WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental taxation reforms

  1. Tax Reform and Environmental Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert E. Metcalf

    2005-01-01

    I measure the industry impacts of an environmental tax reform where a carbon tax is used to finance full or partial corporate tax integration. I find that the industry impacts of such a reform are likely to be modest (in the sense of impacts on returns on equity).

  2. Environmental taxation. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Vincent; Duboucher, Peggy; Ben Maid, Atika; Devaux, Jeremy; Nicklaus, Doris; Calvet, Melanie; Poupard, Christophe; Pourquier, Francois-Xavier; Vicard, Augustin; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    This official publication proposes a detailed overview of the situation of environmental taxation in France. It first gives a general overview by discussing some key figures, by recalling the chronology of the main environmental taxation arrangements, and by discussing lessons learned from French and foreign experiments for an efficient, acceptable and consistent taxation. The second part proposes a detailed presentation of environmental taxation by distinguishing its main themes and objectives: struggle against climate change, reduction of air pollution and water pollution, and wastes, preservations and development of resources from biodiversity (soil artificialization, sustainable management of fauna and flora), efficient use of non renewable resources and of water (water resources, energetic and mineral raw materials). For each of these themes, the report presents the environmental problematic, and the existing arrangements, and proposes some elements of international comparison. The last part proposes a list of all environmental taxes

  3. The effect of the German and British environmental taxation reforms. A simple assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnolucci, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    This article implements a simple econometric approach to assess the effect of the environmental tax reforms introduced in Germany and the UK. Despite the very simple econometric approach adopted in this paper, in the case of the energy demand, our results do not differ markedly from those obtained from complicated multi-sectoral econometric models. In the case of the labour demand, our results differ from the estimates obtained from econometric models where the employment level is not directly influenced by the energy price. On the other hand, our results are more similar to those obtained from models where the level of employment is directly influenced by the energy price. Confirming the findings of Bosquet [2000. Environmental tax reform: does it work? A survey of the empirical evidence. Ecological Economics 34, 19-32] and OECD [2004. Environment and Employment: An Assessment Working Party on National Environmental Policy OECD, Paris], we conclude that environmental tax reforms can deliver substantial reductions in energy consumption while having small effects on the level of employment, effect which can be positive, depending on the size of the reduction in the labour costs and the value of cross-price elasticities. (author)

  4. Reforming Capital Taxation in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Eyraud

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews capital taxation issues in Italy based on a comprehensive definition encompassing taxes on income, transactions, and ownership. It discusses options to enhance the neutrality of the capital income tax system, followed by a detailed analysis of the property tax, the inheritance tax, and various transaction taxes. The paper also examines the case for replacing the set of existing taxes on financial and real assets with a single net wealth tax.

  5. Taxation on environmental pollution and energy consumption 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The document gives statistics on taxation of pollution caused to the environment and on energy consumption in Denmark. These forms of taxation are rapidly increasing in Denmark as a consequence of the country's environmental policy. In 1995 the total state revenue from these sources was 23.5 billion Danish kroner which comprises 7.1% (compared to 6.5% for 1994) of the total revenue from all forms of taxation. Revenues in 1995 are 8.2 billion Danish kroner higher than in 1986. The State's revenue from taxation of energy consumption was 18.4 billion Danish kroner, which is 78% of revenues from taxation on both environmental pollution and on energy consumption. Revenues from taxation on pollution of the environment was 5.2 billion Danish kroner. The contribution of the taxation of environmental pollution has increased from 2% in 1986 to 22% in 1995 of the total revenue from taxation of both environmental pollution and energy consumption. Statistics include revenues from taxation on petrol, electric power, the use of gas and diesel oil and fuel oils, on kerosone and tar fuels for heating, on autogas and bottled gas, and on pit coal and lignite. Details are given on taxation revenues from the taxation of the different forms of environmental pollution such as carbon dioxide and rubbish etc. and on the taxation on carbon dioxide emission from the use of energy products such as electricity and various fuels. Information is given on grants given to projects for reducing the emission of carbon dioxide from 1993-1996 and on the phasing of taxation on environmental pollution in accordance with the Danish tax reforms. (AB)

  6. Changes in direct and indirect taxation in the process of the EU tax system reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding from the changes in direct and indirect taxation in the process of the EU tax system reform and the fact that new trends bring about vital social changes, the research in this area could add to the understanding of economic development of these countries. In the EU with its decentralized tax policy, changes in direct and indirect taxation are permanently implemented in the process of tax system reform. Harmonization of direct and indirect taxation in the EU is conducted by means of the adopted community law regulations. In the harmonization of direct taxation there is a tendency towards an increase of the level of fiscal coordination and elimination of barriers to the common market. Thus direct taxation reforms are limited to achieving higher level of coordination and preventing evasion and double taxation. The current policy is the result of the principle according to which fiscal competition has positive effects on reducing consumption and on the EU economic development. In the harmonization process the systems of indirect taxation are aligned particularly with excise duty and value added tax. Fiscal strategies in the reform process are mostly aimed at fiscal coordination, modernization, informative cooperation, evasion reduction and elimination of malpractices in fulfilling a VAT payment liability. Within the excise tax system minimal excise rates are determined and an environmentally-friendly policy is pursued. The main priorities of taxation changes within the harmonization process are in respect of evasion reduction and irrational fiscal competition on the EU market. A study of direct and indirect taxation changes in the process of the tax system reform is highly significant both from the aspect of efficient tax-system functioning, which results in achieving EU macroeconomic goals, and from the aspect of single states' interests in the process of transition and accession.

  7. Urban Property Taxation: III. Rejection and Reformation. Exchange Bibliography 481.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Anthony G.

    This is one of three related bibliographies listing publications dealing with the broad topic of property taxation. This particular volume concerns variations on the central theme of reform. Included are sources dealing with redesigning systems, exemptions, judicial review, alternatives, limitations, equalization, differentials, and model laws.…

  8. Handbook of Research on Environmental Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , their environmental and economic impact and, finally, the larger question of the role of taxation among other policy approaches to environmental protection. Intermixing theory with case studies, the Handbook offers readers lessons that can be applied around the world. It identifies key bodies of research for people...

  9. Ecological tax reform. How taxation policy may reconcile environmental protection and the free market system; Oekologische Steuerreform. Wie die Steuerpolitik Umwelt und Marktwirtschaft versoehnen kann

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, S.; Kohlhaas, M.; Seidel, B. [Deutsches Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Linscheid, B.; Truger, A. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Finanzwissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut

    1999-07-01

    The document contains a compact version intended for the general public, of an exhaustive expert opinion published by the German federal environment office (UBA), explaining the major elements and impacts of an ecological tax reform. The expert opinion analyses the demand for, potentials and effects of a reform of the tax laws from the angles of conventional tax policy and environmental policy. The authors examine the technological capabilities available to trade and industry for adjusting to changes in the tax structure, as well as the legal aspects of an extensive, sustainability-oriented ecological tax reform, of which the first phase has already been publicised by the Federal Government, phases 2 and 3 being planned. (orig./CB) [German] Dieses Buch ist eine fuer die breite Oeffentlichkeit gedachte Kurzfassung eines umfangreichen Gutachtens, das das Umweltbundesamt zur oekologischen Steuerreform veroeffentlicht hat. In dieser Veroeffentlichung werden Bedarf, Moeglichkeiten und Auswirkungen einer Reform des Steuersystems sowohl unter traditionellen steuerpolitischen Gesichtspunkten als auch aus umweltpolitischer Sicht umfassend analysiert. Die Autoren untersuchen die technologischen Anpassungsmoeglichkeiten von Unternehmen auf Umweltabgaben sowie die juristischen Aspekte einer umfassenden, an der Nachhaltigkeit orientierten oekologischen Steuerreform, deren 1. Stufe bereits offiziell verkuendet ist. Die weiteren Stufen 2 und 3 stehen noch aus. (orig./CB)

  10. Synthesis of Evidence for Tobacco Taxation Policy Reform in West ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... West African Economic and Monetary Union directives on tobacco taxation in West Africa. Another objective is to promote intersectoral action through knowledge transfer and exchange workshops involving decision-makers from those public sectors affected by tobacco taxation policies: health, trade, customs, and finance.

  11. Energy taxation in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valtonen, M.

    1991-01-01

    Energy taxation in Finland is described in addition to plans for reforms in this respect. It is stated that taxation on energy has primarily a fiscal motive, and it can also be used as a means of steering of energy and environmental policy. Numerical data illustrate the text. (AB)

  12. THE REFORM OF PERSONAL INCOME TAXATION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nosova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes that were made to the taxation of income of individuals are considered; impact of changes in taxation on the salary to be paid is calculated; has been demonstrated that the personal income taxation in Ukraine has progressive-regressive character; It revealed that the burden on a single hryvnia to pay was dropped; the validity of the application of the tax social benefits is examined; has been revealed that the application of a tax social benefits leads to discrimination against individuals whose income slightly exceeds the cutoff amount for the use of tax incentives; the tax burden on wages and its dynamics are analyzed; enterprise savings by reducing the rate of the single social contribution are defined; the possible increase in wages while maintaining enterprise-level costs is calculated.

  13. Carbon taxation reform in the European Union. The options involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Eloi; Le Cacheux, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Even though the EU clearly leads the global fight against climate change and despite the additional reduction in emissions due to the global crisis and European recession, the ambitious objectives flagged in the '20-20-20 by 2020' strategy and 'climate-energy package' may be out of reach if a more resolute and consistent policy of carbon taxation is not rapidly put in place in the EU. In this paper, we detail and discuss the different options available for such European carbon taxation. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE' No. 116

  14. Environmental fiscal reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Chaturvedi; Manjeet S. Saluja; Abhijit Banerjee; Rachna Arora

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents concepts and instruments of environmental fiscal reforms (EFR) and their application in the Indian context. EFR can lead to environmental improvement more efficiently and cost effectively than traditional regulation. There is substantial experience of successful EFR implementation in the European Union. India has also adopted some EFR measures such as deregulation of petrol prices, coal cess, and subsidy for setting up common effluent treatment plants. The challenges of imp...

  15. Reformation of Taxation of Income and Added Value in the Context of Legalisation of Financial Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paientko Tetiana V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the potential of taxation tools of legalisation of financial flows. The goal of the article is justification of directions of reformation of taxation of income and added value in the context of legalisation of financial flows in Ukraine. Pursuant to results of the study the article shows that using taxation tools it is possible to legalise and increase both taxation financial flows and a part of the financial flows earlier moved to the shadow sector of economy. First of all, budget receipts from income tax could be increased by means of reduction of this tax evasion. This could be achieved with the help of the mechanism of differentiation of income taxation, namely: application of a reduced income tax rate, which is directed at investments into the fixed capital, and a standard rate for the income distributed for other purposes. This would create conditions when tax evasion becomes unprofitable for tax payers. Second, reducing VAT evasion would result in its growth in budget receipts. To do this it is recommended to use the reduced rate during taxation of food supplies and public transportation services, which would allow reduction of the VAT evasion degree in the sphere of small and medium businesses (not connected with export that are engaged in these types of activity. The size of the reduced rate is identified by elasticity of the shadow added value and VAT multiplier. Third, it is possible to increase financial flows by means of attraction of a part of financial flows, earlier moved into the shadow economy, into economy and mobilisation into the budget using the mechanism of tax amnesty. Using foreign experience the article justifies optimal conditions of amnesty and size of the rate of income legalisation.

  16. MODERN APPROACHES TO ACCOUNTING AND TAXATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Murovana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Actual issues of accounting and taxation at enterprises of green business under the terms of realization of state environmental policy of Ukraine are investigated. Ways of improving methodology of accounting in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, legal regulation of calculation taxes and charges and control over its payment to the budget are defined and proved for the purpose of simplifying business activities and increasing investment prospects of green businesses enterprises in Ukraine.

  17. Environmental fiscal reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chaturvedi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents concepts and instruments of environmental fiscal reforms (EFR and their application in the Indian context. EFR can lead to environmental improvement more efficiently and cost effectively than traditional regulation. There is substantial experience of successful EFR implementation in the European Union. India has also adopted some EFR measures such as deregulation of petrol prices, coal cess, and subsidy for setting up common effluent treatment plants. The challenges of implementing EFR measures in India are also discussed, including inadequate analysis, policy framework and institutional capacity, as well as conflict with poverty reduction and building political support.

  18. Regulatory reform of Finnish environmental policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sairinen, R.

    2000-07-01

    used and developed not because of common strategy, but because of the desire to experiment (voluntary agreements), situational power relations (carbon taxation) or international pressures (EIA Act). However, during the 1990s, the environmental governing systems and modes have changed significantly in Finland. The EU membership, deregulation, the limitations of 'command and control' instruments as well as new administrative cultures have created permanent pressures for the advancement of regulatory reform.

  19. The decline and revival of environmentally-related taxation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2013-01-01

    The EU Energy Taxation Directive's low minimum tax rate for diesel along with a general dieselisation of Europe's vehicle fleet explains why revenues from environmentally-related taxes gradually declined from 1999-2008. After the financial crisis environmentally-related taxation is resuming its...

  20. The role of the European Union in environmental taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.

    1995-01-01

    The role of the European Union (EU) in environmental taxation is examined in this chapter. As is well-known, the EU has proposed a carbon/energy tax to contribute to the stabilization of CO 2 emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000. The discussion is organized around the 'subsidiarity principle', which involves a presumption in favor of decentralizing policy functions to the member states. Exceptions are allowed only if economies of scale or cross-country spillover effects warrant EU involvement. The author persuasively argues that environmental policy is such an exception. In particular, in a single market such as the EU, the enforcement of taxes and regulations gives rise to important international externalities. Independent policy and administration would either interfere with free trade or lead to widespread evasion. Hence, the EU should have a substantial and legitimate interest in not only environmental targets and objectives, but also in the form of environmental policy (e.g. in the choice between environmental taxes and regulation). Furthermore, it is argued that environmental tax policies should be coordinated both with other environmental tax policies and with other fiscal policies. This implies that the decisions about environmental tax rates should be taken by the level of government responsible for other, related, environmental policies, whilst the revenues from environmental taxes should accrue in general to member states, in preference to the EU. 16 refs

  1. Towards higher transparency and efficiency in energy taxation. Energy taxation and environmental policy in a small open economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normann, Goeran

    2002-01-01

    The accrual of energy taxation has led to a complex structure of taxes and charges that are characterized by instability and low efficiency. Other reasons for analyzing the system is the pressure from our contractual responsibilities within the European Union and the raised ambitions in the environmental policy. The report leads to the conclusion that it would be motivated to separate fiscal energy taxation from measures to internalize environmental costs that the market does not register. This separation would make it possible to create a more transparent and rational energy taxation. The fiscal energy taxation ought to be a broad, value-based tax, equal for all energy sources. Value-based means, besides the energy content in kWh, also properties such as conversion and distribution costs. Two alternatives are suggested for the fiscal energy taxation: A separate consumption tax on energy. Such a tax would amount to 48% to produce the same income as the fiscal elements of today's energy taxes. Another alternative would be to include the fiscal energy tax in the value added tax. This would raise the standard VAT level to 30%, if the lower VAT levels are kept unchanged. With this model, consumption of energy would be treated as any other consumption. The environmental policy measures against greenhouse gases should be delt with through a system with international trade with emission quotas for such gases. Measures against other external effects from energy use are not suggested in this report, except for the opinion that economic incentives are preferable to regulations. The initial allocation of quotas ought to be done through an auction, since this method would give lower national costs than the alternatives. The system should cover all greenhouse gases and (almost) all sources which indicates that an upstream solution would be best with low administrative costs. A safety vent should be considered, so that extreme costs for CO 2 -emissions are avoided, if e.g. the

  2. Green Taxation in Question: Politics and Economic Efficiency in Environmental Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    Environmental economists have in general paid little or no attention to the political context within which green taxation would be introduced. In order to understand the real-life politics of green taxation, it is necessary to establish which political constraints determine the actual design...... of green taxes. Daugbjerg and Svendsen identify rent-seeking, party politics, and policy networks as the three main constraints in environmental regulation. This analysis forms the basis of policy recommendations on the future design of green taxation and international permit trading. Even though...... these policy recommendations are second best in strict economic terms, they are the best economic designs given that they must be politically feasible. Understanding the politics of green taxation is the prerequisite for the development of effective green taxation models which have a chance of being...

  3. Reforming of Regional Fiscal Policy as Basis of Increasing Taxation Potential of Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Igonina, Lyudmila Lazarevna; Nabiyev, Ramazan Abdulmuminovich; Alimirzoeva, Madina Gamidulakhovna; Gulmagomedova, Gulzar Akhmedullakhovna; Suleymanov, Magomed Magomedovich

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to researching problems related to forming regional fiscal policy focused on increasing the taxation potential of territories. The subject of the research is theoretic and methodological basics of pursuing regional fiscal policy focused on developing the taxation potential of the Russian Federation regions. The object of the research is the Russian taxation system, regional fiscal policy, and foreign and national practices of taxation regulation of regional development....

  4. Environmental Fiscal Reform and the Double Dividend: Evidence from a Dynamic General Equilibrium Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Freire-González

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An environmental fiscal reform (EFR represents a transition of a taxation system toward one based in environmental taxation, rather than on taxation of capital, labor, or consumption. It differs from an environmental tax reform (ETR in that an EFR also includes a reform of subsidies which counteract environmental policy. This research details different ways in which an EFR is not only possible but also a good option that provides economic and environmental benefits. We have developed a detailed dynamic CGE model examining 101 industries and commodities in Spain, with an energy and an environmental extension comprising 31 pollutant emissions, in order to simulate the economic and environmental effects of an EFR. The reform focuses on 39 industries related to the energy, water, transport and waste sectors. We simulate an increase in taxes and a reduction on subsidies for these industries and at the same time we use new revenues to reduce labor, capital and consumption taxes. All revenue recycling options provide both economic and environmental benefits, suggesting that the “double dividend” hypothesis can be achieved. After three to four years after implementing an EFR, GDP is higher than the base case, hydrocarbons consumption declines and all analyzed pollutants show a reduction.

  5. Dissecting dividend decisions: some clues about the effects of dividend taxation from recent UK reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Bond; Michael Devereux; Alexander Klemm

    2005-01-01

    We present empirical evidence which suggests that a big increase in dividend taxation for UK pension funds in July 1997 affected the form in which some UK companies chose to make dividend payments, but otherwise had limited effects on both the level of dividend payments and the level of investment. These findings are consistent with a version of the 'new view' of dividend taxation. We also identify a group of firms whose dividend choices are difficult to reconcile with (stock market) value ma...

  6. The contribution to sustainable development : taxation as an economic instrument for environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Basso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncontrolled exploration of the environment has threatened the assimilative and regenerative capacity of nature. Against this problem, there is a need to take actions aiming at environmental protection, in order to prevent an irreversible trepidation of the balance of the natural environment, which consequences are grievous. Given that situation, it´s important to note that there has to be harmony between economic growth and the environment so that we can achieve sustainable development. The objective of this study is to outline an approach to environmental taxation, presenting its importance to matching economic measures with the protection of natural environment. This leads to the conclusion that for the achievement of environmental protection, environmental taxation can guide to a desirable behavior. That is, it can act in two paths; one positive, through the application of more costly taxation to the activities damaging to the envi- ronment and the other negative, providing a smoother taxation charge for those whom attending political and environmental conservation measures which will result in sustai- nable development.

  7. Environmental consequences of electricity sector reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, N.

    1999-01-01

    Worldwide, the electricity industry is in the process of undergoing fundamental transitions. The reform process typically involves one or more of the following changes: commercialisation, privatisation, unbundling/restructuring and introduction of competition. The environmental impacts of these changes pull in different directions. There is concern that restructured electricity markets may not always incorporate adequately the environmental impacts of electricity resource development and consumption decisions. However, the electricity sector reform process also offers an opportunity to promote positive environmental changes: because the sector is already in flux, it may be easier to address environmental issues. The paper gives an overview of power sector reform in six countries where reforms have already been implemented, and concludes that reform measures will have to be accompanied by competitively neutral regulations in order to stimulate investment in environmentally sound technologies, including renewable and energy efficient technologies. (author)

  8. Regional environmental tax reform in a fiscal federalism setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CIASCHINI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing attention to climate changes have led national Governments to design environmental tax policies able to face environmental problems and their associated economic consequences as a negative change of GDP. The environmental taxation in particular is considered a powerful instrument of pollution control. More important, it provides public revenue that can be recycled both at State level and Local level in order to attain the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the regional double dividend. In this respect, we use a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model with imperfect labour market, to assess the regional effects of an environmental fiscal reform designed with the aim of reducing the CO2 emissions in a fiscal federalism setting. In particular, we introduce a local green tax on commodities output with a progressive structure. The tax burden depends on the commodity polluting power and the tax revenue is collected by the Local Government. According to the fiscal federalism principles the Central Government reduces the transfers to the Local Government by the same amount of the tax revenue and compensates the transfer reduction with a cut in Households income tax. The application is done on a bi-regional Social Accounting Matrix for Italy and the results highlights the distributional effects of the reform on macroeconomic variables into the bi-regional income circular flow.

  9. CHALLENGES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING AND TAXATION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farcane Nicoleta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems that have arisen all over the world are concerning many controversial aspects that were created due to the advance of industrialization in tandem with scientific and technological development. For solving these problems, in the past 40 years many international and national organizations have adopted a substantial and diverse range of environmental measures aimed to improving the quality of the environment. Our research aims to highlight how Romanian authorities face the problems regarding environment. To accomplish our objective we trace two main directions of the study, firstly we conduct an analytical investigation of green accounting regulations and secondly we describe the environmental fiscal policy at national level and their impact on Romanian companies.

  10. Energy-related taxation as an environmental policy tool--the Finnish experience 1990-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehmas, Jarmo

    2005-01-01

    Finland has over 10 years experience of environment-based energy taxation. The design and level of the CO 2 and energy tax scheme has been changed several times on an ad hoc basis. In recent years, Finland has introduced more and more tax 'departures', i.e. deviations and exceptions from an 'ideal' type of environmental tax. Examples of this include fuel-specific and user-specific exemptions or lowered tax levels taxes on electricity production from non-fossil energy sources, plus refund systems for fossil fuel and electricity users. Thus, it is apparent that Finnish energy taxation aimed at improving the environment has developed ineffectively. Increases in the level of CO 2 tax on fossil fuels have served mostly fiscal purposes with reduced CO 2 emissions being only a side benefit. No systematic follow-up or ex post analysis on the impacts of the CO 2 and energy taxes has been carried out. From the perspective of greenhouse gas mitigation, the discussion on economic instruments has shifted from CO 2 taxation towards emissions trading in the international context of the European Union and the Kyoto Protocol

  11. Environmental taxation and industrial water use in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Vallés-Giménez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Water Act, 2001 shifted responsibility for wastewater treatment from municipal to regional government, and as a consequence the Autonomous Communities have begun to levy a Sanitation Charge, apparently with environmental objectives. Industrial demand for water in Aragon is estimated in this paper using a double logarithmic model with panel data to establish whether regional Sanitation Charges rationalise water consumption. The key explanatory variable is the Sanitation Charge, in addition to the water supply charges payable in the towns and cities of Aragon and other variables which capture the characteristics of the firms in the sample. The reduction in water demand achieved appears to be due to the environmental charge rather than to any actual increase in firms’ water costs.

  12. Sugli obiettivi di una riforma tributaria in Italia. (The aims of a taxation reform in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. COSCIANI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The drawbacks and deficiencies of the Italian fiscal system have become such and so many that a structural revision is urgent both concerning legislation and the organisation of the tax system. The first aim of a reform must be to make the system clear and simple. Secondly, the progressiveness of the system must be announced. Third, the fiscal system should become an instrument of economic planning. The paper puts forward a reform proposal and draws a set of priorities for the reorganisation of fiscal structures and jurisdictions in Italy.JEL: E62, H21, H30

  13. Special issue on Environmental Reform in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnenfeld, D.A.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    To date, most studies of environmental reform have focused on the experiences of advanced, industrialized societies in Europe and the Americas. Discussions of and theories on multi-level and multi-actor (environmental) governance, shifts in governance styles, ecological modernization, and the

  14. Environmental tax reform and endogenous growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.; de Mooij, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of an environmental tax reform on pollution, economic growth and welfare in an endogenous growth model with pre-existing tax distortions. We find that a shift in the tax mix away from output towards pollution may raise economic growth through two channels. The first

  15. Europe's experience with carbon-energy taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2010-01-01

    The COMETR project is a comprehensive attempt to account ex-post for the implications of carbon-energy taxation, taking into account differences in sectoral tax burdens and within a suitable macro-economic framework capable of providing an overall assessment, the E3ME model of Cambridge...... Econometrics. The results indicate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions for six member states as a result of carbon-energy taxation under revenue-neutral environmental tax reform (ETR). These effects are mirrored by reductions in total fuel consumption, with the largest reductions occurring in countries...... with the highest tax rates. Accordingly, the European environmental tax reforms had by 2004 caused reductions in greenhouse gas emissions of 3.1% on average for the six member countries examined, with the largest fall recorded for Finland (5.9%). E3ME-results also suggest that ETR-countries did not experience...

  16. Impact of energy taxation on economy, environmental and public health quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoqing; Liu, Bowei; Niu, Honghong; Liu, Jianfeng; Yao, Shu

    2018-01-15

    This paper argues computable general equilibrium model and assess impact of energy taxation on economy, environmental and public health quality in Tianjin. In order to investigate different energy taxation based on medical cost and labor loss, the computable general equilibrium model integrating with input-output table and social accounting matrix (SAM) was constructed. The medical expense caused by air pollution of Tianjin in 2007 is 396 million yuan and death for 18104 people, which accounted for the total GDP and population 0.754‰ and 1.6‰, respectively. The results show that the enery taxes levy can improve the GDP, but it is only slightly. The energy taxes have adverse impact on energy sector because that the energy cost is increased. The scale of production is reduced, and the capital and labor resources are transferred to low energy consumption low emissions sector. The energy tax levy can reduce air pollutants concentration and improve air environmental quality. The PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 concentration in the energy taxes 5%-30% was reduced by 0.24%-0.24%, 0.09-0.52% and 0.29%-0.52% respectively. The medical expense has little impact on GDP, but labor loss has a certain effect on GDP. For higher energy taxes rate, the health effects on GDP can reach 0.06%-0.16%. This simultaneous economic and environmental improvement and health effect would thus have positive implications regarding energy taxes of the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Why Green Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Lene; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2001-01-01

    According to economists solving environmental problems is simple. Politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions. However, the actual design of such green taxation shows that politicians do not follow their advice. CO2 taxation in OECD, for example, is highly differentiated...

  18. Environmental tax reform: the Swedish experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterner, T.

    1994-01-01

    As part of a general tax reform taxes on energy and transport were increased heavily around 1991. The following year industry succeeded in repealing a number of the taxes on energy. This reform was financed by further increasing the energy taxes for the household and transport sectors. Generally it appears that the energy tax and the carbon tax are successful as revenue raisers while their environmental effect will only be seen in the long run. On the other hand such taxes as on sulphur and the tax differentiation on leaded fuel, as well as the differentiation between different qualities of diesel and fuel oil, have been very successful in an environmental sense, but have not given any substantial revenue contributions. (author)

  19. PROSPECTS OF MORTGAGE ARE IN UKRAINE IN THE CONTEXT OF REFORMATION OF THE TAXATION OF PROPERTY: ESTIMATION OF RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Hudzynska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the possible risks of taxation introduction of real estate owned by the people, for the system of bank mortgage lending in Ukraine. The current state of the mortgage market in Ukraine is reviewed. The influence of the Institute property taxation in general increase of the fiscal burden on citizens is investigated. A possible state in the contingents of households in terms of pay, including in the investment sphere is reviewed. Approaches of model property taxation, which is owned by citizens, are suggested. Proposed not to tax property (household used by a person as a primary residence. This approach is seen as prevention for loss of real estate that is used as the basis of residence by citizens, in case of loss of solvency over objective, independent reasons, and as a tool to ensure the proper fulfillment of obligations by mortgage according to real contracts.

  20. Public choice and environmental regulation. Tradable permit systems in the United States and CO{sub 2} taxation in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G. [The Aarhus School of Business, Dept. of Economics (Denmark)

    1996-05-01

    The thesis raises the question whether taxation or permit markets are most cost-effective in environmental regulation. The general answer given by the author is that a combination of these two economic control measures would minimize the cost of CO{sub 2} abatement. A `grandfather` permit market can prove to be more cost-effective than a CO{sub 2} tax with regard to organized interests: first because in the near future both industry and electric utilities will experience a growing competition in the common market, secondly because permit markets offer essential results to the environmental organizations. Taxation can come in useful where interests are poorly organized, like in households and transportation sector. Taxes can force environmental improvements through as well as eliminate tax distortion due to income tax reduction. Thus the state has a strong economic interest in development of economic incentive measures, increasing production and exports. The use of a comparative method and the rationale for transferring US experience to European ground is considered. CO{sub 2} taxation in Denmark and the failed attempt to introduce a common CO{sub 2} tax in the EU is analyzed. Perspectives of a CO{sub 2} market on an EU scale and global scale are discussed. (EG) 139 refs.

  1. Public choice and environmental regulation. Tradable permit systems in the United States and CO2 taxation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    1996-05-01

    The thesis raises the question whether taxation or permit markets are most cost-effective in environmental regulation. The general answer given by the author is that a combination of these two economic control measures would minimize the cost of CO 2 abatement. A 'grandfather' permit market can prove to be more cost-effective than a CO 2 tax with regard to organized interests: first because in the near future both industry and electric utilities will experience a growing competition in the common market, secondly because permit markets offer essential results to the environmental organizations. Taxation can come in useful where interests are poorly organized, like in households and transportation sector. Taxes can force environmental improvements through as well as eliminate tax distortion due to income tax reduction. Thus the state has a strong economic interest in development of economic incentive measures, increasing production and exports. The use of a comparative method and the rationale for transferring US experience to European ground is considered. CO 2 taxation in Denmark and the failed attempt to introduce a common CO 2 tax in the EU is analyzed. Perspectives of a CO 2 market on an EU scale and global scale are discussed. (EG) 139 refs

  2. The environmental tax reforms in Europe: mitigation, compensation, and CO2-stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Speck, S.

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that carbon-energy taxes would need to be increased to a level of 20-30 ?/tonne CO2 in 2020 in order to accomplish a stabilisation target for greenhouse gas concentrations. While increases of carbon-energy taxes inevitably raise questions about the negative impacts on economic...... growth and competitiveness, the European experience shows that governments as part of already agreed environmental tax reforms (ETR) have in fact implicit carbon-energy taxes with a nominal level that in many cases exceeds this level. Still, European governments have exempt especially the energy......-intensive industries and so to some extent for the biggest polluters the incentives to improve energy efficiency and shift towards low-carbon fuels have been weaker than the nominal rates would suggest. In view of the need to increase the real level of carbon-energy taxation, while retaining the competitiveness...

  3. Energy taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This study presents the energy taxation, as an energy policy tool, applied to the fossil fuels and to the electric power. Taxes, tax revenue and taxation in function of the energy content or the carbon content are discussed. Many tables and statistical data illustrate this analysis and allow the comparison with other countries in Europe. (A.L.B.)

  4. Energy demand, substitution and environmental taxation: An econometric analysis of eight subsectors of the Danish economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Framroze

    2017-01-01

    This research contains an econometric analysis of energy demand in trade and industry which allows for substitution between electricity and other energy carriers when relative prices change. The presence of substitution suggests that taxation can be a means of changing the energy input mix...

  5. Informal Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olken, Benjamin A; Singhal, Monica

    2011-10-01

    Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this "informal taxation." Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal taxation underestimates household tax burdens and revenue decentralization in developing countries. We discuss various explanations for and implications of these observed stylized facts.

  6. Informal Taxation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Singhal, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this “informal taxation.” Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal taxation underestimates household tax burdens and revenue decentralization in developing countries. We discuss various explanations for and implications of these observed stylized facts. PMID:22199993

  7. Oil and gas taxation in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oien, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Norwegian petroleum tax system builds on the general business tax system. A reform of the petroleum tax system was therefore prompted by the reform of the ordinary company tax system in Norway. The reform of the general company taxation system made a reform of the petroleum taxation system necessary. As the petroleum tax system had to be changed, it was natural to review the incentive structure of the system to see if it could be improved. These two elements formed the foundation of the work on petroleum tax reform. (Author)

  8. Green throughput taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruvoll, A.; Ibenholt, K.

    1998-01-01

    According to optimal taxation theory, raw materials should be taxed to capture the embedded scarcity rent in their value. To reduce both natural resource use and the corresponding emissions, or the throughput in the economic system, the best policy may be a tax on material inputs. As a first approach to throughput taxation, this paper considers a tax on intermediates in the framework of a dynamic computable general equilibrium model with environmental feedbacks. To balance the budget, payroll taxes are reduced. As a result, welfare indicators as material consumption and leisure time consumption are reduced, while on the other hand all the environmental indicators improve. 27 refs

  9. Informal Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Olken, Benjamin A.; Singhal, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this "informal taxation." Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal t...

  10. Environmental reform of West and Central Africa ports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes-Dabban, Harry; Koppen, Van Kris; Mol, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    West and Central Africa ports have historically not paid much attention to environmental issues. In the past decade, however, environmental concerns are beginning to emerge with pockets of innovative responses to environmental risks as the ports undergo institutional and infrastructural reform

  11. Energy taxation in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandberg, E.

    1991-01-01

    A rough survey is given of the most important areas of Norwegian taxation and tariff policy within the energy sector. Planning is still in progress for regulations on taxing and duties on electric power and fossil fuels. This comprises part of the work on improving the economy and resource consumption, partly through giving higher priority to environmental issues. It is suggested that it could take some time before national goals for the development of an energy taxation system can be reached. There must be a balance between short and long-time issues. Norway will look to experiences gained in other countries. (AB)

  12. The greening of taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barde, J.P.; Owens, J.

    1993-01-01

    How do tax measures affect the environment. And what tax regime can best promote environmental protection without damaging production. The OECD has just published a report on taxation and the environment, prepared by a special task force which united both tax and environment experts. 4 refs., 4 photos

  13. Essays on taxation, efficiency, and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakonsen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    This thesis comprises five chapters: (1) On the second order conditions for optimal taxation. Some experience from numerical models, (2) An investigation into alternative representations of the marginal cost of public funds, (3) On green tax reforms and double dividends, (4) Negative externalities, dead weight losses, and the cost of public funds, and (5) CO{sub 2} stabilisation may be a no-regrets policy. A general equilibrium analysis of the Norwegian economy. The chapters emphasises the effects of alternative tax policies on environmental quality and economic efficiency. The analysis in the CO{sub 2} chapter is based not on a stylised theoretical model, but on a detailed computable general equilibrium model of the Norwegian economy. The discussion in the CO{sub 2} chapter was in part motivated by the fact that several earlier articles on the economic consequences of CO{sub 2} reductions adopted a framework without distortionary tax rates in the benchmark equilibrium. In such a setting, a tax on CO{sub 2} emissions violates the conditions for Pareto optimality. This is not the case with the model here described. Rather, increased taxation of CO{sub 2} becomes a tax reform, where one tax is increased while one of several other taxes can be reduced accordingly in order to maintain tax revenue neutrality. The model also includes emissions of CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. All give rise to negative externalities. 86 refs., 37 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Land reform, security of tenure and environmental conservation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The land reform (Land Use Act) of 1978 on the other hand promoted and consolidated individual rights of use and alienation, which stimulated the development of a speculative land market. The existence of a speculative land market is a disincentive to land resource conservation and environmental protection. A review of ...

  15. International environmental governance: Lessons learned from Human Rights Institutional Reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauchald, Ole Kristian

    2011-07-01

    This report focuses on the possibility of establishing a High Commissioner for the Environment and transforming the UNEP Governing Council into a Council for the Environment. For this purpose, it considers the parallels between human rights regimes and environmental regimes. It provides a short-list of functions to be covered by a reformed environmental governance regime, and discusses how the reform can be coordinated with UNEP, as well as with the current and future institutional framework for sustainable development. The report also discusses how the reform can be related to fifteen core multilateral environmental agreements. Finally, the report considers how the reform can be carried out through a discussion of five separate options: a decision by the UN General Assembly, by the ECOSOC, or by the UNEP Governing Council, as well as through agreements between conferences of parties of environmental agreements, or directly between states. A main purpose of the report, which has been commissioned by the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment, is to provide input to the preparations for the Rio+20 Conference in 2012.(auth)

  16. Growth effects of a revenue neutral environmental tax reform

    OpenAIRE

    Hettich, Frank

    1997-01-01

    This paper analyses tax policy measures within a two sector endogenously growing economy with elastic labour supply. Pollution is modelled as a side product of physical capital stock used as a primary production factor in the final good sector. The framework allows to analyse consequences of isolated tax changes or of a revenue neutral environmental tax reform for economic growth. Although pollution does not affect directly production processes, it can be shown that a higher pollution tax or ...

  17. Intergovernmental Interactions between Taxation of Oil and Gas and Environmental Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio Brosio; Juan Pablo Jimenez

    2012-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the environmental impact deriving from the production of oil and gas and how it can be controlled by using both taxing and/or regulatory instruments. The incentive to use regulations and their impact depends on the level of government to which the regulatory responsibility is assigned. It also depends on the assignment, between levels of government, of the upstream tax instruments. This is essentially because environmental control has a cost in terms of production...

