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Sample records for environmental surveillance routine

  1. Master schedule for CY-1978. Hanford Environmental Surveillance Routine Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Myers, D.A.; Fix, J.J.

    1977-12-01

    This report provides the current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site. No results are presented in this report. The data collected are available in routine reports issued by the Environmental Evaluations staff

  2. Master schedule for CY-1981 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.

    1980-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site is provided. Questions about specific entries should be referred to the authors since modifications to the schedule are made during the year and special areas of study, usually of short duration, are not scheduled. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in Manual Chapter 0513, and to monitor Hanford operations for compliance with applicable environmental criteria given in Manual Chapter 0524 and Washington State Water Quality Standards. Air quality data obtained in a separate program are also reported. The collection schedule for potable water is shown but it is not part of the routine environmental surveillance program. Schedules are presented for the following subjects: air, Columbia River, sanitary water, surface water, ground water, foodstuffs, wildlife, soil and vegetation, external radiation measurement, portable instrument surveys, and surveillance of waste disposal sites

  3. Master schedule for CY-1979 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Houston, J.R.; Eddy, P.A.

    1978-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site, as conducted by the Environmental Evaluation Section of Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy (DOE), is given. Modifications to the schedule are made during the year and special areas of study, usually of short duration, are not scheduled. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, and to monitor Hanford operations for compliance with applicable environmental criteria and Washington State Water Quality Standards. Air quality data are obtained in a separate program administered by the Hanford Environmental Health Foundation. The collection schedule for potable water is shown but it is not part of the routine environmental surveillance program. Water quality data for Hanford Site potable water systems are published each year by the Hanford Environmental Health Foundation. The data collected are available in routine reports issued by the Environmental Evaluations staff. Groundwater data and evaluation are reported in the series, ''Radiological Status of the Groundwater Beneath the Hanford Project for...,'' the latest issue being PNL-2624 for CY-1977. Data from locations within the plant boundaries are presented in the annual ''Environmental Status of the Hanford Site for...'' report series, the most recent report being PNL-2677 for 1977. Data from offsite locations are presented in the annual ''Environmental Surveillance at Hanford for...'' series of reports, the latest being PNL-2614 for 1977

  4. Master schedule for CY-1980 Hanford Environmental Surveillance Routine Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Houston, J.R.; Eddy, P.A.

    1979-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site is presented. The enviromental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in Manual Chapter 0513, and to monitor Hanford operations for compliance with applicable environmental criteria given in Manual Chapter 0524 and Washington State Water Quality Standards. Data are reported on the following topics: air; Columbia River; sanitary water; surface water; ground water; foodstuffs; wildlife; soil and vegetation; external radiation measurement; portable instrument surveys; and surveillance of waste disposal sites;

  5. Master schedule for CY-1982 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.

    1981-12-01

    This report provides the current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5484.1. The routine sampling schedule provided does not include samples which are planned to be collected during FY-1982 in support of special studies or for quality control purposes. In addition, the routine program outlined in this schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, or unusual sample results. Sampling schedules are presented for the following: air; Columbia River; sanitary water; surface water; ground water; foodstuffs; wildlife; soil and vegetation; external radiation measurements; portable instrument surveys; and surveillance of waste disposal sites

  6. Master schedule for CY-1984 Hanford environmental surveillance routine sampling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Price, K.R.; Eddy, P.A.; Carlile, J.M.V.

    1983-12-01

    This report provides the current schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford environmental surveillance and ground-water Monitoring Programs at the Hanford Site. The purpose is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. The routine sampling schedule provided herein does not include samples that are planned to be collected during FY-1984 in support of special studies, special contractor support programs, or for quality control purposes

  7. Master schedule for CY-1983 Hanford environmental surveillance routine sampling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.; Dirkes, R.L.

    1982-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford environmental surveillance and ground-water monitoring programs at the Hanford Site is presented. The purpose of the programs is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. Radiological monitoring data are reported for air (particulate filter and gases/vapor), Columbia River water, sanitary water, onsite pond water, foodstuffs (whole milk, leafy vegetables, fruit, wheat/alfalfa, beef, poultry/eggs), wildlife, soil and vegetation, and direct radiation. Information is also given for on site radiation control audit surveys (roadway, railway, aerial, and waste disposal sites, and the Hanford ground-water monitoring program

  8. Management of environmental health issues for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: is enhanced integrated environmental health surveillance needed in every day routine operation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chervoni Julia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of environmental health issues is an integral part of public health systems. An active integrated environmental health surveillance and response system was developed for the Athens Olympics to monitor and prevent exposure to environmental hazards. The potential for permanent implementation of the program was examined. Methods The environmental health surveillance and response system included standardization, computerization and electronic transmission of data concerning environmental inspections of 17 site categories (restaurants, swimming pools etc of public health interest, drinking and recreational water examinations and suggested corrective actions. The Olympic Planning Unit integrated and centrally managed data from 13 public health agencies, recommended, supervised and coordinated prompt corrective actions. Methods used to test the effectiveness of the program were the assessment of water quality test and inspection results trends over time using linear regression and epidemiological surveillance findings. Results Between January 2003 and September the 30th, 2004, 196 inspectors conducted 8562 inspections, collected 5024 water samples and recommended 17 027 corrective actions. In 10 cruise ships used as floating hotels inspectors conducted 10 full inspections, 2 re-inspections, and 27 follow-up inspections. Unsatisfactory inspection results (r = 0.44, p Conclusion Lessons learned for future events include timely implementation and installation of communication processes, and rapid and coordinated response to unsatisfactory inspection results. Routine national programs need to adopt enhanced environmental health surveillance aimed at public health decision-making, but with a different perspective.

  9. Management of environmental health issues for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: is enhanced integrated environmental health surveillance needed in every day routine operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Vaitsi, Vasiliki; Kapoula, Christina; Vousoureli, Anastasia; Kalivitis, Isidiros; Chervoni, Julia; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Vasilogiannakopoulos, Antonios; Daniilidis, Vasilis D; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2006-12-18

    Management of environmental health issues is an integral part of public health systems. An active integrated environmental health surveillance and response system was developed for the Athens Olympics to monitor and prevent exposure to environmental hazards. The potential for permanent implementation of the program was examined. The environmental health surveillance and response system included standardization, computerization and electronic transmission of data concerning environmental inspections of 17 site categories (restaurants, swimming pools etc) of public health interest, drinking and recreational water examinations and suggested corrective actions. The Olympic Planning Unit integrated and centrally managed data from 13 public health agencies, recommended, supervised and coordinated prompt corrective actions. Methods used to test the effectiveness of the program were the assessment of water quality test and inspection results trends over time using linear regression and epidemiological surveillance findings. Between January 2003 and September the 30th, 2004, 196 inspectors conducted 8562 inspections, collected 5024 water samples and recommended 17 027 corrective actions. In 10 cruise ships used as floating hotels inspectors conducted 10 full inspections, 2 re-inspections, and 27 follow-up inspections. Unsatisfactory inspection results (r = 0.44, p quality tests (r = 0.39, p restaurant which accommodated athletes during a test event. Lessons learned for future events include timely implementation and installation of communication processes, and rapid and coordinated response to unsatisfactory inspection results. Routine national programs need to adopt enhanced environmental health surveillance aimed at public health decision-making, but with a different perspective.

  10. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Samples are routinely collected and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, ground water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  11. Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy manages the Nevada Test Site in a manner that meets evolving DOE Missions and responds to the concerns of affected and interested individuals and agencies. This Routine Radiological Monitoring Plan addressess complicance with DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 and other drivers requiring routine effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance on the Nevada Test Site. This monitoring plan, prepared in 1998, addresses the activities conducted onsite NTS under the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision. This radiological monitoring plan, prepared on behalf of the Nevada Test Site Landlord, brings together sitewide environmental surveillance; site-specific effluent monitoring; and operational monitoring conducted by various missions, programs, and projects on the NTS. The plan provides an approach to identifying and conducting routine radiological monitoring at the NTS, based on integrated technical, scientific, and regulatory complicance data needs

  12. Routine surveillance of environmental radioactivity in the influence area of the institute during 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breban, Domnica; Breban Ioana

    1997-01-01

    The radioactivity measurements were performed according to the Monitoring Plan for nuclear units in NIPNE-HH, which provides the type, locations and sampling frequency of the environmental factors which were analyzed. Samples of water, sediment, soil, and vegetation were analyzed for both gross beta and gamma activity, as follows: - 1010 samples of potential radioactive water (surface, drinking and underground water); - 35 sediment and 98 soil samples; - 48 samples of spontaneous vegetation and 16 samples of milk, salad, potatoes, cabbage and maize. Radiochemical analysis of Sr-90 in surface, sewage water and milk was performed. Gamma spectrometric measurements were also carried out in water and sediment samples. We analyzed for gross beta and gamma activity 238 samples of radioactive liquid effluents from the two nuclear units of the Institute, Radioisotope Production Centre and Station for Radioactive Waste Treatment. No significant difference between the gross activity of soil and vegetation samples collected from the area of influence and those from the reference site (Bucharest) were observed. The variation of the gross beta activity in the surface water, sampled upstream and downstream to the site where the wastes effluents are discharged is presented. The activity of the downstream river water has always been situated below the maximum admissible level (MAL = 1.80 Bq/l), hence we can conclude that the nuclear activity developed on Magurele Platform did not lead to the river contamination. (authors)

  13. Routine surveillance of environmental radioactivity in the influence area of the institute during 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breban, D.C.; Dumitru, R.O.

    1999-01-01

    The radioactivity measurements were performed according to the Monitoring Concept for nuclear units in IFIN-HH, which provides the type, the locations and sampling frequency of the environmental factors that were analyzed. Samples of water, sediment, soil, vegetation and aerosols have been analyzed for both gross beta and gamma activity, as follows: 1030 samples of potential radioactive water, surface, drinking and underground water; 21 sediment and 90 soil samples; 27 samples of spontaneous vegetation and 9 samples of milk, cereals and vegetables. Aerosol samples have been monitored twice a month. We analyzed for gross beta and gamma activity 119 samples of radioactive liquid effluents from the two nuclear units CPR and STDR. The maximum values of gross beta activity for drinking water was; 0.71 Bq/l (absolute error: 0.14 Bq/l) for the sample collected from the village well near to the reactor canal and 0.71 Bq/l (absolute error: 0.15 Bq/l) for the water collected from the village well near to the IFA-canal. For all the results reported in this paper the confidence level is 95 %. Gross beta values measured daily for sewage and surface water varied generally between 0.3 and 0.9 Bq/l. The maximum value of the gross beta activity recorded for the river water downstream to the sewage spill flow was 1.32 (absolute error: 0.20 Bq/l), that was situated below the maximum allowed level (1.8 Bq/l). Gamma spectroscopy analyses and radiochemical separations performed on annual composite samples of sewage water showed an average activity concentration for Cs-137 of 5 mBq/l (absolute error: 1 mBq/l) and 35 mBq/l (absolute error: 12 mBq/l) for Sr-90, values similar to those determined for the surface water samples. Co-60 was also detected in the sewage water and sediment collected at the sewage spill flow, with an activity concentration of 8 mBq/l (absolute error: 2 mBq/l) and 31 Bq/kg (absolute error: 5 Bq/kg), respectively. For the surface water and sediment samples collected

  14. Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy manages the Nevada Test Site in a manner that meets evolving DOE Missions and responds to the concerns of affected and interested individuals and agencies. This Routine Radiological Monitoring Plan addressess complicance with DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 and other drivers requiring routine effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance on the Nevada Test Site. This monitoring plan, prepared in 1998, addresses the activities conducted onsite NTS under the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision. This radiological monitoring plan, prepared on behalf of the Nevada Test Site Landlord, brings together sitewide environmental surveillance; site-specific effluent monitoring; and operational monitoring conducted by various missions, programs, and projects on the NTS. The plan provides an approach to identifying and conducting routine radiological monitoring at the NTS, based on integrated technical, scientific, and regulatory complicance data needs.

  15. Routine airway surveillance in pediatric tracheostomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergin, Ozgul; Adil, Eelam; Kawai, Kosuke; Watters, Karen; Moritz, Ethan; Rahbar, Reza

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to review airway findings in children with tracheostomies who underwent surveillance direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy (DLB) to determine the yield of routine airway evaluation in these patients. Retrospective chart review at tertiary referral children's hospital. A retrospective chart review was conducted of all of the children with tracheostomies who underwent DLB after tracheostomy between 1984 and 2015. A total of 303 patients met inclusion criteria. The median time interval between tracheostomy and first follow-up DLB was 12.0 months (IQR 4.8-28.9 months). There was no significant difference in the incidence of airway lesions between patients who underwent endoscopy tracheostomy versus those who had a longer time interval between tracheostomy and DLB (p = 0.16). One hundred sixty seven patients (55.1%) were diagnosed with lesions, with suprastomal granulation (39.9%) being the most common. Symptomatic patients were significantly more likely to have an airway lesion identified (69.9% versus 42.0%; p tracheostomy were significantly more likely to have an airway lesion (p = 0.01). The high incidence of airway lesions noted during surveillance DLB support the utility of routine airway endoscopy in pediatric tracheostomy patients. Symptomatic patients, those with ventilator dependence, or cardiopulmonary or trauma indications for tracheostomy are more likely to have airway lesions and should be monitored closely. The ideal time interval between surveillance endoscopies needs to be examined further. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington

  17. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program

  18. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  19. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site

  20. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  1. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L E

    1992-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. Samples for radiological analyses include Air-Particulate Filter, gases and vapor; Water/Columbia River, Onsite Pond, Spring, Irrigation, and Drinking; Foodstuffs/Animal Products including Whole Milk, Poultry and Eggs, and Beef; Foodstuffs/Produce including Leafy Vegetables, Vegetables, and Fruit; Foodstuffs/Farm Products including Wine, Wheat and Alfalfa; Wildlife; Soil; Vegetation; and Sediment. Direct Radiation Measurements include Terrestrial Locations, Columbia River Shoreline Locations, and Onsite Roadway, Railway and Aerial, Radiation Surveys.

  2. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in 1978. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical substances is conducted on the Laboratory site and in the surrounding region to determine compliance with appropriate standards and permit early identification of possible undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of the data for 1978 on penetrating radiation, chemical and radiochemical quality of ambient air, surface and groundwater, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, food, and airborne and liquid effluents are included. Comparisons with appropriate standards and regulations or with background levels from natural or other non-LASL sources provide a basis for concluding that environmental effects attributable to LASL operations are minor and cannot be considered likely to result in any hazard to the population of the area. Results of several special studies provide documentation of some unique environmental conditions in the LASL environs

  3. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons

  4. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Ground-Water Monitoring Project. The routine sampling plan for the SESP has been revised this year to reflect changing site operations and priorities. Some sampling previously performed at least annually has been reduced in frequency, and some new sampling to be performed at a less than annual frequency has been added. Therefore, the SESP schedule reflects sampling to be conducted in calendar year 1991 as well as future years. The ground-water sampling schedule is for 1991. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operation, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford evirons.

  5. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanf, Robert W.; Poston, Ted M.

    2000-01-01

    Shows and explains certain procedures needed for surface environmental surveillance. Hanford Site environmental surveillance is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). The basic requirements for site surveillance are set fourth in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program Requirements. Guidance for the SESP is provided in DOE Order 5484.1, Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment. Guidelines for environmental surveillance activities are provided in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. An environmental monitoring plan for the Hanford Site is outlined in DOE/RL 91-50 Rev. 2, Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual. Personnel training requirements are documented in SESP-TP-01 Rev.2, Surface Environmental Surveillance Project Training Program.

  6. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.

