subsequently affect fetal health. ETS has been associated with adverse effects on pediatric health, including preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal mortality, respiratory illness, neurobehavioral problems, and decreased performance in school. A valid estimation of the risks associated with tobacco exposure depends on accurate measurement. Nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine, are commonly used as smoking biomarkers, and their levels can be determined in various biological specimens such as blood, saliva, and urine. Recently, hair analysis was found to be a convenient, noninvasive technique for detecting the presence of nicotine exposure. Because nicotine/cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, it is a unique measure of longterm, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Although smoking ban policies result in considerable reductions in ETS exposure, children are still exposed significantly to tobacco smoke not only in their homes but also in schools, restaurants, child-care settings, cars, buses, and other public places. Therefore, more effective strategies and public policies to protect preschool children from ETS should be consolidated.

  10. Adolescent Exposure to and Perceptions of Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Timothy R.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Shah, Sapna

    2005-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) poses an underappreciated risk to adolescent health. This study examined perceptions of adolescents (n = 574) regarding ETS. About one half (54%) were exposed to ETS the previous week, and one third (30%) were exposed to 3 or more hours of ETS the past week. Concurrently, 29% believed that breathing someone else's…

  11. "Care and feeding": the Asian environmental tobacco smoke consultants programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, M; Fields, N; Knight, J; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To review the tobacco industry's Asian environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) consultants programme, focusing on three key nations: China, Hong Kong, and Malaysia. Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. The release of the 1986 US Surgeon General's report on second hand smoke provoked tobacco companies to prepare for a major threat to their industry. Asian programme activities included conducting national/international symposiums, consultant "road shows" and extensive lobbying and media activities. The industry exploited confounding factors said to be unique to Asian societies such as diet, culture and urban pollution to downplay the health risks of ETS. The industry consultants were said to be "..prepared to do the kinds of things they were recruited to do". The programme was successful in blurring the science on ETS and keeping the controversy alive both nationally and internationally. For the duration of the project, it also successfully dissuaded national policy makers from instituting comprehensive bans on smoking in public places.

  12. The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence William Gill

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  13. The control of environmental tobacco smoke: a policy review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  14. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-10-23

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 microm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February - March 2006. Levels of ETS ranged from 19 microg/m3 to 612 microg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 microg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 microg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 microg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 - 96% lower than levels in Greece. Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  15. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tountas Yiannis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Methods Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5, performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February – March 2006. Results Levels of ETS ranged from 19 μg/m3 to 612 μg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 μg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 μg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 μg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p Conclusion Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  16. Exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, M; Fawcett, J; Dickson, S; Berezowski, R; Garrett, N

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine quantitatively the extent of exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during the course of a work shift, and to relate these results to the customer smoking policy of the workplace. Subjects: Three categories of non-smoking workers were recruited: (1) staff from hospitality premises (bars and restaurants) that permitted smoking by customers; (2) staff from smokefree hospitality premises; and (3) government employees in smokefree workplaces. All participants met with a member of the study team before they began work, and again at the end of their shift or work day. At each meeting, participants answered questions from a standardised questionnaire and supplied a saliva sample. Main outcome measures: Saliva samples were analysed for cotinine. The difference between the first and second saliva sample cotinine concentrations indicated the degree of exposure to ETS over the course of the work shift. Results: Hospitality workers in premises allowing smoking by customers had significantly greater increases in cotinine than workers in smokefree premises. Workers in hospitality premises with no restrictions on customer smoking were more highly exposed to ETS than workers in premises permitting smoking only in designated areas. Conclusions: Overall, there was a clear association between within-shift cotinine concentration change and smoking policy. Workers in premises permitting customer smoking reported a higher prevalence of respiratory and irritation symptoms than workers in smokefree workplaces. Concentrations of salivary cotinine found in exposed workers in this study have been associated with substantial involuntary risks for cancer and heart disease. PMID:12035005

  17. Environmental tobacco smoke and serum vitamin C levels in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R S

    2001-03-01

    High levels of free radicals in tobacco smoke are thought to be responsible for decreased levels of serum ascorbic acid in smokers and adults exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The association of ETS to serum ascorbic acid in children is unknown. Data were analyzed from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents (n = 2968). Comprehensive data including serum cotinine levels and family smoking patterns allowed for analysis of relationship of ETS to serum ascorbic acid levels. Data from 24-hour dietary recall also allowed for the control of vitamin C intake. Children were divided into categories of low and high ETS exposure based on levels of serum cotinine above or below 2 ng/mL. Smokers were defined by either self-report or serum cotinine >15 ng/mL. Although there was a trend for lower levels of vitamin C intake in children with higher levels of ETS exposure, this trend did not reach statistical significance. Among all children, serum ascorbic acid levels were linearly related to serum cotinine levels (r = 0.19). In addition, a dose-response relationship was observed between levels of tobacco exposure and serum ascorbic acid levels. After adjusting for age, gender, vitamin C intake, and multivitamin use, environmental tobacco exposure remained significantly associated with lower levels of serum ascorbic acid in children who were exposed to both high and low levels of ETS. Exposure of children to ETS leads to significant alterations in serum ascorbic acid levels. Therefore, this study further highlights the potential dangers of ETS to children.

  18. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and respiratory health in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, Maria; Salvi, Sundeep

    2009-08-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major risk factor for poor lung health in children. Although parental smoking is the commonest source of ETS exposure to children, they are also exposed to ETS in schools, restaurants, public places and public transport vehicles. Apart from containing thousands of chemicals, the particle size in the ETS is much smaller than the main stream smoke, and therefore has a greater penetrability in the airways of children. Exposure to ETS has been shown to be associated with increased prevalence of upper respiratory tract infections, wheeze, asthma and lower respiratory tract infections. Even developing fetuses are exposed to ETS via the umbilical cord blood if the mother is exposed to tobacco smoke. The placenta also does not offer any barrier to the penetration of ETS into the fetus. The immune system in these babies is more deviated toward the allergic and asthmatic inflammatory phenotype and therefore makes them more prone to develop asthma later in life. An increased awareness of the harmful effects of ETS on children's health is warranted.

  19. Biomarkers of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M; Bisgaard, H; Stage, M

    2007-01-01

    Non-invasive biomonitoring of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) by means of hair is attractive in children, although systematic evaluation is required in infants. The objective was to compare nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair and plasma and parentally reported exposure to ETS...... in a birth cohort of 411 infants. Plasma was collected from 356 six-month-old infants and hair samples were collected from 368 one-year-old infants. Concentrations of nicotine and cotinine were measured by an optimized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based method requiring 4 mg hair or 200...

  20. DO CHILDREN BENEFIT FROM INCREASING CIGARETTE TAXES? ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF LUNG HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    My research investigates the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and lung function in children. I use detailed individual health data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) to measure the effect of environmental tobacco smoke ...

  1. Effective protection from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Poland: The World Health Organization perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polańska, Kinga; Wojtysiak, Piotr; Kozieł, Anna; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena; Miśkiewicz, Paulina; Drygas, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco is the single greatest preventable cause of death in the world today, killing approximately half of the people who use it. Several strategies have been proved to reduce tobacco use. However, more than 50 years after the health effects of smoking were scientifically proven, and more than 20 years after evidence confirmed the hazards from exposure to second-hand smoke, few countries have implemented effective and recognized strategies to control the tobacco epidemic. This paper summarizes the World Health Organization recommendations for effective protection from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke along with the existing tobacco control programs and legislation in force in Poland.

  2. Awareness of an obstetric population about environmental tobacco smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadeer K Al-Shaikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The reported rate of women′s smoking is typically low. However, many pregnant women are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, which could affect their own health and the health of their growing fetus. The aim of this study was to estimate the magnitude of the problem of exposure to ETS and assess the awareness of postpartum women to ETS and its possible effects. Designs and Settings: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 1182 postpartum women at a university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between 1 st January and 30 th June, 2012. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Factors associated with the level of understanding of the possible effects of ETS exposure were analyzed. Results: The majority of the participating women knew that exposure to ETS had adverse effects on maternal and fetal health (>80%, but their knowledge of the specific effects on fetal health was limited. The level of mothers′ education was found to be associated with better knowledge of effects on mother and fetal health (P < 0.01. Conclusion: This study revealed that pregnant women in our sample had limited knowledge of the specific effects of ETS on fetal health. This shortcoming in knowledge needs to be addressed by improving health.

  3. Awareness of an obstetric population about environmental tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer K; Alzeidan, Rasmieh A; Mandil, Ahmed M A; Fayed, Amel A; Marwa, Bilal; Wahabi, Hayfaa A

    2014-01-01

    The reported rate of women's smoking is typically low. However, many pregnant women are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), which could affect their own health and the health of their growing fetus. The aim of this study was to estimate the magnitude of the problem of exposure to ETS and assess the awareness of postpartum women to ETS and its possible effects. This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 1182 postpartum women at a university hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between 1(st) January and 30(th) June, 2012. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Factors associated with the level of understanding of the possible effects of ETS exposure were analyzed. The majority of the participating women knew that exposure to ETS had adverse effects on maternal and fetal health (>80%), but their knowledge of the specific effects on fetal health was limited. The level of mothers' education was found to be associated with better knowledge of effects on mother and fetal health (P < 0.01). This study revealed that pregnant women in our sample had limited knowledge of the specific effects of ETS on fetal health. This shortcoming in knowledge needs to be addressed by improving health.

  4. Environmental tobacco smoke aerosol in non-smoking households of patients with chronic respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalbot, Marie-Cecile; Vei, Ino-Christina; Lianou, Maria; Kotronarou, Anastasia; Karakatsani, Anna; Katsouyanni, Klea; Hoek, Gerard; Kavouras, Ilias G.

    2012-12-01

    Fine particulate matter samples were collected in an urban ambient fixed site and, outside and inside residencies in Athens greater area, Greece. n-Alkanes, iso/anteiso-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The values of concentration diagnostic ratios indicated a mixture of vehicular emissions, fuel evaporation, oil residues and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in outdoor and indoor samples. Particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes, specific tracers of ETS, were detected in both non-smoking and smoking households. The indoor-to-outdoor ratios of particulate iso/anteiso-alkanes and unresolved complex mixture (a tracer of outdoor air pollution) in non-smoking households were comparable to the measured air exchange rate. This suggested that penetration of outdoor air was solely responsible for the detection of tobacco smoke particulate tracers in indoor non-smoking environments. Overall, residential outdoor concentrations accounted for a large fraction (from 25 up to 79%) of indoor aliphatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Open windows/doors and the operation of an air condition unit yielded also in higher indoor concentrations than those measured outdoors.

  5. Systematic Review of Studies of Workplace Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Lung Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhuo WANG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been reported that there was a close relationship between lung cancer risk and environmental tobacco smoke at workplace. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Methods By searching Medline, CENTRAL (the Cochrane central register of controlledtrials, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI and VIP et al, we collected both domestic and overseas published documents on workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk. Random or fixed effect models were applied to conduct systematic review on the study results, the combined odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated as well. Results 22 reports were included into the combined analysis, which indicated that 25% lung cancer risk was increased by exposing to workplace environment tobacco smoke (OR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.13-1.39, P < 0.001. For female the increased risk was 22% (OR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.05-1.42, P=0.011. For male the increased risk was 54%, but it does not reach the statistical significance (OR=1.54, 95%CI: 0.74-3.18, P=0.247. Conclusion Workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor of lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Especially for non-smoking women who expose to workplace environment tobacco smoke have a close relationship with lung cancer.

  6. Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Public Perception of Risks of Exposing Children to Second- and Third-Hand Tobacco Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christopher; Wagler, Grace; Carr, Michele M

    Extensive evidence exists regarding health risks posed by children's exposure to second-hand smoke, and there is increasing evidence concerning the risks of third-hand smoke. This evidence is most meaningful if the public is aware of these risks and can help curb childhood exposure. Participants were selected at an academic medical center and asked to complete a survey. Responses were compared based on respondents' smoking status and the presence or absence of children in their homes. A total of 310 adults responded. Nonsmokers and respondents living with children were more likely to see smoking in the home as affecting all the queried health problems (p second-hand smoke exposure is limited, and very few respondents perceived risk from third-hand smoke exposure. The widespread lack of awareness of the risks associated with environmental tobacco smoke must be addressed to curb childhood exposure. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental tobacco smoke in Finnish restaurants and bars before and after smoking restrictions were introduced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Tom; Tuomi, Tapani; Riuttala, Henri; Hyvärinen, Markku; Rothberg, Mari; Reijula, Kari

    2006-06-01

    The Finnish Tobacco Act was amended on 1 March 2000 to include restrictions on smoking in restaurants and bars. To evaluate the effectiveness of the restrictions, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations in restaurants and bars were measured prior and after the amended Act entered into force. The Act was enforced in stages so that all stages were effective on 1 July 2003. According to the Act, smoking is prohibited in all Finnish restaurants and bars with certain exceptions. Smoking may be allowed in establishments where the service area is not larger than 50 m(2) if the exposure of employees working there to ETS can be prevented. On premises with larger service area, smoking may be allowed on 50% of the service area, provided tobacco smoke does not spread into the area where smoking is prohibited. At bar counters or gambling tables smoking is not allowed, if the spreading of tobacco smoke cannot be restricted to the employee side of the counter. Therefore, according to the Act all areas where smoking is prohibited are to be smoke-free. Establishments with a serving area larger than 100 m(2) were selected for the present study. The evaluation both before and after the enforcement of the Act included the following: The ventilation rate was first measured in each establishment. Then 3-5 area samplers, depending on the layout, were placed in locations that best described the establishment and the working areas of the personnel. The measurements were performed twice at each establishment, during peak hours. The sample collection time was 4 h during which the guests and the cigarettes smoked were counted. The air samples were analysed for nicotine, 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) by thermodesorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Altogether 20 restaurants and bars situated in three Finnish cities participated in the study out of which 16 participated during all four measurement periods. None of the establishments had

  8. Measurement of environmental tobacco smoke exposure among adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, M D; Katz, P P; Yelin, E H; Hammond, S K; Blanc, P D

    2001-01-01

    Because the morbidity and mortality from adult asthma have been increasing, the identification of modifiable environmental exposures that exacerbate asthma has become a priority. Limited evidence suggests that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) may adversely affect adults with asthma. To study the effects of ETS better, we developed a survey instrument to measure ETS exposure in a cohort of adults with asthma living in northern California, where public indoor smoking is limited. To validate this survey instrument, we used a passive badge monitor that measures actual exposure to ambient nicotine, a direct and specific measure of ETS. In this validation study, we recruited 50 subjects from an ongoing longitudinal asthma cohort study who had a positive screening question for ETS exposure or potential exposure. Each subject wore a passive nicotine badge monitor for 7 days. After the personal monitoring period, we readministered the ETS exposure survey instrument. Based on the survey, self-reported total ETS exposure duration ranged from 0 to 70 hr during the previous 7 days. Based on the upper-range boundary, bars or nightclubs (55 hr) and the home (50 hr) were the sites associated with greatest maximal self-reported exposure. As measured by the personal nicotine badge monitors, the overall median 7-day nicotine concentration was 0.03 microg/m(3) (25th-75th interquartile range 0-3.69 microg/m(3)). Measured nicotine concentrations were highest among persons who reported home exposure (median 0.61 microg/m(3)), followed by work exposure (0.03 microg/m(3)), other (outdoor) exposure (0.025 microg/m(3)), and no exposure (0 microg/m(3); p = 0.03). The Spearman rank correlation coefficient between self-reported ETS exposure duration and directly measured personal nicotine concentration during the same 7-day period was 0.47, supporting the survey's validity (p = 0.0006). Compared to persons with no measured exposure, lower-level [odds ratio (OR) 1.9; 95% confidence

  9. [Impact of the Spanish smoking laws on the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Galicia (2005-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Malvar, Alberto; Jesús García, María; Seoane, Bernardo; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a valuable index to assess the impact of the laws for tobacco control. The objective of this work is to analyse variations in the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Galicia (Spain) between 2005, before the Law 28/2005, and 2011, after the law 42/2010. Data were obtained from five population-based independent cross-sectional studies, telephone surveys, developed in Galicia between 2005 and 2011 among population aged 16 to 74 (n=34.419). Self-reported exposure among population aged between 16 and 74 was analysed by setting and tobacco consumption by prevalence with 95% confidence intervals. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure decreased dramatically in Galicia between 2005 and 2011. In 2005, before the Law 28/2005, 95% of the population reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke compared to 28% in 2011, after the Law 42/2010. Decrease was greater in workplaces in 2006 and in leisure time venues in 2011. After an initial decrease in 2006, exposure at home remains unchanged. An important reduction in self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke occurred in Galicia in the period 2005-2011, specially after the introduction of Laws 28/2005 and 42/2010. Nevertheless, one in four of the population aged 16 to 74 remained exposed in 2011. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Active smoking, environmental tobacco smoke and bronchitic symptoms among adolescents in Taiwan: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jer-Min; Hwang, Bing-Fang; Chen, Yang-Ching; Lee, Yungling Leo

    2014-08-01

    The study investigates the association between active smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and the development of bronchitis and bronchitic symptoms among adolescents. A prospective cohort study was conducted with 4134 adolescents aged 12-14 from the Taiwan Children Health Study in 14 communities in Taiwan since 2007. Parents or guardians completed written questionnaires regarding demographic information, household ETS and respiratory symptoms at baseline. The adolescents themselves completed identical questionnaires on respiratory outcomes in the 2009 survey. Associations between active smoking, exposure to ETS and the 2-year incidence of respiratory outcomes were analyzed by multiple Poisson regression models, taking overdispersion into account. Active smoking was associated with an increased risk of developing chronic cough and chronic phlegm. We found significant dose-response associations between the duration of smoking, the numbers of cigarettes and the onset of bronchitic symptoms. Exposure to ETS was a significant risk factor for the development of chronic cough. Among asthmatic adolescents, exposure to ETS was associated with an additional risk for the onset of chronic phlegm. This study demonstrates that active smoking and exposure to ETS are associated with higher risks for developing bronchitic symptoms among adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Responses to environmental smoking in never-smoking children: can symptoms of nicotine addiction develop in response to environmental tobacco smoke exposure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Kleinjan, M.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; DiFranza, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    A recent line of studies has brought attention to the question whether repeated exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is capable of producing psycho-physiological effects in non-smokers and whether symptoms of nicotine dependence can develop in the absence of active smoking. Children seem to

  12. Residential exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and its associates: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Expanding the information on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS at home and its associates is of great public health importance. The aim of the current analysis was to evaluate associates of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among economically active male and female adults in Poland in their place of residence. Material and Methods: Data on the representative sample of 7840 adults from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS carried out in Poland in the years 2009 and 2010 were applied. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey is a nationally representative household study. The logistic regression model was used for relevant calculations. Results: The exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the place of living affected 59% of studied subjects. Out of non-smokers 42% of males and 46% females were exposed to the ETS in the at home. Increased risk of residential ETS exposure was associated with low education attainment, lack of awareness on adverse health consequences of second hand smoke (SHS, low level of support for tobacco control policies, living with a smoker. One of the factors associated with the ETS exposure was also the approval for smoking at home of both genders. The residential ETS exposure risk was the highest among males (odds ratio (OR = 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI: 6.1–13.8, p < 0.001 and females (OR = 8.1, 95% CI 6.5–11.8, p < 0.001 who declared that smoking was allowed in their place of residence compared to respondents who implemented smoking bans at their place of residence. Conclusions: Campaigns to decrease social acceptance of smoking and encourage adopting voluntary smoke-free rules at home might decrease the ETS exposure and reduce related risks to the health of the Polish population. Educational interventions to warn about adverse health effects of the ETS should be broadly implemented particularly in high risk subpopulations.

  13. Residential exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and its associates: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Wojtysiak, Piotr; Usidame, Bukola; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Fronczak, Adam; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Expanding the information on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home and its associates is of great public health importance. The aim of the current analysis was to evaluate associates of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among economically active male and female adults in Poland in their place of residence. Data on the representative sample of 7840 adults from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) carried out in Poland in the years 2009 and 2010 were applied. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey is a nationally representative household study. The logistic regression model was used for relevant calculations. The exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the place of living affected 59% of studied subjects. Out of non-smokers 42% of males and 46% females were exposed to the ETS in the at home. Increased risk of residential ETS exposure was associated with low education attainment, lack of awareness on adverse health consequences of second hand smoke (SHS), low level of support for tobacco control policies, living with a smoker. One of the factors associated with the ETS exposure was also the approval for smoking at home of both genders. The residential ETS exposure risk was the highest among males (odds ratio (OR) = 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.1-13.8, p < 0.001) and females (OR = 8.1, 95% CI 6.5-11.8, p < 0.001) who declared that smoking was allowed in their place of residence compared to respondents who implemented smoking bans at their place of residence. Campaigns to decrease social acceptance of smoking and encourage adopting voluntary smoke-free rules at home might decrease the ETS exposure and reduce related risks to the health of the Polish population. Educational interventions to warn about adverse health effects of the ETS should be broadly implemented particularly in high risk subpopulations. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  14. Early-life exposures to environmental tobacco smoke and indoor air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fuels (such as paraffin, wood, coal and other biomass substances), often in inadequately ventilated homes, contributes to indoor air pollution, a recognised risk factor for respiratory disease.[5] Further, environmental tobacco smoke exposure continues to be problematic despite anti-smoking legislation.[6]. The Drakenstein ...

  15. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. METHODS: The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612...... women should not be exposed to passive smoking, and that it should be considered whether workplace legislation should be instituted in order to protect pregnant women against the adverse effects of passive smoking.......BACKGROUND: This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. METHODS: The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612...

  16. Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 μg/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 μg/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 μg/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 μg/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Family and carer smoking control programmes for reducing children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbod, Behrooz; Sharma, Mohit; Baxi, Ruchi; Roseby, Robert; Webster, Premila

    2018-01-31

    Children's exposure to other people's tobacco smoke (environmental tobacco smoke, or ETS) is associated with a range of adverse health outcomes for children. Parental smoking is a common source of children's exposure to ETS. Older children in child care or educational settings are also at risk of exposure to ETS. Preventing exposure to ETS during infancy and childhood has significant potential to improve children's health worldwide. To determine the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce exposure of children to environmental tobacco smoke, or ETS. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register and conducted additional searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), and the Social Science Citation Index & Science Citation Index (Web of Knowledge). We conducted the most recent search in February 2017. We included controlled trials, with or without random allocation, that enrolled participants (parents and other family members, child care workers, and teachers) involved in the care and education of infants and young children (from birth to 12 years of age). All mechanisms for reducing children's ETS exposure were eligible, including smoking prevention, cessation, and control programmes. These include health promotion, social-behavioural therapies, technology, education, and clinical interventions. Two review authors independently assessed studies and extracted data. Due to heterogeneity of methods and outcome measures, we did not pool results but instead synthesised study findings narratively. Seventy-eight studies met the inclusion criteria, and we assessed all evidence to be of low or very low quality based on GRADE assessment. We judged nine studies to be at low risk of bias, 35 to have unclear overall risk of bias, and 34 to have high risk of bias. Twenty

  18. [Environmental tobacco smoke exposure in homes of Mexico City: analysis of environmental samples and children and women hair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Avila-Tang, Erika; Wipfli, Heather; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    In Mexico no evaluation of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in homes or habitants has been conducted. The objective of this study is to quantify environmental nicotine in Mexico City homes, simultaneously evaluating nicotine levels in children and women. In July 2005 a convenience sample of 41 homes was selected, 20% without smokers, 80% with smokers. Nicotine passive monitors were allocated in homes for one week, obtaining samples of hair from inhabitant non-smoking women and children. Samples were taken to the Johns Hopkins University where nicotine was extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography. A survey of opinions and behaviors related to environmental tobacco smoke was conducted. Environmental nicotine concentrations had a median of 0.08 microg/m3 (IQR 0.01-0.64), in children's hair 0.05 ng/mg (IQR 0.05-0.29), and in women's hair 0.05 ng/mg (IQR 0.05-0.19). Environmental nicotine concentrations and in children's hair were highly correlated (rS=0.49), and increased with the number of smokers at home. The majority of adults surveyed showed support towards measures of environmental tobacco smoke control. Homes are important spaces of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Particularly high levels of exposure were observed in children's hair, attributable to the presence of environmental nicotine at home. Integral preventive activities to eliminate active smoking and to avoid tobacco consumption at home are required.

  19. [Protection against environmental tobacco smoke exposure according to eu and Polish legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczko, Katarzyna; Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Amendment to the Act on health protection against consequences of using tobacco and tobacco products, in force since 15 November 2010, has introduced a number of changes by extending the range of population protection against tobacco smoke exposure, of which the most controversial one for public was placing more restrictive ban on smoking in bars and restaurants. The changes in question caused that current legal bans, although more restrictive than earlier, are still not completely sufficient as far as the protection of all groups of workers against environmental tobacco smoke exposure is concerned. The text of WHO Framework Convention on Tobbacco Control, ratified by Poland, was discussed in the article together with the detailed WHO guidelines on the convention implementation in the field of workers' protection against tobacco smoke. In this paper the most important acts of EU, one of the convention parties, and current legislative situation in Poland were presented. Particular attention was paid to occupational groups, not yet fully protected against environmental tobacco smoke exposure and need to be the subject of future legislation.

  20. Family and carer smoking control programmes for reducing children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxi, Ruchi; Sharma, Mohit; Roseby, Robert; Polnay, Adam; Priest, Naomi; Waters, Elizabeth; Spencer, Nick; Webster, Premila

    2014-03-01

    Children's exposure to other people's cigarette smoke (environmental tobacco smoke, or ETS) is associated with a range of adverse health outcomes for children. Parental smoking is a common source of children's exposure to ETS. Older children are also at risk of exposure to ETS in child care or educational settings. Preventing exposure to cigarette smoke in infancy and childhood has significant potential to improve children's health worldwide. To determine the effectiveness of interventions aiming to reduce exposure of children to ETS. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and conducted additional searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, and The Social Science Citation Index & Science Citation Index (Web of Knowledge). Date of the most recent search: September 2013. Controlled trials with or without random allocation. Interventions must have addressed participants (parents and other family members, child care workers and teachers) involved with the care and education of infants and young children (aged 0 to 12 years). All mechanisms for reduction of children's ETS exposure, and smoking prevention, cessation, and control programmes were included. These include health promotion, social-behavioural therapies, technology, education, and clinical interventions. Two authors independently assessed studies and extracted data. Due to heterogeneity of methodologies and outcome measures, no summary measures were possible and results were synthesised narratively. Fifty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies were judged to be at low risk of bias, 27 studies were judged to have unclear overall risk of bias and 23 studies were judged to have high risk of bias. Seven interventions were targeted at populations or community settings, 23 studies were conducted in the 'well child' healthcare setting and 24 in the 'ill child' healthcare setting. Two further studies

  1. Respiratory Complications during General Anesthesia in Children Exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Albaalbaki

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Exposure to the environmental Tobacco smoke is associated with detrimental effects on pulmonary function in the children. This study investigated the relation between airway complications in children receiving general anesthesia with the passive inhalation of smoke and those who were not.Materials & Methods: 223 children scheduled to receive general anesthesia care were enrolled in this case-control study. The anesthesiologist and the residents, unaware of the smoke exposure history, recorded the occurrence of airway complications. A history of passive smoking was assessed by measuring the numbers of cigarettes smoked by their parents per day. The data was analyzed by 2statistical test.Results: Respiratory complications occurred in 54.3% of the patients who were exposed to smoke and 32.4% of those who were not and the difference was statistically significant. Respiratory complications in daughters exposed to tobacco smoke was seen in 57.5% and in boys 51.2% (P=0.012. Respiratory events in children exposed to tobacco smoke was seen in 76.7% children with mother without education, 46.5% children of mothers with low educated level, and 12.5% children of mother with high educational level (P=0.002. This correlation was seen between respiratory events and educational level of fathers (P=0.006. Moreover, our study showed positive correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked per day with respiratory complications during general anesthesia (P<0.05. Conclusion: There is a strong association between passive inhalation of tobacco smoke and respiratory complications in children receiving general anesthesia. The relationship was greatest for the daughters and those whose parents had a lower level of education. Passive smoking should be regarded as a risk factor for the children undergoing general anesthesia.

  2. GST-omega genes interact with environmental tobacco smoke on adult level of lung function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Kim; Boezen, Hendrika; ten Hacken, Nicolaas; Postma, Dirkje S; Vonk, Judith M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lung growth in utero and lung function loss during adulthood can be affected by exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Both ETS exposure and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Omega

  3. A prospective study on active and environmental tobacco smoking and bladder cancer risk (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2002-01-01

    Objective: In a prospective cohort study among 120,852 adult subjects the authors investigated the associations between cigarette, cigar, pipe, environmental tobacco smoking (ETS), and bladder cancer. Methods: In 1986 all subjects completed a questionnaire on cancer risk factors. Follow-up for

  4. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children in two districts of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Miroslav; Milcová, Alena; Binková, Blanka; Kotěšovec, F.; Nožička, J.; Topinka, Jan; Šrám, Radim

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 211, 3-4 (2008), s. 318-325 ISSN 1438-4639 R&D Projects: GA MŽP 1C/5/6/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : children * mothers * environmental tobacco smoke Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.158, year: 2008

  5. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and absence from work in women in Nis, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanković, Aleksandra; Nikolić, Maja; Arandelović, Mirjana

    2012-03-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke leads to very serious health effects, especially on the respiratory system. The objective of this paper was to estimate the influence of passive smoking on absence from work because of respiratory problems in women. The study sample consisted of 497 women aged 40-56 who live in an area with identical outdoor air pollution. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure was recorded in 346 women. Data about respiratory symptoms in women were entered into a structured questionnaire. Statistics tests showed no significant difference of living conditions, keeping pets, hereditary predisposition among women. The occurrence of congested nose (OR = 3.47; 95% Cl = 1.38-9.01), nasal secretion (OR = 3.48; 95% Cl = 1.38-9.02) and sinusitis (OR = 2.88; 95% Cl = 1.22-6.89) was significantly higher in women who were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Primary health care need for respiratory symptoms due to the effect of passive smoking is higher in the exposed women. Passive smoking can be a risk factor for the appearance of respiratory symptoms and illness in women that causes absence from work.

  6. Parental environmental tobacco smoking and the prevalence of respiratory diseases in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arghir, Oana Cristina; Danteş, Elena; Stoicescu, Ramona; Baicu, Irina; Halichidis, Stela; Ciobotaru, Camelia; Man, Milena Adina; Cambrea, Simona Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The inhaling tobacco smoke to which a child is exposed, in a home environmental area, could affect respiratory system. The aim of the study consists in detecting the prevalence of respiratory diseases in home exposure to secondhand smoke among primary school children. A 6-month prospective case-control study based on questionnaire survey was carried out among school children of "Spiru Haret" Primary School, Medgidia, Romania, with absences for respiratory diseases, related to exposure to parental passive smoking, in their home environmental. 136 school children and their families informed, consented to complete the questionnaire and were surveyed for respiratory diseases and domestic environmental tobacco smoking, from the 1st of October, 2011 to the 31st March, 2012. The method consists in collecting data about any respiratory illness events, correlating them with the questionnaire --reports of parental smoking in home environmental. Participants were divided in 88 cases exposed to SHS (E) and 48 controls without exposure (NE). The most sick children with more than one episode of respiratory illness were among cases (n = 61/88; 69.31% vs 19/48; 39.58%; OR = 3.45; RR = 1.62; chi2 = 12.25; p smoking is the father (n = 67/88; 76.13%), being a single parent in most of the cases (n = 46/88; 57.95%). The prevalence of bronchial asthma was 0.34% in cases, being related with prenatal maternal smoking exposure (1.11%). The prevalence of respiratory diseases is higher among children with environmental parental tobacco exposure, in particular, smoking father.

  7. Science, politics, and ideology in the campaign against environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald; Colgrove, James

    2002-06-01

    The issue of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and the harms it causes to nonsmoking bystanders has occupied a central place in the rhetoric and strategy of antismoking forces in the United States over the past 3 decades. Beginning in the 1970s, anti-tobacco activists drew on suggestive and incomplete evidence to push for far-reaching prohibitions on smoking in a variety of public settings. Public health professionals and other antismoking activists, although concerned about the potential illness and death that ETS might cause in nonsmokers, also used restrictions on public smoking as a way to erode the social acceptability of cigarettes and thereby reduce smoking prevalence. This strategy was necessitated by the context of American political culture, especially the hostility toward public health interventions that are overtly paternalistic.

  8. Indoor Measurements of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Final Report to the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Dod, Raymond L.; Russell, Marion L.; Singer, Brett C.; Sohn, Michael D.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Chang, Gee-Minn; Sextro, Richard G.

    2004-03-02

    The objective of this research project was to improve the basis for estimating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures in a variety of indoor environments. The research utilized experiments conducted in both laboratory and ''real-world'' buildings to (1) study the transport of ETS species from room to room, (2) examine the viability of using various chemical markers as tracers for ETS, and (3) to evaluate to what extent re-emission of ETS components from indoor surfaces might add to the ETS exposure estimates. A three-room environmental chamber was used to examine multi-zone transport and behavior of ETS and its tracers. One room (simulating a smoker's living room) was extensively conditioned with ETS, while a corridor and a second room (simulating a child's bedroom) remained smoking-free. A series of 5 sets of replicate experiments were conducted under different door opening and flow configurations: sealed, leaky, slightly ajar, wide open, and under forced air-flow conditions. When the doors between the rooms were slightly ajar the particles dispersed into the other rooms, eventually reaching the same concentration. The particle size distribution took the same form in each room, although the total numbers of particles in each room depended on the door configurations. The particle number size distribution moved towards somewhat larger particles as the ETS aged. We also successfully modeled the inter-room transport of ETS particles from first principles--using size fractionated particle emission factors, predicted deposition rates, and thermal temperature gradient driven inter-room flows, This validation improved our understanding of bulk inter-room ETS particle transport. Four chemical tracers were examined: ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and solanesol. Both (UVPM) and (FPM) traced the transport of ETS particles into the non-smoking areas. Nicotine, on the other hand

  9. Annoyance from environmental tobacco smoke and support for no-smoking policies at eight large Dutch workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, M. C.; de Vries, H.; Genders, R.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To collect descriptive data on annoyance from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), attitudes toward smoking at the workplace, and support for a no-smoking policy. DESIGN: Survey of eight large companies in four sectors of Dutch industry. SUBJECTS: A representative sample of smoking and non-smoking employees (n = 1480). RESULTS: Thirty- five per cent of non-smoking employees felt it was "annoying" to "very annoying" when their colleagues smoked during worktime, and 78% thought a smoky work environment was harmful to their health. About two-thirds of non-smokers "sometimes" to "often" experienced annoyance from ETS at their workplace. The individual solution approach (no explicit policy) is not only rejected by most nonsmokers but also by many smokers. In three sectors of industry, there was much support among employees for a smoking ban except for work areas designated for smoking. CONCLUSIONS: These results could encourage more companies to implement smoking restrictions and they may be used as reference data by companies wanting to develop effective no-smoking policies. 


 PMID:8910995

  10. Prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among saudi medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Khalid M

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to determine the prevalence of active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and to examine their attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco control programs. The investigation was a cross-sectional study conducted during the first semester of 2013 at King Saud University School of Medicine located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Invited to participate in this study were 1,789 medical students. A descriptive data analysis was performed. A total of 805 medical students completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of experimentation with cigarette smoking was 11.3%. The estimated prevalence of current smoking among the study participants was 4.7%. The majority of the students held positive attitudes toward tobacco control and approximately 93.1% of the students felt that health care professionals should be required to receive training for cessation counseling while only 36.8% of the students reported having received any training in this area. Over the study's duration 57.7% of participants reported that ETS exposure was much higher in public places, while 13.9% reported exposure at home. This investigation revealed that ETS exposure among medical students in Riyadh is at an alarmingly high rate. The data suggests a need for a more robust smoke-free policy and a commitment to greater enforcement in public places. The results of the study also demonstrate a positive attitude among participants for tobacco control. It also indicates a need for cessation counseling and training which could be incorporated into medical school curriculum.

  11. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on peak expiratory flow rates on healthy school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujnović-Živković Zorica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tobacco smoke is one of the most important environmental pollutants (ETS. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke is involuntary and it presents a health risk for children. Objective: To establish if there are differences in Peak Expiratory Flow Rates (PEF values of healthy school children who live in households with and without tobacco smoke. Methods: PEF measurements were taken for 830 school children, from elementary schools in Nis and Laplje Selo. Measurements were obtained with new peak flow meters Vitalograf-normal range (EN 13826, 3 to 5 times. The highest values were taken for analysis. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: We considered PEF values for 830 healthy school children, 599 (72.17% from households with tobacco smoke (ETS, and 231 (27.83% without ETS. Exposure to parenteral smoking was associated with reduced PEF rates: 312.01 L/min (95% CI=301.38-322.65 L/min, for boys and 284.64 L/min (95% CI=275.73-293.55 L/min, for girls. PEF rates for children from households without ETS are 313.79 L/min (95% CI=295.63-331.93 L/min for boys, and 302.0 L/min (95% CI=287.02- 316.98 L/min for girls. PEF rates were significantly lower for girls from households with ETS (p<0.05. Boys, with and without ETS, had no statistically significant differences between their height, weight and age, so their PEF rates could be compared by their absolute values. For girls, this was not the case, and after age, height and weight adjustments their PEF rates showed no statistical significance (p= 0,346. Conclusions: Parental and household smoking were associated with decreased lung function in school age children. Although it's possible to reduce exposure to tobacco smoke in public places, it's important to inform parents about long-term impact of tobacco smoke on the health of their children.

  12. Smoked Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cigarette, emphasizing its cool and refreshing taste. In reality, menthol reduces the harshness of cigarette smoke, which ... the use of non-cigarette smoked tobacco products increased dramatically. The largest increases were in use of ...

  13. A study of environmental tobacco smoke in South Australian pubs, clubs and cafes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenko, Clinton; Pisaniello, Dino; Esterman, Adrian

    2004-02-01

    Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) in hotels and clubs is of community concern and may lead to a variety of adverse health outcomes for workers and patrons. This study sought to measure ETS in both smoking and non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in South Australia and to assess the effectiveness of ETS control measures. Seven hotels, clubs and cafes were investigated and the concentrations of airborne nicotine and particulate matter (PM(10)) were measured as markers of ETS exposure during normal to busy periods. Overall average concentrations were higher in smoking areas (nicotine = 15 microg/m(3) and PM(10) = 255microg/m(3)) compared with non-smoking dining areas (nicotine = 7 microg/m(3) and PM(10) = 192 microg/m(3)). The data demonstrate an approximate two-fold reduction of ETS within non-smoking areas and suggest that mechanical ventilation is only partially effective in preventing propagation of ETS throughout premises. Risk models suggest that ETS exposures in non-smoking areas may still represent an appreciable health risk. It is recommended that smoking be totally banned in enclosed publicly accessible areas.

  14. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on nasal responses to live attenuated influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Published and preliminary data in our laboratory suggest that airborne pollutants including tobacco smoke increase susceptibility of respiratory epithelium to infection with influenza A. However, no studies have specifically looked at the interaction between tobacco s...

  15. Nicotelline: a proposed biomarker and environmental tracer for particulate matter derived from tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Peyton; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Havel, Christopher M; Schick, Suzaynn F; Benowitz, Neal L

    2013-11-18

    Particulate matter (PM) derived from tobacco smoke contains numerous toxic substances. Since the PM and gas phase of tobacco smoke may distribute differently in the environment and substances in them may have different human bioavailability, multiple tracers and biomarkers for tobacco smoke constituents are desirable. Nicotelline is a relatively nonvolatile alkaloid present in tobacco smoke, and therefore, it has the potential to be a suitable tracer and biomarker for tobacco smoke-derived PM. We describe experiments demonstrating that nicotelline is present almost entirely in the PM, in both freshly generated cigarette smoke and aged cigarette smoke. An excellent correlation between the mass of nicotelline and the mass of the PM in aged cigarette smoke was found. We also describe experiments suggesting that the main source of nicotelline in tobacco smoke is dehydrogenation of another little-studied tobacco alkaloid, anatalline, during the burning process. We show that nicotelline metabolites can be measured in the urine of smokers and that nicotelline can be measured in house dust from homes of smokers and nonsmokers. We conclude that nicotelline should be useful as a tracer and biomarker for PM derived from tobacco smoke.

  16. Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a study in Lisbon restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Solange A; Aguiar, Fátima; Ruivo, Patrícia; Proença, Maria Carmo; Sekera, Michael; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), also referred to as secondhand smoke (SHS), is a major threat to public health and is increasingly recognized as an occupational hazard to workers in the hospitality industry. Therefore, several countries have implemented smoke-free regulations at hospitality industry sites. In Portugal, since 2008, legislation partially banned smoking in restaurants and bars but until now no data have been made available on levels of indoor ETS pollution/exposure at these locations. The aim of this study was to examine the occupational exposure to ETS/SHS in several restaurants in Lisbon, measured by indoor fine particles (PM(2.5)) and urinary cotinine concentration in workers, after the partial smoking ban in Portugal. Results showed that the PM(2.5) median level in smoking designated areas was 253 μg/m³, eightfold higher than levels recorded in canteens or outdoor. The nonsmoking rooms of mixed restaurants exhibited PM(2.5) median level of 88 μg/m³, which is higher than all smoke-free locations studied, approximately threefold greater than those found in canteens. Importantly, urinary cotinine concentrations were significantly higher in nonsmoker employees working in those smoking designated areas, confirming exposure to ETS. The proportion of smokers in those rooms was found to be significantly positively correlated with nonsmoker urinary cotinine and indoor PM(2.5) levels, establishing that both markers were occupational-ETS derived. The use of reinforced ventilation systems seemed not to be sufficient to decrease the observed ETS pollution/exposure in those smoking locations. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the partial restrictions on smoking in Portuguese venues failed to provide adequate protection to their employees, irrespective of protective measures used. Therefore, a smoke-free legislation protecting individuals from exposure to ETS/SHS in all public places and workplaces is urgently needed in Portugal.

  17. Toxic volatile organic compounds in environmental tobacco smoke: Emission factors for modeling exposures of California populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air contaminants in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including, 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosamines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors ({mu}g/cigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were Generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

  18. Mother's environmental tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and externalizing behavior problems in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Leung, Patrick W L; McCauley, Linda; Ai, Yuexian; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    While the impact of active maternal smoking during pregnancy on child health has been well investigated, the association between maternal passive smoking, or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), or second-hand smoke, and behavioral development of offspring is less clear. This study examines the association between maternal ETS exposure during pregnancy and child behavior problems. Cross-sectional data of 646 mother-child pairs from the Jintan China Cohort Study were used in the analyses. Mother's exposure to tobacco smoking at home, the workplace, and other places during pregnancy (for the determination of maternal ETS exposure) and children's behaviors (via Child Behavior Checklist) were assessed when the children were 5-6 years old. Logistic regression models were constructed to examine associations between maternal exposure to ETS during pregnancy and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, adjusting for potential cofounders including child sex and parental characteristics. 37% of mothers reported ETS during pregnancy. Children of mothers exposed to ETS during pregnancy had higher scores for externalizing and total behavior problems, with 25% of children whose mothers were exposed to ETS compared to 16% of children of unexposed mothers. After adjusting for potential confounders, ETS exposure was associated with a higher risk of externalizing behavior problems in offspring of exposed mothers (OR=2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-3.43). Analysis after multiple imputations and sensitivity analysis further verified the association, but no dose-response relationship was found. ETS exposure, however, was not associated with internalizing or total behavior problems. This study suggests that maternal ETS exposure during pregnancy may impact child behavioral development, particularly externalizing behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Scientometric analysis and combined density-equalizing mapping of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Vitzthum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Passive exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is estimated to exert a major burden of disease. Currently, numerous countries have taken legal actions to protect the population against ETS. Numerous studies have been conducted in this field. Therefore, scientometric methods should be used to analyze the accumulated data since there is no such approach available so far. METHODS AND RESULTS: A combination of scientometric methods and novel visualizing procedures were used, including density-equalizing mapping and radar charting techniques. 6,580 ETS-related studies published between 1900 and 2008 were identified in the ISI database. Using different scientometric approaches, a continuous increase of both quantitative and qualitative parameters was found. The combination with density-equalizing calculations demonstrated a leading position of the United States (2,959 items published in terms of quantitative research activities. Charting techniques demonstrated that there are numerous bi- and multilateral networks between different countries and institutions in this field. Again, a leading position of American institutions was found. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comprehensive scientometric analysis of data on global scientific activities in the field of environmental tobacco smoke research. The present findings can be used as a benchmark for funding allocation processes.

  20. Household environmental tobacco smoke and risks of asthma, wheeze and bronchitic symptoms among children in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Bing-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although studies show that maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risks of respiratory outcomes in childhood, evidence concerning the effects of household environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure remains inconsistent. Methods We conducted a population-based study comprised of 5,019 seventh and eighth-grade children in 14 Taiwanese communities. Questionnaire responses by parents were used to ascertain children's exposure and disease status. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the effects of ETS exposures on the prevalence of asthma, wheeze, and bronchitic symptoms. Results The lifetime prevalence of wheeze was 11.6% and physician-diagnosed asthma was 7.5% in our population. After adjustment for potential confounders, in utero exposure showed the strongest effect on all respiratory outcomes. Current household ETS exposure was significantly associated with increased prevalence of active asthma, ever wheeze, wheeze with nighttime awakening, and bronchitis. Maternal smoking was associated with the increased prevalence of a wide range of wheeze subcategories, serious asthma, and chronic cough, but paternal smoking had no significant effects. Although maternal smoking alone and paternal smoking alone were not independently associated with respiratory outcomes, joint exposure appeared to increase the effects. Furthermore, joint exposure to parental smoking showed a significant effect on early-onset asthma (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.00-4.02, but did not show a significant effect on late-onset asthma (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.36-3.87. Conclusion We concluded that prenatal and household ETS exposure had significant adverse effects on respiratory health in Taiwanese children.

  1. Relationship of environmental tobacco smoke to otitis media (OM) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csákányi, Zsuzsanna; Czinner, Antal; Spangler, John; Rogers, Todd; Katona, Gábor

    2012-07-01

    Many, but not all, studies have found a correlation between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and acute otitis media (AOM) and other adverse otologic outcomes. Given its high personal and societal costs and the divergent findings of the effect of ETS on middle ear disease, the aim of the current study was to assess the impact and possible determinant factors of ETS on recurrent (two or more) episodes of AOM. The study was performed at Heim Pal Children's Hospital, Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Department, Budapest, Hungary. Caregivers of a convenience sample of 412 children attending the ENT outpatient clinic were surveyed via a 22-item questionnaire regarding demographics, socioeconomics, and smoking behaviours of the child's family; as well as care-givers' self report of the number of AOM episodes of the child. Of the 412 participants, 155 (38%) children's parents smoked. In bivariate analysis, two or more episodes of AOM correlated with reported hearing problems, day care enrolment, parental employment and increased age of the child. In multivariate logistic regression, parental smoking more than doubled a child's risk for recurrent AOM while increased maternal employment (e.g. part-time or full-time versus unemployed) boosted risk up to fourfold. Among children whose parents smoked, half-packs of cigarettes smoked per day and day care attendance doubled or nearly tripled, respectively, the risk of recurrent AOM episodes. Childhood exposure to ETS is high among an ENT clinic population of Hungarian children. Such exposure correlates with AOM episodes, ENT operations and conductive hearing loss. Data such as these argue for strict laws smoke-free laws not only in Hungary, but also in Europe and around the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Smoking practices, risk perception of smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure among 6th-grade students in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; Olsen, Larry K; Forster-Cox, Sue; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Buckingham, Robert W

    2007-02-01

    This study assessed the smoking practices, risk perception of smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among adolescents in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. We used a cross-sectional method to examine the smoking practices, risk perception of smoking, and ETS exposure of 6th-grade students (N=506), aged 11-13 years, attending six randomly selected middle schools. Schools were classified by school setting (i.e., public vs. private) and socioeconomic status (SES; i.e., low, middle, or high). The results indicated that 6th-grade students attending a public, low-SES school setting in Ciudad Juárez not only exhibited significantly higher rates of ETS exposure at home and in public places (p<.01) but also were more likely to have tried smoking (p<.01) and to be current smokers (p<.01), and were less likely to support a ban on smoking in public places (p<.01), compared with students who attended a private school or a public, middle- or high-SES school setting. These results provide further evidence that public health interventions to prevent initiation of smoking and to assist in smoking cessation among adolescents and to reduce their ETS exposure at home and in public need to target all school-aged students, especially those attending school in a low-SES settings.

  3. An educational intervention to men for reducing environmental tobacco smoke exposure in their pregnant wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebi, Zohreh; Kazemi, Ashraf; Loripour, Marzieh; Shams, Nafiseh

    2017-11-27

    To determine the effect of education based on health belief model (HBM) on the level of their pregnant wives' environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETSE). This interventional randomized study was conducted on 60 cigarette smoking men who have exposed their pregnant wives to smoke during of their pregnancy. The HBM constructs and weekly ETSE were evaluated by using questionnaire. The intervention group received education with emphasis on the risks of cigarette's smoke on the pregnancy. Then right after the training and 6 weeks after that, HBM constructs and 6 weeks after the training the weekly ETSE were evaluated again. Results showed a significant difference between the mean of perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits and barriers at intake and 6 weeks after the intervention in the intervention group. Also the level of perceived susceptibility/severity and perceived barriers in both groups were significantly different 6 weeks after the intervention compared to intake time. The ETSE was significantly lower in the intervention group 6 weeks after the intervention in comparison to before the intervention and also to the control group. This study showed that education husbands would relatively improve their health beliefs and reduce the ETSE of their pregnant wives.

  4. Determination of aromatic tracer compounds for environmental tobacco smoke aerosol by two step laser mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrical, Brad D.; Zenobi, Renato

    Cigarette smoking is a major cause of indoor aerosol pollution. Determination of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) aerosol is critical to understanding health effects. Sizing studies have shown that ETS has a size distribution that is efficiently deposited into the lungs and can therefore provide effective delivery of carcinogenic compounds into the human body. Two-step laser mass spectrometry is used to analyze aromatic compounds on aerosols collected from a smoking lobby. The determination and suitability of ETS tracers on aerosols is examined. Additionally, the transport of aerosol from the smoking lobby is examined to determine what effect deposition and dilution have on the mass spectrum observed. Results from the analysis of ETS, both from lobby samples and direct cigarette sampling, show that several unique peaks are present in the mass spectrum when compared to other combustion sources, such as automobiles and diesel trucks. In particular, ions at m/ z 118, 132, 146, and 160 are consistently present and are not found in other combustion sources. For the indoor environment, where chemical transformation is much less rapid than in the outdoor environment, these ions were found to be present as soon as the first smokers appeared and persisted over the course of the day. Aerosol samples taken in the morning prior to the presence of smokers in the lobby reveal the presence of skeletal PAHs, indicative of outdoor urban traffic aerosol penetration into the building.

  5. How many deaths will it take? A death from asthma associated with work-related environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbury, Martha; Chester, Debra; Hanna, Elizabeth A; Rosenman, Kenneth D

    2008-02-01

    Despite epidemiologic, experimental and observational data on the association of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and adverse health effects, bar and restaurant workers remain exposed to ETS in the majority of states and countries. Three public health surveillance systems were used to identify and conduct a follow-up investigation of a reported acute asthma death of a young waitress in a bar. The waitress collapsed at the bar where she worked and was declared dead shortly thereafter. Evaluation of the circumstances of her death and her medical history concluded that her death was from acute asthma due to environmental tobacco smoke at work. This is the first reported acute asthma death associated with work-related ETS. Recent studies of asthma among bar and restaurant workers before and after smoking bans support this association. This death dramatizes the need to enact legal protections for workers in the hospitality industry from secondhand smoke.

  6. Measurements and modeling of environmental tobacco smoke leakagefrom a simulated smoking room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, J.; Sullivan, D.P.; Faulkner, D.; Gundel, L.A.; Fisk,W.J.; Alevantis, L.E.; Waldman, J.M.

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect ofvarious design and operating parameters on smoking room performance.Twenty-eight experiments were conducted in a simulated smoking room witha smoking machine and an automatic door opener. Measurements were made ofair flows, pressures, temperatures, two particle-phase ETS tracers, twogas-phase ETS tracers, and sulfur hexafluoride. Quantification of leakageflows, the effect of these leaks on smoking room performance andnon-smoker exposure, and the relative importance of each leakagemechanism are presented. The results indicate that the first priority foran effective smoking room is to depressurize it with respect to adjoiningnon-smoking areas. Another important ETS leakage mechanism is the pumpingaction of the smoking room door. Substituting a sliding door for astandard swing-type door reduced this source of ETS leakagesignificantly. Measured results correlated well with model predictions(R2 = 0.82-0.99).

  7. Genes and pathways underlying susceptibility to impaired lung function in the context of environmental tobacco smoke exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, K; Vonk, J M; Imboden, M; Lahousse, L; Hofman, A; Brusselle, G G; Probst-Hensch, N M; Postma, D S; Boezen, H M

    2017-01-01

    Background: Studies aiming to assess genetic susceptibility for impaired lung function levels upon exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) have thus far focused on candidate-genes selected based on a-priori knowledge of potentially relevant biological pathways, such as glutathione

  8. Cotinine versus questionnaire: early-life environmental tobacco smoke exposure and incident asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlsten Chris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of biomarkers has expanded considerably, as an alternative to questionnaire-based metrics of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS; few studies have assessed the affect of such alternative metrics on diverse respiratory outcomes in children, and we aimed to do so. Methods We evaluated various measures of birth-year ETS, in association with multiple respiratory endpoints early years of life, in the novel context of a birth cohort at high risk for asthma. We administered questionnaires to parents, both at the end of pregnancy and at one year of life, and measured cotinine in cord blood (CCot; in 275 children and in urine (UCot; obtained at 12 months in 365 children, each by radioimmunoassay. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of the various metrics with recurrent wheeze at age 2 and with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR and asthma at age 7. Results Self-reported 3rd trimester maternal smoking was associated with significantly increased risk for recurrent wheeze at age 2 (odds ratio 3.5 [95% confidence interval = 1.2,10.7]; the risks associated with CCot and 3rd trimester smoking in any family member were similar (OR 2.9 [1.2,7.0] and 2.6 [1.0,6.5], respectively. No metric of maternal smoking at 12 months appeared to significantly influence the risk of recurrent wheeze at age 2, and no metric of ETS at any time appeared to significantly influence risk of asthma or BHR at age 7. Conclusions Biomarker- and questionnaire-based assessment of ETS in early life lead to similar estimates of ETS-associated risk of recurrent wheeze and asthma.

  9. Lifetime environmental tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balmes John

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, which contains potent respiratory irritants, may lead to chronic airway inflammation and obstruction. Although ETS exposure appears to cause asthma in children and adults, its role in causing COPD has received limited attention in epidemiologic studies. Methods Using data from a population-based sample of 2,113 U.S. adults aged 55 to 75 years, we examined the association between lifetime ETS exposure and the risk of developing COPD. Participants were recruited from all 48 contiguous U.S. states by random digit dialing. Lifetime ETS exposure was ascertained by structured telephone interview. We used a standard epidemiologic approach to define COPD based on a self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD. Results Higher cumulative lifetime home and work exposure were associated with a greater risk of COPD. The highest quartile of lifetime home ETS exposure was associated with a greater risk of COPD, controlling for age, sex, race, personal smoking history, educational attainment, marital status, and occupational exposure to vapors, gas, dusts, or fumes during the longest held job (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.21. The highest quartile of lifetime workplace ETS exposure was also related to a greater risk of COPD (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.002 to 1.84. The population attributable fraction was 11% for the highest quartile of home ETS exposure and 7% for work exposure. Conclusion ETS exposure may be an important cause of COPD. Consequently, public policies aimed at preventing public smoking may reduce the burden of COPD-related death and disability, both by reducing direct smoking and ETS exposure.