  18. Poverty and environmental impacts of electricity price reforms in Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Patricia; Klytchnikova, Irina; Radevic, Dragana

    2009-01-01

    The creation of the Energy Community of South Eastern Europe in 2005 committed countries in South Eastern Europe to liberalize their energy markets in accordance to EU regulations. The Government of Montenegro is thus in the process of reforming its energy sector, which includes an electricity tariff reform. This paper analyzes the environmental and social impacts of an increase in residential electricity tariffs contemplated - which is expected to range anywhere from 40 to over 100% increase. As this analysis shows, such a significant price rise will impose a heavy burden on the poor households and it may adversely affect the environment. In an ex ante investigation of the welfare impact of this price increase on households in Montenegro, we show that the anticipated price increase will result in a very significant increase in households' energy expenditures. A simulation of alternative policy measures analyzes the impact of different tariff levels and structures, focusing on the poor and vulnerable households. Higher electricity prices could also significantly increase the proportion of households using fuelwood for space heating. Thus the level of fuelwood consumption should be carefully monitored under the electricity tariff reforms and the Government of Montenegro should combine the tariff reforms with a carefully evaluated set of policy measures to mitigate the effect of the electricity price increase on the poor. (author)

  19. Optimal Pollution Taxation and Abatement When Leisure and Environmental Quality are Complements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijdra, Ben J.; Heijnen, Pim; Kindermann, Fabian

    We study optimal environmental policy in a world featuring multiple stable economic-ecological equilibria. There is a two-way interaction between the macro-economy and the environment. We assume that the society under consideration finds itself in a high pollution equilibrium and show that a

  20. Response strategies for oil producers in the face of environmental taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, I.O.; Brennand, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    The impact of environmental taxes on the oil export revenues of developing countries, particularly OPEC, is considered; the possibility of amelioration through production management is investigated. A model of oil market dynamics is considered and applied to for different tax secenarios. These are a base case scenario where no environmental tax is imposed; an unmanaged market where a $100/t of carbon tax is imposed in all OECD regions and the resulting fall in oil demand is absorbed by OPEC, thereby keeping oil prices at base case levels; a partially managed market where the same tax is imposed, but only OPEC responds by reducing oil production even further to maintain base case revenue; a totally managed market where the same tax is imposed but both OPEC and non-OPEC agree to manage and control the market. The conclusions reached is that as long as OPEC is not able to target a revenue-maximizing path, a totally managed market is likely to prove beneficial to all developing country producers with a much more manageable, higher than base case price in a partially managed market. If, however, OPEC were able to implement a revenue-maximizing course, there would be no need for total management, since non-OPEC revenue would be concomitantly maximized. (2 tables, 4 figures). (UK)

  1. International double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Odarčenko, Michal

    2015-01-01

    1 Summary This thesis deals with the issue of international double taxation of income and capital and methods for its solution. International double taxation is an issue which states began to deal with in the late 19th century. This interest intensified after the First World War when also the League of Nations (predecessor of the United Nations) began to deal with international double taxation. Most attention the phenomenon of double taxation of income and capital with an international elemen...

  2. Optimal Energy Taxation for Environment and Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Y.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    Main purpose of this research is to investigate about how to use energy tax system to reconcile environmental protection and economic growth, and promote sustainable development with the emphasis of double dividend hypothesis. As preliminary work to attain this target, in this limited study I will investigate the specific conditions under which double dividend hypothesis can be valid, and set up the model for optimal energy taxation. The model will be used in the simulation process in the next project. As the beginning part in this research, I provide a brief review about energy taxation policies in Sweden, Netherlands, and the United States. From this review it can be asserted that European countries are more aggressive in the application of environmental taxes like energy taxes for a cleaner environment than the United States. In next part I examined the rationale for optimal environmental taxation in the first-best and the second-best setting. Then I investigated energy taxation how it can provoke various distortions in markets and be connected to the marginal environmental damages and environmental taxation. In the next chapter, I examined the environmentally motivated taxation in the point of optimal commodity taxation view. Also I identified the impacts of environmental taxation in various circumstances intensively to find out when the environment tax can yield double dividend after taking into account of even tax-interaction effects. Then it can be found that even though in general the environmental tax exacerbates the distortion in the market rather than alleviates, it can also improve the welfare and the employment under several specific circumstances which are classified as various inefficiencies in the existing tax system. (author). 30 refs.

  3. Environmental and wider implications of political impediments to environmental tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinch, J. Peter; Dunne, Louise; Dresner, Simon

    2006-01-01

    The most common notion of environmental tax reform (ETR) is the use of the revenue from environmental taxes to reduce distortionary labour taxes. The PETRAS project has shown that there are a number of social and political impediments to implementing such reform. This paper firstly outlines some of the environmental and economic implications of environmental taxes generally. It goes on to explore three broad approaches to ETR, based on the allocation of the tax revenues, and explores the environmental and economic implications of each approach and the likelihood of political and social acceptance. Particular attention is paid to reducing regressive impacts and impacts on competitiveness. It is concluded that some combination of earmarking a proportion of revenues to environmental projects and diverting rest to reduce labour taxes is probably the best approach in light of the results of the project. The balance should depend upon local labour market and macroeconomic conditions, the extent to which environmental projects are already funded and the extent of government failure, i.e., the problems of resource allocation that occur as a result of government intervention in markets. Funding should only be provided to environmental projects if it can be shown that, in themselves, they are economically efficient. In addition, it is most important that a proportion of the funds be used to ameliorate any regressive impacts. It is also important to bear in mind that hypothecation or recycling of revenue is not the same as a tax shift, which is a reform of the entire system, so some of these approaches may take away from the integrity of ETR. The paper concludes with some of the initiatives that are likely to be necessary to facilitate social and political acceptance of this approach to ETR

  4. Gender and Taxation : Improving Revenue Generation and Social ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gender and Taxation : Improving Revenue Generation and Social Protection in Developing Countries. Tax policies in developing countries, and indeed around the world, are under continued reform. However, these reforms are generally guided by the desire to introduce administrative efficiency and facilitate integration into ...

  5. Taxation: Myths and Realities. A Courses by Newspaper Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Break, George F., Ed.; Wallin, Bruce, Ed.

    This reader is one of two supplementary materials for a newspaper course about taxation and tax reform. Five units contain 75 primary-source readings about topics such as tax loopholes, social security financing, income tax reform, the impact of taxes on the economy, and alternatives to the property tax. Sources include government publications,…

  6. Environmental tax reform: an assessment of social responses in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinch, J. Peter; Dunne, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Environmental tax reform (ETR) is widely accepted to be a policy with desirable environmental, and other economic effects. The question arises then as to why its implementation has been so patchy. There is a broad literature on the economic impact of ETR, however, there have been very few research efforts devoted to understanding the roles and imperatives of the public, policy makers, businesses and other stakeholders who are addressed by ETR. This paper examines the impediments to ETR in Ireland. Focus groups were formed comprising of members of the general public and these provided a forum for detailed reactions to the ETR concept. Interviews were conducted with policy makers and key business people in an attempt to identify both the patterns of thinking behind ETR and the main obstacles to its introduction. Having presented the results, a theory of the main impediments to ETR is developed. The opinions of the members of the public, the business community and the policy makers highlight a number of issues that need to be addressed in the future design of ETR in Ireland. The principal potential impediments to ETR include: mistrust of the government, implausibility of the policy, means of hypothecation, information asymmetries, the political system, the structure of government, the macroeconomic environment, the impact on competitiveness, inequity between sectors, regressivity, elasticities and the level of the tax, terminology, and the marketing of ETR

  7. History and social responses to environmental tax reform in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, Simon; Jackson, Tim; Gilbert, Nigel

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives a short history of fuel taxation and the Climate Change Levy in the UK. The research described was based around the use of interviews and focus groups to inform the assessment of social responses to ETR policies and the development of improved designs for them. Interviews were conducted with selected policy makers and companies. Focus groups were conducted with quota samples of the general public. The research shows that the problem that ETR faces in terms of public acceptance is not so much outright hostility to environmental taxation as conceptual problems with the design. Similar conceptual problems were also found in the interviews with business people. These can be summarised as lack of trust about use of the revenues, difficulty in understanding the purpose of a tax shift and a desire for incentives for good behaviour as well as perceived 'penalties' for bad behaviour. (author)

  8. Reasons for energy taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bye, T.

    1991-01-01

    The role of energy taxation as an instrument for a realistic pricing of energy, taking optimal consumption of resources and other external influences into consideration, must also be thought of in relation to the role these taxes have as part of the state's income. The paper discusses the connection between energy taxes, the public revenue they give and the eventual allocation losses that will arise as a result of taxation or lack of taxation. (AB)

  9. Performing an Environmental Tax Reform in a regional Economy. A Computable General Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cardenete, M.A.; Velazquez, E.

    2003-01-01

    We use a Computable General Equilibrium model to simulate the effects of an Environmental Tax Reform in a regional economy (Andalusia, Spain).The reform involves imposing a tax on CO2 or SO2 emissions and reducing either the Income Tax or the payroll tax of employers to Social Security, and

  10. Analysis on Conflicts of China’s Coal Tax Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dong

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the conflicts which are resulted from coal tax reform in China from economic and public policy perspectives. An analytical framework involving actors, values, interests and institution has been applied. China’s central government eagers to achieve fiscal revenue increase, environmental protection and energy conversation goals by a good governance of coal system. As a traditional and feasible policy instrument, taxation is regarded for dealing with energy issues in poli...

  11. Taxation, innovation, and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Gersbach, Hans; Schetter, Ulrich; Schneider, Maik T.

    2014-01-01

    We explore optimal and politically feasible growth policies in the form of basic research investments and taxation. Basic research is a public good that benefits innovating entrepreneurs, but its provision and financing also affect the entire economy -- in particular, occupational choices of potential entrepreneurs, wages, dividends, and aggregate output. We show that the impact of basic research on the general economy rationalizes a taxation pecking order to finance basic research. More spec...

  12. The Challenges for Real Estate Mass Valuation and Taxation System for the Economic Stabilization of Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Barvika, S; Rausis, A; Geipele, I

    2012-01-01

    The real estate tax policy, as well as a massive reform in the real estate mass valuation was among major reforms of the Latvian government in the financial crisis management plan. These reforms were supported by the International Monetary Fund and European Commission. One of the directions for economic recovery suggested by the lenders to Latvia was a reform of taxation system including reviewing of stagnated real property tax principles. This reform met total critici...

  13. Environmental taxation: protecting environment through extrafiscal taxing Tributação ambiental: o tributo extrafiscal como forma de proteção do meio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ernani Bonesso de Araújo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of State in preserving the environment has revealed to be essential, seen that by interfering in economic activities it can establish the minimal regulation to be observed by society. Among the economic instruments employed by the modern State to protect environment it is the establishment of taxing, which constitutes source of profit from public means used in the financial activity and that can be employed either in its fiscal and extrafiscal aspect. Thus, the study contemplates a reflection upon Environmental taxation, delimitating in the ways of a form to protecting environment.A atuação do Estado na preservação do meio ambiente tem se revelado imprescindível, pois mediante sua intervenção nas atividades econômicas ele pode estabelecer regras mínimas a serem observadas pela sociedade. Dentre os instrumentos econômicos usados pelo Estado moderno para a preservação do meio ambiente está o tributo, que constitui fonte de receita pública empregada na atividade financeira e pode ser utilizado tanto em seu aspecto fiscal quanto em seu aspecto extrafiscal. Diante deste contexto, o estudo contempla uma reflexão sobre a Tributação Ambiental, tendo como delimitação o tributo extrafiscal como forma de proteção do meio ambiente.

  14. Ecological Tax Reform in Denmark: history and social acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klok, Jacob; Larsen, Anders; Hansen, Kirsten; Dahl, Anja

    2006-01-01

    Despite the long-term and positive experience with Ecological Tax Reform (ETR), the PETRAS study indicates that awareness about the principles behind ETR is low among both businesses and the general public in Denmark. As well as the lack of awareness of ETR, attitudes towards environmental taxation appear negative. When explaining the political intentions behind ETR, attitudes seem to improve somewhat, but they still remain overall sceptical. Based on the history and the results of the PETRAS project the article will describe some of the main impediments for further development of environmental tax and ETR policies in Denmark. The article concludes that the main reason why the ETR policy has been met with such apparently low social acceptability in Denmark is that the 'green' of the 'green' tax reform has been somewhat oversold. On this basis it recommends the pursuit of a courageous government strategy of, openly and repeatedly, stressing the revenue purposes of environmentally related taxes over the environmental purposes in an effort to redirect public discussions towards relevant issues like the pros and cons of environmentally related taxation compared with other types of taxation and the connection between the overall tax burden and demands for government spending. Such a bold government 'confession' to the obvious revenue purposes of the environmentally related taxes could make them, if not popular, then at least a bit more acceptable to businesses and the general public. (author)

  15. The dilemma of environmental taxation – case study of Estonia. Keskkonna maksustamise dilemma Eesti näitel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirje Pädam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tax rhetoric in the Estonian policy discussion leads to a dilemma. Policy makers want to increase environmental charges for budgetary reasons and at the same time achieve environmental goals. The article examines the empirics of this issue, i.e. whether pollution charges have been successful as a fiscal or as an environmental instrument. By index analysis the authors find that pollution charges were fiscally successful in the beginning of the 2000’s and have since 2004 been successful environmental taxes. The proposition that environmental charges do not cover the damage costs of pollution is also under investigation. It is found that the damage cost estimates have incorrectly been interpreted as average costs. The implication is that the damage costs which have been used as evidence for increasing pollution charges are incorrect and that the over-estimation of damages is in the order of a magnitude of two or more.

  16. Effects of the petroleum tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensland, G.; Sunnevaag, K.; Tennfjord, B.S.

    1992-04-01

    The report evaluates the effects of the petroleum taxation in Norway. In connection with the general reform of the Norwegian industry taxation, changes are proposed in the petroleum tax law. The report gives a survey of the development in the Norwegian petroleum taxation, and analyses the effects of changing the tax revenue both for the Government and for the companies concerned. The effects of incentives caused by changing the taxation are looked upon. In the appendix the depreciation rules in connection with petroleum taxation are discussed. 18 refs., 17 figs

  17. Towards an International Tax Order for the Taxation of Retirement Income

    OpenAIRE

    Bernd Genser

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades all over the world pension policy reforms have tried to account for the changing demographic and socio-economic framework. An excellent starting point for economic analyses of reform strategies is the Mirrlees Review which argues that pension policy should simultaneously address pension benefit design and the taxation of pensions. We focus on old-age pension taxation and address policy conflicts which come along with international migration of citizens as employees and pen...

  18. The effects of environmental fiscal reform in Germany: a simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, S.; Kohlhaas, M.; Praetorius, B. [Deutsches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung, Berlin (Germany); Meyer, B. [University of Osnabrueck and GWS (Germany); Welsch, H. [University of Oldenburg (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the first comprehensive, model-based impact analysis of the German environmental fiscal reform, addressing the effects on CO{sub 2} emissions, economic growth, employment, and personal income distribution. Both an econometric input-output model and a dynamic computable general equilibrium model are applied in order to enhance the credibility of our results. The macroeconomic results are linked with a micro-simulation model of the household sector, so that detailed household data can be used to determine the effect of the environmental fiscal reform on personal income distribution. We find a small 'double dividend' in that energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions decrease while employment rises. The impact on economic growth is found to be minimal. The fear that the environmental fiscal reform might interfere with the goals of social and income-distribution policy is found to be largely unjustified. (author)

  19. ANALYSIS ON CONFLICTS OF CHINA’S COAL TAX REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the conflicts which are resulted from coal tax reform in China from economic and public policy perspectives. An analytical framework involving actors, values, interests and institution has been applied. China’s central government eagers to achieve fiscal revenue increase, environmental protection and energy conversation goals by a good governance of coal system. As a traditional and feasible policy instrument, taxation is regarded for dealing with energy issues in politics and governance. However, coal tax reform proposal has induced many controversies in China. The causes of that include value conflicts of all actors, competing interests of all parties and institutional barriers of economic, politics and legislation. Therefore, the government cannot regulate coal issues only through taxation. The case reveals that good governance on coal cannot be achieved only by economic tools as coal system contains so high stake and involves so many players.

  20. How should green taxation be designed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    How should green taxation be designed so that it accommodates producer interests? We argue that to design green taxes which are high enough to have the desired incentive effects, tax revenues must be reimbursed, either by earmarking them for environmental subsidies or by reducing other taxes...... directed at industry. If green tax schemes can be designed this way, industry will have little incentive to mobilise strong opposition to green taxation. However, in practice, the requirement of reimbursement may be difficult to fulfil because, with few exceptions, polluting industries are not homogeneous....... This means that reimbursement will redistribute financial resources within industry and thus create winners and losers. Still, green taxes can be used in heterogeneous industries which can be created by operating separate tax schemes for each branch of industry. The Danish case of pesticide taxation...

  1. DIRECT TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DOBROTĂ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a historical result of the social, political and economic environment in a state. At the same time, the development of a state depends a lot on the history of its own tax system, on the way it is conceived and operates. The establishment of budgetary incomes has to be made in accordance with the requirements related to yield, efficacy, equity. The plurality of these tasks as well as political, economical, administrative constraints have materialized in the application of a gradual reform in Romania after passing to market economy. Its application has not always had the foreseen effects, repeated legislative alterations leading to investors’ discouraging and to difficult enforcement of the legislation at the level of economic agents and fiscal bodies. The paper presents aspects of direct taxation on the economic environment from Romania as well as comparisons with the state of the European Union.

  2. DIRECT TAXATION IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DOBROTĂ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a historical result of the social, political and economic environment in a state. At the same time, the development of a state depends a lot on the history of its own tax system, on the way it is conceived and operates. The establishment of budgetary incomes has to be made in accordance with the requirements related to yield, efficacy, equity. The plurality of these tasks as well as political, economical, administrative constraints have materialized in the application of a gradual reform in Romania after passing to market economy. Its application has not always had the foreseen effects, repeated legislative alterations leading to investors’ discouraging and to difficult enforcement of the legislation at the level of economic agents and fiscal bodies. The paper presents aspects of direct taxation on the economic environment from Romania as well as comparisons with the state of the European Union.

  3. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FI Departments and the Legal Service concerning the new internal taxation provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations, the annual internal taxation certificate for 2007 and the 2007 income tax declaration forms sent out by the cantonal tax administrations. I - New provisions of the Staff Rules and Regulations concerning internal taxation Following the revision of the Staff Rules and Regulations (see CERN Bulletin Nos. 16 and 17 of 16 and 23 April 2007), the provisions relating to internal taxation are now set out in Articles S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules and in Articles R V 2.01 to R V 2.05 of the Staff Regulations, in force since 1st January 2007 (11th edition). Pursuant to Article S V 2.01 of the Staff Rules, each year the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel. The Finance Committee has laid down the provisions governing the application of internal taxation in the Staff Re...

  4. Green tax reforms and habits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, Carlos de; Manzano, Baltasar [Universidad de Vigo and Rede, Lagoas-Marcosende, s/n, 36200 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Using a dynamic general equilibrium model, we explore the role of habit formation when analyzing green tax reforms under the double dividend hypothesis. We assume increases in energy taxes and adjust capital taxation in a revenue-neutral framework to evaluate the effects on welfare. Since the existence of an environmental dividend is uncontroversial, we mainly focus on the efficiency dividend. Our findings show that, when taxes on household energy consumption increase, habits and transitional dynamics alter household decisions, and change the efficiency dividend. However, when the tax increase is on energy used as an input, reform always induces a welfare cost in terms of efficiency. In this case, habits play a less important role. (author)

  5. The theory of optimal taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2007-01-01

    that the information needed to implement the differentiated taxation prescribed by optimal tax theory may be easier to obtain than previously believed. The paper also points to the strong similarity between optimal commodity tax rules and the rules for optimal source-based capital income taxation......The paper discusses the implications of optimal tax theory for the debates on uniform commodity taxation and neutral capital income taxation. While strong administrative and political economy arguments in favor of uniform and neutral taxation remain, recent advances in optimal tax theory suggest...

  6. The Theory of Optimal Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    that the information needed to implement the differentiated taxation prescribed by optimal tax theory may be easier to obtain than previously believed. The paper also points to the strong similarity between optimal commodity tax rules and the rules for optimal source-based capital income taxation......The paper discusses the implications of optimal tax theory for the debates on uniform commodity taxation and neutral capital income taxation. While strong administrative and political economy arguments in favor of uniform and neutral taxation remain, recent advances in optimal tax theory suggest...

  7. Taxation, stateness and armed groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kasper; Vlassenroot, Koen; Marchais, Gauthier

    2016-01-01

    This contribution analyses the role of taxation in the constitution of authority in the conflict-ridden eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, where a multitude of authorities alternately compete and collude over the right to extract resources. Taxation ranges from simple plunder, to protection...... rackets, to the material reciprocation of the recognition of rights. Focusing on the taxation practices of armed groups, the article argues that taxation is at the core of armed groups’ production of public authority and citizenship, and that their modes of taxation are based on long-standing registers...

  8. Neglected environmental health impacts of China's supply-side structural reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lei; Li, Ying; Tian, Yuling; Li, Xiaoran; Zhang, Xue; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Sonnenfeld, David A.; Liu, Jianguo; Ping, Zeyu; Chen, Long

    2018-01-01

    “Supply-side structural reform” (SSSR) has been the most important ongoing economic reform in China since 2015, but its important environmental health effects have not been properly assessed. The present study addresses that gap by focusing on reduction of overcapacity in the coal, steel, and iron

  9. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2015 internal taxation certificate and the 2015 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations.   You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2015 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2015, issued by the Finance and Administrative Processes department, will be available on 19 February 2016. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual cer...

  10. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Memorandum from the HR and FP Departments and the Legal Service concerning the 2008 internal taxation certificate and the 2008 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations and CERN Bulletin Nos. 17 and 24 of 24 March 2008) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2008 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2008, issued by the Finance and Procurement Department, has been available since 1st March 2009. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out ...

  11. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2009 internal taxation certificate and the 2009 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2009 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2009, issued by the Finance and Procurement Department, will be available from 1st March 2010. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. You can also access your annual certificate via http://hrt.cern.ch (open “Pay info” in the menu &...

  12. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2014 internal taxation certificate and the 2014 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations.   You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits that it pays to the members of its personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2014 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2014, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, will be available on 20 February 2015. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to acce...

  13. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2010 internal taxation certificate and the 2010 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2010 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2010, issued by the Finance and Procurement Department, will be available from 1st March 2011. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual certificate as indicated above,...

  14. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2013 internal taxation certificate and the 2013 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations.   You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of its personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2013 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2013, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, will be available on 21 February 2014. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access yo...

  15. Taxation in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2012 internal taxation certificate and the 2012 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations.   You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2012 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2012, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, will be available on 25 February 2013. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access y...

  16. TAXATION IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the 2011 internal taxation certificate and the 2011 income tax declaration forms issued by the Swiss cantonal tax administrations.   You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from federal, cantonal and communal taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2011 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2011, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, is available as of 1 March 2012. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. 1. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. 2. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access ...

  17. Taxation in France

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2010 You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN. I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2010 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2010, issued by the Finance and Procurement Department, has been available since 1st March 2011. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you will receive an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual certificate as indicated above, you will find information explaining how to obtain one at the follo...

  18. Taxation of the energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, G.

    1995-01-01

    Taxation of the energy industries is an issue of major importance for each energy sector. This has always been the situation for the primary fossil fuel sectors but, with corporatization and privatization, is now also an issue for the electricity supply industry. This article examines the most significant forms of taxation affecting the major industry sectors, namely secondary taxation, corporate taxation and, as a consequence of the corporatization and privatization of the electricity supply industry, surrogate taxation as it affects that industry. While essentially considering secondary taxation, the paper also reviews corporate and surrogate taxes. Tax exemptions for various energy sector activities such as mining operations, exploration and rehabilitation related activities are outlined. It is considered that there is insufficient evidence of the influence of taxation and other factors on electricity pricing. 2 tabs

  19. STUDYING TAXATION - NECESSITY AND OPPORTUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen, COMANICIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Taxation - a set of laws, regulations and methods of establishing taxes - is, was and will always be present in the life of every individual and every company because of the existence of the State with the tasks and functions, through its influence on the economic and social. Most persons understand the necessity of taxation, but how many people can provide relevant answer to questions such as: What is taxation and which are its characteristics? What is the significance of taxation? What are the tax effects at the micro level? How important is the ratio between direct taxation and indirect taxation? What are the principles of taxation? How are taxes determined? What are the rights and obligations of taxpayers? How taxation can become a stimulating factor? Through this article we will try to emphasize the necessity of studying taxation, in order to be a real partnership between the taxpayer and the state, with appropriate action. Without claiming an exhaustive approach we believe that the aspects presented can be points of reflection for each individual, so that it to be open at any time to study taxation, realizing the importance of skills and abilities that can be acquired.

  20. Modelling the impact of energy taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoedin, J.

    2002-01-01

    Energy taxation in Sweden is complicated and strongly guides and governs district energy production. Consequently, there is a need for methods for accurate calculation and analysis of effects that different energy tax schemes may have on district energy utilities. Here, a practicable method to analyse influence of such governmental policy measures is demonstrated. The Swedish Government has for some years now been working on a reform of energy taxation, and during this process, several interest groups have expressed their own proposals for improving and developing the system of energy taxation. Together with the present system of taxation, four new alternatives, including the proposed directive of the European Commission, are outlined in the paper. In a case study, an analysis is made of how the different tax alternatives may influence the choice of profitable investments and use of energy carriers in a medium-sized district-heating utility. The calculations are made with a linear-programming model framework. By calculating suitable types and sizes of new investments, if any, and the operation of existing and potential plants, total energy costs are minimized. Results of the analysis include the most profitable investments, which fuel should be used, roughly when during a year plants should be in operation, and at what output. In most scenarios, the most profitable measure is to invest in a waste incineration plant. However, a crucial assumption is, with reference to the new Swedish waste disposal act, a significant income from incinerating refuse. Without this income, different tax schemes result in different technical solutions being most profitable. An investment in cogeneration seems possible in only one scenario. It is also found that particular features of some alternatives seem to oppose both main governmental policy goals, and intentions of the district heating company. (Author)

  1. Ecological tax reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  2. Ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An environmental tax reform is seen by many as a possible solution to some crucial problems of modern society - pollution, excessive resource consumption and unemployment. Changes in the system of taxation are here seen as a long term process, one that must cheapen the costs of labour and make the costs of resource use more expensive - a process which can also create major changes in our society as to conceptions of quality, work, consumption etc. The conference presented proposals for an ecological tax and duty system that would contribute to: Changing technology so that it becomes more resource and energy effective. Changing the economic mechanisms so that resource consumption and pollution become more expensive while human resources become cheaper. Changing personal life styles and values so that material consumption becomes less decisive for our choices and priorities. An environmental tax reform is neither without problems nor painless. An economy and an industrial sector based on increasing consumption of energy and raw materials will, in the long run, lead to drawbacks that far outweigh those that are connected with an economic re-orientation whose driving force is another conception of nature. (EG)

  3. Taxation of Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyppel, Katja Joo

    2013-01-01

    are known as futures, forwards, options and swaps. Derivatives are traded for the purpose of hedging financial or business risk, speculating in future spot prices and taking advantage of arbitrage opportunities. This market has increased tremendously in recent years. The term derivative is not used......The main objective for this thesis is to analyse and systematise the Danish legislation on taxation of derivatives. According to financial terminology, a derivative is a financial instrument. Its value is derived from changes in the value of one or more underlying assets.The most common derivatives...... in the Danish tax legislation. However, contracts known as forwards (terminskontrakter) and options (aftaler om køberetter og salgsretter) are generally included in the term financials contracts covered by the Danish Act on Taxation of Gains and Losses on Claims and Debt. The main part of the analysis deals...

  4. Taxation and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Besley; Torsten Persson

    2013-01-01

    The central question in taxation and development is: "how does a government go from raising around 10% of GDP in taxes to raising around 40%"? This paper looks at the economic and political forces that shape the way that fiscal capacity is created and sustained. As well as reviewing the literature and evidence, it builds an overarching framework to help structure thinking on the topic.

  5. Corporate Taxation and Multinational Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Egger; Simon Loretz; Michael Pfaffermayr; Hannes Winner

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of corporate taxation on multinational activity. A numerically solvable general equilibrium model of trade and multinational firms is used to incorporate the following components of corporate taxation: parent and host country statutory corporate tax rates, withholding tax rates, and parent and host country depreciation allowances. We account for their differential impact under alternative methods of double taxation relief (i.e., credit, exemption, and deduction)...

  6. Taxation of Gambling in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Alchin, T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines taxation of gambling in Australia and shows the proportions of taxation that each State receives. An interstate comparison of the components of gambling taxes is undertaken and some reasons for the differences between States are given such as the contributions to hospitals and the staid nature of residents of some other States. Taxation of gambling in NSW is examined in some depth and lottery revenue is used as an illustration of the growth, decline and resurgence of this ...

  7. Development of taxation system for oil production companies in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmina, S. V.; Sboeva, I. M.; Selivanovskaya, J. I.; Khafizova, A. R.; Fomin, V. P.

    2018-01-01

    The present article is devoted to the taxation system for oil production companies in Russia. The role of oil production companies in the realization of the fiscal function of the state is shown. Tax and due receipts at the consolidated budget of the Russian Federation from major economic sectors in the years 2013-2015 are presented and analysed. An investigation of oil production taxation peculiarities is carried out. In particular, mineral extraction tax analysis is made, the said tax being one of the basic taxes paid by oil production companies. The authors come to a conclusion that mineral extraction tax in Russia needs reforming. Based on the investigation realized possible ways of taxation system development in respect of oil production companies in Russia are proposed. Thus, taking into account the fact that oil industry is very important for budget revenue formation, initially it is planned to test the new taxation system principles in a limited number of deposits, so called ‘pilot projects’. For highly profitable minefield deposits it is planned to introduce progressive and regressive index, varying depending on oil prices. Within the framework of the investigation the authors come to a conclusion that it is necessary to introduce gradually the taxation system based on the definition of surplus profit depending on the cost effectiveness and taking into account oil prices.

  8. Local Taxation: Principles and Scope

    OpenAIRE

    Spahn, Paul Bernd

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses principles of local taxation such as accountability, benefit-tax link, non-distortion, regional equity, long-term efficiency, reliability and stability of tax bases, tax sharing as implicit insurance, and administrative simplicity. Not all of the criteria for local taxation are consistent with each other and could be realized at the same time.

  9. Energy taxation difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberg, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper assesses what may be the underlying reasons for the Clinton administration's recent failure to pass the Btu Tax on energy sources and the current difficulties that this Administration is experiencing in acquiring nation wide consensus on a gasoline tax proposal. Two difficulties stand out - regional differences in climate and thus winter heating requirements, and the differences from state to state in transportation system preferences. The paper cites the positive aspects of energy taxation by noting the petroleum industry's efforts to develop a new less polluting reformulated gasoline

  10. Considerations Regarding the International Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mosteanu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Taxation, an essential element of an efficient public finance system, is the best way for collecting income to achive the public expenditures programs and, in the same time, a way to redistribute the income, in order to get rid of poverty and to ensure social equity. Studies on the topic of international taxation, in its traditional meaning, were addressed to the problems regarding the international taxation effects on trade and investments, unequitable and discriminatory taxation, also the means of preventing such cases, international fiscal evasion, all these aspects being comprised into the area of fiscal competition. The present concept of international taxation, meant to cross states borders, in order to redistribute the income or to achive other objectives with international implications, such as fight against poverty, maintaining world peace or environment protection, is a quite recent one.

  11. Green taxation and individual responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballet, Jerome [C3ED Centre of Economics and Ethics for Environment and Development, UVSQ, University of Versailles, Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (France); Bazin, Damien [EMAFI Macroeconomics and International Finance Research Centre at University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, 28, avenue Valrose, BP 2135, 06103 Nice (France); Lioui, Abraham [Department of Economics, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan (Israel); Touahri, David [LEST Institute of Labor Econmics and Industrial Sociology and Mediterranean University Aix-Marseille II, Marseille (France)

    2007-09-15

    The current article aims at studying the effects of taxation on environmental quality, in an economy where its agents are responsible. Individual responsibility towards nature is modelized by the voluntary effort to which the households have agreed insofar as the improvement of environmental quality is concerned. It is an original way to show that the individuals may feel committed towards the environment and assume obligations towards it as well as towards environmental public policy. Given that, in our model, such effort is taken from one's allocated time for leisure, its opportunity cost is that of the sacrificed time for leisure, and is therefore equal to the individual's wage. We shall highlight that State intervention through the introduction of a (green) tax always crowds out individual responsibility. However, the intensity of this crowding-out depends on the performance of the State. Moreover, State intervention could, depending on the amount of crowding-out, reduce the overall quality of the environment. In a general equilibrium setting, we show that the crowding-out effect is not systematic. This is because there will then be an interaction between effort (or work time) and the cost of that effort (linked to the individual's wage, and therefore to production and finally to work/effort). In this article, we shall discuss the conditions under which public policy crowds out individual responsibility within this context. (author)

  12. Green taxation and individual responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, Jerome; Bazin, Damien; Lioui, Abraham; Touahri, David

    2007-01-01

    The current article aims at studying the effects of taxation on environmental quality, in an economy where its agents are responsible. Individual responsibility towards nature is modelized by the voluntary effort to which the households have agreed insofar as the improvement of environmental quality is concerned. It is an original way to show that the individuals may feel committed towards the environment and assume obligations towards it as well as towards environmental public policy. Given that, in our model, such effort is taken from one's allocated time for leisure, its opportunity cost is that of the sacrificed time for leisure, and is therefore equal to the individual's wage. We shall highlight that State intervention through the introduction of a (green) tax always crowds out individual responsibility. However, the intensity of this crowding-out depends on the performance of the State. Moreover, State intervention could, depending on the amount of crowding-out, reduce the overall quality of the environment. In a general equilibrium setting, we show that the crowding-out effect is not systematic. This is because there will then be an interaction between effort (or work time) and the cost of that effort (linked to the individual's wage, and therefore to production and finally to work/effort). In this article, we shall discuss the conditions under which public policy crowds out individual responsibility within this context. (author)

  13. TAXATION OF PERSONAL INCOMES IN ROMANIA: PRESENT AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PIRVU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The personal income tax is not only as an important revenue instrument but also as an instrument of national policy. Taxation of personal income in European Union countries is regulated usually by a progressive rate structure. This article aims to highlight the differences between Romania and other EU member states in the field of personal income tax and to raise the issue of reforming the tax system by introducing the tax household.

  14. Curricular Reform: Systems Modeling and Sustainability in Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, D. M.; Hayden, N. J.; Dewoolkar, M.; Neumann, M.; Lathem, S.

    2009-12-01

    Researchers at the University of Vermont were awarded a NSF-sponsored Department Level Reform (DLR) grant to incorporate a systems approach to engineering problem solving within the civil and environmental engineering programs. A systems approach challenges students to consider the environmental, social, and economic aspects within engineering solutions. Likewise, sustainability requires a holistic approach to problem solving that includes economic, social and environmental factors. Our reform has taken a multi-pronged approach in two main areas that include implementing: a) a sequence of three systems courses related to environmental and transportation systems that introduce systems thinking, sustainability, and systems analysis and modeling; and b) service-learning (SL) projects as a means of practicing the systems approach. Our SL projects are good examples of inquiry-based learning that allow students to emphasize research and learning in areas of most interest to them. The SL projects address real-world open-ended problems. Activities that enhance IT and soft skills for students are incorporated throughout the curricula. Likewise, sustainability has been a central piece of the reform. We present examples of sustainability in the SL and modeling projects within the systems courses (e.g., students have used STELLA™ systems modeling software to address the impact of different carbon sequestration strategies on global climate change). Sustainability in SL projects include mentoring home schooled children in biomimicry projects, developing ECHO exhibits and the design of green roofs, bioretention ponds and porous pavement solutions. Assessment includes formative and summative methods involving student surveys and focus groups, faculty interviews and observations, and evaluation of student work.

  15. Public choice and environmental regulation: tradable permit systems in the United States and CO2 taxation in Europe. New Horizons in Environmental Economics series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    Svendsen provides a comprehensive description and assessment of the actual experience with systems of tradable permits for environmental management. Moreover, he puts this treatment in a public-choice framework so that we can understand why policy makers in Europe have chosen green taxes, while t...... their counterparts in the United States have opted for systems of tradable permits. The book is a valuable source for a basic understanding of the theory, the and the political economy of incentive-based policy instruments....

  16. Taxation of Clergymen Revenues from Pastoral Services – an Attempt of Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zieliński

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to attempt a comprehensive evaluation of the legal regulations within the Polish tax system regarding taxation of clergymen revenues from pastoral services3.Methodology: Undertaking and accomplishing the purpose of this paper has been possible by analyzing the Polish literature on the subject as well as the relevant legal acts. For the purpose of this paper also empirical materials have been used, in the form of a report on the fi nances of the Catholic Church, the contents of which were used to formulate the conclusions de lege ferenda. The main research method used in the present study was the legal dogmatic method, which involves an analysis of the applicable regulations within the Polish legal system in the fi eld of taxation of clergymen revenues from pastoral services. Additionally, the basic methods of statistical data presentation were used in the form of tables.Findings: The applicable legal regulations within the Polish tax system regarding taxation of clergymen revenues obtained from performing their pastoral services require an urgent and comprehensive reform. For these are normative solutions that contradict the basic principles of taxation (especially the postulated for more than two centuries principles of equality and justice in taxation, which should form the basis for a properly determined object of taxation, and therefore they do not fulfi ll the by the legislature assigned functions.Research implications: Presented ideas for changes in the currently in Poland adopted lump-sum taxation system of clergymen revenues could constitute a starting point for the developers of the tax reform for further discussion on the desirable directions of reform in the fi eld of personal income taxation in Poland.Originality: In the paper the Author points out that in the ongoing public discussion on the optimal method of taxation of personal income relatively little attention is given to issues concerning

  17. Study on Environmental Fiscal Reform Potential in 14 EU Member States: Main Report & Appendices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogg, Dominic; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Elliott, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The approach taken in this study was to highlight the potential for revenue generation from environmental taxes using a methodology that Eunomia and Professor Mikael Skou Andersen developed as part of an earlier study published in March 2014. This study in turn built on work by the European...... Environment Agency between 2010 and 2013 on the potential for environmental fiscal reform in four EU Member States affected by the economic crisis. As with the last study for the European Commission, the intention of this study is to indicate where this potential may lie, and to demonstrate the order...... of magnitude of the revenues that could be derived from environmental taxes in each Member State if they are applied at rates proposed in this work....