  7. Surveillance of the environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Th.; Gitzinger, C.; Jaunet, P.; Eberbach, F.; Clavel, B.; Hemidy, P.Y.; Perrier, G.; Kiper, Ch.; Peres, J.M.; Josset, M.; Calvez, M.; Leclerc, M.; Leclerc, E.; Aubert, C.; Levelut, M.N.; Debayle, Ch.; Mayer, St.; Renaud, Ph.; Leprieur, F.; Petitfrere, M.; Catelinois, O.; Monfort, M.; Baron, Y.; Target, A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of these days was to present the organisation of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity and to allow an experience sharing and a dialog on this subject between the different actors of the radiation protection in france. The different presentations were as follow: evolution and stakes of the surveillance of radioactivity in environment; the part of the European commission, regulatory aspects; the implementation of the surveillance: the case of Germany; Strategy and logic of environmental surveillance around the EDF national centers of energy production; environmental surveillance: F.B.F.C. site of Romans on Isere; steps of the implementation 'analysis for release decree at the F.B.F.C./C.E.R.C.A. laboratory of Romans; I.R.S.N. and the environmental surveillance: situation and perspectives; the part of a non institutional actor, the citizenship surveillance done by A.C.R.O.; harmonization of sampling methods: the results of inter operators G.T. sampling; sustainable observatory of environment: data traceability and samples conservation; inter laboratories tests of radioactivity measurements; national network of environmental radioactivity measurement: laboratories agreements; the networks of environmental radioactivity telemetry: modernization positioning; programme of observation and surveillance of surface environment and installations of the H.A.-M.A.V.L. project (high activity and long life medium activity); Evolution of radionuclides concentration in environment and adaptation of measurements techniques to the surveillance needs; the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment; modes of data restoration of surveillance: the results of the Loire environment pilot action; method of sanitary impacts estimation in the area of ionizing radiations; the radiological impact of atmospheric nuclear tests in French Polynesia; validation of models by the measure; network of measurement and alert management of the atmospheric

  8. Hanford Site surface environmental surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and the surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is a multimedia environmental monitoring program conducted to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemical contaminants in the environment and assess the integrated effects of these contaminants on the environment and the public. The monitoring program includes sampling air, surface water, sediments, soil, natural vegetation, agricultural products, fish, and wildlife. Functional elements inherent in the operation of the SESP include project management, quality assurance/control, training, records management, environmental sampling network design and implementation, sample collection, sample analysis, data management, data review and evaluation, exposure assessment, and reporting. The SESP focuses on those contaminant/media combinations calculated to have the highest potential for contributing to off-site exposure. Results of the SESP indicate that contaminant concentrations in the Hanford environs are very low, generally below environmental standards, at or below analytical detection levels, and indicative of environmental levels. However, areas of elevated contaminant concentrations have been identified at Hanford. The extent of these areas is generally limited to past operating areas and waste disposal sites

  9. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) during 1995. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive and nonradioactive materials at (or on) Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring result to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1995 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Using comparisons with standards, regulations, and background levels, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment.

  10. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohen, K.; Stoker, A.; Stone, G. [and others

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1992. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive and nonradioactive materials at (or on) Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring results to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1992 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Using comparisons with standards, regulations, and background levels, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, laboratory employees, or the environment.

  11. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1986. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit eartly identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpertation of data for 1986 cover: external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface and ground waters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparison with appropriate standards, regulations, and backgound levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are insignificant and do not impact the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. 52 refs., 32 figs., 117 tabs

  12. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewart, J.; Kohen, K.L.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1991. Routine monitoring for radiation and for radioactive and chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1991 cover external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment

  13. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohen, K.; Stoker, A.; Stone, G.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1992. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive and nonradioactive materials at (or on) Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring results to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1992 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Using comparisons with standards, regulations, and background levels, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, laboratory employees, or the environment

  14. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1987. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1987 cover: external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface and ground waters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are insignificant and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. 113 refs., 33 figs., 120 tabs

  15. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1985. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical substances is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of possible undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1985 cover: external penetrating radiation; chemical and radiochemical quality of ambient air, surface and ground waters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels from natural or other non-Laboratory sources provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects attributable to Laboratory operations are insignificant and are not considered hazardous to the population of the area or Laboratory employees

  16. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program conducted by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1981. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical substances is conducted on the Laboratory site and in the surrounding region to determine compliance with appropriate standards and permit early identification of possible undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1981 are included on penetrating radiation; on the chemical and radiochemical quality of ambient air, surface and ground water, municipal water supply, soil and sediments, and food; and on the quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents. Comparisons with appropriate standards and regulations or with background levels from natural or other non-Laboratory sources provide a basis for concluding that environmental effects attributable to Laboratory operations are insignificant and are not considered hazardous to the population of the area. Results of several special studies describe some unique environmental conditions in the Laboratory environs

  17. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in 1979. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical substances was conducted on the Laboratory site and in the surrounding region to determine compliance with appropriate standards and permit early identification of possible undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of the data for 1979 on penetrating radiation, chemical and radiochemical quality of ambient air, surface and ground water, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, food, and airborne and liquid effluents are included. Comparisons with appropriate standards and regulations or with background levels from natural or other non-LASL sources provide a basis for concluding that environmental effects attributable to LASL operations are minor and cannot be considered likely to result in any hazard to the population of the area. Results of several special studies provide documentation of some unique environmental conditions in the LASL environs.

  18. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1989. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1989 cover external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface and ground waters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. 58 refs., 31 figs., 39 tabs

  19. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    Documentation is presented for the environmental surveillance program during 1980. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical substances is conducted on the Laboratory site and in the surrounding region to determine compliance with appropriate standards and permit early identification of possible undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of the data for 1980 on penetrating radiation, chemical and radiochemical quality of ambient air, surface and ground water, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, food, and airborne and liquid effluents are included. Comparisons with appropriate standards and regulations or with background levels from natural or other non-Laboratory sources provide a basis for concluding that environmental effects attributable to Laboratory operations are minor and cannot be considered likely to result in any hazard to the population of the area. Results of several special studies describe some unique environmental conditions in the Laboratory environs

  20. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) during 1995. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive and nonradioactive materials at (or on) Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring result to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1995 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Using comparisons with standards, regulations, and background levels, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment

  1. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in 1979. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical substances was conducted on the Laboratory site and in the surrounding region to determine compliance with appropriate standards and permit early identification of possible undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of the data for 1979 on penetrating radiation, chemical and radiochemical quality of ambient air, surface and ground water, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, food, and airborne and liquid effluents are included. Comparisons with appropriate standards and regulations or with background levels from natural or other non-LASL sources provide a basis for concluding that environmental effects attributable to LASL operations are minor and cannot be considered likely to result in any hazard to the population of the area. Results of several special studies provide documentation of some unique environmental conditions in the LASL environs

  2. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1990. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1990 cover external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment

  3. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1987. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1987 cover: external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface and ground waters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are insignificant and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. 113 refs., 33 figs., 120 tabs.

  4. Routine environmental monitoring schedule, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markes, B.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-10

    This document provides the Environmental Restorations Contractor (ERC) and the Project Hanford Management Contractor.(PHMC) a schedule in accordance with the WHC-CM-7-5, Environmental Compliance` and BHI- EE-02, Environmental Requirements, of monitoring and sampling routines for the Near-Field Monitoring (NFM) program during calendar year (CY) 1997. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Near-Field Monitoring. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Near- Field Monitoring and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use, and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1998. The outside perimeter road surveys of 200 East and West Area and the rail survey from the 300 Area to Columbia Center will be performed in the year 2000 per agreement with Department of Energy. Richland Field Office. This schedule does not discuss staffing needs, nor does it list the monitoring equipment to be used in completing specific routines. Personnel performing routines to meet this schedule shall communicate any need for assistance in completing these routines to Radiological Control management and Near-Field Monitoring. After each routine survey is completed, a copy of the survey record, maps, and data sheets will be forwarded to Near-Field Monitoring. These routine surveys will not be considered complete until this documentation is received. At the end of each month, the ERC and PHMC radiological control organizations shall forward a copy of the Routine

  5. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program: and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling design is described in the Operations Office, Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland DOE/RL-91-50, Rev.2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the CY 2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 2000 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map showing approximate sampling locations is included for each media scheduled for collection

  6. Hanford site environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1 open-quotes General Environmental Protection Program,close quotes and DOE Order 5400.5, open-quotes Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.close quotes The sampling methods are described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the 1998 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section of this document describes the planned sampling schedule for a specific media (air, surface water, biota, soil and vegetation, sediment, and external radiation). Each section includes the sample location, sample type, and analyses to be performed on the sample. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be planned for 1998 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map is included for each media showing sample locations

  7. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental protection Program,'' and DOE Order 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.'' The sampling methods are described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL-91-50, Rev.2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the CY1999 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes the sampling location, sample type, and analyses to be performed on the sample. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 1999 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map is included for each media showing approximate sampling locations

  8. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1984. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical substances is conducted on the Laboratory site and in the surrounding region to determine compliance with appropriate standards and permit early identification of possible undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1984 are included on external penetrating radiation; on the chemical and radiochemical quality of ambient air, surface and ground waters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and on the quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels from natural or other non-Laboratory sources provide a basis for concluding that environmental effects attributable to Laboratory operations are insignificant and are not considered hazardous to the population of the area or Laboratory employees. 8 refs., 38 figs., 57 tabs

  9. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program conducted by the Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1983. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical substances is conducted on the Laboratory site and in the surrounding region to determine compliance with appropriate standards and permit early identification of possible undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1983 are included on external penetrating radiation; on the chemical and radiochemical quality of ambient air, surface and ground waters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and on the quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels from natural or other non-Laboratory sources provide a basis for concluding that environmental effects attributable to Laboratory operations are insignificant and are not considered hazardous to the population of the area of Laboratory employees. 61 references, 34 figures, 22 tables

  10. Limited utility of routine surveillance imaging for classical Hodgkin lymphoma patients in first complete remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingali, Sai Ravi; Jewell, Sarah W; Havlat, Luiza; Bast, Martin A; Thompson, Jonathan R; Eastwood, Daniel C; Bartlett, Nancy L; Armitage, James O; Wagner-Johnston, Nina D; Vose, Julie M; Fenske, Timothy S

    2014-07-15

    The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) who achieved complete remission with frontline therapy and then underwent either clinical surveillance or routine surveillance imaging. In total, 241 patients who were newly diagnosed with cHL between January 2000 and December 2010 at 3 participating tertiary care centers and achieved complete remission after first-line therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Of these, there were 174 patients in the routine surveillance imaging group and 67 patients in the clinical surveillance group, based on the intended mode of surveillance. In the routine surveillance imaging group, the intended plan of surveillance included computed tomography and/or positron emission tomography scans; whereas, in the clinical surveillance group, the intended plan of surveillance was clinical examination and laboratory studies, and scans were obtained only to evaluate concerning signs or symptoms. Baseline patient characteristics, prognostic features, treatment records, and outcomes were collected. The primary objective was to compare overall survival for patients in both groups. For secondary objectives, we compared the success of second-line therapy and estimated the costs of imaging for each group. After 5 years of follow-up, the overall survival rate was 97% (95% confidence interval, 92%-99%) in the routine surveillance imaging group and 96% (95% confidence interval, 87%-99%) in the clinical surveillance group (P = .41). There were few relapses in each group, and all patients who relapsed in both groups achieved complete remission with second-line therapy. The charges associated with routine surveillance imaging were significantly higher than those for the clinical surveillance strategy, with no apparent clinical benefit. Clinical surveillance was not inferior to routine surveillance imaging in patients with cHL who achieved complete remission with frontline therapy. Routine

  11. Laboratory of environmental radiological surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez G, A.; Marcial M, F.; Giber F, J.; Montiel R, E.; Leon del V, E.; Rivas C, I.; Leon G, M.V.; Lagunas G, E.; Aragon S, R.; Juarez N, A.; Alfaro L, M.M.

    1991-12-01

    The department of radiological protection of the ININ requests the collaboration of the Engineering Unit for the elaboration of the work project of the laboratory of environmental radiological surveillance. The emission of radioactive substances to the atmosphere like consequence of the normal operation of the Nuclear Center, constitutes an exhibition source from the man to the radiations that it should be appropriately watched over and controlled to be able to determine the population's potential exhibition that it lives in the area of influence of the installation. (Author)

  12. Public involvement in environmental surveillance at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanf, R.W. Jr.; Patton, G.W.; Woodruff, R.K.; Poston, T.M.

    1994-08-01

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site began during the mid-1940s following the construction and start-up of the nation's first plutonium production reactor. Over the past approximately 45 years, surveillance operations on and off the Site have continued, with virtually all sampling being conducted by Hanford Site workers. Recently, the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office directed that public involvement in Hanford environmental surveillance operations be initiated. Accordingly, three special radiological air monitoring stations were constructed offsite, near hanford's perimeter. Each station is managed and operated by two local school teaches. These three stations are the beginning of a community-operated environmental surveillance program that will ultimately involve the public in most surveillance operations around the Site. The program was designed to stimulate interest in Hanford environmental surveillance operations, and to help the public better understand surveillance results. The program has also been used to enhance educational opportunities at local schools

  13. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual, PNL-MA-580, Rev. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanf, Robert W.; Poston, Ted M.; Bisping, Lynn E.

    2007-07-01

    This manual contains the procedures that are used for the collection of routine Surface Environmental Surveillance Project environmental samples and field measurements on and around the Hanford Site. Specific responsibilities for project personnel are also defined.

  14. Elements of quality assurance in environmental surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.J.

    1975-01-01

    Qualities of an environmental surveillance program requiring control or assurance are reviewed. Requirements of accuracy, reproducibility, sensitivity, acceptability, and time and cost effectiveness are qualities discussed. The controls applicable to sample collection, handling, chemical analysis, measurement and data presentation are identified and discussed as they pertain to environmental monitoring. Quality assurance program recommendations for developing and reporting environmental surveillance data are provided

  15. Avian Influenza Virus A (H5N1), Detected through Routine Surveillance, in Child, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, A.S.M.; Sultana, Rebecca; Islam, M. Saiful; Rahman, Mustafizur; Fry, Alicia M.; Shu, Bo; Lindstrom, Stephen; Nahar, Kamrun; Goswami, Doli; Haider, M. Sabbir; Nahar, Sharifun; Butler, Ebonee; Hancock, Kathy; Donis, Ruben O.; Davis, Charles T.; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Luby, Stephen P.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Rahman, Mahmudur

    2009-01-01

    We identified avian influenza virus A (H5N1) infection in a child in Bangladesh in 2008 by routine influenza surveillance. The virus was of the same clade and phylogenetic subgroup as that circulating among poultry during the period. This case illustrates the value of routine surveillance for detection of novel influenza virus. PMID:19751601

  16. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1991. Environmental protection group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewart, J.; Kohen, K.L. [comps.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1991. Routine monitoring for radiation and for radioactive and chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1991 cover external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment.

  17. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Data Report for Calendar Year 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2003-01-01

    This data report contains the actual raw data used in the annual Hanford Site environmental report (PNNL--14295). In addition to providing raw data collected during routine sampling in 2002, this report also includes data from special sampling studies performed by PNNL during 2002. Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), which is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. The data collected provide a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford operations. Data are also collected to monitor several chemicals and metals in Columbia River water and sediment. For more information regarding the 2002 sampling schedule for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project, refer to L. E. Bisping, Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule (PNNL--13418, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington). PNNL publishes an annual environmental report for the Hanford Site each calendar year. The Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2002 describes the site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, and environmental monitoring activities and results. Sections of the annual environmental report include tables and summaries of offsite and onsite environmental surveillance data collected by PNNL during 2002. This data report contains the actual raw data used to create those tables and summaries. In addition to providing raw data collected during routine sampling efforts in 2002, this data report also includes data from special sampling studies performed by PNNL during 2002

  18. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2005-01-19

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. This document contains the calendar year 2005 schedules for the routine and non-routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project.

  19. Routine environmental monitoring schedule, calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.W.; Markes, B.M.; McKinney, S.M.

    1994-12-01

    This document provides Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) a schedule of monitoring and sampling routines for the Operational Environmental Monitoring (OEM) program during calendar year (CY) 1995. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Near-Field Monitoring. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Near-Field Monitoring and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1995

  20. Environmental health surveillance system; Kankyo hoken surveillance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The Central Environmental Pollution Prevention Council pointed out the necessity to establish an environmental health surveillance system (hereinafter referred to as System) in its report `on the first type district specified by the Environmental Pollution Caused Health Damages Compensation Act,` issued in 1986. A study team, established in Environment Agency, has been discussing to establish System since 1986. This paper outlines System, and some of the pilot surveillance results. It is not aimed at elucidation of the cause-effect relationships between health and air pollution but at discovery of problems, in which the above relationships in a district population are monitored periodically and continuously from long-term and prospective viewpoints, in order to help take necessary measures in the early stage. System is now collecting the data of the chronic obstructive lung diseases on a nation-wide scale through health examinations of 3-year-old and preschool children and daily air pollution monitoring. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2006-01-27

    This document contains the calendar year 2006 schedules for the routine and non-routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 2006 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. The project document package (PDP) for Surface Environmental Surveillance contains the milestone control log for the issuing of CY06 Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule WBS 4.2.3.21.3.03, milestone: RL00430306 (4830106-12).