  10. Ergonomics. The effect of occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on the heart rate variability of bar and restaurant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark D; McGlothlin, James D; Rosenthal, Frank S; Black, David R; Zimmerman, Neil J; Bridges, C David

    2010-07-01

    Changes in heart rate variability (HRV) have been linked with cardiac disease and death. Exposure to particulate matter from various sources such as tobacco smoke has been shown to cause alterations in HRV. This study investigated the effects of occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on HRV. Air monitoring was conducted in three bars in which smoking was permitted and one bar where smoking was not permitted. Pre- and post-work shift heart rate monitoring was conducted on volunteer staff from the establishments. Heart rate variability parameters, including SDNN and RMSSD, were calculated, and the differences between pre- and post-shift values were plotted and analyzed with respect to ETS exposure. Post-shift minus pre-shift values of SDNN and RMSSD significantly decreased with exposure to ETS (p < 0.05). Occupational exposure to ETS may decrease heart rate variability.

  11. Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Related to Behavioral Problems in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastang, Julie; Baïz, Nour; Cadwallader, Jean Sébastien; Cadwalladder, Jean Sébastien; Robert, Sarah; Dywer, John L; Dywer, John; Charpin, Denis André; Caillaud, Denis; de Blay, Frédéric; Raherison, Chantal; Lavaud, François; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre and post environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and behavioral problems in schoolchildren. In the cross-sectional 6 cities Study conducted in France, 5221 primary school children were investigated. Pre- and postnatal exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at home was assessed using a parent questionnaire. Child's behavioral outcomes (emotional symptoms and conduct problems) were evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) completed by the parents. ETS exposure during the postnatal period and during both pre- and postnatal periods was associated with behavioral problems in children. Abnormal emotional symptoms (internalizing problems) were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.72 (95% Confidence Interval (CI)= 1.36-2.17), whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.38 (95% CI= 1.12-1.69) in the case of postnatal exposure only. Abnormal conduct problems (externalizing problems) were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.94 (95% CI= 1.51-2.50), whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.47 (95% CI=1.17-1.84) in the case of postnatal exposure only. Effect estimates were adjusted for gender, study center, ethnic origin, child age, low parental education, current physician diagnosed asthma, siblings, preterm birth and single parenthood. Postnatal ETS exposure, alone or in association with prenatal exposure, increases the risk of behavioral problems in school-age children.

  12. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among South Korean adults: a cross-sectional study of the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Eun-Hee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified that environmental tobacco smoke exposure is associated with sociodemographic factors such as age, sex, and socioeconomic status, but few studies have been conducted in South Korea. In this study, the authors investigated the extent of environmental tobacco smoke exposure and factors related in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. Methods The data of 7,801 adults aged 19 years and over collected during the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Information on smoking habits and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was obtained by self-reports using a standardized questionnaire. Risks of environmental tobacco smoke exposure conferred by sociodemographic variables and behavioral risk factors were evaluated using logistic regression methods. Results Overall, 36.1% of nonsmokers (defined as those not currently smoking and 50.1% of current smokers were found to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke either at work or at home. Among the nonsmokers, women were more likely to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at home (OR = 5.22, 95%CI, 4.08-6.67. Furthermore, an inverse relationship was found between education level and the risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home (OR = 1.73, 95%CI, 1.38-2.17 for those with a high school education; OR = 2.30, 95%CI, 1.68-3.16 for those with a middle school education; and OR = 2.58, 95%CI, 1.85-3.59 for those with less than an elementary school education vs. those with a college education or more. In addition, those with office, sales service, or manual labor jobs were found to be at significantly higher risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure at work than those with professional, administrative, or managerial jobs. Also, the risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in the workplace was significantly higher for alcohol drinkers than non-drinkers (OR = 1.23, 95%CI, 1.07-1.47. After adjusting

  13. Pilot study using hair nicotine feedback to reduce Latino children's environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Susan I; Conway, Terry L; Elder, John P; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2007-01-01

    This was a pilot study to assess the usability and impact of a feedback-based environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) reduction approach for Latino families. A one-group, pre-post design was used. Information from hair samples from children analyzed for nicotine was used to create three feedback versions presented in a counterbalanced fashion. The intervention was conducted by a promotora in the participants' homes, with mailed materials and over the phone. Fifty Latino parent-child pairs were recruited. Parents were Spanish-speaking smoking adults (typically the mother) who reported exposing their children to ETS. Intervention efforts included home visits to provide nicotine feedback and counseling, two mailers presenting alternative versions of the feedback, and a supportive telephone call delivered over a 6-week period. Pre-post assessments conducted by a bicultural measurement technician measured parent reports of children's ETS exposure and children's hair nicotine. Parents' liking/usability of the three feedback formats was measured at the post-assessment. Paired t-tests assessed pre-post changes in exposure outcomes. Parents' reports of exposure and children's hair nicotine levels showed statistically significant reductions. Parents liked all three feedback formats, particularly a comparative graphic format. Consistency of the positive findings suggests that this feedback approach to ETS reduction warrants further study with a more rigorous design.

  14. Inhibition of HMGB1 Translocation by Green Tea Extract in Rats Exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirintip Chaichalotornkul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure is linked to carcinogenic, oxidative and inflammatory cellular reactions. Green tea polyphenol reportedly plays a role in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases. To evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE on cellular location of High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1 protein, we studied the lung tissue in rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS. Rats were divided into three groups; CS, CSG, and C, which were groups of CS-treated only, CS-treated with GTE dietary supplement, and the control, respectively. Our findings by immunocytochemistry showed that abundant HMGB1 translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the lung tissues of rats that were exposed to CS, whereas HMGB1 was localized to the nuclei of CSG and C group. For in vitro studies, cotinine stimulated the secretion of HMGB1 in a dose and time dependent manner and the HMGB1 level was suppressed by GTE in murine macrophage cell lines. Our results could suggest that GTE supplementation which could suppress HMGB1 may offer a beneficial effect against diseases.

  15. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure and respiratory morbidity in school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Constant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tobacco smoke is a risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and a major public health problem. Prenatal maternal smoking and post-natal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS lead to dose-dependent decrease in lung function and respiratory morbidity. Influence of different socioeconomic indicators and ETS in the home has also been suggested. Methods: Data on 313 children (52 % male from 4 public schools in Lisbon was analyzed [1st (46 % and 4th graders]. ETS assessment and respiratory symptoms were based on a self-answered questionnaire. All children performed standard spirometry in the school setting and 54 % were acceptable according to ATS/ERS criteria. Descriptive and bivariate analysis of the most relevant variables was done, followed by multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted to the variables with clinical/statistical relevance. Results: ETS in the home was found in 41 % (maternal smoking during pregnancy 18 %, smoking mother 32 %, smoking father 38 %. Smoking fathers had lower education and less qualified occupation. Cough was more frequent in children with a smoking mother (adjusted OR = 2.1; 95 %CI, 1.1–4 and wheezing in children with maternal smoking during pregnancy and smoking parents. All differences were significant (p < 0.05. No association was found between parental education and cough/wheeze or ETS and respiratory infections/asthma/decreased spirometric values. Conclusions: Children in Lisbon are frequently exposed to ETS which results in significant respiratory morbidity. Targeted interventions must have social conditions in consideration. In this study, field spirometry was not helpful in early detection of lung function disability in children associated with ETS. Resumo: Introdução: A exposição ao fumo do tabaco (EFT é factor de risco para Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crónica e um problema major de saúde pública. A EFT pré e/ou pós-natal determina

  16. Environmental tobacco smoke: views from the Dunedin hospitality industry on prohibition of smoking in licensed premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, A; Blair, A

    2000-11-24

    To describe Dunedin hospitality industry perceptions of difficulties in enforcement of a prohibition on smoking in licensed premises, and possible effects on staff, customers and business. To identify any need for education to assist transition and reduce compliance difficulties with smoke-free legislation. A reply paid questionnaire was mailed to all 311 licensed premises registered with the Dunedin District Licensing Agency, operational in May 1999. overall response rate (67%) differed significantly by type of premises (bar, club, restaurant and off-licence). Overall, a smoking ban was considered likely to be difficult to enforce (82%), upset customers (74%), reduce business (59%) and negatively effect employees (51%). On each issue, there was a consistent pattern of increasing concern from off-licenses (least concern) through restaurants, to clubs and bars (most concern). Considerable concern exists in the hospitality industry about the effects of extending smoke-free status to licensed premises. To assist transition and future compliance, there is a need to address these concerns and provide reliable information to calm unnecessary fears and develop appreciation of the need for change.

  17. Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Sextro, Richard G.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-07-07

    Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides--in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors--estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange-rate 20 m{sup 3} chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes.

  18. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...... strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults....

  19. Detrimental effects of environmental tobacco smoke in relation to asthma severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comhair, Suzy A A; Gaston, Benjamin M; Ricci, Kristin S; Hammel, Jeffrey; Dweik, Raed A; Teague, W Gerald; Meyers, Deborah; Ampleford, Elizabeth J; Bleecker, Eugene R; Busse, William W; Calhoun, William J; Castro, Mario; Chung, Kian Fan; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Israel, Elliot; Jarjour, W Nizar; Moore, Wendy; Peters, Stephen P; Wenzel, Sally; Hazen, Stanley L; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2011-05-04

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has adverse effects on the health of asthmatics, however the harmful consequences of ETS in relation to asthma severity are unknown. In a multicenter study of severe asthma, we assessed the impact of ETS exposure on morbidity, health care utilization and lung functions; and activity of systemic superoxide dismutase (SOD), a potential oxidative target of ETS that is negatively associated with asthma severity. From 2002-2006, 654 asthmatics (non-severe 366, severe 288) were enrolled, among whom 109 non-severe and 67 severe asthmatics were routinely exposed to ETS as ascertained by history and validated by urine cotinine levels. ETS-exposure was associated with lower quality of life scores; greater rescue inhaler use; lower lung function; greater bronchodilator responsiveness; and greater risk for emergency room visits, hospitalization and intensive care unit admission. ETS-exposure was associated with lower levels of serum SOD activity, particularly in asthmatic women of African heritage. ETS-exposure of asthmatic individuals is associated with worse lung function, higher acuity of exacerbations, more health care utilization, and greater bronchial hyperreactivity. The association of diminished systemic SOD activity to ETS exposure provides for the first time a specific oxidant mechanism by which ETS may adversely affect patients with asthma.

  20. Prenatal Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Hyperactivity Behavior in Chinese Young Children

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    Qingmei Lin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the association between prenatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure and hyperactivity behaviors in young children. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 21,243 participants from all of the kindergartens in Longhua District of Shenzhen, China. Multivariate logistic regression models and hierarchical linear models were employed to assess the associations. After adjusting for potential confounders of gender, preterm birth, birth asphyxiation, etc., prenatal ETS exposure was significantly associated with an increased risk of hyperactivity behaviors in young children (OR (95% CI = 1.51 (1.28–1.77; β (95% CI = 0.017 (0.013–0.020. Along with increases in children’s prenatal ETS exposure dose (measured by daily ETS exposure duration, daily cigarette consumption by household members, and overall score of prenatal ETS exposure, the children were also increasingly more likely to exhibit hyperactivity behaviors. Furthermore, children whose mothers had prenatal ETS exposure in any one or more of the pregnancy trimesters were more likely to exhibit hyperactivity behaviors as compared with those born to non-exposure mothers (all p < 0.05. Overall, prenatal ETS exposure could be associated with a detrimental impact on offspring’s hyperactivity behaviors, and public health efforts are needed to reduce prenatal ETS exposure.

  1. [Interactive effects of environmental tobacco smoke and pets ownership on respiratory diseases and symptoms in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Liu, Yu-qin; Liu, Miao-miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-hui; Gao, Feng; Dong, Guang-hui

    2013-02-01

    Over the past few decades, secondhand smoke exposure among children become more serious and with China's implementation of the national policy of family planning and the family structure change, domestic pet has gradually become popular. This survey aimed to investigate the interactive effects of pet ownership and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on children's respiratory diseases and symptoms. Using a cluster random sampling method, 5 elementary schools and 10 kindergartens were randomly selected from each district of Shenyang, and all children from the selected schools were recruited in this survey. The information about the children's respiratory diseases, conditions of pets ownership and ETS exposure were collected by an international standard questionnaire from American Thoracic Society. A total of 9679 questionnaires were distributed to all the students enrolled in the selected schools, and 8798 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 90.9%. Finally, 8733 questionnaires were used for further analysis. The results showed that the number of the patients and the prevalence of persistent cough, persistent phlegm, doctor-diagnosed asthma, current asthma, wheeze, and allergic rhinitis in children were 835 (9.57%), 366 (4.42%), 559 (6.40%), 215 (2.46%), 229 (2.62%), 397 (4.55%), respectively. After controlling for the effects of age, gender and other confounding factors, the results from the multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that either pet ownership or the ETS exposure significantly increased the risk of prevalence of respiratory diseases and symptoms in children. Compared with control group children, only the prenatal exposure to passive smoking or domestic pets made the risk of children with allergic rhinitis increased respectively 34% (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 0.99 - 1.80) and 106% (OR = 2.06, 95%CI = 1.28 - 3.31), while the exposure of these two factors made the risk of children with allergic rhinitis increased

  2. Prenatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure increases allergic asthma risk with methylation changes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Sonja; Jaffar, Zeina; Cole, Elizabeth; Porter, Virginia; Ferrini, Maria; Postma, Britten; Pinkerton, Kent E; Yang, Mihi; Kim, Yang Jee; Montrose, Luke; Roberts, Kevan; Holian, Andrij; Cho, Yoon Hee

    2017-07-01

    Allergic asthma remains an inadequately understood disease. In utero exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been identified as an environmental exposure that can increase an individual's asthma risk. To improve our understanding of asthma onset and development, we examined the effect of in utero ETS exposure on allergic disease susceptibility in an asthmatic phenotype using a house dust mite (HDM) allergen-induced murine model. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either filtered air or ETS during gestation, and their offspring were further exposed to HDM at 6-7 weeks old to induce allergic inflammation. Methylation in the promoter regions of allergic inflammation-related genes and genomic DNA was quantified. Exposure to HDM resulted in the onset of allergic lung inflammation, with an increased presence of inflammatory cells, Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13), and airway remodeling. These asthmatic phenotypes were significantly enhanced when the mice had been exposed to in utero ETS. Furthermore, prenatal ETS exposure and subsequent HDM (ETS/HDM)-induced asthmatic phenotypes agree with methylation changes in the selected asthma-related genes, including IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, INF-γ, and FOXP3. Global DNA methylation was significantly lower in ETS/HDM-exposed mice than that of controls, which coincides with the results observed in lung, spleen, and blood DNAs. Prenatal ETS exposure resulted in a severe increase in allergic inflammatory responses after an HDM challenge, with corresponding methylation changes. Prenatal ETS exposure may influence developmental plasticity and result in altered epigenetic programming, leading to an increased susceptibility to asthma. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:423-433, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Association of asthma with obesity among adolescents exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsantas, Panagiota; Aguisanda, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between asthma diagnosis and obesity among adolescents exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The sample included 28,807 adolescents (13-17 years old) from the National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) (2011-2012). The NSCH is a US cross-sectional telephone survey that included at least one child between the ages of 0 and 17 years residing at a household during the time of the interview. Descriptive statistics were used to describe sample characteristics and assess the prevalence of asthma among adolescents with obesity exposed to ETS. Logistic regression models were built to assess the effect of obesity on asthma diagnosis within the context of ETS exposure. The prevalence of asthma among adolescents was 10.4% and the obesity was 13.2%. Adolescents with obesity exposed to ETS within the home were significantly (p asthma diagnosis (23%) compared with non-obese (10.9%) residing in similar households. Adjusted odds ratios showed that adolescents with obesity were 2.07 (95% CI, 1.15, 3.70) times more likely to have asthma if they were exposed to ETS inside their homes. The findings indicate that adolescents with obesity are more likely to be diagnosed with asthma if they are exposed to ETS in the household. It is important that the association between obesity and asthma is examined within the context of environmental risk factors in future studies, as this may shed some light to underlying mechanisms between these two serious public health issues.

  4. The study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a family-centred tobacco control program about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to reduce respiratory illness in Indigenous infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Vanessa; Walker, Natalie; Thomas, David P; Glover, Marewa; Chang, Anne B; Bullen, Chris; Morris, Peter; Brown, Ngiare; Vander Hoorn, Stephen; Borland, Ron; Segan, Catherine; Trenholme, Adrian; Mason, Toni; Fenton, Debra; Ellis, Kane

    2010-03-07

    Acute respiratory illness (ARI) is the most common cause of acute presentations and hospitalisations of young Indigenous children in Australia and New Zealand (NZ). Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from household smoking is a significant and preventable contributor to childhood ARI. This paper describes the protocol for a study which aims to test the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program about ETS to improve the respiratory health of Indigenous infants in Australia and New Zealand. For the purpose of this paper 'Indigenous' refers to Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples when referring to Australian Indigenous populations. In New Zealand, the term 'Indigenous' refers to Māori. This study will be a parallel, randomized, controlled trial. Participants will be Indigenous women and their infants, half of whom will be randomly allocated to an 'intervention' group, who will receive the tobacco control program over three home visits in the first three months of the infant's life and half to a control group receiving 'usual care' (i.e. they will not receive the tobacco control program). Indigenous health workers will deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to reduce or eliminate infant exposure to ETS. Data collection will occur at baseline (shortly after birth) and when the infant is four months and one year of age. The primary outcome is a doctor-diagnosed, documented case of respiratory illness in participating infants. Interventions aimed at reducing exposure of Indigenous children to ETS have the potential for significant benefits for Indigenous communities. There is currently a dearth of evidence for the effect of tobacco control interventions to reduce children's exposure to ETS among Indigenous populations. This study will provide high-quality evidence of the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program on ETS to reduce respiratory illness. Outcomes of our study will be important and significant for Indigenous

  5. Evaluating environmental tobacco smoke exposure in a group of Turkish primary school students and developing intervention methods for prevention

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    Davutoglu Mehmet

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In countries like Turkey where smoking is highly prevalent, children's exposure to tobacco smoke is an important public health problem. The goals of this study were to determine the self-reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure status of primary school students in grades 3 to 5, to verify self-reported exposure levels with data provided from a biomarker of exposure, and to develop methods for preventing school children from passive smoking. Methods The study was conducted on 347 primary school students by using a standard questionnaire and urinary cotinine tests. Children with verified ETS exposure were randomly assigned to 2 intervention groups. Two phone interviews were conducted with the parents of the first group regarding their children's passive smoking status and its possible consequences. On the other hand, a brief note concerning urinary cotinine test result was sent to parents of the second group. Nine months after the initial urinary cotinine tests, measurements were repeated in both groups. Results According to questionnaire data, 59.9% of the study group (208 of 347 were exposed to ETS. Urinary cotinine measurements of children were highly consistent with the self-reported exposure levels (P 0.05. Conclusion Self-reported ETS exposure was found to be pretty accurate in the 9–11 age group when checked with urinary cotinine tests. Only informing parents that their childrens' ETS exposure were confirmed by a laboratory test seems to be very promising in preventing children from ETS.

  6. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Grønbæk, Morten

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...... aneurysm in males and females consuming above 20g tobacco daily was 3.5% and 1.3%, among those >60years with plasma cholesterol >5mmol/L and a systolic blood pressure >140mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is the most important predictor of future aortic aneurysm outcomes in the general population...

  7. The effectiveness of breath carbon monoxide analyzer in screening for environmental tobacco smoke exposure in Saudi pregnant women

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    Rasmieh Ayed Alzeidan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS has harmful effects on the pregnancy outcomes similar to those observed in actively smoking pregnant women. The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the breath carbon monoxide (BCO analysis in the assessment of smoking status among Saudi pregnant women, including ETS exposure compared to self-reported tobacco smoke exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used during January 2012, 560 pregnant women, irrespective of their gestational age, agreed to undergo BCO testing and completed the data collection sheet for the study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated to compare the BCO test with self-reported exposure to ETS. Results: Of the study population 151 (27% women self-reported ETS exposure during the index pregnancy, 409 (73% self-reported non-exposure. Sensitivity of the test was 32.5% (95% CI; 25.2-40.3%, the Specificity was much higher at 69.2% (95% CI; 64.4-73.5%, the positive predictive value was 28% (95% CI, 21.9-35.1%, and the negative predictive value was 73.5% (95% CI; 68.9-77.7%. Conclusion: The BCO test is an ineffective tool to detect the level of ETS exposure among Saudi pregnant women.

  8. The effectiveness of breath carbon monoxide analyzer in screening for environmental tobacco smoke exposure in Saudi pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzeidan, Rasmieh Ayed; Mandil, Ahmed Amin; Fayed, Amel Ahmed; Wahabi, Hayfaa Abdulmajeed

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has harmful effects on the pregnancy outcomes similar to those observed in actively smoking pregnant women. The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the breath carbon monoxide (BCO) analysis in the assessment of smoking status among Saudi pregnant women, including ETS exposure compared to self-reported tobacco smoke exposure. A cross-sectional design was used during January 2012, 560 pregnant women, irrespective of their gestational age, agreed to undergo BCO testing and completed the data collection sheet for the study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated to compare the BCO test with self-reported exposure to ETS. Of the study population 151 (27%) women self-reported ETS exposure during the index pregnancy, 409 (73%) self-reported non-exposure. Sensitivity of the test was 32.5% (95% CI; 25.2-40.3%), the Specificity was much higher at 69.2% (95% CI; 64.4-73.5%), the positive predictive value was 28% (95% CI, 21.9-35.1%), and the negative predictive value was 73.5% (95% CI; 68.9-77.7%). The BCO test is an ineffective tool to detect the level of ETS exposure among Saudi pregnant women.

  9. [Hospitality workers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke before and after implementation of smoking ban in public places: a review of epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure induces serious negative health consequences, of which the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory symptoms and poor pregnancy outcomes appear to be most important. Taking into account those health consequences of ETS exposure most countries have introduced legislation to ban or restrict smoking in public places. In this paper the effectiveness of the introduced legislation was analyzed with regard to the protection of hospitality workers from ETS exposure in the workplace. The analysis of 12 papers published after 2000 covered the year of publication, type of legislation, study population, hospitality venue (pub, bar, restaurant, disco) and type of markers or self-reported perception of exposure to ETS. The analysis indicates that the legislation to ban smoking in hospitality venues protects workers from ETS exposure when the venues are 100% tobacco smoke free. The reduction of the cotinine level in biological samples after the implementation of smoke free law was 57-89%, comparing to the biomarker level in the samples taken before the new law was introduced. About 90% of reduction in nicotine and PM levels was also noted. In addition, the positive self perception reported by workers proved the effectiveness of new legislation protecting them from ETS exposure.

  10. A randomized trial to promote health belief and to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila; Nekoei-Zahraei, Nafiseh Sadat

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is widespread among women in Iran. This study aimed to explore the impact of education on health belief and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in pregnant women. This randomized trial was administrated to 130 pregnant women exposed to ETS. The face-to-face education was provided for the intervention group after completing the questionnaire compiled on the constructs of the health belief model and self-reports of weekly ETS exposure. The theoretical constructs and weekly ETS exposure were compared in the study groups at the intake, third, fourth and fifth sections. In the intervention group, perceived susceptibility/severity and perceived benefits increased and the weekly ETS exposure decreased on the third as opposed to the first section (P education about the impacts of ETS exposure of pregnant women is an effective way to increase the theoretical constructs according to the health belief model and is associated with a reduction of ETS exposure. But this is not sufficient for making smoke-free homes.

  11. Reducing environmental tobacco smoke exposure of preschool children: a randomized controlled trial of class-based health education and smoking cessation counseling for caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Huang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Mei; Wang, Fuzhi; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-13

    To assess counseling to caregivers and classroom health education interventions to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure of children aged 5-6 years in China. In a randomized controlled trial in two preschools in Changsha, China, 65 children aged 5-6 years old and their smoker caregivers (65) were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 33) and control (no intervention) groups (n = 32). In the intervention group, caregivers received self-help materials and smoking cessation counseling from a trained counselor, while their children were given classroom-based participatory health education. Children's urinary cotinine level and the point prevalence of caregiver quitting were measured at baseline and after 6 months. At the 6-month follow-up, children's urinary cotinine was significantly lower (Z = -3.136; p = 0.002) and caregivers' 7-day quit rate was significantly higher (34.4% versus 0%) (p Helping caregivers quitting smoke combined with classroom-based health education was effective in reducing children's environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Larger-scale trials are warranted.

  12. Perinatal Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS Enhances Susceptibility to Viral and Secondary Bacterial Infections

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    Jocelyn A. Claude

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS leads to increased incidence of infections of the lower respiratory tract. The objective of this study was to determine whether perinatal exposure to ETS increases the incidence, morbidity and severity of respiratory influenza infection and whether a secondary bacterial challenge at the peak of a pre-existing viral infection creates an enhanced host-pathogen susceptibility to an opportunistic infection. Timed-pregnant female Balb/c mice were exposed to either ETS for 6 h/day, 7 d/week beginning on gestation day 14 and continuing with the neonates to 6 weeks of age. Control animals were exposed to filtered air (FA. At the end of exposure, mice were intranasally inoculated with a murine-adapted influenza A. One week later, an intranasal inoculation of S. aureus bacteria was administered. The respective treatment groups were: bacteria only, virus only or virus+bacteria for both FA and ETS-exposed animals for a total of six treatment groups. Animal behavior and body weights were documented daily following infection. Mice were necropsied 1-day post-bacterial infection. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF cell analysis demonstrated perinatal exposure to ETS, compared to FA, leads to delayed but enhanced clinical symptoms and enhanced total cell influx into the lungs associated with viral infection followed by bacterial challenge. Viral infection significantly increases the number of neutrophils entering the lungs following bacterial challenge with either FA or ETS exposure, while the influx of lymphocytes and monocytes is significantly enhanced only by perinatal ETS exposure. There is a significant increase in peribronchiolar inflammation following viral infection in pups exposed to ETS compared with pups exposed to FA, but no change is noted in the degree of lung injury between FA and ETS-exposed animals following bacterial challenge. The data suggests perinatal exposure to ETS

  13. High concentrations of cadmium, cerium and lanthanum in indoor air due to environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlandt, Antje; Schierl, Rudolf; Diemer, Juergen; Koch, Christoph; Bolte, Gabriele; Kiranoglu, Mandy; Fromme, Hermann; Nowak, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most important sources for indoor air pollution and a substantial threat to human health, but data on the concentrations of the trace metals cerium (Ce) and lanthanum (La) in context with ETS exposure are scarce. Therefore the aim of our study was to quantify Ce and La concentrations in indoor air with high ETS load. In two subsequent investigations Ce, La and cadmium (Cd) in 3 smokers' (11 samples) and 7 non-smokers' (28 samples) households as well as in 28 hospitality venues in Southern Germany were analysed. Active sampling of indoor air was conducted continuously for seven days in every season in the smokers' and non-smokers' residences, and for 4h during the main visiting hours in the hospitality venues (restaurants, pubs, and discotheques). In terms of residences median levels of Cd were 0.1 ng/m(3) for non-smokers' and 0.8 ng/m(3) for smokers' households. Median concentrations of Ce were 0.4 ng/m(3) and 9.6 ng/m(3), and median concentrations of La were 0.2 ng/m(3) and 5.9 ng/m(3) for non-smokers' and for smokers' households, respectively. In the different types of hospitality venues median levels ranged from 2.6 to 9.7 ng/m(3) for Cd, from 18.5 to 50.0 ng/m(3) for Ce and from 10.6 to 23.0 ng/m(3) for La with highest median levels in discotheques. The high concentrations of Ce and La found in ETS enriched indoor air of smokers' households and hospitality venues are an important finding as Ce and La are associated with adverse health effects and data on this issue are scarce. Further research on their toxicological, human and public health consequences is urgently required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds in Environmental Tobacco Smoke:Emission Factors for Modeling Exposures of California Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T.

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosarnines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors (pgkigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

  15. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Maria Patricia; Lee, Sharon Kitman; Underhill, Lindsay Jean; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Jonathan Ian

    2016-03-16

    Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, stack effect). In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls), resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans), and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing.

  16. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Patricia Fabian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC systems, stack effect. In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls, resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans, and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing.

  17. The study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a family-centred tobacco control program about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS to reduce respiratory illness in Indigenous infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segan Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illness (ARI is the most common cause of acute presentations and hospitalisations of young Indigenous children in Australia and New Zealand (NZ. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS from household smoking is a significant and preventable contributor to childhood ARI. This paper describes the protocol for a study which aims to test the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program about ETS to improve the respiratory health of Indigenous infants in Australia and New Zealand. For the purpose of this paper 'Indigenous' refers to Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples when referring to Australian Indigenous populations. In New Zealand, the term 'Indigenous' refers to Māori. Methods/Design This study will be a parallel, randomized, controlled trial. Participants will be Indigenous women and their infants, half of whom will be randomly allocated to an 'intervention' group, who will receive the tobacco control program over three home visits in the first three months of the infant's life and half to a control group receiving 'usual care' (i.e. they will not receive the tobacco control program. Indigenous health workers will deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to reduce or eliminate infant exposure to ETS. Data collection will occur at baseline (shortly after birth and when the infant is four months and one year of age. The primary outcome is a doctor-diagnosed, documented case of respiratory illness in participating infants. Discussion Interventions aimed at reducing exposure of Indigenous children to ETS have the potential for significant benefits for Indigenous communities. There is currently a dearth of evidence for the effect of tobacco control interventions to reduce children's exposure to ETS among Indigenous populations. This study will provide high-quality evidence of the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program on ETS to reduce respiratory illness. Outcomes of

  18. Parental smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke are associated with waterpipe smoking among youth: results from a national survey in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, M; Nakkash, R T; Mahfoud, Z; Bteddini, D; Haddad, P; Afifi, R A

    2015-04-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is a growing public health concern worldwide yet little is known about the epidemiology of use among young people. The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence, patterns and correlates of WTS among students across Lebanon. The study design was a cross sectional survey. 126-item tobacco questionnaire was conducted among 1128 sixth and seventh grade students across Lebanon. Current patterns of use were descriptively analysed, and logistic regression models examined correlates of WTS. Ever WTS prevalence was 44.3%, current WTS prevalence was triple that of cigarettes (22.1% vs 7.4%), and 40.0% of current users were at least weekly or daily smokers. Initiation and patterns of use, as well as addiction and cessation attitudes have been reported. Significant correlates of current WTS included older age, reduced religiosity, peer and parent tobacco use, recent waterpipe advertisement exposure, increased pluralistic ignorance and current cigarette use. Significant correlates of ever WTS were similar to current WTS, but included second hand waterpipe tobacco smoke exposure at home and did not include recent waterpipe advertisement exposure. Neither gender nor socio-economic status were significant correlates of current or ever WTS. Waterpipe is the most common form of tobacco smoking, and is used regularly, among sixth and seventh grade Lebanese students. It should be considered a public health priority with increased tobacco surveillance and legislation. Widespread educational and policy interventions might help denormalize the social acceptability of WTS. Meanwhile, more research is needed to understand the changing paradigm of WTS epidemiology and the health outcomes among young smokers. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke from husband more strongly impacts on the airway obstruction of nonsmoking women

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    Suyama K

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Kazuaki Suyama, Ryo Kozu, Takako Tanaka, Yuji Ishimatsu, Terumitsu Sawai Department of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Science, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan Background: The impact of airway obstruction of nonsmoking women caused by their husband’s smoking is unclear, despite the association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure at home and obstructive pulmonary diseases among nonsmoking women. The aim of this study was to provide evidence that ETS exposure from the husband at home has a more significant influence on the airway obstruction of nonsmoking women than other housemates. Participants and methods: Nonsmoking women aged 40 years or older were recruited from the health checkup during May 2015–December 2016, Japan. They answered structured questionnaires, including ETS exposure from their husbands and other housemates (parents, siblings and dependants, and performed spirometry. We categorized the women with any history of ETS exposure from housemates into three groups (A = husband, B = others and C = both of husband and others and defined the control group as those with no ETS exposure from housemates. Results: A total of 811 nonsmoking women completed questionnaires and spirometry. The proportion of nonsmoking women who had airway obstruction (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]/forced vital capacity [FVC] <70% among Group A (7.5% was significantly higher than those in the control group (1.1%, p<0.01 and Group B (0.8%, p<0.01. The proportion of airway obstruction in Group C (6.4% was also higher than that in the control group (p<0.05 and Group B (p<0.05. ETS exposure from husband (odds ratio [OR], 3.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48–8.42 remained strongly associated with airway obstruction after multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, housemate’s smoking habits, family history and ETS exposure in childhood and at work. Conclusion: Nonsmoking

  20. Effects of environmental lead pollution, smoking, and smokeless tobacco (Maras powder) use on blood lead level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Mustafa; Ekerbicer, Hasan Cetin; Ergun, Ufuk Guney; Kilinc, Metin

    2007-01-01

    One hundred sixty-four adult male volunteers (29 controls [Group 1] and 135 combi drivers) enrolled in the study. The combi drivers were divided into three groups as nonusers of either Maras powder or cigarette (Group 2), smokers (Group 3), and users of Maras powder (Group 4). Blood lead levels (BLLs) were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. BLL was detected as 2.8 +/- 2.3 microg/dL in Group 1 (n = 29); however, it was 3.5 +/- 1.6 microg/dL in Group 2 (n = 33), 3.8 +/- 2.4 microg/dL in Group 3 (n = 62), and 3.9 +/- 2.4 microg/dL in Group 4 (n = 40). BLL in Group 1 was found significantly lower than other groups (p powder by the drivers did not give rise to a marked difference on the BLLs (p > 0.05). BLL of (combi) drivers was detected to be significantly higher than nondrivers; however, it was still under the hazardous level of 10 microg/dL announced by WHO. Although there are publications reporting that usage of tobacco increases the level of lead in blood, both smoking and use of Maras powder did not affect BLL markedly in our study.

  1. "Imagine All that Smoke in Their Lungs": Parents' Perceptions of Young Children's Tolerance of Tobacco Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jude; Kirkcaldy, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite knowing the risks to their children's health, parents continue to expose their children to tobacco smoke prior to and after their birth. This study explores the factors influencing parent's behaviour in preventing the exposure of their (unborn) children to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and any changes to their smoking behaviour in the…

  2. [Estimation of the excess of lung cancer mortality risk associated to environmental tobacco smoke exposure of hospitality workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M José; Nebot, Manel; Juárez, Olga; Ariza, Carles; Salles, Joan; Serrahima, Eulàlia

    2006-01-14

    To estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with environmental tobacco (ETS) smoke exposure among hospitality workers. The estimation was done using objective measures in several hospitality settings in Barcelona. Vapour phase nicotine was measured in several hospitality settings. These measurements were used to estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure for a 40 year working life, using the formula developed by Repace and Lowrey. Excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure was higher than 145 deaths per 100,000 workers in all places studied, except for cafeterias in hospitals, where excess lung cancer mortality risk was 22 per 100,000. In discoteques, for comparison, excess lung cancer mortality risk is 1,733 deaths per 100,000 workers. Hospitality workers are exposed to ETS levels related to a very high excess lung cancer mortality risk. These data confirm that ETS control measures are needed to protect hospital workers.

  3. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in childhood and incidence of cancer in adulthood in never smokers in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Gallo, Valentina; Michaud, Dominique; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Romieu, Isabelle; Straif, Kurt; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H.; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger Torhild; Manjer, Jonas; Borgquist, Signe; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    The association between childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and adult cancer risk is controversial; we examined this relationship in never smokers within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Over an average of 10 years, 8,372 cases of

  4. Evaluation of an Intensive Intervention Programme to Protect Children Aged 1-5 Years from Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure at Home in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, U.; Öcek, Z. A.; Çiçeklioglu, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive intervention to reduce children's environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at their home compared with a minimal intervention. The target population of the study was the mothers of children aged 1-5 who lived in the Cengizhan district of Izmir in…

  5. The evaluation of right and left ventricular functions in children with episodic wheezing exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doksöz, Önder; Nacaroğlu, Hikmet Tekin; Ceylan, Gökhan; Çeleğen, Mehmet; Aşık-Nacaroğlu, Şenay; Can, Demet; Meşe, Timur; Ünal, Nurettin

    2017-01-01

    Doksöz Ö, Nacaroğlu HT, Ceylan G, Çeleğen M, Aşık-Nacaroğlu Ş, Can D, Meşe T, Ünal N. The evaluation of right and left ventricular functions in children with episodic wheezing exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 42-48. The objective of this study is to examine the right and left ventricular functions in children with episodic wheezing at the ages of 1-3 exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Thirty-two children monitored at the Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Department of a Research and Training Hospital with the diagnosis of episodic wheezing were included. The prospective assessment of the patients was performed between May 2013 and February 2014. Twenty-five children with episodic wheezing not exposed to ETS formed the control group. The two groups were compared by conducting transthoracic two-dimensional and tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) examination in all of the cases. The average age of the study group (24 boys, 8 girls) was 33.1 ± 8.8 months, the average age of the control group (18 boys, 7 girls) was 31.9 ± 11.9 months. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, gender, weight, height, and body mass index values. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups for the right and left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions in the conventional echocardiographic measurements, and for the measurements of TDE. Limited number of patients is a major limitation of the study. These results should be supported by more comprehensive studies.

  6. A ventilação e a fumaça ambiental de cigarros Ventilation and environmental tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Fonseca Seelig

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A fumaça ambiental de cigarros (FAC é uma das principais contribuintes para o aumento da concentração e da exposição a partículas em ambientes fechados. É comprovado que muitos de seus compostos químicos são tóxicos ou cancerígenos e que sua inalação pode causar vários danos à saúde. Embora, salvo em áreas especificadas, proibido por lei, o fumo em recintos coletivos é comum no Brasil e, na maioria dos casos, as áreas destinadas a ele, quando existentes, não são devidamente isoladas, prejudicando os não-fumantes. A indústria do tabaco e a da hospitalidade vendem a ventilação como a solução desse problema, mas estudos indicam que ela não o é. Este artigo aborda a problemática da exposição à FAC por seus aspectos ligados à saúde e à poluição.Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is a major contributor to indoor air concentrations and exposure to particles. It's known that many of its chemical compounds are toxic or carcinogens and its inhalation may cause many health injuries. Although, except in specified areas, forbidden by law, smoking in collective places is a common activity in Brazil, and, in most of the cases, specified areas, when existing, are not propriety isolated, injuring nonsmokers. Tobacco and hospitality industries maintain ventilation as a solution for this problem, but studies indicate that it is not the appropriate solution. This article approaches the ETS exposure problem through health and pollution implications.

  7. The effects of smoking status and ventilation on environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in public areas of UK pubs and bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Joanna; Watson, Adrian F. R.; Gee, Ivan L.

    UK public houses generally allow smoking to occur and consequently customer ETS exposure can take place. To address this, in 1999 the UK Government and the hospitality industry initiated the Public Places Charter (PPC) to increase non-smoking facilities and provide better ventilation in public houses. A study involving 60 UK pubs, located in Greater Manchester, was conducted to investigate the effects of smoking area status and ventilation on ETS concentrations. ETS markers RSP, UVPM, FPM, SolPM and nicotine were sampled and analysed using established methodologies. ETS marker concentrations were significantly higher ( P 0.05) on ETS marker concentrations in either the smoking or non-smoking areas. The PPC aims to reduce non-smoking customers' exposure through segregation and ventilation and provide customer choice though appropriate signs. This study indicates that although ETS levels are lower in non-smoking sections and signs will assist customers in reducing their exposure, some exposure will still occur because ETS was detected in non-smoking areas. Existing ventilation provision was not effective in reducing exposure and signs advertising ventilated premises may be misleading to customers. Improvements in the design and management of ventilation systems in pubs and bars are required to reduce customer exposure to ETS, if the aims of the PPC are to be met.

  8. Second-hand tobacco smoke and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayed, Eman M; Ibrahim, Khadiga Salah

    2014-08-01

    Cigarette smoke contains harmful chemicals with hazardous adverse effects on almost every organ in the body of smokers as well as of nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). There has been increasing interest in the effects of passive smoking on the health of children. In order to detect the magnitude of passive smoking in children, parental questionnaires, measuring nicotine and cotinine body levels, and evaluating expired carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, have been used. Passive smoking causes respiratory illness, asthma, poor growth, neurological disorders, and coronary heart diseases. Herein, we focused on the deleterious influences of passive smoking on immunity and liver. Besides, its effects on the concentrations of various biomarker levels related to the oxidant/antioxidant status were considered. Understanding these effects may help clinicians to counsel parents on smoking cessation and smoke exposure elimination. It may also help to develop interventions to improve the health of children. This review potentially demonstrated some nutraceuticals with a promising role in the prevention of smoking-related diseases. © The Author(s) 2012.

  9. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and health disparities: 8-year longitudinal findings from a large cohort of Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh Tam; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Chinwong, Dujrudee; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-12-08

    In rich countries, smokers, active or passive, often belong to disadvantaged groups. Less is known of tobacco patterns in the developing world. Hence, we seek out to investigate mental and physical health consequences of smoke exposure as well as tobacco-related inequality in transitional middle-income Thailand. We studied a nationwide cohort of 87,151 middle-aged and older adults that we have been following for eight years (2005-2013) for emerging chronic diseases. Logistic regression was used to identify attributes associated with passive smoke exposure. Longitudinal associations between smoke exposure and wellbeing (SF-8) or psychological distress (Kessler 6) were investigated with multiple linear regression or multivariate logistic regression analysis. A high proportion of cohort members, especially females, were passive smokers at home and at public transport stations; males were more exposed at workplace and recreational places. We observed a social gradient with more passive smoking in poorer people. We also observed a dose response relationship linking graded smoke exposures (current, former, passive, non-exposed) to less wellbeing and more psychological distress (p-trend health in a transitional economy. Promotion of smoking cessation programs both in public and at home could also potentially reduce adverse disparities in health and wellbeing in middle and lower income settings such as Thailand.

  10. Impact of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in women on oxidative stress in the antral follicle and assisted reproduction outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein Nasr; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Nejat, Saharnaz; Rahimi-Foroshani, Abbas

    2013-08-01

    Cigarette smoke contains many oxidants and may alter the human reproduction by inducing oxidative stress (OS) in both active and passive smokers. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on oxidative stress in the follicular fluid and the assisted reproduction outcomes. An observational prospective study was carried out on 236 infertile women, who underwent assisted reproduction cycles. The ETS exposure was assessed using self-reported ETS exposure and the cotinine level in follicular fluid. To evaluate the OS in follicular fluid (FF) malon-di-aldehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. The number of retrieved oocytes, rate of metaphase II stage oocytes, fertilization rate, good cleavage rate, and no-fragmented embryo rate were considered as the assisted reproduction outcomes. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index, duration, and etiology of infertility; P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. The MDA and TAC levels in FF were not related to the self-report number of the weekly ETS exposure and cotinine levels in FF. Also, the number of retrieved oocytes, MII stage oocytes, fertilization rate, good cleavage rate, and no-fragmented embryo rate were not related to the cotinine level and weekly ETS exposure. However, in women whose cotinine levels in FF were lower and equal/above 3.5 ng/ml, the number of retrieved oocytes was higher (12.63 ± .71 vs. 9.28 ± 1.11, P = 0.01). The relationship between the MDA level and cleavage rate (Beta = -18.5, confidence interval-34.9 and-2.1, P assisted reproduction success by influencing the number of available oocytes. Although, the OS in a follicular environment affect the ability of oocytes to reach the specific cleavage stages at appropriate time intervals, it does not mediate poor-assisted reproduction outcomes due to ETS exposure.

  11. Environmental tobacco smoke and the risk of eczema symptoms among school children in South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirinde, Joyce; Wichmann, Janine; Voyi, Kuku

    2015-08-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between eczema ever (EE) and current eczema symptoms (ES) in relation to exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). A cross-sectional study using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. 16 schools were randomly selected from two neighbourhoods situated in Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality, Gauteng Province, South Africa. From a total population of 3764 school children aged 12-14 years, 3468 completed the questionnaire (92% response rate). A total of 3424 questionnaires were included in the final data analysis. The prevalence of EE and current ES was the primary outcome in this study. Data were analysed using Multilevel Logistic Regression Analysis (MLRA). The likelihood of EE was increased by exposure to ETS at home (OR 1.30 95% CI 1.01 to 1.67) and at school (OR 1.26 95% CI 1.00 to 1.60). The likelihood of EE was lower for males (OR 0.66 95% CI 0.51 to 0.84). The likelihood of ES was increased by ETS at home (OR 1.93 95% CI 1.43 to 2.59) and school (1.44 95% CI 1.09 to 1.90). The likelihood of ES was again lower for males (OR 0.56 95% CI 0.42 to 0.76). Smoking by mother/female guardian increased the likelihood of EE and ES, however, this was not significant in the multivariate analysis. Symptoms of eczema were positively associated with exposure to ETS at home and school. The results support the hypothesis that ETS is an important factor in understanding the occurrence of eczema. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Biologic Mechanisms of Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Children with Poorly Controlled Asthma: Results from a Multicenter Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jason E.; Dozor, Allen J.; Holbrook, Janet T.; Mougey, Edward; Krishnan, Sankaran; Sweeten, Shawn; Wise, Robert A.; Teague, W. Gerald; Wei, Christine Y.; Shade, David; Lima, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) negatively affects children with asthma. The prevalence of ETS exposure among children with poor asthma control may be changing. Importantly, the mechanisms by which ETS worsens asthma control are poorly understood. Objective We describe how ETS affects gastroesophageal reflux (GER), respiratory infections, and leukotriene production among children with poor asthma control. Methods We analyzed data from 306 children between 6 and 17 years of age with poorly controlled asthma enrolled in a 6-month clinical trial. We evaluated prevalence and determinants of ETS exposure by interview, questionnaire, and urinary cotinine and the association of ETS exposure on leukotriene production, respiratory infections, GER, lung function, and asthma control. We used multivariable linear, logistic, and Poisson regressions to assess outcomes. Results ETS prevalence estimates ranged from 6% to 30%. Children with domestic indoor exposure had worse asthma control (c-Asthma Control Test, 17.8 vs 21.5; P = .04), worse FEV1 % predicted (84.1 vs 90.7; P = .02), and a trend for increased mean urinary leukotriene E4. ETS from any setting was associated with increased symptomatic respiratory infections (adjusted incidence rate ratio: 1.30; P =.02). However, children exposed to ETS did not have symptoms or pH probe results, suggestive of heightened GER. Conclusions Domestic smoking exposure was associated with both higher rates of symptomatic respiratory infection and poorer asthma control despite generally intensive controller therapy. ETS exposure is common among asthmatic children with poor control and may worsen asthma control by promoting respiratory infections. Further investigation is required to elucidate ETS mechanisms in poor asthma control. PMID:24565456

  13. Impact of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in women on oxidative stress in the antral follicle and assisted reproduction outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein Nasr; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Nejat, Saharnaz; Rahimi-Foroshani, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoke contains many oxidants and may alter the human reproduction by inducing oxidative stress (OS) in both active and passive smokers. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on oxidative stress in the follicular fluid and the assisted reproduction outcomes. Materials and Methods: An observational prospective study was carried out on 236 infertile women, who underwent assisted reproduction cycles. The ETS exposure was assessed using self-reported ETS exposure and the cotinine level in follicular fluid. To evaluate the OS in follicular fluid (FF) malon-di-aldehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. The number of retrieved oocytes, rate of metaphase II stage oocytes, fertilization rate, good cleavage rate, and no-fragmented embryo rate were considered as the assisted reproduction outcomes. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index, duration, and etiology of infertility; P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The MDA and TAC levels in FF were not related to the self-report number of the weekly ETS exposure and cotinine levels in FF. Also, the number of retrieved oocytes, MII stage oocytes, fertilization rate, good cleavage rate, and no-fragmented embryo rate were not related to the cotinine level and weekly ETS exposure. However, in women whose cotinine levels in FF were lower and equal/above 3.5 ng/ml, the number of retrieved oocytes was higher (12.63 ± .71 vs. 9.28 ± 1.11, P = 0.01). The relationship between the MDA level and cleavage rate (Beta = −18.5, confidence interval-34.9 and-2.1, P reproduction success by influencing the number of available oocytes. Although, the OS in a follicular environment affect the ability of oocytes to reach the specific cleavage stages at appropriate time intervals, it does not mediate poor-assisted reproduction outcomes due to ETS exposure. PMID:24379845

  14. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and EGFR and ALK alterations in never smokers' lung cancer. Results from the LCRINS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Durán, María; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Kelsey, Karl T; Parente-Lamelas, Isaura; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Abdulkader, Ihab; Provencio, Mariano; Abal-Arca, José; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Montero-Martínez, Carmen; Vidal-García, Iria; Amenedo, Margarita; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio; Martínez, Cristina; Guzmán-Taveras, Rosirys; Mejuto-Martí, María José; Fernández-Villar, Alberto; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2017-12-28

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a main risk factor of lung cancer in never smokers. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) mutations and ALK translocations are more frequent in never smokers' lung cancer than in ever-smokers. We performed a multicenter case-control study to assess if ETS exposure is associated with the presence of EGFR mutations and its types and if ALK translocations were related with ETS exposure. All patients were never smokers and had confirmed lung cancer diagnosis. ETS exposure during childhood showed a negative association on the probability of EGRF mutation though not significant. Exposure during adulthood, at home or at workplace, did not show any association with EGFR mutation. The mutation type L858R seemed the most associated with a lower probability of EGFR alterations for ETS exposure at home in adult life. There is no apparent association between ETS exposure and ALK translocation. These results might suggest that ETS exposure during childhood or at home in adult life could influence the EGFR mutations profile in lung cancer in never smokers, reducing the probability of presenting EFGR mutation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine as a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage induced by environmental tobacco side-stream smoke and its mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhu-Ge; Chao, Fu-Huan; Yang, Dan-Feng; Zhang, Hua-Shan; Zhang, Wei

    2005-02-01

    To study the genotoxicity effect of environmental tobacco side-stream smokes (ETSS) on oxidative DNA damage and its molecular mechanism. DNA adduct 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was used as a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage. The level of 8-OHdG in DNA exposed to ETSS was detected by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Organic and inorganic components in ETSS were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrum and atomic absorption spectrum respectively. Particle matters (PMs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ETSS could directly induce oxidative DNA damage and formation of 8-OHdG. There were 123 and 84 kinds of organic components in PMs and VOCs respectively, and 7 kinds of inorganic components in ETSS. Some components, especially quinones and polyphenols in ETSS, could produce free radicals in vitro by auto-oxidation without any biological activity systems, and with the catalytic reaction of metals, the DNA adduct 8-OHdG was produced. ETSS have biological oxidative effect on DNA in vitro and in vivo, and expressed direct genotoxicity. 8-OHdG is a valuable biomarker of oxidative DNA damage.

  16. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Chaves after the implementation of the law 37/2007. A cross-sectional study in two healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradela, C; Pérez-Ríos, M; Ruano-Ravina, A; Barros-Dios, J M

    2013-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is currently the main indoor pollutant and causes a high morbility and mortality. A partial restriction came into force in Portugal, in 2008, law 37/2007, trying to control, define and regulate smoke-free environments. To assess exposure and perceived impact of the law 37/2007 on exposure to ETS among adults attending to the two health care facilities of Chaves (Portugal). A cross-sectional survey on tobacco consumption and exposure to ETS was undertaken in Chaves (Northern Portugal) between November 2009 and February 2010. All the patients, over 17, attending to any of the Chaves Primary Care Facilities were interviewed. Patient enrolment was done on a rolling basis covering all days of the week. A face to face interview was carried out and a carbon monoxide was measured. Prevalence and means are shown with 95% confidence intervals. 287 patients participated in the survey, 56% were males and the mean age was 54 years. Smoking prevalence was 23,6%, significantly higher in males (31% vs 17%). 46,2% reported exposure tobacco smoke elsewhere (53% in males vs. 40% in females). Smokers declared to be more exposed to ETS than non-smokers. 16.2% of the population declared to be exposed at home, 14% at work and 33% at leisure places. The highest decrease in perception of passive exposure was found for restaurants (95%). In nightclubs 68% of the participants stated that exposure has remained unchanged. The tobacco control law offered protection against tobacco smoke in several closed public spaces. However, a significant proportion of the population remains exposed. This study highlights the ineffectiveness of a partial ban. A comprehensive law is, therefore, required in Portugal. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and respiratory tract infections in pre-school children - a cross-sectional study in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielska, Dorota Emilia; Kurpas, Donata; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Gomółka, Ewa; Ołdak, Elżbieta; Chlabicz, Sławomir; Owłasiuk, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the harmful influence of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has a positive impact on changing social behaviours worldwide. In many homes smoking is totally prohibited; in some others, partial limitations of tobacco consumption have been introduced. To study the correlation between the adopted rules of tobacco use in homes of 3-year-olds, and the kind and frequency of acute respiratory system infections within a 6-month period of attending pre-schools. The study was performed among children attending municipal pre-schools in Białystok, Poland. The data was collected by anonymous questionnaires completed by the parents of 302 children aged 3 years chosen randomly from 1,200 children attending 51 pre-schools. The exposure of children to tobacco smoke was measured by determining cotinine to creatinine ratio (CCR) in urine. In the 150 families of children who were surveyed, 210 were smokers. Every day, the smokers consisted of fathers (37.3%) and mothers (23.6%). The 3-year-old children were divided into 3 groups according to smoking habits in their homes: 28.5% of the children under examination came from homes where tobacco smoking was forbidden (mean CCR - 15.21 ng/mg, SD=11.86), 26.2% came from homes where tobacco was smoked in separate rooms (mean CCR - 65.75 ng/ml, SD=81.51), 45.4% lived in homes where no rules connected with smoking had been established (mean CCR - 61.75 ng/ml, SD= 70.29). During the analyzed period of 6 months, 85% of the children had at least 1 respiratory tract infection (60% - upper, 16.9% - lower, 16.5% - upper and lower, 7.1% - otitis media). The majority of the 3-year-old children who had lower respiratory tract infections required antibiotics and hospitalization. Living in a home where no tobacco rules were established may cause an increase of respiratory tract infections.

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of caregivers regarding children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among Arabic and Vietnamese-speaking communities in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochelson, Tanya; Hua, Myna; Rissel, Chris

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to inform the design of a culturally appropriate health communication campaign addressing exposure of young children to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) in homes and cars, targeted at caregivers of children aged 0-6 years in the Arabic and Vietnamese-speaking communities in Sydney, Australia. Nine focus groups (five Arabic and four Vietnamese) were conducted by qualified bilingual facilitators, recorded, transcribed, then translated and analysed qualitatively. Results revealed concerning levels of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding children's exposure to ETS. A poor understanding existed regarding what constituted passive smoking and the severity and extent of harm that ETS has on children. Smoking attitudes and behaviours described were not always consistent with the concern expressed about children's vulnerability to smoke. Initial changes in smoking patterns at home since the arrival of children were not always sustained. Despite awareness of the harm caused by smoking in the presence of their children, some caregivers continued to smoke in closed environments. Others felt it was sufficient protection to smoke in another room, with doors and/or windows open or by ensuring that visible smoke did not reach the child directly, whilst some smoked in the home or car only when children were not present. Smoking attitudes and behaviours in the presence of children were influenced by cultural and social norms associated with smoking. The desire to be sociable and hospitable often superseded concerns for children's health. The findings suggest that an effective communication campaign focusing on ETS and children in the Arabic and Vietnamese-speaking communities in Sydney should attempt to address knowledge deficits regarding ETS, as well as tackling entrenched culturally related attitudes and behaviours associated with smoking which are strongly linked to sociability and hospitality.