  18. Environmental Literacy of Sixth Grade Students in Arkansas: Implications for Environmental Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa S.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental education must be better integrated into K-12 curriculum to advance environmental literacy. Producing a citizenry that can understand and address the complex environmental issues facing the world today and in the future is essential to sustainable life on this planet. Using the Middle School Environmental Literacy Survey, 6th grade…

  19. Taxation of unmined minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremberg, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the Kentucky Revenue Cabinet which began implementing its controversial unmined minerals tax program. The Revenue Cabinet should complete its first annual assessment under this program in December, 1989. The Revenue Cabinet's initial efforts to collect basic data concerning the Commonwealth's coal bearing lands has yielded data coverage for 5 million of Kentucky's 10 million acres of coal lands. Approximately 1000 detailed information returns have been filed. The returns will be used to help create an undeveloped mineral reserves inventory, determine mineral ownership, and value mineral reserves. This new program is run by the Revenue Cabinet's Mineral Valuation Section, under the Division of Technical Support, Department of Property Taxation. It has been in business since September of 1988

  20. Foreign investment, international mergers and the 1993 capital income tax reform in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hannu Piekkola

    1995-01-01

    Foreign direct investment in Finland and the 1993 Finnish Capital Income Tax Reform are examined in this article. Under territorial taxation, the most common form of international double taxation relief; the tax reform will encourage new capital investment. New capital investment from the US, which applies worldwide taxation, would be mildly discouraged, and FDI in the form of mergers and acquisitions largely discouraged. In the UK and Japan, the worldwide principle only covers tax rates. Thu...

  1. Corporate Taxation and Corporate Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Stimmelmayr, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The effects of corporate taxation on firm behavior have been extensively discussed in the neoclassical model of firm behavior which abstracts from agency problems. As emphasized by the corporate governance literature, corporate investment behavior is however crucially influenced by diverging...... interests between shareholders and managers. We set up an agency model and analyze the crucial issue in corporate taxation of whether the normal return on investment should be exempted from taxation. The findings suggest that the divergence of interests may be intensified and welfare reduced...... if the corporate tax system exempts the normal return on investment from taxation. The optimal system may well use the full return on investment as a tax base. Hence, tax systems such as an Allowance for Corporate Equity (ACE) or a Cash-flow tax do not have the familiar efficiency-enhancing effects in the presence...

  2. The Theory of Optimal Taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    The theory of optimal taxation has often been criticized for being of little practical policy relevance, due to a lack of robust theoretical results. This paper argues that recent advances in optimal tax theory has made that theory easier to apply and may help to explain some current trends in in...... in international tax policy. Covering the taxation of labour income and capital income as well as indirect taxation, the paper also illustrates how some of the key results in optimal tax theory may be derived in a simple, heuristic manner.......The theory of optimal taxation has often been criticized for being of little practical policy relevance, due to a lack of robust theoretical results. This paper argues that recent advances in optimal tax theory has made that theory easier to apply and may help to explain some current trends...

  3. The petroleum taxation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document details the french specificities of taxation concerning the petroleum products: the TIPP. It shows how this policy acts upon the petroleum products consumption behavior and how it allows the financing of the decentralization. (A.L.B.)

  4. Perfect Taxation with Imperfect Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Alan J. Auerbach; James R. Hines Jr.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes features of perfect taxation also known as optimal taxation when one or more private markets is imperfectly competitive. Governments with perfect information and access to lump-sum taxes can provide corrective subsidies that render outcomes efficient in the presence of imperfect competition. Relaxing either of these two conditions removes the government's ability to support efficient resource allocation and changes the perfect policy response. When governments cannot use l...

  5. The regulatory reform in the European Union environmental policy: A first appraisal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, Francois [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, Paris (France)]|[CERNA, Center of Industrial Economics, Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    This paper is aimed to outline the expected outcome of the regulatory reform which is occurring in the European Union environmental policy: it intends to point out the new institutional procedures for rulemaking introduced by the Maastricht Treaty and the fifth Programme of Action, which would result in the use of market-based instruments and voluntary approaches oppositely to traditional command and control mechanisms. The paper consists of three sections: while the first one is plainly introductory, the following two sections represent a survey on eight recent pieces of European Union legislation, chiefly directives, showing the systematic decrease in the environmental objectives due to the presence of industrial interest groups, and the new problems affecting public intervention caused by the development of the above mentioned voluntary approaches. Moreover, the former provides an analytical model of a firm`s involvement in the policy process, the latter an analytical apparatus on the very nature and failures of self-and co-regulation.

  6. Environmental Tax Reforms and Mitigation for Energy-intensive Industries: Some Lessons from European Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse in more detail the international experiences in applying carbon-energy taxation in two important energy-intensive sectors; iron and steel, as well as non-metallic mineral products (where cement is the most significant subsector).......The purpose of this paper is to analyse in more detail the international experiences in applying carbon-energy taxation in two important energy-intensive sectors; iron and steel, as well as non-metallic mineral products (where cement is the most significant subsector)....

  7. TAXATION. FAIRNESS. EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of taxation is a phenomenon long past barriers fiscal regulations and procedures, as in the contemporary period is a phenomenon with multiple implications of economic, social and political. Tax procedures also were upgraded and complicated that not only specialists but also taxpayers need the jurisdictional knowledge, informatics and especially in the economic field. Dealing over the jurisdictional and procedural measure, it seems that the other side of the relationship between tax authorities and taxpayers, the economic and psycho-behavioral was neglected. Tax authorities as part of the administrative system, whose main objective attracting tax revenues to the Exchequer in terms of data legislation, legislation that reflects the vision of the governments policy in operation. One must ask if the official fiscal policies, take into account the coordinates of the report psychobehavioral tax? The answer to this question and some comments to address this issue, this paper covered together. The tax will not ever paid with pleasure, but it is known that fiscal equity confers a degree of acceptance by payers of the tax burden. Modern fiscal policies are marked by complicated structure of tax systems, more sophisticated procedures and rush image of politicians that do not retain as little detriment to promote populism reality. Another problem is the invasion of of social security, namely the objective is also looking to be promoted on account of fiscal policy without taking into account the fact that the two policies, the fiscal and social security are still their primary objective. The combination of the two types of , the purely fiscal and social, administrative approach is undoubtedly affected, and the effectiveness of the two policies may be affected taxpayers reactions is recognized in the literature are controversial. Taxpayers are vexed not only the size of the tax burden but also its structure, especially the way the official division

  8. Using Machine Learning in Environmental Tax Reform Assessment for Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Hubei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinger Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During the past 30 year of economic growth, China has also accumulated a huge environmental pollution debt. China’s government attempts to use a variety of means, including tax instruments to control environmental pollution. After nine years of repeated debates, the State Council Legislative Affairs Office released the Environmental Protection Tax Law (Draft in June 2015. As China’s first environmental tax law, whether this conservative “Environmental Fee to Tax (EFT” reform could improve the environment has generated controversy. In this paper, we seek insights to this controversial issue using the machine learning approach, a powerful tool for environmental policy assessment. We take Hubei Province, the first pilot area as a case of EFT, and analyze the institutional incentive, behavior transformation and emission intensity reduction performance. Twelve pilot cities located in Hubei Province were selected to estimate the effect of the reform by using synthetic control and a rapid developing machine learning method for policy evaluation. We find that the EFT reform can promote emission intensity reduction. Especially, relative to comparable synthetic cities in the absence of the reform, the average annual emission intensity of Sulfur Dioxide (SO2 in the pilot cities dropped by 0.13 ton/million Yuan with a reduction rate of 10%–32%. Our findings also show that the impact of environmental tax reform varies across cities due to the administrative level and economic development. The results of our study are also supported by enterprise interviews. The EFT improves the overall environmental costs, and encourages enterprises to reduce emissions pollution. These results provide valuable experience and policy implications for the implementation of China’s Environmental Protection Tax Law.

  9. Principles of taxation of road motor vehicles and their possibilities of application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr David

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the taxation of ownership and operation of road vehicles in the Czech Republic. The result of study is the formulation of principles and functions that taxation of road vehicles should meet, including the subsequent evaluation of the feasibility of the optimal structure of the proposed tax. The text identifies many requirements for taxes and tax system, and also functions which have to be fulfilled. These findings are applied to the taxation of road motor vehicles. We find out, during use of standard general methods of scientific work, that taxation of road motor vehicles must provide primarily a fiscal function of a tax in sense of selection of means for the renewal of environmental and other damage caused by operation of road motor vehicles. It is not suitable to prefer other principles primarily in terms of redistribution, stabilization, and other requirements during taxation of operation or ownership of road vehicle. It should also be noted that the model of the proposed tax includes several aspects that do not allow its implementation in optimal form. Nevertheless, it is appropriate to consider the introduction of at least the best possible alternative of constructed model of taxation of road motor vehicles in the Czech Republic. Beside objective theoretical reasons for the change of taxation of road vehicles, it is necessary to take account of efforts made by the institutions of the European Union within the meaning of environmental taxation of road vehicles in the European Union.

  10. Environmental expenditure and the natural resources industry in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoianoff, N.

    2001-01-01

    The Australian Federal Government has used taxation policy to encourage environmental responsibility for the past decade. This paper analyzed the development of tax concessions in the natural resources industry for the past 10 years with emphasis on the objective of introducing environmental expenditure incentives. The taxation policy provided the natural resources industry with a special deduction for current or capital expenditure incurred on rehabilitation-related activities on or after 1 July 1999. During this same period, a regime was introduced for the deductibility of environmental expenditure, including environmental impact studies or environmental protection expenditure. Income taxation in Australia has undergone significant review in the past decade to try to simplify the complicated Income Tax Assessment Act which dates back to 1936. Some provisions in that Act were restructured, such as the special tax concessions for the natural resource industry to remove duplication of provisions. This resulted in a single cohesive regime of concessions for the mining, quarrying and petroleum industries. Environmental expenditures were also imported into the restructured 1997 Act. Major business taxation reforms were also introduced at the end of 1999. It was noted that providing financial incentives to operate in a more environmentally responsible matter is not a guarantee that such behaviour will occur. 102 refs

  11. Study on assessing the environmental fiscal reform potential for the EU28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogg, Dominic; Elliott, Timothy; Elliott, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    and consumption taxes”. The AGS set out three pillars that it foresaw as underpinning the EU’s economic and social policy for 2015:  A coordinated response to boosting investment;  A renewed commitment to structural reforms; and  The pursuit of fiscal responsibility. Environmental taxes (together...... that this study may feed into the development of the CSRs for 2016. The previous (2015) AGS acknowledged that "employment and growth can be stimulated by shifting the tax burden away from labour towards other types of taxes which are less detrimental to growth, such as recurrent property, environment...... with consumption and recurrent property taxes) are considered less detrimental to growth than other taxes such as on labour or corporate income and are increasingly promoted in the context of economic recovery and growth-friendly fiscal consolidation. The references to more growth friendly tax systems...

  12. International and domestic aspects of double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Murgáčová, Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    International and local aspects of double taxation Abstract The purpose of my thesis is to analyze international double taxation taking into account both local legislation and international aspects. Double taxation is the situation, where the same income (or capital) is subject to the same tax more than once. Mostly, the international double taxation appears when the state of the source of income implies taxes on the income of the non-residents and the state of residence of the income receive...

  13. The International Double Taxation – Avoiding Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economicdouble taxation and the international legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation andavoiding methods. In the presentation of the avoidance methods have been used practical examples forcomparison of the tax advantages for income beneficiary between: the total exemption method andprogressive exemption method, on the one hand, and total crediting method and ordinary crediting m...

  14. Taxation in Romania during transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Bosie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxation, as fundamental element of budgetary revenue, represents the subject of newest utilization. Budget revenues through importance they hold, exercises a direct influence on the behavior of people being used by natural and legal persons as modeling tools in the economic and social life. Using the generic concept of taxation we can obtain a plurality of components, it’s defining elements, such as expression level of tax levies by various reports, the legal framework on tax revenue, financial institutions with responsibility for budgetary and fiscal powers, mandatory sampling methods, techniques and procedures used in the settlement and settlement revenue collection and budget. Performance of the economy at a time, effective use of public spending financed by taxes, public needs set by government policy and approved by Parliament, taxpayers, understanding of the budgetary needs, state of democracy in that country reached the level of taxation this one being determined by mentioned factors.

  15. On the environmental impact of energy market liberalisation: Environmental policy, economic reform and endogenous technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. van Soest (Daan); H.L.F. de Groot (Henri)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn the literature, attention has been paid to the environmental consequences of lower energy prices caused by market liberalisation: the drop in energy prices reduces the attractiveness of investing in energy-saving technologies. In this paper we develop a simple model of investment

  16. Geography Teachers' Interpretation of a Curriculum Reform Initiative: The Case of the Lesotho Environmental Education Support Project (LEESP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raselimo, Mohaeka; Wilmot, Di

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses how teachers in a specific developing world context interpreted a curriculum reform initiative. It is located within a broader interpretive study that investigated the integration of Environmental Education into the formal education system of Lesotho with particular reference to secondary school geography. More specifically…

  17. Optimal taxation with household production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Richter, Wolfram F.; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2000-01-01

    on consumer services even if such services are complements to leisure. Second, we find that when services and other goods are equally substitutable for leisure, so that uniform commodity taxation would be optimal in the absence of home production, the optimal tax structure will certainly involve a relatively......This paper suggests that the optimal tax system should favour market-produced services which are close substitutes for home-produced services. First, we modify the classical Corlett-Hague rule for optimal commodity taxation by showing that it may be optimal to impose a relatively low tax rate...... low tax rate on consumer services...

  18. Taxation and the American Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Passant

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the interrelationship between revolution and tax in the context of the American Revolution. It examines the role of ordinary people in demanding, among other things, as part of wider demands for democracy and equality, no taxation without representation. The article aims to reintroduce the neglected notions of class and class struggle into current discussions and debates about tax and history, putting the people back into academic narratives about the history of taxation and to their place as political actors on history’s stage.

  19. Exploring agricultural taxation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der H.B.; Meulen, van der H.A.B.; Bommel, van K.H.M.; Doorneweert, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the tax systems in ten European countries, focusing on agriculture. It not only deals with income tax, it also describes other taxes such as gift and inheritance tax and Value Added Tax. This information leads to an analysis of the impact of taxation on the competitive position

  20. Information Sharing and International Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keen, M.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The sharing between national tax authorities of taxpayer-specific information has emerged over the last few years as a-probably "the"-central issue in the formation of international tax policy.Yet this refocusing of the debate on international taxation-away from parametric tax coordination and

  1. Optimal taxation with household production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Richter, Wolfram F.; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2000-01-01

    on consumer services even if such services are complements to leisure. Second, we find that when services and other goods are equally substitutable for leisure, so that uniform commodity taxation would be optimal in the absence of home production, the optimal tax structure will certainly involve a relatively...

  2. EU citizenship and direct taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W. Ros (Erik)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe main question addressed in this study is: _How has the concept of EU citizenship influenced the legal autonomy of Member States; most notably in the field of direct taxation and are the implications of that influence on the tax autonomy of Member States acceptable?_

  3. Evaluating nitrogen taxation scenarios using the dynamic whole farm simulation model FASSET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, J.; Petersen, B.M.; Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2003-01-01

    The whole farm model FASSET ver. 1.0 was used for evaluation of the environmental and economic consequences of implementing different nitrogen taxes. The taxation policies analysed were a tax on nitrogen in mineral fertiliser, a tax on nitrogen in mineral fertiliser and imported animal feedstuff...... leaching varied between 1 and 9 € kg N−1. None of the taxation policies was the most cost-effective for all farm types. Tax on mineral fertiliser favours pig producers, whereas the tax on nitrogen surplus favours arable farms. Thus efficient taxation schemes for reduction of nitrate leaching should...

  4. Reevaluating the first and the second dividends of environmental tax reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, Eduardo L.; Rodriguez, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing global interest in market-based climate change policies following the last elections in the United States. In this context an Exxon Mobil chief executive came out in favour of a carbon tax. This paper is concerned with the welfare analysis of Environmental Tax Reforms (ETR), and takes up the claims for the need of an unambiguous and operative definition of the double dividend both for empirical purposes and political advisement. In this paper, we contest the usual definition of the second dividend and its assimilation to an 'efficiency dividend'. We propose alternative definitions by suggesting a different splitting of the total welfare variation between the first and the second dividend in order to isolate the efficiency effects of the ETR. The new definitions become clearly understandable and easy for economic and policy interpretation. Concepts like 'weak' and 'strong' double dividend turn out to be unnecessary. Finally, we analyze ETR for the US economy to illustrate the advantages of the proposed definitions for policy implementation. (author)

  5. Reevaluating the first and the second dividends of environmental tax reforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez, Eduardo L. [Departamento de Fundamentos da Analise Economica e Historia e Institucions Economicas and rede, Universidade de Vigo (Spain); Rodriguez, Miguel [Departamento de Economia Aplicada and rede, Universidade de Vigo (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    There is increasing global interest in market-based climate change policies following the last elections in the United States. In this context an Exxon Mobil chief executive came out in favour of a carbon tax. This paper is concerned with the welfare analysis of Environmental Tax Reforms (ETR), and takes up the claims for the need of an unambiguous and operative definition of the double dividend both for empirical purposes and political advisement. In this paper, we contest the usual definition of the second dividend and its assimilation to an 'efficiency dividend'. We propose alternative definitions by suggesting a different splitting of the total welfare variation between the first and the second dividend in order to isolate the efficiency effects of the ETR. The new definitions become clearly understandable and easy for economic and policy interpretation. Concepts like 'weak' and 'strong' double dividend turn out to be unnecessary. Finally, we analyze ETR for the US economy to illustrate the advantages of the proposed definitions for policy implementation. (author)

  6. Environmental fiscal reform and willingness to pay for the environment: an empirical analysis on European micro data

    OpenAIRE

    Ercolano, Salvatore; Gaeta, Giuseppe Lucio; Romano, Oriana

    2012-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the determinants of willingness to pay (WTP) for the environment, employing micro data from the European Value Survey (EVS) over 2008-2010 in 27 European countries. Using ordered logit, logit and partially constrained generalized ordered logit models, we explore a wide set of individual and country level determinants. Our particular focus is on whether WTP is influenced by the Environmental Fiscal Reforms (EFR), carried out only in some countries of our sam...

  7. Mining Taxation in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper first assesses the current Colombian mining tax-and-royalty regime in comparison with other countries from the points of view of efficiency, competitiveness and revenue performance. It then discusses the theoretical convenience of introducing alternative designs for a resource rent tax (RRT to be applied to new mining projects, together with a reduced common royalty rate for all minerals, and simulates their potential efficiency, competitiveness and revenue-performance effects. In particular, it examines alternative interactions between the RRT, the royalty regime and the corporate income tax (royalties creditable against the RRT or deductible from its tax base; accepting or not corporate income tax deductibility from the RRT tax base, under alternative RRT tax rates. It also discusses alternative capital return allowances and the pros and cons of project-by-project versus sectorial ring fencing, and sharing RRT revenues between the national and sub-national governments. It concludes with a detailed blueprint for reform based on these discussions, assessments and simulations, as well as political economy and administrative considerations for the specific case of Colombia. Este trabajo evalúa la eficiencia, competitividad y capacidad de recaudo del régimen tributario y de regalías colombiano en comparación con el de otros países mineros relevantes. Posteriormente, propone la implementación de un “Resource Rent Tax” (RRT para proyectos mineros futuros (junto con una reducción y unificación de la tasa de regalías entre minerales y modela el impacto que tendría éste sobre la eficiencia y el recaudo. Se examinan la interacción entre el RRT, las regalías y el impuesto de renta bajo distintos diseños y tasas de RRT y costo de oportunidad del capital. También se analiza si es preferible tener “ringfencing” a nivel de proyecto o a nivel sectorial. El trabajo concluye con una propuesta de reforma junto con consideraciones

  8. Tourism: a Soft Touch for Increased Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Frank

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the changes which are taking place internationally in the taxation of the tourism industry and the reasons why tourism is especially susceptible to increased taxation. It compares VAT rates in European countries and assesses the relationship between those rates and increases in international tourism receipts, concluding that there is not the direct, negative relationship which hotel associations frequently cited in their submissions to government. The canons of taxation, fi...

  9. International Taxation and Multinational Firm Location Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Barrios; Harry Huizinga; Luc Laeven; Gaëtan Nicodème

    2008-01-01

    Using a large international firm-level data set, we estimate separate effects of host and parent country taxation on the location decisions of multinational firms. Both types of taxation are estimated to have a negative impact on the location of new foreign subsidiaries. In fact, the impact of parent country taxation is estimated to be relatively large, possibly reflecting its international discriminatory nature. For the cross-section of multinational firms, we find that parent firms tend to ...

  10. Income taxation insurant: practice and the purpose of implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Ostroverkha, R.

    2009-01-01

    Present practice of income taxation insurant is critically estimated in regard to its conformity with science principles of taxation, trends of tax system's evolution and peculiarities of insurance activity and recommendations the purpose of implementation rational forms of taxation

  11. The International Double Taxation – Avoiding Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economicdouble taxation and the international legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation andavoiding methods. In the presentation of the avoidance methods have been used practical examples forcomparison of the tax advantages for income beneficiary between: the total exemption method andprogressive exemption method, on the one hand, and total crediting method and ordinary crediting method,on the other hand, but the comparing of tax reduction between methods of exemption and crediting.

  12. Hay condiciones propicias para reforma tributaria estructural (A positive time for a tax reform)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitrago Diaz, E.

    2015-01-01

    This publication deals with local taxes in Colombia, in particular the trade tax (a direct tax on income). The analysis focuses on the reforms proposed by the OECD and the impact of the current laws on trade taxation at the municipal level, ending in internal double and multiple taxation.

  13. 31 CFR 346.13 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., inheritance, or other excise taxes, whether Federal or State, but are exempt from all taxation now or... BONDS § 346.13 Taxation. The tax treatment provided under section 409 of the Internal Revenue Code of... authority. Inquiry concerning the application of any Federal tax to these bonds should be directed to the...

  14. 31 CFR 345.5 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INDEBTEDNESS-R.E.A. SERIES § 345.5 Taxation. The income derived from the certificates is subject to all taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1954. The certificates are subject to estate, inheritance, gift or other excise taxes, whether Federal or State, but are exempt from all taxation now or hereafter...

  15. 31 CFR 340.3 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPETITIVE BIDDING § 340.3 Taxation. The income derived from the bonds will be subject to all taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1954. The bonds will be subject to estate, inheritance, gift or other excise taxes, whether Federal or State, but will be exempt from all taxation now or hereafter imposed on...

  16. 31 CFR 341.13 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 341.13 Taxation. The tax treatment provided under section 405 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 shall apply to all Retirement Plan Bonds. The bonds are subject to estate, inheritance, or other excise taxes whether Federal or State, but are exempt from all taxation now or hereafter imposed on the...

  17. Optimal income taxation with endogenous human capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper augments the theory of optimal linear income taxation by taking into account human capital accumulation as a dimension of labor supply. The distribution of earning potentials is endogenous because agents differ in the ability to learn. Taxation affects utilization rates of human capital

  18. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  19. International taxation and cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998�2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  20. The global prospects of taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Mileva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the process of establishing international economic and financial relations between national economies is on the rise, many states encounter substantial difficulties in the process of collecting their tax claims. The most powerful countries in the world try to overcome this controversy by changing the international tax rules. The turning point was the financial-economic crisis of2008-2009, when the international community more vigorously embarked on resolving international tax issues. The OECD, the G20, the UN, the EU and a number of other powerful international organizations continued their activities on establishing a stronger framework of the international tax system. Global tax initiatives embodied in the soft law regulations have changed (to a varied extent the structure of national tax systems as well as the direction of national policies, and ultimately undermined the financial foundations of the social welfare state. The world's 'taxation landscape' is indisputably dominated by two major processes embodied in the concepts of tax harmonization and tax competition. The global crisis in financing contemporary states has weakened their resistance towards more extensive international tax cooperation. As a result, they increasingly accept global tax standards and are more vigorously involved in the international exchange of tax information for the purpose of counteracting international tax fraud. Changes in national tax systems are necessarily accompanied by changing relations between tax administrations and multinational companies as large taxpayers. The traditional public law relations are gradually changed by introducing some elements of 'negotiations and mutual agreement', which are aimed at strengthening mutual trust and avoiding unnecessary disputes and costs. Although they are currently no more than theoretical assumptions and political considerations, there are proposals for introducing global taxes and establishing the world tax

  1. Towards a coherent European approach for taxation of combustible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Current European waste taxes do not constitute a level playing field. • Integrating waste incineration in EU ETS avoids regional tax competition. • A differentiated incineration tax is a second-best instrument for NO x emissions. • A tax on landfilled incineration residues stimulates ash treatment. - Abstract: Although intra-European trade of combustible waste has grown strongly in the last decade, incineration and landfill taxes remain disparate within Europe. The paper proposes a more coherent taxation approach for Europe that is based on the principle of Pigovian taxation, i.e. the internalization of environmental damage costs. The approach aims to create a level playing field between European regions while reinforcing incentives for sustainable management of combustible waste. Three important policy recommendations emerge. First, integrating waste incineration into the European Emissions Trading System for greenhouse gases (EU ETS) reduces the risk of tax competition between regions. Second, because taxation of every single air pollutant from waste incineration is cumbersome, a differentiated waste incineration tax based on NO x emissions can serve as a second-best instrument. Finally, in order to strengthen incentives for ash treatment, a landfill tax should apply for landfilled incineration residues. An example illustrates the coherence of the policy recommendations for incineration technologies with diverse environmental effects

  2. Reformation of tissue balls from tentacle explants of coral Goniopora lobata: self-organization process and response to environmental stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiongxuan; Liu, Tao; Tang, Xianming; Dong, Bo; Guo, Huarong

    2017-02-01

    Coral has strong regeneration ability, which has been applied for coral production and biodiversity protection via tissue ball (TB) culture. However, the architecture, morphological processes, and effects of environmental factors on TB formation have not been well investigated. In this study, we first observed TB formation from the cutting tentacle of scleractinia coral Goniopora lobata and uncovered its inner organization and architecture by confocal microscopy. We then found that the cutting tentacle TB could self-organize and reform a solid TB (sTB) in the culture media. Using chemical drug treatment and dissection manipulation approaches, we demonstrated that the mechanical forces for bending and rounding of the cutting fragments came from the epithelial cells, and the cilia of epithelial cell played indispensable roles for the rounding process. Environmental stress experiments showed that high temperature, not CO 2 -induced acidification, affected TB and sTB formation. However, the combination of high temperature and acidification caused additional severe effects on sTB reformation. Our studies indicate that coral TB has strong regeneration ability and therefore could serve as a new model to further explore the molecular mechanism of TB formation and the effects of environmental stresses on coral survival and regeneration.

  3. E.U. versus O.E.C.D. Taxation – An Extended Overview for Direct Taxes and Social Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Lazar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a borderless world governed by the mobility of production factors, especially of capital and work force, and characterized by the common markets, taxation/fiscal policy represents a key component of the economic reform and will have a profound impact upon the future of the global economy. For the European Union that still wishes to be seen as a unitary state/force, the complex taxation processes are leaving deep marks upon the business environment development. The OECD countries might not aim the complex coordination processes that define the European Union, but the taxation processes are not without effect upon the business environment development in OECD member states. This paper aims to present a detailed overview of the direct taxation systems – direct taxes and social contributions - at both European and worldwide levels by breaking it down to taxpayer level in order to underline the dynamics and complexity of the taxation process that affect the business environment development. Furthermore, the paper will highlight the impact that the financial crisis had had and still has upon the taxation systems - reducing the fiscal burden upon corporate taxpayer and shifting the burden upon the personal taxpayers.

  4. Progressive taxation, income inequality, and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Kushlev, Kostadin; Schimmack, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Income inequality has become one of the more widely debated social issues today. The current article explores the role of progressive taxation in income inequality and happiness. Using historical data in the United States from 1962 to 2014, we found that income inequality was substantially smaller in years when the income tax was more progressive (i.e., a higher tax rate for higher income brackets), even when controlling for variables like stock market performance and unemployment rate. Time lag analyses further showed that higher progressive taxation predicted increasingly lower income inequality up to 5 years later. Data from the General Social Survey (1972-2014; N = 59,599) with U.S. residents (hereafter referred to as "Americans") showed that during years with higher progressive taxation rates, less wealthy Americans-those in the lowest 40% of the income distribution-tended to be happier, whereas the richest 20% were not significantly less happy. Mediational analyses confirmed that the association of progressive taxation with the happiness of less wealthy Americans can be explained by lower income inequality in years with higher progressive taxation. A separate sample of Americans polled online (N = 373) correctly predicted the positive association between progressive taxation and the happiness of poorer Americans but incorrectly expected a strong negative association between progressive taxation and the happiness of richer Americans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. International and national aspects of double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Doležalová, Veronika

    2007-01-01

    Veronika Doležalová Mezinárodní a vnitrostátní aspekty dvojího zdan ní 160 International and national aspects of double taxation - Resumé This thesis pays attention to the area of double taxation and its related national as well as international aspects. The reason for discussing this subject was its importance for removing the obstacles that double taxation presents to the development of economic relations between countries. The thesis is divided into five chapters. There are six annexes att...

  6. Dividends Provisions in Croatian Double Taxation Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Tomulić Vehovec

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the provisions concerning dividends in the double taxation avoidance agreements concluded by the Republic of Croatia. Since the base for taxation is necessarily laid down in domestic law, Croatian legislation is examined as well. The author primarily discusses dividends provisions in four agreements signed with Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Slovenia, in addition to analyzing the differences from and similarities with the OECD Model Convention. Second, the paper briefly explains the methods for eliminating double taxation on income from dividends. Finally, it addresses the changes necessary for accession to the European Union.

  7. Source Taxation of Technological Services in Finnish Tax Treaties

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviranta, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, I analyze the various means of source taxation of technological and other services permitted by Finnish double taxation conventions and the future of source taxation of technological and other services. I attempt to shed light on the various means of source taxation of technological services permitted by Finnish tax treaties and by tax treaties also more generally. I analyze 1) the taxation of technological services in the source country as the profits of a permanent establishm...

  8. Agency costs and income taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schmidt

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes agency costs and the moral hazard problem in the presence of income taxation. As basic framework, income taxes are integrated in the hidden action model of agency theory. In the case of symmetric information no agency costs occur, i.e. optimal risk-sharing can be achieved, if and only if the tax is proportional. It is well-known that asymmetric information causes a welfare loss, termed agency costs, even if no taxes are imposed. Introducing a proportional income tax now increases (decreases these agency costs if the agent exhibits decreasing (increasing absolute risk aversion. Additionally, we show that non-proportional taxes cause higher (lower agency costs than a proportional tax if the agent’s marginal tax rate exceeds (is smaller than the marginal tax rate of the principal.

  9. Competitiveness effects of environmental tax reforms (COMETR). Final report to the European Commission, DG Research and DG TAXUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, M.; Speck, S. (Univ. of Aarhus, National Environmental Research Institute, Dept. of Policy Analysis (Denmark)); Barker, T.; Junankar, S.; Pollitt, H. (Cambridge Econometrics (United Kingdom)); Fitz Gerald, J.; Scott, S. (Economic and Social Research Institute (Ireland)); Jilkova, J. (Univ. of Economics Prague, Institute for Economic and Environmental Policy (Czech Republic)); Salmons, R.; Ekins, P. (Policy Studies Institute (United Kingdom)); Christie, E.; Michael Landesmann, M. (Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (Austria))

    2007-12-15

    COMETR provides an ex-post assessment of experiences and competitiveness impacts of using carbon-energy taxes as an instrument of an Environmental Tax Reform (ETR), which shifts the tax burden and helps reduce the carbon emissions that cause global warming. COMETR: reviews the experience in ETR in seven EU Member States (Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Finland, Slovenia, Sweden and UK); analyses world market conditions for a set of energy-intensive sectors, as a framework for considering competitiveness effects; analyses the effects of ETR on sector-specific energy usage and carbon emissions in Member States with carbon-energy taxes introduced on industry; presents a macroeconomic analysis of the competitiveness effects of ETR for individual Member States as well as for the EU as a whole; provides ex-post figures for environmental decoupling and assesses carbon leakage; reviews mitigation and compensation mechanisms for energy-intensive industries. (au)

  10. Lessons from the Polder. Is Dutch CO2-Taxation Optimal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, H.R.J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates energy tax reform in the Netherlands between 1988 and 2002 from a climate change perspective. A tax on fuels and the so-called regulatory energy tax since 1996 are examples of indirect and non-uniform taxation of emissions. The overall tax base and rate structure corroborates recent theoretical findings that heterogeneity in production processes and transaction costs may justify optimal departures from the Pigovian corrective tax rule. Surprisingly, the Dutch revenue-raising tax matches the (modified) Pigovian policy prescription rather well, whereas the regulatory energy tax mainly follows the revenue raising Ramsey logic. Further improvements of the energy tax structure are also discussed, such as targeting the energy tax base and linking the tax rate more precisely to fuel characteristics

  11. 31 CFR 332.9 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Taxation. The income derived from Series H bonds is subject to all taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. The bonds are subject to estate, inheritance, gift, or other excise taxes...

  12. 31 CFR 352.10 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Taxation. The interest paid on Series HH bonds is subject to all taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as amended. The bonds are subject to estate, inheritance, gift, or other excise taxes...

  13. 31 CFR 309.4 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or supplementary thereto. The bills shall be subject to estate, inheritance, gift or other excise taxes, whether Federal or State, but shall be exempt from all taxation now or hereafter imposed on the...

  14. Features of the German taxation system

    OpenAIRE

    Robert PĂIUŞAN

    2015-01-01

    The taxation system in Germany has a long tradition and many particularities for various reasons. The paper addresses the features of three taxes: business tax (Gewerbesteuer), solidarity surcharge (Solidaritätszuschlag) and church tax (Kirchensteuer).

  15. GOVERNING THE TAXATION OF DIGITIZED TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    RAHUL MUKHERJI

    2002-01-01

    The paper highlights the challenges for international taxation due to digitized trade. Digitization makes it easy to penetrate foreign markets without the need for physical presence in the buyer’s country. This phenomenon has generated debates on the salience of source versus residence-based taxation, the definition of permanent establishment, and, the administration of consumption taxes. The WTO has not been able to engage effectively in this area. The paper notes both the inadequacy of unil...

  16. Mitigating Double Taxation in an Open Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lindhe, Tobias

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of various methods of mitigating economic and international double taxation of corporate source income is studied within a standard neoclassical model of firm behavior. The main purpose is to determine to what extent methods effective in mitigating economic double taxation in a closed economy remain useful in an open economy where the firm's marginal investor is a foreigner. While a cut in the statutory corporate tax rate invariably reduces the cost of capital, the impact of t...

  17. Dividends Provisions in Croatian Double Taxation Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Tomulić Vehovec, Marjeta

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the provisions concerning dividends in the double taxation avoidance agreements concluded by the Republic of Croatia. Since the base for taxation is necessarily laid down in domestic law, Croatian legislation is examined as well. The author primarily discusses dividends provisions in four agreements signed with Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Slovenia, in addition to analyzing the differences from and similarities with the OECD Model Convention. Second, the paper briefly...

  18. Improving the taxation regime for electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fjermeros, Morten; Ilstad, Kristine

    2003-01-01

    In Norway, the present taxation regime for electric power is very complex. The power companies are currently charged with ordinary tax on profits, tax on economic rent, tax on natural resources and land tax. In addition there are the rules about licence fees, yield of power due to concession conditions, and reversion. The Norwegian Electricity Industry Association (EBL), assisted by a firm of lawyers, has proposed an improvement over the current taxation regime

  19. Energy Security and Climate Change Policy in the OECD: The Political Economy of Carbon-Energy Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Erick

    Why do countries tax the same fuels at widely different rates, even among similarly situated countries in the global political economy? Given the potentially destabilizing effects of climate change, and the political and economic risks associated with a reliance on geographically concentrated, finite fossil fuels, International Organizations and economists of all political stripes have consistently called for increasing tax rates on fossil-based energy. Despite much enthusiasm among policy experts, however, politicians concerned with distributional consequences, economic performance and competitiveness impacts continue to be wary of raising taxes on carbon-based fuels. In this context, this thesis investigates the political economy of tax rates affecting the price of fossil fuels in advanced capitalist democracies. Through an examination of the political limits of government capacity to implement stricter carbon-energy policy, as well as the identification of the correlates of higher carbon-based energy taxes, it throws new light on the conditions under which carbon-energy tax reform becomes politically possible. Based on recent data collected from the OECD, EEA and IEA, I develop an estimate of the relative size of implicit carbon taxes across OECD member countries on six carbon-based fuels and across the household and industrial sectors. I exploit large cross-national differences in these carbon-energy tax rates in order to identify the correlates of, and constraints on, carbon-energy tax reform. Applying multiple regression analysis to both cross-section and time-series cross-sectional (TSCS) data, this thesis leverages considerable empirical evidence to demonstrate how and why electoral systems matter for energy and environmental tax policy outcomes. In particular, I find considerable empirical evidence to support the claim that systems of proportional representation (PR), in addition to the partisan preferences of the electorate, work together to explain

  20. Taxation on energy products and fiscal harmonisation in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorigoni, S.