  2. Social Media Listening for Routine Post-Marketing Safety Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Gregory E; Seifert, Harry A; Reblin, Tjark; Burstein, Phil J; Blowers, James; Menius, J Alan; Painter, Jeffery L; Thomas, Michele; Pierce, Carrie E; Rodriguez, Harold W; Brownstein, John S; Freifeld, Clark C; Bell, Heidi G; Dasgupta, Nabarun

    2016-05-01

    Post-marketing safety surveillance primarily relies on data from spontaneous adverse event reports, medical literature, and observational databases. Limitations of these data sources include potential under-reporting, lack of geographic diversity, and time lag between event occurrence and discovery. There is growing interest in exploring the use of social media ('social listening') to supplement established approaches for pharmacovigilance. Although social listening is commonly used for commercial purposes, there are only anecdotal reports of its use in pharmacovigilance. Health information posted online by patients is often publicly available, representing an untapped source of post-marketing safety data that could supplement data from existing sources. The objective of this paper is to describe one methodology that could help unlock the potential of social media for safety surveillance. A third-party vendor acquired 24 months of publicly available Facebook and Twitter data, then processed the data by standardizing drug names and vernacular symptoms, removing duplicates and noise, masking personally identifiable information, and adding supplemental data to facilitate the review process. The resulting dataset was analyzed for safety and benefit information. In Twitter, a total of 6,441,679 Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA(®)) Preferred Terms (PTs) representing 702 individual PTs were discussed in the same post as a drug compared with 15,650,108 total PTs representing 946 individual PTs in Facebook. Further analysis revealed that 26 % of posts also contained benefit information. Social media listening is an important tool to augment post-marketing safety surveillance. Much work remains to determine best practices for using this rapidly evolving data source.

  3. Community-Operated Environmental Surveillance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities with which citizens living near the Hanford Site have been participating. Local teachers have been managing and operating three special radiological air sampling stations located in Richland, Basin City, and Franklin County, Washington. Other expansion efforts of this program are also described.

  4. Community-Operated Environmental Surveillance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities with which citizens living near the Hanford Site have been participating. Local teachers have been managing and operating three special radiological air sampling stations located in Richland, Basin City, and Franklin County, Washington. Other expansion efforts of this program are also described

  5. Polio and Measles Down the Drain: Environmental Enterovirus Surveillance in the Netherlands, 2005 to 2015.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, Kimberley S M; van der Avoort, Harrie G; Jusic, Edin; Vennema, Harry; van Binnendijk, Rob; Duizer, Erwin

    2017-01-01

    Polioviruses (PVs) are members of the genus Enterovirus In the Netherlands, the exclusion of PV circulation is based on clinical enterovirus (EV) surveillance (CEVS) of EV-positive cases and routine environmental EV surveillance (EEVS) conducted on sewage samples collected in the region of the

  6. Manual for environmental radiological surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Shuichi; Matsuura, Kenichi; Nakano, Masanao; Takeyasu, Masanori; Morisawa, Masato; Onuma, Toshimitsu; Fujita, Hiroki; Mizutani, Tomoko; Watanabe, Hajime; Sugai, Masamitsu

    2010-03-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring around the Tokai Reprocessing Plant has been conducted by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, based on 'Safety Regulations for the Reprocessing Plant of JAEA, Chapter IV - Environmental monitoring' and Environmental Radiation Monitoring Program decided by the Ibaraki prefectural government. The radiation monitoring installations and equipments were also prepared for emergency. This manual describes; (1) the installations of radiological measurement, (2) the installations of meteorological observation, and (3) environmental data processing system for executing the terrestrial environmental monitoring by Environmental Protection Section, Radiation Protection Department. The environmental monitoring has been operated through the manual published in 1993 (PNC TN8520 93-001). Then the whole articles were revised because the partially of installations and equipments having been updated in recent years. (author)

  7. Real-time whole-genome sequencing for routine typing, surveillance, and outbreak detection of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup; Scheutz, Flemming; Lund, Ole; Hasman, Henrik; Kaas, Rolf Sommer; Nielsen, Eva M.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2014-01-01

    Fast and accurate identification and typing of pathogens are essential for effective surveillance and outbreak detection. The current routine procedure is based on a variety of techniques, making the procedure laborious, time-consuming, and expensive. With whole-genome sequencing (WGS) becoming cheaper, it has huge potential in both diagnostics and routine surveillance. The aim of this study was to perform a real-time evaluation of WGS for routine typing and surveillance of verocytotoxin-prod...

  8. Real-Time Whole-Genome Sequencing for Routine Typing, Surveillance, and Outbreak Detection of Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup; Scheutz, Flemming; Lund, Ole; Hasman, Henrik; Kaas, Rolf S.; Nielsen, Eva M.; Aarestrup, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Fast and accurate identification and typing of pathogens are essential for effective surveillance and outbreak detection. The current routine procedure is based on a variety of techniques, making the procedure laborious, time-consuming, and expensive. With whole-genome sequencing (WGS) becoming cheaper, it has huge potential in both diagnostics and routine surveillance. The aim of this study was to perform a real-time evaluation of WGS for routine typing and surveillance of verocytotoxin-prod...

  9. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanf, RW; Dirkes, RL

    1990-02-01

    This manual establishes the procedures for the collection of environmental samples and the performance of radiation surveys and other field measurements. Responsibilities are defined for those personnel directly involved in the collection of samples and the performance of field measurements.

  10. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Michelle; Brady, Doug

    2008-07-01

    Each year, LANL produces an Environmental Surveillance Report (ESR) in compliance with a Department of Energy (DOE) order. The ESR aims to summarize the environmental impacts of the Laboratory, the efforts to minimize these impacts, and LANL’s compliance with environmental regulations. This Summary Report presents the methods and results of environmental monitoring done in 2007 in a form that is more understandable and inviting to the public. Though other DOE sites have done Summary Reports in the past, this is LANL’s first for the ESR, and the authors were privileged to write this report from the perspective of students.

  11. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Poff, Ben [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hjeresen, Denny [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Isaacson, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johnson, Scot [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Morgan, Terry [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Paulson, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Salzman, Sonja [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rogers, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2010-09-30

    Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos reports are prepared annually by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) environmental organization, as required by US Department of Energy Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and US Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. These annual reports summarize environmental data that are used to determine compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and departmental policies. Additional data, beyond the minimum required, are also gathered and reported as part of the Laboratory’s efforts to ensure public safety and to monitor environmental quality at and near the Laboratory. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Laboratory’s major environmental programs and explains the risks and the actions taken to reduce risks at the Laboratory from environmental legacies and waste management operations. Chapter 2 reports the Laboratory’s compliance status for 2009. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the maximum radiological dose the public and biota populations could have potentially received from Laboratory operations and discusses chemical exposures. The environmental surveillance and monitoring data are organized by environmental media (air in Chapter 4; water and sediments in Chapters 5 and 6; soils in Chapter 7; and foodstuffs and biota in Chapter 8) in a format to meet the needs of a general and scientific audience. Chapter 9 provides a summary of the status of environmental restoration work around LANL. The new Chapter 10 describes the Laboratory’s environmental stewardship efforts and provides an overview of the health of the Rio Grande. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are in the back of the report. Appendix A explains the standards for environmental contaminants, Appendix B explains the units of measurements used in this report, Appendix C describes the Laboratory’s technical

  12. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gallagher, Pat [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hjeresen, Denny [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Isaacson, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johson, Scot [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Morgan, Terry [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Paulson, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rogers, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2009-09-30

    Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos reports are prepared annually by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) Environmental Programs Directorate, as required by US Department of Energy Order 450.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and US Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. These annual reports summarize environmental data that are used to determine compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and departmental policies. Additional data, beyond the minimum required, are also gathered and reported as part of the Laboratory’s efforts to ensure public safety and to monitor environmental quality at and near the Laboratory. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Laboratory’s major environmental programs and explains the risks and the actions taken to reduce risks at the Laboratory from environmental legacies and waste management operations. Chapter 2 reports the Laboratory’s compliance status for 2007. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the maximum radiological dose the public and biota populations could have potentially received from Laboratory operations and discusses chemical exposures. The environmental surveillance and monitoring data are organized by environmental media (Chapter 4, air; Chapters 5 and 6, water and sediments; Chapter 7, soils; and Chapter 8, foodstuffs and biota) in a format to meet the needs of a general and scientific audience. Chapter 9 provides a summary of the status of environmental restoration work around LANL. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are in the back of the report. Appendix A explains the standards for environmental contaminants, Appendix B explains the units of measurements used in this report, Appendix C describes the Laboratory’s technical areas and their associated programs, and Appendix D provides web links to more information.

  13. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-09-30

    Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos reports are prepared annually by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) environmental organization, as required by US Department of Energy Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and US Department of Energy Order 231.IA, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. These annual reports summarize environmental data that are used to determine compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and departmental policies. Additional data, beyond the minimum required, are also gathered and reported as part of the Laboratory's efforts to ensure public safety and to monitor environmental quality at and near the Laboratory. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Laboratory's major environmental programs. Chapter 2 reports the Laboratory's compliance status for 2005. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the maximum radiological dose the public and biota populations could have potentially received from Laboratory operations. The environmental surveillance and monitoring data are organized by environmental media (Chapter 4, Air; Chapters 5 and 6, Water and Sediments; Chapter 7, Soils; and Chapter 8, Foodstuffs and Biota) in a format to meet the needs of a general and scientific audience. Chapter 9, new for this year, provides a summary of the status of environmental restoration work around LANL. A glossary and a list ofacronyms and abbreviations are in the back of the report. Appendix A explains the standards for environmental contaminants, Appendix B explains the units of measurements used in this report, Appendix C describes the Laboratory's technical areas and their associated programs, and Appendix D provides web links to more information.

  14. New England States environmental radiation surveillance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the environmental radiation surveillance programs in the New England States from the viewpoint of their organization and administration is provided. Moreover, the specific monitoring and analytical programs conducted at selected sites in each state is detailed with emphasis on sample types, collection frequencies, and analysis. Also, a comparison is made between the programs of all the states in order to determine the reasons for their differences

  15. Detecting, reporting, and analysis of priority diseases for routine public health surveillance in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong, Joseph Asamoah; Park, Meeyoung Mattie; Amo-Addae, Maame Pokuah; Adewuyi, Peter Adebayo; Nagbe, Thomas Knue

    2017-01-01

    An essential component of a public health surveillance system is its ability to detect priority diseases which fall within the mandate of public health officials at all levels. Early detection, reporting and response to public health events help to reduce the burden of mortality and morbidity on communities. Analysis of reliable surveillance data provides relevant information which can enable implementation of timely and appropriate public health interventions. To ensure that a resilient system is in place, the World Health Organization (WHO) has provided guidelines for detection, reporting and response to public health events in the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy. This case study provides training on detection, reporting and analysis of priority diseases for routine public health surveillance in Liberia and highlights potential errors and challenges which can hinder effective surveillance. Table-top exercises and group discussion lead participants through a simulated verification and analyses of summary case reports in the role of the District Surveillance Officer. This case study is intended for public health training in a classroom setting and can be accomplished within 2 hours 30 minutes. The target audience include residents in Frontline Epidemiology Training Programs (FETP-Frontline), Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs), and others who are interested in this topic.

  16. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment

  17. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

  18. An overview of environmental surveillance of waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T.H.; Chew, E.W.; Hedahl, T.G.; Mann, L.J.; Pointer, T.F.; Wiersma, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), in southeastern Idaho, is a principal center for nuclear energy development for the Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Nuclear Navy. Fifty-two reactors have been built at the INEL, with 15 still operable. Extensive environmental surveillance is conducted at the INEL by DOE's Radiological Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), EG&G Idaho, Inc., and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). Surveillance of waste management facilities radiation is integrated with the overall INEL Site surveillance program. Air, warer, soil, biota, and environmental radiation are monitored or sampled routinely at INEL. Results to date indicate very small or no impacts from INEL on the surrounding environment. Environmental surveillance activities are currently underway to address key environmental issues at the INEL.

  19. Overview of environmental surveillance of waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.H.; Hedahl, T.G.; Wiersma, G.B.; Chew, E.W.; Mann, L.J.; Pointer, T.F.

    1986-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), in southeastern Idaho, is a principal center for nuclear energy development for the Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Nuclear Navy. Fifty-two reactors have been built at the INEL, with 15 still operable. Extensive environmental surveillance is conducted at the INEL by DOE's Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL), the US Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), EG and G Idaho, Inc., and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). Surveillance of waste management facilities is integrated with the overall INEL Site surveillance program. Air, water, soil, biota, and environmental radiation are monitored or sampled routinely at the INEL. Results to date indicate very small or no impacts from the INEL on the surrounding environment. Environmental surveillance activities are currently underway to address key environmental issues at the INEL. 7 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos during 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-09-30

    Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos reports are prepared annually by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) Environmental Directorate, as required by US Department of Energy Order 450.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and US Department of Energy Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. These annual reports summarize environmental data that are used to determine compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations, executive orders, and departmental policies. Additional data, beyond the minimum required, are also gathered and reported as part of the Laboratory’s efforts to ensure public safety and to monitor environmental quality at and near the Laboratory. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Laboratory’s major environmental programs and explains the risks and the actions taken to reduce risks at the Laboratory from environmental legacies and waste management operations. Chapter 2 reports the Laboratory’s compliance status for 2007. Chapter 3 provides a summary of the maximum radiological dose the public and biota populations could have potentially received from Laboratory operations and discusses chemical exposures. The environmental surveillance and monitoring data are organized by environmental media (Chapter 4, air; Chapters 5 and 6, water and sediments; Chapter 7, soils; and Chapter 8, foodstuffs and biota) in a format to meet the needs of a general and scientific audience. Chapter 9 provides a summary of the status of environmental restoration work around LANL. A glossary and a list of acronyms and abbreviations are in the back of the report. Appendix A explains the standards for environmental contaminants, Appendix B explains the units of measurements used in this report, Appendix C describes the laboratory’s technical areas and their associated programs, and Appendix D provides web links to more information. In printed copies of this report or Executive Summary, we have

  1. Routines and Communities of Practice in Public Environmental Procurement Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Katarina; Svane, Örjan

    2005-01-01

    Environmental procurement has received increasing attention as a policy tool promoting change towards sustainable consumption and production. The successful implementation of public environmental procurement policy requires the establishment of new routines for user-producer-supplier relationships that enable the integration of environmental aspects. The aim of the study is to analyse the roles of different communities of practice and learning patterns in environmental procurement processes. ...

  2. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme: results for UK for 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M.; McAllister, G.; Welham, D.; Orr, D.

    1984-11-01

    The fourth report of a series giving the results of the NRPB's environmental radioactivity surveillance programme is presented. Samples of airborne dust, rainwater and milk are collected routinely throughout the UK; the concentrations of various radionuclides are measured and the resulting exposure of the population is evaluated. The radionuclides detected result predominantly from nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere, although the programme would also be sensitive to other sources of environmental contamination. The annual average concentrations and depositions of radionuclides from fallout are now at the lowest levels since the inception of the Board's monitoring programme. The average annual effective dose equivalent from fallout is evaluated and compared with that from natural background radiation. (author)

  3. Data analysis and interpretation for environmental surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Data Analysis and Interpretation for Environmental Surveillance Conference was held in Lexington, Kentucky, February 5--7, 1990. The conference was sponsored by what is now the Office of Environmental Compliance and Documentation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Participants included technical professionals from all Martin Marietta Energy Systems facilities, Westinghouse Materials Company of Ohio, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and several technical support contractors. Presentations at the conference ranged the full spectrum of issues that effect the analysis and interpretation of environmental data. Topics included tracking systems for samples and schedules associated with ongoing programs; coalescing data from a variety of sources and pedigrees into integrated data bases; methods for evaluating the quality of environmental data through empirical estimates of parameters such as charge balance, pH, and specific conductance; statistical applications to the interpretation of environmental information; and uses of environmental information in risk and dose assessments. Hearing about and discussing this wide variety of topics provided an opportunity to capture the subtlety of each discipline and to appreciate the continuity that is required among the disciplines in order to perform high-quality environmental information analysis

  4. Westinghouse Hanford Company environmental surveillance annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.W.; Johnson, A.R.; McKinney, S.M.; Perkins, C.J.; Webb, C.R.

    1992-07-01

    This document presents the results of near-facility operational environmental monitoring in 1991 of the 100, 200/600, and 300/400 Areas of the Hanford Site, in south-central Washington State, as performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. These activities are conducted to assess and to control the impacts of operations on the workers and the local environment and to monitor diffuse sources. Surveillance activities include sampling and analyses of ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sediments, soil, and biota. Also, external radiation measurements and radiological surveys are taken at waste disposal sites, radiologically controlled areas, and roads

  5. Environmental surveillance for the INEL Radioactive-Waste-Management complex. Annual report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janke, D.H.; Zahn, T.P.