  19. Extent of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS and its dose-response relation to respiratory health among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Kenneth D

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of standardized studies examining exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS and its relationship to respiratory health among adults in developing countries. Methods In 2004, the Syrian Center for Tobacco Studies (SCTS conducted a population-based survey using stratified cluster sampling to look at issues related to environmental health of adults aged 18–65 years in Aleppo (2,500,000 inhabitants. Exposure to ETS was assessed from multiple self-reported indices combined into a composite score (maximum 22, while outcomes included both self-report (symptoms/diagnosis of asthma, bronchitis, and hay fever, and objective indices (spirometric assessment of FEV1 and FVC. Logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to study the relation between ETS score and studied outcomes, whereby categorical (tertiles and continuous scores were used respectively, to evaluate the association between ETS exposure and respiratory health, and explore the dose-response relationship of the association. Results Of 2038 participants, 1118 were current non-smokers with breath CO levels ≤ 10 ppm (27.1% men, mean age 34.7 years and were included in the current analysis. The vast majority of study participants were exposed to ETS, whereby only 3.6% had ETS score levels ≤ 2. In general, there was a significant dose-response pattern in the relationship of ETS score with symptoms of asthma, hay fever, and bronchitis, but not with diagnoses of these outcomes. The magnitude of the effect was in the range of twofold increases in the frequency of symptoms reported in the high exposure group compared to the low exposure group. Severity of specific respiratory problems, as indicated by frequency of symptoms and health care utilization for respiratory problems, was not associated with ETS exposure. Exposure to ETS was associated with impaired lung function, indicative of airflow limitation, among women only. Conclusions This study

  20. Parental tobacco smoke exposure: Epigenetics and the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epigenetic programming is an important mechanism underlying the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Much of the research in this area has focused on maternal nutrition. Parental smoking has emerged as a prime example of how exposure to environmental toxicants during the preconceptional and in utero periods can have long-term effects on offspring health, and the role of the epigenome in these effects. Maternal smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy result in lower birth weight of offspring, and there is now clear evidence that these offspring are at elevated risk for overweight/obesity, type-2 diabetes, respiratory effects during adolescence and adulthood, and may be programmed for increased risk of nicotine addiction. Epigenetic analyses of placenta, cord blood and offspring buccal cells have consistently revealed altered DNA methylation of genes involved in developmental processes and xenobiotic metabolism, and these epigenetic changes are persistent. Animal studies with cigarette smoke and nicotine support these findings. Paternal preconceptional smoking has been positively related to childhood cancers, potentially linked to changes in the sperm epigenome. Germ cell specification and preimplantation development are periods of widespread erasure and reprogramming of DNA methylation, and as such are likely to be sensitive periods for environmental effects on the epigenome. Exposure to tobacco smoke during gametogenesis and in

  1. [Impact of the smoke-free legislation on the prevalence and referred time exposure to the environmental tobacco smoke in Zaragoza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde Royo, María Victoria; Marín Izaguerri, María Pilar; Requeno Jarabo, María Nuria; Val Esco, Laura; Coronas Mateos, Sonia; Córdoba-García, Rodrigo

    2012-10-01

    To assess the impact of the Law 42/2010, on the health measures on smoking, on the prevalence of the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), the repercussions in frequently visited places, and support of the new legislation. A before-after evaluation by comparing two cross-sectional studies the comparison of two transverse surveys. Primary Care, Delicias district (115,446 inhabitants) of Zaragoza city, including the Delicias Sur, Delicias Norte, Bombarda and Univérsitas basic health districts. A total of 387 users in 2009, and 400 in 2011 with ages between 20 and 79 years old assigned to the participating Primary Care Centres. Prevalences and mean exposure times, with their confidence intervals (CI). The differences were then calculated using the Chi-squared test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The exposure prevalence to the ETS in 2011 was shown to be lower and statistically significant than that found before the implementation of the new legislative measure, falling from the 61.9% to the 40.5% (CI 95%=35.8-45.4%), with 61.5% of those polled being in favour of the new law (CI 95%=59.2-68.75), and 80.5% (79,08-86.44) mentioned still going to the same places with the same frequency. The impact has been favourable, decreasing the exposure by more than 20%, with this fall being more marked in the population that currently define themselves as non-smokers. There is population support for the new legislation. Finally, there has been no observed fall in the frequency of visits to the same places. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Association Between Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Periodontitis Endpoints Among Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinkugbe, Aderonke A; Slade, Gary D; Divaris, Kimon; Poole, Charles

    2016-11-01

    A systematic review was conducted to summarize the epidemiological evidence on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and prevalent periodontitis endpoints among nonsmokers. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Pro-Quest dissertations, and conference proceedings of a dental research association. We included studies from which prevalence odds ratios (POR) could be extracted for periodontitis determined by examiner measurements of clinical attachment level (CAL) and/or probing pocket depth (PD) or self-report of missing teeth. Studies determined ETS exposure by self-report or biomarker (cotinine) levels. For studies reporting CAL and/or PD (n = 6), associations were stronger with cotinine-measured exposure (n = 3; random effects POR [95% prediction interval] = 1.63 (0.90, 2.96)) than self-reported exposure (n = 3; random effects POR = 1.15 (0.68, 1.96)). There was no meaningful difference in summary estimate for studies reporting CAL and/or PD endpoint (n = 6; random effects POR = 1.34 (0.93, 1.94)) as opposed to tooth loss (n = 2; random effects POR = 1.33 (0.52, 3.40)). There appears to be a positive association between exposure to ETS and prevalent periodontitis endpoints among nonsmokers, the magnitude of which depended mostly on the method of ETS assessment. The notoriety of ETS is often discussed in terms of its associations with cancer, chronic conditions like cardiovascular diseases, and respiratory illnesses in children. However, very little attention is paid to its association with oral diseases, especially periodontitis. Periodontitis affects a large proportion of the population and is a major cause of tooth loss. This study summarized the epidemiologic association between exposure to ETS and periodontitis among nonsmokers. Although the findings are consistent with a positive association, methodological weaknesses relating to study design, assessment of ETS, periodontitis, and adjustment covariates were highlighted and recommendations for

  3. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and risk of allergic sensitisation in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feleszko, Wojciech; Ruszczyński, Marek; Jaworska, Joanna; Strzelak, Agnieszka; Zalewski, Bartłomiej Mateusz; Kulus, Marek

    2014-11-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in children is linked with the development of allergic asthma. However, its influence on allergic sensitisation in children has not been conclusively determined. To systematically review existing evidence of ETS exposure's impact on markers of allergic sensitisation in children. CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched. Included studies assessed following markers of atopic sensitisation: total immunoglobulin E (tIgE) concentrations, at least one specific IgE (sIgE+), and positive skin-prick tests (SPTs+) in ETS-exposed and non-exposed children. 8 studies on the influence of ETS on tIgE concentration (2603 patients), 6 studies on ETS and sIgE+ (9230 participants) and 14 papers on ETS and SPT (14 150 patients) met our inclusion criteria. ETS was shown to raise tIgE concentrations by 27.7 IU/mL (95% CI 7.8 to 47.7; I(2)=58%; results based on 3 studies) and to increase the risk of atopic sensitisation, as assessed by sIgE+ (OR=1.12, 95%CI 1.00 to 1.25; I(2)=54%; results based on 4 studies) and SPT+ (OR=1.15; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.28; I(2)=0%; results based on 10 studies). In a subgroup analysis, this effect was most pronounced in children risk of allergic sensitisation. Subgroup meta-analyses demonstrate that younger children suffer the most from detrimental immunomodulating effects of ETS exposure. This study underscores ETS as an important but avoidable risk factor for the development of allergic disease in children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Mechanisms of oral carcinogenesis induced by dibenzo[a,l]pyrene: an environmental pollutant and a tobacco smoke constituent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun-Ming; Guttenplan, Joseph B; Zhang, Shang-Min; Aliaga, Cesar; Cooper, Timothy K; Sun, Yuan-Wan; DelTondo, Joseph; Kosinska, Wieslawa; Sharma, Arun K; Jiang, Kun; Bruggeman, Richard; Ahn, Kwangmi; Amin, Shantu; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2013-09-15

    We previously reported that dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P), the most potent known environmental carcinogen among polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) congeners, is carcinogenic in the oral tissues of mice. We have now developed a new mouse model which employs the oral application of the fjord region diol epoxide, (±)-anti-11,12-dihydroxy-13,14-epoxy-11,12,13,14-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]PDE), a metabolite of the tobacco smoke constituent DB[a,l]P, and we show its specific induction of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in both tongue and other oral tissues. Groups of B6C3F1 mice (20/group) received 6 or 3 nmol of (±)-anti-DB[a,l]PDE administered into the oral cavity; 3 times per week for 38 weeks. Additional groups received the vehicle alone or were left untreated. Mice were sacrificed 42 weeks after the first carcinogen administration. The high dose induced 74 and 100% OSCC in the tongue and other oral tissues, respectively; the corresponding values at the lower dose were 45 and 89%. Using immunohistochemistry, we showed that DB[a,l]PDE resulted in overexpression of p53 and COX-2 proteins in malignant tissues when compared to normal oral tissues and tongues. Consistent with the carcinogenicity, we demonstrated powerful mutagenicity in cII gene in B6C3F1 (Big Blue) mouse tongue. The mutational profile in lacI reporter gene is similar to those detected in human head and neck cancer, and p53 mutations were observed in mouse oral tumor tissues. Taken together, we conclude that the formation of diol epoxides plays a major role among the mechanisms by which DB[a,l]P exerts its oral mutagenicity and tumorigenicity. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  5. [3-nitrotyrosine determination as nitrosative stress marker and health attitudes of medical students considering exposure to environmental tobacco smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumska, Magdalena; Wielkoszyński, Tomasz; Tyrpień, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    Negative attitudes in health such as cigarette smoking and imbalanced diet play important role in pathogenesis of various diseases. Cigarette smoking constitutes one of the main sources of exposure to cancerogenic and procancerogenic xenobiotics among adults as well as among young people. Many studies have proven that cigarettes smokers more frequently follow less varied diet in comparison to non-smokers. Despite increasing knowledge of Poles regarding harmful effects of cigarettes smoking and numerous antinicotine campaigns, still high number of women and men smoke and the smoking percentage among young people remains high and has not decreased in the recent years. The ongoing research shows that free radicals -the man cause of exposure to oxidative stress- play the seminal role in pathogenesis of civilisation diseases and physiological cell aging processes. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species present in cigarette smoke due to induced toxic compounds formation, are closely connected with observed increased risk of cancer, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and arteriosclerosis incidents. Malondialdehyde is one of the most studied product of lipid peroxidation and biomarker of oxidative stress. However, 3-nitrotyrosine is one of the most promising biomarkers regarding changes caused by oxidative stress in living organisms. The presence of 3-nitrotyrosine was observed in many diseases such as coronary artery disease, cancer and diabetes. The aim of the study was the evaluation of free radical processes increase related to tobacco smoke exposure and chosen diet habits by determination of 3-nitrotyrosine in plasma samples collected from the group of medicine students. In our investigation we used an author's questionnaire which served to estimate the exposure to tobacco smoke among medicine students. It took also into account the knowledge of the exposure to other xenobiotics and unhealthy habits/behaviours. The investigated group included 150 students of 1

  6. Determination of tobacco smoking influence on volatile organic compounds constituent by indoor tobacco smoking simulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Juexin; Wang, Xingming; Sheng, Guoying; Bi, Xinhui; Fu, Jiamo

    Tobacco smoking simulation experiment was conducted in a test room under different conditions such as cigarette brands, smoking number, and post-smoke decay in forced ventilation or in closed indoor environments. Thirty-seven chemical species were targeted and monitored, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) markers. The results indicate that benzene, d-limonene, styrene, m-ethyltoluene and 1,2,4/1,3,5-trimethylbenzene are correlated well with ETS markers, but toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene are not evidently correlated with ETS markers because there are some potential indoor sources of these compounds. 2,5-dimethylfuran is considered to be a better ETS marker due to the relative stability in different cigarette brands and a good relationship with other ETS markers. The VOCs concentrations emitted by tobacco smoking were linearly associated with the number of cigarettes consumed, and different behaviors were observed in closed indoor environment, of which ETS markers, d-limonene, styrene, trimethylbenzene, etc. decayed fast, whereas benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, etc. decayed slowly and even increased in primary periods of the decay; hence ETS exposure in closed environments is believed to be more dangerous. VOCs concentrations and the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers of different brand cigarettes emissions vary largely, but the relative percentage constituent of ETS markers for the same brand cigarette emissions is similar.

  7. Sociocultural Determinants of Tobacco Smoking Initiation among University Students in Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura del Pilar Cadena Afanador

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: University efforts for tobacco-free policies should focus on preventive advertisement, promoting physical activity and awareness among young students of social environmental factors that could influence their decision to start smoking tobacco.

  8. Peers, tobacco advertising, and secondhand smoke exposure influences smoking initiation in diverse adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Carolyn C; Ye, Cong; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; MacPherson, Laura; Kanamori, Mariano; Zhang, Guangyu; Chen, Lu; Fiedler, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Identify demographic, social, and environmental factors associated with smoking initiation in a large, racially and ethnically diverse sample of underage youth participating in the 2006 Maryland Youth Tobacco Survey. Cross-sectional, multistage, probability sample survey. Schools (308 middle and high schools) in Maryland. Subjects were 12- to 17-year-old adolescents participating in a school-based survey. New smokers and nonsmokers were included in the analysis (n  =  57,072). Social and media influence, secondhand smoke exposure, tobacco product use, and demographic information including age, race/ethnicity, and geographic region. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for clustering. Hispanic and Hawaiian/Pacific Islander youth were most likely and Asian and Black youth were least likely to be new smokers. Smoking initiation was positively associated with higher age, living with a current smoker, secondhand smoke exposure, exposure to advertisements for tobacco products, having more friends that smoke, tobacco products offered by friends, risk perceptions, and use of other tobacco products such as smokeless tobacco and cigars. Multivariate logistic regression results suggested that composite measures of peer influence, advertising exposure, and secondhand smoke exposure were independently associated with smoking initiation. Media, peer influence, and secondhand smoke exposure were the most important factors influencing smoking initiation and were common to all racial/ethnic groups in this study. Interventions combining targeted public awareness, education, and media campaigns directed at parents/guardians should be investigated.

  9. A longitudinal study of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children: Parental self reports versus age dependent biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunyer Jordi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness of the negative effects of smoking on children's health prompted a decrease in the self-reporting of parental tobacco use in periodic surveys from most industrialized countries. Our aim is to assess changes between ETS exposure at the end of pregnancy and at 4 years of age determined by the parents' self-report and measurement of cotinine in age related biological matrices. Methods The prospective birth cohort included 487 infants from Barcelona city (Spain. Mothers were asked about maternal and household smoking habit. Cord serum and children's urinary cotinine were analyzed in duplicate using a double antibody radioimmunoassay. Results At 4 years of age, the median urinary cotinine level in children increased 1.4 or 3.5 times when father or mother smoked, respectively. Cotinine levels in children's urine statistically differentiated children from smoking mothers (Geometric Mean (GM 19.7 ng/ml; 95% CI 16.83–23.01 and exposed homes (GM 7.1 ng/ml; 95% CI 5.61–8.99 compared with non-exposed homes (GM 4.5 ng/ml; 95% CI 3.71–5.48. Maternal self-reported ETS exposure in homes declined in the four year span between the two time periods from 42.2% to 31.0% (p Conclusion We concluded that cotinine levels determined in cord blood and urine, respectively, were useful for categorizing the children exposed to smoking and showed that a certain increase in ETS exposure during the 4-year follow-up period occurred.

  10. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szponar, B., E-mail: szponar@iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L. [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) and 0.0007/m{sup 3} (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS

  11. Tobacco smoking and risk of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, Paolo

    2008-09-01

    Tobacco smoking is the main known cause of urinary bladder cancer in humans. In most populations, over half of cases in men and a sizeable proportion in women are attributable to this habit. Epidemiological studies conducted in different populations have shown a linear relationship between intensity and duration of smoking and risk. Quitting smoking reduces the risk of bladder cancer. Smoking black (air-cured) cigarettes results in a higher risk than smoking blond (flue-cured) tobacco cigarettes; results on inhalation patterns and use of filter are not consistent. Cigar and pipe smoking also increases the risk of bladder cancer; data on other tobacco products are limited. The evidence for non-transitional bladder carcinoma is limited, but consistent with an increased risk. The available evidence does not point towards a different carcinogenic effect of tobacco smoking in men and women or in whites and blacks. Data on involuntary smoke and use of smokeless tobacco products are limited, but do not suggest an increased risk of bladder cancer.

  12. Price, Tobacco Control Policies and Youth Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Michael Grossman

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines effectiveness of several tobacco control policies in discouraging cigarette smoking among youths. These policies include increased cigarette excise taxes (which result in higher cigarette prices), restrictions on smoking in public places and at private worksites, and limits on the availability of tobacco products to youths. The data employed in this research are taken from the 1992, 1993, and 1994 surveys of eighth, tenth, and twelfth grade students conducted by the Univer...

  13. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: A new smoking epidemic among the young?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Eric K; Lipato, Thokozeni; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Waterpipe (hookah, narghile) tobacco smoking (WTS) is becoming prevalent worldwide and is one of the most popular forms of tobacco use among youth. WTS prevalence has increased dramatically among youth in the United States within the past decade. Misperceived as less harmful than cigarette smoking, WTS is associated with many of the same chronic health effects such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, bronchitis, and asthma. Much of this risk is due to the fact that a single WTS session exposes users to large volumes of smoke that contain toxic chemicals such as carbon monoxide, cancer-causing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and volatile aldehydes. Unlike cigarette smoking, WTS poses unique risks of acute negative health outcomes including carbon monoxide poisoning and the spread of communicable diseases such as herpes and tuberculosis. Because waterpipe tobacco smoke contains the addictive chemical nicotine, youth who smoke tobacco from a waterpipe may be at risk for dependence. As a result, many youth may initiate WTS and continue to use despite negative health effects. Considering many of the potential negative health effects associated with WTS affect the pulmonary system, pulmonologists and primary care providers may treat patients who are waterpipe tobacco smokers and should be aware of the risk associated with WTS. The purpose of this review is to describe a waterpipe, the prevalence and correlates of WTS, the toxicants found in waterpipe tobacco smoke, the health effects of WTS, and implications for pulmonologists and other clinicians.

  14. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: A new smoking epidemic among the young?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Eric K.; Lipato, Thokozeni

    2015-01-01

    Waterpipe (hookah, narghile) tobacco smoking (WTS) is becoming prevalent worldwide and is one of the most popular forms of tobacco use among youth. WTS prevalence has increased dramatically among youth in the United States within the past decade. Misperceived as less harmful than cigarette smoking, WTS is associated with many of the same chronic health effects such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, bronchitis, and asthma. Much of this risk is due to the fact that a single WTS session exposes users to large volumes of smoke that contain toxic chemicals such as carbon monoxide, cancer-causing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and volatile aldehydes. Unlike cigarette smoking, WTS poses unique risks of acute negative health outcomes including carbon monoxide poisoning and the spread of communicable diseases such as herpes and tuberculosis. Because waterpipe tobacco smoke contains the addictive chemical nicotine, youth who smoke tobacco from a waterpipe may be at risk for dependence. As a result, many youth may initiate WTS and continue to use despite negative health effects. Considering many of the potential negative health effects associated with WTS affect the pulmonary system, pulmonologists and primary care providers may treat patients who are waterpipe tobacco smokers and should be aware of the risk associated with WTS. The purpose of this review is to describe a waterpipe, the prevalence and correlates of WTS, the toxicants found in waterpipe tobacco smoke, the health effects of WTS, and implications for pulmonologists and other clinicians. PMID:26756025

  15. Tobacco smoking and chronic destructive periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Jan

    2004-09-01

    smoking on the periodontal tissues, however, are not well understood. It has been speculated that interference with vascular and inflammatory phenomena may be one potential mechanism. Nicotine and carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke negatively influence wound healing. Smoking research over the past two decades has brought new knowledge into the domains of periodontology. Even more so, it has called into question the prevailing paradigm that the disease is primarily related to intraoral factors such as supra- and subgingival infection. Smoking research has revealed that environmental and lifestyle factors are involved in the onset and progression of the disease. Being the result of smoking, destructive periodontal disease shares a common feature with some 40 other diseases or disorders. As a consequence, periodontal disease should be regarded as a systemic disease in the same way as heart disease or lung disease. Thus, chronic destructive periodontal disease in smokers is initiated and driven by smoking. Its progression may or may not be amplified by unavoidable microbial colonization. Copyright 2004 The Society of the Nippon Dental University

  16. The Short-Term Impact of National Smoke-Free Workplace Legislation on Passive Smoking and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heloma, Antero; Jaakkola, Maritta S.; Kähkönen, Erkki; Reijula, Kari

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to evaluate the short-term impact of national smoke-free workplace legislation on employee exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at work and on employee smoking habits. Methods. We performed 2 cross-sectional studies in 9 medium-sized and large Finnish workplaces, before and after implementation of national smoke-free workplace legislation. We assessed tobacco smoke exposure via questionnaire and indoor air nicotine measurements. Results. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke declined considerably after the legislation was implemented. Tobacco consumption among smokers diminished. Nicotine concentrations fell significantly. Conclusions. Legislation was more efficient than voluntary workplace-specific smoking restrictions in reducing passive smoking and cigarette consumption. (Am J Public Health. 2001;91:1416–1418) PMID:11527773

  17. The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, J Elliott

    2004-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactant are the...

  18. The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, J Elliott

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactan...

  19. A tailored video intervention to reduce smoking and environmental tobacco exposure during and after pregnancy: Rationale, design and methods of Baby's Breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risica, Patricia Markham; Gavarkovs, Adam; Parker, Donna R; Jennings, Ernestine; Phipps, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    Low-cost interventions to decrease environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure of pregnant women and their newborns are needed to lower health risks of exposed fetuses and infants. Baby's Breath is a tailored video intervention developed and tested in a randomized controlled trial. The study aimed to test the efficacy of tailored video versus usual care approaches to reduce the ETS exposure of fetuses of low-income women during and after pregnancy; and to assess this intervention separately among non-smoking and smoking women. Participating women, recruited early in pregnancy, who spoke English, were at least 18years old, smoke exposed (current smokers, quit smoking on their own, or were exposed to smoke of others), pregnant with only one baby, and had access to a telephone and video player, were randomized to experimental or control conditions. Intervention participants received newsletters containing content aimed at smoking cessation and avoidance (5 during and 3 after pregnancy), in addition to videos (3 during and 2 after pregnancy) individually tailored on behavioral theory-based survey questions. Comparison participants received newsletters and videos on healthy pregnancy topics. Outcomes included salivary cotinine of both mother and baby (32weeks gestation and 6months postpartum) as well as self-reported ETS exposure and avoidance behaviors. This study may demonstrate the efficacy of a low-cost intervention to decrease ETS exposure, and will fill an important gap in describing the utility of this innovative intervention technology, as well as demonstration of potential benefits to this type of intervention. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: A new smoking epidemic among the young?

    OpenAIRE

    Soule, Eric K.; Lipato, Thokozeni; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Waterpipe (hookah, narghile) tobacco smoking (WTS) is becoming prevalent worldwide and is one of the most popular forms of tobacco use among youth. WTS prevalence has increased dramatically among youth in the United States within the past decade. Misperceived as less harmful than cigarette smoking, WTS is associated with many of the same chronic health effects such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, bronchitis, and asthma. Much of this risk is due t...

  1. Secondhand Smoke/“Light” Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking Secondhand Smoke/"Light" Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents Secondhand Smoke Kills Research shows that even a little secondhand ...

  2. A review of tobacco smoking in adolescents: treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolchan, E T; Ernst, M; Henningfield, J E

    2000-06-01

    To review current data on the tobacco epidemic in adolescents that impact treatment decisions. Epidemiological and pharmacological data, risk factors, characteristics of nicotine use in adolescents, and treatment intervention reports from the literature are discussed. Of students in grades 9 to 12, 42.7% have used tobacco; 75% of teenage smokers will smoke as adults. Environmental and biological factors influence adolescent smoking, including sociodevelopmental aspects of adolescence, psychiatric history, genetic background, ethnic and gender characteristics, drug effects, and regulatory factors. Criteria for nicotine dependence are currently based on the experience with adult smokers. Overall, smoking cessation treatment for adolescents has been disappointing because of low participation, high attrition, and low quit rates. Characterization of nicotine dependence and further assessment of the safety and efficacy of pharmacological treatment interventions in adolescents are needed given the formidable challenge of the tobacco epidemic in adolescents.

  3. GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms, environmental tobacco smoke exposure and risk of lung cancer among never smokers: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzlaff, A S; Cote, M L; Bock, C H; Land, S J; Schwartz, A G

    2005-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases detoxify polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in tobacco smoke by glutathione conjugation. Polymorphisms within the GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes, coding for enzymes with deficient or reduced activity, have been studied as potential modifiers of lung cancer risk. It is hypothesized that risk associated with potential susceptibility gene polymorphisms might be most evident at low levels of exposure. Never smokers developing lung cancer represent a highly susceptible subset of the population, exposed to tobacco carcinogens only through environmental tobacco smoke. This population-based case-control study examines the association between GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genotypes and lung cancer in one of the largest samples of never smokers to date. Cases (n = 166) were identified through the metropolitan Detroit Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program and age- and race-matched population-based controls (n = 181) were identified using random digit dialing. Overall, there was no significant association between single or combinations of genotypes at GSTM1, GSTT1 or GSTP1 and lung cancer risk after adjustment for age, race, sex and household ETS exposure in years. However, in never smokers exposed to 20 or more years of household ETS, carrying the GSTM1 null genotype was associated with a 2.3-fold increase in risk [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-5.13]. Individuals in this high ETS exposure category carrying the GSTM1 null and the GSTP1 Val allele were at over 4-fold increased risk of developing lung cancer (OR = 4.56, 95% CI: 1.21-17.21). These findings suggest that in the presence of ETS, the GSTM1 genotype both alone and in combination with the GSTP1 genotype alters the risk of developing lung cancer among never smokers.

  4. Environmental Health Organisations against Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Gerard Hastings

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61% and absence of a coherent strategy (39%.

  5. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulcahy, Maurice

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  6. Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamede Robert

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke. Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobacco smoke contains nicotine. Available scientific data, that examines the carcinogenic properties of inhaling smoke and its biological consequences, suggests reasons why tobacco smoke, but not cannabis smoke, may result in lung cancer.

  7. Addressing tobacco smoking in South Africa: Insights from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Behavioural risk factors such as tobacco smoking contribute significantly to the global and local disease burden. This article surveys three behavioural science interventions that could reduce rates of tobacco smoking in South Africa.

  8. Assessing Smoking Behaviour and Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Definitions and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increased availability of tobacco products other than conventional cigarettes, the use of puffing topography devices for smoking behaviour studies and the use of biomarkers to study smoke constituents exposure have generated the need for a more comprehensive set of definitions concerning smoking behaviour and exposure to smoke. The definitions offered in this paper are based on many years of practical experience and on consensus within a broad group of scientists working in these areas. It is intended that, with wider and more consistent usage, these definitions should reduce any misunderstandings and facilitate interpretation of future studies.

  9. Environmental tobacco smoke and risk of late-diagnosis incident fibroids in the Study of Women's Health across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jason Y Y; Chang, Po-Yin; Gold, Ellen B; Johnson, Wesley O; Lee, Jennifer S

    2016-10-01

    To assess the longitudinal relationship of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during midlife, and its interaction with active smoking, with the risk of late-diagnosis incident uterine fibroids during the menopausal transition. Thirteen-year prospective cohort study. Not applicable. Community-based, multiracial/ethnic cohort of 2,575 women aged 42 to 52 years at baseline, undergoing the menopausal transition. Questionnaire and blood draws. Discrete-time proportional odds models were used to estimate the conditional odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of incident fibroids, adjusted for menopausal status, race/ethnicity, study site, age, education, estradiol levels, sex hormone use, body mass index, timing of blood draw, age at menarche, alcohol use, and smoking status and pack-years. As part of SWAN, at each near-annual study visit, ETS exposure, smoking, and fibroid occurrence were self-reported via questionnaire, and blood draws were collected. Women who were exposed to ETS (≥1 person-hour/week) had 1.28 (95% CI, 1.03, 1.60) times the adjusted odds of incident fibroids in the ensuing year compared the unexposed. The odds were elevated in never smokers (adjusted OR 1.34; 95% CI, 1.06, 1.70) and former smokers (adjusted OR 2.57; 95% CI, 1.05, 7.23). In midlife, ETS exposure was associated with an increased risk of late-diagnosis incident fibroids in women undergoing the menopausal transition. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The interplay of science, values, and experiences among scientists asked to evaluate the hazards of dioxin, radon, and environmental tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlo, G.L.; Lee, N.L.; Sund, K.G.; Pettygrove, S.D. [Health and Environmental Sciences Group, Ltd., Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-03-01

    To investigate the extent to which personal values and experiences among scientists might affect their assessment of risks from dioxin, radon, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), we conducted an experiment through a telephone survey of 1461 epidemiologists, toxicologists, physicians, and general scientists. Each participant was read a vignette designed to reflect the mainstream scientific thinking on one of the three substances. For half of the participants (group A) the substance was named. For the other half (group B), the substance was not named but was identified only as Substance X, Y, or Z. Knowing the name of the substance had little effect on the scientists` evaluation of dioxin, although those who knew the substance to be dioxin were more likely to rate the substance as a serious environmental health hazard (51% vs. 42%, p = 0.062). For radon, those who knew they were being asked about ETS rather than substance X were significantly more likely to consider the substance an environmental health hazard (88% vs. 66%, p < 0.001), to consider the substance a serious environmental health hazard (70% vs. 33%, p < 0.001), to believe that background exposure required public health intervention (85% vs. 41%, p < 0.001), and to believe that above-background exposure required public health intervention (90% vs. 74%, p < 0.001). These findings suggest that values and experiences may be influencing health risk assessments for these substances, and indicate the need for more study of this phenomenon. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  11. Tobacco Use and Environmental Smoke Exposure among Taiwanese Pregnant Smokers and Recent Quitters: Risk Perception, Attitude, and Avoidance Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chang Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we conducted an empirical survey of the avoidance behaviors and risk perceptions of active and passive smoking pregnant smokers and recent quitters. We employed an online questionnaire survey by recruiting 166 voluntary participants from an online parenting community in Taiwan. The results of the empirical survey revealed that three-fourths of smokers quit smoking during pregnancy and one-fourth continued smoking. All pregnant women who continued smoking had partners or lived with relatives who smoked. Current smokers and quitters differed significantly in their risk perceptions and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy. Most pregnant smokers and quitters adopted passive smoking avoidance behaviors at home and in public. Nevertheless, one-fifth of pregnant women chose not to avoid passive smoking. We concluded that most women stop smoking during pregnancy; however, most women continue to be exposed to passive-smoking environments. Perceived fetal health risks and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy are critical predictors of the anti-smoking behaviors of pregnant women.

  12. Proinflammatory effects of tobacco smoke xenobiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Milnerowicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke capability of stimulating local and systemic inflammation is considered to be a pathogenetic mechanism leading to the development of pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases. The study was aimed at reviewing information concerning the pathomechanisms for the pro-inflammatory effect of tobacco smoke components, which lead to initiating cascade processes resulting in tissue damage. A retained lungs macrophages contributing to the development of local inflammatory response by the release of cytokines, proteases and radicals were shown. Cytokine release induced by tobacco smoke with intracellular signaling pathways, mainly NF-κB activation, is associated with this. Developing inflammatory process as a driving mechanism for further oxidants production was shown, which caused the intensification of inflammatory response. Tobacco smoke components stimulating cyclooxygenase-2 expression and an increase in prostaglandins and acute phase proteins synthesis were demonstrated. It was shown that most of the changes induced by smoking is reversible, but the level of some inflammatory mediators remains still high even when the damaging agent is removed. It is believed that aldehydes present in the environment that are components of the smoke can make a covalent bond with nucleophilic amino groups of lysine, arginine or histidine in proteins. They can cause radicals formation and weaken an intracellular antioxidant mechanisms. The glutathione depletion leading to change in cells redox status was demonstrated. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms impairments and intensification of neutrophils myeloperoxidase release causing vascular homeostasis disruption were shown. Myeloperoxidase can cause proteins oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Lipids peroxidation and increased acute phase proteins level associated with smoking, may exert a direct effect promoting the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases and play a role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and

  13. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Chaves after the implementation of the law 37/2007. A cross-sectional study in two healthcare settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Paradela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is currently the main indoor pollutant and causes a high morbility and mortality. A partial restriction came into force in Portugal, in 2008, law 37/2007, trying to control, define and regulate smoke-free environments. Objective: To assess exposure and perceived impact of the law 37/2007 on exposure to ETS among adults attending to the two healthcare facilities of Chaves (Portugal. Method: A cross-sectional survey on tobacco consumption and exposure to ETS was undertaken in Chaves (Northern Portugal between November 2009 and February 2010. All the patients, over 17, attending to any of the Chaves Primary Care Facilities were interviewed. Patient enrolment was done on a rolling basis covering all days of the week. A face to face interview was carried out and a carbon monoxide was measured. Prevalence and means are shown with 95% confidence intervals. Results: 287 patients participated in the survey, 56% were males and the mean age was 54 years. Smoking prevalence was 23.6%, significantly higher in males (31% vs. 17%. 46.2% reported exposure tobacco smoke elsewhere (53% in males vs. 40% in females. Smokers declared to be more exposed to ETS than non-smokers. 16.2% of the population declared to be exposed at home, 14% at work and 33% at leisure places. The highest decrease in perception of passive exposure was found for restaurants (95%. In nightclubs 68% of the participants stated that exposure has remained unchanged. Conclusion: The tobacco control law offered protection against tobacco smoke in several closed public spaces. However, a significant proportion of the population remains exposed. This study highlights the ineffectiveness of a partial ban. A comprehensive law is, therefore, required in Portugal. Resumo: Introdução: O fumo ambiental do tabaco (FAT é atualmente o principal poluente do meio interior e responsável por uma elevada morbilidade e mortalidade. Uma restrição parcial foi

  14. The Relationship between Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease and the Potential Modifying Effect of Diet in a Prospective Cohort among American Indians: The Strong Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Fretts, Amanda M; Howard, Barbara V; Yeh, Fawn; Clark, Maggie L

    2017-05-09

    American Indians experience high rates of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been linked to CVD, possibly due to pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways. We examined the relationship between self-reported exposure to ETS and fatal and nonfatal CVD incidence using Cox proportional hazards models among 1843 non-smoking American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Study. We also evaluated potential modifying effects of several dietary nutrients high in anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties with ETS exposure on fatal and nonfatal CVD by creating interaction terms between ETS exposure and the dietary variable. Participants exposed to ETS had a higher hazard (hazard ratio: 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.44) for developing CVD compared to persons not exposed. Interaction analyses suggested stronger effects of ETS on CVD incidence among those consuming diets lower in vitamin E as compared to those consuming higher amounts, particularly on the additive scale. Additional research is recommended to clarify whether public health prevention strategies should simultaneously target reductions in ETS exposures and improvements in diets that may exceed the expected benefits of targeting these risk factors separately.

  15. The Relationship between Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease and the Potential Modifying Effect of Diet in a Prospective Cohort among American Indians: The Strong Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rajkumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available American Indians experience high rates of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS has been linked to CVD, possibly due to pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways. We examined the relationship between self-reported exposure to ETS and fatal and nonfatal CVD incidence using Cox proportional hazards models among 1843 non-smoking American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Study. We also evaluated potential modifying effects of several dietary nutrients high in anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties with ETS exposure on fatal and nonfatal CVD by creating interaction terms between ETS exposure and the dietary variable. Participants exposed to ETS had a higher hazard (hazard ratio: 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.44 for developing CVD compared to persons not exposed. Interaction analyses suggested stronger effects of ETS on CVD incidence among those consuming diets lower in vitamin E as compared to those consuming higher amounts, particularly on the additive scale. Additional research is recommended to clarify whether public health prevention strategies should simultaneously target reductions in ETS exposures and improvements in diets that may exceed the expected benefits of targeting these risk factors separately.

  16. Parental smoking behaviour and effects of tobacco smoke on children's health in Finland and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Maritta S; Ruotsalainen, Risto O; Pushkarev, Vadim J; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2008-02-01

    There is little information on potential differences in smoking behaviour of parents between Finland and Russia and on the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on allergic and respiratory diseases among Finnish and Russian children. The aim of the study was to compare the smoking behaviour of parents and school children and to assess the relations of tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and childhood with occurrence of allergic diseases and respiratory infections among school children. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in the neighbour towns across the border of Imatra in Finland and Svetogorsk in Russia. The study population consisted of 512 Finnish and 581 Russian school children aged 7-16 years (response rate 79%). Children's tobacco smoke exposure differed markedly between Finland and Russia. The risk of asthma was particularly related to high maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy (adjusted OR 3.51, 95% CI 1.00-12.3), infancy (3.34, 1.23-9.07) and currently (3.27, 1.26-8.48), and the risk of common cold was related to high combined parental smoking during infancy (1.83, 1.06-3.17) in Finnish children. Among Russian children allergic conjunctivitis was related to maternal smoking during infancy (4.53, 1.49-13.8) and currently (2.82, 1.07-7.44). Smoking behaviour of parents and ETS exposure during childhood differed markedly between Finland and Russia. Asthma was particularly increased in relation to high exposure to maternal smoking in Finland. The results suggest that more efforts should be directed to reducing tobacco smoke exposure of children in both Finland and Russia. (250 words).

  17. Endotoxins in tobacco smoke: shifting tobacco industry positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Richard L; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-10-01

    In the 1980s, the tobacco industry started a campaign to divert attention away from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) as a major source of indoor air pollution in workplaces by highlighting the roles of other indoor air pollutants. The industry, working through "third parties," highlighted endotoxins, naturally occurring substances that cause numerous inflammatory reactions in humans, as an alternative explanation to SHS as causing indoor air problems. In 1995, Hasday and colleagues were the first to present findings that cigarette smoke contains significant quantities of endotoxins. This discovery surprised tobacco industry scientists. The 1999 publication of the full Hasday et al. findings received only limited media attention but got the full attention of Philip Morris scientists concerned about a new public health issue and a new basis for regulation of workplace smoking by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which already regulated workplace endotoxin exposures from other sources. Philip Morris undertook an internal endotoxin research project to test the Hasday et al. findings and to determine if endotoxin-free cigarettes were possible. Although experiments were conducted to remove endotoxin from the tobacco, there is no evidence that they were successful. Following confirmation of SHS as an important source of endotoxins, the scientist promoting endotoxins as an important indoor air pollutant for the tobacco industry softened his position on the role of endotoxins as indoor pollutants. The presence of endotoxins in SHS provides an additional mechanism for the adverse effects of SHS that should be researched further, and the risk of exposure should be assessed.

  18. To quit or not: Vulnerability of women to smoking tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se-Jung; Yi, Bitna; Lee, Ho-Sun; Oh, Woo-Yeon; Na, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Minjeong; Yang, Mihi

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is currently on the rise among women, and can pose a greater health risk. In order to understand the nature of the increase in smoking prevalence among women, we focused on the vulnerability of women to smoking behaviors--smoking cessation or tobacco addiction--and performed a systematic review of the socioeconomic and intrinsic factors as well as tobacco ingredients that affect women's susceptibility to smoking tobacco. We observed that nicotine and other tobacco components including cocoa-relatives, licorice products, and menthol aggravate tobacco addiction in women rather than in men. Various genetic and epigenetic alterations in dopamine pathway and the pharmaco-kinetics and -dynamic factors of nicotine also showed potential evidences for high susceptibility to tobacco addiction in women. Therefore, we suggest systemic approaches to prevent tobacco smoking-related health risks, considering gene-environment-gender interaction.

  19. [Tobacco smoking treatment strategy in COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Paula; Mendes, Berta

    2009-01-01

    Smoking cessation is one of the most important ways of improving the prognosis of COPD patients. Based on currently available evidence professional health workers should take a proactive and continuous role with smokers, motivating them to stop smoking and providing treatment to aid smoking cessation. The treatment should include pharmacotherapy in addition to behavioural support and should be part of management of the patient's chronic respiratory condition, as the COPD National Prevention and Treatment Programme recommends. Respiratory physicians and other professional health workers should receive training to ensure they have the necessary knowledge, attitude and skills to undertake these initiatives or to refer the smokers to a suitable qualified specialist. In the near future specialised smoking units should provide specific support, promote training, improve research and awareness and establish tobacco control measures in hospitals and primary health care centres.

  20. Comparisons of the Composition of Tobacco Smoke and the Smokes from Various Tobacco Substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green CR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available By the late 1970s, eight technologies in the design of a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette were classified as significant. The eight included: The tobacco blend, the filter tip, filter-tip additives, reconstituted tobacco sheet, paper additives, air dilution via paper porosity, expanded tobacco, and air dilution via filter-tip perforation. In addition to these eight cigarette-design technologies was another proposed technology which involved the incorporation of a substitute for some or all of the tobacco in the cigarette filler. Despite considerable research and development (R&D effort on various tobacco substitutes that indicated the replacements in most instances fulfilled the definition of a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette with regard to the chemical and biological properties of their mainstream smoke, tobacco substitute-containing cigarettes failed to attain consumer acceptability. As a result, several marketed products containing tobacco substitutes had an extremely brief tenure in the marketplace. Outlined herein is a summary of some detailed research conducted on the composition of the mainstream smokes from cigarettes containing either all-substitute filler or fillers comprising various substitute and tobacco mixtures as well as an all-tobacco cigarette.

  1. Parental risk perceptions of child exposure to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Laura; Kostjukovsky, Inessa

    2015-02-06

    Tobacco smoke exposure harms children and adults. Yet, 40% of children worldwide are exposed to tobacco smoke in their homes. Such widespread parental failure to protect children is puzzling, and may be related to risk perceptions. No consensus exists about how to measure parental risk perceptions of tobacco smoke exposure. The objective of this research was to study Parental Risk Perceptions of child Exposure to Tobacco Smoke (PRETS) using various dimensions of risk perceptions: likelihood of harm, susceptibility to harm, and severity of harm. We aimed to estimate PRETS and identify correlates of PRETS, and assess the association between PRETS, parental smoking status, and home smoking behaviors. We conducted 132 face-to-face interviews with parents of infants. Parents who smoked regularly believed that infant tobacco smoke exposure was less dangerous than did other parents (p = .0158). Birthplace of parent was significantly associated with risk perception (p = .0019); parents of Russian origin believed the overall risk to be less than did those born elsewhere. Smoking status, ethnicity, and employment status were associated with smoking in the home. The relationship between smoking behavior in the home and risk perceptions was complex, and may have been modified by ethnicity. Parental risk perceptions concerning child exposure to tobacco smoke are associated with smoking behavior and ethnicity. Understanding how to measure risk perceptions, and identifying risk perception dimensions which differ between families with and without home smoking bans, may contribute to the development of effective interventions to protect children from the harmful effects of tobacco smoke exposure.

  2. [Effects of smoking on periodontal tissues and benefits of tobacco quitting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyński, Paweł; Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the most common addictions. Epidemiological studies show a significant effect of smoking on oral health and the development of periodontal diseases. The purpose of this study is to analyze existing research on the impact of cigarette smoking on periodontal condition and present the benefits of tobacco quitting. In the mouth of a smoker comes to faster loss of connective tissue and bone, increased tooth mobility and greater number of missing teeth than non-smokers. The negative effects of smoking on periodontal tissues correlate with the length and frequency of smoking. Also, people exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are at a higher risk of developing periodontal disease than those who had no contact with tobacco smoke. Quitting smoking has a positive effect on periodontal health and is an absolute prerequisite for the health of the entire oral cavity. With the prolongation of tobacco abstinence negative consequences for oral health are gradually reduced. Each patient should be aware of his addiction, the risks arising from exposure to tobacco smoke and be motivated to eliminate it. The role of general practitioners, particularly family doctors and dentists is crucial in evaluation of active and passive smoking as well as motivation and support smokers in quitting the habit and maintaining smoking abstinence.

  3. The prevalence of and factors associated with tobacco smoking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Factors associated with tobacco smoking are useful in designing tobacco control programs. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with tobacco smoking among long-distance drivers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Stratified cluster sampling approach was used to select ...

  4. The prevalence of and factors associated with tobacco smoking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... 4. University of Liverpool, United Kingdom, Department of Public health and Policy. Abstract: Background: Factors associated with tobacco smoking are useful in designing tobacco control programs. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of and factors associated with tobacco smoking among long-distance ...

  5. The role of tobacco promoting and restraining factors in smoking intentions among Ghanaian youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doku David

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Western countries, the relationship between smoking intentions and smoking behaviour is well established. However, youth smoking intentions and associated factors in developing countries are largely unexplored and the former may occur for a variety of reasons. We investigated youth smoking intentions in Ghana with regard to several tobacco promoting and restraining factors, including environmental, familial, attitudinal and knowledge measures. Methods A school-based survey of a representative sample of 12-20-year-olds was conducted in 2008 in Ghana (N = 1338, response rate 89.7%. Results In a bivariate model, both among ever and never smokers, allowing smoking on school compound, exposure to tobacco advertisement and parental smoking were associated with future intention to smoke. Compared to those who agreed that smoking is harmful to health, smoking is difficult to quit and that tobacco should not be sold to minors, those who disagreed or were not sure were more likely to have an intention to smoke. In the multivariate analyses, these associations persisted, except that the attitude measures concerning the difficulty of quitting smoking once started and tobacco sales ban were no longer significantly associated with smoking intentions. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of school smoking policy, parental smoking behaviour and knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco use in determining Ghanaian youths’ future smoking intentions. Because current high percentages of smoking intentions may turn into high smoking rates in the future, the introduction of effective tobacco control measures at all levels of society to prevent youth smoking in Ghana may be essential.

  6. Association of environmental tobacco smoke and snacking habits with the risk of early childhood caries among 3-year-old Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yoshimi; Mori, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and other risk factors with early childhood caries (ECC) in 3-year-old Japanese children by a cross-sectional study. Study subjects were 1,801 children aged 3 years old. The self-administered questionnaire was completed by parents or guardians of the children. The survey contents included such things as if there was a smoker in the home, snack times, the kinds of snacks consumed more than or equal to four times a week, the kinds of drinks consumed more than or equal to four times a week, parents brushing their child's teeth daily, and the use of fluoride toothpaste. We obtained the number of decayed, missing, or filled teeth per person (dmft) from the dental examinations. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate odds ratio of ECC. The average number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft index) was 1.00. The prevalence of dental caries was 22.4 percent. There was at least one smoker in the homes of 1,121 subjects (62.2 percent). After excluding items of multicollinearity, the results of multivariate analysis were as follows: drinking or eating sweets after dinner, irregular snack times, frequent intake of chocolate, frequent intake of sugar-sweetened gum, frequent intake of isotonic drink, and maternal smoking were significantly associated with the risk of ECC. This study suggests that there is a significant correlation between ETS from family members and snacking habits and ECC. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  7. Tobacco smoking and periodontal health in a Saudi Arabian population

    OpenAIRE

    Bakur Natto, Suzan

    2005-01-01

    Background & Aim: Tobacco smoking exerts a harmful effect on the periodontal tissues manifested by periodontal pockets, attachment loss and periodontal bone loss. Current evidences on the effects of tobacco on periodontal health mainly concern cigarette smoking. In view of the increasing popularity of water pipe smoking in Arabian countries and reports confirming that water pipe smoking has health effects similar to those of cigarette smoking, there is a need for a better un...

  8. Price, Tobacco Control Policies and Smoking Among Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Henry Wechsler

    1995-01-01

    The effects of cigarette prices and tobacco control policies (including restrictions on smoking in public places and limits on the availability of tobacco products to youths) on cigarette smoking among youths and young adults are estimated using data from a nationally representative survey of students in U.S. colleges and universities. Smoking participation rates, the quantity of cigarettes smoked by smokers, and level of smoking equations are estimated using appropriate econometric methods. ...

  9. Sidestream tobacco smoke is a male germ cell mutagen

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, Francesco; Rowan-Carroll, Andrea; Williams, Andrew; Polyzos, Aris; Berndt-Weis, M. Lynn; Yauk, Carole L.

    2011-01-01

    Active cigarette smoking increases oxidative damage, DNA adducts, DNA strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, and heritable mutations in sperm. However, little is known regarding the effects of second-hand smoke on the male germ line. We show here that short-term exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke or sidestream tobacco smoke (STS), the main component of second-hand smoke, induces mutations at an expanded simple tandem repeat locus (Ms6-hm) in mouse sperm. We further show that the response t...

  10. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in childhood and incidence of cancer in adulthood in never smokers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Gallo, Valentina; Michaud, Dominique; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Romieu, Isabelle; Straif, Kurt; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger Torhild; Manjer, Jonas; Borgquist, Signe; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2011-03-01

    The association between childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and adult cancer risk is controversial; we examined this relationship in never smokers within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Over an average of 10 years, 8,372 cases of cancer were diagnosed in 112,430 never smokers in EPIC. Childhood ETS was self-reported by participants at baseline, along with other lifestyle factors. Hazard ratios (HR) for ETS exposure in childhood and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models stratified by age, sex, and study center and adjusted for education, alcohol drinking, body mass index, physical activity, non-alcoholic energy intake, fruit and vegetable intake, and adulthood ETS exposure. Models were further adjusted for reproductive factors for female cancers, for meat intake for digestive system cancers, and for diabetes status for pancreatic cancer. No association was observed between childhood ETS exposure and overall cancer risks (HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.92-1.02), and for selected sites. The only exception was pancreatic cancer, as previously reported by Vrieling et al., among those who had been exposed daily in childhood (overall HR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.14-3.84). In conclusion, childhood ETS exposure might not be a major risk factor for common cancers in adulthood.

  11. Protecting Students and Faculty from Environmental Tobacco Smoke: An Assessment and Rationale for College Policies Prohibiting Smoking in Public Areas and Student Residencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Glenna G.; Enzler, Dave

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine a Midwest university in North America over a one-year period on current smoking policies and programs, student support for implementing additional smoking policies, and to produce a follow-up report on supporting policies that were approved by administration. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  12. Respiratory symptoms in relation to residential coal burning and environmental tobacco smoke among early adolescents in Wuhan, China: a cross-sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo Paivi; Xia Jiang; Johnson C Anderson; Li Yan; Kissling Grace; Avol Edward; Liu Chunhong; London Stephanie

    2004-07-01

    Seventh grade students from 22 randomly selected schools in the greater metropolitan area of Wuhan, China, completed an in-class self-administered questionnaire on their respiratory health and home environment. Results show that coal burning for cooking and/or heating increased odds of wheezing with colds and without colds. For smoking in the home, the strongest associations were seen for cough and phlegm production without colds among children who lived with two or more smokers. Chinese children living with smokers or in coal-burning homes are at increased risk for respiratory impairment. While economic development in China may decrease coal burning by providing cleaner fuels for household energy use, the increasing prevalence of cigarette smoking is a growing public health concern due to its effects on children. Adverse effects of tobacco smoke exposure were seen despite the low rates of maternal smoking (3.6%) in this population. 49 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Exposure to tobacco smoke among asthmatic children: parents' smoking habits and level of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic, S D; Gvozdenovic, B S; Pesic, I M; Zivkovic, Z M; Skodric-Trifunovic, V

    2011-02-01

    Children's Hospital for Respiratory Diseases and Tuberculosis, Belgrade, Serbia. To compare parents' educational level and smoking habits with asthma in children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and in those not exposed. In this cross-sectional study, 231 asthmatic children (average age 10.6 years, 49% boys) from smoking and non-smoking families were compared by birth weight, birth length, first episode of wheezing, number of respiratory infections and exacerbations per year, severity of asthma, number of hospitalisations, total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), skin prick tests and allergic manifestations. In our study, 77% of the children were from smoking families: 45.9% had active smoking mothers and 51% active smoking fathers. Smoking was more common among parents with lower education level. The mother being the only smoker in the family had a greater impact on respiratory infections and asthma exacerbations in the first years of life; however, after the third year, the effect of having both smoking parents was important. Children exposed to ETS had more allergic manifestations. The percentage of children with both non-smoking parents decreased and that of children with both smoking parents increased with increasing asthma severity (χ(2) = 17.73, P children with asthma.

  14. Tobacco smoking and oxidative stress to DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Pernille Kempel; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress to DNA from smoking was investigated in one randomized smoking cessation study and in 36 cohort studies from excretion of urinary 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). Meta-analysis of the 36 cohort studies showed smoking associated with a 15.7% (95% CL 11.0:20.3, p ....0001) increased oxidative stress to DNA, in agreement with the reduction of oxidative stress to DNA found in the smoking cessation study. Meta-analysis of the 22 studies that used chromatography methodology on 1709 persons showed a significant 29.3% increase in smokers (95% CL 17.3;41.3), but meta-analysis of 14...... studies on 3668 persons using ELISA methodology showed a non-significant effect of 8.7% [95% CL −1.2;18.6]. Tobacco smoke induces oxidative damage to DNA; however, this is not detected with ELISA methodology. Currently, the use of existing ELISA methodology to measure urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7...

  15. Association between tobacco smoking and cognitive functioning in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people.......Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people....

  16. Bar workers' health and environmental tobacco smoke exposure (BHETSE): symptomatic improvement in bar staff following smoke-free legislation in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, J G; Semple, S; MacCalman, L; Dempsey, S; Hilton, S; Hurley, J F; Miller, B G; Naji, A; Petticrew, M

    2009-05-01

    To examine changes in the health of bar workers after smoke-free legislation was introduced. Longitudinal study following bar workers from before legislation introduction, at 2 months after introduction and at 1 year to control for seasonal differences. Bars across a range of socio-economic settings in Scotland. 371 bar workers recruited from 72 bars. Introduction of smoke-free legislation prohibiting smoking in enclosed public places, including bars. Change in prevalence of self-reported respiratory and sensory symptoms. Of the 191 (51%) workers seen at 1-year follow-up, the percentage reporting any respiratory symptom fell from 69% to 57% (p = 0.02) and for sensory symptoms from 75% to 64% (p = 0.02) following reductions in exposure, effects being greater at 2 months, probably partly due to seasonal effects. Excluding respondents who reported having a cold at either baseline or 1 year, the reduction in respiratory symptoms was similar although greater for "any" sensory symptom (69% falling to 54%, p = 0.011). For non-smokers (n = 57) the reductions in reported symptoms were significant for phlegm production (32% to 14%, p = 0.011) and red/irritated eyes (44% to 18%, p = 0.001). Wheeze (48% to 31%, p = 0.006) and breathlessness (42% to 29%, p = 0.038) improved significantly in smokers. There was no relationship between change in salivary cotinine levels and change in symptoms. Bar workers in Scotland reported significantly fewer respiratory and sensory symptoms 1 year after their working environment became smoke free. As these improvements, controlled for seasonal variations, were seen in both non-smokers and smokers, smoke-free working environments may have potentially important benefits even for smokers.