    2000-01-01

    Taxation on energy products has represented one of the main issues in the Community Policy for many years. The object of the draft Directive 97/30, relative to the restructuring of the European set-up for taxation on energy, is the one of promoting a harmonisation process in the excise levels and of removing, in this way, one of the main obstacles towards the achievement of competition on energy markets and, more generally, the creation of the single European market. In this article the differences in energy taxation among member states are firstly analysed, considering the effects that would arise from the application of common minimum levels of taxation as foreseen by the above-mentioned Community law. The possibility of applying to the environmental taxation (based on the internalisation of external costs due to energy production and consumption) as a convergence criterion is then considered, pointing out the main obstacles to its adoption, but also the risks that seem to be concerned with a harmonisation process that were not coherent under an environmental point of view [it

  1. The important role of energy taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    This is a discussion of the importance of energy taxation in EU countries. Although natural gas is the most environmentally friendly of the fossil fuels, its use may be taxed far harder in the future. The price effects of such a development are discussed. The increasing taxes on oil products which has taken place in the OECD area may come to slow down if competing economies elsewhere do not follow the same policy. The challenge is particularly coming from the new economies in Asia, included the giants China and India, which now have far larger economic growth than the OECD area with a corresponding increased energy consumption. Strong competition may develop both in the markets for products and in the market for factor inputs (energy), so that taxes within the OECD area no longer can be increased but must be lowered. This may also happen if the oil price is high over some time. As far as taxes on natural gas in the European gas market is concerned, the large industrial users will face a regional competitive situation for natural gas as an input factor, while they are globally in a competitive situation for oil as an input factor. In product markets, this industry competes globally in the same way, as does industry that uses oil. This may lead to European countries wishing to tax the use of natural gas in the consumer sector harder than gas for industry and the production of electricity

  2. The feasibility of ecological taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, A.T.G.

    1995-01-01

    The feasibility of ecological taxation in general and for the Netherlands in specific was analyzed within the context of one of the NRP research projects. The analysis shows that the feasibility of ecological taxes is generally determined by the tax design, the taxing authority by which these taxes are imposed and by the constitutional, institutional and fiscal structures into which they are embedded. In order to be feasible, the analysis shows that ecologically relevant taxes have to be imposed by a taxing authority which is clearly related to relevant ecological circumstances. Since normal taxing authorities tend to be political units which most of the times do not fit this description, institutional and constitutional changes are necessary to introduce and impose (additional) feasible types of ecological taxes in practice. Within the context of the Netherlands, the analysis shows that the currently changing intergovernmental and financial relationships in this country provide important starting points for municipalities, water authorities and provinces to introduce feasible types of such taxes. 225 refs

  3. Assessing the techno-environmental performance of CO2 utilization via dry reforming of methane for the production of dimethyl ether

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, Wouter; Oreggioni, Gabriel; Singh, Bhawna; Strømman, Anders; Ramírez, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Abstract CO2 utilization is gaining attention as a greenhouse gas abatement strategy complementary to CO2 storage. This study explores the techno-environmental performance of CO2 utilization trough dry reforming of methane into syngas for the production of dimethyl ether (DME). The CO2 source is a

  4. Geography teachers' interpretation of a curriculum reform initiative: the case of the Lesotho Environmental Education Support Project (LEESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaeka Raselimo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses how teachers in a specific developing world context interpreted a curriculum reform initiative. It is located within a broader interpretive study that investigated the integration of Environmental Education into the formal education system of Lesotho with particular reference to secondary school geography. More specifically the focus was on a Danish donor-fundedproject, known as the Lesotho Environmental Education Support Project (LEESP. Driven by a sustainable development imperative, the project was intended to assist Lesotho with the implementation of local action for Agenda 21 by introducing environmental education into the formal education system. It is widely accepted that teachers play an important role in implementing curriculum change. Using a previous framework, we generate insights for understanding how teachers' epistemologies interact with contextual factors to impede the process ofcurriculum sense-making. Furthermore, guided by the notion ofcurriculum as a contextualised social process, we present the findings on the contextual/structural factors enabling or constraining implementation ofthe LEESP curriculum policy intentions as perceived by the teachers.

  5. Ecological modernization and environmental policy reform in Thailand: the case of food processing SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattanapinyo, A.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    To mitigate environmental pollution from a rapidly expanding Thai food processing industry, different options and technologies can be identifi ed. However, actually implementing these environmental improvements within small and medium-sized agro-food companies requires governing efforts of a variety

  6. Environmental Tax Policy in Romania in the Context of the EU: Double Dividend Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Radulescu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, environment protection gained much more significance in designing the economic policies in the European Union (EU countries. There are many economic and policy differences between the European countries, despite of the harmonization process inside the EU area. The path of implementation of the environmental tax reforms in the EU countries differs greatly from one country to another and the effects of such taxation in the economic and environmental areas are manifold. The authors of this paper have agreed to undertake the task of testing the double dividend hypothesis of the environmental taxation in Romania (an energy-intensive country versus the EU area as a whole, using Vector Error Correction Model (VECM techniques and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS estimations. Our findings show that this hypothesis is validated neither in Romania (in the economic growth area nor in the EU area as a whole (in the unemployment area. Therefore, Romania cannot increase the level of the environmental tax for supporting economic growth, but it can grant environmental subsidies for decreasing the emissions and supporting the economic growth. This could be achieved by expanding the tax labor base and by collecting higher budgetary revenues to sustain such environmental subsidies. As far as the EU area is concerned, it is a necessary measure to continue the descending trend for the labor taxation to achieve the goal of improving the employment rate.

  7. The Canadian environmental assessment process: current process, expected reforms, and implications for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connelly, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Environmental Assessment and Review Process Guidelines Order (EARP) was the Canadian federal law governing environmental assessment of projects. EARP had been subject to misinterpretation, had been significantly modified in different directions as a result of numerous court cases, and no longer accurately reflected government policy. Parliament therefore passed the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA), which received Royal Assent in 1992, but had still not been proclaimed at the time of the conference, pending a review of draft regulations. CEAA will speed up stalled projects, particularly in the Saskatchewan uranium mining industry, by removing uncertainty and by permitting more focussed, flexible, and consistent public reviews; it defines what kind of government projects require approval; it provides for integration of environmental concerns into federal decision making, e.g. by the AECB; it will allow less expensive and more timely environmental assessments

  8. TAXATION SYSTEM AT INTRA PRODUCTION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Podderegina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the analysis concerning taxation in the country at the level of an enteфrise and its structural sub-divisions in the period of transforming economy.Recommendations are given on the following aspects: modernization of income taxation system for natural persons; tax payment in case of wage computation; exclusion of tax payments and assignments fi-om production cost value which are not connected with the production process; tax computation for real property; evaluation of enterprise taxation level.The paper shows the possible cases concerning formation of tax payments and assignments of an enterprise and its structural sub-divisions.Taxation system is shown at the level of enterprise structural sub-divisions (shop, department, at the level of shop structural sub-divisions (section, team, for works to be executed by an individual person of the production process (operation, product, works, services. This system promotes to efficient functioning of intra-production economical relations.The paper provides possible variants of formation of taxation payments and assignments for an enterprise and its structural sub-divisions.

  9. Research on the teaching evaluation reform of agricultural eco-environmental protection specialties under the background of deep integration of production and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guosheng

    2018-02-01

    With the implementation of the personnel training mode of deep integration between production and education, the original evaluation method cannot adapt to the goal of personnel training, so that the traditional teaching evaluation methods need to be reformed urgently. This paper studies and analyzes the four main problems in the teaching evaluation of agricultural eco-environmental protection specialties, and puts forward three measures to reform the teaching evaluation methods: establishing diversified evaluation indexes, establishing diversified evaluation subjects, and establishing diversified evaluation feedback mechanisms.

  10. The Theory of Optimal Taxation: What is the Policy Relevance?

    OpenAIRE

    Birch Sørensen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The paper discusses the implications of optimal tax theory for the debates on uniform commodity taxation and neutral capital income taxation. While strong administrative and political economy arguments in favor of uniform and neutral taxation remain, recent advances in optimal tax theory suggest that the information needed to implement the differentiated taxation prescribed by optimal tax theory may be easier to obtain than previously believed. The paper also points to the strong similarity b...

  11. Analysis of taxation of dependent and independent activities

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlíčková, Tereza

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to compare taxation of employee and self-employed in 2016. The thesis is divided into two parts, theoretical and practical research. In the theoretical part, there are defined terms and theoretical aspects of taxation. The practical part consists of comparison of taxation of employee and self-employed at different income levels. Taxation involves personal income tax, health insurance and social security.

  12. DOUBLE TAXATION CONVENTIONS AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mihail ANTONESCU; Ligia ANTONESCU

    2011-01-01

    The need to conclude bilateral agreements on avoidance of double taxation is determined by the fact that national tax regulations differ from state to state. In the same time unilateral tax measures adopted by national law to avoid double taxation don’t correspond to tax legislation of all countries with which Romania has economic relations. To avoid double taxation, our country uses both the national rules and conventions for the avoidance of double taxation concluded with partner countrie...

  13. Tax Arbitrage in the Netherlands : evaluation of the capital income tax reform of January 1, 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. Brys

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis evaluates the Dutch reform of capital income taxation of January 1, 2001. The Dutch capital-income-tax system before the reform distorted the choice between the investment’s sources of finance and uses of earnings, the businesses’ legal form, and the households’ (either

  14. Consumption Taxation in a Digital World : A Primer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the economic and administrative issues that arise in the taxation of electronic commerce; addresses how best to meet the criteria of an ideal tax system; and examines recent policy developments.It is argued that destination-based taxation-is presently the norm for goods taxation is

  15. 26 CFR 509.120 - Double taxation claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Double taxation claims. 509.120 Section 509.120... CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.120 Double taxation claims. (a) General. Under Article XVII... United States or Switzerland has resulted, or will result, in double taxation contrary to the provisions...

  16. Indirect taxation in an integrated Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genser, Bernd; Haufler, Andreas; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the main arguments for destination- versus origin-based commodity taxation in the European Community's Internal Market. Destination-based solutions distort commodity trade in the Community because cross-border purchases by final consumers can only be taxed in the origin country....... On the other hand, an origin-based general consumption tax is neutral in a European context and it can be combined with destination-based taxation in third countries in a non-distortionary way. Furthermore, it is shown that the introduction of capital mobility does not affect the neutrality of an origin...

  17. Regulatory taxation of large energy users reconsidered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannaerts, H.

    2002-01-01

    Energy policy in the Netherlands with respect to the basic industries has been restrained. National energy taxation is considered to be unsuitable for large energy users because of its international reallocation effects. However, alternative measures such as energy restrictions and marginal taxation induce low average and high marginal energy costs and consequently generate small displacement effects, together with large energy savings. A system of tradable permits not only has the advantage of low average and high marginal costs, but also keeps one firm from investing in relatively expensive energy-saving options while other firms refrain from exploiting their relatively cheap saving options

  18. A commentary on the taxation aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    A commentary is given on taxation aspects of the expenditure incurred in the abandonment and reclamation of oil and gas fields. Reference is made to the taxation regime in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, Norway, the United Kingdom and the USA. The issues addressed include: specific provisions existing within the tax code covering abandonment; the definition of abandonment costs; the year in which deduction, if available, falls; the setting of deductions against any form of income; the allowance of deductions for costs which, under general principles, are capital costs; 'claw back' from reimbursements; the precision of a deduction for abandonment costs where a country has a secondary petroleum regime. (UK)

  19. Effective environmental protection by the reform of the administrative procedures and administrative legal rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, R.

    1978-01-01

    The 52nd German Lawyers Meeting will be concerned in its legal department with the question of whether, from the points of view of the guaranteeing of the necessary environmental protection, additional regulations in the administrative procedures and administrative legal rights should be recommended. Here one is concerned, above all, with the problem of whether an administrative legal associations sueing or associations participation in administrative legal procedures is desirable in the interests of environmental protection. A negative answer must be given to this question. Discussion should concentrate on the problematical administrative legal interests, on the strengthening of administrative participation of popular opinion or interests in legal processes, on other improvements in administrative processes and on the legal control by Parliament of environmental protection. (orig.) [de

  20. Policy options for carbon taxation in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Eloi; Le Cacheux, Jacques

    2010-06-01

    Even though the EU clearly leads the global fight against climate change and despite the additional reduction in emissions due to the global crisis and European recession, the ambitious objectives flagged in the '20-20-20 by 2020' strategy and 'climate-energy package' are probably out of reach if a more resolute and consistent policy of carbon taxation is not rapidly put in place. First, the EU is not as 'virtuous' as it may seem, and shows signs of a 'fatigue' in mitigating climate change; this is explained by the weak incentive structure of current climate institutions, due to both narrow coverage and insufficient stringency of the European 'Emission Trading Scheme' (ETS) - the European 'carbon market'-, and to excessive reliance on emission standards combined with weak energy taxation. Fears of losing competitiveness are a major argument against imposing a higher carbon price on industries, feeding tax competition both within the EU and vis-a-vis the rest of the world. Though not fully satisfactory, the Commission's recent proposal (a revision of the 2003 energy taxation directive introducing floors on national excises based on carbon content) would help solving the intra-EU conundrum. Alternatively, an extension of the EU ETS to households and the transport sector via the 'upstream' inclusion of fossil fuel dealers would also be a feasible solution. In order to answer the 'carbon leakage' argument and to send appropriate price signals to European consumers on extra-EU imports, a border adjustment mechanism - carbon levy or inclusion of importers into the EU ETS - is also necessary. Ultimately though, in order to make sure that economic agents face a uniform carbon price, a generalized carbon tax, in the form of a European 'Carbon Added Tax' (ECAT), would be the most effective instrument in the fight against climate change, as well as the pillar of a thorough tax

  1. Fiscal reforms and income inequalities in Senegal and Burkina Faso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performances of tax systems have been improved, with an appreciable reduction in inequality in the two countries, particularly for Burkina Faso. The excess fiscal revenues generated from taxation are more important after the reform for both Senegal and Burkina Faso. African Journal of Economic Policy Vol. 11(2) 2004: ...

  2. Optimal taxation of married couples with household production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen

    2007-01-01

    The literature suggests that the concern for economic efficiency calls for individual-based taxation of married couples with a higher rate on the primary earner. This paper reconsiders the choice of tax unit in the Becker model of household production. In the absence of restrictions on the use...... of commodity taxes, efficient taxation requires joint taxation of the family. In the presence of restricted commodity taxation, the income tax should compensate for the erroneous commodity taxes. In this case, individual taxation is typically optimal, but not necessarily with a higher rate on primary earners...

  3. Air pollutant taxation: an empirical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cansier, D.; Krumm, R.

    1997-01-01

    An empirical analysis of the current taxation of the air pollutants sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the Scandinavian countries, the Netherlands, France and Japan is presented. Political motivation and technical factors such as tax base, rate structure and revenue use are compared. The general concepts of the current polices are characterised

  4. Does Income Taxation Affect Partners’ Household Chores?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, A.H.O.; Stancanelli, E.G.F.

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of income taxation on both partners‟ allocation of time to market work and unpaid house work in households with two adults. We estimate a structural household utility model in which the marginal utilities of leisure and house work of both partners are modelled as random

  5. 31 CFR 316.9 - Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... therefor constitutes interest. Such interest is subject to all taxes imposed under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. The bonds are subject to estate, inheritance, gift, or other excise taxes... Taxation. (a) General. For the purpose of determining taxes and tax exemptions, the increment in value...

  6. Multinational Taxation and R&D Investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waegenaere, A.; Sansing, R.C.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of taxation on the incentives of multinational firms to develop and use intellectual property. We model optimal investment and production decisions by firms that engage in a patent race by making R&D investments. We investigate how taxes affect the level and

  7. Multinational taxation and R&D investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Sansing, R.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of taxation on the incentives of multinational firms to develop and use intellectual property. We model optimal investment and production decisions by firms that engage in a patent race by making R&D investments. We investigate how taxes affect the level and

  8. Effects of heritage taxation in Danish forestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilby, Henrik; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Nord-Larsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate the effects of heritage taxation rules on the economic performance of forestry and, more importantly, on decision making at the forest property level. In Denmark, when a property is handed over from one generation to the next, a heritage tax has to be paid. Apart from...

  9. Personal Income Taxation. National Education Association Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    The second in a series on school finance, this report describes the principles of fair and adequate state and local income taxation. The political setting is discussed, and the nature of indiviudal income taxes is explained by examining which states tax income and what income they tax. Tables 2, 3, and 4 demonstrate the expanding school financing…

  10. Taxation and forms of organizing business activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đinđić Srđan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes sample tax regimes and tendencies from the developed countries in the EU-15 and the USA, and uses them to analyse the influence of taxation on the choice of organizational form of profit-oriented entities in Serbia. In order to understand how the procedure of taxation affects the sphere of business decision-making it is necessary to focus on the tax status of business losses and valorization and the effects of the double taxation of dividends. The rule of successive deduction of losses ensures the fiscally transparent entity receives a tax saving in the form of a reduction of the present value of the total paid tax. Meanwhile the corporation is handicapped because it postpones loss deductions, that is, it postpones tax saving, which directly influences the level of the present value of saved tax. The global trend of gradually moving from the classical system towards shareholder relief provision, above all in the form of a reduced withholding tax rate on dividends, has two opposing features: it simplifies the tax procedure while neglecting the distributional aims (consequences of taxation. The analysis of a particular practical example from the Serbian tax context enables us to draw a conclusion in relation to the relative taxes paid by entrepreneurs versus enterprises. The developed countries favour fiscally transparent entities, whereas Serbia allocates tax privileges to enterprises.

  11. Explaining output volatility: The case of taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    This paper studies the effects of taxation on output volatility in OECD countries to shed light on the sources of observed heterogeneity over time and across countries. To this end, we derive tax effects on macro aggregates in a stochastic neoclassical model. As a result, taxes are shown to affect...

  12. Global Poverty, Justice and Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Niţu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The question of poverty and justice inside global economic system has received three major types of responses in political theory. The communitarian perspective considers political culture of a society as the main cause of the wealth of that society, and accordingly limits the redistributive duty to the nation-state borders. A second view, which can be called liberal internationalism, claims that trade liberalization is the best way to reduce poverty in developing countries and create a more equitable and stable economic order. This paper argues that a third perspective seems to be a better approach. The cosmopolitan perspective points out that international economic system should be reformed by building up a global tax regime.

  13. The International Double Taxation – causes and avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The politics and tax legislation being a manifestation of strict sovereignty of the State, the phenomenon of double taxation occursfrequently representing a difficult poison for the foreign trade activity, especially hindering investments abroad, technology transfer or proliferationoutside of the state of the companies’ branches. Therefore, international legal double taxation, by the repeated taxation of the income, it is anobstacle to the development of economic relations between states, reducing the revenue of the international operators and their interests in makinginvestment abroad. This paper presents the main causes that determine double taxation, its forms, i.e. the economic double taxation and theinternational legal double taxation, the need for eliminating the double taxation and avoidance methods.

  14. Environmentally reformed travel habits during the 2006 congestion charge trial in Stockholm--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Greger; Hagman, Olle; Andréasson, Håkan

    2011-08-01

    Policy measures that reduce or replace road traffic can improve environmental conditions in most large cities. In Stockholm a congestion charge was introduced during a test period in 2006. This was a full-scale trial that proved to meet its targets by reducing traffic crossing the inner city segment during rush hours by 20%. Emissions of carbon dioxide and particles were also substantially reduced. This study, based on in-depth interviews with 40 inhabitants, analyses how and why new travel habits emerged. The results show that particular, sometimes unexpected, features of everyday life (habits, resources, opportunities, values, etc.) were crucial for adjustment of travel behaviour in relation to the policy instrument. One example was that those accustomed to mixing different modes of transport on a daily basis more easily adapted their travel in the targeted way. On a more general level, the results revealed that the policy measure could actually tip the scales for the individual towards trying out a new behaviour.

  15. Swedish Taxation in a 150-year Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenkula Mikael

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development of taxation in Sweden from 1862 to 2010. The examination includes six key aspects of the Swedish tax system, namely the taxation of labor income, capital income, wealth, inheritances and gifts, consumption and real estate. The importance of these taxes varied greatly over time and Sweden increasingly relied on broad-based taxes (such as income taxes and general consumption taxes and taxes that were less visible to the public (such as payroll taxes and social security contributions. The tax-to-GDP ratio was initially low and relatively stable, but from the 1930s, the ratio increased sharply for nearly 50 years. Towards the end of the period, the tax-to-GDP ratio declined significantly.

  16. Indirect taxation in an integrated Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genser, Bernd; Haufler, Andreas; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1995-01-01

    . On the other hand, an origin-based general consumption tax is neutral in a European context and it can be combined with destination-based taxation in third countries in a non-distortionary way. Furthermore, it is shown that the introduction of capital mobility does not affect the neutrality of an origin......The paper discusses the main arguments for destination- versus origin-based commodity taxation in the European Community's Internal Market. Destination-based solutions distort commodity trade in the Community because cross-border purchases by final consumers can only be taxed in the origin country......-based consumption tax. Finally, the paper addresses the administrative and political implications of a switch to the origin principle in the European Community...

  17. Taxation of petroleum companies possessing private information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, P.

    1995-01-01

    For countries having petroleum resources, a common objective of the Ministry of Energy is to maximise the net total government take from the petroleum industry. Most models of petroleum taxation, assuming symmetric information, recommended neutral taxation. A royalty is not optimal in this case as it gives disincentives for extraction, causing too much of the reservoir to remain unexploited. Through the operating activities, however, the companies obtain private information about the costs. A low cost company may conceal its information by imitating a high cost company, and must therefore be given an economic compensation (information rent) to be induced to reveal its true costs. An optimal regulatory response to asymmetric information may involve royalties, as these enable the government to capture a larger fraction of the economic rent. 17 refs., 2 figs

  18. A Behavioral Economics Perspective on Tobacco Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Economic studies of taxation typically estimate external costs of tobacco use to be low and refrain from recommending large tobacco taxes. Behavioral economics suggests that a rational decision-making process by individuals fully aware of tobacco's hazards might still lead to overconsumption through the psychological tendency to favor immediate gratification over future harm. Taxes can serve as a self-control device to help reduce tobacco use and enable successful quit attempts. Whether taxes are appropriately high depends on how excessively people underrate the harm from tobacco use and varies with a country's circumstances. Such taxes are likely to be more equitable for poorer subgroups than traditional economic analysis suggests, which would strengthen the case for increased tobacco taxation globally. PMID:20220113

  19. Taxation of credit unions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оксана Георгіївна Волкова

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of income taxation of credit unions in Ukraine by the tax on profits of enterprises and tax of revenues of their members accrued on the interest of contributions (deposits on deposit accounts and mutual funds the tax to incomes of physical persons. The consequences of the influence of tax rules on capitalization of unions and the level of their financial support is defined

  20. Optimal social insurance with linear income taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, Lans; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2009-01-01

    We study optimal social insurance aimed at insuring disability risk in the presence of linear income taxation. Optimal disability insurance benefits rise with previous earnings. Optimal insurance is incomplete even though disability risks are exogenous and verifiable so that moral hazard...... in disability insurance is absent. Imperfect insurance is optimal because it encourages workers to insure themselves against disability by working and saving more, thereby alleviating the distortionary impact of the redistributive income tax on labor supply and savings....

  1. Application of international double taxation conventions in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Dumiter; Ștefania Jimon

    2016-01-01

    In this article we sought to address the international double taxation phenomenon from two different standpoints. To begin with, in the first part we analysed the framework of international double taxation, and how this topic was tackled in both Romanian and international literature.International double taxation has been analyzed, mutatis mutandis, from an economic perspective, more precisely in terms of the implications that it generates on economies, on added value, on capital flows, on the...

  2. Consumption taxation in a digital world : A primer

    OpenAIRE

    Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the economic and administrative issues that arise in the taxation of electronic commerce; addresses how best to meet the criteria of an ideal tax system; and examines recent policy developments.It is argued that destination-based taxation-is presently the norm for goods taxation is technically more complex for digital products and intangible services sold over the Internet, reflecting the difficulty of determining the location of the buyer and seller.Most of the potential so...

  3. The International Double Taxation – causes and avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu; Florin Tudor

    2009-01-01

    The politics and tax legislation being a manifestation of strict sovereignty of the State, the phenomenon of double taxation occurs frequently representing a difficult poison for the foreign trade activity, especially hindering investments abroad, technology transfer or proliferation outside of the state of the companies’ branches. Therefore, international legal double taxation, by the repeated taxation of the income, it is an obstacle to the development of economic relations between states, ...

  4. ICT and international corporate taxation: tax attributes and scope of taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Anne; Spengel, Christoph

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, an outline of the consequences of the increased use of ICT on international corporate taxation, namely on the tax attributes and the scope of taxation, is given. It is argued that the concept of capital export neutrality shall prevail, as it is deemed to be the most appropriate to the changed economic structure. With regard to the tax attributes in the source state, an enlargement of the notion of a permanent establishment in order to shift tax revenues to the source state is n...

  5. Development of average prices of cigarettes with regard to taxation changes in 2001–2009 in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr David

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Czech Republic, excises and thus also cigarette excise were put into effect by a tax reform in 1993. In comparison with the standard taxation of other tobacco products by a specific tax the ci­ga­ret­te taxation is atypical. Through the combination of a specific tax and an ad valorem tax a combined excise was imposed on cigarettes. Over the years, many changes occurred in the cigarette excise in the Czech Republic. This paper provides the calculation of an average price of cigarettes both weighted and unweighted, which is adjusted for amounts of all taxes imposed on cigarettes in the Czech Republic in 2001 to 2009 or in 2004 to 2008. On the basis of identified values an economic interpretation was carried out with regard to other possible factors affecting selling prices of cigarettes in the Czech Republic.

  6. Tax-tariff reform with costs of tax administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Knud Jørgen

    As is broadly recognized, the straightforward application of the Diamond-Mirrlees (1971) production efficiency theorem implies that when lump-sum taxation is not available, then it is optimal for the government in a small open economy to rely on taxes on the net demand of ouseholds rather than...... on border taxes to finance its resource requirements. However, the theorem does not hold when taxation is associated with administrative costs. The present paper explores the implications of taking into account the costs of tax administration for optimal taxation and for desirable directions of tax......-tariff reform in countries at different levels of economic development. The paper clarifies the reasons for, and lends support to, the criticism by Stiglitz (2003) of the IMF and the World Bank's recommendation to developing countries to adopt VAT to replace border taxes....

  7. Avoidance of international double taxation. Taxation of business profits in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Dumiter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we wanted to achieve a comprehensive analysis of corporate profit tax for non-residents, from the standpoint of the issues that it creates on the double taxation of income and capital. Taxing the corporate profits of non-residents is a particularly important aspect in terms of revenue growth, encouraging foreign investment, and strengthening cross-border trade. The “source” state will decide the legitimate right to tax the profits of businesses that operate within its jurisdiction. Tax treaties do not impose limits on these types of taxing rights, other than those stemming from the obligation to impose profits, since the issue of taxation is “satisfied”. Moreover, the source of tax revenue belongs to the source state. Thus, we can see that it is unlikely that the state of residence of a non-resident taxpayer should want to “share” such tax revenue. It can be observed that the state of residence also has the right to tax the profits, but in general it gives credit in respect of taxes of the source state or deducts them for the purpose of preventing the occurrence of double taxation. If the state of residence provides a credit for taxes paid within the source state, taxes which have not been collected and owed to the source state will constitute a tax transfer to the state of residence, from which the taxpayer will not have any benefit. As regards Romania, in terms of the treatment of enterprises, this article represents a real quid pro quo, as it tackles both the international and national taxation of corporate profits, through the provisions found in the new Fiscal Code and the Code of Fiscal Procedure, as well as the new proposals on the taxation of turnover in companies, all of this extrapolated with the new proposals for turnover tax from IT giants. The article ends with the presentation, comment and analysis of a case of international double taxation, more specifically the taxation of corporate profits, a topic of

  8. Optimal Taxation and Social Insurance in a Lifetime Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.; Sorensen, P.B.

    2006-01-01

    Advances in information technology have improved the administrative feasibility of redistribution based on lifetime earnings recorded at the time of retirement. We study optimal lifetime income taxation and social insurance in an economy in which redistributive taxation and social insurance serve to

  9. Optimal Taxation and Social Insurance in a Lifetime Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.; Sorensen, P.B.

    2007-01-01

    Advances in information technology have improved the administrative feasibility of redis- tribution based on lifetime earnings recorded at the time of retirement. We study optimal lifetime income taxation and social insurance in an economy in which redistributive taxation and social insurance serve

  10. Taxation and Gender Equity : A Comparative Analysis of Direct and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 juin 2010 ... Taxation and Gender Equity : A Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect Taxes in Developing and Developed Countries. Couverture du livre Taxation and Gender Equity : A Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect Taxes. Directeur(s) : Caren Grown et Imraan Valodia. Maison(s) d'édition : Routledge ...

  11. Changing the Australian Taxation System: Towards a Family Income Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne (Australia).

    Changes in the Australian taxation system are discussed in reference to two central issues: (1) achieving horizontal and vertical equity within the tax-transfer system; and (2) interrelating taxation and social security systems. Horizontal equity embodies the principle that those in similar economic circumstances should pay the same levels of…

  12. Does Corporate Income Taxation Affect Securitization? Evidence from OECD Banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, D.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Corporate income taxation, by affecting the after-tax cost of funding, has implications for a bank's incentive to securitize. Using a sample of OECD banks over the period 1999-2006, we fi nd that corporate income taxation led to more securitization at banks that are constrained in funding

  13. Does corporate income taxation affect securitization? : Evidence from OECD banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Di; Hu, Shiwei; Ligthart, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Corporate income taxation, by affecting the after-tax cost of funding, has implications for a bank’s incentive to securitize. Using a sample of OECD banks over the period 1999–2006, we find that corporate income taxation led to more securitization at banks that are constrained in funding markets,

  14. Optimum commodity taxation with a non-renewable resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Lasserre, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We examine optimum commodity taxation (OCT), including the taxation of non-renewable resources (NRRs), by a government that needs to rely on commodity taxes to raise revenues. NRRs should be taxed at higher rates than otherwise-identical conventional commodities, according to an augmented, dynamic...

  15. Dueling policies : Why systemic risk taxation can fail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Jakob J.

    Two policy instruments for the banking sector are investigated, namely systemic risk taxation and constructive ambiguity about bailout policy. Bailout expectations can induce moral hazard in the form of excessive risk taking by banks. Systemic risk taxation induces banks to prefer uncorrelated

  16. Decentralisation, Local Taxation and Citizenship in Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristine

    2006-01-01

    What makes people willing or unwilling to pay taxes and to whom are they willing to pay?This article examines the politics of revenue collection in a Senegalese village within a framework of decentralisation, democratisation and multi-party politics. The tranfer of tax-collection from state agent...... to local councillors has been met with neither demand for increased public services, nor for political representation. Tax compliance has plummeted, whilst non-state institutions are able to mobilise large amounts of revenue outside of normal taxation channels for service provision....

  17. A macro-economic and sectoral evaluation of carbon taxation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callonnec, Gael; Reynes, Frederic; Yeddir-Tamsamani, Yasser

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the macro-economic and sectoral impact of a carbon tax in France using the Three-ME model that combines two important features: (1) The model has a detailed industrial structure and detailed description of the French tax system, particularly the taxation applied to energy. (2) It has the main properties of the neo-Keynesian models because it takes into account the slow process adjustment of prices and quantifies. Our results show under certain conditions the possibility of a double economic and environmental dividends resulting from carbon taxation, for both the short and long term. Carbon tax. Neo-Keynesian macro-economic model. Sectoral analysis. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE / Debats et politiques' No. 120

  18. Taxation, Fiscal Deficit and Inflation in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Rasool Madni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policy has more controversial debate regarding its effectiveness on different macroeconomic activities of an economy. Taxation and government expenditure are two main instruments of fiscal policy. This paper is aimed to analyze and update the effects of different instruments of fiscal policy on inflation in Pakistan economy. The data time span for this study is 1979-2013. The impact of fiscal policy on inflation is analyzed by utilizing the Bounds testing procedure and ARDL approach of co-integration which is a better estimation technique for small sample size. It is found that investment negatively and significantly affect the inflation rate. The outcomes of the study show that both types of taxes (direct and indirect are causing to increase the inflation level while fiscal deficit is also one of the reasons to increase the inflation in the country. The study proposed that government should decrease the level of expenditure to reduce the level of fiscal deficit and investment have to be promoted to decrease the inflation in the country. Furthermore, it is also suggested to decrease the level of taxation for controlling inflation.

  19. Tax Reform in Brazil: a Public Choice Theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Silveira dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze tax reform necessity and the barriers to the implementation of tax reform at the light of public choice theory. The research identifies the arguments that provides the explanation for the tax reform does not occur in Brazil. The question that the article searches to answer is: what are the justifications for the Brazil not have done tax reform? The literature review addresses the failures of government, public choice theory and the theory of optimal taxation. The evidence and studies show that there are reasons to think about a tax system more consistent with the Brazilian reality, indicating the existence of "government failures" that may be the probable cause of impairment of the tax reform.

  20. Capital Taxation Tendencies in Ukraine and in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilov Оleksandr D.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is analysis of the world and domestic tendencies of capital taxation and justification of directions of improvement of capital taxation in Ukraine. The study was carried out with division of taxation of human and material capital. Taxation of human capital in Ukraine is moderate, compared to OECD countries, however, its main load lies on employers, unlike in OECD countries, where it is distributed proportionally between employers and employees. Taking into account a high level of shadow income of the citizens, it is too early to perform this re-distribution in Ukraine, that is why it is expedient to reduce rates of the single social contribution by employers, at the same time increasing the level of natural resources taxation, which, in Ukraine, is one of the lowest in the world. Ukraine, compared to OECD countries, is characterised with a higher level of profit taxation, which has a negative impact on increasing own capital and restoration of fixed assets. Taking into account tendencies to reduction of both standard and implicit rates of profit tax abroad, we offer to develop a mechanism of reduction of the implicit profit tax rate through improvement of the mechanism of charging depreciation and strengthening regulating effects of the profit tax on profit in the context of restoration of the fixed assets. The prospect of further studies is justification of proposals regarding changing the mechanisms of charging depreciation and profit taxation preferences.

  1. Operational and Environmental Efficiencies of Japanese Electric Power Companies from 2003 to 2015: Influence of Market Reform and Fukushima Nuclear Power Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Goto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study measures operational and environmental efficiencies of nine incumbent electric power companies (EPCos in Japan and examines an influence of market reform and Fukushima nuclear power plant accident on efficiencies using a data set from 2003 to 2015. This study applies output-oriented radial data envelopment analysis (DEA model to the measurement of efficiencies. Three inputs and three desirable outputs are used for the measurement of operational efficiency, and one undesirable output besides inputs and desirable outputs is used to measure environmental efficiency. EPCos produce not only desirable output, for example, electricity, but also undesirable output, for example, CO2, for their operations. For the measurement of environmental efficiency, this study uses a unique DEA model that assumes occurrence of ecotechnology innovation. The results reveal that environmental efficiency of EPCos is mostly invariant over the period of this study, while operational efficiency decreases in the same period. In addition, the results present that Japanese EPCos make efforts to reduce CO2 emissions by promoting ecotechnology innovation. The Kruskal–Wallis rank sum test indicates differences in operational and environmental efficiencies among EPCos. Such performance differences might become larger as market liberalization advances, which could lead to further structural changes of the industry.

  2. Avoidance of international double taxation. Taxation of business profits in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Dumiter; Ștefania Jimon

    2017-01-01

    In this article we wanted to achieve a comprehensive analysis of corporate profit tax for non-residents, from the standpoint of the issues that it creates on the double taxation of income and capital. Taxing the corporate profits of non-residents is a particularly important aspect in terms of revenue growth, encouraging foreign investment, and strengthening cross-border trade. The “source” state will decide the legitimate right to tax the profits of businesses that operate within its juris...

  3. Tax-Based Educational Equity: A New Approach to School Finance Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bruce S.; And Others

    A new argument is made for school finance equalization, based not on "equal protection" or "equal educational opportunity," but on constitutional requirements for tax equity in New Hampshire. Since inequalities in school finance are a taxation problem, they call for tax reform. The analyses rest on four points: (1) that…

  4. The public choice problem of green taxation: The case of CO2 taxation in OECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjoellund, L.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.

    1998-01-01

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a closer look at the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that they are differentiated and far from this first-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that this is so because the industry is, in contrast to households, capable of lobbying against green taxation. When organized interests are considered, taxation either with or without a full refund of the revenue turns out to be problematic due to the energy-intensive firms' ability to organize and form stable interest groups. The paper presents empirical findings on CO 2 taxation within the OECD countries, which confirm this theoretical prediction. Taxes are not uniform, and households pay a tax rate which is five times higher than that paid by the industry on average. Finally, it is suggested that a CO 2 tax may successfully be applied to non-organized interests, such as households and the transportation sector, because these are large and non-organized groups. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grand-fathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should b considered in the search for cost-effective and politically feasible instruments. (au) 35 refs

  5. Beyond taxation: Discourse around energy policy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Takahiro; Tsuboyama, Yuki; Hara, Yoritoshi

    2016-01-01

    Energy policy literature tends to emphasise the impact of taxation on energy preference. However, the present case concerning extremely low acceptance of diesel cars in Japan could not be explained by taxation. As a possible factor, the paper sheds light upon discourse around the energy policy. The policy aimed to characterise diesel technology as emitting particulate matter and nitrogen oxide (NOx). The paper contributes to extending the existing understanding of the role of public policy by embracing the linguistic interactions complemented by visualisation. - Highlights: • Taxation cannot explain extremely low acceptance of diesel fuelled cars in Japan. • Explore meaning attachment process. • Complementarity between cost-benefit evaluation and meaning attachment.

  6. Taxation, credit constraints and the informal economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia P. Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends Evans and Jovanovic (1989's entrepreneurship model to incorporate the informal sector. Specifically, entrepreneurs can operate either in the formal sector – in which they have limited access to credit markets and must pay taxes – or in the informal sector – in which they can avoid paying taxes, but have no access to credit markets. In addition, technology in the informal sector is both less productive and more labor intensive than that in the formal sector. We calibrate the model to the Brazilian economy, and evaluate the impact of credit frictions and taxation on occupational choices, aggregate output and inequality. Removing all distortions can improve aggregate efficiency considerably, largely because this induces entrepreneurs to switch to the formal sector, where the technology is superior. Most of this effect comes from removing credit market frictions, but taxes on formal businesses are also important. The elimination of distortions can also reduce income inequality substantially.

  7. The Optimal Income Taxation of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Satz, Emmanuel

    This paper analyzes the optimal income tax treatment of couples. Each couple is modelled as a single rational economic agent supplying labor along two dimensions: primary and secondary earnings. We consider fully general joint income tax systems. Separate taxation is never optimal if social welfare...... depends on total couple incomes. In a model where secondary earners make only a binary work decision (work or not work), we demonstrate that the marginal tax rate of the primary earner is lower when the spouse works. As a result, the tax distortion on the secondary earner decreases with the earnings...... of the primary earner and actually vanishes to zero asymptotically. Such negative jointness is optimal because redistribution from two-earner toward one-earner couples is more valuable when primary earner income is lower. We also consider a model where both spouses display intensive labor supply responses...

  8. CHOOSING BETWEEN DIRECT TAXATION OR INDIRECT TAXATION AS PRIME FISCAL TOOL WITHIN ROMANIA’S ECONOMY OF TODAY

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniu PREDESCU; Maria-Loredana POPESCU; Mihaela-Diana OANCEA-NEGESCU

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on a central issue of fiscal policy applied anywhere in the world of market economies: the problem to determine which type of taxation, direct taxation or indirect taxation, is better suited to assure maximum efficiency for fiscal policy applied in Romania. Mathematics proves to be a very useful tool in this case too, given it is applied through a sound economic and logical reasoning, with important results. In other words, it is applied in order for this paper not only to ...