    1982-09-01

    The 1981 environmental surveillance report for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory contains data and discussions about routine radiological monitoring of the atmospheric, hydrologic, and geologic environments of the RWMC. Additional discussions include results of routine monitoring of two surplus facilities, the Stationary Low-Power Reactor No. 1 Surplus Area and the Organic Moderated Reactor Experiment. Each area has produced localized effects on the environment, but containment is well within the INEL site boundary

  6. Environmental surveillance program. Quarterly progress report, July--September, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.W.; Hall, L.F.; Downs, J.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains data developed from monitoring site measurements and laboratory analyses of environmental samples that were collected during the period of July-September, 1993. Because some laboratory procedures are lengthy and could adversely affect the desired timeliness of reports, results of some analyses from this time period will be included in the next quarterly report. Quarterly reports, then, will be routine periodic documents that present continually updated information concerning the potential presence of environmental contaminants in the vicinity of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During the third calendar quarter of 1993, Environmental Surveillance Program (ESP) measurements did not reveal unexpected levels of contaminants in any environmental samples measured or analyzed. Most of the results reported in this document are related to off-site air and ground water measurements. Future reports will include results of monitoring at additional locations and for additional environmental materials. Annual reports from the ESP will contain data generated during the previous four calendar quarters, and will display measurement trends for various combinations of locations, contaminants and environmental media. The annual report will also include more interpretive material and discussions than will normally be found in quarterly reports

  7. The value and economic analysis of routine postoperative carotid duplex ultrasound surveillance after carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuRahma, Ali F; Srivastava, Mohit; AbuRahma, Zachary; Jackson, Will; Mousa, Albeir; Stone, Patrick A; Dean, L Scott; Green, Jason

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have reported on the role of postoperative duplex ultrasound surveillance after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) with varying results. Most of these studies had a small sample size or did not analyze cost-effectiveness. We analyzed 489 of 501 CEA patients with patch closure. All patients had immediate postoperative duplex ultrasound examination and were routinely followed up both clinically and with duplex ultrasound at regular intervals of 1 month, 6 months, 12 months, and every 12 months thereafter. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate the rate of ≥50% and ≥80% post-CEA restenosis over time and the time frame of progression from normal to ≥50% or ≥80% restenosis. The cost of post-CEA duplex surveillance was also estimated. Overall, 489 patients with a mean age of 68.5 years were analyzed. Ten of these had residual postoperative ≥50% stenosis, and 37 did not undergo a second duplex ultrasound examination and therefore were not included in the final analysis. The mean follow-up was 20.4 months (range, 1-63 months), with a mean number of duplex ultrasound examinations of 3.6 (range, 1-7). Eleven of 397 patients (2.8%) with a normal finding on immediate postoperative duplex ultrasound vs 4 of 45 (8.9%) with mild stenosis on immediate postoperative duplex ultrasound progressed to ≥50% restenosis (P = .055). Overall, 15 patients (3.1%) had ≥50% restenosis, 9 with 50% to duplex ultrasound), which equals $1,408,320, to detect only four patients with ≥80% to 99% restenosis who may have been potential candidates for reintervention. This study shows that the value of routine postoperative duplex ultrasound surveillance after CEA with patch closure may be limited, particularly if the finding on immediate postoperative duplex ultrasound is normal or shows minimal disease. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental surveillance: An integral part of the spill contingency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, J.; Bozzo, W.

    1993-01-01

    Typically, the initial response to spills is directed at containing, controlling, and stopping the flow of spilled materials. The primary goal of such a response is to limit the spread and further impact of spilled material, and to initiate timely cleanup and recovery of affected areas. Surveillance of actual spill impacts has often followed an after the fact approach, using only immediately available resources. Surveillance may occur quickly after a spill, but in most incidents its occurs as a follow-up action after initial response and containment have been achieved. Insufficient planning may produce spill surveillance that inadequately assesses impacts, fails to incorporate baseline data, and does not clearly identify a cleanup recovery and endpoint. The management and operations contractor for the US Dept. of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) conducts environmental surveillance activities in response to spill incidents when they occur at these facilities. These surveillance activities, when conducted as part of the response, are useful instruments in the initial assessment of spill incidents, management of spill response, containment, and cleanup activities, and for monitoring and documenting postspill impacts and recovery. An Environmental Surveillance Plan (ESP) incorporated in the SPR Spill Contingency Plan provides for initiation of environmental surveillance as part of the spill response. The ESP outlines, through alogic tree, conditions for activating the plan, key indicator parameters for evaluation, detailed methods for establishing surveillance stations, lists of key personnel, locations of equipment necessary to perform surveillance, and conditions for termination of environmental surveillance

  9. Effect of Routine Surveillance Imaging on the Outcomes of Patients With Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma After Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapke, Jonathan T; Epperla, Narendranath; Shah, Namrata; Richardson, Kristin; Carrum, George; Hari, Parameswaran N; Pingali, Sai R; Hamadani, Mehdi; Karmali, Reem; Fenske, Timothy S

    2017-07-01

    Patients with relapsed and refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) are often treated with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT). After auto-HCT, most transplant centers implement routine surveillance imaging to monitor for disease relapse; however, there is limited evidence to support this practice. In this multicenter, retrospective study, we identified cHL patients (n = 128) who received auto-HCT, achieved complete remission (CR) after transplantation, and then were followed with routine surveillance imaging. Of these, 29 (23%) relapsed after day 100 after auto-HCT. Relapse was detected clinically in 14 patients and with routine surveillance imaging in 15 patients. When clinically detected relapse was compared with to radiographically detected relapse respectively, the median overall survival (2084 days [range, 225-4161] vs. 2737 days [range, 172-2750]; P = .51), the median time to relapse (247 days [range, 141-3974] vs. 814 days [range, 96-1682]; P = .30) and the median postrelapse survival (674 days [range, 13-1883] vs. 1146 days [range, 4-2548]; P = .52) were not statistically different. In patients who never relapsed after auto-HCT, a median of 4 (range, 1-25) surveillance imaging studies were performed over a median follow-up period of 3.5 years. A minority of patients with cHL who achieve CR after auto-HCT will ultimately relapse. Surveillance imaging detected approximately half of relapses; however, outcomes were similar for those whose relapse was detected using routine surveillance imaging versus detected clinically in between surveillance imaging studies. There appears to be limited utility for routine surveillance imaging in cHL patients who achieve CR after auto-HCT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Routine environmental audit of Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document contains the findings identified during the routine environmental audit of Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa, conducted September 12--23, 1994. The audit included a review of all Ames Laboratory operations and facilities supporting DOE-sponsored activities. The audit's objective is to advise the Secretary of Energy, through the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, as to the adequacy of the environmental protection programs established at Ames Laboratory to ensure the protection of the environment, and compliance with Federal, state, and DOE requirements

  11. Routine environmental audit of the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This report documents the results of the routine environmental audit of the Hanford Site (Hanford), Richland, Washington. During this audit, the activities conducted by the audit team included reviews of internal documents an reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE), State of Washington regulatory, and contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the audit was conducted May 2--13, 1994, by the DOE Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), located within the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The audit evaluated the status of programs to ensure compliance with Federal, State, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE orders, guidance, and directives; and conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance. The audit also evaluated the status and adequacy of the management systems developed to address environmental requirements.

  12. Routine environmental audit of the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This report documents the results of the routine environmental audit of the Hanford Site (Hanford), Richland, Washington. During this audit, the activities conducted by the audit team included reviews of internal documents an reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE), State of Washington regulatory, and contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the audit was conducted May 2--13, 1994, by the DOE Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), located within the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The audit evaluated the status of programs to ensure compliance with Federal, State, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE orders, guidance, and directives; and conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance. The audit also evaluated the status and adequacy of the management systems developed to address environmental requirements

  13. A concept for routine emergency-care data-based syndromic surveillance in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, A; Rosenkötter, N; Garcia-Castrillo Riesgo, L; Schrell, S; Kauhl, B; Vergeiner, G; Fischer, M; Lippert, F K; Krämer, A; Brand, H; Krafft, T

    2014-11-01

    We developed a syndromic surveillance (SyS) concept using emergency dispatch, ambulance and emergency-department data from different European countries. Based on an inventory of sub-national emergency data availability in 12 countries, we propose framework definitions for specific syndromes and a SyS system design. We tested the concept by retrospectively applying cumulative sum and spatio-temporal cluster analyses for the detection of local gastrointestinal outbreaks in four countries and comparing the results with notifiable disease reporting. Routine emergency data was available daily and electronically in 11 regions, following a common structure. We identified two gastrointestinal outbreaks in two countries; one was confirmed as a norovirus outbreak. We detected 1/147 notified outbreaks. Emergency-care data-based SyS can supplement local surveillance with near real-time information on gastrointestinal patients, especially in special circumstances, e.g. foreign tourists. It most likely cannot detect the majority of local gastrointestinal outbreaks with few, mild or dispersed cases.

  14. Brief behavioural surveys in routine HIV sentinel surveillance: a new tool for monitoring the HIV epidemic in Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Cong Thanh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report we describe a new approach in HIV sentinel surveillance that was piloted in Viet Nam in 2009 and is currently being rolled out in all provinces. It comprises a brief behavioural questionnaire added to the HIV sentinel surveillance surveys conducted routinely among people who inject drugs, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. Timely reporting of data from this system has resulted in improvements to HIV prevention efforts for most at-risk populations.

  15. Brief behavioural surveys in routine HIV sentinel surveillance: a new tool for monitoring the HIV epidemic in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Duong Cong; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Ha, Hoang Thi Thanh; Thang, Pham Hong; Ha, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Tuan, Le Anh; Quang, Tran Dai; Tram, Tran Hong; Le Hai, Nguyen; Huong, Phan Thi Thu; Son, Vo Hai; Duc, Bui Hoang; Nga, Nguyen Thien; Jacka, David; Sabin, Keith

    2015-01-01

    In this report we describe a new approach in HIV sentinel surveillance that was piloted in Viet Nam in 2009 and is currently being rolled out in all provinces. It comprises a brief behavioural questionnaire added to the HIV sentinel surveillance surveys conducted routinely among people who inject drugs, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. Timely reporting of data from this system has resulted in improvements to HIV prevention efforts for most at-risk populations.

  16. Environmental surveillance at Hanford for CY-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sula, M.J.; McCormack, W.D.; Dirkes, R.L.; Price, K.R.; Eddy, P.A.

    1982-05-01

    Environmental surveillance activities performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for 1981 are discussed. The results are summarized as follows: Radionuclide concentrations and radiation dose measurements were below applicable concentration guides and radiation dose standards. There was no difference detected between airborne radionuclide concentrations in samples collected near to and far from the Hanford Site. A difference in 129 I concentration in Columbia River water downstream compared to upstream was observed. Strontium-90 concentrations downstream remained similar to past years while reduced concentrations were observed in the upstream samples. In addition, 60 Co and 131 I were observed more frequently in the downstream river water samples than in the upstream samples. In all cases, the downstream radionuclide concentrations were small in comparison to DOE radionuclide concentration guides and state and EPA drinking water standards. Low concentrations of radionuclides attributed to operations were observed in wildlife collected onsite. Low concentrations of fallout radionuclides from worldwide atmospheric nuclear testing were observed in foodstuffs and in soil and vegetation; there was no indication of a Hanford contribution to radionuclide levels. The highest penetrating dose rates were in the vicinities of the 100N and 300 Areas. Dose rates at both locations resulted from the presence, within the operating areas, of contained radioactive materials. Nonradiological water quality parameters were all within State Water Quality Standards for the Columbia River. The maximum 50-year whole body dose commitment to an individual from effluents released in 1981 was calculated to be 0.4 mrem. The maximum 50-year dose to a single organ, considering all pathways was approximately 1.3 mrem to the bone, primarily due to 90 Sr in the Columbia River

  17. Routine environmental reaudit of the Argonne National Laboratory - West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Routine Environmental Reaudit of the Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W), Idaho Falls, Idaho. During this audit, the activities conducted by the audit team included reviews of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), State of Idaho Department of Health and Welfare (IDHW), and DOE contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the audit was conducted from October 11 to October 22, 1993, by the DOE Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), located within the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). DOE 5482.113, {open_quotes}Environment, Safety, and Health Appraisal Program,{close_quotes} established the mission of EH-24 to provide comprehensive, independent oversight of Department-wide environmental programs on behalf of the Secretary of Energy. The ultimate goal of EH-24 is enhancement of environmental protection and minimization of risk to public health and the environment. EH-24 accomplishes its mission by conducting systematic and periodic evaluations of the Department`s environmental programs within line organizations, and by utilizing supplemental activities that serve to strengthen self-assessment and oversight functions within program, field, and contractor organizations.

  18. Routine environmental reaudit of the Argonne National Laboratory - West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Routine Environmental Reaudit of the Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W), Idaho Falls, Idaho. During this audit, the activities conducted by the audit team included reviews of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), State of Idaho Department of Health and Welfare (IDHW), and DOE contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the audit was conducted from October 11 to October 22, 1993, by the DOE Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), located within the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). DOE 5482.113, open-quotes Environment, Safety, and Health Appraisal Program,close quotes established the mission of EH-24 to provide comprehensive, independent oversight of Department-wide environmental programs on behalf of the Secretary of Energy. The ultimate goal of EH-24 is enhancement of environmental protection and minimization of risk to public health and the environment. EH-24 accomplishes its mission by conducting systematic and periodic evaluations of the Department's environmental programs within line organizations, and by utilizing supplemental activities that serve to strengthen self-assessment and oversight functions within program, field, and contractor organizations

  19. From habits of attrition to modes of inclusion: enhancing the role of private practitioners in routine disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalkey, Revati K; Butsch, Carsten; Belesova, Kristine; Kroll, Marieke; Kraas, Frauke

    2017-08-25

    Private practitioners are the preferred first point of care in a majority of low and middle-income countries and in this position, best placed for the surveillance of diseases. However their contribution to routine surveillance data is marginal. This systematic review aims to explore evidence with regards to the role, contribution, and involvement of private practitioners in routine disease data notification. We examined the factors that determine the inclusion of, and the participation thereof of private practitioners in disease surveillance activities. Literature search was conducted using the PubMed, Web of Knowledge, WHOLIS, and WHO-IRIS databases to identify peer-reviewed and gray full-text documents in English with no limits for year of publication or study design. Forty manuscripts were reviewed. The current participation of private practitioners in disease surveillance efforts is appalling. The main barriers to their participation are inadequate knowledge leading to unsatisfactory attitudes and misperceptions that influence their practices. Complicated reporting mechanisms with unclear guidelines, along with unsatisfactory attitudes on behalf of the government and surveillance program managers also contribute to the underreporting of cases. Infrastructural barriers especially the availability of computers and skilled human resources are critical to improving private sector participation in routine disease surveillance. The issues identified are similar to those for underreporting within the Integrated infectious Disease Surveillance and Response systems (IDSR) which collects data mainly from public healthcare facilities. We recommend that surveillance program officers should provide periodic training, supportive supervision and offer regular feedback to the practitioners from both public as well as private sectors in order to improve case notification. Governments need to take leadership and foster collaborative partnerships between the public and private

  20. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2011-01-21

    This document contains the calendar year 2011 schedule for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project and the Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sampling frequencies, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis. If a sample will not be collected in 2011, the anticipated year for collection is provided. Maps showing approximate sampling locations are included for media scheduled for collection in 2011.

  1. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2007-01-31

    This document contains the calendar year 2007 schedule for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sampling frequencies, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 2007 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. Maps showing approximate sampling locations are included for media scheduled for collection in 2007.

  2. Environmental surveillance at Hanford for CY-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1975-04-01

    During 1974, the work at Hanford included N Reactor operation, nuclear fuel fabrication, liquid waste solidification, continued construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility, continued construction of Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) No. 2 power reactor, Arid Lands Ecology studies, as well as continued use of a variety of research and laboratory facilities. Environmental data collected during 1974 showed continued compliance of Hanford operations with all applicable state and federal regulations. Levels of radioactivity in the atmosphere from Hanford operations at all offsite sampling locations were indistinguishable from levels due to natural causes and fallout from nuclear detonations in the atmosphere. Air quality measurements of NO 2 in the Hanford environs recorded a maximum yearly average concentration of 0.006 ppM or 12 percent of the ambient air standard. There was no indication that Hanford operations contributed significantly to these levels. All SO 2 results were less than the detection limit of 0.005 ppM or 25 percent of the ambient air quality standard. Routine radiological, chemical, biological, and physical analyses of Columbia River water upstream and downstream of the Hanford Reservation operations with the possible exception of water temperature. Levels of radioactivity were similar at both locations and were due to natural and fallout radioactivity. Estimates are included of the radiation dose to the human population within an 80-kilometer (50-mile) radius of the site during 1974. Methods used in calculations of the annual dose and 50-year dose commitment from radioactive effluents are discussed. (U.S.)