  17. Cotinine and interferon-gamma levels in pre-school children exposed to household tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Kalalo

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion Cotinine is not related to the interferon-γ level in children exposed to tobacco smoke, however, the interferon-γ level in children with tobacco smoke exposure is lower than in the non-tobacco smoke exposure group.

  18. Smoking inequalities and tobacco control policies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, M.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the worlds’ leading avoidable cause of mortality and kills 6 million people each year. Individuals of lower socioeconomic status are more likely to initiate smoking and less likely to quit smoking. Tobacco control policies have been implemented in the last decades, but although smoking

  19. Lung cancers attributable to environmental tobacco smoke and air pollution in non-smokers in different European countries: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Carmen

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several countries are discussing new legislation on the ban of smoking in public places, and on the acceptable levels of traffic-related air pollutants. It is therefore useful to estimate the burden of disease associated with indoor and outdoor air pollution. Methods We have estimated exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS and to air pollution in never smokers and ex-smokers in a large prospective study in 10 European countries (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition(N = 520,000. We report estimates of the proportion of lung cancers attributable to ETS and air pollution in this population. Results The proportion of lung cancers in never- and ex-smokers attributable to ETS was estimated as between 16 and 24%, mainly due to the contribution of work-related exposure. We have also estimated that 5–7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers are attributable to high levels of air pollution, as expressed by NO2 or proximity to heavy traffic roads. NO2 is the expression of a mixture of combustion (traffic-related particles and gases, and is also related to power plants and waste incinerator emissions. Discussion We have estimated risks of lung cancer attributable to ETS and traffic-related air pollution in a large prospective study in Europe. Information bias can be ruled out due to the prospective design, and we have thoroughly controlled for potential confounders, including restriction to never smokers and long-term ex-smokers. Concerning traffic-related air pollution, the thresholds for indicators of exposure we have used are rather strict, i.e. they correspond to the high levels of exposure that characterize mainly Southern European countries (levels of NO2 in Denmark and Sweden are closer to 10–20 ug/m3, whereas levels in Italy are around 30 or 40, or higher. Therefore, further reduction in exposure levels below 30 ug/m3 would correspond to additional lung cancer cases prevented

  20. Mexico SimSmoke: how changes in tobacco control policies would impact smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Thrasher, James F; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Cummings, K Michael; Meza, Rafael; Zhang, Yian; Levy, David T

    2017-07-01

    We examined the effect of tobacco control policies in Mexico on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths using the Mexico SimSmoke model. The model is based on the previously developed SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy, and uses population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Mexico. It assesses, individually, and in combination, the effect of six tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths. Policies included: cigarette excise taxes, smoke-free laws, anti-smoking public education campaigns, marketing restrictions, access to tobacco cessation treatments and enforcement against tobacco sales youth. The model estimates that, if Mexico were to adopt strong tobacco control policies compared to current policy levels, smoking prevalence could be reduced by 30% in the next decade and by 50% by 2053; an additional 470,000 smoking-related premature deaths could be averted over the next 40 years. The greatest impact on smoking and smoking-related deaths would be achieved by raising excise taxes on cigarettes from 55% to at least 70% of the retail price, followed by strong youth access enforcement and access to cessation treatments. Implementing tobacco control policies in Mexico could reduce smoking prevalence by 50%, and prevent 470,000 smoking-related deaths by 2053.

  1. Is Tobacco Smoke a Germ-Cell Mutagen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although no international organization exists to declare whether an agent is a germ-cell mutagen, tobacco smoke may be a human germ-cell mutagen. In the mouse, tobacco smoke induces a significant increase in the mutation frequency at an expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) locus....

  2. Respiratory symptoms in relation to residential coal burning and environmental tobacco smoke among early adolescents in Wuhan, China: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chunhong

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking and coal burning are the primary sources of indoor air pollution in Chinese households. However, effects of these exposures on Chinese children's respiratory health are not well characterized. Methods Seventh grade students (N = 5051 from 22 randomly selected schools in the greater metropolitan area of Wuhan, China, completed an in-class self-administered questionnaire on their respiratory health and home environment. Results Coal burning for cooking and/or heating increased odds of wheezing with colds [odds ratio (OR = 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.07–2.29] and without colds (OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.05–1.97. For smoking in the home, the strongest associations were seen for cough (OR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.17–2.60 and phlegm production (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.36–3.72 without colds among children who lived with two or more smokers. Conclusions Chinese children living with smokers or in coal-burning homes are at increased risk for respiratory impairment. While economic development in China may decrease coal burning by providing cleaner fuels for household energy use, the increasing prevalence of cigarette smoking is a growing public health concern due to its effects on children. Adverse effects of tobacco smoke exposure were seen despite the low rates of maternal smoking (3.6% in this population.

  3. Antioxidant responses following active and passive smoking of tobacco and electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulianiti, Konstantina; Karatzaferi, Christina; Flouris, Andreas D; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2016-07-01

    It has been indicated that acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking may cause changes on redox status balance that may result in significant pathologies. However, no study has evaluated the effects of active and passive e-cigarette smoking on redox status of consumers. To examine the acute effects of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on selected redox status markers. Using a randomized single-blind crossover design, 30 participants (15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers) were exposed to three different experimental conditions. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session (smoked 2 cigarettes within 30-min) and an active e-cigarette smoking session (smoked a pre-determined number of puffs within 30-min using a liquid with 11 ng/ml nicotine). Similarly, nonsmokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session (exposure of 1 h to 23 ± 1 ppm of CO in a 60 m(3) environmental chamber) and a passive e-cigarette smoking session (exposure of 1 h to air enriched with pre- determined number of puffs in a 60 m(3) environmental chamber). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were assessed in participants' blood prior to, immediately after, and 1-h post-exposure. TAC, CAT and GSH remained similar to baseline levels immediately after and 1-h-post exposure (p > 0.05) in all trials. Tobacco and e-cigarette smoking exposure do not acutely alter the response of the antioxidant system, neither under active nor passive smoking conditions. Overall, there is not distinction between tobacco and e-cigarette active and passive smoking effects on specific redox status indices.

  4. Smoke & Mirrors: The Canadian Tobacco War | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... ban tobacco advertising, eliminate tobacco sponsorships, require plain packaging, mandate clear health warnings, and prohibit smoking in public places and workplaces. While tobacco wars continue to rage in Canada and the industrialized North, the battleground is shifting increasingly to less developed countries and ...

  5. TOBACCO SMOKING AND LUNG DISEASES: EFFICIENCY OF TREATMENT APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Nikitin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents data on the significant increase of tobacco smoking prevalence and its harmful effect on the development and course of chronic respiratory diseases: tuberculosis, pneumonia, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Negative consequences of tobacco smoking are caused by chronic intoxication of the host by the components of tobacco smoke providing impact on various organs and cells of the host, thus causing a big variety of diseases. Both active and passive smoking deteriorates their course and increase the risk of exacerbation, hinders taking control over the disease and interferes with adequate response to drugs.Current approaches to treatment of tobacco addiction have been presented. There are several ways to overcome nicotine addiction – drug therapy and the other forms of therapy. Integrated approach to tobacco smoking management allows achieving success in 30% of cases within short period of time with continuous and quality remissions. 

  6. Molecular modeling of major tobacco alkaloids in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurgat, Caren; Kibet, Joshua; Cheplogoi, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Consensus of opinion in literature regarding tobacco research has shown that cigarette smoke can cause irreparable damage to the genetic material, cell injury, and general respiratory landscape. The alkaloid family of tobacco has been implicated is a series of ailments including addiction, mental illnesses, psychological disorders, and cancer. Accordingly, this contribution describes the mechanistic degradation of major tobacco alkaloids including the widely studied nicotine and two other alkaloids which have received little attention in literature. The principal focus is to understand their energetics, their environmental fate, and the formation of intermediates considered harmful to tobacco consumers. The intermediate components believed to originate from tobacco alkaloids in mainstream cigarette smoke were determined using as gas-chromatography hyphenated to a mass spectrometer fitted with a mass selective detector (MSD) while the energetics of intermediates were conducted using the density functional theory framework (DFT/B3LYP) using the 6-31G basis set. The density functional theory calculations conducted using B3LYP correlation function established that the scission of the phenyl C-C bond in nicotine and β-nicotyrine, and C-N phenyl bond in 3,5-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrazole were respectively 87.40, 118.24 and 121.38 kcal/mol. The major by-products from the thermal degradation of nicotine, β-nicotyrine and 3,5-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrazole during cigarette smoking are predicted theoretically to be pyridine, 3-methylpyridine, toluene, and benzene. This was found to be consistent with experimental data presented in this work. Clearly, the value of the bond dissociation energy was found to be dependent on the π-π interactions which plays a primary role in stabilizing the phenyl C-C in nicotine and β-nicotyrine and the phenyl C-N linkages in 3,5-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrazole. This investigation has elucidated the energetics for the formation of free radicals and

  7. The impact of tobacco additives on cigarette smoke toxicity: a critical appraisal of tobacco industry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paumgartten, Francisco José Roma; Gomes-Carneiro, Maria Regina; Oliveira, Ana Cecilia Amado Xavier de

    2017-09-21

    Cigarette production involves a number of substances and materials other than just tobacco, paper and a filter. Tobacco additives include flavorings, enhancers, humectants, sugars, and ammonium compounds. Although companies maintain that tobacco additives do not enhance smoke toxicity and do not make cigarettes more attractive or addictive, these claims are questioned by independent researchers. This study reviewed the studies on the effects of tobacco additives on smoke chemistry and toxicity. Tobacco additives lead to higher levels of formaldehyde and minor changes in other smoke analytes. Toxicological studies (bacterial mutagenicity and mammalian cytoxicity tests, rat 90 days inhalation studies and bone-marrow cell micronucleus assays) found that tobacco additives did not enhance smoke toxicity. Rodent assays, however, poorly predicted carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke, and were clearly underpowered to disclose small albeit toxicologically relevant differences between test (with tobacco additives) and control (without tobacco additives) cigarettes. This literature review led to the conclusion that the impact of tobacco additives on tobacco smoke harmfulness remains unclear.

  8. [Effect of tobacco smoking on albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in urine of smelters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizonń, Anna; Witt, Katarzyna; Milnerowicz, Malgorzata; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study was to estimate the nephrotoxicity of occupational exposure to heavy metals on albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in the urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters. The study was performed in urine of 101 smoking and non-smoking smelters as well as 65 smoking and non-smoking male subjects unexposed to heavy metals. Section into smoking and non-smoking groups was made on basis on direct personal interview and by determination of serum cotinine concentration. The concentration of albumin in urine was measured with commercial test (Micro-Albumin ELISA Cat. No 5MA 74212, ORGENTEC Diagnostika Gmbh, Germany). The activity of β-glucuronidase in urine were determined in urine using 4-nitrophenyl β D-glucuronide (Cat. No 73677, Sigma Aldrich, Germany) as a substrate. We have observed higher albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters when compared to control groups. We have also found the influence of tobacco smoke as well as amount of cigarettes smoked on albumin concentration in urine of smoking smelters. A statistically significant difference was detected between activity of β-glucuronidase in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters, which suggest as additional negative factor of exposure to tobacco smoke. Analyzing the impact of smoking intensity we have found higher albumin concentration and β-glucuronidase activity in urine of smelters smoking ≥20 cigarettes per day when compared to smelters smoking urine of workers occupational exposure to heavy metals and tobacco smoke indicated, that environmental exposure on these factors can disorders kidney functions.

  9. Gender, smoking and tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review

    OpenAIRE

    Bottorff, Joan L; Haines-Saah, Rebecca; Kelly, Mary T; Oliffe, John L; Torchalla, Iris; Poole, Nancy; Greaves, Lorraine; Robinson, Carole A; Ensom, Mary HH; Okoli, Chizimuzo TC; Phillips, J Craig

    2014-01-01

    Considerations of how gender-related factors influence smoking first appeared over 20?years ago in the work of critical and feminist scholars. This scholarship highlighted the need to consider the social and cultural context of women?s tobacco use and the relationships between smoking and gender inequity. Parallel research on men?s smoking and masculinities has only recently emerged with some attention being given to gender influences on men?s tobacco use. Since that time, a multidisciplinary...

  10. Local tobacco policy and tobacco outlet density: associations with youth smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates the associations between local tobacco policy, tobacco outlet density, and youth smoking. A primary focus is on whether local tobacco policy moderates the relation between outlet density and youth smoking. In all, 1,491 youth (51.9% male, mean age = 14.7 years, standard deviation = 1.05) in 50 midsized California cities were surveyed through a computer-assisted telephone interview. Measures of local clean air policy and youth access policy were created based on a review of tobacco policies in these cities. Outlet density was calculated as the number of retail tobacco outlets per 10,000 persons, and city characteristics were obtained from 2000 U.S. Census data. Using multilevel regression analyses and controlling for city characteristics, tobacco outlet density was positively associated with youth smoking. No significant main effects were found for the two tobacco policy types on any of the smoking outcomes after controlling for interactions and covariates. However, statistically significant interactions were found between local clean air policy and tobacco outlet density for ever smoked and past 12-month cigarette smoking. Comparisons of simple slopes indicated that the positive associations between tobacco outlet density and youth smoking behaviors were stronger at the lowest level of local clean air policy compared with the moderate and high levels. Our results suggest that tobacco outlet density is related to youth smoking. In addition, local clean air policy may act as a moderator of relationship between tobacco outlet density and youth smoking, such that density is less important at moderate and high levels of this tobacco policy. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Are Tobacco Control Policies Effective in Reducing Young Adult Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Loomis, Brett R.; Kuiper, Nicole; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joseph; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Couzens, G. Lance

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined the influence of tobacco control program funding, smoke-free air laws, and cigarette prices on young adult smoking outcomes. Methods We use a natural experimental design approach that uses the variation in tobacco control policies across states and over time to understand their influence on tobacco outcomes. We combine individual outcome data with annual state-level policy data to conduct multivariable logistic regression models, controlling for an extensive set of sociodemographic factors. The participants are 18- to 25-year-olds from the 2002–2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The three main outcomes are past-year smoking initiation, and current and established smoking. A current smoker was one who had smoked on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. An established smoker was one who had smoked 1 or more cigarettes in the past 30 days and smoked at least 100 cigarettes in his or her lifetime. Results Higher levels of tobacco control program funding and greater smoke-free-air law coverage were both associated with declines in current and established smoking (p smoke-free air laws was associated with lower past year initiation with marginal significance (p = .058). Higher cigarette prices were not associated with smoking outcomes. Had smoke-free-air law coverage and cumulative tobacco control funding remained at 2002 levels, current and established smoking would have been 5%–7% higher in 2009. Conclusions Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing young adult smoking. PMID:24268360

  12. Effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and tobacco-attributable deaths in Mexico: the SimSmoke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Fleischer, Nancy L; Thrasher, James F; Zhang, Yian; Meza, Rafael; Cummings, K Michael; Levy, David T

    2015-10-01

    To examine how policies adopted in Mexico in response to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control affected smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. The SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy is applied to Mexico. This discrete time, first-order Markov model uses data on population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy for Mexico. It assesses, individually and jointly, the effects of seven types of policies: cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment, and youth tobacco access policies. The Mexico SimSmoke model estimates that smoking rates have been reduced by about 30% as a result of policies implemented since 2002, and that the number of smoking-attributable deaths will have been reduced by about 826 000 by 2053. Increases in cigarette prices are responsible for over 60% of the reductions, but health warnings, smoke-free air laws, marketing restrictions and cessation treatments also play important roles. Mexico has shown steady progress towards reducing smoking prevalence in a short period of time, as have other Latin American countries, such as Brazil, Panama and Uruguay. Tobacco control policies play an important role in continued efforts to reduce tobacco use and associated deaths in Mexico.

  13. Effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and tobacco-attributable deaths in Mexico: the SimSmoke model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine how policies adopted in Mexico in response to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control affected smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. METHODS: The SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy is applied to Mexico. This discrete time, first-order Markov model uses data on population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy for Mexico. It assesses, individually and jointly, the effects of seven types of policies: cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment, and youth tobacco access policies. RESULTS: The Mexico SimSmoke model estimates that smoking rates have been reduced by about 30% as a result of policies implemented since 2002, and that the number of smoking-attributable deaths will have been reduced by about 826 000 by 2053. Increases in cigarette prices are responsible for over 60% of the reductions, but health warnings, smoke-free air laws, marketing restrictions and cessation treatments also play important roles. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico has shown steady progress towards reducing smoking prevalence in a short period of time, as have other Latin American countries, such as Brazil, Panama and Uruguay. Tobacco control policies play an important role in continued efforts to reduce tobacco use and associated deaths in Mexico.

  14. Tobacco smoking produces widespread dominant brain wave alpha frequency increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Edward F; Ni, Lisong; Thompson, Michael; Zhang, Huilei; Shikata, Hiroki; Fukai, Hiromi; Sakaki, Takeshi; Ohya, Ippei

    2009-12-01

    The major pharmacological ingredient in tobacco smoke is nicotine, a mild stimulant known to alter brain electrical activity. The objective of this study was to determine if tobacco smoking in humans produces localized or widespread neocortical dominant alpha electroencephalographic (EEG) frequency increases consistent with nicotine stimulation of the brainstem activating system in animals. Twenty-two male volunteer non-deprived tobacco smokers were studied. They were asked not to smoke for at least 1h before the experiment in mid-morning as part of their usual smoking schedule. In the laboratory, they sham smoked and then smoked their favorite tobacco cigarette. Two experimental sessions (#1 and #2) were conducted, separated by a one to two month interval. In both sessions, there were minor statistically significant increases in the dominant alpha frequencies after sham smoking. In both sessions, after the subjects smoked a favorite tobacco cigarette there was a significant generalized increase in dominant alpha EEG frequencies in most scalp recording sites. This study demonstrates that tobacco smoking produces widespread bilateral neocortical increases in dominant alpha EEG frequencies consistent with the stimulant effects of nicotine on the brainstem reticular activating system.

  15. [Effects of physical activity on tobacco craving for smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G; Meurice, J-C

    2016-06-01

    One in two people who smoke for their whole lifetime will die from a disease related to tobacco use. The smoking habit is sustained by nicotine dependence, which makes smoking cessation very difficult because of withdrawal syndrome and craving (urge to smoke without delay). The aim of this review was to evaluate the impact of physical activity interventions to reduce tobacco craving in smoking cessation. It included 18 randomized controlled trials, which incorporated physical activity. Seventeen of the 18 trials demonstrate the effectiveness of the physical activity in reducing tobacco craving. The consistency of these results constitutes solid evidence of the importance of physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation. Advice to increase physical activity should therefore be given during quit attempts and should be incorporated into smoking cessation programs. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. [Tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Euro region Eastern Carpathians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadarko, Emilian; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Barabasz, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    Publisher in February 2008 WHO M-POWER report indicates that every year on the world tobacco epidemics kills 5.4 million of people and the analysis of tobacco smoking prevalence change shows great differences between European countries. It is estimated that in Poland 29% of adult people smokes, and 24% in Slovakia. However tobacco smoking among academic youth is still a big problem. The aim of the study was an attempt to estimate tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Poland and Slovakia. The study was conducted with the framework of science project: "Physical activity for the whole life". The aim of the project are multidirectional activities addressed to Polish-Slovakian students to create a system of taking care about health based on health education among students, selected modifying cardiovascular risk factors monitoring, as well as creating Internet portal to serve those goals. Project was co-fund by European Union from European Regional Development Fund - ERDF, as well as from the government budget by Euro Region Carpathians with the framework of Cross-border Co-operation Programme Republic of Poland - Slovakia Republic 2007-2013. Analysis considered 4584 group of students from University of Rzeszow and University of Presov, Technical University in Rzeszow and State Higher Vocational School in Krosno. The study was conducted from November 2009 to June 2010. The participation in the study was voluntary. The study was conducted using a diagnostics survey method with questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Based on results it was claimed that the majority of the studied group of students have never smoked and do not smoke cigarettes. Place of residence was a factor influencing the fact of tobacco smoking. Slovakian students were characterized by more frequent tobacco smoking. Far more often smoke man, both in Polish and Slovakian group. Among Polish students there was a relation between subjective health state assessment and

  17. Tobacco smoking cessation management: integrating varenicline in current practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence M Galanti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Laurence M GalantiClinique Universitaire UCL, Mont-Godinne, Yvoir, BelgiumAbstract: Tobacco smoking is widespread and is one of the world’s most prevalent modifiable risk factors for morbidity and mortality. It is important to facilitate smoking cessation better in order to reduce the health consequences of tobacco use. The most effective approach assisting smokers in their quit attempts combines both pharmacotherapy and nonpharmacological interventions. This review summarizes the latest international epidemiological data available on tobacco use, considers the associated effects on health, and reviews existing policies against tobacco use. Among the interventions for smoking cessation, the three major pharmacotherapies (which have demonstrated efficacy when combined with behavioral support are discussed: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, and varenicline. As the newest pharmacotherapy made available in this area, particular consideration is given to varenicline, and a review of our clinical experience is offered.Keywords: tobacco smoking cessation, nicotinic substitution, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, varenicline

  18. Tobacco smoking and surgical healing of oral tissues: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S M

    2008-01-01

    It is believed that the crew of Columbus had introduced tobacco from the 'American India' to the rest of the world, and tobacco was attributed as a medicinal plant. It was often used to avert hunger during long hours of work. But in reality, tobacco causes various ill effects including pre-malignant lesions and cancers. This article aims at reviewing the literature pertaining to the effect of tobacco smoking upon the outcome of various surgical procedures performed in the oral cavity. Tobacco affects postoperative wound healing following surgical and nonsurgical tooth extractions, routine maxillofacial surgeries, implants, and periodontal therapies. In an experimental study, bone regeneration after distraction osteogenesis was found to be negatively affected by smoking. Thus, tobacco, a peripheral vasoconstrictor, along with its products like nicotine increases platelet adhesiveness, raises the risk of microvascular occlusion, and causes tissue ischemia. Smoking tobacco is also associated with catecholamines release resulting in vasoconstriction and decreased tissue perfusion. Smoking is believed to suppress the innate and host immune responses, affecting the function of neutrophils--the prime line of defense against infection. Thus, the association between smoking and delayed healing of oral tissues following surgeries is evident. Dental surgeons should stress on the ill effects of tobacco upon the routine postoperative healing to smoker patients and should aid them to become tobacco-free.

  19. Tobacco smoking and surgical healing of oral tissues: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that the crew of Columbus had introduced tobacco from the ′American India′ to the rest of the world, and tobacco was attributed as a medicinal plant. It was often used to avert hunger during long hours of work. But in reality, tobacco causes various ill effects including pre-malignant lesions and cancers. This article aims at reviewing the literature pertaining to the effect of tobacco smoking upon the outcome of various surgical procedures performed in the oral cavity. Tobacco affects postoperative wound healing following surgical and nonsurgical tooth extractions, routine maxillofacial surgeries, implants, and periodontal therapies. In an experimental study, bone regeneration after distraction osteogenesis was found to be negatively affected by smoking. Thus, tobacco, a peripheral vasoconstrictor, along with its products like nicotine increases platelet adhesiveness, raises the risk of microvascular occlusion, and causes tissue ischemia. Smoking tobacco is also associated with catecholamines release resulting in vasoconstriction and decreased tissue perfusion. Smoking is believed to suppress the innate and host immune responses, affecting the function of neutrophils - the prime line of defense against infection. Thus, the association between smoking and delayed healing of oral tissues following surgeries is evident. Dental surgeons should stress on the ill effects of tobacco upon the routine postoperative healing to smoker patients and should aid them to become tobacco-free.

  20. Prevalence and Attitude Towards Tobacco Smoking Among Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context Tobacco smoking is the second major cause of death and the fourth most common risk factor for many diseases worldwide. Health care workers should in addition to promoting smoking prevention and cessation strategies, also serve as role models and advocates in the fight against smoking. Objectives. This study ...

  1. Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in the Tobacco and Mainstream Smoke of U.S. Commercial Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Selvin H; Rossiter, Lana M; Taylor, Kenneth M; Holman, Matthew R; Zhang, Liqin; Ding, Yan S; Watson, Clifford H

    2017-02-20

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are N-nitroso-derivatives of pyridine-alkaloids (e.g., nicotine) present in tobacco and cigarette smoke. Two TSNAs, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are included on the Food and Drug Administration's list of harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco products and tobacco. The amounts of four TSNAs (NNK, NNN, N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), and N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT)) in the tobacco and mainstream smoke from 50 U.S. commercial cigarette brands were measured from November 15, 2011 to January 4, 2012 using a validated HPLC/MS/MS method. Smoke samples were generated using the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Canadian Intense (CI) machine-smoking regimens. NNN and NAT were the most abundant TSNAs in tobacco filler and smoke across all cigarette brands, whereas NNK and NAB were present in lesser amounts. The average ratios for each TSNA in mainstream smoke to filler content is 29% by the CI smoking regimen and 13% for the ISO machine-smoking regimen. The reliability of individual TSNAs to predict total TSNA amounts in the filler and smoke was examined. NNN, NAT, and NAB have a moderate to high correlation (R2 = 0.61-0.98, p smoke from the CI machine-smoking regimen. In contrast, filter ventilation is a major determinant of levels of TSNAs in smoke by the ISO machine-smoking regimen. Comparative analysis demonstrates substantial variability in TSNA amounts in tobacco filler and mainstream smoke yields under ISO and CI machine-smoking regimens among U.S. commercial cigarette brands.

  2. Secondhand tobacco smoke: an occupational hazard for smoking and non-smoking bar and nightclub employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Miranda R; Wipfli, Heather; Shahrir, Shahida; Avila-Tang, Erika; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2013-09-01

    In the absence of comprehensive smoking bans in public places, bars and nightclubs have the highest concentrations of secondhand tobacco smoke, posing a serious health risk for workers in these venues. To assess exposure of bar and nightclub employees to secondhand smoke, including non-smoking and smoking employees. Between 2007 and 2009, the authors recruited approximately 10 venues per city and up to five employees per venue in 24 cities in the Americas, Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 238 venues. To evaluate personal exposure to secondhand smoke, hair nicotine concentrations were also measured for 625 non-smoking and 311 smoking employees (N=936). Median (IQR) air nicotine concentrations were 3.5 (1.5-8.5) μg/m(3) and 0.2 (0.1-0.7) μg/m(3) in smoking and smoke-free venues, respectively. Median (IQR) hair nicotine concentrations were 6.0 (1.6-16.0) ng/mg and 1.7 (0.5-5.5) ng/mg in smoking and non-smoking employees, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, education, living with a smoker, hair treatment and region, a twofold increase in air nicotine concentrations was associated with a 30% (95% CI 23% to 38%) increase in hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees and with a 10% (2% to 19%) increase in smoking employees. Occupational exposure to secondhand smoke, assessed by air nicotine, resulted in elevated concentrations of hair nicotine among non-smoking and smoking bar and nightclub employees. The high levels of airborne nicotine found in bars and nightclubs and the contribution of this exposure to employee hair nicotine concentrations support the need for legislation measures that ensure complete protection from secondhand smoke in these venues.

  3. Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to 3 years of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.J.; Hert-Picciotto, I.; Dostal, M.; Keller, J.A.; Nozicka, J.; Kotesovec, F.; Dejmek, J.; Loomis, D.; Sram, R.J. [University of California Davis, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Public Health Science

    2006-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate how indoor pollution from tobacco and home heating may adversely affect respiratory health in young children. A total of 452 children born 1994-1996 in two districts in the Czech Republic participated. Lower respiratory illness (LRI) diagnoses occurred more frequently in children from homes heated by coal (vs. other energy sources or distant furnaces; rate ratio (RR) = 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.97). Maternal prenatal smoking and other adult smokers also increased LRI rates (respectively: RR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10-2.01; and RR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.65). Cooking fuels (primarily electricity, natural gas, or propane) were not associated with LRI incidence. For children never breast-fed, coal home heating and mother's smoking conferred substantially greater risks: RR = 2.77 (95% CI, 1.45-5.27) and RR = 2.52 (95% CI, 1.31-4.85), respectively. This maternal smoking and coal home heating increased risk for LRI in the first 3 years of life, particularly in children not breast-fed.

  4. The role of public policies in reducing smoking: the Minnesota SimSmoke tobacco policy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Boyle, Raymond G; Abrams, David B

    2012-11-01

    Following the landmark lawsuit and settlement with the tobacco industry, Minnesota pursued the implementation of stricter tobacco control policies, including tax increases, mass media campaigns, smokefree air laws, and cessation treatment policies. Modeling is used to examine policy effects on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. To estimate the effect of tobacco control policies in Minnesota on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths using the SimSmoke simulation model. Minnesota data starting in 1993 are applied to SimSmoke, a simulation model used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies over time on smoking initiation and cessation. Upon validating the model against smoking prevalence, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 on smoking prevalence. Using standard attribution methods, SimSmoke also estimates deaths averted as a result of the policies. SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2011. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 29% by 2011 and of 41% by 2041 can be attributed to tobacco control policies, mainly tax increases, smokefree air laws, media campaigns, and cessation treatment programs. Moreover, 48,000 smoking-attributable deaths will be averted by 2041. Minnesota SimSmoke demonstrates that tobacco control policies, especially taxes, have substantially reduced smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Taxes, smokefree air laws, mass media, cessation treatment policies, and youth-access enforcement contributed to the decline in prevalence and deaths averted, with the strongest component being taxes. With stronger policies, for example, increasing cigarette taxes to $4.00 per pack, Minnesota's smoking rate could be reduced by another 13%, and 7200 deaths could be averted by 2041. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Persistent cigarette smoking and other tobacco use after a tobacco-related cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Julie S.; Tai, Eric; White, Arica; Davis, Shane P.; Fairley, Temeika L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction People who continue to smoke after a cancer diagnosis have an increased risk for recurrences or development of new malignancies. These risks may be even higher among tobacco-related cancer survivors (TRCS). We describe tobacco use behaviors among TRCS, other cancer survivors, and people without a history of cancer. Methods We used 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to describe demographic characteristics, smoking history, current smoking prevalence, and smokeless tobacco use among TRCS, other cancer survivors, and people without a history of cancer (cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use were calculated after adjusting for age, sex, race, and insurance status). Tobacco-related cancers were defined as lung/bronchial, pharyngeal, laryngeal, esophageal, stomach, pancreatic, kidney/renal, urinary bladder, cervical, and acute myeloid leukemia. Results A total of 20 % of all cancer survivors were TRCS. TRCS were primarily female (68 %) and white (78 %). Smoking prevalence was higher among TRCS (27 %) compared with other cancer survivors (16 %) and respondents without a history of cancer (18 %). Smokeless tobacco use was higher among respondents without a history of cancer (4 %) compared with TRCS (3 %) and other cancer survivors (3 %). Conclusions The self-reported smoking prevalence among TRCS is higher than among other cancer survivors and people without a history of cancer. Targeted smoking prevention and cessation interventions are needed for cancer survivors, especially those diagnosed with a tobacco-related cancer. Implications for cancer survivors We recommend all cancer survivors be made aware of the health risks associated with smoking after a cancer diagnosis, and smoking cessation services be offered to those who currently smoke. Condensed abstract We provide the first population-based report on demographic characteristics and tobacco use behaviors among self-reported tobacco-related cancer survivors. PMID:22706885

  6. Perceived enforcement of school tobacco policy and adolescents' cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Paschall, Mallie J; Grube, Joel W

    2009-06-01

    School tobacco use policies are part of a comprehensive strategy for preventing or reducing adolescent cigarette smoking. This study examines the relationship between perceived tobacco policy enforcement at the school level and smoking behaviors among students. 21,281 middle and high school students of 255 schools participated in the 2006 Oregon Health Teens Survey. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted, using a school-level policy enforcement measure based on aggregated student reports, and individual-level characteristics (e.g., age, gender, cigarette smoking before age 12, personal beliefs about smoking) as predictors of past-30-day cigarette smoking behaviors (e.g., any smoking, daily smoking, heavy episodic smoking, smoking on school property). Higher levels of perceived enforcement of anti-smoking policy at the school level were inversely associated with the prevalence of past-30-day smoking behaviors, independent of individual-level predictors. Stricter enforcement of school policies against tobacco use may help prevent or reduce adolescents' cigarette smoking on and outside of school property.

  7. The hazardous effects of tobacco smoking on male fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing-Bo; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Qiao, Zhong-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The substantial harmful effects of tobacco smoking on fertility and reproduction have become apparent but are not generally appreciated. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 kinds of constituents, including nicotine, tar, carbonic monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. Because of the complexity of tobacco smoke components, the toxicological mechanism is notably complicated. Most studies have reported reduced semen quality, reproductive hormone system dysfunction and impaired spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and spermatozoa function in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Underlying these effects, elevated oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis may play important roles collaboratively in the overall effect of tobacco smoking on male fertility. In this review, we strive to focus on both the phenotype of and the molecular mechanism underlying these harmful effects, although current studies regarding the mechanism remain insufficient. PMID:25851659

  8. The hazardous effects of tobacco smoking on male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing-Bo; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Qiao, Zhong-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The substantial harmful effects of tobacco smoking on fertility and reproduction have become apparent but are not generally appreciated. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 kinds of constituents, including nicotine, tar, carbonic monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. Because of the complexity of tobacco smoke components, the toxicological mechanism is notably complicated. Most studies have reported reduced semen quality, reproductive hormone system dysfunction and impaired spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and spermatozoa function in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Underlying these effects, elevated oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis may play important roles collaboratively in the overall effect of tobacco smoking on male fertility. In this review, we strive to focus on both the phenotype of and the molecular mechanism underlying these harmful effects, although current studies regarding the mechanism remain insufficient.

  9. Associations between Hookah Tobacco Smoking Knowledge and Hookah Smoking Behavior among US College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Erin; Shensa, Ariel; Kim, Kevin H.; Fine, Michael J.; Barnett, Tracey E.; Cook, Robert; Primack, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking is increasing among US college students, including those who would not otherwise use tobacco. Part of hookah's appeal is attributed to the perception that hookah is less harmful than cigarettes. The aims of this study were to assess knowledge of harmful exposures associated with hookah smoking relative to cigarette smoking…

  10. Are students exposed to tobacco smoke in German schools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate to which extent 6th grade school children are exposed to tobacco smoke by others. As biomarker for the exposure to tobacco smoke nicotine and cotinine were measured in the urine. Our study population consisted of 771 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years who according to a questionnaire did not smoke. In addition we analysed the data of 459 school children who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home. The nicotine and cotinine concentrations in the spontaneous urine sample were determined by HPLC methods.On average in about 20% of all non-smoking children, who were not exposed to tobacco smoke at home, biomarker (nicotine or cotinine were detected in the urine. The percentage of the detected biomarker values (nicotine and/or cotinine in the urine of the school children varied between 0% and 50% between schools. In addition we determined the proportion of smoking classmates per school. No positive association was found between the detected biomarker values of the non-smoking school children not exposed to tobacco smoke at home and the proportion of smokers per school. The concentration of biomarker depending on the time of day the urine samples were collected showed higher nicotine and cotinine values when the urine sample was collected between 10 and 12 o'clock in the morning compared to urine samples collected between 7 and 10 a.m.In spite of the limitations our study provides some evidence that children are exposed involuntarily to tobacco smoke by others at school. That is why our results support the requirement of a general legal ban on smoking for teachers, the school staff and students.

  11. [Tobacco smoking and principles of the who framework convention on tobacco control: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkadze, N

    2013-02-01

    The aim of a review is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on tobacco smoking, the Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which commits countries to protect the public's health by adopting various measures to reduce demand for tobacco. Georgia ratified the treaty in February 2006. In Georgia the implementation of the WHO FCTC is regulated by the "Law on Tobacco Control" (Law). It went into effect in September 2003. Changes and additions to the Law were approved by the Parliament in December 2008 (N 941 - rs) and in December 2010 (№4059-rs). According to Article 10 of the Law, smoking is prohibited at the educational and childcare institutions, medical and pharmaceutical facilities, at the entire area of petrol, gas and gas-distribution stations, in public transport, indoor areas of work and mass gathering... In spite of the legislation rights of non-smokers are very poorly preserved. With this in mind, the Welfare Foundation, the FCTC and the Tobacco Control Alliance, organized a public discussion on enforcing smoke-free laws in Georgia, in December 2012 at Tbilisi Marriott Courtyard Hotel. In order to make public libraries, educational, cultural institutions «de jure» and «de facto» free from tobacco smoke, the campaign against tobacco, which aims to strengthen implementation of the Tobacco Control Law and Regulation should be held in public libraries - not in the hotels. It is necessary to hang a poster - «Environment free from Smoke» at the entrance to buildings where smoking is prohibited throughout. In Rules and regulations for the use of the library there must be a note: smoking is prohibited in the library. We hope that Georgia in the nearest future will be in the list of countries with smoke-free public and work places.

  12. Italy SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy David

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While Italy has implemented some tobacco control policies over the last few decades, which resulted in a decreased smoking prevalence, there is still considerable scope to strengthen tobacco control policies consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO policy guidelines. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of past and project the effect of future tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality in Italy. Methods To assess, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies, we used the SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy. The model uses population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Italy. Results Significant reductions of smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tobacco price increases, high intensity media campaigns, comprehensive cessation treatment program, strong health warnings, stricter smoke-free air regulations and advertising bans, and youth access laws. With a comprehensive approach, the smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 12% soon after the policies are in place, increasing to a 30% reduction in the next twenty years and a 34% reduction by 30 years in 2040. Without effective tobacco control policies, a total of almost 300 thousand lives will be prematurely lost due to smoking by the year 2040. Conclusion Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model helps identify information gaps in surveillance and evaluation schemes that will promote the effectiveness of future tobacco control policy in Italy.

  13. Tobacco smoking prevalence among in-school adolescents aged 13 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zambia has been controlling tobacco use in terms of legislative interventions, and acceding to the World Health organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). The study was aimed to determine the baseline prevalence of current smoking to be used in the evaluation of the implementation of the ...

  14. Molecular modeling of major tobacco alkaloids in mainstream cigarette smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Kurgat, Caren; Kibet, Joshua; Cheplogoi, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Consensus of opinion in literature regarding tobacco research has shown that cigarette smoke can cause irreparable damage to the genetic material, cell injury, and general respiratory landscape. The alkaloid family of tobacco has been implicated is a series of ailments including addiction, mental illnesses, psychological disorders, and cancer. Accordingly, this contribution describes the mechanistic degradation of major tobacco alkaloids including the widely studied nicotine and tw...

  15. Tobacco smoking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Despite reductions in prevalence in recent years, tobacco smoking remains one of the main preventable causes of ill-health and premature death worldwide. This paper reviews the extent and nature of harms caused by smoking, the benefits of stopping, patterns of smoking, psychological, pharmacological and social factors that contribute to uptake and maintenance of smoking, the effectiveness of population and individual level interventions aimed at combatting tobacco smoking, and the effectiveness of methods used to reduce the harm caused by continued use of tobacco or nicotine in some form. Results and conclusions: Smoking behaviour is maintained primarily by the positive and negative reinforcing properties of nicotine delivered rapidly in a way that is affordable and palatable, with the negative health consequences mostly being sufficiently uncertain and distant in time not to create sufficient immediate concern to deter the behaviour. Raising immediate concerns about smoking by tax increases, social marketing and brief advice from health professionals can increase the rate at which smokers try to stop. Providing behavioural and pharmacological support can improve the rate at which those quit attempts succeed. Implementing national programmes containing these components are effective in reducing tobacco smoking prevalence and reducing smoking-related death and disease. PMID:28553727

  16. Tobacco smoking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Despite reductions in prevalence in recent years, tobacco smoking remains one of the main preventable causes of ill-health and premature death worldwide. This paper reviews the extent and nature of harms caused by smoking, the benefits of stopping, patterns of smoking, psychological, pharmacological and social factors that contribute to uptake and maintenance of smoking, the effectiveness of population and individual level interventions aimed at combatting tobacco smoking, and the effectiveness of methods used to reduce the harm caused by continued use of tobacco or nicotine in some form. Smoking behaviour is maintained primarily by the positive and negative reinforcing properties of nicotine delivered rapidly in a way that is affordable and palatable, with the negative health consequences mostly being sufficiently uncertain and distant in time not to create sufficient immediate concern to deter the behaviour. Raising immediate concerns about smoking by tax increases, social marketing and brief advice from health professionals can increase the rate at which smokers try to stop. Providing behavioural and pharmacological support can improve the rate at which those quit attempts succeed. Implementing national programmes containing these components are effective in reducing tobacco smoking prevalence and reducing smoking-related death and disease.

  17. Parental Perceptions and Misconceptions of Child Tobacco Smoke Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Laura J; Lev, Eimi; Guttman, Nurit; Tillinger, Efrat; Rosenblat, Shira; Zucker, David M; Myers, Vicki

    2017-09-13

    Forty percent of young children worldwide are exposed to the harmful effects of tobacco smoke, predominantly by parental smoking. Little is known about why parents regularly expose their children to these risks; perhaps parents underestimate the degree of exposure. Qualitative methods were used to investigate parental perceptions of tobacco smoke exposure. Sixty-five in-depth interviews were conducted with parents of young children in smoking families in central Israel. Parents were asked to explain what "exposure to smoking" meant. Thematic analysis was performed, a conceptual model of perceptions was built, and misconceptions were identified. Parents reported that exposure occurs when smoke or smokers are visible, when smoke can be smelled, felt, or inhaled, or when it "reaches" an individual. Conversely, some believed that exposure does not occur in the absence of odor, visible smoke, or smokers or if smoking occurs outdoors or in indoor ventilated environments. Proximity in space and time affected perceptions of exposure; some parents believed that smoke does not spread far but dissipates rapidly. There was some uncertainty regarding whether or not exposure was occurring. Awareness of child exposure to tobacco smoke among parents in this study was based on sensory perceptions in the context of the physical environment. The limited capacity of humans to perceive tobacco smoke can lead to misconceptions about exposure. In order to protect children, parents must be convinced that exposure can occur even in situations where they are unable to sense it. Parents use sensory perceptions (sight, smell, and feel) in the context of the physical environment to assess whether or not their children are exposed to tobacco smoke. Because 85% of smoke is invisible and the sense of smell is unreliable, assessments based on sensory perceptions cannot provide accurate information about the presence of tobacco smoke. In order to protect children, parents must be convinced that

  18. Smoking in Ghana: a review of tobacco industry activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Dabo, E; Lewis, S; McNeill, A; Anderson, S; Gilmore, A; Britton, J

    2009-06-01

    African countries are a major potential market for the tobacco industry, and the smoking epidemic is at various stages of evolution across the continent. Ghana is an African country with a low prevalence of smoking despite an active tobacco industry presence for over 50 years. This study explores potential reasons for this apparent lack of industry success. To explore the history of tobacco industry activity in Ghana and to identify potential reasons for the current low prevalence of smoking. A search was made of tobacco industry archives and other local sources to obtain data relevant to marketing and consumption of tobacco in Ghana. British American Tobacco, and latterly the International Tobacco Company and its successor the Meridian Tobacco Company, have been manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana since 1954. After an initial sales boom in the two decades after independence in 1957, the sustained further increases in consumption typical of the tobacco epidemic in most countries did not occur. Possible key reasons include the taking of tobacco companies into state ownership and a lack of foreign exchange to fund tobacco leaf importation in the 1970s, both of which may have inhibited growth at a key stage of development, and the introduction of an advertising ban in 1982. BAT ceased manufacturing cigarettes in Ghana in 2006. The tobacco industry has been active in Ghana for over 50 years but with variable success. The combination of an early advertising ban and periods of unfavourable economic conditions, which may have restricted industry growth, are likely to have contributed to the sustained low levels of tobacco consumption in Ghana to date.

  19. Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnemann, K D; Hoffmann, D

    1981-01-01

    A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. [14C]NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned.

  20. Water pipe tobacco smoking among university students in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Mohammed; Khabour, Omar F; Alkaraki, Almuthanna K; Eissenberg, Thomas; Alzoubi, Karem H; Primack, Brian A

    2010-06-01

    Although water pipe tobacco smoking is common in Lebanon and Syria, prevalence in neighboring Jordan is uncertain. The purposes of this study were (a) to assess the prevalence of water pipe tobacco smoking among university students in Jordan and (b) to determine associations between sociodemographic variables and water pipe tobacco smoking in this population. A trained interviewer administered a questionnaire among randomly selected students at four prominent universities in Jordan. The questionnaire assessed sociodemographic data, personal history of water pipe tobacco use, and attitudes regarding water pipe tobacco smoking. We used logistic regression to determine independent associations between sociodemographic and attitudinal factors and each of two dependent variables: ever use of water pipe and use at least monthly. Of the 548 participants, 51.8% were male and mean age was 21.7 years. More than half (61.1%) had ever smoked tobacco from a water pipe, and use at least monthly was reported by 42.7%. Multivariable analyses controlling for all relevant factors demonstrated significant associations between ever use and only two sociodemographic factors: (a) gender (for women compared with men, odds ratio [OR] = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.07-0.17) and (b) income (for those earning 500-999 Jordanian dinar (JD) monthly vs. Water pipe tobacco smoking is highly prevalent in Jordan. Although use is associated with male gender and upper middle income levels, use is widespread across other sociodemographic variables. Continued surveillance and educational interventions emphasizing the harm and addictiveness of water pipe tobacco smoking may be valuable in Jordan.

  1. [Smoking at workplace - Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Polańska, Kinga; Wiszniewska, Marta; Kleniewska, Aneta; Dörre-Kolasa, Dominika; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers' awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers' health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers' awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  2. Smoking at workplace – Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers’ awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers’ health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers’ awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. Med Pr 2015;66(6:827–836

  3. Young Adolescents, Tobacco Advertising, and Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Background: In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Methods: Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and…

  4. The impact of tobacco smoke on women’s fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka M. Sitarz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the regularity laws about smoking in public places have been more and more restrictive due to the growing awareness of health problems caused by smoking tobacco. Despite that, the global number of smokers is increasing. Men are still the majority of addicted people but the number of women smoking is also high. Among them are pregnant women, in which case, the negative health effects of tobacco smoke also affect the fetus. It is well known that active as well as passive smoking can lead to cardiovascular diseases, strokes, lung and laryngeal cancers and promotes atherosclerosis. Recently, there has been a growing scientific interest in dysfunction of endocrine system and fertility observed in smokers. Women addicted to smoking often have menstrual cycle disorders, ovulatory dysfunction and early menopause. In the case of pregnant women exposed to tobacco smoke, the risk of miscarriage or complication during the childbirth is higher. Harmful tobacco smoke components delivered to the maternal organism cause disruption of the placenta and abnormal fetus development.

  5. Tobacco smoking and hand eczema - is there an association?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jennifer A; Clemmensen, Kim K; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous risk factors have been suggested for hand eczema. This systematic review evaluates the association between tobacco smoking and hand eczema. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature systematically on the association between smoking and hand eczema. METHODS: The PubMed and EMBASE da...

  6. Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Hospitality Venues Before and After Passage of Statewide Smoke-Free Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Boursaw, Blake; Lobo, Marie L; Travers, Mark J

    2017-03-01

    In 2012, North Dakota enacted a comprehensive statewide law prohibiting smoking in enclosed public places. Disparities in tobacco control exist in rural areas. This study's objective was to determine the extent to which the passage of a comprehensive, statewide, smoke-free law in a predominantly rural state influenced tobacco smoke pollution in rural and nonrural venues. A longitudinal cohort design study comparing the levels of tobacco smoke pollution before and after passage of the statewide smoke-free law was conducted in 64 restaurants and bars statewide in North Dakota. Particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter of pollution) was assessed. A significant 83% reduction in tobacco smoke pollution levels occurred after passage of the law. Significant reductions in tobacco smoke pollution levels occurred in each of the rural categories; however, no difference by rurality was noted in the analysis after passage of the law, in contrast to the study before passage. To our knowledge, this was the largest, single, rural postlaw study globally. A comprehensive statewide smoke-free law implemented in North Dakota dramatically decreased the level of tobacco smoke pollution in bars and restaurants. © 2016 The Authors. Public Health Nursing Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; Ling, Pamela M

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the frequency of alternative tobacco product use (loose leaf, moist snuff, snus, dissolvables, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes]) among smokers and the association with quit attempts and intentions. A nationally representative probability-based cross-sectional survey of 1836 current or recently former adult smokers was completed in November 2011. Multivariate logistic regressions evaluated associations between alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation behaviors. Of the smokers, 38% had tried an alternative tobacco product, most frequently e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco product use was associated with having made a quit attempt, and those intending to quit were significantly more likely to have tried and to currently use the products than were smokers with no intentions to quit. Use was not associated with successful quit attempts. Interest in future use of alternative tobacco products was low, except for e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco products are attractive to smokers who want to quit smoking, but these data did not indicate that alternative tobacco products promote cessation. Unsubstantiated overt and implied claims that alternative tobacco products aid smoking cessation should be prohibited.

  8. Indoor secondhand tobacco smoke emission levels in six Lebanese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade, Georges; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Rees, Vaughan W; Otrock, Zaher; Connolly, Gregory N

    2010-04-01

    To date, Lebanon has failed to enact comprehensive clean indoor air laws despite ratification of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which calls for the protection of non-smokers from exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS). Complicating the problem of SHS exposure in Lebanon is the widespread use of the tobacco water-pipe. While most research on SHS has involved cigarette smoking as a source of emissions, other sources, including tobacco water-pipes, may be an important contributor. PM(2.5) concentrations (microg/m(3)) were measured in a sample of 28 public venues located in six major Lebanese cities. Active smoker density (number of smokers/100 m(3)) was calculated for both water-pipe and cigarette smokers. Venues were then categorised as having higher density of water-pipe smokers or higher density of cigarette smokers, and resultant emission levels were compared between the two groups. Cigarette and water-pipe smoking was observed in 14 venues, while cigarette smoking only and water-pipe smoking only were found in 12 venues and one venue, respectively. Among all smoking-permitted venues, the mean PM(2.5) concentration was 342 microg/m(3). Venues with a higher density of water-pipe smokers (n =14) showed a similar median PM(2.5) concentration (349 microg/m(3)) compared with venues with a higher density of cigarette smokers (n =13; 241 microg/m(3); p=0.159). The mean PM(2.5) concentration in the single venue with a voluntary smoke-free policy was 6 microg/m(3). Despite ratification of the FCTC in 2005, both cigarette and water-pipe smoking are commonly practised in enclosed public places throughout Lebanon, leading to unsafe levels of indoor particulate pollution. Smoke-free policies are needed in Lebanon to protect the public's health, and should apply to all forms of tobacco smoking.

  9. Infertility, Pregnancy Loss and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Relation to Maternal Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Meeker, John D.; Benedict, Merle D.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the etiology involved in female infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes remains idiopathic. Recent scientific research has suggested a role for environmental factors in these conditions. Secondhand tobacco smoke (STS) contains a number of known or suspected reproductive toxins, and human exposure to STS is prevalent worldwide. Robust evidence exists for the toxic effects of active smoking on fertility and pregnancy, but studies of passive exposure are much more ...

  10. Polymorphisms in inflammation genes, tobacco smoke and furred pets and wheeze in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M.; Allermann, L.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Persistent wheeze in childhood is associated with airway inflammation. The present study investigated relationships between polymorphisms in inflammatory genes, exposure to tobacco smoke and furred pets and risk of recurrent wheeze in children. Within a birth cohort of 101,042 children we...... on number of episodes with wheeze (18 months), exposure to tobacco smoke and pet-keeping. Recurrent wheeze was defined as at least four episodes of wheeze before the child was 18 months old. There was a statistically significant association between the IL-13 Arg144Gln polymorphism and risk of recurrent...... to tobacco smoke in relation to the risk of recurrent wheeze. Polymorphisms in IL-8 affected the association between pet-keeping and risk of wheeze. Polymorphisms in inflammation genes might affect the association between environmental exposures and risk of recurrent wheeze in early childhood....

  11. Waterpipe tobacco smoking legislation and policy enactment: a global analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; El Kadi, Lama; Mugharbil, Sanaa; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-03-01

    (1) To review how current global tobacco control policies address regulation of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS). (2) To identify features associated with enactment and enforcement of WTS legislation. (1) Legislations compiled by Tobacco Control Laws (www.tobaccocontrollaws.org). (2) Weekly news articles by 'Google Alerts' (www.google.com/alerts) from July 2013 to August 2014. (1) Countries containing legislative reviews, written by legal experts, were included. Countries prohibiting tobacco sales were excluded. (2) News articles discussing aspects of the WHO FCTC were included. News articles related to electronic-waterpipe, crime, smuggling, opinion pieces or brief mentions of WTS were excluded. (1) Two reviewers independently abstracted the definition of "tobacco product" and/or "smoking". Four tobacco control domains (smokefree law, misleading descriptors, health warning labels and advertising/promotion/sponsorship) were assigned one of four categories based on the degree to which WTS had specific legislation. (2) Two investigators independently assigned at least one theme and associated subtheme to each news article. (1) Reviewed legislations of 62 countries showed that most do not address WTS regulation but instead rely on generic tobacco/smoking definitions to cover all tobacco products. Where WTS was specifically addressed, no additional legislative guidance accounted for the unique way it is smoked, except for in one country specifying health warnings on waterpipe apparatuses (2) News articles mainly reported on noncompliance with public smoking bans, especially in India, Pakistan and the UK. A regulatory framework evaluated for effectiveness and tailored for the specificities of WTS needs to be developed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Scientific Evidence for the Addictiveness of Tobacco and Smoking Cessation in Tobacco Litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwon Roh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smokers keep smoking despite knowing that tobacco claims many lives, including their own and others’. What makes it hard for them to quit smoking nonetheless? Tobacco companies insist that smokers choose to smoke, according to their right to self-determination. Moreover, they insist that with motivation and willpower to quit smoking, smokers can easily stop smoking. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to discuss the addictive disease called tobacco use disorder, with an assessment of the addictiveness of tobacco and the reasons why smoking cessation is challenging, based on neuroscientific research. Nicotine that enters the body via smoking is rapidly transmitted to the central nervous system and causes various effects, including an arousal response. The changes in the nicotine receptors in the brain due to continuous smoking lead to addiction symptoms such as tolerance, craving, and withdrawal. Compared with other addictive substances, including alcohol and opioids, tobacco is more likely to cause dependence in smokers, and smokers are less likely to recover from their dependence. Moreover, the thinning of the cerebral cortex and the decrease in cognitive functions that occur with aging accelerate with smoking. Such changes occur in the structure and functions of the brain in proportion to the amount and period of smoking. In particular, abnormalities in the neural circuits that control cognition and decision-making cause loss of the ability to exert self-control and autonomy. This initiates nicotine dependence and the continuation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, smoking is considered to be a behavior that is repeated due to dependence on an addictive substance, nicotine, instead of one’s choice by free will.