  9. Optimal Taxation and Social Insurance in a Lifetime Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, A. Lans; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    -transfer system does not provide full disability insurance. By offering imperfect insurance and structuring disability benefits so as to enable workers to insure against disability by working harder, social insurance is designed to offset the distortionary impact of the redistributive labor income tax on labor...... to insure (ex ante) against skill heterogeneity as well as disability risk. Optimal disability benefits rise with previous earnings so that public transfers depend not only on current earnings but also on earnings in the past. Hence, lifetime taxation rather than annual taxation is optimal. The optimal tax......Advances in information technology have improved the administrative feasibility of redistribution based on lifetime earnings recorded at the time of retirement. We study optimal lifetime income taxation and social insurance in an economy in which redistributive taxation and social insurance serve...

  10. Taxation, business environment and FDI location in OECD countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Dana; Nicoletti, G.; Vartia, L.; Yoo, K.-Y.

    Č. 502 (2006), s. 1-33 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : taxation * business environment * foreign direct investment Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.oecd.org/eco/working_papers

  11. Redistributive income taxation under outsourcing and foreign direct investment

    OpenAIRE

    Aronsson, Thomas; Koskela, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with optimal income taxation under labor outsourcing and FDI. We show how the optimal income tax response to the joint effect of outsourcing and FDI depends on whether FDI is complementary with, or substitutable for, domestic labor.

  12. Taxation in Cesee Countries – Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comaniciu Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of fiscal revenues are the ones that demonstrate their importance for the formation of public financial resources, being considered as a product of historical development of the state. Numerous studies and researches on the taxes action in financial, economic and social level emphasized the link between fiscal policy, growth and level of development of a country. In this context, through this article, by presenting some general coordinates of taxation in countries of Central, Eastern and Southeast Europe (CESEE countries we will identify the similarities and differences concerning the taxation system and the impact of taxation on the socio-economic development. Without claiming an exhaustive approach, we consider that issues outlined highlight in which country taxation is a stimulating factor for economic growth and development, so that good practice be elements worthy of consideration.

  13. SOME COORDINATES CONCERNING TAXATION IN THE EU CANDIDATE COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN COMANICIU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For accession to European Union, tax area is of particular importance, because it recognizes the impact of taxation on economic growth and development, and indirect taxation significantly contributes to the formation of the EU budget resources. Without prejudice to the fiscal sovereignty of Member States, EU tax policy strategy aims establishing a framework that eliminate the tax obstacles that may affect cross-border economic activity, identify the actions on preventing and combating tax evasion, improve collaboration between tax administrations. Without claiming an exhaustive approach, through issues highlighted in this article, we will identify both the similarities and the particularities of taxation from Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey, and also manner in which taxation of the 5 EU candidate countries meets the requirements on the fiscal coordination and fiscal harmonization from EU tax policy perspective.

  14. The petroleum taxation in France; La fiscalite petroliere en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    This document details the french specificities of taxation concerning the petroleum products: the TIPP. It shows how this policy acts upon the petroleum products consumption behavior and how it allows the financing of the decentralization. (A.L.B.)

  15. Optimal Taxation and Social Insurance in a Lifetime Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovenberg, A. Lans; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    Advances in information technology have improved the administrative feasibility of redistribution based on lifetime earnings recorded at the time of retirement. We study optimal lifetime income taxation and social insurance in an economy in which redistributive taxation and social insurance serve...... to insure (ex ante) against skill heterogeneity as well as disability risk. Optimal disability benefits rise with previous earnings so that public transfers depend not only on current earnings but also on earnings in the past. Hence, lifetime taxation rather than annual taxation is optimal. The optimal tax......-transfer system does not provide full disability insurance. By offering imperfect insurance and structuring disability benefits so as to enable workers to insure against disability by working harder, social insurance is designed to offset the distortionary impact of the redistributive labor income tax on labor...

  16. Energy taxation policy in the European Union: the hydrogen case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyavs'ka, L.; Gulli, F.; Lanfranconi, C.

    2006-01-01

    The paper proceeds as follows. Section 2 describes the state of art of the taxation policy on hydrogen in EU Countries. Section 3 describes the methodology used in this paper. Section 4 compares the external costs of the different motor fuel cycles. Section 5 deals with the problem of energy taxation describing a proposal for European energy tax harmonisation based on the internalisation of external costs. Finally, section 6 resumes the main results of the analysis

  17. Taxation and regulation of uranium mining in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Government taxation and regulation have a profound influence on mineral operations. In Canada, taxation occurs both on the federal and provincial levels. In addition, both federal and provincial regulations also affect mine operations, sometimes with overlapping, or conflicting, legislation and jurisdiction. Three broad areas of regulation affect the mine production of uranium in Canada: (1) mining law or mineral rights; (2) the licensing procedures; and (3) regulation of occupational health and safety

  18. Taxation of Financial Intermediation Activities in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Jack M. Mintz; Stephen R. Richardson

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses issues related to the taxation of financial intermediation in Hong Kong in the context of Hong Kong's position as a major regional financial centre. It first provides some background analysis as to the definition of financial intermediation and identification of the providers of financial services. This is then followed by a discussion of the principles of taxation applicable to financial intermediation, including a comparison of income taxes to consumption taxes. Some sp...

  19. Financial system and taxation: the role in the economy

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, Roshaiza

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between the financial system (specifically stock market development) and economic growth has been an important issue of debate. A well-functioning financial system can affect economic growth through the improvement of capital productivity and the efficient allocation of resources. The role of taxation as a major determinant of an active financial system and strong economic growth also becomes of interest to the researcher. Taxation through policy and revenue collection seems ...

  20. Ramsey monetary and fiscal policy: the role of consumption taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio Motta; Raffaele Rossi

    2013-01-01

    We study Ramsey monetary and fiscal policy in a small scale New Keynesian model where government spending has intrinsic value, public debt is state-noncontingent and the fiscal authority is constrained by using distortive taxation. We show that Ramsey policy is remarkably altered when consumption taxation is considered as a source of government revenues alongside or as an alternative to labour income taxes. First, we show that the optimal steady-state size of the public spending is, ceteris p...

  1. European Administrative Cooperation in the Field of Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Florin TUDOR

    2012-01-01

    The operation of different taxation systems in EU member states appears to promote more increasingly the appearance of double taxation entailing fraud and tax evasion. The phenomenon is amplified by the remaining control competences at the national level, and the lack of administrative cooperation in tax matters at EU level is being a decisive factor in delaying the causes with the consequence of prescription of the facts which brings serious damage enhanced EU budget. This study aims to exam...

  2. A Theory of Top Income Taxation and Social Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco M. Gonzalez; Jean-Francois Wen

    2013-01-01

    The development of the welfare state in the Western economies between 1930 and 1990 coincided with a puzzling pattern in the taxation of top incomes. Effective tax rates at the top increased sharply but then gradually decreased, even as social transfers continued rising. We propose a new theory of the development of the welfare state to explain these facts. Our main insight is that social insurance and top income taxation are substitutes for averting social confl?ict. We emphasize the role of...

  3. Financial sector taxation: Financial activities tax or financial transaction tax?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crises has revealed the need to improve and ensure the stability of the financial sector to reduce negative externalities, to ensure fair and substantial contribution of the financial sector to the public finances and the need to consolidate public finance. All those needs represent substantial arguments for the discussion about the introduction of financial sector taxation. There are discussed in the paper two possible schemes of financial sector taxation – financial transaction tax and financial activities tax. The aim of the paper is to research the possibility of the introduction of financial sector taxation, to discuss the pros and cons of two major candidates on financial sector taxation – financial transaction tax and financial activities tax and to suggest the possible candidate suitable for the implementation on the EU level. Financial transaction tax represents the tool suitable mainly on global level, for only in that case enables generate sufficient financial resources. From EU point of view is considered as less suitable, for it bears the risk of reallocation. Therefore the introduction of financial activities tax on EU level is considered as a better solution for the financial sector taxation in the EU, for financial sector is exempted from value added tax. With respect to the fact, that the implementation would represent the innovative approach to the financial sector taxation, there are no empirical proves and therefore this could be the subject of further research.

  4. Parliamentary Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The key concept of any study of the role of Parliament focuses on the extent to which it is able to influence and constrain the Executive. Reforming Parliament should seek to strengthen its capacity to do so. A clear distinction ought to be drawn between external and internal reforms of the Parliamentary system. While the former strive to achieve the desired goal through changes in the constitutional framework – e.g. the reform of the House of Lords – the latter aim to improve the working of ...

  5. CHOOSING BETWEEN DIRECT TAXATION OR INDIRECT TAXATION AS PRIME FISCAL TOOL WITHIN ROMANIA’S ECONOMY OF TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniu PREDESCU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a central issue of fiscal policy applied anywhere in the world of market economies: the problem to determine which type of taxation, direct taxation or indirect taxation, is better suited to assure maximum efficiency for fiscal policy applied in Romania. Mathematics proves to be a very useful tool in this case too, given it is applied through a sound economic and logical reasoning, with important results. In other words, it is applied in order for this paper not only to state which type of taxation must be used preponderantly in Romania, especially today, in times of continuous economic and financial crisis, but, especially, to compute how to use it, in long term, not in the least to alleviate effects of economic crisis, and, why not, curb economic crisis itself.

  6. An Assessment of Japanese Carbon Tax Reform Using the E3MG Econometric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soocheol; Pollitt, Hector; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan's emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of −25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed. PMID:23365531

  7. An assessment of Japanese carbon tax reform using the E3MG econometric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soocheol; Pollitt, Hector; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan's emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of -25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed.

  8. An Assessment of Japanese Carbon Tax Reform Using the E3MG Econometric Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soocheol Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan’s emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of −25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed.

  9. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  10. Reform and Backlash to Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hagen Jørgensen, Ole

    Using a stochastic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations, this paper studies (i) the effects on both extensive and intensive labor supply responses to changes in fertility rates, and (ii) the potential of a retirement reform to mitigate the effects of fertility changes on labor...... supply. In order to neutralize the effects on effective labor supply of a fertility decline, a retirement reform, designed to increase labor supply at the extensive margin, is found to simultaneously reduce labor supply at the intensive margin. This backlash to retirement reform requires the statutory...

  11. Taxation of carbon intensive imported products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Fuente Sanchez, C.; Dubilly, A.L.; Lescal, N.

    2010-01-01

    It is one of the greatest challenges of our time to make the link between development issues and climate change actions. The EU has committed itself, throughout the Kyoto Protocol and the current negotiation mechanisms, to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gas, but the question is still pending on the possible ways to have those efforts harmonized globally, and in particular with developing countries. Why not set taxation on carbon intensive products imported, ted, in the European Union, from countries that do not provide 'green' guarantees in their fabrication process? We begin this study with a thorough analysis of the ins and outs of the carbon tax. On the one hand, it is a good way of adjusting prices and rectifying a competition distortion between those paying or their emissions and those exempted of constraints. On the other hand, one can ask oneself if it is fair to discriminate developing countries when they need growth and better living standards. After going through the legal issues in which this debate is imbricated, the third and last part of this study investigates the possible implementation issues in terms of tax level and of benefits' generation and use. This study illustrates the complexity of reuniting particular interests and global interests on global warming, as well as the complexity of sharing responsibilities on a fair way between industrialized and developing countries on climate change issues. The challenge is big and complex yet it is worth the effort. (authors)

  12. Obtaining your annual internal taxation certificate

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    (cf. Article R IV 2.04 of the Staff Regulations) Your annual internal taxation certificate will state the taxable amount of your CERN remuneration, payments and other financial benefits and the amount of tax levied by the Organization during the previous financial year. In France, your tax return must be accompanied by this certificate. Current Members of the Personnel (including Members of the Personnel participating in a pre-retirement programme): - You will receive an e-mail containing a link to your printable annual certificate, which will be stored together with your pay and leave statements (e-Payslips). - You can also access your annual certificate via https://hrt.cern.ch (open 'My Payslips' at the bottom of the main menu.) - If you experience any technical difficulties in accessing your annual certificate (e.g. invalid AIS login or password), please contact CERN's AIS support team at ais.support@cern.ch. Former Members of the Personnel:- If you remember your AIS login and password, you can acc...

  13. Petroleum taxation under uncertainty - contingent claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.

    1990-01-01

    A workable method for the analysis of incentive effects of petroleum taxes under uncertainty is presented. The main advantage of the method is that it concludes with a single number for the after-tax value of any development plan, and thus allows for a quantification of incentive effects for any given description of production possibilities. It is, however, not possible to describe tax effects under uncertainty by simple magnitudes independent of production possibilities, such as wedges in rates of return. The theoretical basis is the contingent claims analysis from finance theory, which is applicable in particular to companies that are owned by well-diversified shareholders. It is not obvious that the tax authorities of poorly diversified countries should value uncertain income streams by the same method. The Norwegian petroleum taxation is shown to have strongly distortionary effects compared to a no-tax situation or a cash flow tax. These distortions were reduced by the tax changes that followed the 1986 decreases in crude oil prices. A weakness of the model of the Norwegian system is that an exactly optimal financial policy for the company has not been found. 30 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  14. The impact of taxation on Aboriginal ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranson, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The paper covers several key objectives including: sheltering income and assets owned by Bands from taxation; structuring businesses so that taxes are minimized at the outset; maintaining and managing business operations so as to ensure taxes continue to be minimized; and shifting permissible deductions to non-Aboriginal business partners (whenever possible) without infringing upon the rights Indians are entitled to under Section 87 of the Indian Act. The paper does not consider exploiting the rights or assets of Indians, rather it is about willing and cooperative business partners who are able to take advantage of a unique situation so that various levels of government do not get a bigger slice of the pie. It is important to remember that if one partner needs more cash to pay taxes, all partners suffer, because there is less cash available to reinvest in the business. Most First Nations and Aboriginal people maintain that taxes do not apply to them because various levels of government have no jurisdiction over them. The paper does not dispute this claim, rather while the issue of self-government and related jurisdictions issues are being resolved, it is still important to focus on using the status quo in minimizing taxes for Aboriginal businesses. The paper considers: the various taxes requiring consideration; the impact of other legislation and agreements; the various business structures and their treatment; and how to find the best structure for each business

  15. The Economic Discourse of the Current Reform Aimed at Business Optimization in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purdenko Olena A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the strengths and weaknesses of the current reforms and provide appropriate recommendations and proposals to improve the regulatory and economic business environment. The article analyzes the introduced reforms in the aspect of the regulatory field and the active current system of taxation with the detailing of the type and content of the basic implemented measures. There have been justified the advantages and disadvantages of the introduced system of taxation with respect to the main budget forming taxes, such as the enterprise income taxes, value added tax, individual income tax considering changes in the administering of unified social tax (UST and war tax, excise duty. On the basis of the results of the study it has been found that the introduced reforms only partially improved the tax administration system and in no way reduced the announced tax burden, the time spending of business for preparing the current report was not significantly reduced.

  16. Application of international double taxation conventions in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Dumiter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we sought to address the international double taxation phenomenon from two different standpoints. To begin with, in the first part we analysed the framework of international double taxation, and how this topic was tackled in both Romanian and international literature.International double taxation has been analyzed, mutatis mutandis, from an economic perspective, more precisely in terms of the implications that it generates on economies, on added value, on capital flows, on the internationalisation of business. Second, I believed it was important to analyse international double taxation from a legal perspective, through the jurisdictional effects of obtaining income or holding property at the European or international level. Romania's case is carefully approached in this paper, aiming to highlight the issues Romania is facing concerning cooperation in tax matters with authorities from other countries, how the more than 80 double taxation conventions are applied and interpreted, but also other aspects that should be considered by the Romanian tax authorities, based on the provisions of the Fiscal Code and the Fiscal Procedure Code. The article ends by presenting, commenting on and analysing two test cases in international double taxation, of remarkable importance and actuality for Romanian jurisprudence to observe how complex double taxation mechanisms operate in practice. The conclusion of this article emphasises the importance ofsignificant “steps” achieved by Romania on the path to creating a true “fiscal area” in the European Union, as well as the “corridors” that should be inserted to correct economi c – legal and economic deficiencies and gaps, in order to strengthen the fiscal area.

  17. Integrating environmental taxes on local air pollutants with fiscal reform in Hungary: simulations with a computable general equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Glenn E.; Revesz, Tamas; Zalai, Ernoe; Fucsko, Jozsef

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the Fiscal Environmental Integration Model (FEIM) and its use to examine the merits of introducing a set of air pollutant emission taxes and stringent abatement requirements based on best commonly available control technology. These environmental protection strategies are examined both independently and in combination. In addition, Hungary has very high VAT, employment, and income tax rates and therefore might receive more than the usual advantage from using environmental tax revenues to reduce other taxes. We therefore also examine the economic and environmental implications of different uses of the revenues generated by the air pollutant emissions taxes. FEIM is a CGE model of the Hungarian economy that includes sectoral air pollution control costs functions and execution options that allow examination of the key policy choices involved. We developed and ran a baseline and seven scenarios with FEIM. The scenarios centered on introduction of environmental load fees (ELF) on emissions of SO 2 , NO x , and particulates and emission abatement requirements (EAR) for these pollutants. (Author)

  18. Double Taxation Conventions in Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide a qualitative overview regarding the panacea of double taxation conventions in Central and Eastern European Countries. Double taxation paradigm highlights some serious problems arising from multiple taxation of the same income or capital. In the European Union these problems suggest that there is a strong need of a “best practice” construction of an optimal fiscal space in order to eliminate or reduce this problem. Central and Eastern European Countries have some special features: on one hand these countries have been influenced by the communist and postcommunism era, and on the other hand there are specific particularities for each country which must be economically and judicially understood and explained. This article highlights the structure, construction and appliance of the double taxation conventions in the Central and Eastern European Countries. The conclusions of this article enact the solutions of the potential problems of double taxation, especially in these former communist countries, with respect to the strengthening of the new fiscal space in the European Union.

  19. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing......, implied in the reform, is analysed as a technology of accounting. A technology producing ‘the professional nursery teacher' as a reflective daily researcher, who outlives her pedagogical desire as an analytical care of the optimisation of ‘the learning child'. Thus, the paper analyses the micro physics...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  20. LABOUR TAXATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau-Popa Liviu Mihai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an analysis, which we consider extremely useful in the current economic context, of the evolution of labour income fiscality, more precisely, the effect of the public debt growth on the tax wedge for the labour income. The share of fiscal revenues from direct taxes, indirect taxes and social contributions is relatively close in the old member states of the European Union in comparison with the new member states, which register a lower level of income from direct taxes. The low level of income from direct taxes is compensated by more significant shares of the social contributions or indirect taxes. The main motivations of cross-border migration are: a successful career in a multinational corporation, high variations of the tax rate, of the salary income between states and, last but not least, the level of the net salary. To this day, there are no plans to harmonize across the European Union the legislation regarding the taxes wages and the social security contributions. Still, the European Union had in view the coordination of the national tax systems to make sure that the employees and the employers do not pay several times the social contributions in their movement across the community space. Despite the fact that some states tax the labour income at a low level, the labour fiscality remains high in the European Union in comparison with other industrialized economies, probably also due to the fact that the majority of the member states have social market economies. The increase of the fiscality level for the labour income determines the decrease of the employment rate and the raise of the unemployement rate. The solution to guarantee a higher employment rate, which is a target of the European Union Strategy Europe 2020 could be the relaxation of the labour income fiscality by transferring the tax wedge on the labour income towards property or energy taxation.

  1. Taxation of smokeless tobacco in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, S K; Arora, M

    2014-12-01

    The role of fiscal policy, especially taxation, though has been proved to be an effective instrument of tobacco control, its application is limited in India due to several reasons. This paper examines the tax structure, price and affordability of SLT products in order to provide evidence on how to strengthen the role of fiscal policy in tobacco control. Secondary data on tax structure and revenue from tobacco products were collected from the Ministry of Finance, Government of India. In order to measure the rise of prices corresponding to the increase in tax rate, the retail price index (RPI) and Whole Price Index (WPI) of SLT products were compared with the price index for all commodities for the period 2006-2012. The affordability of tobacco products is calculated by dividing prices of tobacco products by per capita income. During the last 6 years, the tax rate on SLT has gone up leading to a rise in the prices of SLT products more than the general price rise. However, the price rise is less than the per capita income growth indicating increasing affordability. The study observed a decline in the consumption of zarda and kahini due to the price increase during 2008-2013. However, the decline in the consumption of zarda is less compared with khaini due to a very low rise in its price. The prices should be raised more than the growth in income to influence consumption. Tax administration is a major challenge for SLT products and strengthening it could enhance revenue collection from SLT products.

  2. Institutionalizing environmental reform with sense-making: West and Central Africa ports and the ‘green port’ phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes Dabban, H.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Koppen, van C.S.A.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Harmonizing economic activities with environmental considerations has emerged as a new globalizing phenomenon for ports. The phenomenon is labelled as ‘green port’. There is however no canonical way of turning green port into business reality. Some advanced ports have adapted it and African ports

  3. Environmental impact of the Brazilian Agrarian Reform process from 1985 to 2001 Impactos ambientais da Reforma Agrária no Brasil de 1985 a 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Antoinette van de Steeg

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past 20 years, most settlements of the Brazilian Agrarian Reform (AR have been established in or near better-preserved natural ecosystems, where environmental impact is likely to be negative and contribute to natural resources degradation. The objective of this work is providing a first, comprehensive insight of the impacts related to the environmental quality of these settlements, based on the primary survey of 4,340 AR settlements installed between 1985 and 2001. An index was calculated to integrate different aspects of environmental impacts in one single number. The index showed significant regional variation, with lower values (low environmental quality for the North and Northeast of Brazil, intermediate values for the Central-west and Southeast, and high values for the South. Environmental impacts resulting from AR and settlement creation are slowly decreasing with time, but are still very high in absolute values. The lack of protection of riparian areas, cultivation of legal reserves, and deforestation, are the main concerns related to environmental impacts.Até o presente a maioria dos assentamentos da Reforma Agrária brasileira (AR têm sido estabelecidos em ou perto de ambientes preservados, nos quais impactos ambientais negativos são esperados e podem levar à degradação dos recursos naturais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar uma visão ampla dos impactos relacionados à qualidade ambiental dos assentamentos com base em dados primários coletados em 4.340 projetos criados entre 1985 e 2001. Um índice foi criado com a finalidade de integrar diferentes aspectos ambientais. Este índice apresentou expressiva variação regional, com valores menores (baixa qualidade ambiental nas regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil, intermediários na região Centro-Oeste e Sudeste, e elevados na região Sul. Os impactos ambientais resultantes da criação de assentamentos diminuíram com o tempo, mas ainda são elevados em termos

  4. Slab reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Francis R. (Inventor); DeZubay, Egon A. (Inventor); Murray, Alexander P. (Inventor); Vidt, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  5. Slab reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  6. Telecom Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and information infrastructure issues - for people in government, academia, industry and the consulting community. This book addresses the process of policy and regulatory reform in telecom that is now in its formative stage. It draws on detailed knowledge of industry development and regulatory experience......, as well as expertise in the new technologies, industries, economics, policy development, and law to present and critique the principles, policies and regulatory practices associated with telecom reform. Twenty six international experts address thirty two topics that are essential to successful telecom...

  7. Research of the Taxation Justice and the Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Skačkauskienė

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the content of taxation justice, it’s value and compatibility with other principles of taxation, analyses the features of the Lithuanian tax system formation. The article ex¬amines the conception of social responsibility and it’s possibilities for assessment too. The research findings show that the principle of taxation justice is implemented only partially in Lithuania. The assessment of social responsibility through quantitative and qualitative indexes shows that some of its principles in Lithuania are being implemented more successful. However, it should be noted that significant amounts of funds for these initiatives and projects are received from the EU. It is very important to continue all the projects when funding from the EU runs out.

  8. Environmental taxation and industrial water use in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Vallés-Giménez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Con la Ley de Aguas del 2001, la competencia sobre depuración de aguas residuales, que venían desempeñando los municipios a través del cobro de tasas, se ha encomendado a las Comunidades Autónomas, quienes deben implantar para su gestión un Canon de Saneamiento. Para determinar si este Canon racionaliza el consumo de agua, en este trabajo se estima la demanda industrial de agua en Aragón, utilizando para ello un modelo logarítmico con datos de panel en el que la variable explicativa clave ha sido el Canon del Saneamiento, además de la tasa por el suministro de agua pagada por las industrias en los diferentes municipios aragoneses, y otras variables que captan las características particulares de las empresas de la muestra y que están relacionadas con el consumo de agua. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la reducción del consumo industrial de agua parece debida a la tributación ambiental, más que a un incremento en el coste del agua para las empresas.

  9. Who bears the burden of international taxation? Evidence from cross-border M&As

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-border M&As can trigger additional taxation of the target's income in the form of non-resident dividend withholding taxes and acquirer-country corporate income taxation. This paper finds that this additional international taxation is fully capitalized into lower takeover premiums. In contrast,

  10. 26 CFR 25.2701-5 - Adjustments to mitigate double taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments to mitigate double taxation. 25....2701-5 Adjustments to mitigate double taxation. (a) Reduction of transfer tax base—(1) In general. This... − $187,500). (g) Double taxation otherwise avoided. No reduction is available under this section if— (1...

  11. 26 CFR 521.117 - Claims in cases of double taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims in cases of double taxation. 521.117... of Denmark and of Danish Corporations § 521.117 Claims in cases of double taxation. Under Article XX... in double taxation in respect of any of the taxes to which the convention relates, the taxpayer is...

  12. The law and practice of electronic taxation in Nigeria: The gains and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic taxation (E-taxation) and its automated processes are gradually phasing out manual tax administration globally. With e-taxation, taxpayers can conveniently pay their taxes electronically from the comfort of their homes, offices, shops and even while travelling. Tax authorities on the other hand, can now go after tax ...

  13. Quasi-experimental taxation elasticities of US gasoline demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Taxation elasticities provide inputs in public policy aimed at raising revenues. Using the quasi-experimental method, this paper calculates gasoline taxation elasticities for the USA over 1952-86. The medium (mean) elasticity over this period is found to be -0.075 (-0.122). However, the elasticity following the oil shock of 1973 is found to be statistically different from the pre-shock elasticity. Reasons for this change in elasticity are discussed. The implication of this analysis is that tax policies based on price elasticities, rather than on tax elasticities, might be using an inappropriate elasticity estimate and consequently misinterpreting the government's ability to raise tax revenues. (author)

  14. The mutual agreement procedure and arbitration of double taxation disputes

    OpenAIRE

    Bantekas, Ilias

    2008-01-01

    It is in the interest of most states to eliminate double taxation (i.e. the payment of the same tax in two jurisdictions) of transnational commercial enterprises. Because such disputes involve, on the one hand, the state imposition of taxes, a right universally asserted by all states, and private entities on the other, taxation disputes between such parties are not, on their face, easily susceptible to arbitration. This article analyzes two dispute settlement procedures-the OECD First Model T...

  15. Taxation of income of natural persons resulting from emloyment

    OpenAIRE

    Lísková, Jana

    2013-01-01

    in English Taxation of individual income tax My diploma thesis contents three major parts, which is divided into smaller articles. In the first part I am trying to present individual income tax in general. Place of income tax in system of taxation and concept of income tax , its function and definition. In another article I described historical evolution of individual income tax and distribution of taxes. To tax is to impose a financial charge or other levy upon a taxpayer (an individual or l...

  16. Exergetic, economic, and environmental evaluations and multi-objective optimization of an internal-reforming SOFC-gas turbine cycle coupled with a Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminyavari, Mehdi; Mamaghani, Alireza Haghighat; Shirazi, Ali; Najafi, Behzad; Rinaldi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An exergetic-economic-environmental analysis of an SOFC-GT-ST plant was performed. • Exergetic efficiency and total cost rate of the plant were considered as objectives. • Multi-objective optimization was conducted to obtain a set of optimal solutions. • Exergy destruction rate and capital cost of components of the plant were determined. • The Rankine bottoming cycle enhanced the exergetic efficiency of the plant by 8.84%. - Abstract: In the present study, a detailed thermodynamic model for an internal-reforming solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid system integrated with a Rankine (steam) cycle is developed, and exergetic, economic and environmental analyses have been carried out on the plant. Considering the exergetic efficiency and the total cost rate of the system as conflicting objectives, a multi-objective optimization of the system is conducted to determine the optimal design point of the plant. A set of optimal solutions (Pareto front) is achieved, each of which is a trade-off between the chosen objectives. Finally, TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution) decision-making method is used to choose the final optimal design parameters. The results demonstrate that the final optimal design of the proposed plant leads to an exergetic efficiency of 65.11% and total cost rate of 0.13745 €/s. Furthermore, the optimization results reveal that the integration of the Rankine cycle with the SOFC-GT system has led to an 8.84% improvement in the total exergetic efficiency of the plant, producing additional 8439.2 MW h of electricity and avoiding ∼5900 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions annually.

  17. Taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information; a monograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, P.

    1994-12-01

    The report relates to the taxation and regulation of petroleum companies. The main topics of this report are as follow: Taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information. A discussion of incentive problems and the principles for applying principal-agent analysis; taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information. A static adverse selection model; Petroleum Taxation with adverse selection. Interactions of dynamics in costs and information; Adverse selection and moral hazard in the petroleum industry, repeated auctions of incentive contracts; Petroleum taxation and regulation. Policy implications from principal-agent theory, and a comparison with the current Norwegian system. 54 refs., 7 figs

  18. Taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information; a monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmundsen, P.

    1994-12-01

    The report relates to the taxation and regulation of petroleum companies. The main topics of this report are as follow: Taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information. A discussion of incentive problems and the principles for applying principal-agent analysis; taxation and regulation of petroleum companies under asymmetric information. A static adverse selection model; Petroleum Taxation with adverse selection. Interactions of dynamics in costs and information; Adverse selection and moral hazard in the petroleum industry, repeated auctions of incentive contracts; Petroleum taxation and regulation. Policy implications from principal-agent theory, and a comparison with the current Norwegian system. 54 refs., 7 figs.

  19. About the petroleum taxation, evaluation at October 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This analysis provides information and data on the petroleum taxation in France at October 2004, on the excises and the additional value tax, the part of the taxes in the selling price. It presents also a comparison with the Europe and the tax revenue in the state budget. (A.L.B.)

  20. Danish Taxation of Pensions in the Perspective of EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønfeldt, Thomas; Werlauff, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The article analyses Danish law on pension taxation, as implemented after the ECJ convicted Denmark in the case C-150/04, Commission v. Denmark, and the article concludes that Danish legislation still is in conflict with EU law, as it favours Danish pension and insurance companies to the detriment...

  1. Distortionary company car taxation: deadweight losses through increased car ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, J.N.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the effects of distortionary company car taxation through increased household car consumption for the Netherlands. We use several identification strategies and demonstrate that for about 20 % of households company car possession increases car ownership. The annual welfare loss of

  2. Modelling strategic responses to car and fuel taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.; Kooreman, P.

    We develop a model to analyse the interactions between actors involved in car and fuel taxation: consumers, car producers, fuel producers and the government. Heterogeneous consumers choose between two versions of a car that differ in engine type (diesel or gasoline). Car manufacturers and fuel

  3. Taxation of Tobacco Products in West Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to breach a major gap revealed by the situational analysis: the failure to take advantage of taxation in the anti-tobacco campaign. This project aims to contribute to the ... New website will help record vital life events to improve access to services for all. A new website and resource library will help improve ...

  4. The Taxation Implicit in Two-Tiered Exchange Rate Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    A two-tiered exchange rate system can be interpreted as a set of separate taxes on money and other financial assets.If the official two-tiered exchange rate system coexists with a black market for foreign exchange, then there is an implicit taxation of international goods trade as well.This paper

  5. Gender and Taxation : Improving Revenue Generation and Social ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This comparative research project will investigate gender biases in taxation in six countries (Argentina, India, Kenya, Mexico, South Africa, United Kingdom) with a view to understanding the gender impact of tax policy in countries at various levels of development. At the national level, researchers will engage tax ...

  6. On Friedrich Hayek and Taxation: Rationality, Rules, and Majority Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Spicer, Michael W.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the implications of the work of the late Friedrich Hayek for taxation policy. Examines Hayek's writings on the limits of rationality, the role of rules, and the limits of majority rule. Argues that Hayek's work provides general support for broad-based nondiscrimnatory tax policies but can be interpreted as cautioning against either radical or frequent changes in tax policy.

  7. The incorporation of double taxation agreements into South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are different opinions as to the process whereby double taxation agreements (DTAs) are incorporated into South African law. This contribution aims to discuss some of the existing opinions and to offer a further perspective on the matter. At the heart of the debate lies the interpretation of two provisions, namely section ...

  8. Democracy, Redistributive Taxation and the Private Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    The paper studies in a simple, Downsian model of political competition how the private provision of public goods is affected when it is embedded in a system of democracy and redistributive taxation. Results show that the positive effect of inequality on public goods production, which Olson (1965...

  9. The Features of Development of the Excise Taxation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostyana Oksana V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the main tendencies of the excise taxation in Ukraine. The features of the excise taxation of alcoholic beverages have been determined. A comparing of rates of the excise tax on certain types of alcoholic drinks in Ukraine and the EU Member States has been done, an analysis of the dynamics of rates of the excise duty on the ethyl alcohol in Ukraine has been carried out. The dynamics of the volumes of consumption of alcoholic drinks in Ukraine have been analyzed. The relationship between the volumes of consumption and the size of the rates of excise duty on alcohol has been defined. The fiscal importance of the excise taxation in Ukraine during the period of 1998-2016 has been analyzed. It has been determined that for Ukrainian economy is characteristic an increase of the fiscal significance of excise tax in the periods of crisis developments. The article considers the directions for further development of the excise taxation in Ukraine, analyzes the prospects of implementing an automated system for monitoring the turnover of alcoholic beverages, as well as use of the electronic excise stamps.

  10. Tobacco Taxation, Smuggling, and Street Tobacco Vendors in Eritrea

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    assess the impact of taxation on tobacco consumption and use control;; determine the price elasticity of tobacco products (change in demand based on cost), particularly cigarettes;; assess trends and identify networks of smuggling and legal cross-border shopping for tobacco products, particularly between Sudan and ...

  11. Studying Alcohol Pricing and Taxation Policies in India | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Studying Alcohol Pricing and Taxation Policies in India. India is the third largest market for alcoholic beverages in the world. As many as 32% of Indians consume alcohol, with 4% to 13% consuming it daily. While per capita alcohol consumption has fallen since 1980 in most developed countries, it has risen over 115% in ...

  12. International Taxation of Philanthropy : Removing tax obstacles for international charities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koele, I.A.

    2007-01-01

    Non-profit organizations are increasingly subjected to the forces of globalization. Although this should not come as a surprise, it is curious to note that the taxation of international philanthropy is an area where discrimination as to residence is still very obvious. Whereas domestic philanthropic

  13. Self-Selection, Optimal Income Taxation, and Redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2009-01-01

    The author makes a pedagogical contribution to optimal income taxation. Using a very simple model adapted from George A. Akerlof (1978), he demonstrates a key result in the approach to public economics and welfare economics pioneered by Nobel laureate James Mirrlees. He shows how incomplete information, in addition to the need to preserve…

  14. Taxation Of Financial Assets: Implications For Capital Market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective operation of the capital market depends on a proper environment provided for by good and sound macroeconomic policies of which fiscal policy is paramount. Poor design of the tax system and over-taxation of financial assets may constrain the process of capital market development and effective functioning of the ...

  15. Taxation of petroleum products: theory and empirical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.; Mahler, W.

    1995-01-01

    The domestic taxation of petroleum products is an important source of revenue in most countries. However, there is a wide variation of tax rates on petroleum products across countries, which cannot be explained by economic theory alone. This paper surveys different considerations advanced for taxing petroleum and presents petroleum tax rate data in 120countries. (author)

  16. Property Taxation and the Finance of Education. TRED 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Richard W., Ed.

    More than twenty experts present their views on the strengths and weaknesses of the property tax system, while comparing it with other possible revenue sources. Together, they develop a comprehensive theory and philosophy of the use of the property tax and land value taxation to finance public education. The contributors give thorough…

  17. Taxation and Revenues for Education. Education Partners Working Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Faith; Whitney, Terry

    Funding education with property taxes has always been controversial. This paper examines taxation and the sources of revenue for education. The historical context in which tax and revenue sources have supported education in the United States is described. Also discussed are state tax-policy goals and education funding, and the embattled role of…

  18. Risk, returns, and values in the presence of differential taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benninga, S; Sarig, O

    We show that there exist separate security market lines (SMLs) for debt and equity securities in an equilibrium with differential taxation of debt and equity. We characterize the conditions under which these SMLs have the same price of risk (with different intercepts) and the conditions under which

  19. Taxation of Islamic Banking Products under the Nigerian Laws ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ground for the operation of Islamic banking in Nigeria, the current three major laws that regulate Banking activities and Company's taxation in Nigeria-the Banks and Other Financial Institutions Act, the CBN Acts and the Companies Income Tax Act are yet to provide adequate guideline for the taxability of Islamic Finance.

  20. Taxation in Romania - News and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBROTĂ GABRIELA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The constant motion in which the economic environment is found, the financial implications of the economic crisis on it, the need to correlate the existing legislative provisions in functional structures, the increasing need of the state for financial resources are just a few factors that require a permanent adaptation of the tax system in our country. The reform started in the transition to a market economy and continued in the various steps taken in the long and difficult road to economic development. In this paper are presented the fundamental aspects of the tax system in Romania as well as the measures necessary to ensure a correlation between the fiscal and economic objectives.

  1. Water resource taxation with full-cost water pricing: lessons from Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Pizzol, Massimo

    regimes can be better designed to provide support to improved resource efficiencies in water services. Furthermore, we explore the intricate relationships between water quantity and freshwater quality, when pricing regimes are in place, with empirical evidence at the level of specific catchments......Green fiscal reform involves removal of environmentally harmful subsidies, introduction of taxes on pollution and resource depletion as well as full-cost pricing for environmental services. One sector which traditionally has been shielded against Green Fiscal Reform is the water sector, where...... under Art. 9 that EU Member States are to introduce full-cost water pricing including pricing of the environmental and resource costs related to water service provision. With relevance for the perspective of green fiscal reform, the European Union funded research project EPIWATER has surveyed the use...