  3. Real-Time Whole-Genome Sequencing for Routine Typing, Surveillance, and Outbreak Detection of Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheutz, Flemming; Lund, Ole; Hasman, Henrik; Kaas, Rolf S.; Nielsen, Eva M.; Aarestrup, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Fast and accurate identification and typing of pathogens are essential for effective surveillance and outbreak detection. The current routine procedure is based on a variety of techniques, making the procedure laborious, time-consuming, and expensive. With whole-genome sequencing (WGS) becoming cheaper, it has huge potential in both diagnostics and routine surveillance. The aim of this study was to perform a real-time evaluation of WGS for routine typing and surveillance of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC). In Denmark, the Statens Serum Institut (SSI) routinely receives all suspected VTEC isolates. During a 7-week period in the fall of 2012, all incoming isolates were concurrently subjected to WGS using IonTorrent PGM. Real-time bioinformatics analysis was performed using web-tools (www.genomicepidemiology.org) for species determination, multilocus sequence type (MLST) typing, and determination of phylogenetic relationship, and a specific VirulenceFinder for detection of E. coli virulence genes was developed as part of this study. In total, 46 suspected VTEC isolates were characterized in parallel during the study. VirulenceFinder proved successful in detecting virulence genes included in routine typing, explicitly verocytotoxin 1 (vtx1), verocytotoxin 2 (vtx2), and intimin (eae), and also detected additional virulence genes. VirulenceFinder is also a robust method for assigning verocytotoxin (vtx) subtypes. A real-time clustering of isolates in agreement with the epidemiology was established from WGS, enabling discrimination between sporadic and outbreak isolates. Overall, WGS typing produced results faster and at a lower cost than the current routine. Therefore, WGS typing is a superior alternative to conventional typing strategies. This approach may also be applied to typing and surveillance of other pathogens. PMID:24574290

  4. Real-time whole-genome sequencing for routine typing, surveillance, and outbreak detection of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup; Scheutz, Flemming; Lund, Ole; Hasman, Henrik; Kaas, Rolf S; Nielsen, Eva M; Aarestrup, Frank M

    2014-05-01

    Fast and accurate identification and typing of pathogens are essential for effective surveillance and outbreak detection. The current routine procedure is based on a variety of techniques, making the procedure laborious, time-consuming, and expensive. With whole-genome sequencing (WGS) becoming cheaper, it has huge potential in both diagnostics and routine surveillance. The aim of this study was to perform a real-time evaluation of WGS for routine typing and surveillance of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC). In Denmark, the Statens Serum Institut (SSI) routinely receives all suspected VTEC isolates. During a 7-week period in the fall of 2012, all incoming isolates were concurrently subjected to WGS using IonTorrent PGM. Real-time bioinformatics analysis was performed using web-tools (www.genomicepidemiology.org) for species determination, multilocus sequence type (MLST) typing, and determination of phylogenetic relationship, and a specific VirulenceFinder for detection of E. coli virulence genes was developed as part of this study. In total, 46 suspected VTEC isolates were characterized in parallel during the study. VirulenceFinder proved successful in detecting virulence genes included in routine typing, explicitly verocytotoxin 1 (vtx1), verocytotoxin 2 (vtx2), and intimin (eae), and also detected additional virulence genes. VirulenceFinder is also a robust method for assigning verocytotoxin (vtx) subtypes. A real-time clustering of isolates in agreement with the epidemiology was established from WGS, enabling discrimination between sporadic and outbreak isolates. Overall, WGS typing produced results faster and at a lower cost than the current routine. Therefore, WGS typing is a superior alternative to conventional typing strategies. This approach may also be applied to typing and surveillance of other pathogens.

  5. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory for 1994. Data were collected to assess external penetrating radiation, airborne emissions, liquid effluents, radioactivity of environmental materials and food stuffs, and environmental compliance.

  6. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities at Los Alamos National Laboratory for 1994. Data were collected to assess external penetrating radiation, airborne emissions, liquid effluents, radioactivity of environmental materials and food stuffs, and environmental compliance

  7. Polio and Measles Down the Drain: Environmental Enterovirus Surveillance in the Netherlands, 2005 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benschop, Kimberley S M; van der Avoort, Harrie G; Jusic, Edin; Vennema, Harry; van Binnendijk, Rob; Duizer, Erwin

    2017-07-01

    Polioviruses (PVs) are members of the genus Enterovirus In the Netherlands, the exclusion of PV circulation is based on clinical enterovirus (EV) surveillance (CEVS) of EV-positive cases and routine environmental EV surveillance (EEVS) conducted on sewage samples collected in the region of the Netherlands where vaccination coverage is low due to religious reasons. We compared the EEVS data to those of the CEVS to gain insight into the relevance of EEVS for poliovirus and nonpolio enterovirus surveillance. Following the polio outbreak in Syria, EEVS was performed at the primary refugee center in Ter Apel in the Netherlands, and data were compared to those of CEVS and EEVS. Furthermore, we assessed the feasibility of poliovirus detection by EEVS using measles virus detection in sewage during a measles outbreak as a proxy. Two Sabin-like PVs were found in routine EEVS, 11 Sabin-like PVs were detected in the CEVS, and one Sabin-like PV was found in the Ter Apel sewage. We observed significant differences between the three programs regarding which EVs were found. In 6 sewage samples collected during the measles outbreak in 2013, measles virus RNA was detected in regions where measles cases were identified. In conclusion, we detected PVs, nonpolio EVs, and measles virus in sewage and showed that environmental surveillance is useful for poliovirus detection in the Netherlands, where live oral poliovirus vaccine is not used and communities with lower vaccination coverage exist. EEVS led to the detection of EV types not seen in the CEVS, showing that EEVS is complementary to CEVS. IMPORTANCE We show that environmental enterovirus surveillance complements clinical enterovirus surveillance for poliovirus detection, or exclusion, and for nonpolio enterovirus surveillance. Even in the presence of adequate surveillance, only a very limited number of Sabin-like poliovirus strains were detected in a 10-year period, and no signs of transmission of oral polio vaccine (OPV) strains

  8. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2003-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of the levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in the levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on a continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on both national and EU legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces also monitor environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2002. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are obtained from the monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. These results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in the surveillance of environmental radioactivity collect and deliver environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or participate in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for successful co-operation: The Finnish Defence Forces, the Finnish

  9. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2002-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2001. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are collected from monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for the successful co-operation: Defence

  10. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of the levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in the levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on a continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on both national and EU legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces also monitor environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2003. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are obtained from the monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. These results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in the surveillance of environmental radioactivity collect and deliver environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or participate in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for successful co- operation: The Finnish Defence Forces, the Finnish

  11. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of radiation to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of the health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2000. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. The results are collected from monitoring programmes of STUK, FMI and the Defence Forces Research Institute of Technology. Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting. STUK would like to express its gratitude to the following institutions for the successful co-operation: Defence Forces

  12. Using Routinely Collected Hospital Data for Child Maltreatment Surveillance: Issues, Methods and Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Debbie A

    2011-01-01

    maltreatment cases. Conclusion This study has demonstrated that hospital data could provide valuable information for routine monitoring and surveillance of child maltreatment, even in the absence of population-based linked data sources. With national and international calls for a public health response to child maltreatment, better understanding of, investment in and utilisation of our core national routinely collected data sources will enhance the evidence-base needed to support an appropriate response to children at risk.

  13. Aberrant paramagnetic signals outside the tumor volume on routine surveillance MRI of brain tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yust-Katz, Shlomit; Inbar, Edna; Michaeli, Natalia; Limon, Dror; Siegal, Tali

    2017-09-01

    Late complications of cerebral radiation therapy (RT) involve vascular injury with acquired cavernous malformation, telangiectasias and damage to vascular walls which are well recognized in children. Its incidence in adults is unknown. Blood products and iron deposition that accompany vascular injury create paramagnetic effects on MRI. This study retrospectively investigated the frequency of paramagnetic lesions on routine surveillance MRI of adult brain tumor patients. MRI studies of 115 brain tumor patients were reviewed. Only studies containing sequences of either susceptibility weighted images or gradient echo or blood oxygenation level dependent imaging were included. Lesions inside the tumor volume were not considered. 68 studies fulfilled the above criteria and included 48 patients with previous RT (35 followed for >2 years and 13 for 1 year) and 20 patients who were not treated with RT. The median age at time of irradiation was 47 years. Aberrant paramagnetic lesions were found in 23/35 (65%) patients followed for >2 years after RT and in only 1/13 (8%) patients followed for 1-year after radiation (p = 0.03). The 1-year follow-up group did not differ from the control group [2/20 (9%)]. Most lesions were within the radiation field and none of the patients had related symptomatology. The number and incidence of these lesions increased with time and amounted to 75% over 3 years post RT. MRI paramagnetic signal aberrations are common findings in adult brain tumor patients that evolve over time after RT. The clinical significance of these lesions needs further investigation.

  14. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Data Report for Calendar Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2009-08-11

    Environmental surveillance on and around the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. The environmental surveillance data collected for this report provide a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford Site operations. Data were also collected to monitor several chemicals and metals in Columbia River water, sediment, and wildlife. These data are included in this appendix. This report is the first of two appendices that support "Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2008" (PNNL-18427), which describes the Hanford Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, Hanford Site cleanup and remediation efforts, and environmental monitoring activities and results.

  15. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Data Report for Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2008-10-13

    Environmental surveillance on and around the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. The environmental surveillance data collected for this report provide a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford Site operations. Data were also collected to monitor several chemicals and metals in Columbia River water, sediment, and wildlife. These data are included in this appendix. This report is the first of two appendices that support "Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2007" (PNNL-17603), which describes the Hanford Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, Hanford Site cleanup and remediation efforts, and environmental monitoring activities and results.

  16. Environmental surveillance for the INEL radioactive waste management complex. Annual report, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.; Janke, D.H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is the 1979 annual environmental surveillance report for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included are tabulated data from and discussions about routine radiological monitoring of atmospheric, hydrologic, geologic, and biotic environments of the RWMC. Also included are discussions of selected nonradiological pollutants (e.g., sodium, etc.). It is concluded that (a) RWMC operations have not adversely affected local, existing environments; (b) environmental conditions within the Transuranic Storage Area are not corrosive enough to adversely affect transuranic waste storage containers, and (c) the addition of lakebed soil to pit, trench, and soil test plot areas has altered the moisture cycle characteristic of RWMC soil

  17. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. During the past several years, a number of DOE sites have participated in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at FEMP and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out

  18. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Fernald Environmental Management Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. During the past several years, a number of DOE sites have participated in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at FEMP and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  19. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustonen, R.

    2005-07-01

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air, water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2004. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the

  20. Environmental surveillance at Hanford for CY-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.; Blumer, P.J.; Hoenes, G.R.; Bramson, P.E.

    1977-04-01

    Environmental data collected during 1976 show continued compliance by Hanford with all applicable state and federal regulations. Data were collected for most environmental media including air, Columbia River water, external radiation, foodstuffs (milk, meat, eggs, poultry, and produce), and wildlife (deer, fish, game birds, and oysters from Willapa Bay), as well as a few soil and vegetation samples. The data are summarized

  1. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2010-01-08

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford Site environs per regulatory requirements. This document contains the calendar year 2010 schedule for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project and the Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sampling frequencies, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis. If a sample will not be collected in 2010, the anticipated year for collection is provided. Maps showing approximate sampling locations are included for media scheduled for collection in 2010.

  2. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2009-01-20

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1 and DOE Order 5400.5. This document contains the calendar year 2009 schedule for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sampling frequencies, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis. If a sample will not be collected in 2009, the anticipated year for collection is provided. Maps showing approximate sampling locations are included for media scheduled for collection in 2009.

  3. Sequim Marine Research Laboratory routine environmental measurements during CY-1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.; Blumer, P.J.

    1978-06-01

    Beginning in 1976, a routine environmental program was established at the Marine Research Laboratory (MRL) at Sequim, Washington. The program is intended to demonstrate the negligible impact of current MRL operations on the surrounding environs and to provide baseline data through which any cumulative impact could be detected. The sampling frequency is greater during the first 2 years of the program to provide sufficient initial information to allow reliable estimates of observed radionuclide concentrations and to construct a long-term sampling program. The program is designed, primarily, to determine levels of radioactivity present in selected biota in Sequim Bay. The biota were selected because of their presence near the laboratory and their capacity to concentrate trace elements. Other samples were obtained to determine the radionuclides in Sequim Bay and laboratory drinking water, as well as the ambient radiation exposure levels and surface deposition of fallout radionuclides for the laboratory area. Appendix A provides a summary of the analytical methods used. The present document includes data obtained during CY 1977 in addition to CY-1976 data published previously

  4. Environmental surveillance at Hanford for CY 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.R.; Blumer, P.J.

    1978-04-01

    Environmental data collected during 1977 show continued compliance by Hanford with all applicable state and federal regulations. Data were collected for most environmental media including air, Columbia River water, external radiation, foodstuffs (milk, beef, eggs, poultry, and produce) and wildlife (deer, fish, game birds, and oysters from Willapa Bay), as well as soil and vegetation samples. In general, offsite levels of radionuclides attributable to Hanford operations during 1977 were indistinguishable from background levels

  5. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, "Environmental Protection Program," and DOE Order 5400.5, "Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment." The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the "Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office." This document contains the calendar year 2008 schedule for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sampling frequencies, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis. If a sample will not be collected in 2008, the anticipated year for collection is provided. Maps showing approximate sampling locations are included for media scheduled for collection in 2008.

  6. Quality assurance applied to an environmental surveillance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.; Eldridge, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of a quality assurance program applied to environmental surveillance activities is presented. This includes the philosophy and concepts of quality assurance, along with a detailed assessment of the sources of uncertainty in a monitoring program. The role management must play for a successful program is also discussed, and the quality assurance program implemented at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented

  7. Environmental surveillance at Hanford for CY-1975 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, P.J.; Fix, J.J.; Speer, D.R.

    1976-04-01

    This document contains detailed data collected by the Hanford Environmental Surveillance program during 1975. Environmental Surveillance responsibilities at Hanford are divided between Hanford Environmental Health Foundation (HEHF) and Battelle-Northwest (BNW). HEHF is responsible for measuring all nonradiological air quality and sanitary water parameters of interest. BNW is responsible for measuring radiological parameters in all environmental media of significance and for measuring both radiological and nonradiological parameters of Columbia River water and ground water. A brief description of the method and location of sample collection during 1975 is included. Data are tabulated on the content of specific radionuclides in surface air. Columbia River water, drinking water, ground water, foods, fish, and wild animals. Data are also included on content of NO 2 and SO 2 in air, nitrates in Columbia River water, ground water, and drinking water, and water quality of samples of Columbia River water collected at various sampling locations

  8. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme 1994-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, D.; Smith, V.; Howett, D.; Hayden, E.; Fegan, M.; O'Colmain, M.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report presents the results of the terrestrial monitoring programme implemented by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland during the period 1994 to 1996. This monitoring programme includes the routine sampling and testing for radioactivity of samples of air, rainwater, drinking water and milk. Atmospheric concentrations of krypton-85 continued to rise over the period. No abnormal readings were observed for gamma dose rate, radioactivity in airborne particulates or radioactivity in rainwater. Significant variation in the concentrations of natural radioactivity was observed between drinking water supplies.The levels of anthropogenic radioactivity recorded during this reporting period in air, rainwater, drinking water and milk continue to be insignificant from a radiological safety point of view

  9. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apt, K.E.; Lee, V.J.

    1975-05-01

    The CY 1974 environmental monitoring program of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) is documented. Data are presented for concentrations of radioactivity measured in air, ground, and surface waters, sediments, and soils, and those data are compared with relevant AEC guides and/or data from other reporting periods. Levels of external penetrating radiation measured in the LASL environs are given. The average whole-body radiation dose to residents of Los Alamos County resulting from LASL operations is calculated. Chemical and biological qualities of surface and ground waters of the LASL environs have been determined and are compared to applicable standards. Results of related environmental studies are provided. (U.S.)

  10. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apt, K.E.; Lee, V.J.