  13. Scientific Evidence for the Addictiveness of Tobacco and Smoking Cessation in Tobacco Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sungwon

    2018-01-01

    Smokers keep smoking despite knowing that tobacco claims many lives, including their own and others'. What makes it hard for them to quit smoking nonetheless? Tobacco companies insist that smokers choose to smoke, according to their right to self-determination. Moreover, they insist that with motivation and willpower to quit smoking, smokers can easily stop smoking. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to discuss the addictive disease called tobacco use disorder, with an assessment of the addictiveness of tobacco and the reasons why smoking cessation is challenging, based on neuroscientific research. Nicotine that enters the body via smoking is rapidly transmitted to the central nervous system and causes various effects, including an arousal response. The changes in the nicotine receptors in the brain due to continuous smoking lead to addiction symptoms such as tolerance, craving, and withdrawal. Compared with other addictive substances, including alcohol and opioids, tobacco is more likely to cause dependence in smokers, and smokers are less likely to recover from their dependence. Moreover, the thinning of the cerebral cortex and the decrease in cognitive functions that occur with aging accelerate with smoking. Such changes occur in the structure and functions of the brain in proportion to the amount and period of smoking. In particular, abnormalities in the neural circuits that control cognition and decision-making cause loss of the ability to exert self-control and autonomy. This initiates nicotine dependence and the continuation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, smoking is considered to be a behavior that is repeated due to dependence on an addictive substance, nicotine, instead of one's choice by free will.

  14. How Menthol Alters Tobacco-Smoking Behavior: A Biological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, R J

    2015-09-01

    Mentholated cigarettes gained popularity in the 1950s and were often marketed as "healthy" cigarettes, attributable to their pleasurable mint flavor and cooling sensation in the mouth, lungs, and throat. While it is clear that nicotine is the primary psychoactive component in tobacco cigarettes, recent work has suggested that menthol may also play a role in exacerbating smoking behavior, despite original health claims. Recent evidence highlights four distinct biological mechanisms that can alter smoking behavior: 1) menthol acts to reduce the initially aversive experiences associated with tobacco smoking; 2) menthol can serve as a highly reinforcing sensory cue when associated with nicotine and promote smoking behavior; 3) menthol's actions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may change the reinforcing value of nicotine; and 4) menthol can alter nicotine metabolism, thus increasing nicotine bioavailability. The purpose of this review is to highlight and evaluate potential biological mechanisms by which menthol can alter smoking behavior.

  15. Sidestream tobacco smoke is a male germ cell mutagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Rowan-Carroll, Andrea; Williams, Andrew; Polyzos, Aris; Berndt-Weis, M Lynn; Yauk, Carole L

    2011-08-02

    Active cigarette smoking increases oxidative damage, DNA adducts, DNA strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, and heritable mutations in sperm. However, little is known regarding the effects of second-hand smoke on the male germ line. We show here that short-term exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke or sidestream tobacco smoke (STS), the main component of second-hand smoke, induces mutations at an expanded simple tandem repeat locus (Ms6-hm) in mouse sperm. We further show that the response to STS is not linear and that, for both mainstream tobacco smoke and STS, doses that induced significant increases in expanded simple tandem repeat mutations in sperm did not increase the frequencies of micronucleated reticulocytes and erythrocytes in the bone marrow and blood of exposed mice. These data show that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can cause tandem repeat mutations in sperm under conditions that may not induce genetic damage in somatic cells. Although the relationship between noncoding tandem repeat instability and mutations in functional regions of the genome is unclear, our data suggest that paternal exposure to second-hand smoke may have reproductive consequences that go beyond the passive smoker.

  16. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-08

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women).

  17. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure among adolescents in an Ethiopian school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabit Abazinab Ababulgu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is responsible for 6 million deaths globally per year, of which 600,000 deaths are due to secondhand smoke (SHS mainly among women and children. This study aims to determine the prevalence of SHS exposure among school-going adolescents and highlights the essential determinants in developing successful strategies to prevent adverse health effects in Ethiopia. The analysis is based on a school based cross sectional study where 1673 students with 98.2% of response rate from grade 9-12, aged 13-19 were included. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire that is adapted from the global youth tobacco survey questionnaire. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were obtained as estimates of prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were made using logistic regression on SPSS version 20.0 software in order to predict factors associated with SHS exposure. About 17% of adolescents were exposed to tobacco smoke in their home, whereas more than half (60.8% of adolescents were exposed to tobacco smoke in public places. In multivariate analysis, sex, parent smoking, peer smoking, and absence of discussion in the classroom about dangers of smoking were seen significantly associated with SHS exposure. The prevalence of SHS exposure among adolescents in Ethiopia is highest. Moreover, exposure to SHS in public places is much higher than at home.

  18. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which legislation-based smoking bans or restrictions reduce exposure to SHS, help people who smoke to reduce tobacco consumption or lower smoking prevalence and affect the health of those in areas which have a ban or restriction in place. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Conference Paper Index, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; July 1st 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans and restrictions affecting populations. The minimum standard was having a ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before and after studies, interrupted-time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of heterogeneity in the design and content of the studies, we did not attempt a meta-analysis. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. MAIN RESULTS: There were 50 studies included in this review. Thirty-one studies reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) with 19 studies measuring it using biomarkers. There was

  19. Effects of smoking and smoking abstinence on cognition in adolescent tobacco smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Leslie K; Krystal, John H; Mencl, W Einar; Westerveld, Michael; Frost, Stephen J; Pugh, Kenneth R

    2005-01-01

    In adult animals and humans, nicotine can produce short-term cognitive enhancement and, in some cases, neuroprotection. Recent work in animals, however, suggests that exposure to nicotine during adolescence might be neurotoxic. We tested for evidence of acute and chronic effects of tobacco smoking on cognition in adolescents who smoked tobacco daily and were compared with adolescent nonsmokers. Verbal working memory, verbal learning and memory, selective, divided, sustained attention, mood, symptoms of nicotine withdrawal, and tobacco craving were examined in 41 adolescent daily smokers and 32 nonsmokers who were similar in age, gender, and education. Analyses were controlled for general intelligence, reading achievement, parental educational attainment, baseline affective symptoms, and lifetime exposure to alcohol and cannabis. In adolescent smokers, cessation of tobacco use increased tobacco craving, symptoms of nicotine withdrawal, and depressed mood. Adolescent smokers were found to have impairments in accuracy of working memory performance irrespective of recency of smoking. Performance decrements were more severe with earlier age of onset of smoking. Adolescent smokers experienced further disruption of working memory and verbal memory during smoking cessation. As a group, male smokers initiated smoking at an earlier age than female smokers and were significantly more impaired during tests of selective and divided attention than female smokers and nonsmokers. Adolescent daily tobacco smokers experience acute impairments of verbal memory and working memory after smoking cessation, along with chronic decrements in cognitive performance that are consistent with preclinical evidence that neurotoxic effects of nicotine are more severe when exposure to nicotine occurs at earlier periods in development.

  20. Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danishevski, Kirill; Gilmore, Anna; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think about possible actions to reduce smoking. Methods A representative sample of the Russian population (1600 respondents) was interviewed face-to-face in November 2007. Results Only 14% of respondents considered tobacco control in Russia adequate, while 37% felt that nothing was being done at all. There was support for prices keeping pace with or even exceeding inflation. Over 70% of all respondents favoured a ban on sales from street kiosks, while 56% believed that existing health warnings (currently 4% of front and back of packs) were inadequate. The current policy of designating a few tables in bars and restaurants as non-smoking was supported by less than 10% of respondents, while almost a third supported a total ban, with 44% supporting provision of equal space for smokers and non-smokers. Older age, non-smoking status and living a smaller town all emerged as significantly associated with the propensity to support of antismoking measures. The tobacco companies were generally viewed as behaving like most other companies in Russia, with three-quarters believing that they definitely or maybe bribe politicians. Knowledge of impact of smoking on health was limited with significant underestimation of dangers and addictive qualities of tobacco. A third believed that light cigarettes are safer than normal. Conclusion The majority of the Russian population would support considerable strengthening of tobacco control policies but there is also a need for effective public education campaigns. PMID:18653793

  1. The effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Findings from the Netherlands SimSmoke Tobacco Control Policy Simulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Levy, David T; Blackman, Kenneth; Currie, Laura; Clancy, Luke; Willemsen, Marc C

    2012-02-01

    To develop a simulation model projecting the effect of tobacco control policies in the Netherlands on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Netherlands SimSmoke-an adapted version of the SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy-uses population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for the Netherlands to predict the effect of seven types of policies: taxes, smoke-free legislation, mass media, advertising bans, health warnings, cessation treatment and youth access policies. Outcome measures were smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. With a comprehensive set of policies, as recommended by MPOWER, smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 21% in the first year, increasing to a 35% reduction in the next 20 years and almost 40% by 30 years. By 2040, 7706 deaths can be averted in that year alone with the stronger set of policies. Without effective tobacco control policies, almost a million lives will be lost to tobacco-related diseases between 2011 and 2040. Of those, 145,000 can be saved with a comprehensive tobacco control package. Smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in the Netherlands can be reduced substantially through tax increases, smoke-free legislation, high-intensity media campaigns, stronger advertising bans and health warnings, comprehensive cessation treatment and youth access laws. The implementation of these FCTC/MPOWER recommended policies could be expected to show similar or even larger relative reductions in smoking prevalence in other countries which currently have weak policies. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Pregnancy, maternal tobacco smoking and early age leukemia in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eKoifman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoking has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia but hypothesis on the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood leukemia is unclear. Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal exposure to tobacco smoking during pregnancy and early age (< 2 yr. leukemia (EAL. Methods: A hospital-based multicenter case-control study aiming to explore EAL risk factors was carried out in Brazil during 1999-2007. Data were collected by direct interview with the biological mothers using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children, being 193 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls, being the latter age frequency matched and paired by area of residence with the cases. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and odds ratios (OR on the association between tobacco smoking (3 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and 3 months after delivery and EAL were ascertained after adjustment for selected variables (maternal age at birth and education, birth weight, infant skin color, and oral contraceptives use during pregnancy.Results: Smoking was reported by 17.5% of case mothers and 20.6% of controls´. Among women who reported to have smoked 20 or more cigarettes during the index pregnancy, an adjusted OR = 5.28 (95% C.I. 1.40-19.95 for ALL was observed. Heavy smoking during breastfeeding yielded an adjusted risk estimate for ALL, OR = 7.78 (95% C.I. 1.33-45.5. No dose-response effect was observed according to smoking exposure during pregnancy and EAL. An association between secondhand smoking during pregnancy or breastfeeding was not observed. Conclusion: An association between maternal smoking and AAL in the offspring was restricted to women who have reported an intense exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  3. Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Factors Associated with the Initiation of Smoking among University Students in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahadat Hossain

    2017-01-01

    Results: The overall prevalence of tobacco smoking was 60.2%, where males smoked at higher rates than females (68.81% and 19.56%, respectively. The influence of friends was the most significant reason for initiating tobacco smoking (OR: 0.862; CI: 0.810-0.917. Perception regarding tobacco smoking was significantly related to continuing tobacco use. Logistic regression models identified that smoking-related attitudes, potential health problems, and family members dying from cardiovascular disease and cancer were significantly associated with tobacco smoking. Conclusion: The current tobacco smoking prevalence among university students in Bangladesh is over 60%. We suggest adopting WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC policies, especially for university students.

  4. Reducing tobacco smoking and smoke exposure to prevent preterm birth and its complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagijo, Mary-Ann; Sheikh, Aziz; Duijts, Liesbeth; Been, Jasper V

    2017-03-01

    Tobacco smoking and smoke exposure during pregnancy are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, including preterm birth. Also, children born preterm have a higher risk of complications including bronchopulmonary dysplasia and asthma when their mothers smoked during pregnancy. Smoking cessation in early pregnancy can help reduce the adverse impact on offspring health. Counselling interventions are effective in promoting smoking cessation and reducing the incidence of preterm birth. Peer support and incentive-based approaches are likely to be of additional benefit, whereas the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions, including nicotine replacement therapy, has not definitely been established. Smoke-free legislation can help reduce smoke exposure as well as maternal smoking rates at a population level, and is associated with a reduction in preterm birth. Helping future mothers to stop smoking and protect their children from second hand smoke exposure must be a key priority for health care workers and policy makers alike. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tobacco smoking and smoking-related DNA methylation are associated with the development of frailty among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xu; Zhang, Yan; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Schöttker, Ben; Breitling, Lutz Philipp; Brenner, Hermann

    2017-02-01

    Tobacco smoking is a preventable environmental factor that contributes to a wide spectrum of age-related health outcomes; however, its association with the development of frailty is not yet well established. We examined the associations of self-reported smoking indicators, serum cotinine levels and smoking-related DNA methylation biomarkers with a quantitative frailty index (FI) in 2 independent subsets of older adults (age 50-75) recruited in Saarland, Germany in 2000 - 2002 (discovery set: n = 978, validation set: n = 531). We obtained DNA methylation profiles in whole blood samples by Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and calculated the FI according to the method of Mitnitski and Rockwood. Mixed linear regression models were implemented to assess the associations between smoking indicators and the FI. After controlling for potential covariates, current smoking, cumulative smoking exposure (pack-years), and time after smoking cessation (years) were significantly associated with the FI (P-value smoking-related CpG sites were associated with the FI after correction for multiple testing (FDR smoking index (SI) based on the 9 loci manifested a monotonic association with the FI. In conclusion, this study suggested that epigenetic alterations could play a role in smoking-associated development of frailty. The identified CpG sites have the potential to be prognostic biomarkers of frailty and frailty-related health outcomes. Our findings and the underlying mechanisms should be followed up in further, preferably longitudinal studies.

  6. Tobacco smoking-associated genome-wide DNA methylation changes in the EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambatipudi, Srikant; Cuenin, Cyrille; Hernandez-Vargas, Hector; Ghantous, Akram; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Kaaks, Rudolf; Barrdahl, Myrto; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Naska, Androniki; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Polidoro, Silvia; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Peeters, Petra Hm; Quirós, José Ramón; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Key, Tim; Vineis, Paolo; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Romieu, Isabelle; Herceg, Zdenko

    2016-05-01

    Epigenetic changes may occur in response to environmental stressors, and an altered epigenome pattern may represent a stable signature of environmental exposure. Here, we examined the potential of DNA methylation changes in 910 prediagnostic peripheral blood samples as a marker of exposure to tobacco smoke in a large multinational cohort. We identified 748 CpG sites that were differentially methylated between smokers and nonsmokers, among which we identified novel regionally clustered CpGs associated with active smoking. Importantly, we found a marked reversibility of methylation changes after smoking cessation, although specific genes remained differentially methylated up to 22 years after cessation. Our study has comprehensively cataloged the smoking-associated DNA methylation alterations and showed that these alterations are reversible after smoking cessation.

  7. Smoke and mirrors: the Canadian tobacco war

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Rob

    1996-01-01

    .... It explains how Canada emerged as a global leader in the public health crusade to regulate the powerful tobacco industry and describes in fascinating detail the bitter campaigns to maintain high...

  8. Current Tobacco Smoking and Desire to Quit Smoking Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 61 Countries, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, René A; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Babb, Stephen; Armour, Brian S

    2017-05-26

    Tobacco use is the world's leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, resulting in nearly 6 million deaths each year (1). Smoked tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars, are the most common form of tobacco consumed worldwide (2), and most tobacco smokers begin smoking during adolescence (3). The health benefits of quitting are greater for persons who stop smoking at earlier ages; however, quitting smoking at any age has health benefits (4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 61 countries across the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions from 2012 to 2015 to examine the prevalence of current tobacco smoking and desire to quit smoking among students aged 13-15 years. Across all 61 countries, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 10.7% (range = 1.7%, Sri Lanka to 35.0%, Timor-Leste). By sex, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.6% among males (range = 2.9%, Tajikistan to 61.4%, Timor-Leste) and 7.5% among females (range = 1.6%, Tajikistan to 29.0%, Bulgaria). In the majority of countries assessed, the proportion of current tobacco smokers who desired to quit smoking exceeded 50%. These findings could be used by country level tobacco control programs to inform strategies to prevent and reduce youth tobacco use (1,4).

  9. Impact of Tobacco Control Policies on Adolescent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Bach, Nicoline; Baum, Christopher F

    2016-06-01

    Our aims were to examine the impact of cigarette taxes and smoke-free legislation on current adolescent smoking and smoking frequency overall as well as test whether there were differential policy effects by age. Using data on 717,543 adolescents from 43 states in the 1999-2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, we used difference-in-differences regression models to evaluate the impact of tobacco control policies on current adolescent smoking (yes/no) and, separately, smoking frequency (defined as 0, 1-5, 6-29, 30+ days per month). We tested an interaction between age and cigarette taxes and, separately, smoke-free legislation. From 1999 to 2013, adolescent smoking decreased from 35.3% to 13.9% and 41 of 43 states increased their cigarette tax in real terms by an average of 257%. By the end of the study period, 29 of 43 states had 100% smoke-free restaurant legislation. Although we found no overall effect of cigarette taxes on current smoking, there was a significant interaction by age. Among 14- and 15-year olds, every $1.00 cigarette tax increase was associated with a 2.2 and 1.6 percentage point reduction in smoking, respectively. The enactment of 100% smoke-free restaurant legislation was associated with an overall reduction in adolescent smoking by 1.1 percentage points and there were no differences by age. Cigarette taxes and smoke-free legislation were also associated with decreased smoking frequency. The youngest adolescents are the most price sensitive, and cigarette taxes continue to be a successful approach to reduce adolescent smoking. Smoke-free legislation may also be an effective strategy to reduce smoking among all adolescents. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Social, Psychological, and Environmental-Structural Factors Associated with Tobacco Experimentation among Adolescents in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Qiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence and social, psychological and environmental-structural determinants of tobacco experimentation among adolescents in Shanghai, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a two-stage cluster sample design by using the Chinese version of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS to investigate smoking behavior among 19,117 students from 41 junior and senior high schools in Shanghai, China. The association between potential factors and tobacco experimentation were assessed using complex samples procedure logistic regression. Results: Of the 19,117 respondents, 10.5% (15.3% boys and 6.2% girls reported the tobacco experimentation. The main social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors associated with tobacco experimentation were having close friends who smoke (AOR = 8.21; 95% CI: 6.49–10.39; one or both parents smoking (AOR 1.57; CI: 1.39–1.77; a poor school tobacco control environment (AOR 1.53; CI: 1.37–1.83; a high acceptance level of tobacco use (AOR 1.44; CI: 1.28–1.82; and a high level of media tobacco exposure (AOR 1.23; CI: 1.10–1.37. Peer smoking might contribute to smoking experimentation among girls (AOR 8.93; CI: 5.84–13.66 more so than among boys (AOR 7.79; CI: 5.97–9.94 and media tobacco exposure had no association with tobacco experimentation among female students. Conclusions: Social, psychological, and environmental factors are closely associated with tobacco experimentation among adolescents. Prevention programs aimed at reducing teen tobacco experimentation should be conducted at home and school with support by parents, peers and teachers. Our findings should prove useful for future development of intervention strategies among adolescents in Shanghai, China.

  11. Tobacco smoking among government employees in six cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil; Zhang, Chen; Hua, Xinwei; Redmon, Pamela; Eriksen, Michael; Koplan, Jeffrey; Ali, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Employer-based tobacco control interventions have been highly successful in developed countries, and, recently, Chinese officials announced a focus on quitting among government employees. However, there are few data offering estimates of smoking prevalence among government workers from developing nations. In this study, we investigate smoking behaviours among government workers in six Chinese cities stratified by educational attainment and occupational grade. Individual-level study of Chinese government employees. Tobacco-Free Cities Initiative of China Tobacco Control Partnership. Employed adults aged 18-61 at government worksites in six cities were included (N=6176). Prevalence of current and former smoking across educational (postgraduate, graduate, high school, secondary school or less) and occupational (senior executives, mid-level managers, workers) groups were compared. Overall prevalence of male current smoking was 40.7% (95% CI 39.1% to 42.4%). Age-adjusted smoking prevalence was lowest among those with a postgraduate degree (26.2% (95% CI 21.0% to 31.4%)) compared with those with lower levels of education (college (39.8%; 37.7% to 41.8%); high school (51.0%; 95% CI 45.0% to 57.0%); secondary or less (45.1%; 95% CI 40.3% to 49.8%)). There was no evidence of an association between current smoking and occupational grade. Prevalence of smoking was low in women (1.5%). Smoking prevalence among male government employees at all levels of education was high and patterned by educational attainment. Government initiatives to address tobacco control among employees should consider targeted interventions for different educational levels.

  12. Tobacco use in shisha: studies on waterpipe smoking in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    World Health Organization

    2006-01-01

    The waterpipe (also known as gouza, narghile, hubble-bubble, hookah or shisha, depending on the local tradition) has been used for smoking tobacco for centuries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Formerly associated almost exclusively with older males, usually of lower socioeconomic level, waterpipe smoking is now spreading to other segments of society in the region, particularly young men and women, and those from higher socioeconomic levels. Recent surveys from Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and E...

  13. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Winther, J F; Pukkala, E

    1997-01-01

    Active smoking is causally associated with cancers of the lung, larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas, renal parenchyma, renal pelvis and urinary bladder, and passive smoking appears to be causally associated with cancer of the lung. Information on smoking habits for the years 1965......,000 in women) are caused annually by active smoking, yielding a total of 16,000 new cases each year around the turn of the century. This implies that 14% (19% in men and 9% in women) of all incident cancers in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 will be caused by active tobacco smoking. In comparison......, 1975 and 1985 shows that more men than women in the Nordic countries were current smokers. The rates of women were stable over time and those of men were decreasing, approaching those of women. Lung cancer, in particular, is strongly associated with active smoking: by increasing the number...

  14. Lethal impacts of cigarette smoke in cultured tobacco cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawano Tomonori

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to understand and generalize the toxic mechanism of cigarette smoke in living cells, comparison of the data between animal systems and other biological system such as microbial and plant systems is highly beneficial. Objective By employing the tobacco cells as model materials for cigarette smoke toxicity assay, the impacts of the combustion by-products such as nitrogen oxides could be highlighted as the toxic impacts of the plant-derived endogenous chemicals could be excluded in the plant cells. Methods Cigarette smoke-induced cell death was assessed in tobacco cell suspension cultures in the presence and absence of pharmacological inhibitors. Results Cigarette smoke was effective in induction of cell death. The smoke-induced cell death could be partially prevented by addition of nitric oxide (NO scavenger, suggesting the role for NO as the cell death mediator. Addition of NO donor to tobacco cells also resulted in development of partial cell death further confirming the role of NO as cell death mediator. Members of reactive oxygen species and calcium ion were shown to be protecting the cells from the toxic action of smoke-derived NO.

  15. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

  16. Gender, smoking and tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Haines-Saah, Rebecca; Kelly, Mary T; Oliffe, John L; Torchalla, Iris; Poole, Nancy; Greaves, Lorraine; Robinson, Carole A; Ensom, Mary H H; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Phillips, J Craig

    2014-12-12

    Considerations of how gender-related factors influence smoking first appeared over 20 years ago in the work of critical and feminist scholars. This scholarship highlighted the need to consider the social and cultural context of women's tobacco use and the relationships between smoking and gender inequity. Parallel research on men's smoking and masculinities has only recently emerged with some attention being given to gender influences on men's tobacco use. Since that time, a multidisciplinary literature addressing women and men's tobacco use has spanned the social, psychological and medical sciences. To incorporate these gender-related factors into tobacco reduction and cessation interventions, our research team identified the need to clarify the current theoretical and methodological interpretations of gender within the context of tobacco research. To address this need a scoping review of the published literature was conducted focussing on tobacco reduction and cessation from the perspective of three aspects of gender: gender roles, gender identities, and gender relations. Findings of the review indicate that there is a need for greater clarity on how researchers define and conceptualize gender and its significance for tobacco control. Patterns and anomalies in the literature are described to guide the future development of interventions that are gender-sensitive and gender-specific. Three principles for including gender-related factors in tobacco reduction and cessation interventions were identified: a) the need to build upon solid conceptualizations of gender, b) the importance of including components that comprehensively address gender-related influences, and c) the importance of promoting gender equity and healthy gender norms, roles and relations.

  17. [Influence of tobacco smoking on the risk of developing asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G; Meurice, J-C

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this general review is to investigate the influence of active and passive smoking on the development of asthma in children and adults. Passive smoking during and after pregnancy facilitates the onset of childhood asthma and wheezing. In particular, smoking during pregnancy is associated with the occurrence of wheezing prior to the age of 4 years. In contrast, the results of studies on the relationship between parental smoking in the post-natal period and the onset of asthma or wheezing are discordant. Exposure to passive smoking during childhood facilitates the occurrence of asthma in adulthood. In adults and adolescents, active smoking appears to be a factor favoring the development of asthma. On the other hand, non-smoking adult subjects without history of asthma exposed to passive smoking have a risk of asthma. The pathophysiological mechanisms by which tobacco smoke is the cause of asthma are still poorly known. Smoking cessation is an essential component in the management of asthmatic subjects who smoke, facilitating the control of the disease. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The tobacco industry's role in the 16 Cities Study of secondhand tobacco smoke: do the data support the stated conclusions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Richard L; Hammond, S Katharine; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-12-01

    Since 1996, the tobacco industry has used the 16 Cities Study conclusions that workplace secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposures are lower than home exposures to argue that workplace and other smoking restrictions are unnecessary. Our goal was to determine the origins and objectives of the 16 Cities Study through analysis of internal tobacco industry documents and regulatory agency and court records, and to evaluate the validity of the study's conclusions. The tobacco industry's purpose in conducting the 16 Cities Study was to develop data showing that workplace SHS exposures were negligible, using these data to stop smoking restrictions by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The extensive involvement of R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company and the tobacco industry's Center for Indoor Air Research in controlling the study was not fully disclosed. The study's definition of "smoking workplace" included workplaces where smoking was restricted to designated areas or where no smoking was observed. This definition substantially reduced the study's reported average SHS concentrations in "smoking workplaces" because SHS levels in unrestricted smoking workplaces are much greater than in workplaces with designated smoking areas or where no smoking occurred. Stratifying the data by home smoking status and comparing exposures by workplace smoking status, however, indicates that smoke-free workplaces would halve the total SHS exposure of those living with smokers and virtually eliminate SHS exposure for most others. Data in the 16 Cities Study reveal that smoke-free workplaces would dramatically reduce total SHS exposure, providing significant worker and public health benefits.

  19. The prevalence of and factors associated with tobacco smoking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of and factors associated with tobacco smoking behavior among long-distance drivers in Lagos, Nigeria. Obianuju B Ozoh1, Maxwell O Akanbi2, Casmir E Amadi1, William M Vollmer3, Nigel G Bruce4. 1. University of Lagos College of Medicine; Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Department of Medicine.

  20. Ambient Air Pollution by Second Hand Tobacco Smoke in Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2.5) pollution has been studied and established. People who are often exposed to pollutants by inhaling second-hand tobacco smoke are at risk of adverse health consequences such as heart disease and stroke, increased risk of sudden infant ...

  1. US health policy related to hookah tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Hopkins, Maggie; Hallett, Cynthia; Carroll, Mary V; Zeller, Mitchell; Dachille, Kathleen; Kim, Kevin H; Fine, Michael J; Donohue, Julie M

    2012-09-01

    Although US cigarette smoking is decreasing, hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) is an emerging trend associated with substantial toxicant exposure. We assessed how a representative sample of US tobacco control policies may apply to HTS. We examined municipal, county, and state legal texts applying to the 100 largest US cities. We developed a summary policy variable that distinguished among cities on the basis of how current tobacco control policies may apply to HTS and used multinomial logistic regression to determine associations between community-level sociodemographic variables and the policy outcome variable. Although 73 of the 100 largest US cities have laws that disallow cigarette smoking in bars, 69 of these cities have exemptions that allow HTS; 4 of the 69 have passed legislation specifically exempting HTS, and 65 may permit HTS via generic tobacco retail establishment exemptions. Cities in which HTS may be exempted had denser populations than cities without clean air legislation. Although three fourths of the largest US cities disallow cigarette smoking in bars, nearly 90% of these cities may permit HTS via exemptions. Closing this gap in clean air regulation may significantly reduce exposure to HTS.

  2. Tobacco smoking prevalence among in-school adolescents aged 13 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    prevalence of current smoking to be used in the evaluation of the implementation of the WHO FCTC. Methods: Survey ... capital city, Lusaka, is located. The province has four districts namely: Lusaka, Kafue, Chongwe, .... 1992), and free products (The Public Health. (Tobacco) Regulation, 1992; Health regulation-. Statutory ...

  3. Reproducibility of Reported In utero Exposure to Tobacco Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupul-Uicab, Lea A.; Ye, Xibiao; Skjaerven, Rolv; Haug, Kjell; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE In studies of the fetal origins of disease and life course epidemiology, measures of fetal exposure may be based on information reported by the adults who were exposed in utero. In particular, the full spectrum of consequences of in utero exposure to maternal tobacco smoking is now an area of active investigation, and the ability to report such exposure reproducibly is of interest. We evaluated the reproducibility of in utero exposure to tobacco smoke, reported by the adult daughter during consecutive pregnancies. METHODS This study was based on 11,257 women who enrolled for more than one pregnancy in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Participants completed a questionnaire around 17 weeks of gestation, which asked about their in utero exposure to tobacco smoke. Kappa statistics were calculated. Determinants of agreement were evaluated using logistic regression. RESULTS Weighted Kappa for in utero exposure for the first and second reports was 0.80. Determinants of agreement were higher education (better) and longer time between reports (worse). CONCLUSIONS Information on in utero exposure to maternal tobacco smoking provided by adult women was highly reproducible in this population. PMID:21130369

  4. Comparing the effects of entertainment media and tobacco marketing on youth smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, J D; Gibson, J; Heatherton, T F

    2009-02-01

    To examine the concurrent effects of exposure to movie smoking and tobacco marketing receptivity on adolescent smoking onset and progression. Cross-sectional study of 4524 northern New England adolescents aged 10-14 in 1999 with longitudinal follow-up of 2603 baseline never-smokers. Cross-sectional outcomes included ever tried smoking and higher level of lifetime smoking among 784 experimenters. The longitudinal outcome was onset of smoking among baseline never-smokers two years later. Movie smoking exposure was modelled as four population quartiles, tobacco marketing receptivity included two levels-having a favourite tobacco advert and wanting/owning tobacco promotional items. All analyses controlled for sociodemographics, other social influences, personality characteristics of the adolescent and parenting style. In the full cross-sectional sample, 17.5% had tried smoking; both exposure to movie smoking and receptivity to tobacco marketing were associated with having tried smoking. Among experimental smokers, the majority (64%) were receptive to tobacco marketing, which had a multivariate association with higher level of lifetime smoking (movie smoking did not). In the longitudinal study 9.5% of baseline never-smokers tried smoking at follow-up. Fewer never-smokers (18.5%) were receptive to tobacco marketing. Movie smoking had a multivariate association with trying smoking (receptivity to tobacco marketing did not). The results suggest separate roles for entertainment media and tobacco marketing on adolescent smoking. Both exposures deserve equal emphasis from a policy standpoint.

  5. Tobacco smoking and solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Chris; Armstrong, Matthew J; Neuberger, James

    2012-11-27

    Smoking, both by donors and by recipients, has a major impact on outcomes after organ transplantation. Recipients of smokers' organs are at greater risk of death (lungs hazard ratio [HR], 1.36; heart HR, 1.8; and liver HR, 1.25), extended intensive care stays, and greater need for ventilation. Kidney function is significantly worse at 1 year after transplantation in recipients of grafts from smokers compared with nonsmokers. Clinicians must balance the use of such higher-risk organs with the consequences on waiting list mortality if the donor pool is reduced further by exclusion of such donors. Smoking by kidney transplant recipients significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular events (29.2% vs. 15.4%), renal fibrosis, rejection, and malignancy (HR, 2.56). Furthermore, liver recipients who smoke have higher rates of hepatic artery thrombosis, biliary complications, and malignancy (13% vs. 2%). Heart recipients with a smoking history have increased risk of developing coronary atherosclerosis (21.2% vs. 12.3%), graft dysfunction, and loss after transplantation. Self-reporting of smoking is commonplace but unreliable, which limits its use as a tool for selection of transplant candidates. Despite effective counseling and pharmacotherapy, recidivism rates after transplantation remain high (10-40%). Transplant services need to be more proactive in educating and implementing effective smoking cessation strategies to reduce rates of recidivism and the posttransplantation complications associated with smoking. The adverse impact of smoking by the recipient supports the requirement for a 6-month period of abstinence in lung recipients and cessation before other solid organs.

  6. Attitudes towards smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhturidze, George D; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Aarø, Leif E; Peikrishvili, Nana T

    2013-11-25

    This study aims to provide data on a public level of support for restricting smoking in public places and banning tobacco advertisements. A nationally representative multistage sampling design, with sampling strata defined by region (sampling quotas proportional to size) and substrata defined by urban/rural and mountainous/lowland settlement, within which census enumeration districts were randomly sampled, within which households were randomly sampled, within which a randomly selected respondent was interviewed. The country of Georgia, population 4.7 million, located in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. One household member aged between 13 and 70 was selected as interviewee. In households with more than one age-eligible person, selection was carried out at random. Of 1588 persons selected, 14 refused to participate and interviews were conducted with 915 women and 659 men. Respondents were interviewed about their level of agreement with eight possible smoking restrictions/bans, used to calculate a single dichotomous (agree/do not agree) opinion indicator. The level of agreement with restrictions was analysed in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age, gender, education, income and tobacco use status. Overall, 84.9% of respondents indicated support for smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. In all demographic segments, including tobacco users, the majority of respondents indicated agreement with restrictions, ranging from a low of 51% in the 13-25 age group to a high of 98% in the 56-70 age group. Logistic regression with all demographic variables entered showed that agreement with restrictions was higher with age, and was significantly higher among never smokers as compared to daily smokers. Georgian public opinion is normatively supportive of more stringent tobacco-control measures in the form of smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans.

  7. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and respiratory tract infections in pre-school children – a cross-sectional study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Bielska

    2015-09-01

    The majority of the 3-year-old children who had lower respiratory tract infections required antibiotics and hospitalization. Living in a home where no tobacco rules were established may cause an increase of respiratory tract infections.

  8. Prevalence of Environmental Smoke Exposure in Households with Children in Jodhpur District, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Anita; Dhawan, Anju; Sethi, Hem; Mohan, Devinder

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The present study assessed the prevalence of child exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among families with smoking members. Methods: Secondary analysis was conducted on data from a survey done in Jodhpur district (Rajasthan) on substance use in 11459 households. Frequency of smoking by residents in households with children below 10…

  9. Tobacco Smoke and Ras Mutations Among Latino and Non-Latino Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Maneet; de Smith, Adam J; Selvin, Steve; Zhang, Luoping; Cunningham, Marc; Kang, Michelle W; Hansen, Helen M; Cooper, Robert M; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Wiemels, Joseph L; Metayer, Catherine

    2016-11-01

    Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a biologically heterogeneous disease, and mutations in the KRAS and NRAS oncogenes are present at diagnosis in about one-fifth of cases. Ras mutations were previously associated with environmental exposures in leukemias as well as in many other cancer types. This study examined whether Ras mutation could define a unique etiologic group of childhood ALL associated with tobacco smoke, a well-established mutagen and carcinogen. We included 670 children with ALL enrolled in a case-control study in California (1995-2013), including 50.6% Latinos. Parental and child exposure to tobacco smoke was obtained from interviews. Sanger sequencing was used to detect the common KRAS and NRAS hotspot mutations in diagnostic bone marrow DNA. ALL cases were also characterized for common chromosome abnormalities. In case-case analyses, logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios to describe the association between tobacco smoke exposure and childhood ALL with Ras mutations. KRAS or NRAS mutations were detected in ∼18% of children diagnosed with ALL. Ras mutations were more common among Latino cases compared with non-Latino whites and in high-hyperdiploid ALL. No associations were observed between parental smoking or child's passive exposure to smoke and Ras positive ALL. The apparent lack of association between tobacco smoke and Ras mutation in childhood ALL suggests that Ras mutations do not specifically define a tobacco-related etiologic pathway. Reasons for racial and ethnic differences in ALL are not well understood and could reflect differences in etiology that warrant further examination. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tobacco withdrawal symptoms mediate motivation to reinstate smoking during abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Claudia G; Madrid, Jillian; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-08-01

    Withdrawal-based theories of addiction hypothesize that motivation to reinstate drug use following acute abstinence is mediated by withdrawal symptoms. Experimental tests of this hypothesis in the tobacco literature are scant and may be subject to methodological limitations. This study utilized a robust within-subject laboratory experimental design to investigate the extent to which composite tobacco withdrawal symptomatology level and 3 unique withdrawal components (i.e., low positive affect, negative affect, and urge to smoke) mediated the effect of smoking abstinence on motivation to reinstate smoking. Smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day; N = 286) attended 2 counterbalanced sessions at which abstinence duration was differentially manipulated (1 hr vs. 17 hr). At both sessions, participants reported current withdrawal symptoms and subsequently completed a task in which they were monetarily rewarded proportional to the length of time they delayed initiating smoking, with shorter latency reflecting stronger motivation to reinstate smoking. Abstinence reduced latency to smoking initiation and positive affect and increased composite withdrawal symptom level, urge, and negative affect. Abstinence-induced reductions in latency to initiating smoking were mediated by each withdrawal component, with stronger effects operating through urge. Combined analyses suggested that urge, negative affect, and low positive affect operate through empirically unique mediational pathways. Secondary analyses suggested similar effects on smoking quantity, few differences among specific urge and affect subtypes, and that dependence amplifies some abstinence effects. This study provides the first experimental evidence that within-person variation in abstinence impacts motivation to reinstate drug use through withdrawal. Urge, negative affect, and low positive affect may reflect unique withdrawal-mediated mechanisms underlying tobacco addiction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. The Fate of Maleic Hydrazide on Tobacco during Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco mainstream smoke (MSS and sidestream smoke (SSS, butts, and ashes from commercial cigarettes and maleic hydrazide (MH spiked cigarettes were analyzed for their MH contents. The MH transfer rates obtained for MSS ranged from 1.4% to 3.7%, for SSS ranged from 0.2% to 0.9%, and for butts ranged from 1.1% to 1.9%. And as expected, MH is absent in ashes. The transfer rate of MH into mainstream smoke is the top one during in transfer rate into main-stream, side-stream, ashes, and butts, and higher MH levels lead to more MH in smoke. Further, analysis of total MH in butts and ashes along with that in MSS and SSS indicates that much MH is destructed during the smoking process.

  12. State-level tobacco control and adult smoking rate in the United States: an ecological analysis of structural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Christopher P; Pratte, Morgan A

    2013-01-01

    A variety of population-level tobacco control measures (TCMs) exist, such as excise taxation, smoking restrictions, cessation program funding, counter-advertising, and restrictions on tobacco marketing. Several factors may contribute to often-suboptimal levels of implementation of TCMs at the state level. To use the American Lung Association (ALA) grading framework to assess impacts of TCMs and to explore relationships between environmental factors and level of implementation of TCMs as rated by the ALA. Secondary data analysis of publicly available data, using linear regression to examine relative effects of state TCMs on adult smoking rates and the extent to which environmental factors influence the strength of each TCM in states. The 50 US states, excluding territories, districts, and possessions. Cigarette excise taxes, state-level tobacco control expenditures relative to Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations, smoking restrictions, and support for smoking cessation by state Medicaid programs. Adult smoking rate in each state for 2010; strength of TCMs as measured by the ALA. The ALA smokefree score (β = -.045, P = .005) and tax rate per pack (β = -1.205, P = .019) were significant negative predictors of state adult smoking rates in 2010. Percentage of seats in lower houses of state legislatures held by Republicans was significant in predicting tax per pack (β = -.032, P smoking restrictions have the most immediate statewide impacts on smoking rate. Probusiness/antitax politics and tobacco manufacturing affect level of implementation of these and other effective TCMs.

  13. Urinary cotinine levels and environmental tobacco smoke in mothers and children of Romania, Portugal and Poland within the European human biomonitoring pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupsa, Ioana-Rodica; Nunes, Baltazar; Ligocka, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore data from the DEMOCOPHES study population for Romania, Portugal and Poland, in order to assess smoking patterns and the extent of ETS exposure and compare the national study samples with reference to the respective anti-smoking laws. The subset of the DEMOCOPH...

  14. Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Mehrotra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ware G Kuschner, Sunayana Reddy, Nidhi Mehrotra, Harman S PaintalDivision of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: Primary care providers should be aware of two new developments in nicotine addiction and smoking cessation: 1 the emergence of a novel nicotine delivery system known as the electronic (e- cigarette; and 2 new reports of residual environmental nicotine and other biopersistent toxicants found in cigarette smoke, recently described as “thirdhand smoke”. The purpose of this article is to provide a clinician-friendly introduction to these two emerging issues so that clinicians are well prepared to counsel smokers about newly recognized health concerns relevant to tobacco use. E-cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert nicotine into a vapor that can be inhaled. The World Health Organization has termed these devices electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS. The vapors from ENDS are complex mixtures of chemicals, not pure nicotine. It is unknown whether inhalation of the complex mixture of chemicals found in ENDS vapors is safe. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are effective treatment for nicotine addiction. ENDS are not approved as smoking cessation devices. Primary care givers should anticipate being questioned by patients about the advisability of using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation device. The term thirdhand smoke first appeared in the medical literature in 2009 when investigators introduced the term to describe residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Thirdhand smoke is a hazardous exposure resulting from cigarette smoke residue that accumulates in cars, homes, and other indoor spaces. Tobacco-derived toxicants can react to form potent cancer causing compounds. Exposure to thirdhand smoke can occur through the skin, by breathing, and by ingestion long after smoke has cleared from a room

  15. Catalytic Reduction of NO and NOx Content in Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetkovic N

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the nitric oxide (NO and nitrogen oxides (NO content in mainstream tobacco smoke, a new class of catalyst based on Cu-ZSM-5 zeolite has been synthesized. The effectiveness of the new catalyst (degree of reduction and specific catalytic ability was tested both by adding Cu-ZSM-5 zeolite directly to the tobacco blend and by addition to the filter. We have determined that adding the catalyst to the tobacco blend does not cause any changes in the physical, chemical or organoleptic properties of the cigarette blend. But, the addition reduces the yield of nitrogen oxides while having no influence on nicotine and “tar” content in the tobacco smoke of the modified blend. The catalyst addition increases the static burning rate (SBR. The changes in the quantity of NO and NOmay be explained by changes in burning conditions due to the increase of Oobtained from catalytic degradation of NO and NO, and adsorptive and diffusive properties of the catalyst. The changes in mainstream smoke analytes are also given on a puff-by-puff basis.

  16. Tobacco intervention teachable moments for pediatric otolaryngologists: atopy and second hand smoke exposure among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csákányi, Zsuzsanna; Spangler, John; Katona, Gábor

    2014-03-01

    Pediatric otolaryngology clinics have tremendous access to children with allergic conditions, yet no research has evaluated in this setting environmental tobacco smoke and the occurrence of atopic diseases. Caregivers or parents of 201 consecutive patients in a Hungarian pediatric otolaryngology clinic were queried on otolaryngologic conditions; self-reported diagnoses of atopic diseases; and tobacco smoke exposure. A history of asthma was reported in 10.3% of children; 38.7% had at least one parent who smoked. Fifteen out of the 20 children with asthma (75.0%) had at least one parent who smoked. Having a diagnosis of hay fever and having a parent who smoked greatly increased the odds of having a diagnosis of asthma. Second hand smoke exposure among children in an otolaryngology clinic was common, and was associated with co-existing atopic conditions. Pediatric otolaryngologists have an important opportunity to address parental smoking as part their care of children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: what is the evidence that it supports nicotine/tobacco dependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboaziza, Eiman; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) involves passing tobacco smoke through water prior to inhalation, and has spread worldwide. This spread becomes a public health concern if it is associated with tobacco-caused disease and if WTS supports tobacco/nicotine dependence. A growing literature demonstrates that WTS is associated with disability, disease and death. This narrative review examines if WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence, and is intended to help guide tobacco control efforts worldwide. Data sources PUBMED search using: ((“waterpipe” or “narghile” or “arghile” or “shisha” or “goza” or “narkeela” or “hookah” or “hubble bubble”)) AND (“dependence” or “addiction”). Study selection Excluded were articles not in English, without original data, and that were not topic-related. Thirty-two articles were included with others identified by inspecting reference lists and other sources. Data synthesis WTS and the delivery of the dependence-producing drug nicotine were examined, and then the extent to which the articles addressed WTS-induced nicotine/dependence explicitly, as well as implicitly with reference to criteria for dependence outlined by the WHO. Conclusions WTS supports nicotine/tobacco dependence because it is associated with nicotine delivery, and because some smokers experience withdrawal when they abstain from waterpipe, alter their behaviour in order to access a waterpipe and have difficulty quitting, even when motivated to do so. There is a strong need to support research investigating measurement of WTS-induced tobacco dependence, to inform the public of the risks of WTS, which include dependence, disability, disease and death, and to include WTS in the same public health policies that address tobacco cigarettes. PMID:25492935

  18. 76 FR 50226 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... harmful constituents, including smoke constituents, to health in each tobacco product by brand and by quantity in each brand and subbrand.'' Section 904(e) of the FD&C Act also requires that FDA ``publish a... remove constituents. On June 10, 2010, FDA announced the availability for public comment of a draft...

  19. Tobacco smoking-response genes in blood and buccal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Minju; Chang, Seong-Sil; Kim, Soo-Young; Park, Jong Y; Chung, Myeon Woo; Yang, Mihi

    2015-01-22

    Tobacco smoking is a well-known cause of various diseases, however, its toxic mechanisms for diseases are not completely understood, yet. Therefore, we performed biological monitoring to find tobacco smoking-responsive mechanisms including oxidative stress in Korean men (N=36). Whole genome microarray analyses were performed with peripheral blood from smokers and age-matched nonsmokers. We also performed qRT-PCR to confirm the microarray results and compared the gene expression of blood to those of buccal cells. To assess the effects of tobacco smoking on oxidative stress, we analyzed urinary levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, and performed PCR-based arrays on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes. As results, 34 genes were differently expressed in blood between smokers and nonsmokers (ps1.5-fold change). Particularly, the genes involved in immune responsive pathways, e.g., the Fcγ-receptor mediated phagocytosis and the leukocyte transendothelial migration pathways, were differentially expressed between smokers and nonsmokers. Among the above genes, the ACTG1, involved in the maintenance of actin cytoskeleton, cell migration and cancer metastasis, was highly expressed by smoking in both blood and buccal cells. Concerning oxidative stress, smokers showed high levels of urinary MDA and down-regulation of expressions of antioxidant related genes including TPO, MPO, GPX2, PTGR1, and NUDT1 as compared to nonsmokers (pssmoking-responsive biomarker. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tobacco smoking: From 'glamour' to 'stigma'. A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldelli-Maia, João Mauricio; Ventriglio, Antonio; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review, we explore the history of tobacco smoking, its associations and portrayal of its use with luxury and glamour in the past, and intriguingly, its subsequent transformation into a mass consumption industrialized product encouraged by advertising and film. Then, we describe the next phase where tobacco in parts of the world has become an unwanted product. However, the number of smokers is still increasing, especially in new markets, and increasingly younger individuals are being attracted to it, despite the well-known health consequences of tobacco use. We also explore current smoking behaviors, looking at trends in the prevalence of consumption throughout the world, discrimination against smokers, light and/or intermittent smokers, and the electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We place these changes in the context of neuroscience, which may help explain why the cognitive effects of smoking can be important reinforcers for its consumption despite strong anti-smoking pressure in Western countries. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2015 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  1. Genomic biomarkers of pulmonary exposure to tobacco smoke components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Keith; Balharry, Dominique; BéruBé, Kelly A

    2008-10-01

    Associations between smoking and the development of tobacco-related diseases in humans have historically been assessed by epidemiological studies. These studies are further complicated by the number of chemicals used in tobacco and individual smoking habits. An alternative approach is required to assess the biological responses. Toxicogenomics was carried out to identify early molecular markers for events in pulmonary injury resulting from tobacco smoke components (TSC) exposure. EpiAirway-100 cells were exposed at the air/liquid interface to representative particle (nicotine; cadmium) and vapour phase [formaldehyde (FA) and ethyl carbamate] components of cigarette smoke. Microarray technology was used to compare expression profiles of human genes associated with toxicity and drug resistance, from control and TSC-treated respiratory epithelium (n=5/dose). Using the GEArray 'toxicology and drug resistance' microarray followed by significance analysis of microarray analysis, 42 mRNA transcripts were found to be significantly altered by the TSC exposure. The vapour [ethyl carbamate, FA and particle (nicotine, cadmium)] phase TSC exhibited differential transcriptional responses that could not be attributed to their chemical phase. The transcriptional changes could be classified according to a functional family, where ethyl carbamate, FA and cadmium classified as carcinogens, demonstrated the highest gene homology when compared with the noncarcinogen, nicotine. Analysis of the microarray data and further confirmation (reverse transcriptase-PCR) identified three potential biomarkers for TSC-induced injury. These three genes (CYP7A1, HMOX1 and PTGS1) are highly upregulated and have been linked with mechanistic pathways of disease.

  2. Tobacco smoking – popularity and main trends on research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Bartoń

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year smoking leads to the premature death of over 5 million people around the world. However, the tobacco industry took actions like introducing cigarettes which contain less nicotine and tar aimed at not only maintaining the old clientele, but also attracting a new one. The knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking became widespread in the second half of the 20th century and changed attitudes towards smoking. In recent years, in many markets in the world a new device representing an alternative to tobacco products was introduced. Electronic cigarettes are designed to deliver nicotine into the respiratory system in the form of an aerosol. They have been gaining more and more popularity, as evidenced by the increase in the percentage of users as well as in the numbers of publications about them. Currently, opinions are divided and the e-cigarette has almost as many supporters as opponents. All this resembles the situation concerning conventional cigarettes in the 20th century. The aim of the study is to gather the most significant information concerning, on the one hand, the spreading popularity of tobacco smoking and, on the other, the research topics undertaken by contemporary scientists, as well as the government actions meant to protect from dangers of nicotine addiction in the 20th and 21st century. New developments of products containing this highly addictive substance call for systematic research in the interest of public health.

  3. The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Elliott

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactant are the first body tissues to be directly exposed to the many thousands of toxic chemicals in tobacco. Considering the vast surface area of the lung and the extreme attenuation of the blood-air barrier, it is not surprising that this organ is the primary route for exposure, not just to smoke but to most environmental contaminants. Recent research has shown that the pulmonary surfactant, a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, is the first site of defense against particulates or gas components of smoke. However, it is not clear what effect smoke has on the surfactant. Most studies have demonstrated that smoking reduces bronchoalveolar lavage phospholipid levels. Some components of smoke also appear to have a direct detergent-like effect on the surfactant while others appear to alter cycling or secretion. Ultimately these effects are reflected in changes in the dynamics of the surfactant system and, clinically in changes in lung mechanics. Similarly, exposure of the developing fetal lung through maternal smoking results in postnatal alterations in lung mechanics and higher incidents of wheezing and coughing. Direct exposure of developing lung to nicotine induces changes suggestive of fetal stress. Furthermore, identification of nicotinic receptors in fetal lung airways and corresponding increases in airway connective tissue support a possible involvement of nicotine in postnatal asthma development. Finally, at the level of the alveoli of the lung

  4. The relationship between secondhand smoke exposure, pro-tobacco social influences, and smoking susceptibility among nonsmoking Zambian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel Terungwa; Maliselo, Tino; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A

    2015-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the extent of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among nonsmoking adolescents would be associated with their overall exposure to pro-tobacco social influences. Data were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate methods from the 2011 Zambia Global Youth Tobacco Survey. The odds of SHS exposure increased with increasing exposure to pro-tobacco advertisements. About 39.5% of the gap in SHS exposure between nonsmokers with low versus high smoking susceptibility was attributable to differences in parental or peer smoking. Sustained efforts are needed to denormalize tobacco use in order to reduce youth susceptibility to tobacco use.

  5. The Chemical Components Identified in Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke Prior to 1954: A Chronology of Classical Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgman A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the excellent fractionation and identification technologies developed during the early-1950s, the compositions of tobacco and tobacco smoke, both classified as highly complex mixtures, have been defined more completely than the composition of any other highly complex commercial product such as coffee. By year-end 1953, the many years of research by scientists using classical chemical techniques to define the composition of tobacco and its smoke provided meaningful information on the nature of over 300 tobacco components and fewer than 100 tobacco smoke components. Those involved in the pre-1954 research not only provided the cornerstone of our knowledge of the two compositions but also deserve the gratitude of their successors for the early information generated on tobacco and its smoke. This article is our tribute to those researchers who generated much meaningful knowledge on the composition of tobacco and tobacco smoke prior to 1954 despite the now known fractionation and analytical limitations of the so-called classical chemical techniques. It also notes the similarity of some of the early and more recent research results obtained on the chemical and biological properties of smoke condensate and several of its components from tobacco with those obtained by Roffo in the 1930s on a destructive distillate of tobacco.

  6. Exposición al humo de tabaco en hogares de la Ciudad de México: análisis de nicotina ambiental y en cabello de niños y mujeres Environmental tobacco smoke exposure in homes of Mexico City: analysis of environmental samples and children and women hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutiérrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: En México no se han efectuado evaluaciones de la exposición al humo de tabaco ambiental en los hogares ni en sus habitantes. El objetivo de este estudio es cuantificar los niveles de nicotina ambiental en hogares de la Ciudad de México, evaluando simultáneamente los niveles de nicotina en el cabello de niños y mujeres. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En julio de 2005 se seleccionaron 41 hogares de la Ciudad de México a conveniencia, 20% sin fumadores y 80% con fumadores. Se colocaron monitores pasivos de nicotina en los hogares por una semana y se obtuvieron muestras de cabello de mujeres no fumadoras y niños para cuantificar nicotina. Las muestras fueron enviadas a la Universidad Johns Hopkins, donde la nicotina se extrajo y analizó con cromatografía de gases. De manera adicional, se aplicaron encuestas de opinión y conductas relacionadas con el humo de tabaco ambiental. RESULTADOS: Las concentraciones de nicotina ambiental tuvieron una mediana de 0.08 µg/m³ (RIC 0.01-0.64, en el cabello de los niños 0.05 ng/mg (RIC 0.05-0.29 y en el cabello de las mujeres 0.05 ng/mg (RIC 0.05-0.19. Las concentraciones de nicotina ambiental y en el cabello de los niños mostraron una correlación alta (rS=0.49, y se incrementó con el número de fumadores en el hogar. La mayoría de los encuestados apoya las medidas de control del humo de tabaco ambiental. CONCLUSIONES: Se observaron grados particularmente altos de exposición en niños atribuibles a la presencia de nicotina ambiental en el hogar. Deben implementarse acciones preventivas integrales para eliminar el tabaquismo activo y evitar el consumo de tabaco en el hogar.OBJECTIVE: In Mexico no evaluation of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in homes or habitants has been conducted. The objective of this study is to quantify environmental nicotine in Mexico City homes, simultaneously evaluating nicotine levels in children and women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In July 2005 a convenience sample of 41

  7. Smoke free families: a tobacco control program for pregnant women and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletsch, Pamela K; Morgan, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Tobacco use during pregnancy continues to cause health problems for women and children. Nurses can facilitate smoking cessation during pregnancy through the use of tobacco control guidelines and counseling tailored to pregnant women. In this article, the Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: Clinical Practice Guideline is reviewed; the Smoke Free Families program, which is tailored for pregnancy, stage matched, and includes second-hand smoke control assistance, is described; and two models for integrating smoking cessation counseling into prenatal services are offered.