  2. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  3. Goals and Principles of Environmental Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylicz, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at how contemporary environmental (including climate) policy problems are phrased in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, and equity. The latter three concepts have served as foci of theoretical discussions among economists who analyse these issues and identify criteria that determine relevant regulations and programmes adopted by governments. The paper starts with a discussion of Pigouvian taxation as model instrument used in order to solve policy problems. It analyses to what extent and under what circumstances alternative instruments - such as marketable pollution permits - can achieve environmental and climate goals while serving other purposes too. Coase theorem is used as a reference for discussing what government interventions are indeed indispensable to achieve both explicit and tacit policy goals. Popular principles and practically applied 'rules of thumb' - such as the Polluter Pays Principle - are then reviewed. The next part is devoted to examining market structures as they influence environmental outcomes of economic activities. This is followed by a discussion of Environmental Tax Reforms which seems to inspire much of the economic thinking about contemporary policies. An outlook for the 21st century concludes the paper.

  4. On the structural tax reform that is needed in Colombia. Reflections and proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Espitia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the characteristics of an equitable and structural tax reform. Taxation does not only determine revenue, but it also affects the productive apparatus and equitability. In Colombia, tax pressure is very low and resources are insufficient to provide essential public goods. The duty system should contribute to the consolidation of a “new economy”, as it is called by the government, which boosts industry, agriculture, and tourism, and which is less dependent on fossil fuels. Taxes should favor equitability, and so direct taxation should increase in a progressive manner, with a rate which rises as income increases. The recently passed tax reform improves revenue, but favor neither the new economy nor equitability, since it gave too much weight to V.A.T. and very little weight to income or wealth tax.

  5. Issues of the economic risks theory under direct taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Aleksandrovich Slavin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to calculate and justify the probabilistic characteristics of the economic risks of the company selling goods with profit and suffering from the burden of direct taxation. The economic nature and mechanisms of tax risks are described. Methods probabilisticdynamic method based on a few mathematically formulated principles ndash probability principle the principle of measurement etc. The method allows to find the optimal distributions of the phase variables components of the decisions vector of the production system numerical characteristics of which mathematical expectation variance covariance etc. bear the necessary information about the optimal properties of the economic actorsrsquobehavior. Results the basic equation of probabilisticdynamic method ndash the SchrodingerBellman equation ndash was integratedthe function of state was found the normal distribution was obtained of the vector of economic decisions in the phase space of the firm. The phase trajectories and the effective areas of the variables dispersion phase were researched. It is shown that at the intersection of the variation areas of normal distributions corresponding to two different production conditions there is a possibility of spontaneous transitions between these states accompanied by losses of capital assets of the company. The transition probabilities and the expression for average losses of working capital were calculated. It is shown that the inclusion of weak field tax perturbation leads to the modulation of the probability curves and average losses obtained earlier in the work by V.A. Slavin and I.N. Urusova quotMarket dynamics of productioneconomic system. 2. Transitions between production conditions. Elements of risks theoryquot for the company in the absence of taxation. The author outlines the nature of modulation of the main characteristics of tax risks related to the fact that the tax field influences the production system by phase trajectories

  6. Crisis or Opportunity: The Urgent Need for Defense Reform in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    lower the overall corporate tax rate, eliminate loopholes, and reduce or eliminate the double taxation of overseas profits. Under current tax code...THE URGENT NEED FOR DEFENSE REFORM IN THE 21ST CENTURY The single biggest threat to national security is the national debt. American taxpayers ...twentieth century the relations among civilizations have thus moved from a phase dominated by the unidirectional impact of one [western] civilization on

  7. The Commission's proposal for a Directive on Double Taxation Dispute Resolution Mechanisms:Overcoming the final hurdle of juridical double taxation within the European Union?

    OpenAIRE

    Cerioni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the Commission’s proposal for a Directive on Double Taxation Dispute Resolution Mechanisms, by highlighting interpretative issues that its wording may arise and by discussing the conditions under which it could manage to lead to the elimination of (juridical) double taxation within the EU.

  8. Arbitration Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Stepurina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.73:341.63Subject. This informational article highlights recent changes to the Russian legislation on arbitration.Purpose. To highlight the most important aspects of arbitration law reform, and examines the effects they will have on the development of arbitration in RussiaMethodology. The author uses a formal-legal method.Results, scope of application. The author distinguishes the difference between constantly acting arbitration courts and arbitration courts ad hoc. The special status of a number of arbitration institutions (the ICAC and MAC at the Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, is contrary to the constitutional principle of equality under the law. A major achievement of the new legislation on arbitration courts is expanding the range arbitrarily disputes.Conclusions. The new legislation more clearly prescribed the interaction of arbitration and state courts, including requiring the latter to promote the arbitrators, acting under the regulations of the permanent arbitration institutions in obtaining evidence.In addition, the reform of the arbitration law have left aside the problem of improving the quality of judicial control over arbitration decisions.The arbitration law will still be able to improve the arbitration, to enhance its credibility and attractiveness for the participants of civil turnover.

  9. An equilibrium-conserving taxation scheme for income from capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempere, Jacques

    2018-02-01

    Under conditions of market equilibrium, the distribution of capital income follows a Pareto power law, with an exponent that characterizes the given equilibrium. Here, a simple taxation scheme is proposed such that the post-tax capital income distribution remains an equilibrium distribution, albeit with a different exponent. This taxation scheme is shown to be progressive, and its parameters can be simply derived from (i) the total amount of tax that will be levied, (ii) the threshold selected above which capital income will be taxed and (iii) the total amount of capital income. The latter can be obtained either by using Piketty's estimates of the capital/labor income ratio or by fitting the initial Pareto exponent. Both ways moreover provide a check on the amount of declared income from capital.

  10. Energy taxation in Southern Europe: The case of Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modesto, L.

    1993-01-01

    It is investigated whether or not the imposition of a common EC energy tax will penalize more the poorer Southern European economies and if this will harm convergence at the EC level. The existing studies and empirical evidence are briefly surveyed. Then the results obtained when using the macroeconometric HERMES models to stimulate the introduction of an energy tax are exploited. The conclusions, however, have limited value, since the authors only have HERMES results for one Southern European economy: Portugal. Finally, the convergence in Europe and the effects of energy taxation on convergence are investigated. It is concluded that energy taxation will harm growth all over the EC, penalizing more one of the less developed countries (in this case Portugal), and having most probably adverse effects on convergence. 5 figs., 6 tabs., 22 refs

  11. THE COST OF DIRECT TAXATION ON INVESTMENT IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Leitão Paes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper analyzed the impact of taxation on the investment in Brazil, focusing on the taxation of corporate income. Following the literature, it was used an economic model to calculate two indicators of effective tax rates - Effective Marginal Tax Rate (EMTR and Effective Average Tax Rate (EATR. The EMTR measures the increase of the cost of capital due to corporate income tax. The EATR represents a measure of the average tax rate levied on an investment that has a pre-defined economic profit. The results suggest Brazil may face some difficulties to attract foreign investment. The country presents high rates for EATR and EMTR, higher than the average of the rich countries and well above the figures of development countries like Chile, Mexico, South Africa, Russia and China, potential competitors in attracting investments.

  12. European Administrative Cooperation in the Field of Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin TUDOR

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The operation of different taxation systems in EU member states appears to promote more increasingly the appearance of double taxation entailing fraud and tax evasion. The phenomenon is amplified by the remaining control competences at the national level, and the lack of administrative cooperation in tax matters at EU level is being a decisive factor in delaying the causes with the consequence of prescription of the facts which brings serious damage enhanced EU budget. This study aims to examine the legal ways and means to ensure that the information, reports, statements and other documents mandatory to the administrative or judicial proceedings to be legal required from the counterparts existing in other members states invoked as evidence by their competent bodies.

  13. Registered indians and tobacco taxation: a culturally-appropriate strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardman, A E Dennis; Khan, Nadia A

    2005-01-01

    Taxation of tobacco is a widely-used strategy that prompts smoking cessation among adults and reduces cigarette consumption among continuing smokers. Registered Indian tobacco use prevalence is at least double that of the rest of Canadians and is in part due to the lower cost of tobacco products purchased on reserve by Registered Indians (RIs) as they are tax exempt. Although registered Indian communities have the ability to collect tax on tobacco products and direct the use of these revenues, this strategy is rarely utilized. Tobacco taxation could have substantial health and economic benefits to RI communities, but perhaps is not culturally-appropriate. In order to better support RI communities, governments and other organizations need to examine this policy instrument in the context of RI populations.

  14. Crime, Human Capital, and the Impact of Different Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, King Yoong; Jia, Pengfei; Raza, Ali

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a macroeconomic model with crime, human capital, and three taxation policies (consumption, labour, and capital income taxes). In an extension, we endogenize the probability of escaping punishment to depend on government expenditure on public security/police. The model is solved analytically and numerically to derive propositions, which are then verified empirically using cross-country data. Compared to the literature, we find a much higher threshold probability. Above the ...

  15. On Noncooperative Capital Income Taxation in Open Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Kletzer

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategic use of capital income taxation and lump-sum fiscal policies for gaining national advantage in an integrated world capital market. Each fiscal authority seeks to maximize a social welfare function defined over the utilities of home country residents incorporating national redistributing objectives. A national optimum policy is to impose a non-discriminatory source-based capital income tax or subsidy along with an optimal lump-sum tax and transfer plan. Reside...

  16. Capital mobility, tax competition, and lobbying for redistributive capital taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorz, Jens Oliver

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of international capital mobility on redistributive capital taxation and on lobbying activities by interest groups. It employs a model where different capital endowments lead to a conflict between households concerning their most preferred capital tax rate. Three main results are derived: First, redistributive source based capital taxes or subsidies decline as international tax competition intensifies. Second, lobbying activities of certain interest groups may e...

  17. Macroeconomic and sectoral effects of energy taxation in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppl, A.; Kratena, K.; Pichl, C.; Schebeck, F.; Wueger, M.; Schleicher, S.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of energy taxation on the Austrian economy are analyzed. Simulations are carried out with a linked input output macromodel. The macroeconomic effects of an energy tax on economic growth, employment, the rate of inflation (change in the consumer price index), the budget deficit and the current account will be explained, as well as the sectoral impact on differenT industries. 7 tabs., 7 refs

  18. Centralized versus decentralized taxation of mobile polluting firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguay, Georges A.; Marceau, Nicolas

    2001-01-01

    We consider a world in which a mobile polluting firm must locate in one of two regions. The regions differ in two dimensions: their marginal cost of pollution and the production cost of the firm. It is shown that under incomplete information on regional marginal costs of pollution, fiscal competition may lead to the sub-optimal location of the firm. We also show that under incomplete information, a sub-optimal location is less likely under centralized than under decentralized taxation

  19. Taxation of uranium mining in Canada and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the nature of the taxation schemes facing uranium mine operators in Australia's Northern Territory and in Canada's Province of Saskatchewan. The findings demonstrate that, although the Canadian system appropriates up to 85% of incremental sales revenue, it is extremely sensitive to industry profitability. Its Australian counterpart is, in contrast, a regressive scheme which, at the current selling price of yellowcake, captures a significantly larger proportion of available economic rent. (author)

  20. Employee benefits in terms of accounting and taxation system

    OpenAIRE

    ŠÍMA, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    The theme of this bachelor thesis is Employee benefits in terms of accounting and taxation system. Some companies also include non-monetary bonuses as a way of rewarding their employees. Employee benefits substantially affect satisfaction, loyalty and motivation of all employees. The popularity of employee benefits is also supported by the effort of the companies to optimise taxes, which is the outcome of employee benefits. The main goal was to characterise employee benefits and to explain it...

  1. Driving the getaway car? Ireland, taxation and development

    OpenAIRE

    Killian, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed Taxation is about far more than revenue-raising: it concerns power and impacts taxpayer behaviour. It is pivotal in enhancing accountability and participation in young states through the bargaining process between a government and its citizens. Very significantly, it often has unexpected consequences, and the tax system of one country can easily have an impact on economic or social behaviour in another. Since business is now international, it is important that taxes are d...

  2. Corporate income taxation uncertainty and foreign direct investment

    OpenAIRE

    Zagler, Martin; Zanzottera, Cristiana

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of legal uncertainty around corporate income taxation on foreign direct investment (FDI). Legal uncertainty can take many forms: double tax agreements, different types of legal systems and corruption. We test the effect of legal uncertainty on foreign direct investment with an international panel. We find that an increase in the ratio of the statutory corporate income tax rate of the destination relative to the source country exhibits a negati...

  3. Income Risks, Education, and Taxation as Public Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    We set up an OLG-model, where households choose human capital investment and decide on investing their endogenous savings in a portfolio of riskless and risky assets. Thereby, the households are exposed to both aggregate wage and capital risks due to technological shocks. We derive the optimal public policy mix of taxation and education policy and show that risks can be optimally diversified on private and public consumption, if the government can apply a wide set of instruments, including di...

  4. Responsibility and Redistribution: The Case of First Best Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Bertil Tungodden

    2001-01-01

    It is not straightforward to define the ethics of responsibility in cases where the consequences of changes in factors within our control are partly determined by factors beyond our control. In this paper, we suggest that one plausible view is to keep us responsible for the parts of the consequences that are independent of the factors beyond our control. Within the framework of a first best taxation problem, we present and characterise a redistributive mechanism that both satisfies this inter...

  5. Teach a Man to Fish? Education vs. Optimal Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In models of redistribution, diff erences in human capital are often the relevant source of heterogeneity amongst individuals. Presumably, the distribution of human capital can be manipulated through education spending. This paper examines the use of education as a redistributive tool when there is a nonlinear tax system in place. The results show that taxation, whether under full or asymmetric information, substantially reduces the redistributive role of education spending in maximizing soci...

  6. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The policy reform literature is primarily concerned with the construction of reforms that yield welfare gains. By contrast, this paper’s contribution is to develop a theoretical concept for which the focus is upon the sizes of welfare gains accruing from policy reforms rather than upon their signs....... In undertaking this task, and by focusing on tariff reforms, we introduce the concept of a steepest ascent policy reform, which is a locally optimal reform in the sense that it achieves the highest marginal gain in utility of any feasible local reform. We argue that this reform presents itself as a natural...... benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other popular tariff reforms such as the proportional tariff reduction and the concertina rules, since it provides the maximal welfare gain of all possible local reforms. We derive properties of the steepest ascent tariff reform, construct...

  7. Corporate Income Taxation: Selected Problems and Decisions. The Case of Ukraine 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna Proskura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the issues of corporate income taxation in Ukraine and finding ways to resolve them in the context of European integration. The aim of this paper is demonstrate ways to improve corpo- rate income taxation on the basis of balancing the interests of taxpayers against those of the government. The paper will highlight the key issues of corporate income taxation in Ukraine with its large share of unprofitable enterprises, unequal regulations for different corporate taxpayers and the requirement to pay tax advances even where there is an absence of taxable income. Based on our analysis, the causes of the origin and deepening problems of corporate income taxation in Ukraine will be demonstrated. A compar- ative analysis of income taxation in Poland and Ukraine was performed. It is believed that some elements of the Polish experience in the taxation of income can be applied to Ukraine.

  8. Taxation, pollution, unemployment and growth: Could there be a 'triple dividend' from a green tax reform?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birch Soerensen, P.; Haagen Pedersen, L.; Nielsen, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    The paper develops a model of endogenous economic growth, where sustainable growth is driven by private capital accumulation and productive government spending on education and pollution abatement. The economy is distorted by pollution externalitities in production and consumption; by taxes and transfers, and by union monopoly power creating involuntary unemployment. within this framework we analyse the effects of various 'green' tax policies on pollution, unemployment, growth, and consumer welfare. Among other things, we highlight the differences between pollution taxes which are levied for general revenue purposes and pollution taxes which are 'earmarked' for financing expenditures on pollution abatement. We also investigate the effects of a switch in the policy regime from quantity control of pollution combined with 'grandfathering' of pollution rights to regulation via emission charges. We find that such a regime shift has the potential to raise employment, growth and welfare without damaging the environment, because emission charges improve the efficiency of the tax system by serving as an indirect method of taxing away pure profits. (au) 13 refs

  9. TAXATION IN THE CONTEXT OF EUROPEAN ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu DURDUREANU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Through taxes, a significant proportion of gross domestic product is collected and concentrates to the state for financing public spending, giving direct expression of taxation as a set of processes for redistributing GDP. Thus, both in the political and economic, financial and social level it gains a particular importance the issue of dimensioning the part of GDP taken in the form of tax, for the state disposal and, implicitly, for its proportions of fiscal levies, which shows the relative level of taxation also called level of taxation. The amount of income tax, respectively of taxes collected don’t only result in taxable mass and its tax rate, but are also influenced by behavioral factors. In other words, tax revenues to the budget depend on the proportions propensity to evasion or tax for fiscal civism and some studies show that, generally, the greater the tax burden is, the more the tax will decrease fiscal civism (even if only in the spirit of conservation and increase the propensity to evasion.

  10. The mutual agreement procedure and arbitration of double taxation disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Bantekas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It is in the interest of most states to eliminate double taxation (i.e. the payment of the same tax in two jurisdictions oftransnational commercial enterprises. Because such disputes involve, on the one hand, the state imposition of taxes, a right universally asserted by all states, and private entities on the other, taxation disputes between such parties are not, on their face, easily susceptible to arbitration. This article analyzes two disputesettlement procedures-the OECD First Model Tax Convention and a similar EU Convention-with the exclusive focus on disputes relatingto the imposition of double taxation. It will look at the ways in which state roles may vary under these procedures from assisting inthe negotiation process to taking a part similar to, but with important differences from, diplomatic protection on behalf of an affected enterprise. The article will examine the situations under which the settlement procedure is required and/or available, how the procedures are triggered, the obligations and parts played bythe parties, the means by which the disputes are resolved (from negotiations to tribunals and the limitations of the procedures. Are they “taxpayer friendly”? As a result the reader may draw comparisons between the two procedures. Finally, the article will look at the proposed OECD Arbitration Clause which is intended to be incorporated into Article 25 of the OECD Model Tax Convention as well as how thesemechanisms relate and/or conflict with bilateral tax treaties and theGATS.

  11. Reduction of Systemic Risk by Means of Pigouvian Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatić, Vinko; Gabbi, Giampaolo; Abraham, Hrvoje

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the possibility of reduction of systemic risk in financial markets through Pigouvian taxation of financial institutions, which is used to support the rescue fund. We introduce the concept of the cascade risk with a clear operational definition as a subclass and a network related measure of the systemic risk. Using financial networks constructed from real Italian money market data and using realistic parameters, we show that the cascade risk can be substantially reduced by a small rate of taxation and by means of a simple strategy of the money transfer from the rescue fund to interbanking market subjects. Furthermore, we show that while negative effects on the return on investment (ROI) are direct and certain, an overall positive effect on risk adjusted return on investments (ROIRA) is visible. Please note that the taxation is introduced as a monetary/regulatory, not as a _scal measure, as the term could suggest. The rescue fund is implemented in a form of a common reserve fund.

  12. Taxation of Insolvent Companies: Empirical Evidence in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina dos Santos Arromba Dinis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of taxation of insolvent companies in Portugal, particularly regarding the Portuguese tax on revenue of legal entities (IRC. For this purpose, first, some considerations on the legal framework of insolvent companies are woven and, second, their tax regime is analyzed. Then, a brief review of the main studies that, in the international context, analyze and debate major issues derived from the tax regime of insolvent companies is conducted, particularly in Brazil, Spain, United States, and Italy. Finally, there are the results of an empirical study conducted in Portugal, in 2013, which evaluates and compares the opinions of insolvency administrators (IA, the tax and customs authority (TA, and court magistrates (CM, in order to contribute to a better solution concerning business taxation under this regime. Respondents (IA, TA, CM demonstrate objective thinking about the fact they believe it is very important that the Portuguese Code of Insolvency and Business Recovery (CIRE and the Portuguese Code of Tax on Revenue of Legal Entities (CIRC are modified, now to make clear whether the settlement of property ownership of an insolvent estate is liable to the IRC, then to assign a chapter specifically devoted to the subject of taxation on insolvency in Portugal.

  13. Public acceptance for environmental taxes: Self-interest, environmental and distributional concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallbekken, Steffen; Saelen, Hakon

    2011-01-01

    While strongly recommended by economists, it has often been politically difficult to impose taxes on externalities. There is a substantial literature on public attitudes towards environmental taxes. There has, however, been few comprehensive attempts to understand attitudes towards environmental taxes. The main research question in this paper is which factors influence support for fuel taxation. We propose a model of attitudes towards fuel taxation, and test this model as well as more specific hypotheses, using data from a representative survey of the adult Norwegian population. Our results suggest that support for fuel taxation is best predicted by beliefs about environmental consequences, followed by beliefs about consequences to others. Beliefs about consequences to self (self-interest) is the factor that explains the least variation in support for fuel taxation. The academically interesting result that support cannot be well explained without capturing a broad range of motivational factors is also highly policy relevant. It implies that there is no magic formula for increasing public support for environmental taxes. There are, however, some issues which can be addressed: trust in how well the government spends the revenue, and the perception that taxation does very little to change behaviour and thus to reduce environmental problems. - Research highlights: → Which factors influence support for fuel taxation? → We test a model of attitudes towards fuel taxes with data from a Norwegian survey. → Support for fuel taxation best predicted by beliefs about environmental consequences. → Support for fuel taxation followed by beliefs about consequences to others. → Self-interest is the factor that explains the least variation in support.

  14. Taxation of Outbound Direct Investment: Economic Principles and Tax Policy Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P Devereux

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews economic principles for optimality of the taxation of international profit, from both a global and national perspective. It argues that for traditional systems based on the residence of the investor or the source of the income, nothing less than full harmonization across countries can achieve global optimality. The conditions for national optimality are more difficult to identify, but are most likely to imply source-based taxation. However, source-based taxation requires an...

  15. International Taxation and the Direction and Volume of Cross-Border M&As

    OpenAIRE

    Huizinga, Harry; Voget, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    In an international merger or acquisition, the national residences of the acquirer and the target determine to what extent the newly created multinational firm is subject to international double taxation. This paper presents evidence that the parent-subsidiary structure of newly created multinational firms reflects the prospect of international double taxation. The number of acquiring firms at the national level similarly reflects international double taxation. The evidence suggests that tax ...

  16. Tax systems of EU countries and agreements to avoid double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Horáková, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Tax systems of the states in the European Union and double taxation avoidance agreements The purpose of this Master thesis on the theme "Tax systems of the states in the European Union and double taxation avoidance agreements" is to provide a complete description and an analysis of the actual situation of tax harmonization in the European Union and of the progress made in this field. Simultaneously the Master thesis presents the reasons for concluding the double taxation avoidance agreements ...

  17. Land value taxation and financing public infrastructure with land value capture

    OpenAIRE

    Kaipanen, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the effects of land value taxation and land value capture methods. Land value capture methods can be divided into three categories which are betterment tax, accessibility increment contribution and joint development. Theory of land value taxation, discussion about neutrality and challenges with the use of land value taxation are introduced. Value capture methods and their impacts according to prior research are examined. Finally the incidence of b...

  18. The taxation installment in Romania . Between mass - media’'s ”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan-Mihail Papuc

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay brings out into relief the situation of Romanian taxation in contrast with taxation level from European Union. To this end there are used a series of statistical data in relation to major category of tax, in the way how Eurostat presences. At the same time the research brings into relief a certain option as regards of pressure taxation assignment on some categories of tax payer.

  19. International Taxation and FDI Strategies: Evidence From US Cross-Border Acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Nils Herger; Christos Kotsogiannis; Steve McCorriston

    2011-01-01

    While there is a well-established body of empirical research documenting the negative effect of taxation on foreign direct investment (FDI), there is scant evidence on the extent to which international tax considerations (double taxation, international tax relief stipulated in bilateral tax treaties and the effect of withholding taxes) affect the role of taxation for FDI, and how tax issues differ according to the investment strategies—‘horizontal’ and ‘vertical’—pursued by %multinational fir...

  20. An approach to taxation of non-agricultural cooperatives in Cuba. Proposals for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes Rodríguez Musa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of some general elements about the taxation system of cooperatives, to then focus on the legal regulation of taxation in Cuba with special reference to the treatment of the cooperative sector. These analyzes allow us to develop a comprehensive assessment of how developed the taxation of non-agricultural cooperatives in Cuba, in order to outline proposals for their improvement.Received: 31.05.2016Accepted: 30.09.2016

  1. CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL DOUBLE TAXATION. SOLUTIONS OF THE CONVENTIONS, MODEL FOR AVOIDING THE INTERNATIONAL DOUBLE TAXATION

    OpenAIRE

    Marius HERBEI; Sorin DUDAS DACIA; Aura COSTEA

    2010-01-01

    There are more frequent the situations when the same person has a political, economic or social relationship with two or more states , carrying on activities from which they obtain income or owning assets in many states. The double taxation may constitute a real barrier in the way of the economic technical-scientific cooperation, of setting-up of subsidiaries or branches abroad, of the foreign investments of capital and of the external loans, of the development of economic and financial affai...

  2. Taxation in France: Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2014

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from national taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   For any other income, the Organization would like to remind members of the personnel that they must comply with the national legislation applicable to them (cf. Article S V 2.02 of the Staff Rules). I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2014 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2014, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, has been available since 20 February 2015. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. 1. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel, you will have received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. 2. If you are no longer a member of the CERN pers...

  3. Taxation in France: Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2013

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from national taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   For any other income, the Organization would like to remind members of the personnel that they must comply with the national legislation applicable to them (cf. Article S V 2.02 of the Staff Rules).   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2013 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2013, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, is available since 21 February 2014. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are ...

  4. Taxation in France | Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2012 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2012, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, is available since 15 February 2013. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual certificate as indicated above, you will find information explaining how to obtain one at this link. In case of difficulty in obtaining your annual certificate, send an e-mail ex...

  5. TAXATION IN FRANCE - Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from external taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2011 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2011, issued by the Finance, Procurement and Knowledge Transfer Department, is available since 1st March 2012. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your annual certificate as indicated above, you will find information explaining how to obtain one at the following link: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/Impots/proc_impot_attestation_interne.asp. ...

  6. Taxation in France - Memorandum concerning the annual internal taxation certificate and the declaration of income for 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    You are reminded that the Organization levies an internal tax on the financial and family benefits it pays to the members of the personnel (see Chapter V, Section 2 of the Staff Rules and Regulations) and that the members of the personnel are exempt from national taxation on salaries and emoluments paid by CERN.   For any other income, the Organization would like to remind members of the personnel that they must comply with the national legislation applicable to them (cf. Article S V 2.02 of the Staff Rules). I - Annual internal taxation certificate for 2015 The annual certificate of internal taxation for 2015, issued by the Finance and Administration Processes Department, is available since 19 February 2016. It is intended exclusively for the tax authorities. If you are currently a member of the CERN personnel you received an e-mail containing a link to your annual certificate, which you can print out if necessary. If you are no longer a member of the CERN personnel or are unable to access your an...

  7. The public choice problem of green taxation: The case of CO{sub 2} taxation in OECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjoellund, L.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G

    1998-07-01

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a closer look at the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that they are differentiated and far from this first-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that this is so because the industry is, in contrast to households, capable of lobbying against green taxation. When organized interests are considered, taxation either with or without a full refund of the revenue turns out to be problematic due to the energy-intensive firms' ability to organize and form stable interest groups. The paper presents empirical findings on CO{sub 2} taxation within the OECD countries, which confirm this theoretical prediction. Taxes are not uniform, and households pay a tax rate which is five times higher than that paid by the industry on average. Finally, it is suggested that a CO{sub 2} tax may successfully be applied to non-organized interests, such as households and the transportation sector, because these are large and non-organized groups. As such, a mix of green taxes (in relation to non-organized interests) and grand-fathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should b considered in the search for cost-effective and politically feasible instruments. (au) 35 refs.

  8. Taxation of nuclear waste in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rozas Valdés, José Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Law 15/2012 established in Spain four new environmental taxes and extended the scope objective excise duties on mineral oils to tax the use of natural gas and coal as sources of electricity. One of the newly created taxes falls on all electric power producers, and has as tax base the turnover. The second one tax hydropower production, and the other two fall on the nuclear industry. So, there are two new taxes in Spain on the production of electricity from nuclear sources. The first one is a t...

  9. Tax reform in the Lula government: continuity and fiscal injustice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrine Brami-Celentano

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The tax reform proposed by the Lula government in 2003, quickly approved by Congress, remained at the limits of the proposals of the previous government of President Fernando Henrique Cardoso and his Social Democratic party (PSDB, inspired by neoliberal ideology. The small advances in reducing regressivity, such as exemptions for basic consumer products, have not altered the role of the tax structure in the concentration of wealth, with a predominance of indirect taxes and their regressive effects. Taxation has deserved little attention in the broad debate about social policies in Brazil, which concentrates on the allocation of public expenses and the efficiency of spending, without proper attention to the role of the tax structure in the concentration of income and wealth in the country. The article presents the regressive profile of the Brazilian tax structure, preserved by the reform of 2003 and discusses the neoliberal agenda that guides the initiatives of the Lula government in this field.

  10. Trends and prospects of tax reforms in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Ho Lim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the reform trends in Chinese tax systems with emphasis on the structural tax reduction policy that has been enforced in China’s socialist market economy system for the past 10 years. This study also intends to draw the implications of such tax reforms by identifying the relationship between China’s socialist and capitalist market economy systems along with other related tax systems and describing the tax policy trends for the last 10 years. A comparison and analysis of the differences in viewpoints on taxation between these market economy systems is also conducted. The core and specific contents of this study on structural tax reduction policy that has been enforced in China over the past decade are arranged.

  11. The reform of the European energy tax directive: Exploring potential economic impacts in the EU27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocchi, Paola; Serrano, Mònica; Roca, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the effect that the Energy Tax Directive reform proposed in 2011 would have, if implemented, on the level of prices in the different sectors of the 27 countries of the European Union. We apply a multiregional and multisectoral model of trade flows that takes into account all the intersectoral and intercountry interdependences in the production processes. Using the World Input–Output Database we perform two different simulations. The first one considers the tax changes proposed by the reform; the second one shows the impact the reform would have entailed if it were applied also to sectors belonging to the European Trade System. The main finding of the first simulation shows that the new energy tax regime would have had a low economic cost in terms of impact on prices (less than 1% in all the countries). So, the concerns about competitiveness do not find empirical support in our results, suggesting the need for further analyses to find out the reasons that caused the failure of a reform that was an important step to introduce a taxation explicitly linked to CO 2 emissions. The second simulation, however, leads to strongly different results, pointing out the relevance of maintaining significant economic incentives to reduce carbon emissions for the European Trade System sectors, by improving the emission market performance or by applying carbon taxation also to these sectors. - Highlights: • We analyze the reform of the European energy tax proposed in 2011, rejected in 2012. • We simulate what potential economic effect this reform would have if implemented. • We find that this reform would have weak effects on prices in all 27 EU countries. • We study the effect of the reform if applied to European emission market sectors. • In this second scenario, the economic impacts would have been much stronger

  12. The impact of resource tax reform on China's coal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Huihui; Chen, ZhanMing; Wang, Jianliang; Fan, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Contributing to approximately two-thirds of primary energy consumption, coal usage is the focus of China's energy policies. To regulate the resource taxation system and reduce the burden of coal enterprises, the Chinese government launched a reform of its resource tax system in 2014 for coal, introducing the ad valorem system to replace the volume-based system that had been in place for the preceding thirty years. To assess the impact of the tax reform, this paper constructs two-stage dynamic game models by taking the coal and coal-fired power industries as the players. The market situations of shortage and oversupply are investigated separately. Empirical data are collected to estimate the model parameters for numerical simulations. The model results suggest that the tax reform will reduce both coal prices and the coal industry profitability if the tax levied on each ton of coal is maintained at the same level as before the reform, regardless of whether the market is in a shortage or an oversupply situation. However, the increased buyer's power will amplify the effect of the tax reform. The numerical simulations also provide an estimation of the tax rate of the ad valorem system that maintains the profit of the coal industry. Considering the demand and supply situations in China's coal market, policy recommendations are provided to guide further reform of China's resource tax system. - Highlights: • The paper examines the influence of resource tax reform on China's coal industry. • We construct two-stage game models between coal and coal-fired power industries. • Market situations of shortage and oversupply are studied in two taxation systems. • Coal price will decrease if maintaining the tax levied on each ton of coal the same. • To achieve the reform objective, the ad valorem tax rate should not be set too high.

  13. Effects of changes in petrol taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, J. O.; Wall, R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate and discuss some of the policy-relevant effects of petrol tax changes. Our approach is to seek to separate the extent to which each of the following variables is affected by changes in the price of petrol: (i) car ownership (ii) car use (iii) petrol consumption per km. The estimates show that the sum of (i) and (ii) results in a price-elasticity with respect to 'car traffic' equal to -0.2 in the short run, and -0.3 in the long run. Because of possibilities to increase the fuel efficiency of cars, the price-elasticity of 'petrol demand' is substantially greater: -0.3 in the short run and of the order of -0.7 in the long run. One conclusion is: A petrol price rise is considerably more effective as a measure for energy and environmental policy than for transport policy. The effect of petrol tax changes to the total tax revenue is also discussed. At last, the regional welfare distribution effects are treated in the form of estimation of regional differences to the reduction in the consumers' surplus from a petrol price increase. 19 refs., 15 figs., 17 tabs

  14. Carbon taxation and market structure: A CGE analysis for Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, Anton; Grethe, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Russia is one of the world's major sources of carbon based energy as well as one its most intensive users. Introducing carbon taxes can lead to a reduction in emissions and encourage investment in energy efficiency. We investigate the economic effects of carbon taxes on the Russian economy under perfect competition and a Cournot oligopoly in output markets. The main findings are: (i) substituting carbon taxes for labour taxes can yield a strong double dividend in Russia; however, welfare gains strongly depend on the labour supply elasticity and elasticities of substitution between capital, labour, and energy. (ii) Under the assumption of a Cournot oligopoly with homogenous products and symmetric firms in the markets for natural gas, petroleum and chemical products, metals, and minerals, welfare costs of the environmental tax reform can be higher than under perfect competition. This is because introducing carbon taxes leads to a reduction in already sub-optimal output, thereby exacerbating pre-existing distortions arising from imperfect competition. (iii) Furthermore, increases in energy costs can result in higher mark-ups in some markets because of less competition resulting from firms' exit. - Highlights: ► Substituting carbon taxes for labour taxes in Russia can yield a double dividend. ► The labour supply elasticity and substitution possibilities between factors are crucial. ► Introducing carbon taxes can exacerbate distortions from imperfect competition. ► Increases in energy costs result in higher mark-ups because of less competition.

  15. The mutual agreement procedure and arbitration of double taxation disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Bantekas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available It is in the interest of most states to eliminate double taxation (i.e. the payment of the same tax in two jurisdictions of transnational commercial enterprises. Because such disputes involve, on the one hand, the state imposition of taxes, a right universally asserted by all states, and private entities on the other, taxation disputes between such parties are not, on their face, easily susceptible to arbitration. This article analyzes two dispute settlement procedures-the OECD First Model Tax Convention and a similar EU Convention-with the exclusive focus on disputes relating to the imposition of double taxation. It will look at the ways in which state roles may vary under these procedures from assisting in the negotiation process to taking a part similar to, but with important differences from, diplomatic protection on behalf of an affected enterprise. The article will examine the situations under which the settlement procedure is required and/or available, how the procedures are triggered, the obligations and parts played by the parties, the means by which the disputes are resolved (from negotiations to tribunals and the limitations of the procedures. Are they “taxpayer friendly”? As a result the reader may draw comparisons between the two procedures. Finally, the article will look at the proposed OECD Arbitration Clause which is intended to be incorporated into Article 25 of the OECD Model Tax Convention as well as how these mechanisms relate and/or conflict with bilateral tax treaties and the GATS.

  16. Cross Border Inheritances and European Community Law : Juridical double taxation of inheritances and the free movement of capital

    OpenAIRE

    Wiberg, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Double taxation is known as restricting the free flow of capital and accordingly results in a limited access of the internal market. Although, not many Member States have entered into double taxation conventions in order to avoid juridical double taxation of inheritances. The question then arises whether this failure to eliminate juridical double taxation is restricting the free movement of capital. The ECJ‟s case law regarding inheritance taxes are very varying. In its initial case law, the ...

  17. Assessment of Consequences of Replacement of System of the Uniform Tax on Imputed Income Patent System of the Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina A. Manokhina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the main questions concerning possible consequences of replacement of nowadays operating system in the form of a single tax in reference to imputed income with patent system of the taxation. The main advantages and drawbacks of new system of the taxation are shown, including the opinion that not the replacement of one special mode of the taxation with another is more effective, but the introduction of patent a taxation system as an auxilary system.

  18. Double taxation conventions in Romania Case: DSSs Râşnov vs. ANAf braşov

    OpenAIRE

    Dumiter Florin; Jimon Ștefania; Boiță Marius

    2017-01-01

    Conventions to avoid double taxation are the panacea of tax law, lato sensu, and direct taxation, stricto sensu. Although the current network of double taxation conventions has over 2500 tax treaties concluded by the world’s states, there are still issues that need to be addressed in their application: the anti-abuse provisions to be found in conventions, the practices of the type treaty shopping, LOB clauses, use of arbitration in the application of double taxation avoidance conventions. The...

  19. The Optimal Taxation of UnskilIed Labor with Job Search and Social Assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    In order to explore the optimal taxation of low-skilled labor, we extend the standard model of optimal non-linear income taxation in the presence of quasi-linear preferences in leisure by allowing for involuntary unemployment, job search, an exogenous welfare benefit, and a non-utilitarian social

  20. On the effect of taxation in the online sports betting market

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal-Puga, Juan

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the effect of taxation in the online sport betting market. This market is characterized by its negligible marginal costs. Taxation can be on volume (General Betting Duty) or on gross profit (Gross Profit Tax). We model the two most popular online sport betting bets: fixed-odds and spread, as compared with another traditional sport betting: parimutuel.

  1. 26 CFR 1.61-22 - Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a split-dollar life insurance arrangement (or the estate or beneficiary of that party) that are not... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of split-dollar life insurance..., and Taxable Income § 1.61-22 Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements. (a) Scope—(1) In...