    1976-04-01

    This report documents the CY 1975 environmental monitoring program of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). Data are presented for concentrations of radioactivity measured in air, ground and surface waters, sediments, soils, and foodstuffs, and are compared with relevant U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration guides and/or data from other reporting periods. Levels of external penetrating radiation measured in the LASL environs are given. The average whole-body radiation dose to residents of Los Alamos County resulting from LASL operations is calculated. Chemical qualities of surface and ground waters in the LASL environs have been determined and compared to applicable standards. Results of related environmental studies are summarized

  11. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-04-01

    This report documents the environmental monitoring program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in 1976. Data are presented for concentrations of radioactivity measured in air, ground and surface waters, sediments, soils, and foodstuffs, and are compared with relevant U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration guides and/or data from other reporting periods. Levels of external penetrating radiation measured in the LASL environs are given. The average whole-body radiation dose to residents of Los Alamos County resulting from LASL operations is calculated. Chemical qualities of surface and ground waters in the LASL environs have been determined and compared to applicable standards. Results of related environmental studies are summarized

  12. Hanford Site environmental surveillance data report for calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-07-01

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site collects data that provides a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford operations. Data are also collected to monitor several chemicals and metals in Columbia River Water and Sediment. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory publishes an annual environmental report for the Hanford Site each calendar year. The Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995 describes the Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, and environmental monitoring activities and results. The report includes a summary of offsite and onsite environmental monitoring data collected during 1995 by PNNL's Environmental Monitoring Program. Appendix A of that report contains data summaries created from raw surface, river monitoring data, and chemical air data. This volume contains the actual raw data used to create the summaries. The data volume also includes Hanford Site drinking water radiological data

  13. Quality-control activities of the Hanford Environmental Surveillance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Jaquish, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to quality control (QC) has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Hanford Environmental Surveillance Program. The framework of quality control for the surveillance program has been documented in a QC implementation guide wherein QC requirements are specified and specific responsibilities and authorities are described. Subjects in the guide include the collection, analysis, and reporting of samples as well as equipment calibration and maintenance, training, audits, and record keeping. A QC file and library have been established to store pertinent documentation, records, and references for ready access

  14. Environmental surveillance at Hanford for CY-1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.R.; Blumer, P.J.

    1980-04-01

    Environmental data were collected for most environmental media including air, Columbia River water, external radiation, foodstuffs (milk, beef, eggs, poultry, and produce) and wildlife (deer, fish, and game birds), as well as soil and vegetation samples. In general, offsite levels of radionuclides attributable to Hanford operations during 1979 were indistinguishable from background levels. The data are summarized in the following highlights. Air quality measurements of NO 2 in the vicinity of the Hanford Site and releases of SO 2 onsite were well within the applicable federal and state standards. Particulate air concentrations exceed the standards primarily because of agricultural activities in the area. Discharges of waste water from Hanford facilities in the Columbia River under the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit were all within the parameter limits on the permit

  15. Guide for environmental radiological surveillance at ERDA installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, J.P.; Denham, D.H.; Michels, D.E.; Olsen, A.R.; Waite, D.A.

    1977-03-01

    This Guide is intended to: Provide recommended methods, procedures, and performance criteria to bring greater comparability to ERDA environmental monitoring and reporting systems; provide ERDA management, particularly the Headquarters' Division of Safety, Standards, and Compliance (SSC) and field offices, with a broad review of accepted radiological surveillance practices for use in the evaluation of environmental surveillance programs at ERDA facilities; and delineate the capabilities and limitations of the various environmental monitoring systems for radioactivity currently used at ERDA sites, including technical areas where there is either an inadequate basis for procedural selection or where further developmental work may be warranted. The discussion of equipment, measurement techniques, and quality control procedures, although believed to represent current technology, is subject to continuing change as technological improvements become available

  16. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Data from monitoring and sampling at on-site locations to 80 Km from the Laboratory are presented. Included are measurements of radiation and collection of samples of air, particulates, water, soils, sediments and foodstuffs. During 1983 more than 18,000 analyses for chemical and radiochemical constituents were performed on these environmental samples. Calculated individual whole-body radiation doses to the public attributed to Laboratory operations were compared with applicable Radiation Protection Standards and estimates of the added risk of cancer are given. 3 figures, 3 tables

  17. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme. 1999 and 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.; Sequeira, S.; Smith, V.

    2002-02-01

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland continued to monitor levels of radioactivity in air, drinking water and foodstuffs in 1999 and 2000 and the results are presented in this report, the sixth in a series dealing with the terrestrial environment. Radioactivity is present in the terrestrial environment due to natural processes, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, accidents such as the Chernobyl accident and the routine discharge of radionuclides from nuclear installations. The Institute monitored airborne radioactivity at ten stations throughout the country. One site was equipped to detect the presence of krypton-85, a radionuclide which is released into the environment primarily as a result of the reprocessing of nuclear fuel at installations such as Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. Both in 1999 and 2000, levels of radionuclides in airborne particulates were low and consistent with measurements in previous years. Public water supplies are sampled from each county at least every four years with supplies to certain major population centres sampled annually. Water supplies from eleven counties were sampled between 1999 and 2000 and all of the waters tested were found to be within legal requirements for water quality from a radiological point of view. The levels of artificial radioactivity in milk and other foodstuffs such as milk products, baby foods, beef, lamb, poultry and vegetables continued to be very low in 1999 and 2000 and, for the majority of samples, below the detection limits. External gamma dose rates were monitored continuously at twelve locations around the country. The dose rate was recorded every twenty minutes and the readings transmitted automatically to the Institute's computer database at Clonskeagh (Dublin). No abnormally high levels were observed at any of the twelve stations in either 1999 or 2000. The data presented in this report demonstrate that the levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish

  18. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme 1999 and 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.P.; Sequeira, S.; Smith, V.

    2002-02-01

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland continued to monitor levels of radioactivity in air, drinking water and foodstuffs in 1999 and 2000 and the results are presented in this report, the sixth in a series dealing with the terrestrial environment. Radioactivity is present in the terrestrial environment due to natural processes, the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, accidents such as the Chernobyl accident and the routine discharge of radionuclides from nuclear installations. The Institute monitored airborne radioactivity at ten stations throughout the country. One site was equipped to detect the presence of krypton-85, a radionuclide which is released into the environment primarily as a result of the reprocessing of nuclear fuel at installations such as Sellafield in the UK and La Hague in France. Both in 1999 and 2000, levels of radionuclides in airborne particulates were low and consistent with measurements in previous years. Public water supplies are sampled from each county at least every four years with supplies to certain major population centres sampled annually. Water supplies from eleven counties were sampled between 1999 and 2000 and all of the waters tested were found to be within legal requirements for water quality from a radiological point of view. The levels of artificial radioactivity in milk and other foodstuffs such as milk products, baby foods, beef, lamb, poultry and vegetables continued to be very low in 1999 and 2000 and, for the majority of samples, below the detection limits. External gamma dose rates were monitored continuously at twelve locations around the country. The dose rate was recorded every twenty minutes and the readings transmitted automatically to the Institute's computer database at Clonskeagh (Dublin). No abnormally high levels were observed at any of the twelve stations in either 1999 or 2000. The data presented in this report demonstrate that the levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish

  19. Environmental surveillance for polioviruses in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Humayun; Diop, Ousmane M; Weldegebriel, Goitom; Malik, Farzana; Shetty, Sushmitha; El Bassioni, Laila; Akande, Adefunke O; Al Maamoun, Eman; Zaidi, Sohail; Adeniji, Adekunle J; Burns, Cara C; Deshpande, Jagadish; Oberste, M Steve; Lowther, Sara A

    2014-11-01

    This article summarizes the status of environmental surveillance (ES) used by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, provides the rationale for ES, gives examples of ES methods and findings, and summarizes how these data are used to achieve poliovirus eradication. ES complements clinical acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance for possible polio cases. ES detects poliovirus circulation in environmental sewage and is used to monitor transmission in communities. If detected, the genetic sequences of polioviruses isolated from ES are compared with those of isolates from clinical cases to evaluate the relationships among viruses. To evaluate poliovirus transmission, ES programs must be developed in a manner that is sensitive, with sufficiently frequent sampling, appropriate isolation methods, and specifically targeted sampling sites in locations at highest risk for poliovirus transmission. After poliovirus ceased to be detected in human cases, ES documented the absence of endemic WPV transmission and detected imported WPV. ES provides valuable information, particularly in high-density populations where AFP surveillance is of poor quality, persistent virus circulation is suspected, or frequent virus reintroduction is perceived. Given the benefits of ES, GPEI plans to continue and expand ES as part of its strategic plan and as a supplement to AFP surveillance. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Environmental Surveillance System To Track Wild Poliovirus Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Jagadish M.; Shetty, Sushmitha J.; Siddiqui, Zaeem A.

    2003-01-01

    Eradication of poliomyelitis from large metropolis cities in India has been difficult due to high population density and the presence of large urban slums. Three paralytic poliomyelitis cases were reported in Mumbai, India, in 1999 and 2000 in spite of high immunization coverage and good-quality supplementary immunization activities. We therefore established a systematic environmental surveillance study by weekly screening of sewage samples from three high-risk slum areas to detect the silent transmission of wild poliovirus. In 2001, from among the 137 sewage samples tested, wild poliovirus type 1 was isolated from 35 and wild poliovirus type 3 was isolated from 1. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance indicated one case of paralytic poliomyelitis from the city. Phylogenetic analysis with complete VP1 sequences revealed that the isolates from environmental samples belonged to four lineages of wild polioviruses recently isolated from poliomyelitis cases in Uttar Pradesh and not to those previously isolated from AFP cases in Mumbai. Wild poliovirus thus introduced caused one case of paralytic poliomyelitis. The virus was detected in environmental samples 3 months before. It was found that wild polioviruses introduced several times during the year circulated in Mumbai for a limited period before being eliminated. Environmental surveillance was found to be sensitive for the detection of wild poliovirus silent transmission. Nucleotide sequence analysis helped identify wild poliovirus reservoir areas. PMID:12732567

  1. Transitioning from antenatal surveillance surveys to routine HIV testing: a turning point in the mother-to-child transmission prevention programme for HIV surveillance in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Sabidó, Meritxell; Caruso, Alessandro; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2017-07-05

    In Brazil, due to the rapid increase in programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), routine programme data are widely available. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of programmatic data to replace HIV surveillance based on the antenatal care (ANC) surveillance survey (SS). We analysed ANC SS data from 219 maternity service clinics. PMTCT variables were extracted from the ANC SS data collection form, which allowed us to capture and compare the ANC SS data and PMTCT HIV test results for each pregnant woman who completed the ANC SS. Both the PMTCT programme and the ANC SS tested for HIV using sequential ELISA and western blot for confirmation. We assessed the completeness (% missing) of the PMTC data included in the ANC SS. Of the 36,713 pregnant women who had ANC SS HIV tests performed, 30,588 also underwent PMTCT HIV testing. The HIV prevalence rate from routine PMTCT testing was 0.36%, compared to 0.38% from the ANC SS testing (relative difference -0.05%; absolute difference -0.02%). The relative difference in prevalence rates between pregnant women in northern Brazil and pregnant women central-west Brazil was -0.98 and 0.66, respectively. Of the 29,856 women who had HIV test results from both the PMTCT and ANC SS, the positive percent agreement of the PMTCT versus the surveillance test was 84.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74.8-91.0), and the negative percent agreement was 99.9% (95% CI: 99.9-100.0). The PMTCT HIV testing uptake was 86.4%. The ANC SS HIV prevalence was 0.33% among PMTCT non-refusers and 0.59% among refusers, with a percent bias of -10.80% and a differential prevalence ratio of 0.56. Syphilis and HIV testing results were complete in 98% and 97.6% of PMTCT reports, respectively. The reported HIV status for the women at clinic entry was missing. Although there were consistent HIV prevalence estimates from the PMTCT data and the ANC SS, the overall positive percent agreement of 84.1% falls below the

  2. Routine Surveillance for Bloodstream Infections in a Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Cohort: Do Patients Benefit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Rigby

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients are at a high risk for late bloodstream infection (BSI. Controversy exists regarding the benefit of surveillance blood cultures in this immunosuppressed population. Despite the common use of this practice, the practical value is not well established in non-neutropenic children following HSCT.

  3. Nuclear power stations: environmental surveillance of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellerin, P.

    1972-01-01

    Because of the radiations they emit, radioactive substances can be detected, identified and measured at extremely low concentrations ? the corresponding masses are lower by a factor ranging from 1000 to 10 000 than those that can be measured by any other chemical or physical method, however precise, applied to non-radioactive substances. Radioisotopes can therefore be detected in the environment at levels much lower than those at which genuine public health problems begin to arise. Unfortunately, we cannot say the same of numerous non-radio active pollutants, which can be measured only at concentrations very close to, or even exceeding, the toxicity threshold. In the mind of the uninformed public confusion seems quite frequently to reign as between the detection threshold and the toxicity threshold. This undoubtedly explains the following situation which is, to say the least, paradoxical: people are afraid of the hypothetical effects of radioactivity at ridiculously low levels, whereas nobody is alarmed at the fact that the toxicity limits for a very large number of non-radioactive, but very real pollutants are being exceeded almost continuously. The sum of all artificial irradiations does not exceed the normal fluctuations of natural irradiation, and if the genetic effects of very low radiation doses were truly cumulative, the natural radiation to which we are all exposed and which is by far the highest would by itself have eliminated every trace of life on earth long ago. Lastly, let us not forget that merely the use of X-rays in medicine, particularly in radiodiagnosis, represents an additional average artificial irradiation of the population amounting to double the natural radiation (100 millirem per year). This is about 100 times the irradiation which would accrue from nuclear industry even according to the most pessimistic estimate. We have seen that the measures described above will make it genuinely possible to maintain environmental radioactivity in all

  4. Environmental surveillance at Hanford for CY-1974 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.; Blumer, P.J.

    1975-04-01

    Data collected by the Hanford Environmental Surveillance program during 1974 are presented in tables. Data are included on radiological parameters measured in the atmosphere, Columbia River water, drinking water; radionuclides in soil and vegetation, fish and wildlife, and selected foodstuffs; measurements of external radiation doses; and nonradiological parameters measured in the atmosphere, drinking water, and Columbia River water. Methods of sample collection are described briefly. (U.S.)

  5. Statistical distributions as applied to environmental surveillance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speer, D.R.; Waite, D.A.

    1975-09-01

    Application of normal, log normal, and Weibull distributions to environmental surveillance data was investigated for approximately 300 nuclide-medium-year-location combinations. Corresponding W test calculations were made to determine the probability of a particular data set falling within the distribution of interest. Conclusions are drawn as to the fit of any data group to the various distributions. The significance of fitting statistical distributions to the data is discussed

  6. No survival benefit associated with routine surveillance imaging for Hodgkin lymphoma in first remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, L. H.; Hutchings, M.; Brown, P d N

    2016-01-01

    The use of routine imaging for patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in complete remission (CR) is controversial. In a population-based study, we examined the post-remission survival of Danish and Swedish HL patients for whom follow-up practices were different. Follow-up in Denmark includ...

  7. Surveillance Plan for environmental monitoring in Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This Surveillance Plan has been developed as part of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental monitoring will be conducted in two phases: the baseline monitoring phase and the routine annual monitoring phase. The baseline monitoring phase will be conducted to establish the baseline contaminant release conditions at the Waste Area Grouping (WAG), to confirm the site-related chemicals of concern (COC), and to gather data to confirm the site hydrologic model The baseline monitoring phase is expected to begin in 1994 and continue for 12--18 months. The routine annual monitoring phase will consist of continued sampling and analyses of COC to determine off-WAG contaminant flux, to identify trends in releases, and to confirm the COC The routine annual monitoring phase will continue for ∼4 years after completion of the baseline monitoring phase. This Surveillance Plan presents the technical and quality assurance surveillance activities for the various WAG 6 environmental monitoring and data evaluation plans and implementing procedures

  8. Hanford Site environmental surveillance data report for calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-07-01

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site collects data that provides a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford operations. Data are also collected to monitor several chemicals and metals in Columbia River Water and Sediment. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory publishes an annual environmental report for the Hanford Site each calendar year. The Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1995 describes the Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, and environmental monitoring activities and results. The report includes a summary of offsite and onsite environmental monitoring data collected during 1995 by PNNL`s Environmental Monitoring Program. Appendix A of that report contains data summaries created from raw surface, river monitoring data, and chemical air data. This volume contains the actual raw data used to create the summaries. The data volume also includes Hanford Site drinking water radiological data.

  9. Environmental surveillance and compliance at Los Alamos during 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report presents environmental data that characterize environmental performance and addresses compliance with environmental standards and requirements at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) during 1996. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive nonradioactive materials at Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring results to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1996 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions; and concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, the municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs. Using comparisons with standards and regulations, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. Laboratory operations were in compliance with all major environmental regulations.