  8. The tobacco industry’s past role in weight control related to smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Gonseth, S.; Jacot-Sadowski, I; Diethelm, P.A.; Barras, V.; Cornuz, J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is thought to produce an appetite-suppressing effect by many smokers. Thus, the fear of body weight gain often outweighs the perception of health benefits associated with smoking cessation, particularly in adolescents. We examined whether the tobacco industry played a role in appetite and body weight control related to smoking and smoking cessation. METHODS: We performed a systematic search within the archives of six major US and UK tobacco companies (American Tobacco, ...

  9. Pulmonary toxicity of chronic exposure to tobacco and biomass smoke in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dogan, Omer Tamer; Elagoz, Sahande; Ozsahin, Sefa Levent; Epozturk, Kursat; Tuncer, Ersin; Akkurt, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the separate and combined effects of tobacco and biomass smoke exposure on pulmonary histopathology in rats. INTRODUCTION: In addition to smoking, indoor pollution in developing countries contributes to the development of respiratory diseases. METHODS: Twenty-eight adult rats were divided into four groups as follows: control group (Group I, no exposure to tobacco or biomass smoke), exposed to tobacco smoke (Group II), exposed to biomass sm...

  10. In-utero exposure to maternal smoking is not linked to tobacco use in adulthood after controlling for genetic and family influences: a Swedish sibling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Mina; Granath, Fredrik; Cnattingius, Sven; Magnusson, Cecilia; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have linked maternal smoking during pregnancy with regular tobacco use in offspring, but findings are not consistent and confounding from genetic and environmental factors have not fully been taken into account. A comparison between siblings discordant for prenatal smoking exposure adjusts for confounding by shared familial (i.e., genetic and environmental) factors. We investigated the association between prenatal exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of regular smoking or snus (Swedish moist smokeless tobacco) use in young adult offspring, using a population based matched cohort study. The cohort consisted of 1,538 randomly sampled same-sex sibling pairs, discordant for maternal smoking during pregnancy, 19-27 years old, participating in a survey conducted in Sweden 2010-2011. Lifetime and current history of tobacco use was self-reported in the survey, and information about maternal smoking during pregnancy was retrieved from the Medical Birth Register. Conditional logistic regression and stratified Cox proportional hazards regression were used to calculate odds ratios, hazard ratios, and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Analyses of exposure-discordant siblings did not reveal significant associations between prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and lifetime or current daily tobacco use, intensity of use, or time to onset of daily tobacco use. These findings suggest that the previously reported higher risks of tobacco use in offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy, compared with offspring of non-smoking mothers, were likely due to confounding from genetic or environmental factors.

  11. Electronic cigarette aerosol induces significantly less cytotoxicity than tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, David; Patel, Kharishma; Jaunky, Tomasz; Santopietro, Simone; Camacho, Oscar M.; McAughey, John; Gaça, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are a potential means of addressing the harm to public health caused by tobacco smoking by offering smokers a less harmful means of receiving nicotine. As e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, there are limited scientific data on the longer-term health effects of their use. This study describes a robust in vitro method for assessing the cytotoxic response of e-cigarette aerosols that can be effectively compared with conventional cigarette smoke. This was measured using the regulatory accepted Neutral Red Uptake assay modified for air–liquid interface (ALI) exposures. An exposure system, comprising a smoking machine, traditionally used for in vitro tobacco smoke exposure assessments, was adapted for use with e-cigarettes to expose human lung epithelial cells at the ALI. Dosimetric analysis methods using real-time quartz crystal microbalances for mass, and post-exposure chemical analysis for nicotine, were employed to detect/distinguish aerosol dilutions from a reference Kentucky 3R4F cigarette and two commercially available e-cigarettes (Vype eStick and ePen). ePen aerosol induced 97%, 94% and 70% less cytotoxicity than 3R4F cigarette smoke based on matched EC50 values at different dilutions (1:5 vs. 1:153 vol:vol), mass (52.1 vs. 3.1 μg/cm2) and nicotine (0.89 vs. 0.27 μg/cm2), respectively. Test doses where cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol cytotoxicity were observed are comparable with calculated daily doses in consumers. Such experiments could form the basis of a larger package of work including chemical analyses, in vitro toxicology tests and clinical studies, to help assess the safety of current and next generation nicotine and tobacco products. PMID:27690199

  12. 'A real man smells of tobacco smoke'--Chinese youth's interpretation of smoking imagery in film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Gareth; Zhao, Xiang

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies have associated youth's exposure to filmic images of smoking with real-life smoking acquisition; initial research in low- and middle-income countries confirms this relationship. The present study in Yunnan, southwest China sought answers to the following questions: How do young people in China make sense of smoking imagery they have seen in film? How are these perceptions shaped by the cultural and social context of images? How do these understandings relate to real-life tobacco use? A study with focus groups and grounded theory was conducted in 2010 and 2011 (Sept-Jan) with middle-school students ages 12 and 13 (n=68, focus groups=12, schools=6). Films and media literacy were important means through which knowledge about smoking was constructed and communicated. Film representations of smoking concurred with Chinese social behaviour (Confucian social networks, face-making, and the notion of society as a harmonious social unit), and were interpreted as congruent with real-life smoking. This pattern, in turn, was intertwined with perceived gender identities of smokers, gender-specific social behaviour, and willingness of girls to explore issues of gender equity. These findings lend new insights into interaction between smoking imagery in film and Chinese youth's smoking beliefs. Tobacco control programs in China should consider young people's interpretations of smoking and the ways they are nested in cultural and social milieu. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceived effects of the Malaysian National Tobacco Control Programme on adolescent smoking cessation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohid, Hizlinda; Ishak, Noriah Mohd; Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Ahmad, Farah Naaz Momtaz; Aziz, Abdul Anis Ezdiana; Omar, Khairani

    2012-04-01

    The prevalence of teenage smoking has decreased over the past decade following the implementation of the national tobacco control programme. However, the effect of the programme on smoking cessation in teenagers has not been determined. Twenty-eight participants (12 teenagers, 8 teachers, and 8 doctors) were interviewed using 5 in-depth interviews and 3 group discussions. Social cognitive theory (SCT) was applied as the theoretical framework. Semi-structured interview protocols were used, and thematic analysis and analytic generalisation utilising SCT were performed. The current national tobacco control programme was found to be ineffective in promoting smoking cessation among teenagers. The participants attributed the ineffective campaign to the followings: inadequacy of message content, lack of exposure to the programme, and poor presentation and execution. In addition, the participants perceived the developed tobacco control policies to be a failure based on poor law enforcement, failure of retailers to comply with the law, social availability of cigarettes to teenagers, and easy availability of cheap, smuggled cigarettes. This study highlighted that the programme-related problems (environmental factors) were not the only factors contributing to its perceived ineffectiveness. The cunning behaviour of the teenagers (personal factor) and poor self-efficacy to overcome nicotine addiction (behavioural factor) were also found to hinder cessation. Tobacco control programmes should include strategies beyond educating teenagers about smoking and restricting their access to cigarettes. Strategies to manage the cunning behaviour of teenagers and strategies to improve their self-efficacy should also be implemented. These comprehensive programmes should have a foundation in SCT, as this theory demonstrates the complex interactions among the environmental, personal, and behavioural factors that influence teenage smoking.

  14. Interaction between filaggrin null mutations and tobacco smoking in relation to asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nikolaj Drimer; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk

    2012-01-01

    between FLG deficiency and environmental exposures play a role in asthma development. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate possible interactions between FLG null mutations and tobacco smoking in relation to asthma. METHODS: A total of 3471 adults from a general population sample participated in a health...... examination. Lung function and serum specific IgE levels to inhalant allergens were measured, and information on asthma and smoking was obtained by means of questionnaire. Participants were genotyped for the 2 most common FLG null mutations in white subjects: R501X and 2282del4. Another Danish population...

  15. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennen, Els; Nagelhout, Gera E; van den Putte, Bas; Janssen, Eva; Mons, Ute; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; de Vries, Hein; Thrasher, James F; Willemsen, Marc C

    2014-02-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and Germany were used from two survey waves of the longitudinal International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys. Associations were examined of aspects of social unacceptability of smoking (i.e. feeling uncomfortable, important people disapproval and societal disapproval) with tobacco policy awareness (i.e. awareness of warning labels, anti-tobacco information and smoking restrictions at work) and smoking cessation. Only the positive association of awareness of anti-tobacco information with feeling uncomfortable about smoking was significant in each of the three countries. Important people disapproval predicted whether smokers attempted to quit, although this did not reach significance in the French and German samples in multivariate analyses. Our findings suggest that anti-tobacco information campaigns about the dangers of second-hand smoke in France and about smoking cessation in the Netherlands and Germany might have reduced the social acceptability of smoking in these countries. However, campaigns that influence the perceived disapproval of smoking by important people may be needed to ultimately increase attempts to quit smoking.

  16. The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

    2009-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

  17. Formation of Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke; Part 1, FTC Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu SC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This report evaluates the formation of nitrosonornicotine (NNN and of 4-(methyl-nitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK from nicotine, and of NNN from nornicotine in the mainstream smoke of a burning cigarette. The cigarettes analyzed in the study were Kentucky reference cigarettes 1R4F and 2R4F, and five other cigarettes, three of them having tobaccos with low levels of tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs. All cigarettes had ‘tar’ levels around 10 mg [where ‘tar’ is defined as the weight of total wet particulate matter (TPM minus the weight of nicotine and water]. Cigarettes were smoked according to the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC puffing regimen, using a 35 mL puff volume, 2 sec puff duration and 60 sec puff intervals. Three separate experiments were performed in this study to evaluate the proportion of TSNAs transferred from preexistent tobacco TSNAs and the proportion formed during smoking (pyrosynthesized. In one experiment, the results were obtained by GC/MS analysis of 13C3-TSNAs formed in smoke when 13C3-nicotine was intentionally added to cigarettes. Another experiment used GC analysis with chemiluminescence detection of TSNAs from smoke before and after an excess of nornicotine was intentionally added to cigarettes, and another experiment consisted of LC/MS/MS analysis of 2H4-TSNAs formed in the smoke when 2H4-nicotine and when 2H4-nornicotine were intentionally added to cigarettes. The use of different analytical methods for the study of TSNA formation conveyed an additional level of confidence regarding the reliability of the results obtained. It was found that NNK was generated during smoking from nicotine with 3 × 10-5% to 8 × 10-5% conversion (0.3 ppm to 0.8 ppm conversion of the nicotine while the result for NNN generation was not conclusive. One experiment demonstrated the formation of NNN from nicotine between 4 × 10-5% and 1.5 × 10-4% (0.4 ppm to 1.5 ppm reported to nicotine, but another experiment did not

  18. The assessment of status of tobacco smoking among urban primary schoolchildren in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razanamihaja, Noeline; Makino, Yuka; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Noriaki; Miyazaki, Hideo

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of tobacco smoking among adolescents aged 13-15 years old in Madagascar was previously reported to be higher than the average in other African regions. A preventive approach is urgently needed to avoid the initiation of early tobacco smoking. Therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate the status of tobacco smoking among primary schoolchildren in Madagascar and explore the factors associated with initiation of tobacco smoking in the young. This study was conducted in the Mahajanga region of Madagascar. Three primary schools in this region and children of both genders between the ages of nine to 12 years old were randomly selected and approached to participate in this study. A self-administered questionnaire modified from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey Core Questionnaire 2007 was used to assess the status of tobacco smoking among primary schoolchildren. A total of 150 schoolchildren (14.0%) declared that they had smoked tobacco, with 30% starting to smoke tobacco at the age of seven or younger. The prevalence of tobacco smoking was lower among schoolchildren with non-smoking parents (p Madagascar may be influenced by peers, or parents, as well as smoking intention and knowledge about the harmfulness of tobacco use. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Tobacco smoking and risk of hip fracture in men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høidrup, S; Prescott, E; Sørensen, T I

    2000-01-01

    to tobacco smoking. CONCLUSION: Tobacco smoking is an independent risk factor for hip fracture in men and women, and there appears to be no gender differences in smoking related risk. Smoking cessation reduces the risk of hip fracture in men after 5 years, while the deleterious effect of smoking seems......BACKGROUND: Previous findings suggest that tobacco smoking increases the risk of hip fracture in women. A similar adverse effect of smoking is suspected to be present in men, but bone mineral density studies have raised the concern that men may be more sensitive to the deleterious effect of smoking...... on bone than women. In this study we prospectively determined the influence of current, previous, and cumulative smoking history on risk of hip fracture in men and women and addressed the issue of possible gender difference in the susceptibility to tobacco smoking. METHODS: Pooled data from three...

  20. Menthol cigarettes and smoking initiation: a tobacco industry perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine what the tobacco industry knew about menthol cigarettes and the initiation of smoking. Methods Based on Food and Drug Administration staff-supplied research questions we used a snowball sampling strategy to search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between February and April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. Researchers reviewed 2634 documents and 128 were deemed relevant to one or more of the research questions. Results The documents show that menthol is added to cigarettes in part because it is known to be an attractive feature to inexperienced smokers who perceive menthol cigarettes as less harsh and easier to smoke and because of their availability from friends and family. Second, the tobacco industry found that some youths smoke menthols because they perceive them to be less harmful than non-menthol cigarettes. A key product design issue concerns whether to increase brand menthol levels to appeal to the taste preferences of long-term menthol smokers or keep menthol levels lower to appeal to inexperienced smokers. Marketing studies showed that the companies carefully researched the menthol segment of the market in order to recruit younger smokers to their brands. The industry tracked menthol cigarette usage by age, gender and race to inform product development and marketing decisions. Conclusions Menthol is a prominent design feature used by cigarette manufacturers to attract and retain new, younger smokers. PMID:21504927

  1. Current genetics and epigenetics of smoking/tobacco-related cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling, Lutz P

    2013-07-01

    Genetic and epigenetic factors are of great importance in cardiovascular biology and disease. Tobacco-smoking, one of the most important cardiovascular risk factors, is itself partially determined by genetic background and is associated with altered epigenetic patterns. This could render the genetics and epigenetics of smoking-related cardiovascular disease a textbook example of environmental epigenetics and modern approaches to multimodal data analysis. A pronounced association of smoking-related methylation patterns in the F2RL3 gene with prognosis in patients with stable coronary heart disease has recently been described. Nonetheless, surprisingly little concrete knowledge on the role of specific genetic variants and epigenetic modifications in the development of cardiovascular diseases in people who smoke has been accumulated. Beyond the current knowledge, the present review briefly outlines some chief challenges and priorities for moving forward in this field.

  2. Role of tobacco smoking in hangover symptoms among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristina M; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Piasecki, Thomas M; Howland, Jonathan; Richardson, Alison E

    2013-01-01

    Although hangover results from excessive alcohol consumption, the specific pathways through which hangover symptoms arise have not been elucidated. Research on predictors of hangover sensitivity may provide clues about such mechanisms. The present study investigated whether tobacco smoking on days of heavy drinking affects next-day hangover incidence and severity. The study drew on diary data from a study on smoking and drinking among 113 students at a midwestern university in the United States. Participants completed a daily, web-based, 26-item survey for 8 weeks to assess prior-day alcohol and tobacco use as well as current-day hangover symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test the hypothesis that amount of smoking is related to hangover, controlling for amount of alcohol consumed, sex, and other individual characteristics. Analyses were conducted after selecting only days with alcohol consumption levels that typically elicit hangover, then repeated on lighter drinking days for comparison. Validity of the hangover items was checked by comparing reports after such heavy drinking days with days of lighter drinking. Across all possible person-days, 92% of daily reports were obtained. When selecting only events where an estimated blood alcohol concentration of 110 mg/dl was attained, smoking significantly increased the odds of hangover incidence and hangover severity while controlling for number of drinks consumed and sex. Additional analyses controlling for age first smoked regularly, frequency of drug use, type of drug involvement, or smoking status resulted in findings that were unchanged. Smoking more on heavy drinking days affects hangover sensitivity and severity, possibly because of acute pharmacological effects.

  3. Disparities in exposure to tobacco smoke pollution at Romanian worksites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Differences in the risk of being exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS in the workplace may occur not only between countries, but also within a country among socio-economic groups. [b]Objectives. [/b]The aim of the study was to examine the associations of exposure to SHS at worksites with selected factors in non-smoking Romanian employees. [b]Material and Methods[/b]. Data on exposure to SHS at worksites and other characteristics of respondents came from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. GATS is a nationally representative household survey of adults 15 years of age or older, using a standard protocol. [b]Results[/b]. Among 4,517 respondents who completed the questionnaire there were 1,333 subjects, including 859 non-smokers who worked in an indoor area outside the home. The prevalence of exposure to SHS was 31.2% among non-smoking male and 23.9% among non-smoking female employees (p<0.05. Employees with primary education had odds of exposure to SHS at work nearly twice as high, compared to the respondents having high education attainment (OR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–2.9. Moreover, exposure to SHS at worksites was significantly associated with a low level of support for tobacco control policies among workers (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2–2.8. [b]Conclusions[/b]. In spite of the increasing presence of smoking bans in public and workplaces, enforcement still seems to be unsuccessful in the occupational space in Romania. In order to reduce SHS exposure in workplaces, strengthening support for tobacco control policies is essential.

  4. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitude, Social Pressure, and Environmental Constraints among New Undergraduates in Chongqing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Li, Bing; Wang, Pengfei; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking has resulted in numerous deaths in China. Data indicate that 21% of college students in China are smokers. Objective: This study aimed to examine the smoking-related behaviors of undergraduates, as influenced by knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints. Method: A convenience sampling of 412 fresh undergraduates from two universities in the University Town in Chongqing, China was recruited. Chi-square tests were used to compare the smoking-related variables between smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, logistic regression was used to examine the factors that associated with smoking status in undergraduates. Results: Smokers and non-smokers differ in terms of knowledge, attitudes toward smoking, participation in tobacco promotional activities, and sources of social pressure. Logistic regression model identified that sex, living cost, five smoking-related attitudes of “Smoking is pleasurable, Smoking relaxes me, Smoking makes me look strong, Smoking is a waste of money, Smoking can help me study better”, the social pressure “Smoking brings comfort during celebration”, and the environmental constraints “How did you get your cigarettes in the past 30 days?” are significantly associated with smoking. Conclusions: The findings provide a better understanding of the epidemic of smoking among fresh undergraduates in Chongqing, China. This study provides more detailed consideration of the implications for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) policies, especially on restriction of retail sales outlets and tobacco promotion activities near universities in China. PMID:25607600

  5. Smoking-related knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints among new undergraduates in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Li, Bing; Wang, Pengfei; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-19

    Smoking has resulted in numerous deaths in China. Data indicate that 21% of college students in China are smokers. This study aimed to examine the smoking-related behaviors of undergraduates, as influenced by knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints. A convenience sampling of 412 fresh undergraduates from two universities in the University Town in Chongqing, China was recruited. Chi-square tests were used to compare the smoking-related variables between smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, logistic regression was used to examine the factors that associated with smoking status in undergraduates. Smokers and non-smokers differ in terms of knowledge, attitudes toward smoking, participation in tobacco promotional activities, and sources of social pressure. Logistic regression model identified that sex, living cost, five smoking-related attitudes of "Smoking is pleasurable, Smoking relaxes me, Smoking makes me look strong, Smoking is a waste of money, Smoking can help me study better", the social pressure "Smoking brings comfort during celebration", and the environmental constraints "How did you get your cigarettes in the past 30 days?" are significantly associated with smoking. The findings provide a better understanding of the epidemic of smoking among fresh undergraduates in Chongqing, China. This study provides more detailed consideration of the implications for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) policies, especially on restriction of retail sales outlets and tobacco promotion activities near universities in China.

  6. Tobacco Policies in Louisiana: Recommendations for Future Tobacco Control Investment from SimSmoke, a Policy Simulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David; Fergus, Cristin; Rudov, Lindsey; McCormick-Ricket, Iben; Carton, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Despite the presence of tobacco control policies, Louisiana continues to experience a high smoking burden and elevated smoking-attributable deaths. The SimSmoke model provides projections of these health outcomes in the face of existing and expanded (simulated) tobacco control polices. The SimSmoke model utilizes population data, smoking rates, and various tobacco control policy measures from Louisiana to predict smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. The model begins in 1993 and estimates are projected through 2054. The model is validated against existing Louisiana smoking prevalence data. The most powerful individual policy measure for reducing smoking prevalence is cigarette excise tax. However, a comprehensive cessation treatment policy is predicted to save the most lives. A combination of tobacco control policies provides the greatest reduction in smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. The existing Louisiana excise tax ranks as one of the lowest in the country and the legislature is against further increases. Alternative policy measures aimed at lowering prevalence and attributable deaths are: cessation treatments, comprehensive smoke-free policies, and limiting youth access. These three policies have a substantial effect on smoking prevalence and attributable deaths and are likely to encounter more favor in the Louisiana legislature than increasing the state excise tax.

  7. Tobacco retailer density surrounding schools and youth smoking behaviour: a multi-level analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Leatherdale Scott T; Chan Wing C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Youth smoking prevention should be a public health priority. It is not only vital to prevent youth from smoking but also to prevent non-smoking youth from becoming susceptible to smoking. Past research has examined factors associated with youth's susceptibility to become a future smoker, but research has yet to examine tobacco retailer density and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. The objectives of this study are to examine how tobacco retailer density surroun...

  8. Prevalence and determinants of adolescent tobacco smoking in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdo Abdurahman; Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Muula Adamson S

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is a growing public health problem in the developing world. There is paucity of data on smoking and predictors of smoking among school-going adolescents in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associations among school-going adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2003 were used to determine smoking prevalence, determinants, attitudes ...

  9. Secondhand tobacco smoke in public venues in three Indonesian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Byron

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to measure secondhand tobacco (including kretek smoke (SHS concentrations in public places in Jakarta, Bogor, and Palembang before laws banning smoking in public spaces went into effect.Methods: Particulate matter (PM2.5 was measured in 15 hospitals, 15 government offices, 30 restaurants, and 26 entertainment venues throughout the three cities. Also, in Jakarta, vapor-phase nicotine was measured in 5 schools, 5 hospitals, 5 government offices, 9 restaurants, and 10 entertainment venues. Data were analyzed descriptively. Differences by city and venue characteristics were analyzed by Student’s t-test, ANOVA, and Bonferroni pairwise statistical tests.Results: Geometric mean PM2.5 levels were highest in entertainment venues (96 μg/m3, followed by restaurants (78 μg/m3, government offices (57 μg/m3, and hospitals (46 μg/m3. Air nicotine levels in Jakarta were highest in designated smoking areas (4.71 μg/m3 and designated non-smoking areas (1.55 μg/m3 of entertainment venues. These were followed by government offices (0.30 μg/m3, designated smoking areas (0.24 μg/m3 and designated non-smoking areas (0.19 μg/m3 of restaurants, hospitals (0.01 μg/m3, and schools (0.01 μg/m3.Conclusion: SHS was detected in all venues in the three cities in Indonesia. High levels of air nicotine were found in non-smoking areas of restaurants and entertainment venues, indicating that designated smoking areas are not an effective solution to eliminate SHS. There is no safe level of SHS exposure and thus SHS in these venues increases the risk of adverse health effects among children and adults. These findings support the need for 100% smoke-free laws covering all public venues in these and other Indonesian cities. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:232-7. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i4.606 Keywords: Cigarettes, kretek, protection, protect, secondhand smoke, smoke-free policy, tobacco

  10. Density and Proximity of Licensed Tobacco Retailers and Adolescent Smoking: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, Seok Hyun; DeGuzman, Pamela B.; Kulbok, Pamela A.; Jeong, Suyong

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent smoking prevention is an important issue in health care. This literature review describes the theoretical concept of ecological model for adolescent smoking and tobacco retailers and summarizes previous studies on the association between the density and proximity of tobacco retailers and adolescent smoking. We reviewed nine studies on…

  11. Smoking tobacco in Costa Rica: susceptibility, consumption and dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fonseca-Chaves

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify factors associated with susceptibility, tobacco use and addiction in young people from 13 to 15 years of age, to determine conditions of risk and identify possible correlates to the development of public policies on smoking in Costa Rica. Materials and methods. Information available from the four rounds of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS Costa Rica was used. It was based on a sample size of 11 540 youngsters from public and private schools. Indicators of interest and logistic regression models for smoking, susceptibility and addiction were estimated. Results. The prevalence of current consumption shows a significant decrease over the 14 years of the study (17.3% in 1999 and 5.0% in 2013 and, to a lesser intensity, in the index of smoking susceptibility (19.3% in 1999 and 12.4% in 2013. The proportion of young people with addiction has shown a significant increase in the same period. Conclusions. The conditions that explained the significant reduction in smoking prevalence and less susceptibility must be maintained and deepened to achieve full compliance of the MPower measures.

  12. Association between tobacco smoking and cognitive functioning in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2012-11-01

    Tobacco smoking represents a considerable public health burden globally. Smoking in older adults is associated with cognitive impairment and more rapid age-associated cognitive decline, but there is a paucity of studies in younger people. Adults aged 18-29 years were recruited from a longitudinal study investigating impulsivity in young people. Exclusion criteria were presence of any axis-I morbidity or cannabis use. Subjects undertook neurocognitive assessment using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Demographic, clinical, and cognitive differences between smokers (N = 37) and nonsmokers (N = 177) were characterized. Groups were well matched in terms of age, education, income, and gender. In comparison to nonsmokers, nicotine users showed significant cognitive impairments on sustained attention (target detection: p= .005), spatial working memory (errors: p= .023, strategy use: p= .004), executive planning (p= .002), and did not appropriately adjust behavior as a function of risk (Gamble task risk adjustment: p= .004). Smokers were intact on general response speeds and response inhibition. These data, using objective translational paradigms, support an association between tobacco smoking and cognitive problems in young people, with implications for such individuals and for society. Future studies should extend these results longitudinally to explore causality, and evaluate effects of nicotinic agents (including anti-smoking medications) on cognition. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  13. Alcohol use, drunkenness and tobacco smoking in rural western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, T Q; Oeltmann, J E; Odhiambo, F O; Beynon, C; Pevzner, E; Cain, K P; Laserson, K F; Phillips-Howard, P A

    2013-04-01

    To describe the prevalence of smoking and alcohol use and abuse in an impoverished rural region of western Kenya. Picked from a population-based longitudinal database of demographic and health census data, 72 292 adults (≥18 years) were asked to self-report their recent (within the past 30 days) and lifetime use of tobacco and alcohol and frequency of recent 'drunkenness'. Overall prevalence of ever smoking was 11.2% (11.0-11.5) and of ever drinking, 20.7% (20.4-21.0). The prevalence of current smoking was 6.3% (6.1-6.5); 5.7% (5.5-5.9) smoked daily. 7.3% (7.1-7.5) reported drinking alcohol within the past 30 days. Of these, 60.3% (58.9-61.6) reported being drunk on half or more of all drinking occasions. The percentage of current smokers rose with the number of drinking days in a month (P alcohol use increased with decreasing socio-economic status and amongst women in the oldest age group (P alcohol use are prevalent in this rural region of Kenya. Abuse of alcohol is common and likely influenced by the availability of cheap, home-manufactured alcohol. Appropriate evidence-based policies to reduce alcohol and tobacco use should be widely implemented and complemented by public health efforts to increase awareness of their harmful effects. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. The impact of prenatal parental tobacco smoking on risk of diabetes mellitus in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Merrill, M A; Cirillo, P M; Krigbaum, N Y; Cohn, B A

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence indicates that parental smoking is associated with risk of offspring obesity. The purpose of this study was to identify whether parental tobacco smoking during gestation was associated with risk of diabetes mellitus. This is a prospective study of 44- to 54-year-old daughters (n = 1801) born in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort between 1959 and 1967. Their mothers resided near Oakland California, were members of the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and reported parental tobacco smoking during an early pregnancy interview. Daughters reported physician diagnoses of diabetes mellitus and provided blood samples for hemoglobin A1C measurement. Prenatal maternal smoking had a stronger association with daughters' diabetes mellitus risk than prenatal paternal smoking, and the former persisted after adjustment for parental race, diabetes and employment (aRR = 2.4 [95% confidence intervals 1.4-4.1] P smoking were unchanged when further adjusted by daughters' birth weight or current body mass index (BMI). Maternal smoking was also significantly associated with self-reported type 2 diabetes diagnosis (2.3 [95% confidence intervals 1.0-5.0] P smoked during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus among adult daughters, independent of known risk factors, providing further evidence that prenatal environmental chemical exposures independent of birth weight and current BMI may contribute to adult diabetes mellitus. While other studies seek to confirm our results, caution toward tobacco smoking by or proximal to pregnant women is warranted in diabetes mellitus prevention efforts.

  15. Concern about passive smoking and tobacco control policies in European countries: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Marc C; Kiselinova, Maja; Nagelhout, Gera E; Joossens, Luk; Knibbe, Ronald A

    2012-10-15

    Because of the magnitude of the global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organisation developed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), an international legally binding treaty to control tobacco use. Adoption and implementation of specific tobacco control measures within FCTC is an outcome of a political process, where social norms and public opinion play important roles. The objective of our study was to examine how a country's level of tobacco control is associated with smoking prevalence, two markers of denormalisation of smoking (social disapproval of smoking and concern about passive smoking), and societal support for tobacco control. An ecological study was conducted, using data from two sources. The first source was the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) from 2011, which quantifies the implementation of tobacco control policies in European Union (EU) countries. Data on smoking prevalence, societal disapproval of smoking, concern about passive smoking, and societal support for policy measures were taken from the Eurobarometer survey of 2009. Data from Eurobarometer surveys were aggregated to country level. Data from the 27 European Union member states were used. Smoking prevalence rates in 2009 were negatively associated with a country's TCS 2011 score, although not statistically significant (r = -.25; p = .21). Experience of societal disapproval was positively associated with higher TCS scores, though not significantly (r = .14; p = .48). The same was true for societal support for tobacco control (r = .27; p = .18). The TCS score in 2011 was significantly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .42; p =.03). Support for tobacco control measures was also strongly correlated with concern about passive smoking (r = .52, p = .006). Smokers in countries with a higher TCS score were more concerned about whether their smoke harms others. Further, support for tobacco control measures is higher in countries that have more of these concerned smokers

  16. Cardiovascular Consequences of Childhood Second Hand Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuveer, Geetha; White, David A.; Hayman, Laura L.; Woo, Jessica G.; Villafane, Juan; Celermajer, David; Ward, Kenneth D.; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Zachariah, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Background Although public health programs have led to a substantial decrease in the prevalence of tobacco smoking, the adverse health effects of tobacco smoking is by no means a thing of the past. In the U.S, four out of 10 school aged children and 1 out of 3 adolescents are involuntarily exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) with children of minority ethnic backgrounds and those living in low socioeconomic status households being disproportionately affected (68% and 43% respectively). Children are particularly vulnerable with little control over home and social environment and lack the understanding, agency, and ability to avoid SHS exposure on their own volition; they also have physiological or behavioral characteristics that render them especially susceptible to effects of SHS. Side stream smoke (the smoke burned directly off the end of the cigarette), a major component of SHS, contains a higher concentration of some toxins than mainstream smoke (inhaled by the smoker directly), making SHS potentially more dangerous than direct smoking. Compelling animal and human evidence shows that SHS exposure during childhood is detrimental to arterial function and structure resulting in premature atherosclerosis and its cardiovascular consequences. Childhood SHS exposure is also related to impaired cardiac autonomic function and changes in heart rate variability. In addition, childhood SHS exposure is associated with clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Individualized interventions to reduce childhood exposure to SHS are shown to be at least modestly effective, so are broader based policy initiatives such as community smoking bans and increased taxation. Purpose The purpose of this statement is to summarize the available evidence on the cardiovascular health consequences of childhood SHS exposure which will support ongoing efforts to reduce and eliminate SHS exposure in this vulnerable population. This

  17. Tobacco smoking and methylation of genes related to lung cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xu; Zhang, Yan; Breitling, Lutz Philipp; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-09-13

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and cigarette smoking is the major environmental hazard for its development. This study intended to examine whether smoking could alter methylation of genes at lung cancer risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs). By systematic literature review, we selected 75 genomic candidate regions based on 120 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). DNA methylation levels of 2854 corresponding cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) candidates in whole blood samples were measured by the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 Beadchip array in two independent subsamples of the ESTHER study. After correction for multiple testing, we successfully confirmed associations with smoking for one previously identified CpG site within the KLF6 gene and identified 12 novel sites located in 7 genes: STK32A, TERT, MSH5, ACTA2, GATA3, VTI1A and CHRNA5 (FDR smoking was linked to a 0.74% to 2.4% decrease of DNA methylation compared to never smoking in 11 loci, and all but one showed significant associations (FDR smoking (pack-years). In conclusion, our study demonstrates the impact of tobacco smoking on DNA methylation of lung cancer related genes, which may indicate that lung cancer susceptibility genes might be regulated by methylation changes in response to smoking. Nevertheless, this mechanism warrants further exploration in future epigenetic and biomarker studies.

  18. A Systematic Review on the Impact of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Promotion on Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rob; Marsh, Louise; Hoek, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The tobacco retail environment is a crucial marketing medium for the industry. A 2009 review found evidence of a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco promotion and increased smoking and smoking susceptibility, though limitations in the evidence base were identified. Aim and Methods: We reviewed and critically appraised recent evidence documenting the influence of POS tobacco promotion, and POS tobacco display bans, on smoking-related behavior and cognitions. We reviewed original quantitative and qualitative research that examined the relationship between POS tobacco promotion and smoking prevalence, individual-level smoking and quitting and tobacco purchasing behavior, smoking susceptibility, and smoking-related cognitions. Results: Twenty peer-reviewed studies (18 quantitative and 2 qualitative) met the inclusion criteria; each study reported findings consistent with a positive association between exposure to POS tobacco promotion and smoking or smoking susceptibility. Several studies met key criteria for causality: 4 indicated a dose–response association, 2 prospective studies were identified, and evidence from intervention studies supported the reversibility of the association. Findings were consistent across different study designs, settings, and measures. Conclusions: The existing evidence supports a positive association between exposure to POS tobacco promotion and smoking. This review provides evidence to support the continuation of POS tobacco display bans in those jurisdictions where such legislation has been introduced and strengthens the evidence encouraging similar policies in jurisdictions without a POS display ban. PMID:25173775

  19. Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community Disparities in Lung Health Series "Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community" is part of the American Lung Association's ...

  20. Teens Using E-cigarettes May Be More Likely to Start Smoking Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Release Tuesday, August 18, 2015 Teens using e-cigarettes may be more likely to start smoking tobacco New NIH-funded study shows possible link between e-cigarettes and initiation of tobacco use. Students who have ...

  1. Effects of tobacco smoking on human corneal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetton, Jacquelyn A; Ding, Kai; Kim, Yoonsang; Stone, Donald U

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco smoking on healing of corneal abrasions and keratitis in humans. A retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with corneal abrasions and corneal ulcers from 1990 to 2010 at the Dean McGee Eye Institute was performed. The primary outcome measured was time from initial examination to epithelial closure; tobacco smoking was the primary exposure variable. Comorbidity variables were also examined as potential confounding factors. The data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards models. Eighty-seven patients met the inclusion criteria for corneal abrasion and 52 for keratitis. The mean healing time was 4.8 days in nonsmokers and 5.9 days in smokers in the abrasion arm, and 15.5 days in nonsmokers and 39.4 days in smokers in the keratitis arm. After controlling for comorbidities, treatment, and demographic variables, the healing time in both arms was significantly delayed in smokers when compared with nonsmokers (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively). The comorbidities were also studied after adjusting for smoking. A statistically significant delay was seen with previous keratoplasty and steroid treatment for the abrasion arm. In the keratitis arm, neurotrophic corneas and fungal infections were associated with a delay in healing after correcting for smoking. Epithelial healing is delayed by 1.1 days on average in smokers when compared with nonsmokers with corneal abrasions. Patients who had undergone a previous keratoplasty had delayed healing from corneal abrasions regardless of the smoking status. Epithelial healing is delayed by 23.9 days on average in patients with keratitis who report smoking. Neurotrophic corneas and fungal infections also had prolonged time to healing.

  2. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Smoke-free Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency, 1997) Summary of The National Toxicology Program’s 9th Report on Carcinogens (National Institutes of ... Living Health Land, Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science Water A-Z Index Laws & Regulations ...

  3. A prospective cohort study of biomarkers of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure: the correlation between serum and meconium and their association with infant birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Joe M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of infant meconium as a cumulative matrix of prenatal toxicant exposure requires comparison to established biomarkers of prenatal exposure. Methods We calculated the frequency of detection and concentration of tobacco smoke metabolites measured in meconium (nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine concentrations and three serial serum cotinine concentrations taken during the latter two-thirds of pregnancy among 337 mother-infant dyads. We estimated the duration and intensity of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure using serial serum cotinine concentrations and calculated geometric mean meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations according to prenatal exposure. We also compared the estimated associations between these prenatal biomarkers and infant birth weight using linear regression. Results We detected nicotine (80%, cotinine (69%, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (57% in most meconium samples. Meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations were positively associated with serum cotinine concentrations and increased with the number of serum cotinine measurements consistent with secondhand or active tobacco smoke exposure. Like serum cotinine, meconium tobacco smoke metabolites were inversely associated with birth weight. Conclusions Meconium is a useful biological matrix for measuring prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and could be used in epidemiological studies that enroll women and infants at birth. Meconium holds promise as a biological matrix for measuring the intensity and duration of environmental toxicant exposure and future studies should validate the utility of meconium using other environmental toxicants.

  4. Urinary levels of monohydroxyl PAH metabolites in portuguese firefighters: background levels and impact of tobacco smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, M.; Slezakova, K.; Gomes,Maria José; Azevedo, Ana; Teixeira, J.P.; Delerue-Matos, C.; Pereira, M. C.; Morais, S.

    2016-01-01

    Firefighting occupational exposure is classified as possible carcinogen to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health [1,2].  Tobacco smoke is a very important factor in the assessment of occupational exposure of workers, since the prolonged exposure to tobacco smoke is by itself the major cause of lung cancer [3]. The consumption of tobacco is responsible for the exposure to many smoke co...

  5. Effects of Tobacco Smoke (TS) on Growth of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0347 TITLE: Effects of Tobacco Smoke ( TS ) on growth...0347 Effects of Tobacco Smoke ( TS ) on growth of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...males than in females1. Tobacco smoking ( TS ), obesity, hypertension, and age are established risk factors for ccRCC development1. Despite the well

  6. The impact of tobacco prices on smoking onset in Vietnam: duration analyses of retrospective data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindon, G Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of preventing smoking onset are well known, and even just delaying smoking onset conveys benefits. Tobacco control policies are of critical importance to low-income countries with high smoking rates such as Vietnam where smoking prevalence is greater than 55 % in young men between the ages of 25 and 45. Using a survey of teens and young adults, I conducted duration analyses to explore the impact of tobacco price on smoking onset. The results suggest that tobacco prices in Vietnam have a statistically significant and fairly substantial effect on the onset of smoking. Increases in average tobacco prices, measured by an index of tobacco prices and by the prices of two popular brands, are found to delay smoking onset. Of particular interest is the finding that Vietnamese youth are more sensitive to changes in prices of a popular international brand that has had favourable tax treatment since the late 1990s.

  7. Socioeconomic inequalities in the impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Hublet, Anne; Schnohr, Christina Warrer

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are concerns that tobacco control policies may be less effective in reducing smoking among disadvantaged socioeconomic groups and thus may contribute to inequalities in adolescent smoking. This study examines how the association between tobacco control policies and smoking of 15......, with higher treatment levels associated with higher probability of smoking only for low FAS boys. For girls, no tobacco policy was significantly associated with weekly smoking, irrespective of the FAS. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that most tobacco control policies are not clearly related to adolescent...... regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of weekly smoking with components of the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS), and to assess whether this association varied according to family affluence (FAS). Analyses were carried out per gender and adjusted for national wealth and general smoking rate...

  8. Beyond cigarette smoking: smoke-free home rules and use of alternative tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Kuo, Daphne; Piper, Megan

    2016-01-01

    A smoke-free home rule has been associated with reduced cigarette consumption; however, it is unknown whether a home rule is associated with the use of alternative tobacco products (ATP) such as smokeless tobacco products, regular and water pipes, and cigars. This study examined the association between the smoke-free home rules and ever and current use of ATP. Data from the 2010-2011 US Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey were analysed using multivariable logistic regressions, including variables related to smoke-free home rules. Overall, 83.9% respondents reported a smoke-free home rule inside their homes; 20.6% of respondents had tried at least one type of ATP, and 3.9% were current users in 2010-2011. Having a smoke-free home rule was associated with lower likelihood of current versus never use of any ATP (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77-0.83). Among ever users of any ATP, the existence of a smoke-free home rule was associated with lower odds of being a current user (AOR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.43-0.56). Similar associations were observed for each type of ATP examined (p < 0.05). Smoke-free home rules are associated with lower current ATP use among the US population. Future research should examine whether promoting smoke-free home rules could help to reduce ATP use and related diseases. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  9. Review of hookah tobacco smoking among college students: policy implications and research recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathuru, Irene M; Tarter, Ralph E; Klein-Fedyshin, Michele

    2015-01-01

    About 30% of college students have smoked hookah tobacco. Although most students perceive this product to be innocuous and non-addictive, hookah tobacco increases the risk for disease and nicotine dependence. Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate the manufacture, distribution, or sale of hookah tobacco. Empirical literature pertaining to hookah tobacco smoking is reviewed with a focus on the implications for regulatory policy. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched to locate articles published in English. The literature search combined several key words including "hookahs", "college", "advertising", "health effects", and "health policy". Smoking hookah tobacco may play a role in the initiation of smoking among tobacco-naïve college students and may portend persistent smoking among those who have smoked cigarettes. College students are typically nondaily, social smokers. They do not perceive that their heightened risk for tobacco diseases and nicotine dependence relates to their smoking behavior. However, few public health messages target college-age adults to counter media messages that endorse hookah tobacco smoking. Given that the FDA is not authorized to ban specific tobacco products, policy actions should focus on the development of effective risk communication strategies that target college-age adults and on limiting the accessibility of hookah tobacco products to these adults. Accordingly, a research agenda that would inform these policy actions is proposed.

  10. Pulmonary toxicity of chronic exposure to tobacco and biomass smoke in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Tamer Dogan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the separate and combined effects of tobacco and biomass smoke exposure on pulmonary histopathology in rats. INTRODUCTION: In addition to smoking, indoor pollution in developing countries contributes to the development of respiratory diseases. METHODS: Twenty-eight adult rats were divided into four groups as follows: control group (Group I, no exposure to tobacco or biomass smoke, exposed to tobacco smoke (Group II, exposed to biomass smoke (Group III, and combined exposure to tobacco and biomass smoke (Group IV. After six months the rats in all four groups were sacrificed. Lung tissue samples were examined under light microscopy. The severity of pathological changes was scored. RESULTS: Group II differed from Group I in all histopathological alterations except intraparenchymal vascular thrombosis. There was no statistically significant difference in histopathological changes between the subjects exposed exclusively to tobacco smoke (Group II and those with combined exposure to tobacco and biomass smoke (Group IV. The histopathological changes observed in Group IV were found to be more severe than those in subjects exposed exclusively to biomass smoke (Group III. DISCUSSION: Chronic exposure to tobacco and biomass smoke caused an increase in severity and types of lung injury. CONCLUSION: Exposure to cigarette smoke caused serious damage to the respiratory system, particularly with concomitant exposure to biomass smoke.

  11. Tobacco smoke exposure and impact of smoking legislation on rural and non-rural hospitality venues in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Lobo, Marie L; Travers, Mark J; Boursaw, Blake

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study in a stratified random sample of 135 bars and restaurants in North Dakota was to describe factors that influenced tobacco smoke pollution levels in the venues; to compare the quantity of tobacco smoke pollution by rurality and by presence of local ordinances; and to assess compliance with state and local laws. In data collection in 2012, we measured the indoor air quality indicator of particulate matter (2.5 microns aerodynamic diameter or smaller), calculated average smoking density and occupant density, and determined compliance with state and local smoking ordinances using observational methods. As rurality increased, tobacco smoke pollution in bars increased. A significant association was found between stringency of local laws and level of tobacco smoke pollution, but the strength of the association varied by venue type. Compliance was significantly lower in venues in communities without local ordinances. Controlling for venue type, 69.2% of smoke-free policy's impact on tobacco smoke pollution levels was mediated by observed smoking. This study advances scientific knowledge on the factors influencing tobacco smoke pollution and informs public health advocates and decision makers on policy needs, especially in rural areas. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pentoxifylline Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling Induced by Tobacco Smoke Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, Marcos; Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Priscila; Polegato, Bertha; Roscani, Meliza; Fernandes, Ana Angelica; Lustosa, Beatriz; Paiva, Sergio; Zornoff, Leonardo; Azevedo, Paula, E-mail: paulasa@fmb.unesp.br [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    Tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor for cardiac remodeling. Under this condition, inflammation, oxidative stress, energy metabolism abnormalities, apoptosis, and hypertrophy are present. Pentoxifylline has anti‑inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-thrombotic and anti-proliferative properties. The present study tested the hypothesis that pentoxifylline would attenuate cardiac remodeling induced by smoking. Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: Control (C), Pentoxifylline (PX), Tobacco Smoke (TS), and PX-TS. After two months, echocardiography, invasive blood pressure measurement, biochemical, and histological studies were performed. The groups were compared by two-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. TS increased left atrium diameter and area, which was attenuated by PX. In the isolated heart study, TS lowered the positive derivate (+dp/dt), and this was attenuated by PX. The antioxidants enzyme superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased in the TS group; PX recovered these activities. TS increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and decreased 3-hydroxyacyl Coenzyme A dehydrogenases (OH-DHA) and citrate synthase (CS). PX attenuated LDH, 3-OH-DHA and CS alterations in TS-PX group. TS increased IL-10, ICAM-1, and caspase-3. PX did not influence these variables. TS induced cardiac remodeling, associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and changed energy metabolism. PX attenuated cardiac remodeling by reducing oxidative stress and improving cardiac bioenergetics, but did not act upon cardiac cytokines and apoptosis.

  13. The determinants of quitting or reducing smoking due to the tobacco tax increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigova, Olena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Ukraine has adopted State targeted social program for reducing the harmful effects of tobacco on public health in Ukraine till 2012. One of the measures to be implemented is increasing excise tax on tobacco products; therefore, a highly important question is which groups of population are likely to benefit from tax increase through quitting or reducing smoking.METHODS. Data used for analysis were collected in a nationally representative survey of Ukrainian population conducted in 2010. An outcome measure was the anticipated keeping smoking versus quitting (reducing smoking due to tobacco tax increase. Independent variables included socio-demographic characteristics, experience of quitting smoking, exposure to different tobacco control measures, exposure to tobacco advertizing. Binary logistic regression was used to measure associations.RESULTS. Respondents were more likely to expect to keep smoking after the tobacco tax increase if they were dependent on tobacco (odds ratio 2.57, not interested in quitting, not in favor of tobacco tax increase, and exposed to tobacco advertising on TV and cigarette promotions. Respondents were more likely to expect to reduce or quit smoking if they had higher wealth status (OR=0.55, were aware of tobacco health hazard (OR=0.09, had earlier attempts of quitting smoking, were not exposed to secondhand smoke, observed tobacco-related information on television (OR=0.7 and in newspapers (OR=0.45, and observed advertizing of tobacco on radio (OR=0.33 and in public transport (OR=0.25.CONCLUSIONS. Several aspects are important while implementing taxation policy. It is more likely to result in quitting or reducing smoking among those who are less dependent, have tried quitting smoking earlier, and have higher wealth level. Concurrent smoke-free policies and awareness campaigns may potentiate the effect of taxation policies and are recommended to be developed further.

  14. The influence of tobacco smoking on adhesion molecule profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer RM

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sequential interactions between several adhesion molecules and their ligands regulate lymphocyte circulation and leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory foci. Adhesion molecules are, therefore, central and critical components of the immune and inflammatory system. We review the evidence that tobacco smoking dysregulates specific components of the adhesion cascade, which may be a common factor in several smoking-induced diseases. Smoking causes inappropriate leukocyte activation, leukocyte-endothelial adhesion, and neutrophil entrapment in the microvasculature, which may help initiate local tissue destruction. Appropriate inflammatory reactions may thus be compromised. In addition to smoke-induced alterations to membrane bound endothelial and leukocyte adhesion molecule expression, which may help explain the above phenomena, smoking has a profound influence on circulating adhesion molecule profiles, most notably sICAM-1 and specific sCD44 variants. Elevated concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules may simply reflect ongoing inflammatory processes. However, increasing evidence suggests that specific soluble adhesion molecules are immunomodulatory, and that alterations to soluble adhesion molecule profiles may represent a significant risk factor for several diverse diseases. This evidence is discussed herein.

  15. The influence of tobacco smoking on adhesion molecule profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer RM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sequential interactions between several adhesion molecules and their ligands regulate lymphocyte circulation and leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory foci. Adhesion molecules are, therefore, central and critical components of the immune and inflammatory system. We review the evidence that tobacco smoking dysregulates specific components of the adhesion cascade, which may be a common factor in several smoking-induced diseases. Smoking causes inappropriate leukocyte activation, leukocyte-endothelial adhesion, and neutrophil entrapment in the microvasculature, which may help initiate local tissue destruction. Appropriate inflammatory reactions may thus be compromised. In addition to smoke-induced alterations to membrane bound endothelial and leukocyte adhesion molecule expression, which may help explain the above phenomena, smoking has a profound influence on circulating adhesion molecule profiles, most notably sICAM-1 and specific sCD44 variants. Elevated concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules may simply reflect ongoing inflammatory processes. However, increasing evidence suggests that specific soluble adhesion molecules are immunomodulatory, and that alterations to soluble adhesion molecule profiles may represent a significant risk factor for several diverse diseases. This evidence is discussed herein.

  16. La medición de la nicotina como marcador aéreo del humo ambiental de tabaco Nicotine measurement as an airborne marker of environmental tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nebot

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Numerosos estudios científicos han demostrado la asociación del humo ambiental de tabaco (HAT con múltiples riesgos para la salud. Sin embargo, la medición de la exposición a este humo ha sido poco precisa hasta hace pocos años. En este artículo se revisan diversos estudios que han utilizado la nicotina como marcador aéreo del HAT. Métodos: Se revisan los diferentes métodos utilizados en la medición de la exposición al HAT, con especial énfasis en el uso de la nicotina como marcador aéreo de su presencia, comparando sus características con las de los demás marcadores y analizando los resultados encontrados en diferentes estudios en los que se ha medido la concentración de nicotina en muestras de aire en espacios públicos y en el medio laboral. Resultados: La nicotina reúne las características deseables de los marcadores del HAT, y los resultados de diversos estudios en los que se ha utilizado muestran un amplio rango de valores. Así, en cafeterías y restaurantes la concentración de nicotina oscila entre 0,52 y 47,86 μg/m³, mientras que en los lugares de trabajo sin restricciones relativas al tabaco, las concentraciones varían entre 3,4 y 14 μg/m³, y en aquellos con prohibición total de fumar, la concentración oscila entre 0,09 y 0,7 μg/m³. Los lugares de ocio nocturno son los lugares donde las concentraciones son más elevadas, llegando a alcanzar valores que superan los 65 μg/m³. Discusión: El uso de la nicotina como marcador aéreo permite medir de manera objetiva la exposición al HAT. Los valores obtenidos en los estudios que utilizan este marcador muestran que en los lugares con restricciones o prohibiciones relativas al consumo de tabaco la exposición al HAT es mucho menor que en los en los que no hay ningún tipo de regulación.Introduction: Several studies have demonstrated the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS and different types of health risk. Despite this evidence

  17. Portuguese children's exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke in the family car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo D. Vitória

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Children's exposure to second-hand smoke in the family car is frequent, especially if one or both parents smoke. This highlights the need for effective tobacco control measures to prevent this severe health hazard.

  18. The influence of tobacco blend composition on carbon monoxide formation in mainstream cigarette smoke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Djulančić, Nermina; Radojičić, Vesna; Srbinovska, Marija

    2013-01-01

    ...) in the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke. The results showed that the type of tobacco examined had a significant impact on the amount of carbon monoxide production in the gas phase of cigarette smoke...

  19. Smoking behaviors and attitudes during adolescence prospectively predict support for tobacco control policies in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark C

    2012-07-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have examined factors associated with support for tobacco control policies. The current study utilized a longitudinal design to test smoking status and attitude toward smoking measured in adolescence as prospective predictors of support for tobacco control policies measured in adulthood. Participants (N = 4,834) were from a longitudinal study of a Midwestern community-based sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses tested adolescent smoking status and attitude toward smoking as prospective predictors (after controlling for sociodemographic factors, adult smoking status, and adult attitude toward smoking) of support for regulation of smoking in public places, discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools, prohibiting smoking in bars, eliminating smoking on television and in movies, prohibiting smoking in restaurants, and increasing taxes on cigarettes. Participants who smoked during adolescence demonstrated more support for discussion of the dangers of smoking in public schools and less support for increasing taxes on cigarettes but only among those who smoked as adults. Those with more positive attitudes toward smoking during adolescence demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in bars and eliminating smoking on television and in movies. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that those with more positive attitudes toward smoking as adolescents demonstrated less support as adults for prohibiting smoking in restaurants, but only if they became parents as adults. This study's findings suggest that interventions designed to deter adolescent smoking may have future benefits in increasing support for tobacco control policies.

  20. South African tobacco smoking cessation clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl-Smit, Richard N; Allwood, Brian; Stickells, David; Symons, Gregory; Abdool-Gaffar, Sabs; Murphy, Kathy; Lalloo, Umesh; Vanker, Aneesa; Dheda, Keertan; Richards, Guy

    2013-09-30

    Tobacco smoking (i.e. cigarettes, rolled tobacco, pipes, etc.) is associated with significant health risks, reduced life expectancy and negative personal and societal economic impact. Smokers have an increased risk of cancer (i.e. lung, throat, bladder), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease (i.e. stroke, heart attack). Smoking affects unborn babies, children and others exposed to second hand smoke. Stopping or 'quitting' is not easy. Nicotine is highly addictive and smoking is frequently associated with social activities (e.g. drinking, eating) or psychological factors (e.g. work pressure, concerns about body weight, anxiety or depressed mood). The benefits of quitting, however, are almost immediate, with a rapid lowering of blood pressure and heart rate, improved taste and smell, and a longer-term reduction in risk of cancer, heart attack and COPD. Successful quitting requires attention to both the factors surrounding why an individual smokes (e.g. stress, depression, habit, etc.) and the symptoms associated with nicotine withdrawal. Many smokers are not ready or willing to quit and require frequent motivational input outlining the benefits that would accrue. In addition to an evaluation of nicotine dependence, co-existent medical or psychiatric conditions and barriers to quitting should be identified. A tailored approach encompassing psychological and social support, in addition to appropriate medication to reduce nicotine withdrawal, is likely to provide the best chance of success. Relapse is not uncommon and reasons for failure should be addressed in a positive manner and further attempts initiated when the individual is ready.Key steps in smoking cessation include: (i) identifying all smokers, alerting them to the harms of smoking and benefits of quitting; (ii) assessing readiness to initiate an attempt to quit; (iii) assessing the physical and psychological dependence to nicotine and smoking; (iv) determining

  1. Tobacco smoke particles and indoor air quality (ToPIQ - the protocol of a new study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is a major contributor to indoor air pollution. Since decades it is well documented that ETS can be harmful to human health and causes premature death and disease. In comparison to the huge research on toxicological substances of ETS, less attention was paid on the concentration of indoor ETS-dependent particulate matter (PM. Especially, investigation that focuses on different tobacco products and their concentration of deeply into the airways depositing PM-fractions (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 must be stated. The tobacco smoke particles and indoor air quality study (ToPIQS will approach this issue by device supported generation of indoor ETS and simultaneously measurements of PM concentration by laser aerosol spectrometry. Primarily, the ToPIQ study will conduct a field research with focus on PM concentration of different tobacco products and within various microenvironments. It is planned to extend the analysis to basic research on influencing factors of ETS-dependent PM concentration.