  2. 20 CFR 638.812 - State and local taxation of Job Corps deliverers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Administrative Provisions § 638.812 State and local taxation of Job Corps deliverers. The Act provides that transactions conducted... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State and local taxation of Job Corps...

  3. On Taxation in a Two-Sector Endogenous Growth Model with Endogenous Labor Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. de Hek (Paul)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the effects of taxation on long-run growth in a two-sector endogenous growth model with (i) physical capital as an input in the education sector and (ii) leisure as an additional argument in the utility function. The analysis of the effects of taxation - including

  4. 26 CFR 1.1293-1 - Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Current taxation of income from qualified... Losses § 1.1293-1 Current taxation of income from qualified electing funds. (a) In general. (1) Other... shareholder must be made, under the principles of § 1.1291-9(f), to the basis of the indirect shareholder's...

  5. Rent taxation and its intertemporal effects in a small open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Poutvaara, Panu

    2009-01-01

    Previous literature concludes that replacing wage taxation by taxes on a fixed factor or its rents benefits future generations. However, the effects of such steady-state gains on the transition generations have been left open. In this paper, we show that taxation of rents may also increase utility...

  6. The Political Economy of Capital Income and Profit Taxation in a Small Open Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Nielsen, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper considers the political economy of the mix of profit, investment and saving taxation in a small open economy where agents generally differ in their shares of profit and other income.In this setting, capital income taxation can have the dual role of financing government spending and of

  7. 26 CFR 1.857-1 - Taxation of real estate investment trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of real estate investment trusts. 1.857-1 Section 1.857-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-1 Taxation of real estate...

  8. 26 CFR 1.860C-1 - Taxation of holders of residual interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of holders of residual interests. 1.860C-1 Section 1.860C-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860C-1 Taxation of holders...

  9. 26 CFR 1.991-1 - Taxation of a domestic international sales corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of a domestic international sales... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.991-1 Taxation of a domestic international sales corporation. (a) In general. A corporation which is a DISC for a...

  10. 26 CFR 1.522-2 - Manner of taxation of cooperative associations subject to section 522.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Manner of taxation of cooperative associations...-2 Manner of taxation of cooperative associations subject to section 522. (a) In general. Farmers... term income not derived from patronage means incidental income derived from sources not directly...

  11. Democracy, redistributive taxation and the private provision of public goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    and might even be reversed in this context. Also, the median voter may choose a negative tax rate, even if he or she is poorer than the mean, in order to stimulate production of public goods. The relevance of the model is illustrated with an application to the financing of higher education.......The paper studies in a simple, Downsian model of political competition the private provision of public goods embedded in a system of democracy and redistributive taxation. Results show that the positive effect of inequality on production of public goods, to which Olson (1965) pointed, is weakened...

  12. Income- and energy-taxation for redistribution in general equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzRoy, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    In a 3-factor General Equilibrium (GE)-model with a continuum of ability, the employed choose optimal labour supply, and equilibrium unemployment is determined by benefits funded by wage- and energy-taxes. Aggregate labour and the net wage may increase or decrease with taxation (and unemployment), and conditions for a reduction in redistributive wage-taxes to be Pareto-improving are derived. A small energy tax always raises the net wage, providing the wage tax is reduced to maintain constant employment and a balanced budget. High ability households prefer higher energy taxes when externalities are uniformly distributed and non-distorting. (author)

  13. Capital Income Taxation and Tax Criteria in International Capital Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hannu Piekkola

    1995-01-01

    The study analyses the capital income taxation of foreign-source income, where residence and source criteria are the two well-known tax criteria. The study presents a globally optimal tax rule which equalizes the shadow price of capital in the countries and which is assumed to be a weighted average of the return on savings and on investment, i.e. depending on the gross rate of return to the extent that capital contributes to the capital used, and on the net interest rate to the extent that ca...

  14. Centralized versus Decentralized Taxation of Mobile Polluting Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Georges A. Tanguay; Nicolas Marceau

    2000-01-01

    We consider a world in which a mobile polluting firm must locate in one of two regions. The regions differ in two dimensions: their marginal cost of pollution and the production cost of the firm. It is shown that under incomplete information on regional marginal costs of pollution, fiscal competition may lead to the sub-optimal location of the firm. We also show that under incomplete information, a sub-optimal location is less likely under centralized than under decentralized taxation. Nous é...

  15. Capital income taxation in a growing open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1991-01-01

    The paper studies the dynamic macroeconomic effects of various forms of capital income taxation in a model of a small open economy with perfect mobility of financial capital and intertemporal optimization on the part of households and firms. One of the noteworthy results is that the introduction...... effects on investment before they are introduced. Moreover, it is shown that while an unanticipated dividend tax is neutral with respect to investment, it will have real effects on consumption and net foreign assets in a growing economy...

  16. Latin American income tax systems and current double taxation agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Espinosa Sepúlveda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tax systems in Latin America have played a very important role as the main, and in some cases the only, means of obtaining revenue to finance the major public expenditure that is necessary for the work of the states through time. Below is a short review of the main aspects of tax systems in the región, with emphasis on the impact of taxes on income in force in the majorLatin American countries, as well as a brief explanation of the network of agreements to avoid double taxation that are in force in each of them.

  17. Effect of energy taxation on fuel choice and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leino, P.; Kosunen, P.; Rauhamaeki, J.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project was to study how various tax models for power plant fuels affect the fuel consumption and emissions of particles, sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxide (NO x ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). First, the development of Finnish energy taxation is discussed, followed by a survey of the energy production structure for 1994. For this purpose, it was necessary to prepare a large boiler database, which covers about 95 % of the fuel consumption of Finnish energy production. The boiler database was used to calculate the emissions of particles, SO 2 , NO x and CO 2 in 1994. The year 2010 selected under review is the year by which the Ministry of Trade and Industry has prepared their primary energy consumption estimates. Four different alternatives were studied as future tax models. In the first alternative taxation would be as it in years 1995-1996 and in the second alternative taxation would be as in January 1997. In the third alternative the Finnish application of EU taxes would be in force in full, i.e., the tax on heavy fuel oil would be 10 US dollars a barrel. In the fourth alternative there would be no taxes on fuels. The boiler database was used to find out how the consumption distribution of the fuels used in 2010 would change in the various tax models. The tax models affect most the position of fuel peat and natural gas in Finland. If the EU alternative, which is favourable for fuel peat and natural gas, comes true, the consumption of fuel peat will grow by two thirds and the consumption of natural gas will more than double from the present level. If the taxation is as 1 January 1997, the consumption of peat will remain the same as today and the consumption of natural gas will grow by about 50 %. However, if there are no taxes on fuels, the consumption of fuel peat will fall by almost a third and the consumption of natural gas will remain the same as expected at the existing and planned plants. The effect of the various tax models on emissions

  18. Petroleum marketing in Africa. Issues in pricing, taxation and investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagavan, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    This four part book examines and compares the liberalised petroleum marketing in Kenya with petroleum marketing in Ethiopia which has just begun the transition from state control to liberalisation. The petroleum sub-sector in both countries is put into context, and petroleum pricing and taxation issues, financing, marketing issues and policy are reviewed, and policy recommendations for both countries are given. The comparative analysis of the Ethiopian and Kenyan situations presented highlights some lessons for sub-Saharan Africa. Information and statistics on petroleum, marketing, and investment in sub-Saharan Africa are given in the appendix. (UK)

  19. Mass Taxation and State-Society Relations in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge; Therkildsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Poll (‘head'''') tax has been the most common form of direct mass taxation in many sub-Saharan African countries since colonial times. Until very recently it was a dominant source of revenue for local governments. It has been a source of tension and conflict between state authorities and rural people from the colonial period until today, and a major catalyst for many rural rebellions. By tracing the history of poll taxes in Tanzania and Uganda, the chapter examines how these taxes have impact...

  20. Environmental Deinstitutionalization in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 1990s a steadily growing social science literature has emerged on environmental reform. One of the core claims of the environmental reform school-of-thought is that environmental considerations and interests become institutionalized in societies (in different ways in their political,

  1. The Current G20 Taxation Agenda: Compliance, Accountability and Legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries Lesage

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the recent G20 initiatives on taxation, more precisely on “base erosion and profit shifting” (BEPS in the area of corporate taxation and the new G20 norm of automatic exchange of information (AEoI with regard to foreign accounts. After having reflected on the special relationship between the G20 and the OECD, the discussion proceeds through the lens of compliance, accountability and legitimacy. In terms of compliance, the G20 is still in the phase of delivering as a group on recent promises with regard to global standard setting. Compliance to these standards by G20 member states (and third countries is expected to start in the coming years. As to accountability, the G20 and OECD already have ample experience with the peer-review process and public reporting on the G20/OECD standard of information exchange upon request. For AEoI and BEPS the OECD will be designated as the prime mechanism to monitor compliance as well. Both initiatives, which are attempts at universal governance, suffer from legitimacy issues, more precisely because the G20 and OECD exclude most developing countries. Moreover, the policy outputs are not necessarily adjusted to developing countries’ needs and interests. Since a few years, both G20 and OECD attempt to address this issue through institutional fixes, extensive consultations with developing countries and modifications at the level of content.

  2. Demand – Supply – Taxation in Times of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaconasu Delia Elena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The confrontation of the two doctrines, the Keynesianism and the Supply-side economics highlight that the Laffer perspective is the way to achieve solid economic growth on the long way and aims the core of an “exit from crisis” policy. Therefore, this article aims to analyze the hypothesis that a high level of taxation and public spending deters productive behavior and reduces economic growth during recessions. In other words, an easy taxation and low unproductive public spending are desirable for both, the enterprising investor and the consumer. Using the example of Romanian fiscal policy, on one side, we validated within a Vector Error Correction framework that an increase in government revenues harms consumption, investment and the level of employment, in conjunction with a procyclical behavior of fiscal authorities. On the other side, our results showed some positive effects of an increased government expenditures on consumption and employment, which can be explained by the accelerate deterioration of primary balance deficit and the Central Bank’s low interest rate. Moreover, even though the initial positive response of investment to a government spending shock is positive, this is ephemeral and nonsignificant. Our findings highlight that, in order to reach growth on the long-run in times of crisis, the Romanian economy should adopt the fiscal policy and measures suggested by the Supply-side Economics.

  3. The taxation of diesel cars in Belgium – revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayeres, Inge; Proost, Stef

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares the current taxation of diesel and gasoline cars in Belgium with the guidelines for optimal taxation. We find that diesel cars are still taxed much less than gasoline cars, resulting in a dominant market share for diesel cars in the car stock. If the fuel tax is the main instrument to control for externalities and generate revenues, the diesel excise should be much higher than the excise on gasoline for two reasons: diesel is more polluting than gasoline and more importantly, through the better fuel efficiency, diesel cars contribute less fiscal revenues per mile. - Highlights: ► With a correct tax system the diesel excise should be higher than that on gasoline. ► When this is difficult, the fixed annual charge should be higher for diesel cars. ► The current tax structure for gasoline and diesel cars in Belgium is suboptimal. ► It implies that CO 2 emissions are reduced, but in a very cost-inefficient way

  4. Taxation of nuclear rents: Benefits, drawbacks, and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morbee, J.; Himpens, P.; Proost, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the taxation of nuclear energy using a stylized model of the electricity sector, with one dominant nuclear producer and a competitive fringe of non-nuclear plants. First, we find that the optimal nuclear tax is different depending on the time horizon: the optimal short-run tax has the same order of magnitude as the nuclear taxes imposed in Belgium and Germany, while in the long run the optimal tax may be negative, i.e. a subsidy. Second, government credibility is important: when a government cannot credibly commit, the mere possibility of a short-run tax could severely harm incentives for future investments in lifetime-extending refurbishment or new plants. Third, when there is natural scarcity in nuclear potential, other policies like inviting multiple competitive bidders for lifetime extension franchises or for investments in new plants, may be more efficient ways to increase government revenue. - Highlights: • Taxation of nuclear rents is studied using a dominant firm–competitive fringe model. • The optimal tax can be large in the short run, but possibly negative in the long run. • When a government cannot credibly commit, the tax harms investment incentives. • Other policies like auctioning of nuclear franchises can be more efficient than taxes. • The analytical results are numerically illustrated for the case of Belgium.

  5. Corporate taxation in Iceland and the international challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnarsdóttir Fjóla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe the development in the field of corporate tax law in Iceland, from both legal and economic point of view, with a focus on measures taken to protect the tax base and in order to try to make Iceland an attractive place for investment and establishment companies. First, there will be a brief general description of the development of the corporate tax rate in Iceland since 2004 and an overview of new taxes that have been introduced for companies over the past ten years. Second, there will be an analysis of how the Icelandic legal framework provides for incentives for investment and establishment of companies in Iceland. Third, this discussion is to be followed by a section on the steps Iceland has taken in order to combat tax avoidance. Fourth, there is a general description of the economic development for the corporate taxation in Iceland since 1990 and fifth, there is brief discussion of the development of revenues from the corporate tax. Sixth, a short overview of the real investment in the Icelandic economy is given, and finally, the main conclusions of this article will be summed up with a short discussion on the main challenges Iceland is currently facing in the field of corporate taxation in today’s globalised economy.

  6. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND TAXATION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BOROVINA (COJOCARU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the economic crisis that started in the United States in 2007, economic growth has become of great importance for the countries affected by the crisis further to their confrontation with lower growth rates of GDP per capita. At national level, governments are searching for that mix of optimal economic policies that would revive economies on the upward and also sustainable trend. One of the key policies in this regard, especially for the countries in Central and Eastern Europe which intend to adopt the euro currency, is the tax policy. Its main instruments are taxes. In this paper, we pay special attention to these instruments and to the connection that they have with the economic growth. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part presents a few ideas related to the importance of taxes at national level, the second part is an analysis in terms of taxation of the Central and Eastern Europe countries, while the third part consists of a panel-type assessment of the relation between economic growth and taxation level.

  7. China's Health Reform Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gordon G; Vortherms, Samantha A; Hong, Xuezhi

    2017-03-20

    China experienced both economic and epistemological transitions within the past few decades, greatly increasing demand for accessible and affordable health care. These shifts put significant pressure on the existing outdated, highly centralized bureaucratic system. Adjusting to growing demands, the government has pursued a new round of health reforms since the late 2000s; the main goals are to reform health care financing, essential drug policies, and public hospitals. Health care financing reform led to universal basic medical insurance, whereas the public hospital reform required more complex measures ranging from changes in regulatory, operational, and service delivery settings to personnel management. This article reviews these major policy changes and the literature-based evidence of the effects of reforms on cost, access, and quality of care. It then highlights the outlook for future reforms. We argue that a better understanding of the unintended consequences of reform policies and of how practitioners' and patients' interests can be better aligned is essential for reforms to succeed.

  8. A Decade of Reform

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ongoing waves of enterprise-management reforms,. – Broader economic and social reforms pertaining to the environment in which the enterprises operate;. – Ambitious efforts to upgrade the technology of enterprises through the procurement (often from abroad) of advanced production technology; and. – S&T reforms ...

  9. Harmonization efforts within the area of EEC energy taxation, what opportunities will remain for national freedom of action?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, M.

    1991-01-01

    The representative from the Danish Ministry of Energy generally describes the Single Market within the European Communities, especially with regard to the energy market. The harmonization of taxation within the EEC is discussed in relation to the various directive-proposals in this field. The abolishment of fiscal boundaries, the problem of cross-border trade, loss of provenue and the disadvantages of energy taxation with regard to the commercial sector are considered. The views of the Danish government are explained and short descriptions of reports and recommendations sent out by the Commission on this subject are briefly dealt with. It is stated that the European Commission's harmonization proposals poses significant problems for the Danish government. Attention is drawn to the fact that Denmark can exercise its right of veto. Denmark gives high priority to environmental protection. The country does not see the necessity of harmonizing energy taxes in the case of private consumers, and stresses the influence of tariffs on the goals related to energy and the protection of the environment. (AB)

  10. Public accept for environmental taxes: self-interest, environmental and distributional concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallbekken, Steffen; Saelen, Haakon

    2010-07-15

    While strongly recommended by economists, it has often been politically difficult to impose taxes on externalities. There is a substantial literature on public attitudes towards environmental taxes. There have, however, been few comprehensive attempts to understand attitudes towards environmental taxes, and few attempts to isolate the effects of selfish and social preferences. The main research question in this paper is which factors influence support for fuel taxation. We propose a model of attitudes towards fuel taxation, and test this model as well as more specific hypotheses, using data from a representative survey of the adult Norwegian population. Our results suggest that support for fuel taxation is best predicted by beliefs about environmental consequences, followed by beliefs about consequences to others. Beliefs about consequences to self ( self interest ) is the factor that explains the least variation in support for fuel taxation. The academically interesting result that support cannot be well explained without capturing a broad range of motivational factors is also highly policy relevant. It implies that there is no magic formula for increasing public support for environmental taxes. There are, however, some issues which can be addressed: trust in how well the government spends the revenue, and the perception that taxation does very little to change behaviour and thus to reduce environmental problems. (Author)

  11. Receivables impairment comparison – accounting and taxation perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Gláserová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Receivables are the significant area of assets in the entrepreneurs reporting system and in the banks reporting system as well. It is necessary to pay attention to this area and to be flexible in the reaction to changes in the risk of bad debts. Impairment of the bad debts is the reaction to these changes. The impairment is based on the prudence principle and the true and fair view principle. There are quite different rules for impairment application for taxation purposes in the Czech Republic than for financial reporting are set up by Income Tax Act. The paper is concerned with the comparison of ways of bad debts impairment reporting in the entrepreneurs’ financial reporting system and in the banks financial reporting system.The receivables definitions are similar for entrepreneurs and for banks. There are some differences in their classification and in the way of prudent principle application in this area.

  12. Regulatory taxation of fossil fuels. Theory and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfson, Dirk J.; Koopmans, Carl C.

    1996-01-01

    Research on energy taxation is often based on purely theoretical deductions. This paper stays closer to the real world, using empirical data and interpreting results in a political-economic setting of risk and uncertainty. Economic growth in developing countries will boost energy demand, increasing the risk of shortages of oil and natural gas half-way through the next century, and of coal towards the year 2100. Furthermore, there is mounting evidence that emissions of CO 2 trigger harmful climate changes. A timely introduction of regulatory taxes will reduce demand for fossil fuels and accelerate the introduction of sustainable technology. The empirical results presented show, moreover, that such taxes may claim a substantial part of the rent on energy extraction for the energy-importing countries. It is argued that optimal control and the avoidance of displacement effects require a tax affecting marginal use, with exceptions to safeguard competitive positions. Exceptions may be scaled down as the jurisdiction is enlarged

  13. IBN KHALDUN’S THEORY OF TAXATION AND ITS RELEVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul AZIM ISLAHI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ibn Khaldun, the North African versatile genius scholar of fourteenth century produced his famous work ‘al-Muqaddimah’ (the Introduction which is considered as one of the most sublime and intellectual achievements of the Middle Ages. It is a treasury of many sciences like history, psychology, sociology, geography, economics, political sciences,etc. He strongly argued in this book for low tax rate so that incentive to work is not killed and taxes are paid happily. His theory of taxation is an important contribution to economic thought. He is forerunner of the idea that high tax rates shrink the tax base because they reduce the economic activity. He is considered as the forerunner of Laffer’s curve. His ideas are comparable with those of supply-side economics that emphasized incentives and tax cuts as a means of economic growth.

  14. Optimal Taxation with On-the-Job Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jesper; Moen, Espen R.; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    We study the optimal taxation of labor income in the presence of search frictions. Heterogeneous workers undertake costly search off- and on-the-job in order to locate more productive jobs that pay higher wages. More productive workers search harder, resulting in equilibrium sorting where low......-type workers are overrepresented in low-wage jobs while high-type workers are overrepresented in high-wage jobs. Absent taxes, worker search effort is efficient, because the social and private gains from search coincide. The optimal tax system balance efficiency and equity concerns at the margin. Equity...... concerns make it desirable to levy low taxes on (or indeed, subsidize) low-wage jobs including unemployment, and levy high taxes on high-wage jobs. Efficiency concerns limit how much taxes an optimal tax system levy on high-paid jobs, as high taxes distort the workers' incentives to search. The model...

  15. Regulatory taxation of fossil fuels. Theory and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfson, Dirk J. [Netherlands Scientific Council for Government Policy WRR, The Hague (Netherlands); Koopmans, Carl C. [Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, CPB, The Hague (Netherlands)

    1996-10-01

    Research on energy taxation is often based on purely theoretical deductions. This paper stays closer to the real world, using empirical data and interpreting results in a political-economic setting of risk and uncertainty. Economic growth in developing countries will boost energy demand, increasing the risk of shortages of oil and natural gas half-way through the next century, and of coal towards the year 2100. Furthermore, there is mounting evidence that emissions of CO{sub 2} trigger harmful climate changes. A timely introduction of regulatory taxes will reduce demand for fossil fuels and accelerate the introduction of sustainable technology. The empirical results presented show, moreover, that such taxes may claim a substantial part of the rent on energy extraction for the energy-importing countries. It is argued that optimal control and the avoidance of displacement effects require a tax affecting marginal use, with exceptions to safeguard competitive positions. Exceptions may be scaled down as the jurisdiction is enlarged

  16. TANGIBLE ASSETS IN TERMS OF DISCONNECTION BETWEEN ACCOUNTING AND TAXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana GURĂU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to make a summary of the accounting and tax provisions of the tangible assets, regarding the current trend of disconnection between tax and accounting. Also, we are going to put together both tax and accounting provisions and we highlight which are the necessary and compulsory tax documents for fixed assets. In taxation, the principle "guilty until proven innocent" is applyng. That means that responsibility to know the Fiscal Code is an obligation "sine qua non" for taxpayers. Thus, there is in low the principle that "no one can excuse invoking ignorance of the law" ("Nemo censetur ignore legem". Based on these considerations, we found it necessary to make a summary of the fiscal obligations that have economic entities on fixed assets. This synthesis can provide to a company a basis for strong arguments in discussions with tax authorities that can prevent an aggressive approach of them.

  17. A trade based view on casino taxation: market conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Gu, Xinhua; Wu, Jie

    2015-06-01

    This article presents a trade based theory of casino taxation along with empirical evidence found from Macao as a typical tourism resort. We prove that there is a unique optimum gaming tax in a particular market for casino gambling, argue that any change in this tax is engendered by external demand shifts, and suggest that the economic rent from gambling legalization should be shared through such optimal tax between the public and private sectors. Our work also studies the tradeoff between economic benefits and social costs arising from casino tourism, and provides some policy recommendations for the sustainable development of gaming-led economies. The theoretical arguments in this article turn out to be consistent with empirical observations on Macao realities over the recent decade.

  18. THE IMPACT OF DISCONNECTION OF ACCOUNTANCY FROM TAXATION ON THE SHARE RESULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERINDE SORIN ROMULUS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The opinions regarding the optimum of accounting-taxation ratio are divided between the supporters of the disconnection between accountancy and taxation, on the one hand, and those of the connection between accountancy and taxation, on the other hand. A great number of scientists points of view converge to the idea that the emergence of the accounting science was determined by fiscal reasons. During those days the single reason of accountancy was indeed that of determining the taxable base and starting from these premises the hypothesis that relates accountancy to taxation does not seem so old-fashioned. But along with the general development of economy we observe the coming forth of new and important participants to the economical activity, these being directly interested in the growth of the activity of the enterprise in question and providing them with information could no longer be overlooked.

  19. Changes in the taxation of personal and corporate income in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoš Vítek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past ten years, the tax policies have responded in two stages: for the period of a swift economic growth by 2008, and during the rapid economic recession over the period of 2009–2010. In the first part of the paper, we summarise changes in the businesses environment in developed countries. In its second part, the paper discuses changes of the personal and corporate taxation in developed countries, their structure and impacts of the economic crisis on the tax revenues and tax structures. The last part analyses and discusses changes in the tax policy in the field of business and labour taxation. Our results show that the business taxation, compared to the personal taxation, depends stronger on the economic cycle. Although the structure of tax revenues in the developed countries has not changed significantly over the past ten years, decreasing of the personal and corporate tax rates has stopped.

  20. A review of mining taxation in selected SADC countries and Chile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -economic development of the host country in terms of job markets, secondary industries, hospitals, schools, skills development and education. The taxation level in SADC countries should be both comparable and competitive with other ...

  1. Mechanism of Fiscal and Taxation Policies in the Geothermal Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is one of the cleanest sources of energy which is gaining importance as an alternative to hydrocarbons. Geothermal energy reserves in China are enormous and it has a huge potential for exploitation and utilization. However, the development of the geothermal industry in China lags far behind other renewable energy sources because of the lack of fiscal and taxation policy support. In this paper, we adopt the system dynamics method and use the causal loop diagram to explore the development mechanism of fiscal and taxation policies in the geothermal industry. The effect of the fiscal and taxation policy on the development of the geothermal industry is analyzed. In order to promote sustainable development of the geothermal industry in China, the government should pay more attention to subsidies for the geothermal industry in the life-cycle stage of the geothermal industry. Furthermore, a plan is necessary to provide a reasonable system of fiscal and taxation policies.

  2. 26 CFR 1.995-1 - Taxation of DISC income to shareholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.995-1 Taxation of DISC... of the stock, it shall be treated as gain from the sale or exchange of property. (4) A deficiency...

  3. Specific features of taxation of in-dividuals in relationships with foreign elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ponomareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.9Subject. The issues of taxation of residents and non-residents under Russian tax law are considered in the article. The problems of realization of non-discrimination principle under Russian tax law are brought into light. The important role of judicial practice in development of mechanisms of taxation of non-residents is brought into light.Aim. The aim of this paper is the design of the legal framework of taxation of residents and nonresidents under Russian tax law in the scope of implementation of OECD mechanisms in the legal regulation of income taxation.Methodology. The author uses methods of theoretical analysis, particularly the theory of integrative legal consciousness, as well as legal methods, including formal legal method and comparative law.Results, scope. The personal income tax under Russian tax law is a direct federal income tax. It occupies a special place in the tax system, affects the interests of almost all citizens, is fairly simple in administration, and the share of its receipt in the budget is high.The leading element of the legal construction of the tax considered in the article is the subject of taxation, and namely the peculiarities of the taxation regime, depending on whether the taxpayer has the status of a resident or non-resident. The main differences of the taxation of tax residents and non-residents in the Russian Federation are the following ones:the object of taxation for tax residents of the Russian Federation is income received from sources in the Russian Federation and (or from sources outside the Russian Federation; for non-residents it is the income they received only from sources in the Russian Federation;the tax rate for tax residents of the Russian Federation is 13 percent; the tax rate for nonresidents is 30 percent.When determining the tax base, all incomes of the taxpayer, received by him in cash or in kind, or the right to dispose of which he has arisen, as well as income in the form of

  4. Investment certificates under German taxation: Benefit or burden for structured products' performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Peter; Walther, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Despite their impressive market success, investment certificates' benefits are puzzling from both a theoretical and an empirical viewpoint. Previous research analyzed portfoliotheoretical issues, mispricing patterns, and counterparty risk. This work highlights the impact of taxation, which has not been previously addressed for these instruments. In order to capture tax effects, we simulate the entire return distributions of several structured products under the two most recent German taxation...

  5. Labour Income Taxation, Human Capital and Growth: The Role of Child Care

    OpenAIRE

    Casarico, Alessandra; Sommacal, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of labour income taxation on growth in an OLG model where both formal schooling and child care enter the human capital production function as complements. We compare them with the effects obtained in a model where only formal schooling matters for skill formation. Using a numerical analysis we find that the omission of child care from the technology of skills' formation can significantly bias the results related to the effects of labour income taxation on growth.

  6. Estimated impacts of alternative Australian alcohol taxation structures on consumption, public health and government revenues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Christopher M; Byrnes, Joshua M; Cobiac, Linda J; Vandenberg, Brian; Vos, Theo

    2013-11-04

    To examine health and economic implications of modifying taxation of alcohol in Australia. Economic and epidemiological modelling of four scenarios for changing the current taxation of alcohol products, including: replacing the wine equalisation tax (WET) with a volumetric tax; applying an equal tax rate to all beverages equivalent to a 10% increase in the current excise applicable to spirits and ready-to-drink products; applying an excise tax rate that increases exponentially by 3% for every 1% increase in alcohol content above 3.2%; and applying a two-tiered volumetric tax. We used annual sales data and taxation rates for 2010 as the base case. Alcohol consumption, taxation revenue, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) averted and health care costs averted. In 2010, the Australian Government collected close to $8.6 billion from alcohol taxation. All four of the proposed variations to current rates of alcohol excise were shown to save money and more effectively reduce alcohol-related harm compared with the 2010 base case. Abolishing the WET and replacing it with a volumetric tax on wine would increase taxation revenue by $1.3 billion per year, reduce alcohol consumption by 1.3%, save $820 million in health care costs and avert 59 000 DALYs. The alternative scenarios would lead to even higher taxation receipts and greater reductions in alcohol use and harm. Our research findings suggest that any of the proposed variations to current rates of alcohol excise would be a cost-effective health care intervention; they thus reinforce the evidence that taxation is a cost-effective strategy. Of all the scenarios, perhaps the most politically feasible policy option at this point in time is to abolish the WET and replace it with a volumetric tax on wine. This analysis supports the recommendation of the National Preventative Health Taskforce and the Henry Review towards taxing alcohol according to alcohol content.

  7. Biofuel mandate versus favourable taxation of electric cars. The case of Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Geir H. Bjertnæs

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether biofuel policies or favourable taxation of electric cars should be employed to satisfy a green house gas emission target connected to private transport within the Norwegian economy. The study shows that implementation of biofuel generates a welfare gain in the presence of the current favourable taxation of electric cars in Norway. Implementation of biofuels, however, generates a welfare loss when the tax rate on purchase of electric cars is increased to the ave...

  8. The Tax Controversy or, Should We Forsake Indirect Taxation? A Survey of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Micheletto Luca

    2004-01-01

    We revise the more recent advances in the literature about the so called "direct versus indirect controversy". In particular, we show how the result of "uniform commodity tax under non-linear income taxation" by Atkinson and Stiglitz (1976) has been amended in some contributions that recovers a role for in direct taxation as an instrument of optimal tax policy even in the case where agents' preferences are weakly separable between leisure and other goods.

  9. Why Some Double Taxation Might Make Sense: The Special Case of Inter-corporate Dividends

    OpenAIRE

    Randall Morck

    2003-01-01

    Arguments for eliminating the double taxation of dividends apply only to dividends paid by corporations to individuals. The double (and multiple) taxation of dividends paid by one firm to another intercorporate dividends - was explicitly included in the 1930s to eliminate pyramidal corporate groups. These structures exist elsewhere, and are associated with corporate governance problems, corporate tax avoidance, and a greater concentration of economic power than is currently possible in the Un...

  10. Cross-border Intra-group Hybrid Finance and International Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Eberhartinger, Eva; Pummerer, Erich; Göritzer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In intra-group finance hybrid instruments allow for tailor-made form of finance. Hence hybrid finance is often used for international tax planning in multinational groups. Due to a lack of international tax harmonization or tax coordination qualification conflict can arise. A specific hybrid instrument is classified as debt in one country, and as equity in the other country. This may lead to double taxation. In the reverse case, double non-taxation can arise. Against this legal background one...

  11. Capital Gains on the Alienation of Assets Operated in International Traffic Under Double Taxation Conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Arango, José Manuel; Universidad Externado de Colombia

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the taxation of capital gains on the alienation of assets, particularly vessels, ships and aircrafts operated in international traffic from the perspective of double taxation conventions. Therefore, Article 13 of the OECD Model convention is analyzed from its respective commentaries, the history of the Model and the proposed changes. The research also cover the comparison with the United States Model Convention and the treaty practice. Finally, as an auxiliary source, th...

  12. Developments and Thoroughgoing Studies on Taxation of Royalties Obtained by French Non-Residents in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Calotă Traian-Ovidiu; Roşca Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    Romanian tax legislation continues to contain contradictory provisions that give it a strong ambiguity and which often generates controversy in interpretation and application. The authors of the research show the situations of tax income from royalties obtained by a French non-resident from a Romanian beneficiary. Thus, are addresses the taxation from the perspective of (i) the law, (ii) the avoidance of double taxation (CEDI) concluded by Romania with other countries and (iii) the EU legisla...

  13.  Railway Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Holvad, Torben; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    This paper considers railway operations in 23 European countries during 1995-2001, where a series of reform initiatives were launched by the European Commission, and analyses whether these reform initiatives improved the operating efficiency of the railways. Efficiency is measured using Multi-dir...... empirical evidence that accounting separation is important for improving operating efficiency for both material and staff costs, whereas other reforms only influenced one of these factors...

  14. Evaluation of Value Added Tax Application Problems in Terms of Taxation of Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneş ÇETİN GERGER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays electronic taxation is being one of the important issues for revenue administrations. Tax administrations try to organize their tax system fairly and give attention on equity. Value added tax is most preferable taxes among the consumption taxes. Because it’s application is easy and taxpayers don’t show resistance to the value added tax. On electronic commerce value added taxes are using commonly. To provide equity in taxation, some taxation principles are adapted for value added taxes too. In this paper, we are trying to analyze the development of e-commerce in the world and e-taxation regulations and problems in the European Union (EU and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries. The EU and OECD countries are making regulations in this issue. The last regulation is Base Erosion and Profit Shifting 15 point action plan in 2014. Taxation of the digital economy is the first action plan. In addition this, some regulations about taxation of digital economy are being done in Turkey in the case of Base Erosion and Profit Shifting action plan.

  15. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PHENOMENON OF DOUBLE TAXATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALICE CRISTINA MARIA ZDANOVSCHI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the general context of economic globalization, international economic cooperation, the liberalization movement of goods, services, capital and persons, and the effect of the exercise of fiscal sovereignty, appears the phenomenon of double or multiple international taxation of income and assets, following the vocation of several legal systems, which contain legislative differences and can generate tax obstacles, such as, the laws of the country of origin of the revenue and the legislation of the country of destination of income. Thus, more interesting becomes the study of the phenomenon of double taxation at EU level given the distinct presence of 27 sovereignties in full process of European integration So, this paper aims to identify how the European Union handles the phenomenon of double taxation, making a shift from defining this phenomenon to identifying the legislation designed to avoid or eliminate the phenomenon of double taxation in the field of EU direct taxation.Also, this paper deems necessary to stop a moment upon the fiscal harmonization and integration in the indirect taxation field of the European Union.

  16. The welfare effects and the distributive impact of carbon taxation on Italian households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiezzi, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    In this work the welfare effects and the distributive impact on Italian households of the Italian Carbon tax are calculated. The Carbon tax has been introduced in Italy at the beginning of 1999 asking for smooth increases, over a number of years, in the prices of most fossil fuels. Its welfare effects have been calculated using True Cost of Living index numbers and the Compensating Variation. The parameters have been obtained through estimation of a complete Almost Ideal demand system, using households data from 1985 to 1996. The welfare loss turns out to be quite substantial and affects Italian households in a non-negligible way, but the distribution of welfare losses across different levels of total monthly expenditures does not allow sustaining the regressivity of Carbon taxation, as the effect becomes bigger as we move up the income distribution. This evidence might encourage the use of Carbon taxes, at least in the transport sector, as cost-effective instruments of environmental policy, especially after the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change

  17. Lesotho - Land Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...

  18. Philippines - Revenue Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Account-Philippines' (MCA-P) implementation of the Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) is expected to improve tax administration,...

  19. 40 CFR Table 22 to Subpart Uuu of... - Inorganic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Catalytic Reforming Units 22 Table 22 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Pt. 63, Subpt. UUU, Table 22 Table 22 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Inorganic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units...

  20. 40 CFR Table 15 to Subpart Uuu of... - Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Catalytic Reforming Units 15 Table 15 to Subpart UUU of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Refineries: Catalytic Cracking Units, Catalytic Reforming Units, and Sulfur Recovery Units Pt. 63, Subpt. UUU, Table 15 Table 15 to Subpart UUU of Part 63—Organic HAP Emission Limits for Catalytic Reforming Units As...

  1. A Source Book for Taxation: Myths and Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Mary A.

    This sourcebook is one of two supplementary materials for a newspaper course about taxes and tax reform. Program ideas and sources of related resources compiled in the sourcebook are designed to help civic and group leaders and educators plan educational community programs based on the course topics. Section one describes ways in which the program…

  2. Progressive Taxation, Wage Bargaining, and Endogenous Working Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    This paper analyses the impact of tax reforms that decrease income tax progression in an equilibrium search model with wage bargaining and endogenous individual working time. The working time is either bargained together with the hourly wage (case 1) or determined solely by workers after bargaining...

  3. The Right of Deduction within the European VAT: A Perspective for the VAT Reform in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Junping

    2016-01-01

    Value added tax (VAT), with its specific and unique feature as a neutral taxation, has spread rapidly around the world since its first adoption in Europe. China has also chosen to adopt VAT in an attempt to promote its economic development. In 2012, China started a new round of reform of VAT to extend its scope to industries which previously were liable to business tax. One of the most difficult problems is the rebuilding of the VAT deduction system therein. Although Europe faces its own prob...

  4. Thinking about Tax Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskin, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Providing pre-college teachers with an analysis of tax reform is the primary goal of this publication. The present tax system is both inefficient and inequitable. Three goals of tax reform proposals are detailed: (1) fairness--the dimensions of horizontal equity, or equal treatment of equals however defined, and vertical equity, reflecting the…

  5. Tax Reform & University Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John Holt

    This brochure discusses the implications of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 for university and college development officers charged with the responsibility for solicitation of gifts, bequests and grants from foundations. The solicitation of deferred gifts, bequests and grants from foundations is discussed in chapter one in relation to tax reform and…

  6. Life After Tax Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, Charles T.

    1987-01-01

    The impact of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on higher education is discussed. Background on the tax reform movement and the specific provisions of the 1986 law are examined. The law will reduce private donations, raise the cost of college, and raise the cost of operating institutions. (MLW)

  7. Health reform through tax reform: a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Tax incentives for employer-sponsored insurance and other medical spending cost about $200 billion annually and have pervasive effects on coverage and costs. This paper surveys a range of proposals to reform health care, either by adding new tax incentives or by limiting or replacing the existing tax incentives. Replacing the current tax preference for insurance with an income-related, refundable tax credit has the potential to expand coverage and reduce inefficient spending at no net federal cost. But such an approach by itself would entail substantial risks, so complementary reforms to the insurance market are essential to ensure success.