  10. Environmental surveillance and compliance at Los Alamos during 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This report presents environmental data that characterize environmental performance and addresses compliance with environmental standards and requirements at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) during 1996. The Laboratory routinely monitors for radiation and for radioactive nonradioactive materials at Laboratory sites as well as in the surrounding region. LANL uses the monitoring results to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to identify potentially undesirable trends. Data were collected in 1996 to assess external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions; and concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, the municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs. Using comparisons with standards and regulations, this report concludes that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a demonstrable threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. Laboratory operations were in compliance with all major environmental regulations

  11. Monitoring activities review of the Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, P.D.

    1992-03-01

    The 1992 Monitoring Activities Review (MAR) is directed at the Radiological Environment Surveillance Program (RESP) activities at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of Idaho Engineering Laboratory (INEL). MAR panelists studied RESP documents and discussed their concerns with Environmental Monitoring Unit (EMU) staff and other panel members. These concerns were subsequently consolidated into a collection of recommendations with supporting discussions. Recommendations focus on specific monitoring activities, as well as the overall program. The MAR report also contains pertinent comments that should not require further action

  12. Laboratory of environmental radiological surveillance; Laboratorio de vigilancia radiologica ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez G, A.; Marcial M, F.; Giber F, J.; Montiel R, E.; Leon del V, E.; Rivas C, I.; Leon G, M.V.; Lagunas G, E.; Aragon S, R.; Juarez N, A.; Alfaro L, M.M

    1991-12-15

    The department of radiological protection of the ININ requests the collaboration of the Engineering Unit for the elaboration of the work project of the laboratory of environmental radiological surveillance. The emission of radioactive substances to the atmosphere like consequence of the normal operation of the Nuclear Center, constitutes an exhibition source from the man to the radiations that it should be appropriately watched over and controlled to be able to determine the population's potential exhibition that it lives in the area of influence of the installation. (Author)

  13. Laboratory of environmental radiological surveillance; Laboratorio de vigilancia radiologica ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez G, A; Marcial M, F; Giber F, J; Montiel R, E; Leon del V, E; Rivas C, I; Leon G, M V; Lagunas G, E; Aragon S, R; Juarez N, A; Alfaro L, M M

    1991-12-15

    The department of radiological protection of the ININ requests the collaboration of the Engineering Unit for the elaboration of the work project of the laboratory of environmental radiological surveillance. The emission of radioactive substances to the atmosphere like consequence of the normal operation of the Nuclear Center, constitutes an exhibition source from the man to the radiations that it should be appropriately watched over and controlled to be able to determine the population's potential exhibition that it lives in the area of influence of the installation. (Author)

  14. Using routinely reported tuberculosis genotyping and surveillance data to predict tuberculosis outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy P Althomsons

    Full Text Available We combined routinely reported tuberculosis (TB patient characteristics with genotyping data and measures of geospatial concentration to predict which small clusters (i.e., consisting of only 3 TB patients in the United States were most likely to become outbreaks of at least 6 TB cases. Of 146 clusters analyzed, 16 (11.0% grew into outbreaks. Clusters most likely to become outbreaks were those in which at least 1 of the first 3 patients reported homelessness or excess alcohol or illicit drug use or was incarcerated at the time of TB diagnosis and in which the cluster grew rapidly (i.e., the third case was diagnosed within 5.3 months of the first case. Of 17 clusters with these characteristics and therefore considered high risk, 9 (53% became outbreaks. This retrospective cohort analysis of clusters in the United States suggests that routinely reported data may identify small clusters that are likely to become outbreaks and which are therefore candidates for intensified contact investigations.

  15. Sequim Marine Research Laboratory routine environmental measurements during CY-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.R.; Blumer, P.J.

    1979-03-01

    Environmental data collected during 1978 in the vicinity of the Marine Research Laboratory show continued compliance with all applicable state and federal regulations and furthermore show no detectable change from conditions that existed in previous years. Samples collected for radiological analysis included soil, drinking water, bay water, clams, and seaweed. Radiation dose rates at 1 meter aboveground were also measured

  16. Regulatory standards applicable or relevant to the independent Hanford environmental surveillance and oversight program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.E.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Siegel, M.R.; Woodruff, M.G.; Belfiglio, J.; Elliott, R.W.

    1990-03-01

    The authors reviewed federal and state statutes and regulations, as well as Department of Energy (DOE) orders and other guidance material, for potential applicability to the environmental surveillance program conducted for the Hanford site by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). There are no federal or state statutes or regulations which are directly applicable to the environmental surveillance program. However, other regulatory schemes, while not directly applicable to the environmental surveillance program, are important insofar as they are indicative of regulatory concern and direction. Because of the evolving nature of environmental regulations, this area needs to be closely monitored for future impact on environmental surveillance activities. 9 refs.,

  17. The role of supplementary environmental surveillance to complement acute flaccid paralysis surveillance for wild poliovirus in Pakistan - 2011-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tori L Cowger

    Full Text Available More than 99% of poliovirus infections are non-paralytic and therefore, not detected by acute flaccid paralysis (AFP surveillance. Environmental surveillance (ES can detect circulating polioviruses from sewage without relying on clinical presentation. With extensive ES and continued circulation of polioviruses, Pakistan presents a unique opportunity to quantify the impact of ES as a supplement to AFP surveillance on overall completeness and timeliness of poliovirus detection.Genetic, geographic and temporal data were obtained for all wild poliovirus (WPV isolates detected in Pakistan from January 2011 through December 2013. We used viral genetics to assess gaps in AFP surveillance and ES as measured by detection of 'orphan viruses' (≥1.5% different in VP1 capsid nucleotide sequence. We compared preceding detection of closely related circulating isolates (≥99% identity detected by AFP surveillance or ES to determine which surveillance system first detected circulation before the presentation of each polio case.A total of 1,127 WPV isolates were detected by AFP surveillance and ES in Pakistan from 2011-2013. AFP surveillance and ES combined exhibited fewer gaps (i.e., % orphan viruses in detection than AFP surveillance alone (3.3% vs. 7.7%, respectively. ES detected circulation before AFP surveillance in nearly 60% of polio cases (200 of 346. For polio cases reported from provinces conducting ES, ES detected circulation nearly four months sooner on average (117.6 days than did AFP surveillance.Our findings suggest ES in Pakistan is providing earlier, more sensitive detection of wild polioviruses than AFP surveillance alone. Overall, targeted ES through strategic selection of sites has important implications in the eradication endgame strategy.

  18. Environmental hardening of robots for nuclear maintenance and surveillance tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintenlang, D.E.; Tulenko, J.S.; Wheeler, R.; Roy, T.

    1990-01-01

    The University of Florida, in cooperation with the Universities of Texas, Tennessee, and Michigan and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is developing an advanced robotic system for the US Department of Energy under the University Program for Robotics for Advanced Reactors. As part of this program, the University of Florida has been pursuing the development of environmentally hardened components so that autonomous robotic systems can successfully carry out their tasks under the most extreme expected environmental conditions. This requirement means that the designed robotic system with its onboard computer-based intelligence must be able to successfully complete tasks in toxic, radioactive, wet, temperature extremes, and other physically impairing environments. As part of this program, a study was carried out to determine the environmental conditions that should be set as the design criteria for robotic systems to maintain reasonable operations for nuclear plants in the course of maintenance, testing, and surveillance under all conditions, including plant upset. It was decided that Florida would build a combined environmental testing facility to test specific devices in high-radiation/high-temperature combined environments. This environmental test chamber has been built and successfully tested to over 250 degree F. This facility will provide some of the first combined temperatures/radiation data for many large-scale integrated components

  19. Surveillance of poliomyelitis in Northern Italy: Results of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance and environmental surveillance, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Bubba, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Pariani, Elena; Battistone, Andrea; Delogu, Roberto; Fiore, Stefano; Binda, Sandro

    2017-02-01

    Although in the last years poliovirus (PV) transmission has been reported at the lowest levels ever recorded, the spread of virus from endemic countries endures; the high levels of immigration flows across the Mediterranean Sea jeopardize Italy for PV reintroduction. The World Health Organization (WHO) strategic plan for global poliomyelitis (polio) eradication indicates the nationwide surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) as the gold standard for detecting cases of polio. In addition, the Environmental Surveillance (ES), seeking the presence of PV and Non-Polio Enterovirus (NPEV) in sewage, is recognized as a powerful tool to confirm PV circulation in absence of AFP cases, especially in polio-free countries. Here we report the results of AFP surveillance (AFPS) and ES in Lombardy (Northern Italy) from 2012 to 2015. Forty-eight AFP cases were identified during the study period. No AFP case was caused by PV infection. NPEVs were identified in 6.3% (3/48) of AFP cases. The annual AFP incidence rate was 0.87/100'000 children <15 y in 2012, 1.42/100'000 in 2013, 1.02/100'000 in 2014, and 0.47/100'000 in 2015; according to WHO indicators, the sensitivity of AFPS was adequate in 2013 and 2014. Completeness of case investigation raised progressively during the study period to achieve the WHO standards in 2014 (92.3%) and 2015 (100%). Completeness of follow-up increased from 72.7% in 2012 to 100% in 2014. In the framework of the ES conducted in Milan, 268 wastewater samples were collected from 2012 to 2015 and no PVs were isolated. In contrast, NPEVs were detected in 65.3% (175/268) of samples. All NPEVs characterized belonged to enterovirus species B: echovirus type 11, 6 and 3 were the most frequently detected viruses, representing 29.1% (41/141), 20.6% (29/141) and 9.2% (13/141) of genotyped NPEVs, respectively. Keeping strong and encouraging both AFPS and ES is crucial to ensure that PV will not return unnoticed in Italy - as well as in other polio

  20. SRS environmental air surveillance program 1954-2015: General trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-02

    The radiological monitoring program at SRS was established under the DuPont Company in June 1951 and was used as a measurement of the effectiveness of plant controls and as an authoritative record of environmental conditions surrounding the plant. It also served as a method of demonstrating compliance with applicable federal regulations and guidance. This document serves as a general summary of changes made specifically to the environmental air monitoring program since its inception, and a discussion of the general trends seen in the air monitoring program at SRS from 1954 to 2015. Initially, the environmental air surveillance program focused not only on releases from SRS but also on fallout from various weapons testing performed through the end of 1978. Flypaper was used to measure the amount of fallout in the atmosphere during this period, and was present at each of the 10 monitoring stations. By 1959, all site stacks were included in the air monitoring program to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity onsite, and the number of air surveillance samplers rose to 18. This trend of an increased number of sampling locations continued to a peak of 35 sampling locations before shifting to a downward trend in the mid-1990s. In 1962, 4 outer-range samplers were placed in Savannah and Macon, GA, and in Greenville and Columbia, SC. Until 1976, air samplers were simply placed around the perimeter of the various operation locations (after 1959, this included stacks to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity), with the intent of creating as representative a distribution as possible of the air surrounding operations.

  1. Environmental surveillance data report for the first quarter of 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    The Department of Environmental Management (DEM) within the Environmental and Occupational Safety Division (E and OS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for environmental surveillance to: (1) assure compliance with all Federal, State, and local standards for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution, (2) monitor the adequacy of containment and effluent controls, and (3) assess impacts on the environment of releases from ORNL facilities. During 1986, the Low-Level Counting Facility at ORNL began reporting radionuclide measurements in a manner different from that of previous years. Prior to 1986, data below the minimum detectable limit were reported as ''less than (<)'' the detection limit. This year, results that are negative (samples less than instrument background) are reported. If these data are compared to previous years, it will appear that average values for 1986 have decreased. Apparent decreases may be attributed to the reporting of negative values and the subsequent averaging of this data. Nonradionuclide results that are below the analytical detection limit are expressed as less than (<) the limit. In computing average values, sample results below the limit are assigned the limit, and the resulting average value is expressed as less than the computed value. The Four-Plant Analytical Committee is reviewing the standardization of reporting of less than detectable values. Their recommendations will be incorporated in these reports as they become policy

  2. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Data Report for Calendar Year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2006-09-28

    This data report contains the actual raw data used to create the tables and summaries in the Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2005. In addition to providing raw data collected during routine sampling efforts in 2005, this data report also includes Columbia River shoreline spring data collected by the PNNL Groundwater Performance Assessment Project, and data from collaborative studies performed by the PNNL during 2005 under partial support by the SESP. Some analytical results were not received in time to include in this report or changes may have occurred to the data following publication.

  3. Statistical distributions as applied to environmental surveillance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speer, D.R.; Waite, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Application of normal, lognormal, and Weibull distributions to radiological environmental surveillance data was investigated for approximately 300 nuclide-medium-year-location combinations. The fit of data to distributions was compared through probability plotting (special graph paper provides a visual check) and W test calculations. Results show that 25% of the data fit the normal distribution, 50% fit the lognormal, and 90% fit the Weibull.Demonstration of how to plot each distribution shows that normal and lognormal distributions are comparatively easy to use while Weibull distribution is complicated and difficult to use. Although current practice is to use normal distribution statistics, normal fit the least number of data groups considered in this study

  4. Environmental Surveillance of Human Parechoviruses in Sewage in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuite, M.; de Roda Husman, A. M.; Rutjes, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    The circulation of human parechoviruses (HPeVs) in the population was studied by environmental surveillance comprising of molecular analyses of sewage samples (n = 89) that were collected from 15 different locations in the Netherlands. Samples were taken from sewage originating from schools (n = 9) or from parts of municipalities (n = 6) during the Dutch school year 2010-2011. At 13/15 locations HPeV1, HPeV3, or HPeV6 RNA was detected at least once; however, sequence diversity did not reflect associations in time or place. A higher percentage of positives was observed in the samples originating from the municipalities. It was demonstrated that HPeV circulated in the studied population to a higher extent than would be expected from the current knowledge on infections predominating in young children. PMID:23934500

  5. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  6. Routine environmental audit of the K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the results of the Routine Environmental Audit of the K-25 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, conducted February 14 through February 25, 1994, by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The Routine Environmental Audit for the K-25 site was conducted as an environmental management assessment, supported through reviews of the Waste Management Program and the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. The assessment was conducted jointly with, and built upon, the results provided by the ``DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office Environment, Safety, health and Quality Assurance Appraisal at the K-25 Site.`` DOE 5482.1B, ``Environment, Safety and Health Appraisal Program,`` established the mission of EH-24 to provide comprehensive, independent oversight of Department-wide environmental programs on behalf of the Secretary of Energy. The purpose of this assessment is to provide the Secretary of Energy and senior DOE managers with concise independent information as part of DOE`s continuing effort to improve environmental program performance. The ultimate goal of EH-24 is enhancement of environmental protection and the minimization of risk to public health and the environment. The routine environmental audit is one method by which EH-24 accomplishes its mission, utilizing systematic and periodic evaluations of the Department`s environmental programs within line organizations.

  7. Routine environmental audit of the K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the results of the Routine Environmental Audit of the K-25 Site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, conducted February 14 through February 25, 1994, by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The Routine Environmental Audit for the K-25 site was conducted as an environmental management assessment, supported through reviews of the Waste Management Program and the Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. The assessment was conducted jointly with, and built upon, the results provided by the ''DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office Environment, Safety, health and Quality Assurance Appraisal at the K-25 Site.'' DOE 5482.1B, ''Environment, Safety and Health Appraisal Program,'' established the mission of EH-24 to provide comprehensive, independent oversight of Department-wide environmental programs on behalf of the Secretary of Energy. The purpose of this assessment is to provide the Secretary of Energy and senior DOE managers with concise independent information as part of DOE's continuing effort to improve environmental program performance. The ultimate goal of EH-24 is enhancement of environmental protection and the minimization of risk to public health and the environment. The routine environmental audit is one method by which EH-24 accomplishes its mission, utilizing systematic and periodic evaluations of the Department's environmental programs within line organizations

  8. Whole-Genome Sequencing for Routine Pathogen Surveillance in Public Health: a Population Snapshot of Invasive Staphylococcus aureus in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Aanensen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of routine whole-genome sequencing (WGS promises to transform our ability to monitor the emergence and spread of bacterial pathogens. Here we combined WGS data from 308 invasive Staphylococcus aureus isolates corresponding to a pan-European population snapshot, with epidemiological and resistance data. Geospatial visualization of the data is made possible by a generic software tool designed for public health purposes that is available at the project URL (http://www.microreact.org/project/EkUvg9uY?tt=rc. Our analysis demonstrates that high-risk clones can be identified on the basis of population level properties such as clonal relatedness, abundance, and spatial structuring and by inferring virulence and resistance properties on the basis of gene content. We also show that in silico predictions of antibiotic resistance profiles are at least as reliable as phenotypic testing. We argue that this work provides a comprehensive road map illustrating the three vital components for future molecular epidemiological surveillance: (i large-scale structured surveys, (ii WGS, and (iii community-oriented database infrastructure and analysis tools.