  2. Need to establish tobacco smoke zones in public places in Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttapppallymyalil, J; Sreedharan, J; Divakaran, B

    2010-07-01

    Second-hand smoke is a grave hazard to both smokers and nonsmokers. To assess the attitude of general public toward establishing smoke zones in public places. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among people residing in one randomly selected municipality of Kannur district in Kerala state, India. A total of 1000 individuals participated in the study. An open-ended, semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire, which was pilot tested was used to collect information from people willing to participate in the study. Descriptive statistics was used. Statistical analysis was performed by using PASW 17. 73.1% of the total participants indicated a positive attitude toward establishing smoke zones in public places. All female participants and 69.7% of male participants had positive attitude toward establishing smoke zones in public places. Most nonsmokers (83.2%) showed a positive attitude toward establishing smoke zones. A statistically significant (P places. Among males, a statistically significant (P places was found to become more positive. Most of the participants had positive attitude to prohibition of smoking in public places in order to safe guard the public from the harmful effects of Environmental Tobacco Smoke.

  3. The influence of tobacco retailers on adolescent smoking: prevention and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, S H; Yan, G; Huang, G; Kulbok, P A

    2017-11-06

    Smoking rates are higher among adolescents in South Korea than among those in other Asian countries. Researchers have reported associations between the presence of licensed tobacco retailers and adolescent smoking rates. However, few researchers have examined the factors that influence adolescent smoking including those that are intrapersonal, interpersonal or related to the tobacco retailers' environment. The purpose of this study was to describe factors related to the students, the licensed tobacco retailers and the schools and how those factors are associated with adolescent smoking outcomes such as tobacco marketing receptivity, lifetime smoking and current smoking. The survey data were gathered from 740 South Korean adolescents, and geographic data for 3488 licensed tobacco retailers were also used. Geographic Information Systems and multilevel modeling were used to describe the variables and determine the factors associated with smoking outcomes in the sample. The factors that influenced receptivity to tobacco marketing included the presence of peers who smoke and the frequencies of licensed tobacco retailers passed on the way to school. The factors that influenced lifetime smoking included gender, perceived economic status, weekly income, the presence of siblings or peers who smoke and frequencies of licensed tobacco retailers passed on the way to school. The factors that influenced current smoking included gender, weekly income, and the presence of siblings or peers who smoke. These factors will guide adolescent tobacco prevention programs and policies. The study's implications for nursing practice and health policy are that school nurses and public health nurses need to be encouraged to use retailer-related factors in adolescent smoking-prevention programs. There is also a need for zoning and licensing regulations to restrict licensed tobacco retailers in areas that adolescents frequent, including schools. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  4. [Effects of tobacco habit, second-hand smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy on newborn's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Blanca; Isern, Rosanna; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Canals, Josefa; Aranda, Núria; Arija, Victoria

    2014-07-22

    Tobacco during pregnancy affects the health of the newborn. The aim was to assess the effect of maternal exposure to active and passive tobacco and of smoking cessation on the risk of preterm deliveries and birth weight, taking into account other risk factors. Longitudinal study conducted in 282 healthy pregnant women. General, obstetrical and hematological data were collected as it was the smoking habit during pregnancy. Pregnant women were classified as "exposed to smoke" (active smoker and passive smoker) and "unexposed to smoke" (non-smokers and women who quitted smoking during pregnancy). A percentage of 59.2 were non-smokers, 18.4% active smokers, 8.5% second-hand smokers and 13.8% had stopped smoking. Unexposed pregnant women who stopped smoking had the same risk of premature deliveries and children with similar birth weight as non-smoker women. Active and second-hand smokers were at higher risk of preterm deliveries than non-smokers (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-30.8 and OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.0-38.9, respectively); however, higher levels of hemoglobin in the 1st and 3rd trimester exerted a protective effect (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-0.9). Active and second-hand smokers had babies weighing less than non-smokers (around 129 and 178g less, respectively). Active or passive exposure to smoke during pregnancy and lower hemoglobin levels are associated with an increased risk of premature deliveries and lower birth weight. Stopping smoking during pregnancy prevents these detrimental effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Association Between Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and the Occurrence of EGFR Mutations and ALK Rearrangements in Never-smokers With Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer: Analyses From a Prospective Multinational ETS Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Ross A; Kubo, Akihito; Ando, Masahiko; Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius

    2017-09-01

    Molecular studies have demonstrated actionable driver oncogene alterations are more frequent in never-smokers with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The etiology of these driver oncogenes in patients with NSCLC remains unknown, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a potential cause in these cases. We assembled clinical and genetic information for never-smoker patients with NSCLC accrued in Japan, Korea, Singapore, and the United States. To determine an association between cumulative ETS and activating EGFR mutations or ALK rearrangements, the Mantel extension test was used. Multivariate analysis on activating EGFR and ALK gene rearrangements was performed using the generalized linear mixed model with nations as a random effect. From July 2007 to December 2012, 498 never-smokers with pathologically proven NSCLC were registered and tested for the association between ETS and EGFR and ALK status. EGFR mutations were more frequent in the ever-ETS cohort (58.4%) compared with the never-ETS cohort (39.6%), and the incidence of EGFR mutations was significantly associated with the increment of cumulative ETS (cETS) in female never-smokers (P = .033), whereas the incidence of ALK rearrangements was not significantly different between the ever-ETS and never-ETS cohorts. Odds ratio for EGFR mutations for each 10-year increment in cETS was 1.091 and 0.89 for female and male never-smokers (P = .031 and P = .263, respectively). Increased ETS exposure was closely associated with EGFR mutations in female never-smokers with NSCLC in the expanded multinational cohort. However, the association of ETS and ALK rearrangements in never-smokers with NSCLC was not significant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Portrayal of tobacco smoking in popular women's magazines: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasujee, Naseera; Britton, John; Cranwell, Jo; Lyons, Ailsa; Bains, Manpreet

    2017-09-01

    Whilst many countries have introduced legislation prohibiting tobacco advertising and sponsorship, references to tobacco continue to appear in the media. This study quantified and characterized tobacco smoking content in popular women's magazines. The 10 top weekly and 5 monthly women's magazines most popular among 15-34 year olds in Britain published over a 3-month period were included. A content analysis was conducted for both written and visual content. In 146 magazines, there were 310 instances of tobacco content, the majority of which were positive towards smoking. Instances of celebrities smoking were most common (171, 55%), often in holiday or party settings that could be perceived to be luxurious, glamorous or fun. In all, 55 (18%) tobacco references related to fashion, which generally created an impression of smoking as a norm within the industry; and 34 (11%) text and image references to tobacco in TV and film. There were 50 (16%) reader-initiated mentions of smoking, typically in real-life stories or readers writing in to seek advice about smoking. Anti-smoking references including the hazards of smoking were infrequent (49; 16%). Although tobacco advertising is prohibited in Britain, women's magazines still appear to be promoting positive messages about tobacco and smoking.

  7. Methods in tobacco abuse: proteomic changes following second-hand smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guingab-Cagmat, Joy; Bauzo, Rayna M; Bruijnzeel, Adrie W; Wang, Kevin K; Gold, Mark S; Kobeissy, Firas H

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is one of the leading preventable causes of disease, disability, and death in the USA and leads to more than 400,000 preventable deaths per year. Nicotine is the major alkaloid present in tobacco smoke, and many of the negative effects of smoking are attributed to nicotine. Nicotine is not only the addictive component of tobacco smoke, but also highly associated with carcinogenesis and induces oxidative stress. Furthermore, the administration of nicotine via subcutaneous mini-osmotic pumps or by injection is an established method in preclinical studies for this area of research. Thus, preclinical research on the negative effects of tobacco smoke and tobacco addiction has focused primarily on the effects of nicotine. However, there are over 4,500 components found in tobacco smoke, many of which are highly toxic. Other components may also contribute to the addictive properties of tobacco smoke. Furthermore, the negative effects of tobacco smoke are not isolated to the smoker but can have negative effects to those exposed to the secondhand smoke (SHS) stream. SHS exposure is the third leading cause of preventable death. Approximately 38,000 deaths per year are attributed to SHS exposure in the USA. SHS exposure increases the risk of heart disease by approximately 30% and is associated with increased risk of stroke, cancer, type II diabetes, as well as pulmonary disease. Thus, methods of administering tobacco smoke in a controlled environment will further our understanding of tobacco addiction and the role tobacco smoke in other disease states. Moreover, combining smoke exposure with proteomics can lead to the discovery of biomarkers that can be potentially useful tools in screening, early diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases caused by SHS.

  8. Social Environmental Influences on Adolescents' Smoking Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min Qi

    2001-01-01

    Examined data from adolescents who had completed the 1989 Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey and who were re-interviewed in 1993 to determine social and environmental factors that influenced their smoking progression. Smoking behavior of best friends and smoking beliefs were consistent and significant factors in predicting progression from…

  9. The role of environmental smoking in smoking-related cognitions and susceptibility to smoking in never-smoking 9-12 year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental smoking has numerous adverse effects on child health, and children are frequently exposed to environmental smoking. In the present study, we investigated the role of environmental smoking (parental smoking, sibling smoking, peer smoking) in smoking-related cognitions (pros of smoking,

  10. Awareness of tobacco advertising, perceived harms of smoking, and beliefs about tobacco control among a sample of Shanghainese in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, PinPin; Qian, Haihong; Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Nehl, Eric J; Wong, Frank Y

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to examine beliefs among residents of Shanghai, China concerning tobacco advertising and control policies concurrent with new restrictions on tobacco use and advertising in the city. A total of 518 residents of Shanghai completed a telephone interview survey. We found that 51% of participants had seen or heard of the Zhonghua cigarette brand's 'Love China' tobacco ad campaign in the past 2 years, 59% believed that the campaign would influence people to buy this specific cigarette brand as a gift, and 30% believed that it would encourage smoking. More than 75% of respondents would support legislation banning tobacco advertising in all public places, and 88% would support legislation prohibiting smoking in all public places. Multivariate analyses indicated that those who were female, more than 50 years, have accepted college and above education, and perceived greater benefits to smoking cessation were more likely to support banning tobacco advertising and prohibiting smoking in public places. Non-smokers were more likely to support prohibiting smoking in public places. The findings suggest that although tobacco advertising is widely prevalent in Shanghai, it is disliked by the public. Respondents showed high levels of support for tobacco control policies.

  11. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure increases hospitalizations for bronchiolitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, Marcello; Vandini, Silvia; Adorni, Fulvio; Prinelli, Federica; Di Santo, Simona; Silvestri, Michela; Musicco, Massimo

    2015-12-22

    Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) is a worldwide health problem and it is considered a risk factor for pregnant women's and children's health, particularly for respiratory morbidity during the first year of life. Few significant birth cohort studies on the effect of prenatal TSE via passive and active maternal smoking on the development of severe bronchiolitis in early childhood have been carried out worldwide. From November 2009 to December 2012, newborns born at ≥ 33 weeks of gestational age (wGA) were recruited in a longitudinal multi-center cohort study in Italy to investigate the effects of prenatal and postnatal TSE, among other risk factors, on bronchiolitis hospitalization and/or death during the first year of life. Two thousand two hundred ten newborns enrolled at birth were followed-up during their first year of life. Of these, 120 (5.4%) were hospitalized for bronchiolitis. No enrolled infants died during the study period. Prenatal passive TSE and maternal active smoking of more than 15 cigarettes/daily are associated to a significant increase of the risk of offspring children hospitalization for bronchiolitis, with an adjHR of 3.5 (CI 1.5-8.1) and of 1.7 (CI 1.1-2.6) respectively. These results confirm the detrimental effects of passive TSE and active heavy smoke during pregnancy for infants' respiratory health, since the exposure significantly increases the risk of hospitalization for bronchiolitis in the first year of life.

  12. Impact of tobacco smoking on cytokine signaling via interleukin-17A in the peripheral airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levänen B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bettina Levänen,1 Pernilla Glader,2 Barbro Dahlén,3,4 Bo Billing,4 Ingemar Qvarfordt,2 Lena Palmberg,1 Kjell Larsson,1 Anders Lindén1,2,4 1Unit for Lung and Airway Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 2Department of Internal Medicine & Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 3Centre for Allergy Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 4Lung Allergy Clinic, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: There is excessive accumulation of neutrophils in the airways in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. It is known that extracellular cytokine signaling via interleukin (IL-17A contributes to neutrophil accumulation in the airways but nothing is known about the impact of tobacco smoking on extracellular signaling via IL-17A. Here, we characterized the impact of tobacco smoking on extracellular cytokine signaling via IL-17A in the peripheral airways in long-term smokers with and without COPD and in occasional smokers before and after short-term exposure to tobacco smoke. We quantified concentrations of IL-17A protein in cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid samples (Immuno-quantitative PCR and cytotoxic T-cells (immunoreactivity for CD8+ and CD3+ in bronchial biopsies. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 and human beta defensin 2 proteins were also quantified (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the BAL samples. The concentrations of IL-17A in BAL fluid were higher in long-term smokers without COPD compared with nonsmoking healthy controls, whereas those with COPD did not differ significantly from either of the other groups. Short-term exposure to tobacco smoke did not induce sustained alterations in these concentrations in occasional smokers. Long-term smokers displayed higher concentrations of IL-17A than did occasional

  13. A new assessment method of outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyeri; Lee, Kiyoung

    2014-04-01

    Outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) is concerned due to potential health effects. An assessment method of OTS exposure is needed to determine effects of OTS and validate outdoor smoking policies. The objective of this study was to develop a new method to assess OTS exposure. This study was conducted at 100 bus stops including 50 centerline bus stops and 50 roadside bus stops in Seoul, Korea. Using real-time aerosol monitor, PM2.5 was measured for 30 min at each bus stop in two seasons. ‘Peak analysis' method was developed to assess short term PM2.5 exposure by OTS. The 30-min average PM2.5 exposure at each bus stop was associated with season and bus stop location but not smoking activity. The PM2.5 peak occurrence rate by the peak analysis method was significantly associated with season, bus stop location, observed smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. The PM2.5 peak concentration was significantly associated with season, smoking occurrence, and the number of buses servicing a route. When a smoker was standing still at the bus stop, magnitude of peak concentrations were significantly higher than when the smoker walking-through the bus stop. People were exposed to high short-term PM2.5 peak levels at bus stops, and the magnitude of peak concentrations were highest when a smoker was located close to the monitor. The magnitude of peak concentration was a good indicator helped distinguish nearby OTS exposure. Further research using ‘peak analysis' is needed to measure smoking-related exposure to PM2.5 in other outdoor locations.

  14. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Gastric Cancer Risk among Vietnamese Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Thi Minh Lai

    Full Text Available The association of waterpipe tobacco (WPT smoking with gastric cancer (GC risk was suggested.A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to examine the association of WPT with GC risk among Vietnamese men, in Hanoi city, during the period of 2003-2011. Newly-diagnosed GC cases (n = 454 and control patients (n = 628 were matched by age (+/- 5 years and the year of hospitalization. Information on smoking and alcohol drinking habits and diet including salty food intake and fruits/vegetables consumption were obtained by the interview. Maximum likelihood estimates of odds ratios (ORs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (Cis were obtained using conditional logistic regression models.The group with the highest consumption of citrus fruits showed a significantly low GC risk (OR = 0.6, 95%CI = 0.4-0.8, P for trend = 0.002. However, there was no association of raw vegetable consumption with GC risk. Referring to never smokers, GC risk was significantly higher in current WPT smokers (OR = 1.8, 95%CI = 1.3-2.4, and it was more evident in exclusively WPT smokers (OR = 2.7, 95%CI = 1.2-6.5. GC risk tended to be higher with daily frequency and longer duration of WPT smoking but these trends were not statistically significant (P for trend: 0.144 and 0.154, respectively. GC risk of those who started smoking WPT before the age of 25 was also significantly high (OR = 3.7, 95%CI = 1.2-11.3. Neither cigarette smoking nor alcohol drinking was related to GC risk.The present findings revealed that WPT smoking was positively associated with GC risk in Vietnamese men.

  15. Initial reactions to tobacco and cannabis smoking: A twin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arpana; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Heath, Andrew C.; Lynskey, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Initial subjective reactions to cannabis and tobacco, broadly classified as positive or negative, have previously been explored for their associations with onset and maintenance of subsequent abuse/dependence. We examine (a) the factorial architecture of self-reported initial reactions to cannabis and tobacco; (b) whether these factors associate with concurrently reported age at onset of DSM-IV diagnosis of nicotine dependence and cannabis abuse/dependence; and (c) estimate heritable variation in and covariation between the factors. Design Factorial and exploratory structural equation modeling was conducted to examine the factor structure of initial reactions. Cox proportional hazards modeling was employed to examine their association with time to onset of diagnosis of DSM-IV nicotine dependence and cannabis abuse/dependence. Classical twin modeling, using univariate and multivariate models, was used to parse variance in each factor (and the covariance between factors) to their additive genetic, shared environmental and non-shared environmental sources. Setting and Participants General population sample of Caucasian female twins aged 18–32 years, with a lifetime history of tobacco [N=2393] and cannabis [N=1445] use. Measurement Self-report of initial subjective reactions to tobacco (cigarettes) and cannabis the first time they were used and time to onset of lifetime history of DSM-IV diagnosis of abuse (cannabis) and dependence (cannabis or nicotine). Findings Factors representing putatively positive and negative reactions to cannabis and tobacco emerged. Initial reactions to tobacco were associated with onset of DSM-IV diagnosis of nicotine dependence and cannabis abuse/dependence while initial reactions to cannabis were associated with onset of DSM-IV diagnosis of cannabis abuse/dependence alone. Genetic factors played a moderate role in each factor (heritability of 27–35%, p < 0.05) with the remaining variance attributed to individual

  16. Effects of pro- and anti-tobacco advertising on nonsmoking adolescents' intentions to smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Diane M; Hills, Nancy K; Thompson, Pamela J; Moscicki, Anna Barbara

    2003-01-01

    To determine the effects of pro- and anti-tobacco advertising on nonsmoking adolescents' intention to smoke in a single cohort. All ninth graders at seven public high schools were invited to participate in a study on adolescent tobacco use; 59.0% participated (n = 1229; active positive parental consent required). Adolescents who self-identified as never having smoked even a puff of a cigarette (n = 512) completed a self-administered questionnaire that included questions on intention to smoke in the near future and tobacco advertising. Independent variables used to predict intention included exposure to, recognition of, and receptivity and attitudes toward pro-tobacco and anti-tobacco advertising. Potential confounding variables included gender, race/ethnicity, smoking influences (adult household members, siblings, and friends), socioeconomic status, stress, and depression. Data analysis used logistic regression. 50.5% female, average age 14.9 +/- 0.4 years old at baseline, and varied race. Those variables found to be significant predictors of intention to smoke included: (positive, or increased intention) recognition of brand of favorite advertisement, willingness to use or wear tobacco-branded products, stress, and having friends who smoke and (negative, or decreased intention) agreement with anti-tobacco advertising and having a live-in father who smokes. Although anti-tobacco advertising has a protective effect, it was unable to counteract the effects of pro-tobacco advertising in the same cohort. Copyright Society for Adolescent Medicine, 2003

  17. Prevalence and correlates of waterpipe tobacco smoking by college students in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, Erin L; McCoy, Thomas P; Reboussin, Beth A; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2011-05-01

    Known most commonly in the U.S. as "hookah," waterpipe tobacco smoking appears to be growing among college students. Despite beliefs that waterpipe use is safer than cigarette smoking, research to date (albeit limited) has found health risks of waterpipe smoking are similar to those associated with cigarette smoking, including lung cancer, respiratory illness, and periodontal disease. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of use among a large, multi-institution sample of college students and identify correlates of waterpipe use, including other health-risk behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use) and availability of commercial waterpipe tobacco smoking venues. A cross-sectional sample of 3770 college students from eight universities in North Carolina completed a web-based survey in fall 2008. Forty percent of the sample reported ever having smoked tobacco from a waterpipe, and 17% reported current (past 30-day) waterpipe tobacco smoking. Correlates associated with current waterpipe use included demographic factors (male gender, freshman class); other health-risk behaviors (daily and nondaily cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, other illicit drug use); perceiving waterpipe tobacco smoking as less harmful than regular cigarettes; and having a commercial waterpipe venue near campus. The results highlight the popularity of waterpipe tobacco smoking among college students and underscore the need for more research to assess the public health implications of this growing trend. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Daughters of Mothers Who Smoke: A Population-based Cohort Study of Maternal Prenatal Tobacco use and Subsequent Prenatal Smoking in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Collette N; Mueller, Beth A

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to tobacco is associated with adverse health outcomes for the mother and child, and has been associated with an increased risk of tobacco smoking and nicotine dependence in offspring. The objective of this study was to examine the risk of prenatal smoking, among daughters, associated with maternal prenatal smoking. We used a population-based cohort study design, with linked vital records data of mothers and daughters delivering 1984-96 and 1996-2013, respectively, in Washington State. The exposure of interest was mothers' prenatal smoking (any vs. no smoking at any time during pregnancy), while the outcome was daughters' prenatal smoking (similarly assessed). We used multivariable log-binomial regression to obtain estimates of the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Daughters exposed to maternal prenatal smoking were more likely to smoke during their pregnancy, compared to unexposed daughters (RR 1.78, 95% CI 1.72, 1.84, adjusted for the year the daughter delivered, her marital status and educational attainment, and the mothers' race/ethnicity). In this relatively young population, we found that daughters exposed to maternal prenatal smoking have an increased risk of smoking later on during their own pregnancy, emphasizing the importance of exposures during the prenatal period. The mechanisms leading to prenatal smoking are multifactorial and likely include behavioural, genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. An understanding of this risk factor for prenatal smoking may guide health care providers to better target smoking cessation interventions to at-risk populations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Adult onset asthma and interaction between genes and active tobacco smoking : The GABRIEL consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, J. M.; Scholtens, S.; Postma, D. S.; Moffatt, M. F.; Jarvis, D.; Ramasamy, A.; Wjst, M.; Omenaas, E. R.; Bouzigon, E.; Demenais, F.; Nadif, R.; Siroux, V.; Polonikov, A. V.; Solodilova, M.; Ivanov, V. P.; Curjuric, I.; Imboden, M.; Kumar, A; Probst-Hensch, N.; Ogorodova, L. M.; Puzyrev, V. P.; Bragina, E. Yu; Freidin, M. B.; Nolte, I. M.; Farrall, A. M.; Cookson, W. O. C. M.; Strachan, D. P.; Koppelman, G. H.; Boezen, H. M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified novel genetic associations for asthma, but without taking into account the role of active tobacco smoking. This study aimed to identify novel genes that interact with ever active tobacco smoking in adult onset asthma. METHODS: We performed

  20. Effect of tobacco smoking on human gingival and periodontal fibroblasts. A systematic review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyganowska-Swiatkowska, Marzena; Nohawica, Michal Marek

    2015-01-01

    Influence of smoking tobacco on the oral cavity has been showcased, based on a review of the relevant literature. The effect of tobacco smoke, as well as its components, on the morphology and motility of human gingival and periodontal ligament fibroblasts in health, periodontal disease, and in neoplasms, has been described.

  1. Periodontitis associated with tobacco smoking among rural Khon Kaen Thai males: analysis of two data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatrchaiwiwatana, Supaporn; Ratanasiri, Amornrat

    2009-11-01

    Periodontitis is a common disease-related reason for tooth extraction. Although several studies have related tobacco smoking to periodontitis among other populations, not many investigations concerning the relationship between tobacco smoking and periodontitis among rural northeastern Thai people have been conducted although tobacco smoking is a common practice among these Thai people. The present study used two existing data sets to evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and periodontitis among rural Khon Kaen Thai males. Cross-sectional analytic study. The study populations for phase I and phase II comprised a total of 625 males, aged 30-89 years, residing in five districts of Khon Kaen province, Thailand during 1990-91 and 1,218 males, aged 33-86 years, residing in Chonnabot district, Khon Kaen province, Thailand during 1992-94, respectively. The data were obtained through oral examination and interview. The analyses employed descriptive, bivariate, and multivariable logistic regression. Findings from final multivariable logistic regression models identified tobacco smoking as a risk indicator for periodontitis in the presence of several factors in the final models including age, gingival bleeding, debris deposits, and missing teeth. It is evident that tobacco smoking is a risk indicator for periodontitis and that tobacco smoking, which is directly associated with periodontitis among these populations, could enhance the possibility of increasing periodontitis and tooth extraction. Therefore, targeted interventions aimed at encouraging people to quit smoking tobacco would help in maintain favorable oral health.

  2. Design of Classroom Intervention for Teaching Preschoolers to Identify and Avoid Inhaling Secondhand Tobacco Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabro, Karen S.; Le, Thuan A.; Marani, Salma K.; Tamí-Maury, Irene; Czerniak, Katarzyna; Khalil, Georges E.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is caused by burning tobacco products that emit up to 7000 chemicals and over 70 carcinogenic compounds. Thirdhand smoke (THS) is solid residue remaining on furniture and carpets, including suspended particles derived from a burned tobacco product. Exposure to these compounds occurs through inhalation, oral ingestion, or…

  3. Belief-based Tobacco Smoking Scale: Evaluating the PsychometricProperties of the Theory of Planned Behavior’s Constructs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Majid Barati; Hamid Allahverdipour; Alireza Hidarnia; Shamsodin Niknami; Saeed Bashirian

    2015-01-01

    ...’ beliefs regarding tobacco smoking in the Iranian society. This study aimed to evaluate the validity, reliability and feasibility of the belief-based tobacco smoking scale using the Theory of Planned Behavior’s (TPB...

  4. Infertility, Pregnancy Loss and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Relation to Maternal Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D; Benedict, Merle D

    2013-02-01

    A substantial proportion of the etiology involved in female infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes remains idiopathic. Recent scientific research has suggested a role for environmental factors in these conditions. Secondhand tobacco smoke (STS) contains a number of known or suspected reproductive toxins, and human exposure to STS is prevalent worldwide. Robust evidence exists for the toxic effects of active smoking on fertility and pregnancy, but studies of passive exposure are much more limited in number. While the association between maternal STS exposure and declined birth weight has been fairly well-documented, only recently have epidemiologic studies begun to provide suggestive evidence for delayed conception, altered menstrual cycling, early pregnancy loss (e.g. spontaneous abortion), preterm delivery, and congenital malformations in relation to STS exposure. There is also new evidence that developmental exposures to tobacco smoke may be associated with reproductive effects in adulthood. To date, most studies have estimated maternal STS exposure through self-report even though exposure biomarkers are less prone to error and recall bias. In addition to utilizing biomarkers of STS exposure, future studies should aim to identify vital windows of STS exposure, important environmental co-exposures, individual susceptibility factors, and specific STS constituents associated with female infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The role of paternal exposures/factors should also be investigated.

  5. Pre-adolescent Receptivity to Tobacco Marketing and Its Relationship to Acquiring Friends Who Smoke and Cigarette Smoking Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, David R; Messer, Karen; Hartman, Sheri J; Nodora, Jesse; Vera, Lisa; White, Martha M; Leas, Eric; Pharris-Ciurej, Nikolas; Borek, Nicolette; Pierce, John P

    2017-10-01

    This study extends research on receptivity to tobacco marketing over a key developmental period for cigarette smoking experimentation. The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of receptivity to tobacco marketing and exposure to friends who smoke on smoking experimentation. Participants were 10 to 13 years old who had never tried cigarettes (n = 878), interviewed six times at 8-month intervals. At baseline, 25% percent of the 10 and 11 years old in the sample of never smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing, while less than 5% had friends who smoked. Having a friend who smoked at study baseline and acquiring such friends for the first time during the study were the strongest predictors of smoking experimentation. Initial receptivity to tobacco marketing increased the risk of smoking experimentation independently of having friends who smoke at baseline or acquiring friends who smoke throughout the study period. The high level of receptivity observed even among 10 and 11 years old and its robust relationship with cigarette smoking experimentation independent of the significant risk associated with having friends who smoke suggests that successful prevention of receptivity may require intervention at an early age.

  6. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Open and Semi-Open Settings: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Xisca; López, María J.; Nebot, Manel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Some countries have recently extended smoke-free policies to particular outdoor settings; however, there is controversy regarding whether this is scientifically and ethically justifiable. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to review research on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in outdoor settings. Data sources: We conducted different searches in PubMed for the period prior to September 2012. We checked the references of the identified papers, and conducted a similar search in Google Scholar. Study selection: Our search terms included combinations of “secondhand smoke,” “environmental tobacco smoke,” “passive smoking” OR “tobacco smoke pollution” AND “outdoors” AND “PM” (particulate matter), “PM2.5” (PM with diameter ≤ 2.5 µm), “respirable suspended particles,” “particulate matter,” “nicotine,” “CO” (carbon monoxide), “cotinine,” “marker,” “biomarker” OR “airborne marker.” In total, 18 articles and reports met the inclusion criteria. Results: Almost all studies used PM2.5 concentration as an SHS marker. Mean PM2.5 concentrations reported for outdoor smoking areas when smokers were present ranged from 8.32 to 124 µg/m3 at hospitality venues, and 4.60 to 17.80 µg/m3 at other locations. Mean PM2.5 concentrations in smoke-free indoor settings near outdoor smoking areas ranged from 4 to 120.51 µg/m3. SHS levels increased when smokers were present, and outdoor and indoor SHS levels were related. Most studies reported a positive association between SHS measures and smoker density, enclosure of outdoor locations, wind conditions, and proximity to smokers. Conclusions: The available evidence indicates high SHS levels at some outdoor smoking areas and at adjacent smoke-free indoor areas. Further research and standardization of methodology is needed to determine whether smoke-free legislation should be extended to outdoor settings. PMID:23651671

  7. Tobacco-stained fingers: a clue for smoking-related disease or harmful alcohol use? A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Gregor; Pasche, Sephora; Rothen, Nicole; Charmoy, Alexia; Delhumeau-Cartier, Cécile; Genné, Daniel

    2013-11-07

    Tobacco stain on fingers is frequent. However, there is scarce description of this clinical sign. We aimed to explore tobacco stain on fingers as a marker of tobacco-related disease independent of cumulative tobacco exposure, and to find behavioural and environmental characteristics associated with those stains. Case-control study. A Swiss community hospital of 180 beds. 49 adults presenting tobacco-tars staining on fingers were matched to 49 control smokers by age, gender, height and pack-year (PY). Documented smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also determined by lung function, were compared between groups. Association between harmful alcohol use, mental disorders or unemployment and tar-staining was adjusted for smoking behaviour through conditional logistic regression. Overall cigarette-related disease was high in the case group (84%), and symptomatic peripheral arterial disease was more frequent compared to controls (OR 3.5, CI 95% 1.1 to 14.6). Smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and COPD were not statistically different for control smokers. Harmful alcohol use was strongly associated with stains and this association persists after adjustment for smoking unfiltered cigarettes, smoking more than one pack of cigarettes in a day and age at smoking onset (adjusted OR 4.6, CI 95% 1.2 to 17.2). Mental disorders and unemployment were not statistically significant. Patients with tobacco-tar-stained fingers frequently have cigarette-related disease, however statistically not more than control smokers matched for PY, except for symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. This study suggests a link between stained fingers and addictive behaviour or concomitant high alcohol consumption.

  8. Potential health effects of tobacco smoking in Uganda and how to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the existence of World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control as well as national laws restricting tobacco use in various countries, the rate of smoking is increasing at a tremendous state especially in developing countries among the adolescents. This means that many tobacco's future ...

  9. A Correlative Study of Smokeless Tobacco induced Lesion and Smoke-induced Leukoplakia in Various Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parita K Chitroda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various oral mucosal lesions are attributed to tobacco use. The presence of these conditions vanes with particular type of tobacco used (smoking or smokeless and the form in which it is used, such as cigarettes, pipes, cigars and chewing moist snuff. The frequency and duration of use as well as the ways in which the tobacco product is used also contributes to the clinical presentation and seventy of the lesion. The present study is mainly focused on the correlation between the smokeless tobacco-induced lesion and smoke-induced leukoplakia on various aspects with an objective to determine smokeless tobacco as a possible cause for leukoplakia.

  10. Dark nights behind the white clouds - risks of tobacco smoking on human health besides the oral health and malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Zainul, Zarin

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the common practice in a large percentage of the population worldwide, and the incidence is continuously increasing. Tobacco smoking is the most preventable cause of lung cancer, and it also impairs oral health. People are aware of the carcinogenic effects of tobacco smoking on the lungs and oral cavity, but it is also a risk factor for many other harmful diseases. This review article covers most of the diseases that are associated with tobacco smoking, such as coronary art...

  11. Exploring the Predictive Validity of the Susceptibility to Smoking Construct for Tobacco Cigarettes, Alternative Tobacco Products, and E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Adam G; Kennedy, Ryan David; Chaurasia, Ashok; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-12-06

    Within tobacco prevention programming, it is useful to identify youth that are at risk for experimenting with various tobacco products and e-cigarettes. The susceptibility to smoking construct is a simple method to identify never-smoking students that are less committed to remaining smoke-free. However, the predictive validity of this construct has not been tested within the Canadian context or for the use of other tobacco products and e-cigarettes. This study used a large, longitudinal sample of secondary school students that reported never using tobacco cigarettes and non-current use of alternative tobacco products or e-cigarettes at baseline in Ontario, Canada. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the susceptibility construct for predicting tobacco cigarette, e-cigarette, cigarillo or little cigar, cigar, hookah, and smokeless tobacco use one and two years after baseline measurement were calculated. At baseline, 29.4% of the sample was susceptible to future tobacco product or e-cigarette use. The sensitivity of the construct ranged from 43.2% (smokeless tobacco) to 59.5% (tobacco cigarettes), the specificity ranged from 70.9% (smokeless tobacco) to 75.9% (tobacco cigarettes), and the positive predictive value ranged from 2.6% (smokeless tobacco) to 32.2% (tobacco cigarettes). Similar values were calculated for each measure of the susceptibility construct. A significant number of youth that did not currently use tobacco products or e-cigarettes at baseline reported using tobacco products and e-cigarettes over a two-year follow-up period. The predictive validity of the susceptibility construct was high and the construct can be used to predict other tobacco product and e-cigarette use among youth. This study presents the predictive validity of the susceptibility construct for the use of tobacco cigarettes among secondary school students in Ontario, Canada. It also presents a novel use of the susceptibility construct for

  12. Geospatial analysis on the distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Sze Hang; Jha, Prabhat; Gupta, Prakash C; Kumar, Rajesh; Dikshit, Rajesh; Sinha, Dhirendra

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking and binge alcohol drinking are two of the leading risk factors for premature mortality worldwide. In India, studies have examined the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking only at the state-level; sub-state variations and the spatial association between the two consumptions are poorly understood. We used data from the Special Fertility and Mortality Survey conducted in 1998 to examine the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking at the district and postal code levels. We used kriging interpolation to generate smoking and drinking distributions at the postal code level. We also examined spatial autocorrelations and identified spatial clusters of high and low prevalence of smoking and drinking. Finally, we used bivariate analyses to examine the spatial correlations between smoking and drinking, and between cigarette and bidi smoking. There was a high prevalence of any smoking in the central and northeastern states, and a high prevalence of any drinking in Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, and eastern Madhya Pradesh. Spatial clusters of early smoking (started smoking before age 20) were identified in the central states. Cigarette and bidi smoking showed distinctly different geographic patterns, with high levels of cigarette smoking in the northeastern states and high levels of bidi smoking in the central states. The geographic pattern of bidi smoking was similar to early smoking. Cigarette smoking was spatially associated with any drinking. Smoking prevalences in 1998 were correlated with prevalences in 2004 at the district level and 2010 at the state level. These results along with earlier evidence on the complementarities between tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking suggest that local public health action on smoking might also help to reduce alcohol consumption, and vice versa. Surveys that properly represent tobacco and alcohol consumptions at the district level are recommended.

  13. Geospatial analysis on the distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Hang Fu

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking and binge alcohol drinking are two of the leading risk factors for premature mortality worldwide. In India, studies have examined the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking only at the state-level; sub-state variations and the spatial association between the two consumptions are poorly understood.We used data from the Special Fertility and Mortality Survey conducted in 1998 to examine the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking at the district and postal code levels. We used kriging interpolation to generate smoking and drinking distributions at the postal code level. We also examined spatial autocorrelations and identified spatial clusters of high and low prevalence of smoking and drinking. Finally, we used bivariate analyses to examine the spatial correlations between smoking and drinking, and between cigarette and bidi smoking.There was a high prevalence of any smoking in the central and northeastern states, and a high prevalence of any drinking in Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, and eastern Madhya Pradesh. Spatial clusters of early smoking (started smoking before age 20 were identified in the central states. Cigarette and bidi smoking showed distinctly different geographic patterns, with high levels of cigarette smoking in the northeastern states and high levels of bidi smoking in the central states. The geographic pattern of bidi smoking was similar to early smoking. Cigarette smoking was spatially associated with any drinking. Smoking prevalences in 1998 were correlated with prevalences in 2004 at the district level and 2010 at the state level.These results along with earlier evidence on the complementarities between tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking suggest that local public health action on smoking might also help to reduce alcohol consumption, and vice versa. Surveys that properly represent tobacco and alcohol consumptions at the district level are recommended.

  14. Geospatial Analysis on the Distributions of Tobacco Smoking and Alcohol Drinking in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sze Hang Fu; Prabhat Jha; Gupta, Prakash C; Rajesh Kumar; Rajesh Dikshit; Dhirendra Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking and binge alcohol drinking are two of the leading risk factors for premature mortality worldwide. In India, studies have examined the geographic distributions of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking only at the state-level; sub-state variations and the spatial association between the two consumptions are poorly understood. Methodology We used data from the Special Fertility and Mortality Survey conducted in 1998 to examine the geographic distributions of tobacco smo...

  15. Biomarkers of genotoxicity of air pollution (the AULIS project): bulky DNA adducts in subjects with moderate to low exposures to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their relationship to environmental tobacco smoke and other parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, P.; Topinka, J.; Stoikidou, M.

    2001-01-01

    The levels of bulky DNA adducts were measured by (32)P-post-labelling in lymphocytes of 194 non-smoking students living in the city of Athens and the region of Halkida, Greece, once in the winter and again in the following summer. Personal exposures to particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic...... hydrocarbons (PAH) were significantly higher in Athens subjects during both seasons. There was hardly any diagonal radioactive zone in the pattern of DNA adducts observed. Highest adduct levels were observed in a sub-group of subjects living in or near the Halkida Institute campus, which was located in rural...... tobacco smoke (ETS), namely (i) declared times of exposure to ETS during the 24 h prior to blood donation, (ii) plasma cotinine levels and (iii) chrysene/benzo[g,h,i]perylene ratios in the profile of personal PAH exposure. Furthermore, among the Halkida campus area subjects (but not the remaining subjects...

  16. A systematic review on the impact of point-of-sale tobacco promotion on smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay; McGee, Rob; Marsh, Louise; Hoek, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The tobacco retail environment is a crucial marketing medium for the industry. A 2009 review found evidence of a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco promotion and increased smoking and smoking susceptibility, though limitations in the evidence base were identified. We reviewed and critically appraised recent evidence documenting the influence of POS tobacco promotion, and POS tobacco display bans, on smoking-related behavior and cognitions. We reviewed original quantitative and qualitative research that examined the relationship between POS tobacco promotion and smoking prevalence, individual-level smoking and quitting and tobacco purchasing behavior, smoking susceptibility, and smoking-related cognitions. Twenty peer-reviewed studies (18 quantitative and 2 qualitative) met the inclusion criteria; each study reported findings consistent with a positive association between exposure to POS tobacco promotion and smoking or smoking susceptibility. Several studies met key criteria for causality: 4 indicated a dose-response association, 2 prospective studies were identified, and evidence from intervention studies supported the reversibility of the association. Findings were consistent across different study designs, settings, and measures. The existing evidence supports a positive association between exposure to POS tobacco promotion and smoking. This review provides evidence to support the continuation of POS tobacco display bans in those jurisdictions where such legislation has been introduced and strengthens the evidence encouraging similar policies in jurisdictions without a POS display ban. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Tobacco Smoking among Intermediate and Secondary School Students in Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the prevalence of and characteristics associated with tobacco smoking; (ii) identify the factors associated with tobacco smoking; and (iii) evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia.…

  18. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adolescents: trends and intervention results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, S P; Gilchrist, L D; Schilling, R F; Senechal, V A

    1986-01-01

    Data from a 2-year study describe tobacco use trends, perceptions, and prevention effects for 1,281 5th and 6th graders enrolled in 12 randomly selected Washington State elementary schools. Youths were pretested, then randomly divided by school into skills, discussion, and control groups. Preventive intervention curriculums for the skills and discussion groups included age-relevant information on smoked and smokeless tobacco use, peer testimonials, debates, games, and homework. Youths in the skills group also learned communication and problem-solving methods for handling difficult situations around tobacco use. Following intervention, youths were posttested, then retested semiannually for 2 years. During the 2-year study, three-quarters of all smokers and nonusers and half of all smokeless tobacco users maintained their statuses. Only 10 percent of all smokers and 3 percent of all smokeless users quit their habits. One in six reported new tobacco use, one-third of smokers began using smokeless tobacco, and two-thirds of all smokeless users began smoking during the study. Most youths at final measurement perceived smokeless tobacco as less of a health risk than smoking. Nearly one in two of all smokeless users intended to smoke, and two-thirds were actually smoking at 24-month followup. Both smoked and smokeless tobacco use rates increased in all groups, and youths in the skills intervention group consistently showed the lowest rates relative to the other groups. These findings demonstrate the potential of skills intervention methods for lowering tobacco use rates among adolescents.

  19. Nicotine quantity and packaging disclosure in smoked and smokeless tobacco products in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyamvada; Murthy, Pratima; Shivhare, Parul

    2015-01-01

    A variety of smoked and smokeless tobacco products with varying nicotine content are accessible in India. Nicotine quantity in tobacco products has direct bearing on tobacco dependence. Our objective was to estimate nicotine content in various types of smoked and smokeless products. Disclosure for essential health warning was also checked. Liquid-liquid extraction was used for nicotine extraction and high-performance thin layer chromatography technique was applied for quantification of nicotine in seventy-one smoked and smokeless tobacco products. Significant variation in nicotine content was observed across products. In smoked tobacco, nicotine content varied from 1.01 to 13.0 mg/rod, while in smokeless tobacco products it ranged from 0.8 mg/g to 50.0 mg/g. Moisture content varied from 9% to 21%. This work lists a range of smoked and smokeless tobacco products available in this region. We report a wide variability in nicotine quantity across smoked and smokeless tobacco products. Such variation in nicotine content may have important implications for tobacco cessation interventions and policies.

  20. Receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control messages and adolescent smoking initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emory, Kristen T; Messer, Karen; Vera, Lisa; Ojeda, Norma; Elder, John P; Usita, Paula; Pierce, John P

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco industry cigarette advertising is associated with increased adolescent smoking, while counter tobacco advertising is associated with reduced smoking. As these campaigns compete for influence, there is a need to understand their inter-relationship on youth smoking. Methods This study reports data from a national population of families (n=1036) with an oldest child aged 10–13 years, identified by random digit dialling. Parent and child dyads completed baseline questionnaires in 2003. Adolescents were resurveyed in 2007–2008 (response rate 74%). Adjusted logistic regression explores associations between receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. Results In 2007–2008, 57.9% of adolescents reported a favourite tobacco control advertisement and 43.3% reported being receptive to cigarette advertisements. Thirty per cent reported receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertisements. Among those receptive to cigarette advertising, having a favourite anti-smoking advertisement had a borderline significant association with a 30% lower smoking rate. Anti-industry tobacco control messages were three times more likely to be favourites of those who were receptive to cigarette advertising than other tobacco control advertising. Conclusions Receptivity to tobacco control advertising appeared to ameliorate the promotion of initiation from cigarette advertising. Anti-industry advertising appears to be the most effective counter for tobacco control and should be considered for wider use. A larger longitudinal study is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24503771

  1. Prevalence and determinants of adolescent tobacco smoking in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Abdurahman

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is a growing public health problem in the developing world. There is paucity of data on smoking and predictors of smoking among school-going adolescents in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associations among school-going adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS 2003 were used to determine smoking prevalence, determinants, attitudes to, and exposure to tobacco advertisements among adolescents. Results Of the 1868 respondents, 4.5% males and 1% females reported being current smokers (p Conclusion Prevalence of smoking among adolescents in Ethiopia is lower than in many other African countries. There is however need to strengthen anti-tobacco messages especially among adolescents.

  2. The Risk of Hypertension and Other Chronic Diseases: Comparing Smokeless Tobacco with Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Anand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn the past, studies have compared smokeless tobacco and non-tobacco users for the risk of various chronic diseases. The differences in the risk of chronic diseases between smokeless tobacco user and smokers have not been explored. The objective of this study is to estimate the risk of chronic diseases among smokeless tobacco users compared to smokers.MethodsThe data were used from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE Wave-1, conducted in 2007–2008 in India. The study sample is the respondents who reported consuming any form of tobacco in last 1 month. The total sample size was 4,038 respondents. The odds ratio of chronic morbidities was estimated taking smokers as the reference category.ResultsThe odds ratios for (self-reported diabetes, asthma, and hypertension were not significant for smokeless tobacco user compared to smoked tobacco users. The odds ratio of chronic lung diseases (CLDs was significantly lower among smokeless tobacco users compared to smoked tobacco users. The odds ratio of hypertension (measured combined with low education and belonging to lowest wealth quintiles were not significant for smokeless tobacco users compared to smoked tobacco users. Duration of the use of smokeless tobacco and quantity of use was found to have no significant relation with risk of chronic diseases as compared to smoking.ConclusionThis study did not find the significantly higher risk of chronic morbidities except for CLD for smokeless tobacco users compared to smoked tobacco users. The study suggests that the use of any form of tobacco may have a similar risk of chronic diseases.

  3. Smoking cessation and tobacco prevention in Indigenous populations

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    Adrian Esterman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article systematically reviews 91 smoking cessation and tobacco prevention studies tailored for Indigenous populations around the world, with a particular focus on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations in Australia. We identified several components of effective interventions, including the use of multifaceted programs that simultaneously address the behavioural, psychological and biochemical aspects of addiction, using resources culturally tailored for the needs of individual Indigenous populations. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation was effective when combined with culturally tailored behavioural interventions and health professional support, though it is generally underused in clinical practice. From a policy perspective, interventions of greater intensity, with more components, were more likely to be effective than those of lower intensity and shorter duration. For any new policy it is important to consider community capacity building, development of knowledge, and sustainability of the policy beyond guided implementation. Future research should address how the intervention can be supported into standard practice, policy, or translation into the front-line of clinical care. Investigations are also required to determine the efficacy of emerging therapies (such as e-cigarettes and the use of social media to tackle youth smoking, and under-researched interventions that hold promise based on non-Indigenous studies, such as the use of Champix. We conclude that more methodologically rigorous investigations are required to determine components of the less-successful interventions to aid future policy, practice and research initiatives.

  4. Tobacco prevention policies in west-African countries and their effects on smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Volker; Lan, Yong; Becher, Heiko

    2015-12-08

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control was shown to effectively lower smoking prevalence in in high income countries, however knowledge for low and middle income settings is sparse. The objective of this study was to describe WHO MPOWER policy measures in thirteen West-African countries and to investigate their correlation with smoking prevalence. Age-standardized smoking prevalence data and policy measures were collected from various WHO reports. For analysis MPOWER measures from 2008 and 2010, were combined with prevalence data from 2009 and 2011. Multiple linear regression models were set up. In West-Africa mean smoking prevalence was approximately 20% among males and approximately 3% among females. Policy measures were mostly at a middle or low level. Regression analysis showed that tobacco cessation programs, health warnings on cigarettes, and higher price of cigarettes were negatively correlated with smoking prevalence. Significant effects were observed for only one policy measure (tobacco cessation programs) and only within the male population where smoking prevalence is generally higher. Tobacco control policies are enforced at relatively low levels in West-African countries. However, improving tobacco control policy implementation according to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control should assist in the reduction of smoking prevalence in African countries, thereby counteracting pro-smoking initiatives set forth by the tobacco industry.

  5. Perceptions of Smoking Prevalence by Youth in Countries With and Without a Tobacco Advertising Ban

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Dee; Graham, John W.; Johnson, C. Anderson; UUTELA, ANTTI; Vartiainen, Erkki; Palmer, Raymond F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a proposed mechanism by which exposure to cigarette advertising may mediate the subsequent smoking of youth. We hypothesized that children’s exposure to cigarette advertising leads them to overestimate the prevalence of smoking, and that these distorted perceptions, in turn, lead to increased intentions to smoke. Children in Finland, where there has been a total tobacco advertising ban since 1978, were compared with children in the United States at a time when tobacco adve...

  6. Associations of mental health problems with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking among college students

    OpenAIRE

    Primack, Brian A.; Land, Stephanie R.; Fan, Jieyu; Kim, Kevin H.; Rosen, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Associations between the emerging trend of waterpipe tobacco smoking and mental health among college students have not been sufficiently explored. This study analyzed data collected from 152 academic institutions that participated in the National College Health Assessment during the 2008–2009 academic year to examine associations between mental health and waterpipe tobacco smoking among college students (N=100,891). For comparison, cigarette smoking was also examined. Associations with mental...

  7. Scientific Research and Corporate Influence: Smoking, Mental Illness, and the Tobacco Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hirshbein, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Mentally ill individuals have always smoked at high rates and continue to do so, despite public health efforts to encourage smoking cessation. In the last half century, the tobacco industry became interested in this connection, and conducted and supported psychiatric and basic science research on the mental health implications of smoking, long before most mental health professionals outside the industry investigated this issue. Initially, representatives of tobacco industry research organizat...

  8. Relationship of tobacco smoking and smoking-related DNA methylation with epigenetic age acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xu; Zhang, Yan; Breitling, Lutz Philipp; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-07-26

    Recent studies have identified biomarkers of chronological age based on DNA methylation levels. Since active smoking contributes to a wide spectrum of aging-related diseases in adults, this study intended to examine whether active smoking exposure could accelerate the DNA methylation age in forms of age acceleration (AA, residuals of the DNA methylation age estimate regressed on chronological age). We obtained the DNA methylation profiles in whole blood samples by Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 Beadchip array in two independent subsamples of the ESTHER study and calculated their DNA methylation ages by two recently proposed algorithms. None of the self-reported smoking indicators (smoking status, cumulative exposure and smoking cessation time) or serum cotinine levels was significantly associated with AA. On the contrary, we successfully confirmed that 66 out of 150 smoking-related CpG sites were associated with AA, even after correction for multiple testing (FDR smoking index (SI) based on these loci and demonstrated a monotonic dose-response relationship of this index with AA. In conclusion, DNA methylation-based biological indicators for current and past smoking exposure, but not self-reported smoking information or serum cotinine levels, were found to be related to DNA methylation defined AA. Further research should address potential mechanisms underlying the observed patterns, such as potential reflections of susceptibility to environmental hazards in both smoking related methylation changes and methylation defined AA.

  9. A Comprehensive Examination of the Influence of State Tobacco Control Programs and Policies on Youth Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Brett R.; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joe; Kuiper, Nicole; Couzens, G. Lance; Dube, Shanta; Caraballo, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the influence of tobacco control policies (tobacco control program expenditures, smoke-free air laws, youth access law compliance, and cigarette prices) on youth smoking outcomes (smoking susceptibility, past-year initiation, current smoking, and established smoking). Methods. We combined data from the 2002 to 2008 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health with state and municipality population data from the US Census Bureau to assess the associations between state tobacco control policy variables and youth smoking outcomes, focusing on youths aged 12 to 17 years. We also examined the influence of policy variables on youth access when these variables were held at 2002 levels. Results. Per capita funding for state tobacco control programs was negatively associated with all 4 smoking outcomes. Smoke-free air laws were negatively associated with all outcomes except past-year initiation, and cigarette prices were associated only with current smoking. We found no association between these outcomes and retailer compliance with youth access laws. Conclusions. Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing youth smoking. PMID:23327252

  10. Youth Advocates’ Perceptions of Tobacco Industry Marketing Influences on Adolescent Smoking: Can They See the Signs?

    OpenAIRE

    Malinda Douglas; Andie Chan; Marilyn Sampilo

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-sale (POS) advertising at retail stores is one of the key marketing avenues used by the tobacco industry. The United States Surgeon General urges actions to eliminate POS tobacco advertisements because of their influence on youth smoking. Many youth empowerment programs are implemented to address tobacco industry marketing influences, including POS tobacco advertisements. While youth are asked to take on such collective action, little is known regarding their perceptions and understa...

  11. Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, E.; Nagelhout, G.E.; van den Putte, B.; Janssen, E.; Mons, U.; Guignard, R.; Beck, F.; de Vries, H.; Thrasher, J.F.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether awareness of tobacco control policies was associated with social unacceptability of smoking and whether social unacceptability had an effect on smoking cessation in three European countries. Representative samples (n = 3865) of adult smokers in France, the Netherlands and

  12. Impact of smoke-free law on tobacco consumption in Chandigarh: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, B S; Sidana, Ajeet; Kaushal, Tanuja

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco use is a major public health issue today and it is expected that 650 million smokers will die prematurely due to tobacco use. On 15 July 2007, Chandigarh became the first city to go smoke-free. However, there is no data on the impact of smoke-free law. The objective of the present study was therefore to study the pattern and prevalence of tobacco use and to examine the impact of smoke-free law in Chandigarh. Total sample comprised of 3000 subjects. Socio-demographic data sheet along with initial two questions from the General questionnaire were administered on each individual. In addition, all the tobacco users underwent administration of the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence or the Fagerstrom test for smokeless tobacco (smokeless tobacco users). There were 43.9% tobacco users in the sample of 3000 subjects. Out of these tobacco users, 357 (11.9%) were pure smokers and 370 (12.3%) were using smokeless tobacco and 590 (19.6%) used both. The mean number of cigarettes/bidis smoked per day was 14 (+8.64) and the mean age of starting smoking was 19.41 (SD + 4.5 years).73.2% of population was aware about implementation of smoke-free law and all the participants (100%) reported smoking in public places. 43.4% smokers reported thoughts of quitting nicotine. Although the prevalence of tobacco use in Chandigarh is lower than the national average but the rates are still alarming and need attention. The findings of this study will help in designing tobacco control strategies and understanding the epidemiology of tobacco related health burden.