  8. The Danish Police Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degnegaard, Rex; Mark, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    and private organisations doing business-in-society. The case concerns the reformation of the Danish Police. In 2007 the Danish Police started implementing an extensive reform that affected all parts of the organisation. Despite thorough planning of the process including several change management initiatives...... for organisations to work with transparency and involvement with the aim of upholding and further developing a social responsibility to their environment. This case on the other hand takes an inside-out perspective on social responsibility by illustrating how social responsibility is necessary for public......, the reform process was problematic and the following years were challenging and filled with changes and turbulence. Media, politicians and the police itself directed heavy criticism towards the effects of the reform and reviews of the reform as well as of the work of the police were carried out resulting...

  9. Choosing Environmental Policy Instruments in the Real World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan Bell, R.

    2003-01-01

    In their enthusiasm for efficiency over other values, the advocates for market-based instruments for environmental control have reversed the order in which environmental solutions are found. They have written their prescriptions without first doing a physical examination of the patient; in other words, they have first recommended environmental instruments and secondarily tried to bend institutions to support the already identified cure. The engine for environmental regulation consists of the institutions available country by country to carry out environmental policy. Institutional inadequacies such as low functioning legal systems, historical experience (or inexperience) with markets, distorting and often institutionalised corruption, and public acceptance certainly can be fixed. But changing these fundamentals can be a long and arduous process. Those who advise governments to adopt reforms for which the institutional basis does not yet exist put the cart before the horse, a costly mistake that directs weak countries in the direction of solutions they have little hope of implementing. Instead, the donors and advisors should be seeking alternative approaches, for example to encourage incremental improvements and pragmatic goals, by considering a transitional or tiered approach that will take into account existing capabilities and institutions, at the same time acknowledging that a long learning curve lies ahead with inevitably uneven implementation and slippage from time to time. Another approach would be to find examples of small, albeit imperfect, efforts that seem to be working and building on them. The long-term goal should be efficient solutions, but only the most developed countries should be encouraged to attempt difficult environmental policy instruments like taxation and emissions trading schemes

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE GUIDELINES FOR CLASSIFICATION OFADVERTISING COSTS IN TAXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Diederichs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Advertising plays a distinct role in economies around the world. Previous studieshave not resolved the question related to the classification of advertising as anexpense or capital asset. Understanding the principles set out in TheIncome TaxAct 58 of 1962, with regard to the classification of advertising cost as capital orrevenue of nature is important, since the incorrect interpretation of principles willhave a direct impact on tax liability. The focus of this study is the classification ofadvertising costs for tax purposes. Research questions posed in this paper areanswered through the development of a classification process that may assist withthe classification of advertising costs for the purpose of taxation. Guidelines forthe classification of advertising costs as capital or revenue of nature are needed tocorrectly classify advertising costs for tax purposes. Furthermore, thedetermination of when advertising costs will be regarded as capital of nature isalso determined. A qualitative research approach is applied, including a literaturereview of case law and income tax acts. The contribution of this study is found inthe guidelines set for the classification of advertising costs for tax purposes byusing principles from national and international case law.

  11. TAXATION PECULIARITIES OF E-COMMERCE MARKET PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Zatonatska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article carried out with complex overview of tax regulation approaches of e-Commerce market, the features of international practices of taxation are revealed, in particular, EU countries, USA, China, etc. The nature and characteristics of e-Commerce market tax regulation is also revealed by international organizations, in particular, the OECD .It is provided with the best practices of leading countries in the sphere of e-Commerce market tax regulation and those which are the most appropriate for implementation in Ukraine are singled out. Based on experience of EU countries, USA and China the necessity of improving tax system is justified. It is provided with recommendations of tax regulation improvement in respect of a such groups of e-Commerce market subjects as "Producers" and "Intermediaries". Moreover it is determined with the most priority recommendations for implementation, in particular, tax-free period for hosting providers, the exemption of income tax for Internet retail trade enterprises and increase the maximum level of duty-free import of goods to Ukraine. Expected predicted effects are provided from implementation of such measures, the main of which are legalization, increasing the number of employees, attracting the world leaders of e-Commerce market to the domestic market, innovation incentives for market development and the intensification of cross-border trade.

  12. Taxation impact on uranium mining in Canada and Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whillans, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    The impact of taxation on the economic viability and competitive position of the uranium industry was studied using four model deposits types as they occur or could occur in different provinces in Australia and Canada. On the basis of project characteristics and assumed uranium prices, before tax indicators such as net revenue, undiscounted cash flow, net present value and rate of return were determined and subjected to the tax regimes in the different jurisdictions using assumed varying levels of cost of capital. Under the assumed conditions, it was found that among the internal factors the uranium prices have a very significant impact on the economics of the model operators. Looking at external factors, the tax systems evaluated in these model operations were found to have a decisive influence on the viability of the operation. Among the fiscal regimes tested, the Saskatchewan royalty system and Australia's Northern Territory tax system generate the highest government revenue but provide the least incentive for investment. However, despite having the highest effective tax rate, the Saskatchewan royalty was found to be attractive at the investment margin and flexible as its progressive nature provides for increasing tax rates as profitability increases. On the contrary, all the other systems are regressive, with relative high tax burdens at the investment margin and decreasing burdens as a function of profitability. (author). 7 tabs

  13. Reforming Educational Reform: A Democratic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J.

    2005-05-01

    This essay examines the status of educational reform in the United States as represented by the current Bush administration's program titled "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB). Employing the techniques of critical theory and logical analysis, contemporary reform efforts are compared with other, more progressive, educational reform movements in an effort to gain perspective and conceptual "traction" as it were, in differentiating such movements. Criteria are established for the assessment and evaluation of reform movements. These are employed in judging the efficacy of NCLB's aim, content, and methods, as well as the results of its program following four years of implementation. The merits of the centrality of standardized testing, pre-ordained curricular content, and exclusively didactic teaching methodologies are criticized, along with the extra-school societal forces which ordain these and determine their prominence in the NCLB program. The essentialism adopted by NCLB is, moreover, evaluated in the light of pragmatic, phenomenological, and postmodern educational theory. Arguing that the school is always and inevitably an instrument of societal forces, interests, and groups, it is contended that these not only be acknowledged, but that avenues be formalized for a thorough going and continuous educational "conversation," to borrow Rorty's term, for an amicable resolution of the issues of education's aim(s), content, and methods.

  14. Reforming Individual Income Tax Is the Crucial Factor in Stabilizing the Budgetary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Povarova Anna Ivanovna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reason for writing this article was a statement of the First Deputy Finance Minister Tatyana Nesterenko who claimed that in 2017 the government would run out of money to pay salaries to budgetary sphere employees [3]. Indeed, the reserves accumulated in the fat years are running out. The Government of the Russian Federation finds the following sources to cover the growing budget deficit: first, privatization of the remnants of state property, which will create a momentary effect and will not become a stable channel for filling the treasury; and second, major cuts on spending that on the eve of the electoral cycle can aggravate protest moods of Russians caused by a sharp deterioration of the standard of living. The majority of representatives of the expert and scientific community, including ISEDT RAS employees, consider the urgent need to reform the system for taxation of individual income tax by introducing a progressive tax scale as one of the main solutions to the growing imbalance of the budgetary system. This scale is applied successfully in all the countries of the OECD, G20 and BRICS. The goal of the present paper is to substantiate the need for reformation of individual income tax as a driving force of sustainable mobilization of budget funds. As a hypothesis, an assumption is made concerning the existence of a direct link between the redistribution of income through progressive taxation and an increase in the resource potential of the budgetary system. Research findings presented in the paper confirm that the current mechanisms for taxation of people’s incomes do not correspond to the constitutional principles of equality, social orientation and economic viability. As a result, judging by the most important indicators of socioeconomic development, Russia lags behind developed countries and some comparable developing countries. Excessive income polarization brings to the fore the issue concerning individual income tax modification

  15. Reforming Romanian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, S.

    1993-01-01

    Success in reforming energy sector depends on the implementation of the programme of economic reform agreed in February 1993. The difficulty of the negotiations between the International Monetary Fund and the Romanian government reflects the wider difficulties faced by the economy as a whole. They can be blamed in part on the legacy of uneconomic and inflexible industrial development and in part on opposition from interest groups which stand to lose from reform. Nonetheless, in spite of hesitant approach, the government does appear committed to the economic reform necessary to establish a market-oriented economy. But as the danger of a financial crisis engendered by the inadequately supported short-term borrowing of foreign exchange becomes urgent, the question is whether economic reform can be now implemented fast enough to protect economic enterprises and saving from a debt crisis. The scope for further delay in implementing the 1993 economic reform programme is fast disappearing. Procrastination should not be allowed to threaten the success of the reforms achieved in the energy and other sectors of the economy. 8 refs., 2 figs

  16. Negotiating EU CO2/energy taxation. Political economic driving forces and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klok, Jacob

    2001-11-01

    The primary objective of this project is to identify the main political economic driving forces behind and barriers against the creation of an EU agreement on CO 2 /energy taxation. The analysis is based on a theoretical framework for understanding European integration and on detailed historical investigations into a process of EU negotiations concerning CO 2 /energy taxation that took place from the 1980s to 1994. Following the historical analysis of political economic driving forces and barriers, some overall perspectives on possible future developments within the field of EU CO 2 /energy taxation are finally advanced. The secondary objective of the project is to consider the possible effects on the EU negotiation process of Danish efforts to push the CO 2 /energy tax proposal from the late 1980s to 994. This analysis is based on the preceding historical analysis of the EU negotiation process, as well as further investigations into the national Danish development within the field of CO 2 /energy taxation, including accounts of Denmark's particular relations with the EU during the period in question. Finally, based on the likely future developments in the field EU CO 2 /energy taxation. Denmark's strategic opportunities are outlined. (BA)

  17. Treaties to avoid international double income taxation and their relation with investments involving Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jônatas de Pessoa Alburquerque Martins

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To fight against fiscal evasion and facilitate the investment flow, the countries close agreements to go against double income taxation. This study aims to investigate the impact of the treaties to avoid double income taxation on the direct foreign investment relations of Brazil. The analysis included 162 countries and jurisdictions with which investments transactions were closed that originated or were received in Brazil, between 2005 and 2011. The panel data analysis technique was applied through the selection of six independent variables, in order to verify the behavior of the double taxation treaties in view of the investments. Through the estimated model, it was verified that these treaties had a positive and statistically significant impact – when compared to earlier studies – on the direct foreign investment volume. When dividing the sample between the investments received and made in Brazil, a greater increase was identified in the direct foreign investments received (130.1% than in the investments made (76.9%, although this was the variable with the second largest positive impact in the model. In conclusion, exclusively in the Brazilian context, the international double income taxation is a relevant factor in the investment decision, as the presence of treaties to guarantee the investors in the receipt of revenues without double taxation substantially increases the investment flow. This study differs from earlier research by the sample that only contains treaties in force in Brazil.

  18. Catalytic reforming methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  19. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  20. Essays in environmental policy and household economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motavasseli, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation addresses several issues regarding the consequences of environmental policy and its optimal level, as well as household's decisions on energy consumption and labor supply. In chapter two, a theoretical analysis investigates whether fossil fuel taxation or a consumption cap is

  1. Social Security Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuschler, Dawn

    2005-01-01

    .... In recent years, reform ideas have ranged from relatively minor changes to the current pay-as-you-go social insurance system to a redesigned program based on personal savings and investments modeled after IRAs and 401(k...

  2. Health care legislative reforms in Armenia: preparations for a purchaser-provider split.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Exter, A

    2000-01-01

    Armenia, the former Soviet republic, is switching its economy to a more market driven system. Where health care is concerned, the previous government planned to introduce an independent State Health Agency managing the available funds. At the same time, this Agency would be authorised to contract with former state hospitals and individual providers. The underlying idea was a partial withdrawal by the state from both the provision and financing of health care. However, since the financing system continued to be based on general taxation, the state's role has remained largely unchanged in this respect. This situation has created new difficulties. To solve the variety of emerging problems, the Armenian government requested technical support from the World Bank. As a member of a multi-disciplinary team, the author will describe some major legal aspects of the underlying health policy reform plan and will conclude that the Agency's establishment will give an important impetus to the Armenian health care legislative reform process.

  3. Reformer Fuel Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Today's form of jet engine power comes from what is called a gas turbine engine. This engine is on average 14% efficient and emits great quantities of green house gas carbon dioxide and air pollutants, Le. nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The alternate method being researched involves a reformer and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Reformers are becoming a popular area of research within the industry scale. NASA Glenn Research Center's approach is based on modifying the large aspects of industry reforming processes into a smaller jet fuel reformer. This process must not only be scaled down in size, but also decrease in weight and increase in efficiency. In comparison to today's method, the Jet A fuel reformer will be more efficient as well as reduce the amount of air pollutants discharged. The intent is to develop a 10kW process that can be used to satisfy the needs of commercial jet engines. Presently, commercial jets use Jet-A fuel, which is a kerosene based hydrocarbon fuel. Hydrocarbon fuels cannot be directly fed into a SOFC for the reason that the high temperature causes it to decompose into solid carbon and Hz. A reforming process converts fuel into hydrogen and supplies it to a fuel cell for power, as well as eliminating sulfur compounds. The SOFC produces electricity by converting H2 and CO2. The reformer contains a catalyst which is used to speed up the reaction rate and overall conversion. An outside company will perform a catalyst screening with our baseline Jet-A fuel to determine the most durable catalyst for this application. Our project team is focusing on the overall research of the reforming process. Eventually we will do a component evaluation on the different reformer designs and catalysts. The current status of the project is the completion of buildup in the test rig and check outs on all equipment and electronic signals to our data system. The objective is to test various reformer designs and catalysts in our test rig to determine the most

  4. The taxation of the petroleum products in the appropriation bill for 2001 and the correcting appropriation bill for 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This document provides information on the petroleum products taxation in the framework of the appropriation bills. The following aspects are presented : the utilization of fuels more respectful of the environment, the taxation lightening measures, measures in favor of the transportation sector, the juridical references and elements for the economic situation. (A.L.B.)

  5. On amendments in the law of 13 June 1975 no. 35 on the taxation of offshore petroleum resources etc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The fiscal policy in Norway on the taxation of offshore petroleum resources relates to the recovery, treatment, and pipe transport. The present report to the Storting (Parliament) from the Ministry of Finance concerns the amendments in the law on offshore resource taxation

  6. 26 CFR 1.338-4 - Aggregate deemed sale price; various aspects of taxation of the deemed asset sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... taxation of the deemed asset sale. 1.338-4 Section 1.338-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Aggregate deemed sale price; various aspects of taxation of the deemed asset sale. (a) Scope. This section... general principles of tax law with respect to an element of ADSP, the redetermined ADSP is allocated among...

  7. Report of the experts group on the taxation of the access to gas transport and distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    In the framework of a new french gas industry organization (directive of the 22 june 1998), a concerting mission has been realized on prices taxation for the transport and distribution facilities. The following topics have been debated: the integration and competition of the european gas market, the gas market liberalization consistency and the taxation of transport and distribution network access. (A.L.B.)

  8. 26 CFR 1.881-2 - Taxation of foreign corporations not engaged in U.S. business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of foreign corporations not engaged in... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Foreign Corporations § 1.881-2 Taxation of foreign... under paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section which are received during the taxable year from sources...

  9. Purposes of double taxation treaties and interpretation of beneficial owner concept in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo Selezen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The term ‟beneficial owner” has been interpreted by Ukrainian courts concerning the application of double taxation treaties’ provisions since the adoption of the Tax Code of Ukraine in 2010. Changing nature of the beneficial owner concept, its importance as an instrument for treaty shopping counteraction and the necessity of its proper interpretation in the Ukrainian reality are the main factors that have a strong impact on the development of court practice concerning beneficial ownership. The article focuses on the prevention of tax avoidance as one of the purposes of double taxation treaties and its role in the interpretation of the term ‟beneficial owner”. The analysis is based on the practice of the Supreme Administrative Court of Ukraine on interpretation of the relevant provisions of the Convention between the Government of Ukraine and the Government of Switzerland on Avoidance of Double Taxation with respect to Taxes on Income and Capital as of 30 October 2000.

  10. Taxing the cloud: introducing a new taxation system on data collection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primavera De Filippi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing services are increasingly hosted on international servers and distributed amongst multiple data centres. Given their global scope, it is often easier for large multinational corporations to effectively circumvent old taxation schemes designed around the concept of territorial jurisdiction and geographical settings. In view of obtaining tax revenues from these online operators whose business is partially carried out in France, the French government recently issued a report emphasising the need for new taxation rules that would better comply with the way value is generated in the digital economy: at the international level, it is suggested that taxation should be calculated according to the place of interaction with end-users; at the national level, the report suggests to introduce a transitory tax on data collection in order to promote innovation and encourage good online practices.

  11. Tax expenditures in the system agriculture taxation system in Poland and selected EU countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Staniszewski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Article raises the issue of the agriculture specificity in the context of tax system. It presents the arguments for intervention in the agricultural sector, using a variety of tools, including tax policy. Preferential taxation of agricultural activity is an example of the tax expenditure. Various preferences are used in most EU countries. A specific example is Poland, where farmers are completely exempt from paying income tax, which is the basis of agriculture taxation in other EU countries. Although, a number of arguments for and against the use of tax expenditures can be brought, it cannot be forgotten that the primary goal taxation is to provide incomes to the budget. The situation when the stimulative function of the taxes starts to dominate the fiscal one, especially in the face of pressure from interest groups, is undesirable.

  12. The Danish school reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann; Mølholm, Martin; Horsbøl, Anders

    The paper presents a methodological framework for the study of the discursive emergence of the recent Danish School reform (2014). The framework will enable discourse scholars to hold an actively involved position in changing and furthering plurivocal processes of translations, negotiations...... and implementation of the reform. The framework is operationalized through research-based participatory collaborative processes involving local actors in two Danish public schools. It interlinks diverse discourse strategies and perceptive distances that traditionally belong to separate branches within discourse...

  13. The Impact of Taxation on Economic Growth: Case Study of OECD Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macek Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the impact of individual types of taxes on the economic growth by utilizing regression analysis on the OECD countries for the period of 2000–2011. The impact of taxation is integrated into growth models by its impact on the individual growth variables, which are capital accumulation and investment, human capital and technology. The analysis in this paper is based on extended neoclassical growth model of Mankiw, Romer and Weil (1992, and for the verification of relation between taxation and economic growth the panel regression method is used. The taxation rate itself is not approximated only by traditional tax quota, which is characteristic by many insufficiencies, but also by the alternative World Tax Index which combines hard and soft data. It is evident from the results of both analyses that corporate taxation followed by personal income taxes and social security contribution are the most harmful for economic growth. Concurrently, in case of the value added tax approximated by tax quota, the negative impact on economic growth was not confirmed, from which it can be concluded that tax quota, in this case as the indicator of taxation, fails. When utilizing World Tax Index, a negative relation between these two variables was confirmed, however, it was the least quantifiable. The impact of property taxes was statistically insignificant. Based on the analysis results it is evident that in effort to stimulate economic growth in OECD countries, economic-politic authorities should lower the corporate taxation and personal income taxes, and the loss of income tax revenues should be compensated by the growth of indirect tax revenues.

  14. TAXATION OF FINANCIAL SECTOR AFTER THE CRISIS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Eugenia-Ramona

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxation of financial sector is an important issue of the actual fiscal policy, especially after the economic crisis impact. By taxing the financial sector, it is intended taxation of financial transactions, and financial activities. European Union supports the taxation of the financial system and makes proposals in this regard. This paper tries to reveal the major aspects concerning the taxation of financial sector, both theoretical and empirical aspects. It will analyze the reasons which justify the application of such taxes, but also difficulties involved in practice. Another major objective of this paper is to examine the role of taxation in the financial sector as important regulatory instrument. This subject is debated in European Commission papers and by many economists. There are underlined the necessity of such tax, the impact and the economic efficiency. Our purpose is to identify if this kind of tax is good for our economy and what can be the impact from budgetary point of view. For finding this answers the paper realize a complex analysis of the types of taxes applied on financial sector in countries which already adopted this kind of taxes, like United Kingdom, Austria, Hungary, Cyprus. We believe that the financial sector should be charged, because was responsible in great measure the economic crisis impact. A potential tax applied to financial sector is considered as an important source of budget revenues. This article tries to explore the possible tax measures for financial sector according to the major principle of public finance –equity and efficiency. Special attention will be given to the need to implement financial sector taxation in Romania. In the years before the crisis banks and entire financial sector in Romania recorded significant profits. For this reason such tax is justified given that this sector is exempt from VAT. Applying such a tax would reduce the budget deficit and on the long term will

  15. Resource and waste taxation in the theory of the firm with recycling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, K.

    1999-01-01

    The management of solid waste has become an urgent problem in nations with a great population density. Accordingly, waste reduction through source reduction and recycling has become increasingly important. Our purpose is to show how prevention, recycling and disposal of waste could be part of a theory of the firm. We first derive efficient production functions from production processes with waste as a by-product. Waste obtained as new scrap can partially be recycled by using additional inputs in order to cut back the purchase of virgin material. Waste not completely recyclable will leave the firm as disposal which also entails cost to the firm. We use the dual cost function approach to develop a theory of the firm under solid residual management. Since the producer does not bear the full cost of disposal, there will be a bias toward virgin materials and away from recycling. The goal of the government is to stimulate the firms to recycle with respect to the preservation of exhaustible resources. An incentive to recycle is a tax on resources or on waste. In order to determine the tax levels the government maximizes welfare subject to the dynamic constraint for decumulation of land fill for waste deposits. This gives the user cost and its time profile for taxing waste disposal or virgin material. In a comparative statistics analysis we compare the effect of taxes on waste vs. virgin material on effort to produce in a resource saving manner, on the quantity of recycled material, on output, and on the reduction of waste. Since the impact of environmental regulation on employment is important, our model detects seven effects on labor demand as part of resource conservation policy. We finally carry out a comparative statistics analysis of waste intensive firms operating in different market structures. Of interest is the impact of a resource or waste taxation on market volume, on the number of firms, on resource saving effort, and on profit. 36 refs

  16. Taxation of cooperatives from the perspective of international expansion and sustainable development of social economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Patón García

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis has created a major concern in developedcountries for control of social risks with negative effects on growth and this problem can be approached from the perspective of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. Thus, CSR is seen as an entrepreneurial attitude aimed at promoting social, economic and environmental purposes while guarantying competitiveness in the international market. Thus, social economy can contribute to sustainable development, economic and social cohesion, to promote productive and income distribution, to ensure employment and equality of opportunities. The purpose of this study is to have an influence onthe role that taxation plays in the area of incentive policies related to social economy and very prominently manifested in the legal status of cooperatives. The approach aims to provide proposals on tax regulation of cooperatives taking the perspective of the international context and the size of the sector in countries like Spain and Peru in order to encourage cooperative social responsibility. Indeed, the importance of providing a legal and fiscal framework to promote their internationalization connects providentially with the principles that govern the cooperative action. We consider that it is essential, from the perspective of sustainable development and cooperatives’social responsibility, to take into account in the tax regime applicable criteria that can be justified on constitutional principles, the general interest of society or internationalization economic activity. Also, there could be other positive effects in the area of Latin America, such as decreasing tax evasion and the formalization of at least a portion of the informal sector of the economy, including the real impulse to CSR.

  17. EU Integration and Harmonisation of Personal Income Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wołowiec

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the process of furthering EU integration little attention was given to the role of income taxes. Multiple income tax systems exist across the Union and their differentiation negatively impacts the European labour market, investments and savings, inhibiting economic growth. Individual nations have little motivation to harmonise as they can engage in tax rate competition and income taxes are interwoven with social security systems that make any attempts at reform extremely complex and politically unpopular. Much of current harmonisation is “silent”, paralegal, and occurs in response to market forces rather than following a formal plan and through intergovernmental cooperation.

  18. The role of the illegality factor in the taxation of income. Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Čerka, Paulius; Gudynienė, Lina

    2012-01-01

    The taxation of illegal income is quite common in many foreign countries, but this practice is not yet applicable in Lithuania, though the recent movements of Lithuania’s Finance Minister, when she admitted that all income should be taxed despite it’s source show her positive attitude towards the taxation of illegal income. The article promotes the idea that all personal income, despite its source, should be taxed.The article is divided into two parts: the first one, which is not published he...

  19. Taxation of tourism from an international perspective / La fiscalidad del turismo desde una perspectiva internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pastor Arranz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the current situation of the international tourism industry highlighting its importance in the economy of the countries and its cross-cutting nature as well as the effects caused by the coordination of its strategies with the policies of the other economic sectors. Furthermore, public funding of tourism is studied by tax levy through the precepts of the economic theory of taxation, consistent with optimal levels of social welfare, examining the international tourism taxation from the perspective of OECD countries, proceedings of the European Union and the Spanish tax system concerning this sector.

  20. Fiscal and regulatory capacity of excise tax in the case of the taxation of tobacco products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Петрівна Карпенко

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to assessing the fiscal and regulatory effects of excise tax in the context of its impact on the production and consumption of tobacco products. The assessments of the volume of tobacco production, consumption, excise tax on their needs, the volume of smuggling were given. The foreign experience in excise taxation of tobacco products was analyzed. The prospects for implementation of the fiscal and regulatory capacities of excise tax in the context of the taxation of tobacco products were proved

  1. Towards a level playing field for EU’s energy-related taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2017-01-01

    It follows from economic theory that externalities are the relevant yardstick for internalizing taxes. Yet with established approaches to account for external costs in Europe, estimates differ from the level suggested with American approaches, though we might see some convergence in methodologies...... in the years to come. Under the present circumstances in Europe legal doctrines seem to have higher prominence than economic—and when the very framework of an EU energy taxation directive is acknowledged, energy-related taxation has indeed a purpose in its own right in creating a more level playing field...

  2. Who benefits from taxation of forest products in Nepal’s community forests?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Baral, Keshab; Bhandari, Nirmala Singh

    2014-01-01

    -poor initiatives and to explore whether biases against certain groups in investments coincide with biases in their participation in decision-making. The paper is based upon data on taxation income and revenue expenditures of 45 community-forest user groups (CFUG) and on data from 1111 CFUG member households......This paper is concerned with who benefits from taxation of forest products in Nepal's community forests. The objectives of the study are two-fold; to document who benefits from community forestry user groups' (CFUG) financing of investments in public services and infrastructure and pro...

  3. State tax service modernization in the context of electronic taxation regime development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Matvejciuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Developed the process of modernization of the tax service of the country in the sphere of electronic taxation. Exposed and analyzed phased modernization and process of development of automation of tax administration, information and informational infrastructure development of the tax service. Described information system of the body: creation, present state and direction of development. Proved the necessity of innovation and information technologies in the activities of the tax service to improve the efficiency and the formation of a new model of taxation governance.

  4. Compact or spread-out cities: Urban planning, taxation, and the vulnerability to transportation shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusdorf, Francois; Hallegatte, Stephane

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows that cities made more compact by transportation taxation are more robust than spread-out cities to shocks in transportation costs. Such a shock, indeed, entails negative transition effects that are caused by housing infrastructure inertia and are magnified in low-density cities. Distortions due to a transportation tax, however, have in absence of shock detrimental consequences that need to be accounted for. The range of beneficial tax levels can, therefore, be identified as a function of the possible magnitude of future shocks in transportation costs. These taxation levels, which can reach significant values, reduce city vulnerability and prevent lock-ins in under-optimal situations

  5. Do 'green' taxes work? Decoupling environmental pressures and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2005-01-01

    This essay intends to shed light on whether environmental taxation can help to decouple environmental pressures from economic growth, a policy outcome widely desired and particularly pressing in the context of climate change where radical measures are needed to curb CO2 build up....

  6. Coordination of emissions trading in the EU, energy taxation and energy production aid. A working group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The working group was to evaluate and give its proposal for the use of energy taxation, energy production aid and other financial steering instruments in the circumstances of emissions trading. The working group presented an interim report on energy taxation on 15 December 2003 (MTI Ad-hoc Committee Reports 1/2004). Emissions trading is a new Community measure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It will start at the beginning of 2005. During the first emissions trading period, i.e. 2005-2007, emissions trading will concern the carbon dioxide emissions of energy production and other central industries. If the emission allowance market functions efficiently and the system functions well also otherwise, no other means of steering will be necessary to cut carbon dioxide emissions in the emissions trading sector, when the emissions trading begins. In fact, the need for the conventional steering instruments in an emissions trading situation should be evaluated in terms of other targets of energy and environmental policy, as well as State finances. Due to energy policy targets and for reasons related to State finances, the present type of energy taxation scheme, which consists of the excise duty of heat production fuels and the two-scale excise duty paid on electricity consumption, will still be needed. The problems caused by emissions trading to the competitiveness of industry can to some extent be alleviated with taxation. Therefore reducing the electricity tax of industry or developing tax subsidies as necessary should be considered. It is recommended that the tax subsidies for electricity production be changed so that the tax subsidies would be removed from electricity produced by means of black liquors of the forest industry and the wood material created as side-product, as well as by the process gases of industry and reaction heat. In the circumstances of emissions trading, the energy policy impact of these subsidies is fairly insignificant. To ensure the raw

  7. LAND REFORM IN UKRAINE: HISTORIOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barantsov B.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern land reform, that continues in Ukraine since the beginning of the 90-th of ХХ century, is a logical result of the functioning of society and the state.. It’s prerequisites becames, especially full monopolization of state on ownership of land; absence of payment for land as one of the means of ensuring the rational use of lands; absence on workers motivation for intensive work on the land, etc.. These and other preconditions contributed to soil degradation, production of agricultural products with exceeding of maximum allowable concentrations of pollutants, development of diseases, undermine the gene pool of nature and man. Mentioned reasons determined the goal and objectives of modern land reform, which were originally set out in the preamble to the Resolution of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine from December 18, 1990 «On Land Reform» with following changes and additions, and in the implementation of the land-reformation measures gained more complete content. Conducted analysis shows that land reform in Ukraine leads to a change of ownership of land, contributes to solving problems of citizens by land plots, enactment of payment for land usecreation of conditions for the development of land market. Thus changing land relations, is formed legal and regulatory framework of land reform and land market. However, positive developments in the implementation of land reform to end of the 90-th years have not led to a radical and effective upgrade of agricultural production, recovery of investment processes in other branches of industry, improving of welfare of the population. Land reform measures didn’t receive adequate financial support. The ultimate goal - an economically-effective and environmentally safe use of land in Ukraine - has not been achieved. Further reforming of land relations contributed to the adoption in October 2001 of the Land Code of Ukraine in the new edition that created the legal principles of land reform. Since it

  8. Optimal green tax reforms yielding double dividend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Esther; Perez, Rafaela; Ruiz, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    In an stylized endogenous growth economy with a negative externality created by CO2 emissions and in which abatement activities are made by private firms, we find a wide range of dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend without any need to assume a complex production structure or tax system, or a variety of externalities in production. As a remarkable finding, we obtain certain scenarios in which increasing the emissions tax up to the Pigouvian level and removing completely the income tax is dynamically feasible and, also, it is the second-best reform. Hence, as a difference to previous literature, in these scenarios the first-best tax mix is implementable, allowing for the elimination of both environmental and non-environmental inefficiencies. Our result arises because of the consideration of public debt issuing and the management of the government budget balance with an intertemporal perspective. The result is obtained for an intermediate range of environmental bearing in preferences, the valid range being contingent on the pre-existing income tax rate. The type of tax reform that we propose could also be implemented for different energy taxes. - Highlights: → We use an endogenous growth model with a negative externality from CO2 emissions. → Abatement activities are made by private firms to reduce payment of emissions taxes. → We find dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend result. → Our result arises thanks to the inclusion of public debt issuing as a financing device. → The type of tax reform proposed can be implemented for other energy taxes.

  9. Optimal green tax reforms yielding double dividend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Esther; Perez, Rafaela [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); ICAE (Spain); Ruiz, Jesus, E-mail: jruizand@ccee.ucm.es [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); ICAE (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    In an stylized endogenous growth economy with a negative externality created by CO2 emissions and in which abatement activities are made by private firms, we find a wide range of dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend without any need to assume a complex production structure or tax system, or a variety of externalities in production. As a remarkable finding, we obtain certain scenarios in which increasing the emissions tax up to the Pigouvian level and removing completely the income tax is dynamically feasible and, also, it is the second-best reform. Hence, as a difference to previous literature, in these scenarios the first-best tax mix is implementable, allowing for the elimination of both environmental and non-environmental inefficiencies. Our result arises because of the consideration of public debt issuing and the management of the government budget balance with an intertemporal perspective. The result is obtained for an intermediate range of environmental bearing in preferences, the valid range being contingent on the pre-existing income tax rate. The type of tax reform that we propose could also be implemented for different energy taxes. - Highlights: > We use an endogenous growth model with a negative externality from CO2 emissions. > Abatement activities are made by private firms to reduce payment of emissions taxes. > We find dynamically feasible green tax reforms yielding the double dividend result. > Our result arises thanks to the inclusion of public debt issuing as a financing device. > The type of tax reform proposed can be implemented for other energy taxes.

  10. Perspectives of tax reforms in Croatia: expert opinion survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Šimović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to shape tax reform it is necessary objectively to assess the current stateof-the-art of and of the outlook for the tax system. After having reviewed all previous reforms in the light of the consumption-based (interest-adjusted concept of direct taxation, which was almost systematically implemented in Croatia in 1994, we present the results of a broad expert opinion survey about the Croatian tax system. The most interesting results suggest the maintenance/(reintroduction of different tax incentives and reduced VAT rates, rejection of a flat tax as well as decrease of tax brackets, an increase in alcohol and tobacco duties, the introduction of a financial activities tax, a further shift from income to consumption, a decrease of the tax share in GDP and a belief in the behavioral responsiveness of tax decreases/exemptions, as well as a firm commitment to the principle of equity. The last three economic views/values are important predictors of other tax attitudes.

  11. ACCOUNTING – TAXATION REPORT IN TERMS OF DEFERRED TAXES ON ASSETS REVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There has always been and will be a relationship between accounting and taxation, and the ongoing discussions are related to intensity, interrelation and generation of reciprocal effects. Profit is the "wealth" achieved by the economic entity, the share of shareholders after paying the income tax, where applicable, which makes the profit have a major influence on the method of determination and thus of the accounting treatment incurred by the income tax depending on the accounting cultures in dispute for supremacy, namely the European accounting culture and the Anglo-Saxon accounting culture. As the users of information in the financial statements seek to assess the performance and profitability of the company in general and, academically, the income tax is the only element raising debates on the relationship between accounting and taxation, we deemed it useful to conduct a study on the accounting – taxation report in terms of deferred taxes related to assets revaluation. The record of deferred tax amount for each type of temporary difference results in elimination of tax effects from accounting, with the aim of revealing the real earnings of the economic entity and not its fiscal side, all of which is a step in disconnecting the taxation accounting

  12. The Coordination of Capital Income and Profit Taxation with Cross-Ownership of Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Nielsen, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the scope for international coordination of capital income and profit taxation.The paper considers a world of many symmetric countries where public goods are financed by taxes on capital income and on profits.In the open economy, the authorities have at their disposal a

  13. The impact of tax treaties and EU law on group taxation regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farinha Aniceto da Silva, B.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of tax groups is motivated by the principle of neutrality in the taxation of corporate activities: tax systems should tax the income in the same way irrespective of the organic structure adopted for that purpose. This means that a tax system should not lead to distortions only because

  14. Taxation of Spouses: A Cross-Country Study of the Effects on Married Women's Labour Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callan, Tim; Dex, Shirley; Smith, Nina

    1999-01-01

    of married women if the households were taxed by either separate or split taxation principles, as in Britain and Ireland, respectively. The results show that the design of the tax scheme is highly important for the economic incentives that married women face and their resulting labour supply behaviour....

  15. Mesures en matière de taxation des produits du tabac en Afrique de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mesures en matière de taxation des produits du tabac en Afrique de l'Ouest. En décembre 2007, le programme Recherche pour la lutte mondiale contre le tabac (RMCT) a entrepris une initiative afin de comprendre les facteurs cruciaux qui peuvent déterminer le succès de la lutte antitabac en Afrique subsaharienne.

  16. Capital Regulation, Liquidity Requirements and Taxation in a Dynamic Model of Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nicolo, G.; Gamba, A.; Lucchetta, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper formulates a dynamic model of a bank exposed to both credit and liquidity risk, which can resolve financial distress in three costly forms: fire sales, bond issuance ad equity issuance. We use the model to analyze the impact of capital regulation, liquidity requirements and taxation on

  17. Capital Regulation, Liquidity Requirements and Taxation in a Dynamic Model of Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nicolo, G.; Gamba, A.; Lucchetta, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper formulates a dynamic model of a bank exposed to both credit and liquidity risk, which can resolve financial distress in three costly forms: fire sales, bond issuance and equity issuance. We use the model to analyze the impact of capital regulation, liquidity requirements and taxation on

  18. Transfer Pricing And Taxation Implications Disclosure In Segmental Reporting: Malaysian Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Talha; Syed Shah Alam; Abdullah Sallehhuddin

    2011-01-01

    Transfer pricing has emerged as common practice among highly diversified companies. Company goes for either domestic transfer pricing or international transfer pricing for several distinctive reasons. While domestic transfer pricing aims for enhancing divisional autonomy and divisions managers, international transfer pricing expects for less taxes, tariff, duties and excises. Therefore, international transfer pricing has significant taxation implication. With expansion of transfer pricing, fi...

  19. Introduction of a System of Internal Taxation of Salaries and Emoluments

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Pursuant to the principle of equality of States and in line with the provisions of the Protocol on the Privileges and Immunities of CERN, it is proposed to introduce at CERN the system of internal taxation of remuneration, payments and other financial benefits paid by the Organization to members of the personnel and to the Director-General described in this document.

  20. Taxation and business environment as drivers of foreign direct investment in OECD countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Dana; Nicoletti, G.; Vartia, L.; Yoo, K.-Y.

    2006/2, č. 43 (2006), s. 7-38 ISSN 0255-0822 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : taxation * foreign direct investment * OECD Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/62/30/40505831.pdf