  13. Exposure to tobacco smoke in utero or during early childhood and risk of hypomania: Prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D F; Anderson, J J; Pell, J P; Zammit, S; Smith, D J

    2017-01-01

    Using data from a prospective birth cohort, we aimed to test for an association between exposure to tobacco smoke in utero or during early development and the experience of hypomania assessed in young adulthood. We used data on 2957 participants from a large birth cohort (Avon longitudinal study of parents and children [ALSPAC]). The primary outcome of interest was hypomania, and the secondary outcome was "hypomania plus previous psychotic experiences (PE)". Maternally-reported smoking during pregnancy, paternal smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in childhood were the exposures of interest. Multivariable logistic regression was used and estimates of association were adjusted for socio-economic, lifestyle and obstetric factors. There was weak evidence of an association between exposure to maternal smoking in utero and lifetime hypomania. However, there was a strong association of maternal smoking during pregnancy within the sub-group of individuals with hypomania who had also experienced psychotic symptoms (OR=3.45; 95% CI: 1.49-7.98; P=0.004). There was no association between paternal smoking, or exposure to ETS during childhood, and hypomania outcomes. Exposure to smoking in utero may be a risk factor for more severe forms of psychopathology on the mood-psychosis spectrum, rather than DSM-defined bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Tobacco Smoking Using a Waterpipe (Hookah): What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissenberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Smoking tobacco using a waterpipe (hookah) is increasing worldwide and is remarkably common among adolescents and young adults in the United States. Contrary to misperceptions that waterpipe tobacco smoking presents fewer health risks than cigarette smoking, recent data demonstrate clearly that the smoke from a waterpipe contains many of the same toxicants that are in cigarettes, including the dependence-producing drug nicotine, cancer-causing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pulmonary disease–causing volatile aldehydes, and cardiovascular disease–causing carbon monoxide that can also lead to acute intoxication in waterpipe users. Because many anesthesia providers are likely treating waterpipe tobacco smokers, the goal of this AANA Journal Course is to describe a waterpipe, who uses a waterpipe to smoke tobacco, and the toxicants found in waterpipe smoke and waterpipe smokers. Based on available evidence, there is no indication that waterpipe tobacco smoking is any less risky to patient health than cigarette smoking. Anesthesia providers should begin to assess patients for this form of tobacco use explicitly and should consider addressing it as they do cigarette smoking, with the additional precaution of presurgery carboxyhemoglobin measurement. PMID:24133855

  15. Impact of tobacco smoke on upper airway dendritic cell accumulation and regulation by sinonasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jennifer K; O'Connell, Brendan P; Pasquini, Whitney; Mulligan, Ryan M; Smith, Sarah; Soler, Zachary M; Atkinson, Carl; Schlosser, Rodney J

    2017-08-01

    In these studies we examined the impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and active smoking on sinonasal dendritic cell (DC) subsets in controls or patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). In subsequent in-vitro investigations, we examined the influence of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on human sinonasal epithelial cells' (HSNECs) ability to regulate DC functions. Sinonasal tissue, blood, and hair were collected from patients undergoing sinus surgery. Smoking status and ETS exposure were determined by hair nicotine. DC subsets were examined by flow cytometric analysis. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) were treated with conditioned medium from non-smoked-exposed HSNECs (NS-HSNECs) or cigarette-smoke-extract-exposed HSNECs (CSE-HSNECs) to assess the impact of CSE exposure on HSNEC regulation of moDC functions. Control subjects who were active smokers displayed increased sinonasal moDC and myeloid dendritic 1 (mDC1) cells and reduced mDC2 cells, whereas, in CRSwNP patients, only moDC and mDC2 cells were altered. ETS was found to increase only moDCs in the CRSwNP patients. In vitro, CSE stimulated HSNEC secretion of the moDC regulatory products chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20, prostaglandin E2 , and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. CSE exposure also promoted HSNECs to stimulate monocyte and moDC migration. moDCs treated with CSE-HSNEC media stimulated an increase in antigen uptake and expression of CD80 and CD86. Last, CSE-HSNEC-treated moDCs secreted increased levels of interleukin-10, interferon-γ, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Active smoking, and to a lesser degree ETS, alters the sinonasal composition of DCs. A potential mechanism to account for this is that cigarette smoke stimulates HSNECs to induce moDC migration, maturation, and activation. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  16. A pilot study of concurrent lead and cotinine screening for childhood tobacco smoke exposure: effect on parental smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Anne; Murphy, Sharon; Thomas, Janet; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Wang, Qi; Briggs, Anna; Doyle, Brandon; Winickoff, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether a biomarker screening approach for tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) conducted concurrently with lead screening at well-child visits would increase parental smoking cessation and implementation of home smoking restrictions. Observational, quasi-experimental. Pediatric clinic in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Eighty parents who smoked and their children presenting for well-child visits. Children in the intervention group had serum cotinine measured with lead screening. Laboratory results were sent to providers and parents and a counselor proactively contacted parents to offer an eight-session telephone intervention to help parents stop smoking. The comparison group, a historical control, received usual care. Parental smoking, engagement in tobacco treatment, and home and car smoking policies 8 weeks later. Mean/standard deviation for continuous data or frequency/percentage for categorical data. Eighty-four percent of eligible parents agreed to have their child tested for TSE along with lead testing. Measurable cotinine was identified in 93% of children. More parents in the intervention group received tobacco treatment than in the comparison group (74% vs. 0%) and more parents reported 7-day point-prevalent abstinence from smoking at 8 weeks (29% vs. 3%). These data demonstrate the feasibility of adding cotinine measurement to routine well-child lead screening to document TSE in small children. Data suggest providing this information to parents increases engagement in tobacco treatment and prompts smoking cessation.

  17. Associations of mental health problems with waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Land, Stephanie R; Fan, Jieyu; Kim, Kevin H; Rosen, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    Associations between the emerging trend of waterpipe tobacco smoking and mental health among college students have not been sufficiently explored. This study analyzed data collected from 152 academic institutions that participated in the National College Health Assessment during the 2008-2009 academic year to examine associations between mental health and waterpipe tobacco smoking among college students (N = 100,891). For comparison, cigarette smoking was also examined. Associations with mental health variables were very strong for cigarette smoking but only moderate for waterpipe smoking. Study implications and limitations are noted.

  18. Prenatal Versus Postnatal Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Intensive Care Use in Children Hospitalized With Bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Michelle D; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Mowad, Eugene; Dunn, Michelle; Clark, Sunday; Piedra, Pedro A; Sullivan, Ashley F; Camargo, Carlos A

    2016-07-01

    Among children hospitalized with bronchiolitis, we examined the associations between in utero exposure to maternal cigarette smoking, postnatal tobacco smoke exposure, and risk of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). We performed a 16-center, prospective cohort study of hospitalized children aged smoke exposure (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.05-2.04). Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy puts children hospitalized with bronchiolitis at significantly higher risk of intensive care use. Postnatal tobacco smoke exposure may exacerbate this risk. Health care providers should incorporate this information into counseling messages. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tobacco smoking: how far do the legislative control measures address the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiloha, Ram C

    2012-01-01

    India ratified the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in February 2004 and enacted legislation called, "Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply and Distribution) Act 2003" which specifically called for an end to direct and indirect form of tobacco advertisements. Under its Section 7, the Act also stipulates depiction of pictorial health warnings on all tobacco products. Since the enactment of the legislation, the tobacco companies are prohibited from any kind of advertisement. However, studies show that the instances of showing smoking in movies have increased significantly to 89% after the implementation of the Act. The brand placement has been also increased nearly three folds. Association of tobacco with glamour and style has also been established. Seventy-five percent of movies have showed the lead character smoking tobacco. The instances of females consuming tobacco in movies have also increased, pointing toward a specific market expansion strategy by tobacco companies using movies as a vehicle. General public does not feel that banning tobacco scenes in the movie will affect their decision to watch movies or the quality of movies. It was found that favorable images through mass media created a considerable influence on youngsters and increased their receptivity to tobacco smoking. Pictorial warning on tobacco products is yet to start. Tobacco industry's opposition to tobacco health warnings is understandable as it will adversely affect their business. However, policymakers should not evade their responsibility to mandate strong health warnings on all tobacco product packs. Legal action against offenders, investigation of the relationship and financial irregularities between film-makers and tobacco industry, and recall of the movies showing tobacco brand are the important measures recommended.

  20. The role of public policies in reducing smoking prevalence: results from the Michigan SimSmoke tobacco policy simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Huang, An-Tsun; Havumaki, Joshua S; Meza, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Michigan has implemented several of the tobacco control policies recommended by the World Health Organization MPOWER goals. We consider the effect of those policies and additional policies consistent with MPOWER goals on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths (SADs). The SimSmoke tobacco control policy simulation model is used to examine the effect of past policies and a set of additional policies to meet the MPOWER goals. The model is adapted to Michigan using state population, smoking, and policy data starting in 1993. SADs are estimated using standard attribution methods. Upon validating the model, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 against a counterfactual with policies kept at their 1993 levels. The model is then used to project the effect of implementing stronger policies beginning in 2014. SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2010. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 22 % by 2013 and of 30 % by 2054 can be attributed to tobacco control policies. Of the 22 % reduction, 44 % is due to taxes, 28 % to smoke-free air laws, 26 % to cessation treatment policies, and 2 % to youth access. Moreover, 234,000 SADs are projected to be averted by 2054. With additional policies consistent with MPOWER goals, the model projects that, by 2054, smoking prevalence can be further reduced by 17 % with 80,000 deaths averted relative to the absence of those policies. Michigan SimSmoke shows that tobacco control policies, including cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, and cessation treatment policies, have substantially reduced smoking and SADs. Higher taxes, strong mass media campaigns, and cessation treatment policies would further reduce smoking prevalence and SADs.

  1. "Accommodating" smoke-free policies: tobacco industry's Courtesy of Choice programme in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-10-01

    To understand the implementation and effects of the Courtesy of Choice programme designed to "accommodate" smokers as an alternative to smoke-free policies developed by Philip Morris International (PMI) and supported by RJ Reynolds (RJR) and British American Tobacco (BAT) since the mid-1990s in Latin America. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, BAT "social reports", news reports and tobacco control legislation. Since the mid-1990s, PMI, BAT and RJR promoted Accommodation Programs to maintain the social acceptability of smoking. As in other parts of the world, multinational tobacco companies partnered with third party allies from the hospitality industry in Latin America. The campaign was extended from the hospitality industry (bars, restaurants and hotels) to other venues such as workplaces and airport lounges. A local public relations agency, as well as a network of engineers and other experts in ventilation systems, was hired to promote the tobacco industry's programme. The most important outcome of these campaigns in several countries was the prevention of meaningful smoke-free policies, both in public places and in workplaces. Courtesy of Choice remains an effective public relations campaign to undermine smoke-free policies in Latin America. The tobacco companies' accommodation campaign undermines the implementation of measures to protect people from second-hand smoke called for by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, perpetuating the exposure to tobacco smoke in indoor enclosed environments.

  2. Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

  3. Tobacco smoke carcinogens, DNA damage and p53 mutations in smoking-associated cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Gerd P; Denissenko, Mikhail F; Olivier, Magali; Tretyakova, Natalia; Hecht, Stephen S; Hainaut, Pierre

    2002-10-21

    It is estimated that cigarette smoking kills over 1 000 000 people each year by causing lung cancer as well as many other neoplasmas. p53 mutations are frequent in tobacco-related cancers and the mutation load is often higher in cancers from smokers than from nonsmokers. In lung cancers, the p53 mutational patterns are different between smokers and nonsmokers with an excess of G to T transversions in smoking-associated cancers. The prevalence of G to T transversions is 30% in smokers' lung cancer but only 12% in lung cancers of nonsmokers. A similar trend exists, albeit less marked, in laryngeal cancers and in head and neck cancers. This type of mutation is infrequent in most other tumors aside from hepatocellular carcinoma. At several p53 mutational hotspots common to all cancers, such as codons 248 and 273, a large fraction of the mutations are G to T events in lung cancers but are almost exclusively G to A transitions in non-tobacco-related cancers. Two important classes of tobacco smoke carcinogens are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the nicotine-derived nitrosamines. Recent studies have indicated that there is a strong coincidence of G to T transversion hotspots in lung cancers and sites of preferential formation of PAH adducts along the p53 gene. Endogenously methylated CpG dinucleotides are the preferred sites for G to T transversions, accounting for more than 50% of such mutations in lung tumors. The same dinucleotide, when present within CpG-methylated mutational reporter genes, is the target of G to T transversion hotspots in cells exposed to the model PAH compound benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide. As summarized here, a number of other tobacco smoke carcinogens also can cause G to T transversion mutations. The available data suggest that p53 mutations in lung cancers can be attributed to direct DNA damage from cigarette smoke carcinogens rather than to selection of pre-existing endogenous mutations.

  4. Characterization of Toxic Metals in Tobacco, Tobacco Smoke, and Cigarette Ash from Selected Imported and Local Brands in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma Ajab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, concentrations of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr were determined in tobacco, tobacco smoke-condensate, and cigarette ash for selected brands used in Pakistan. Smoking apparatus was designed for metal extraction from cigarette smoke. Samples were digested through microwave digester and then analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS. Higher concentration of Ni was detected in imported brands than the counterparts in the local brands. Pb levels were however higher in local brands while significant concentration of Cd was observed in both brands. For Cr, the level in tobacco of local brands was higher than their emitted smoke, whereas imported brands showed higher level in smoke than in tobacco. The cigarette ash retained 65 to 75% of the metal and about 25 to 30% went into the body. While this study revealed the serious requirement to standardize the manufacturing of tobacco products, more importantly is the urgent need for stronger enforcements to put in place to alert the general population about the hazardous effects of cigarettes and the health risks associated with these toxic metals.

  5. The role of tobacco control policies in reducing smoking and deaths caused by smoking in an Eastern European nation: results from the Albania SimSmoke simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Ross, Hana; Zaloshnja, Eduard; Shuperka, Roland; Rusta, Meriglena

    2008-12-01

    The Albania SimSmoke simulation model is used to examine the effects of tobacco control policies. The model is used to consider the projected trends in smoking prevalence and associated smoking-attributable deaths in the absence of new policies, and then to examine the effect of new policies that are consistent with the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) on these outcomes. The model shows that significant inroads to reducing smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tax increases. Acomprehensive strategy to further reduce smoking rates should include a media campaign complete with programs to publicize and enforce clean air laws, a comprehensive cessation treatment program, strong health warnings, advertising bans, and youth access laws. Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model helps to identify important information needed for both modeling and policymaking. The effectiveness of future tobacco control policy will require proper surveillance and evaluation schemes for Albania.

  6. Tobacco retailer density surrounding schools and youth smoking behaviour: a multi-level analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leatherdale Scott T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth smoking prevention should be a public health priority. It is not only vital to prevent youth from smoking but also to prevent non-smoking youth from becoming susceptible to smoking. Past research has examined factors associated with youth's susceptibility to become a future smoker, but research has yet to examine tobacco retailer density and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. The objectives of this study are to examine how tobacco retailer density surrounding schools and social smoking influences are associated with smoking susceptibility among youth of never smokers, and occasional and daily smoking among youth of current smokers. Methods Data were collected in 2005-2006 from grade 9 to 12 students attending 76 secondary schools in Ontario, Canada, as part of the SHAPES-On study. A series of multi-level logistic regression analyses were performed to understand how student- and school-level factors are associated with three smoking behaviour outcomes: smoking susceptibility among never smokers, occasional smoking, and daily smoking. Results The number of tobacco retailers surrounding a school was found to be associated with the likelihood of a never smoker being susceptible to future smoking (OR 1.03, 95CI% 1.01, 1.05. We also identified that being surrounded by smoking social influences, specifically family and close friends, can substantially increase the likelihood that never smokers are at risk for future smoking or that youth are already occasional or daily smokers. Conclusions We identified that the number of tobacco retailers surrounding a school was associated with an increased odds of being susceptible to future smoking among male never smokers. Smoking social models surrounding youth also appears to have an important impact on their smoking behaviour regardless of their smoking status. It is important for youth smoking prevention programs to begin early, interrupt youths' susceptibility to future

  7. Carcinogenic risk of lead-210 and polonium-210 in tobacco smoke: a selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, C.C.; Etnier, E.L.; Kirkscey, K.A.

    1978-05-01

    This bibliography is concerned with the possible carcinogenic risk to man from the presence of lead-210 and polonium-210 in tobacco smoke. It includes a data base on such topics as background levels of lead-210 and polonium-210 in tobacco and tobacco smoke, tobacco plant uptake of lead-210 and polonium-210 from soil, metabolic models, and dose estimates. This data base should be of interest to those concerned with assessing the health effects resulting from the emanation of radan-222 from natural and technologically enhanced sources.

  8. Association between use of contraband tobacco and smoking cessation outcomes: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecredy, Graham C; Diemert, Lori M; Callaghan, Russell C; Cohen, Joanna E

    2013-04-16

    High tobacco prices, typically achieved through taxation, are an evidence-based strategy to reduce tobacco use. However, the presence of inexpensive contraband tobacco could undermine this effective intervention by providing an accessible alternative to quitting. We assessed whether the use of contraband tobacco negatively affects smoking cessation outcomes. We evaluated data from 2786 people who smoked, aged 18 years or older, who participated in the population-based longitudinal Ontario Tobacco Survey. We analyzed associations between use of contraband tobacco and smoking cessation outcomes (attempting to quit, 30-d cessation and long-term cessation at 1 yr follow-up). Compared with people who smoked premium or discount cigarettes, people who reported usually smoking contraband cigarettes at baseline were heavier smokers, perceived greater addiction, identified more barriers to quitting and were more likely to have used pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. People who smoked contraband cigarettes were less likely to report a period of 30-day cessation during the subsequent 6 months (adjusted relative risk [RR] 0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09-0.61) and 1 year (adjusted RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.14-0.61), but they did not differ significantly from other people who smoked regarding attempts to quit (at 6 mo, adjusted RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.43-1.20) or long-term cessation (adjusted RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.04-1.34). Smoking contraband cigarettes was negatively associated with short-term smoking cessation. Access to contraband tobacco may therefore undermine public health efforts to reduce the use of tobacco at the population level.

  9. Russia SimSmoke: the long-term effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikova, Galina Ya; Oganov, Rafael G; Boytsov, Sergey A; Ross, Hana; Huang, An-Tsun; Near, Aimee; Kotov, Alexey; Berezhnova, Irina; Levy, David T

    2014-11-01

    Russia has high smoking rates and weak tobacco control policies. A simulation model is used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies on past and future smoking prevalence and premature mortality in Russia. The Russia model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control model previously developed for the USA and other nations. The model inputs population size, birth, death and smoking rates specific to Russia. It assesses, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies consistent with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): taxes, smoke-free air, mass media campaign, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies. Outcomes are smoking prevalence and the number of smoking-attributable deaths by age and gender from 2009 to 2055. Increasing cigarette taxes to 70% of retail price, stronger smoke-free air laws, a high-intensity media campaign and comprehensive treatment policies are each potent policies to reduce smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable premature deaths in Russia. With the stronger set of policies, the model estimates that, relative to the status quo trend, smoking prevalence can be reduced by as much as 30% by 2020, with a 50% reduction projected by 2055. This translates into 2 684 994 male and 1 011 985 female premature deaths averted from 2015-2055. SimSmoke results highlight the relative contribution of policies to reducing the tobacco health burden in Russia. Significant inroads to reducing smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through strengthening tobacco control policies in line with FCTC recommendations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Is neighbourhood access to tobacco outlets related to smoking behaviour and tobacco-related health outcomes and hospital admissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rosanne; Foster, Sarah A; Pereira, Gavin; Villanueva, Karen; Wood, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Although the harms of tobacco use are widely accepted, few studies have examined the relationship between access to tobacco outlets and hospital admissions. This study aimed to examine the relationship between neighbourhood access to tobacco outlets, smoking and hospital admissions and self-reported morbidity. Responses as to smoking behaviour were obtained from 12,270 adult participants in Western Australia (2003-2009) and individually record-linked to hospital admissions and geographically linked to tobacco outlets. Neighbourhood access to tobacco outlets was marginally positively associated with being a current versus a past smoker. Tobacco outlet access was also positively associated with heart disease for smokers but not non-smokers. For smokers, each additional outlet within 1600m of home was associated with a 2% increase in the odds of heart disease. Smokers with greater access to tobacco outlets were more likely to be diagnosed with or admitted to hospital for heart disease. Regulating the density of tobacco outlets in the community has immense potential to improve health benefits and our results motivate the need for future longitudinal studies to confirm this hypothesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of tobacco control policies on adolescent smoking: findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Song-Lih; Lin, I-Feng; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Tsai, Tzu-I

    2013-10-01

    To assess the impact of a set of comprehensive tobacco control policies implemented in Taiwan in 2009, including extensive smoke-free policy, advertisement ban, pictorial warning and price increase, on adolescent smoking prevalence. Five waves of cross-sectional surveys. Taiwan, 2004-11. Nationally representative sample of junior high schools aged 13-15 years, in a biennial survey, total sample size 101,100. Core questionnaire of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, including ever smoking, 30-day smoking and number of cigarettes smoked. The magnitude of prevalence change before and after the 2009 policy implementation was quantified by adjusted odds ratios estimated by piecewise logistic regression models. The 30-day smoking prevalence demonstrated an upward trend [odds ratio (OR) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.10] between 2004 and 2008. Significant decline in 30-day smoking prevalence after the 2009 law implementation was observed (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.71-0.99). Those living in non-city areas demonstrated a greater magnitude of change. In addition to changes in prevalence, we observed some delay in the age starting smoking, reduction in smokers who smoke fewer than one cigarette per day, and decrease in smokers who did not buy cigarettes. The decline in smoking prevalence was contributed primarily by the reduction in experimenters. The comprehensive tobacco control programme introduced in Taiwan in 2009 was associated with a reduction in adolescent smoking, particularly among those in earlier stages of smoking and those who resided in non-city areas. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Tobacco Control Measures to Reduce Socioeconomic Inequality in Smoking: The Necessity, Time-Course Perspective, and Future Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Tabuchi, T.; Iso, H.; Brunner, E.

    2017-01-01

    Previous systematic reviews of population-level tobacco control interventions and their effects on smoking inequality by socioeconomic factors concluded that tobacco taxation reduce smoking inequality by income (although this is not consistent for other socioeconomic factors, such as education). Inconsistent results have been reported for socioeconomic differences, especially for other tobacco control measures, such as smoke-free policies and anti-tobacco media campaigns. To understand smokin...

  13. [Effect of tobacco smoking on the course and degree of advancement inflammation in periodontal tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzińiski, Rafał

    2010-01-01

    The destructive periodontal disease is the result of a complex interaction between the subgingival microflora and nonbacterial factors, specifically host and environmental factors. Principal susceptibility factors are genetic conditions of the immunoinflammatory response but tobacco dependence might be the proper risk factor in periodontitis. The aim of the work was to qualify the influence of cotinine and 3'hydroxycotinine as the main metabolites of nicotine, on the course and degree of chronic periodontitis advancement, according to clinical parameters of the periodontium condition among generally healthy heavy smoking adults. The study covered two groups of adult patients with periodontitis. One group with tobacco dependence and one group of never smoking patients. The first group comprised of 38 women who were smoking for 5 years without quitting (minimum 10 cigarettes per day). The second group was made up of 47 men who never smoked. The patients from the second group formed the control group being relative to the heavy smoking patients with chronic periodontitis. In the examined groups there were 43 women from amongst which 18 were smokers and 25 who have never smoked. Among the 42 males that were in the examined groups 20 of them were heavy smokers and 22 nonsmokers. All the participants were qualified to groups based on information from an interview, clinical examination, an analysis of x-ray images and a questionnaire defining their addiction to tobacco smoking. Clinical measurements and biological material were taken by the author of the work in homogeneous conditions of a dental surgery. The following clinical parameters were evaluated: approximal plaque index (API), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), depth of periodontal pockets (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), recession depth and width recession of periodontal tissues, number of furcated teeth and the furcation class, number and degree of teeth mobility, number of retained teeth as well as the number

  14. Menthol sensory qualities and smoking topography: a review of tobacco industry documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandless, Phyra M

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine what the tobacco industry knew about the potential effects of menthol on smoking topography—how a person smokes a cigarette. Methods A snowball strategy was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between 1 June 2010 and 9 August 2010. We qualitatively analysed a final collection of 252 documents related to menthol and smoking topography. Results The tobacco industry knew that menthol has cooling, anaesthetic and analgesic properties that moderate the harshness and irritation of tobacco. Owing to its physiological effects, menthol contributes to the sensory qualities of the smoke and affects smoking topography and cigarette preference. Conclusion Our review of industry studies suggests that the amount of menthol in a cigarette is associated with how the cigarette is smoked and how satisfying it is to the smoker. If menthol in cigarettes was banned, as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is currently considering, new/experimental smokers might choose not to smoke rather than experience the harshness of tobacco smoke and the irritating qualities of nicotine. Similarly, established menthol smokers might choose to quit if faced with an unpleasant smoking alternative. PMID:21504930

  15. Tobacco marketing and susceptibility to smoking: cross-sectional survey of Polish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruska, Karin; Isensee, Barbara; Florek, Ewa; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility to smoking has been identified as predictor of smoking onset in adolescence. Aim of the study was to investigate whether receptivity to tobacco marketing, for which a link to adolescent smoking already could be shownin the past, was also associated with susceptibility to smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 1,478 Polish students who reported having never smoked wasconducted. Mean age was 10.1 years and about 53.3% were female. Overall, 84 (5.7%) students were classifiedas susceptible to smoking, and 33 (2.3%) were considered as receptiveto tobacco marketing, operationalised by asking students to name a brand of their favourite cigarette advertisement. Crude logistic regression analyses as well as logistic regression analyses adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, personality characteristics, factors of social influence and smoking-related cognitions revealed a positive association between receptivity to tobacco marketing and susceptibility to smoking (adjusted odds ratio=3.49 [95% confidence interval: 1.28-9.46], p=0.014). In conclusion, this study revealed that receptivityto tobacco marketing increases susceptibility to smoking. Results providesupport for the almost comprehensive ban of tobacco marketing as existing in Poland and recommend its further expansion towards a total ban including e.g. ban of promotion at point of sale.

  16. Urinary biomarkers of smokers’ exposure to tobacco smoke constituents in tobacco products assessment: a fit for purpose approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Evan O.; Minet, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    There are established guidelines for bioanalytical assay validation and qualification of biomarkers. In this review, they were applied to a panel of urinary biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure as part of a “fit for purpose” approach to the assessment of smoke constituents exposure in groups of tobacco product smokers. Clinical studies have allowed the identification of a group of tobacco exposure biomarkers demonstrating a good doseresponse relationship whilst others such as dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid and 2-carboxy-1-methylethylmercapturic acid – did not reproducibly discriminate smokers and non-smokers. Furthermore, there are currently no agreed common reference standards to measure absolute concentrations and few inter-laboratory trials have been performed to establish consensus values for interim standards. Thus, we also discuss in this review additional requirements for the generation of robust data on urinary biomarkers, including toxicant metabolism and disposition, method validation and qualification for use in tobacco products comparison studies. PMID:23902266

  17. Urinary biomarkers of smokers' exposure to tobacco smoke constituents in tobacco products assessment: a fit for purpose approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Evan O; Minet, Emmanuel; McEwan, Michael

    2013-09-01

    There are established guidelines for bioanalytical assay validation and qualification of biomarkers. In this review, they were applied to a panel of urinary biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure as part of a "fit for purpose" approach to the assessment of smoke constituents exposure in groups of tobacco product smokers. Clinical studies have allowed the identification of a group of tobacco exposure biomarkers demonstrating a good doseresponse relationship whilst others such as dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid and 2-carboxy-1-methylethylmercapturic acid - did not reproducibly discriminate smokers and non-smokers. Furthermore, there are currently no agreed common reference standards to measure absolute concentrations and few inter-laboratory trials have been performed to establish consensus values for interim standards. Thus, we also discuss in this review additional requirements for the generation of robust data on urinary biomarkers, including toxicant metabolism and disposition, method validation and qualification for use in tobacco products comparison studies.

  18. Tobacco Smoking and the Resting Maternal Brain: A Preliminary Study of Frontal EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbanks, Haley E; Von Mohr, Mariana; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C; Rutherford, Helena J V

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco smoking has been attributed to a wide range of detrimental health consequences for both women and their children. In addition to its known physical health effects, smoking may also impact maternal neural responses and subsequent caregiving behavior. To begin investigating this issue, we employed electroencephalography (EEG) to examine resting neural oscillations of tobacco-smoking mothers (n = 35) and non-smoking mothers (n = 35). We examined seven EEG frequency bands recorded from frontal electrode sites (delta, theta, alpha, alpha1, alpha2, beta, and gamma). While no between-group differences were present in high-frequency bands (alpha2, beta, gamma), smokers showed greater spectral power in low-frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, alpha1) compared to non-smokers. This increased power in low-frequency bands of tobacco-smoking mothers is consistent with a less aroused state and may be one mechanism through which smoking might affect the maternal brain and caregiving behavior.

  19. Estimation of nicotine content in popular Indian brands of smoking and chewing tobacco products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Sujatha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the nicotine content of some popular Indian brands of smoking tobacco (cigarettes and bidis and pan masalas (chewable tobacco. Materials and Methods: Commercially available cigarettes, bidis, and pan masalas (chewable tobacco were obtained from local retail outlets for the study. Nicotine was estimated using gas-liquid chromatography. Results: The analyses showed relatively higher levels of nicotine in tobacco from bidis (26.9 mg gm as compared to cigarettes(15 mg/gm; the difference is stastically significant ( P < 0.001. The nicotine concentration of tobacco from filtered cigarettes averaged 14.5 mg/gm whereas unfiltered cigarettes averaged 15.6 mg/gm; the difference was not stastically significant ( P > 0.01. Nicotine concentration in chewing tobacco was 3.4 mg/gm. Conclusion: The study concludes that the nicotine content of Indian brands of smoking tobacco was slightly high compared to other international brands. Higher concentration of nicotine was found in bidis compared to cigarettes. The nicotine content in commercially available chewing tobacco products was found to be much lower than in the smoking form of tobacco, but the average daily consumption made it comparable to the smoking form.

  20. The density of tobacco retailers and its association with attitudes toward smoking, exposure to point-of-sale tobacco advertising, cigarette purchasing, and smoking among New York youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Brett R; Kim, Annice E; Busey, Andrew H; Farrelly, Matthew C; Willett, Jeffrey G; Juster, Harlan R

    2012-11-01

    Estimate the association between the density of licensed tobacco retailers (LTRs) and smoking-related attitudes and behaviors among middle and high school students in New York. The 2000-2008 New York Youth Tobacco Surveys were pooled (N=70,427) and linked with county-level density of LTRs and retailer compliance with laws restricting youth access to cigarettes. Logistic regressions tested for associations with attitudes toward smoking exposure to point-of-sale tobacco advertising, cigarette purchasing, and smoking prevalence. LTR density is associated with self-reported exposure to point-of-sale advertising in New York City (NYC) among all youth (OR=1.15; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.30) and nonsmokers (OR=1.14; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.30); youth believing that smoking makes them look cool, overall (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.22, 2.52) and among nonsmokers (OR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.55); and a counter-intuitive negative relationship with frequent smoking in NYC (OR=0.50; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.84). Retailer compliance was negatively associated with youth reporting that a retail store is their usual source for cigarettes (OR=0.93; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.98). Restricting tobacco licenses and enforcing youth access laws are reasonable policy approaches for influencing youth smoking outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reducing Underserved Children's Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Randomized Counseling Trial With Maternal Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Bradley N; Nair, Uma S; Hovell, Melbourne F; DiSantis, Katie I; Jaffe, Karen; Tolley, Natalie M; Wileyto, E Paul; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2015-10-01

    Addressing maternal smoking and child tobacco smoke exposure is a public health priority. Standard care advice and self-help materials to help parents reduce child tobacco smoke exposure is not sufficient to promote change in underserved populations. We tested the efficacy of a behavioral counseling approach with underserved maternal smokers to reduce infant's and preschooler's tobacco smoke exposure. A two-arm randomized trial: enhanced behavior counseling (experimental) versus enhanced standard care (control). Assessment staff members were blinded. Three hundred randomized maternal smokers were recruited from low-income urban communities. Participants had a child aged Smoke-free Homes (FRESH) included 16 weeks of counseling. Using a behavioral shaping approach within an individualized cognitive-behavioral therapy framework, counseling reinforced efforts to adopt increasingly challenging tobacco smoke exposure-protective behaviors with the eventual goal of establishing a smoke-free home. Primary outcomes were end-of-treatment child cotinine and reported tobacco smoke exposure (maternal cigarettes/day exposed). Secondary outcomes were end-of-treatment 7-day point-prevalence self-reported cigarettes smoked/day and bioverified quit status. Participation in FRESH behavioral counseling was associated with lower child cotinine (β=-0.18, p=0.03) and reported tobacco smoke exposure (β=-0.57, p=0.03) at the end of treatment. Mothers in behavioral counseling smoked fewer cigarettes/day (β=-1.84, p=0.03) and had higher bioverified quit rates compared with controls (13.8% vs 1.9%, χ(2)=10.56, psmoke exposure and promotes smoking quit rates in a highly distressed and vulnerable population. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02117947. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tobacco Taxes and Smoking Bans Impact Differently on Obesity and Eating Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Davide; Manaresi, Francesco; Savorelli, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Policy interventions aimed at affecting a specific behavior may also indirectly affect individual choices in other domains. In this paper we study the direct effect of tobacco excise taxes and smoking bans on smoking behavior, and the indirect effect on eating behavior and body weight. Using very detailed clinical data on individual health, smoking, and dietary habits, we show that antismoking policies are effective in reducing smoking, but their consequences on eating behavior dramatically d...

  3. An investigation of social and pharmacological exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke as possible predictors of perceived nicotine dependence, smoking susceptibility, and smoking expectancies among never-smoking youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot, Simon; McGrath, Jennifer J; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Recent studies evidenced that adolescent never-smokers exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) endorsed nicotine dependence symptoms. Other studies showed that SHS exposure measured with biomarkers among never-smokers independently predicted withdrawal sensations and prospective smoking initiation. The aim of the present study was to replicate and extend these findings by investigating whether social and pharmacological measures of SHS exposure predicted precursors to smoking among never-smoking adolescents. Participants included 327 never-smokers aged 11-15 years attending sixth or seventh grade in French language schools in Montréal, Canada. They completed self-report questionnaires measuring their smoking status, social smoke exposure (number of smokers in their environment and number of situations where SHS exposure occurs), and precursors to smoking initiation (smoking expectancies, perceived nicotine dependence, and smoking susceptibility). Each participant provided a saliva sample from which cotinine biomarkers were derived to measure pharmacological exposure to SHS. When predictors were modeled individually, number of smokers predicted perceived nicotine dependence (p ≤ .05), smoking susceptibility (p ≤ .001), and expected benefits (p ≤ .05), whereas number of situations predicted smoking susceptibility (p ≤ .01). When predictors were modeled simultaneously, number of smokers predicted perceived nicotine dependence (p ≤ .01), smoking susceptibility (p ≤ .01), and expected benefits (p ≤ .05). Social smoke exposure was a predictor for smoking precursors. Pharmacological exposure to SHS did not predict smoking precursors, which may be partly attributable to the low cotinine values observed in our sample. Suggestions for improved pharmacological measurement of SHS and implications for public health are discussed.

  4. An Investigation of Social and Pharmacological Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke as Possible Predictors of Perceived Nicotine Dependence, Smoking Susceptibility, and Smoking Expectancies Among Never-Smoking Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot, Simon; McGrath, Jennifer J.; O’Loughlin, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Recent studies evidenced that adolescent never-smokers exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) endorsed nicotine dependence symptoms. Other studies showed that SHS exposure measured with biomarkers among never-smokers independently predicted withdrawal sensations and prospective smoking initiation. The aim of the present study was to replicate and extend these findings by investigating whether social and pharmacological measures of SHS exposure predicted precursors to smoking among never-smoking adolescents. Methods Participants included 327 never-smokers aged 11–15 years attending sixth or seventh grade in French language schools in Montréal, Canada. They completed self-report questionnaires measuring their smoking status, social smoke exposure (number of smokers in their environment and number of situations where SHS exposure occurs), and precursors to smoking initiation (smoking expectancies, perceived nicotine dependence, and smoking susceptibility). Each participant provided a saliva sample from which cotinine biomarkers were derived to measure pharmacological exposure to SHS. Results When predictors were modeled individually, number of smokers predicted perceived nicotine dependence (p ≤ .05), smoking susceptibility (p ≤ .001), and expected benefits (p ≤ .05), whereas number of situations predicted smoking susceptibility (p ≤ .01). When predictors were modeled simultaneously, number of smokers predicted perceived nicotine dependence (p ≤ .01), smoking susceptibility (p ≤ .01), and expected benefits (p ≤ .05). Conclusions Social smoke exposure was a predictor for smoking precursors. Pharmacological exposure to SHS did not predict smoking precursors, which may be partly attributable to the low cotinine values observed in our sample. Suggestions for improved pharmacological measurement of SHS and implications for public health are discussed. PMID:21622492

  5. Acrylamide content in cigarette mainstream smoke and estimation of exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojska, Hanna; Gielecińska, Iwona; Cendrowski, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    Acrylamide is a "probably human carcinogen" monomer that can form in heated starchy food as a result of a reaction between asparagine and reducing sugars via Maillard reaction. The main source of acrylamide in human diet are potato products, cereal products and coffee. Tobacco smoke may be another significant source of exposure to acrylamide. The aim of our study was to determine acrylamide content in cigarettes available on the Polish market and to estimate the exposure to acrylamide originating from tobacco smoke in smokers in Poland. The material was cigarettes of the top five brands bought in Poland and tobacco from non-smoked cigarettes. Acrylamide content in cigarettes mainstream smoke was determined by LC-MS/MS. Exposure assessment was carried out using analytical data of acrylamide content in cigarettes and the mean quantity of cigarettes smoked daily by smokers in Poland, assuming body weight at 70 kg. The mean content of acrylamide was 679.3 ng/cigarette (range: 455.0 - 822.5 ng/cigarette). The content of acrylamide was evidenced to correlate positively with total particulate matter (TPM) content in cigarettes. The estimated average exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke in adult smokers in Poland is 0.17 μg/kg b.w./day. Our results demonstrate that tobacco smoke is a significant source of acrylamide and total exposure to acrylamide in the population of smokers, on average, is higher by more than 50% in comparison with non-smokers. Our estimation of exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke is the first estimation taking into account the actual determined acrylamide content in the cigarettes available on the market.

  6. Knowledge, attitude and practice of tobacco smoking by medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haqwi Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students′ attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19% indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001 and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001. About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20% thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.

  7. Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities.

  8. Determination of pyrethroid residues in tobacco and cigarette smoke by capillary gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jibao; Liu, Baizhan; Zhu, Xiaolan; Su, Qingde

    2002-07-26

    The extraction of fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin from tobacco (Nicotina tobaccum) and cigarette smoke condensate with acetone, followed by partition of resulting acetone mixture with petroleum ether, was investigated and found suitable for capillary gas chromatography (GC) residue analysis. Florisil column clean-up was found to provide clean-up procedure for tobacco and cigarette smoke condensate permitting analysis to < or = 0.01 microgram.g-1 for most of the pyrethroids by GC with a 63Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Quantitative determination was obtained by the method of external standards. Cigarettes made from flue-cured tobacco spiked with different amounts of pyrethroids were used and the pyrethroid levels in mainstream smoke were determined. For all the pyrethroid residues, 1.51-15.50% were transferred from tobacco into cigarette smoke.

  9. The impact of tobacco-free pharmacy policies on smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yue; Lu, Bo; Berman, Micah; Klein, Elizabeth G; Foraker, Randi E; Ferketich, Amy K

    California and Massachusetts are the only 2 states in the United States with municipalities that have local laws prohibiting the sale of tobacco products by pharmacies. The impacts of the tobacco-free pharmacy laws remain understudied. This study aims to fill this gap by examining the association between tobacco-free pharmacy laws and smoking prevalence among adults over time in California and Massachusetts. This study used a series of cross-sectional surveys. The data source for this study was the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey for each year from 2005 to 2013. The longitudinal changes in smoking prevalence at the city or county level were estimated and comparisons were made between cities or counties with tobacco-free pharmacy laws and those without the laws. The participants used to estimate smoking prevalence were representative of adults within California and Massachusetts. The implementation of tobacco-free pharmacy laws was considered to be the intervention in this study. The outcome measures were smoking prevalence among adults. Mixed-effects negative binomial models were performed primarily to examine longitudinal changes in outcome measures. The prevalence of smoking decreased in both states over time. In Massachusetts, there was a statistically significant decrease in smoking prevalence among cities with tobacco-free pharmacy laws compared with those without such laws. Despite the presence of an 8.6% decrease in prevalence after the implementation of tobacco-free pharmacy laws, this reduction was not statistically significant after controlling for the negative trend in smoking rates overall and other factors. This study evaluated tobacco-free pharmacy laws with regard to the real-world impacts. Our findings highlight the need for future research on the effects of tobacco-free pharmacy laws with a prolonged time span and a comprehensive understanding of the law's implementation and enforcement. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists

  10. Influence of tobacco smoke on the elemental composition of indoor particles of different sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezakova, K.; Pereira, M. C.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C.

    Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest sources of indoor inhalable (PM 10) particles. In the past, the studies conducted on indoor particulates were mostly related to PM 10, however in the last decade respirable particles (PM 2.5) and even smaller particles (PM 1) began to be more important as they penetrate deeper in the respiratory system, causing severe health effects. Therefore, more information on fine particles is needed. Aiming to evaluate the impact of tobacco smoke on public health, this work evaluates the influence of tobacco smoke on the characteristics of PM 10, PM 2.5, and PM 1 considering concentration and elemental composition. Samples were collected at sites influenced by tobacco smoke, as well as at reference sites, using low-volume samplers; the element analyses were performed by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE); Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Cd, I, Ba, La, Ce and Pb were quantified. At the sites influenced by tobacco smoke concentrations were 270-560% higher for PM 10 and 320-680% higher for PM 2.5 than at reference sites. Tobacco smoke increased the total concentrations of five carcinogenic elements (Cr, Ni, As, Cd and Pb) 1100-2400% for PM 10 and 840-2200% for PM 2.5. The elements associated with tobacco smoke (S, K, Cr, Ni, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) were predominantly present in the fine fraction; the elements mostly originating from building erosion (Mg, Al, Si and Ca) predominantly occurred in the coarse particles. The analysis of enrichment factors confirmed that tobacco smoking mainly influenced the composition of the fine fraction of particles; as these smaller particles have a strong influence on health, these conclusions are relevant for the development of strategies to protect public health.

  11. Influence of tobacco marketing and exposure to smokers on adolescent susceptibility to smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N; Farkas, A; Gilpin, E; Berry, C; Pierce, J P

    1995-10-18

    Today the uptake of smoking is primarily an adolescent pursuit. Awareness of tobacco advertising and promotion is high, and evidence suggests that it plays a role in adolescent smoking uptake. We evaluated the influence of tobacco advertising and promotion and exposure to smokers on never-smoking adolescents' susceptibility to smoking. We used data on 3536 adolescent never smokers (those who had never even puffed on a cigarette) from the 1993 California Tobacco Survey. That survey questioned adolescents about smoking history and inclinations. For this analysis, we defined as susceptible to smoking those never smokers who said on the survey that they could not rule out independently deciding to try a cigarette soon or smoking one offered by a friend. Also for this analysis, we devised two indices: 1) a 5-point index of an individual's receptivity to tobacco advertising as determined by the number of positive responses to five survey items (recognition of advertising messages, having a favorite advertisement, naming a brand he/she might buy, owning a tobacco-related promotional item, and willingness to use a tobacco-related promotional item) and 2) an index classifying an individual's reported exposure to family and peer smoking into one of four levels. Using logistic regression, we assessed the independent importance of our indices in predicting susceptibility to smoking after adjustment for sociodemographic variables, including age, sex, and race/ethnicity, and for perceived school performance. Tests of statistical significance were two-sided. Receptivity to tobacco advertising and exposure to smokers were independently associated with susceptibility to smoking, but the relationship appeared stronger for receptivity to advertising. Adolescents exposed to family members and peers (n = 489) who smoked were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-2.74) times as likely to be susceptible, whereas adolescents who scored 4 or more on the Index of Receptivity to Tobacco

  12. Smoking initiation, tobacco product use, and secondhand smoke exposure among general population and sexual minority youth, Missouri, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jenna N; McElroy, Jane A; Everett, Kevin D

    2014-07-03

    Research indicates disparities in risky health behaviors between heterosexual and sexual minority (referred to as LGBQ; also known as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning) youth. Limited data are available for tobacco-use-related behaviors beyond smoking status. We compared data on tobacco age of initiation, product use, and secondhand smoke exposure between general population and LGBQ youth. Data for general population youth were from the statewide, representative 2011 Missouri Youth Tobacco Survey, and data for LGBQ youth were from the 2012 Out, Proud and Healthy survey (collected at Missouri Pride Festivals). Age-adjusted Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests were used to examine differences between general population (N = 1,547) and LGBQ (N = 410) youth, aged 14 to 18 years. Logistic regression models identified variables associated with current smoking. The 2 groups differed significantly on many tobacco-use-related factors. General population youth initiated smoking at a younger age, and LGBQ youth did not catch up in smoking initiation until age 15 or 16. LGBQ youth (41.0%) soon surpassed general population youth (11.2%) in initiation and proportion of current smokers. LGBQ youth were more likely to use cigars/cigarillos, be poly-tobacco users, and be exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a vehicle (for never smokers). Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.18-1.62), female sex (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.13-2.37), LGBQ identity (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.50-5.94), other tobacco product use (OR = 8.67, 95% CI = 6.01-12.51), and SHS exposure in a vehicle (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 3.83-9.31) all significantly increased the odds of being a current smoker. This study highlights a need for the collection of data on sexual orientation on youth tobacco surveys to address health disparities among LGBQ youth.

  13. Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors as well as Attitudes and Perceptions towards Tobacco Control in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, the associated factors of current smoking among adults, and their attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 using a self-reported questionnaire. A representative sample of adults aged 18–79 years was collected in the Jilin Province of Northeast China by a multistage stratified random cluster sampling design. Descriptive data analysis was conducted, and 95% confidence intervals (CI of prevalence/frequency were calculated to enable comparisons between the alleged differences and similarities. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the risk factors associated with current smoking. Results: 21,435 adults responded to the survey (response rate: 84.9%. The overall prevalence of ever smoking, current smoking, and former smoking or smoking cessation was 39.1% (95% CI: 38.3–39.9, 31.8% (95% CI 31.1–32.6, and 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9–7.7, respectively. The proportion of ETS exposure among adult non-smokers in Jilin Province was 61.1% (95% CI: 60.1–62.1, and 23.1% (95% CI: 22.3–24.0 of the non-smokers reported daily ETS exposure. The proportion of ETS exposure at home was 33.4% (95% CI: 32.5–34.4, but the proportion of ETS exposure at restaurants was lower (6.5% (95% CI: 6.0–7.1. More than 90% of the participants had positive attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control, but 23.2% (95% CI: 22.5–24.0 of them did not agree with the perception of “smoking is fully quit in public places”, and almost half of the adults (49.5% (95% CI: 48.7–50.3 did not agree with the perception of “hazards of low-tar cigarettes are equal to general cigarettes”. Conclusions: Smoking and exposure to ETS are prevalent among adults from the Jilin Province of Northeast China. Our findings suggest that tobacco control should be advocated in

  14. Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

  15. Dark nights behind the white clouds - risks of tobacco smoking on human health besides the oral health and malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainul, Zarin

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the common practice in a large percentage of the population worldwide, and the incidence is continuously increasing. Tobacco smoking is the most preventable cause of lung cancer, and it also impairs oral health. People are aware of the carcinogenic effects of tobacco smoking on the lungs and oral cavity, but it is also a risk factor for many other harmful diseases. This review article covers most of the diseases that are associated with tobacco smoking, such as coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), arthritis, impotency, infertility, tuberculosis, and Alzheimer's disease. The association of these diseases with tobacco smoking is discussed in detail in this review, along with their possible pathophysiology. This article focuses on the ongoing research of these diseases, and aims to raise awareness of the hazards of tobacco smoking, and to promote anti-smoking awareness programs.

  16. Density of tobacco retail outlets near schools and smoking behaviour among secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; McCarthy, Molly; Zacher, Meghan; Warne, Charles; Wakefield, Melanie; White, Victoria

    2013-12-01

    To investigate whether the density of tobacco retail outlets near schools in Victoria, Australia, is associated with adolescent smoking behaviour. Cross-sectional survey data of 2,044 secondary school students aged 12-17 years was combined with tobacco outlet audit data. Associations between students' self-reported tobacco use and the density of tobacco outlets near schools was examined using multilevel logistic and negative binomial regression models, with cigarette price at local milk bars and key socio-demographic and school-related variables included as covariates. Increased tobacco retail outlet density was associated with a significant increase in the number of cigarettes smoked in the previous seven days among students who smoked in the past month (IRR=1.13; 95% CI 1.02-1.26), but not the odds of smoking in the past month in the larger sample (OR=1.06; 95% CI 0.90-1.24), after controlling for local mean price of cigarettes and socio-demographic and school-related variables. This study suggests there is a positive association between tobacco retail outlet density and cigarette consumption among adolescent smokers, but not smoking prevalence, in the Australian context. There is value in considering policy measures that restrict the supply of tobacco retail outlets in school neighbourhoods as a means of reducing youth cigarette consumption.

  17. Toxicant content, physical properties and biological activity of waterpipe tobacco smoke and its tobacco-free alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihadeh, Alan; Schubert, Jens; Klaiany, Joanne; El Sabban, Marwan; Luch, Andreas; Saliba, Najat A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Waterpipe smoking using sweetened, flavoured tobacco products has become a widespread global phenomenon. In this paper, we review chemical, physical and biological properties of waterpipe smoke. Data sources Peer-reviewed publications indexed in major databases between 1991 and 2014. Search keywords included a combination of: waterpipe, narghile, hookah, shisha along with names of chemical compounds and classes of compounds, in addition to terms commonly used in cellular biology and aerosol sizing. Study selection The search was limited to articles published in English which reported novel data on waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) toxicant content, biological activity or particle size and which met various criteria for analytical rigour including: method specificity and selectivity, precision, accuracy and recovery, linearity, range, and stability. Data extraction Multiple researchers reviewed the reports and collectively agreed on which data were pertinent for inclusion. Data synthesis Waterpipe smoke contains significant concentrations of toxicants thought to cause dependence, heart disease, lung disease and cancer in cigarette smokers, and includes 27 known or suspected carcinogens. Waterpipe smoke is a respirable aerosol that induces cellular responses associated with pulmonary and arterial diseases. Except nicotine, smoke generated using tobacco-free preparations marketed for ‘health conscious’ users contains the same or greater doses of toxicants, with the same cellular effects as conventional products. Toxicant yield data from the analytical laboratory are consistent with studies of exposure biomarkers in waterpipe users. Conclusions A sufficient evidence base exists to support public health interventions that highlight the fact that WTS presents a serious inhalation hazard. PMID:25666550

  18. Pilot Study of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among US Muslim College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Abu-Ras, Wahiba; Ahmed, Sameera

    2015-10-01

    Waterpipe smoking is common among the young in Muslim-majority countries despite recent Islamic rulings on tobacco. US Muslim college students, especially immigrants, may be at high risk for smoking, but information is lacking. In this pilot study, respondent-driven sampling was used to sample 156 Muslim college students. Waterpipe smoking was common (44.3%). Leading motivations to smoke were social and perceived low tobacco harm. Independent risk factors among the Muslim students were perception that friends and other students smoked, and ever drank alcohol. Personal belief that waterpipe smoking is prohibited in Islam was not significant. This pilot suggests that Muslim students are at high risk for waterpipe smoking and more definitive studies are needed.

  19. Beliefs and norms associated with smoking tobacco using a waterpipe among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Devon; Kulbok, Pamela A

    2012-05-01

    This web-based, cross-sectional survey guided by the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), examined behavioral beliefs and normative beliefs associated with smoking tobacco using a waterpipe in a sample of 223 undergraduate college students. Beliefs and norms associated with waterpipe smoking intention were captured using the investigator-developed TRA Waterpipe Questionnaire. Significant behavioral beliefs that contributed to the prediction of smoking intentions included smoking tobacco with a waterpipe "will taste pleasant" and "will allow me to have a good time with my friends." Significant norms that emerged were perceived approval of waterpipe smoking from friends and significant others. Current smoking status, both waterpipe and cigarette, also contributed to the prediction of smoking intention. The variables of the TRA represent prime targets for intervention and provide useful information that can be used to tailor waterpipe prevention messages.

  20. Histological study of smoke extract of Tobacco nicotiana on the heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Some of the effects of tobacco on man's health are well documented in many scientific reports. Whenever tobacco is used either in smoked or chewed form, nicotine is absorbed by the lungs and oral cavity and is spontaneously moved into the bloodstream where it is circulated throughout the body system.

  1. Tobacco industry manipulation of the hospitality industry to maintain smoking in public places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearlove, J V; Bialous, S A; Glantz, S A

    2002-06-01

    To describe how the tobacco industry used the "accommodation" message to mount an aggressive and effective worldwide campaign to recruit hospitality associations, such as restaurant associations, to serve as the tobacco industry's surrogate in fighting against smoke-free environments. We analysed tobacco industry documents publicly available on the internet as a result of litigation in the USA. Documents were accessed between January and November 2001. The tobacco industry, led by Philip Morris, made financial contributions to existing hospitality associations or, when it did not find an association willing to work for tobacco interests, created its own "association" in order to prevent the growth of smoke-free environments. The industry also used hospitality associations as a vehicle for programmes promoting "accommodation" of smokers and non-smokers, which ignore the health risks of second hand smoke for employees and patrons of hospitality venues. Through the myth of lost profits, the tobacco industry has fooled the hospitality industry into embracing expensive ventilation equipment, while in reality 100% smoke-free laws have been shown to have no effect on business revenues, or even to improve them. The tobacco industry has effectively turned the hospitality industry into its de facto lobbying arm on clean indoor air. Public health advocates need to understand that, with rare exceptions, when they talk to organised restaurant associations they are effectively talking to the tobacco industry and must act accordingly.

  2. Bladder cancer and black tobacco cigarette smoking. Some results from a French case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momas, I; Daures, J P; Festy, B; Bontoux, J; Gremy, F

    1994-10-01

    A retrospective study was planned in the Hérault (Mediterranean) region of France where bladder cancer mortality and incidence rates are high. In the present paper, variations in bladder cancer risk according to various smoking-related variables, in particular time of exposure and type of tobacco, are examined. This case-control study with 219 male incident cases and 794 male population controls randomized from electoral rolls was carried out in 1987-89. Trained interviewers obtained information on demographics, dietary habits (coffee, alcohol, artificial sweeteners, vegetables, spices, etc.), occupational exposures and detailed history of tobacco smoking (average number of cigarettes per day, number of years of smoking, age at which they began and/or quitted smoking, use of filter-tip and type of tobacco). The odds ratio (OR) for cigarette smokers versus non-smokers was greater than 5. Results for number of cigarettes daily, duration of smoking and lifetime smoking showed a highly significant dose-response relationship, which was confirmed when these variables were treated as continuous in a logistic regression model. Eighty-eight percent of the smokers used black tobacco. Quitting smoking did not result in a significant reduction in bladder cancer risk. Higher risks were associated with starting to smoke at an early age (OR before age 13 versus after age 21 = 3.42; 95% CI 1.07-10.9) and with black tobacco smoking (OR black versus blond = 1.63; 95% CI 0.73-3.64). Results suggest that black tobacco may be more harmful than blond tobacco and may have an early non-reversible role in bladder carcinogenesis.