  9. Summary of environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Linking the Rio Grande Valley and the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico's Pajarito Plateau is home to a world-class scientific institution. Los Alamos National Laboratory (or the Laboratory), managed by the Regents of the University of California, is a government-owned, Department of Energy-supervised complex investigating all areas of modern science for the purposes of national defense, health, conservation, and ecology. The Laboratory was founded in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, whose members assembled to create the first nuclear weapon. Occupying the campus of the Los Alamos Ranch School, American and British scientists gathered on the isolated mesa tops to harness recently discovered nuclear power with the hope of ending World War II. In July 1945, the initial objective of the Laboratory, a nuclear device, was achieved in Los Alamos and tested in White Sands, New Mexico. Today the Laboratory continues its role in defense, particularly in nuclear weapons, including developing methods for safely handling weapons and managing waste. For the past twenty years, the Laboratory has published an annual environmental report. This pamphlet offers a synopsis that briefly explains important concepts, such as radiation and provides a summary of the monitoring results and regulatory compliance status that are explained at length in the document entitled Environmental Surveillance at Los Alamos during 1995

  10. Generic environmental statement on the routine use of plutonium-powered cardiac pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoup, R.L.; Robinson, T.W.; O'Donnell, F.R.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of a continuing program at ORNL is to provide technical assistance to the NRC on writing and editing of the final environmental statement on the routine use of nuclear-powered (primarily 238 Pu) cardiac pacemakers. This environmental statement defines the safety and reliability standards that nuclear-powered pacemakers are required to meet. All aspects of the risks to the patients, the public, and the environment are evaluated both for the routine use of plutonium-powered pacemakers and for postulated accidents involving pacemaker patients. Benefits derived from the use of plutonium-powered units are discussed and weighed against the risks in order to determine whether routine use is justified. Available alternative pacemakers with various performance characteristics are compared with respect to costs and to the needs of pacemaker patients

  11. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual report 2011; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2012-08-15

    The main goal of the surveillance of environmental radioactivity is to be always aware of levels of artificial radiation in the environment to which the public is exposed. Another goal is to detect all remarkable changes in levels of environmental radiation and radioactivity. Compliance with the basic safety standards laid down for protection of health of the general public against dangers arising from ionising radiation can be ensured with environmental radiation surveillance. Running of surveillance programmes on continuous basis also maintains and develops competence and readiness to respond to radiological emergencies. This report summarises the results of environmental radiation surveillance in 2011. The report also contains some comparisons with results from the previous years. Surveillance of environmental radiation contains surveillance of artificial radiation and artificial radioactive elements in the environment. Natural radiation and natural radioactive elements are not associated with the surveillance programme, although the greater part of the public exposure to radiation is caused by natural radiation. Exposure to natural radiation is controlled separately if there is reason to suspect, that natural radioactive elements cause unusual high exposure to the public (e.g. indoor radon and natural radionuclides in drinking water). Nuclear power plant licensees are responsible for environmental surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Finland. Those results are reported elsewhere. Surveillance of environmental radioactivity in Finland is one of the official obligations of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). This obligation is based on the national and the European Communities' legislation. The Finnish radiation protection legislation appoints STUK as the national authority responsible for surveillance of environmental radioactivity, and the Euratom Treaty assumes continuous monitoring of levels of radioactivity in the air

  12. FDG-PET AS A ROUTINE SURVEILLANCE TOOL IN HEAD AND NECK CARCINOMA SIX MONTHS AFTER TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ya-nan; Sophie Périé; WANG Jia-dong

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate prospectively the impact of fluorodeoxyglucose-fluorine-18 positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the detection of recurrence, second primary cancers, and distant metastases in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) 6 months after treatment. Methods A total of 41 patients without any clinical element for recurrence, second primary cancer, or distant metastases received a whole-body FDG-PET as a routine surveillance tool 6 months after initial combined curative therapy for HNSCC. Results There were 35 negative PET results and 6 positive. One patient with abnormal FDG-PET did not have recurrent HNSCC (false positive). Five had true positive results: proven recurrence in 2 patients, second primary cancer in 2, and distant metastasis in 1. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for the diagnosis of HNSCC recurrence, second tumor, and distant metastases were 100% (5/5) and 97.2% (35/36), respectively. The positive predictive value was 83.3% (5/6). The negative predictive value was 100% (35/35). The overall accuracy was 97.6% (40/41). FDG-PET had a therapeutic impact in 5 of 41 patients (12.2%). There was no impact of FDG-PET on management in other 36 patients. Conclusion FDG-PET is useful as primary method for detecting nodal recurrence and distant metastases in HNSCC as well as second cancer in subclinical patients as it had a high effectiveness. But systematic FDG-PET performed at 6 months in patients without any clinical suspicion of local recurrence was scarcely useful.

  13. Healthcare associated infections in neonatal intensive care unit and its correlation with environmental surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare-associated infections (HAI are frequent complications in neonatal intensive care units (NICU with varying risk factors and bacteriological profile. There is paucity of literature comparing the bacteriological profile of organisms causing HAI with the environmental surveillance isolates. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate demographic profile, risk factors and outcome of HAI in NICU and correlate with environmental surveillance.Three hundred newborns with signs and symptoms of sepsis were enrolled in the study group and their profile, risk factors and outcome were compared with the control group. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were performed. Environmental surveillance results were compared to the bacteriological profile of HAIs.We identified lower gestational age, male gender and apgar score less than 7 at 5 min, use of peripheral vascular catheter & ventilator along with their duration as significant risk factors. Mortality rate was 29% in the study group (p < 0.05. The HAI site distribution showed blood-stream infections (73% to be the most common followed by pneumonia (12% and meningitis (10%. Gram positive cocci were the most common isolates in HAI as well as environmental surveillance.The bacteriological profile of HAI correlates with the environmental surveillance report thus insisting for periodic surveillance and thereby avoiding irrational antibiotic usage. Keywords: Healthcare associated infection, Neonatal intensive care unit, Environmental surveillance

  14. Environmental monitoring and surveillance on the Oak Ridge Reservation: 1993 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncinski, W.S.

    1994-12-01

    Environmental monitoring and surveillance are conducted on the Oak Ridge Reservation and its environs throughout the year. Environmental monitoring ensures that (1) the reservation is a safe place to work, (2) activities on the reservation do not adversely affect the neighboring communities, and (3) compliance is made with federal and state regulations. This document is a compilation of the monitoring and surveillance data for calendar year 1993. It is a tool for analysts in the fields of environmental monitoring and environmental restoration. The summary information found in the annual site environmental report was drawn from the contents of summary in this document

  15. Impact assessment of malaria vector control using routine surveillance data in Zambia: implications for monitoring and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanda Emmanuel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS, with pyrethroids and DDT, to reduce malaria transmission has been expansively implemented in Zambia. The impact of these interventions on malaria morbidity and mortality has not previously been formally assessed at the population level in Zambia. Methods The impact of IRS (15 urban districts and LLINs (15 rural districts implementation on severe malaria cases, deaths and case fatality rates in children below the age of five years were compared. Zambian national Health Management Information System data from 2007 to 2008 were retrospectively analysed to assess the epidemiological impact of the two interventions using odds ratios to compare the pre-scaling up year 2007 with the scaling-up year 2008. Results Overall there were marked reductions in morbidity and mortality, with cases, deaths and case fatality rates (CFR of severe malaria decreasing by 31%, 63% and 62%, respectively between 2007 and 2008. In urban districts with IRS introduction there was a significant reduction in mortality (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.31-0.43, P = 0.015, while the reduction in mortality in rural districts with LLINs implementation was not significant (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.67-1.04, P = 0.666. A similar pattern was observed for case fatality rates with a significant reduction in urban districts implementing IRS (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.33-0.36, P = 0.005, but not in rural districts implementing LLINs (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.00, P = 0.913. No substantial difference was detected in overall reduction of malaria cases between districts implementing IRS and LLINs (P = 0.933. Conclusion Routine surveillance data proved valuable for determining the temporal effects of malaria control with two strategies, IRS and LLINs on severe malaria disease in different types of Zambian districts. However, this analysis did not take into account the effect

  16. Generic models and parameters for assessing the environmental transfer of radionuclides from routine releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report is addressed to national regulatory bodies and technical and administrative personnel responsible for performing environmental impact analyses, in particular for generic assessments of doses to most exposed individuals from routine releases of radioactive effluents to atmospheric and aquatic environments. The concern of society in general for the quality of the environment and the realization that all human activities have some environmental effect, in which actions and reactions are coupled in a complex but predictable manner, have led to the development of a procedure for environmental impact analysis. This procedure is a predictive one, which tries to forecast probable environmental effects before some action, such as the construction and operation of a nuclear power station, is decided upon. The method of prediction is by the application of models that attempt to describe the environmental processes in mathematical terms in order to produce a quantitative result which can be used in the decision-making process

  17. Description of work for routine groundwater sampling at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, B.H.

    1996-09-01

    This document provides a description of work and field implementation guidance for routine (post-baseline) groundwater monitoring sampling program at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The purpose of this program is to (1) meet the intent of the applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements; (2) document baseline groundwater conditions; (3) monitor those conditions for change; and (4) allow for modifications to groundwater sampling if required by the leachate management program

  18. Healthcare associated infections in neonatal intensive care unit and its correlation with environmental surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Shankar, Binoy; Arya, Sugandha; Deb, Manorma; Chellani, Harish

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are frequent complications in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) with varying risk factors and bacteriological profile. There is paucity of literature comparing the bacteriological profile of organisms causing HAI with the environmental surveillance isolates. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate demographic profile, risk factors and outcome of HAI in NICU and correlate with environmental surveillance. Three hundred newborns with signs and symptoms of sepsis were enrolled in the study group and their profile, risk factors and outcome were compared with the control group. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were performed. Environmental surveillance results were compared to the bacteriological profile of HAIs. We identified lower gestational age, male gender and apgar score less than 7 at 5min, use of peripheral vascular catheter & ventilator along with their duration as significant risk factors. Mortality rate was 29% in the study group (p<0.05). The HAI site distribution showed blood-stream infections (73%) to be the most common followed by pneumonia (12%) and meningitis (10%). Gram positive cocci were the most common isolates in HAI as well as environmental surveillance. The bacteriological profile of HAI correlates with the environmental surveillance report thus insisting for periodic surveillance and thereby avoiding irrational antibiotic usage. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. FY 1994 annual summary report of the surveillance and maintenance activities for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) Program was initiated to manage former waste management and environmental research sites contaminated with radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals. The S and M Program is responsible for managing designated sites/facilities from the end of their operating lives until final disposition or site stabilization. To effectively manage and perform the various S and M Program responsibilities, five summary-level work breakdown structure (WBS) elements have been established: S and M Preliminary Investigations, Special Projects, Routine S and M, Inactive Groundwater Wells, and Project Management. Routine S and M activities were conducted as scheduled throughout fiscal years (FY) 1994 at applicable inactive waste management (WM) and other contaminated areas. Overall, the ER S and M Program maintains 47 facilities, performs vegetation maintenance on approximately 230 acres, maintains 54 inactive tanks, and provides overall site management on over 700 acres. In addition to the routine S and M activities, detailed site inspections were conducted at established frequencies on appropriate sites in the ER S and M Program. This document provides a summary of the FY 1994 ORNL ER S and M Program accomplishments

  20. Routine environmental audit of the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report documents the results of the routine environmental audit of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (Y-12 Plant), Anderson County, Tennessee. During this audit, the activities conducted by the audit team included reviews of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), State of Tennessee regulatory, and contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the audit was conducted August 22-September 2, 1994, by the DOE Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), located within the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). DOE 5482.1 B, open-quotes Environment, Safety, and Health Appraisal Program,close quotes establishes the mission of EH-24 to provide comprehensive, independent oversight of DOE environmental programs on behalf of the Secretary of Energy. The ultimate goal of EH-24 is enhancement of environmental protection and minimization of risk to public health and the environment. EH-24 accomplishes its mission by conducting systematic and periodic evaluations of DOE's environmental programs within line organizations, and by using supplemental activities that strengthen self-assessment and oversight functions within program, field, and contractor organizations. The audit evaluated the status of programs to ensure compliance with Federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE Orders, guidance, and directives; and conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance. The audit also evaluated the status and adequacy of the management systems developed to address environmental requirements

  1. Routine environmental audit of the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This report documents the results of the routine environmental audit of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (Y-12 Plant), Anderson County, Tennessee. During this audit, the activities conducted by the audit team included reviews of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), State of Tennessee regulatory, and contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the audit was conducted August 22-September 2, 1994, by the DOE Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), located within the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). DOE 5482.1 B, {open_quotes}Environment, Safety, and Health Appraisal Program,{close_quotes} establishes the mission of EH-24 to provide comprehensive, independent oversight of DOE environmental programs on behalf of the Secretary of Energy. The ultimate goal of EH-24 is enhancement of environmental protection and minimization of risk to public health and the environment. EH-24 accomplishes its mission by conducting systematic and periodic evaluations of DOE`s environmental programs within line organizations, and by using supplemental activities that strengthen self-assessment and oversight functions within program, field, and contractor organizations. The audit evaluated the status of programs to ensure compliance with Federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE Orders, guidance, and directives; and conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance. The audit also evaluated the status and adequacy of the management systems developed to address environmental requirements.

  2. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at INEEL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out

  3. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at INEEL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  4. Thermoluminescent Dosimeter Use for Environmental Surveillance at the Hanford Site, 1971–2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Ernest J.; Poston, Ted M.; Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-03-01

    This report describes the use of thermo luminescent dosimeters for environmental surveillance of external radiation on and around the Hanford Site for the period of 1970 to 2005. It addresses changes in the technology and associated quality control and assurance used in this work and summarizes the results of the 35 year period of external radiation surveillance. The appendices to this report provide trend plots for each location that comprised the shoreline, onsite, perimeter, and offsite sample design.

  5. 2003 Fernald Environmental Management Project Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. Determinants of pro-environmental consumption. The role of reference groups and routine behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, Heinz; Kuehling, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of pro-environmental consumption, focusing on the role of reference groups and routine behavior. We study the factors that explain whether or not people have installed residential solar energy equipment or have subscribed to green-electricity programs, and the factors that influence the intensity of buying organic food. In addition to demographic characteristics and environmental attitudes, we consider the following categories of determinants: economic and cognitive factors (income, estimated price premium, level of information on environmentally-friendly goods); consumption patterns of reference persons; own consumption patterns in the past. Using a unique data set from a survey conducted in the region of Hanover, Germany, we find the following: (1) Economic and cognitive factors are significant covariates of all three kinds of pro-environmental consumption. Their influence is greatest in the case of green electricity. (2) Consumption patterns of reference persons are significant covariates of all three kinds of pro-environmental consumption. Their influence is greatest in the case of organic food. (3) The intensity of buying organic food is greater the longer people have been consumers of these goods. (author)

  7. Routine environmental audit of the Sandia National Laboratories, California, Livermore, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This report documents the results of the Routine Environmental Audit of the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California (SNL/CA). During this audit the activities the Audit Team conducted included reviews of internal documents and reports from preview audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE), State of California regulators, and contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the audit was conducted from February 22 through March 4, 1994, by the DOE Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), located within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH). The audit evaluated the status of programs to ensure compliance with Federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE Orders, guidance, and directives; and conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance. The audit also evaluated the status and adequacy of the management systems developed to address environmental requirements. The audit's functional scope was comprehensive and included all areas of environmental management and a programmatic evaluation of NEPA and inactive waste sites

  8. Routine environmental audit of the Sandia National Laboratories, California, Livermore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This report documents the results of the Routine Environmental Audit of the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California (SNL/CA). During this audit the activities the Audit Team conducted included reviews of internal documents and reports from preview audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE), State of California regulators, and contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the audit was conducted from February 22 through March 4, 1994, by the DOE Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24), located within the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH). The audit evaluated the status of programs to ensure compliance with Federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE Orders, guidance, and directives; and conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance. The audit also evaluated the status and adequacy of the management systems developed to address environmental requirements. The audit`s functional scope was comprehensive and included all areas of environmental management and a programmatic evaluation of NEPA and inactive waste sites.

  9. Polio eradication in India: progress, but environmental surveillance and vigilance still needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Animesh; Vidyant, Sanjukta; Dhole, Tapan N

    2013-02-18

    Poliomyelitis has appeared in epidemic form, become endemic on a global scale, and has been reduced to near elimination, all within the span of documented medical history. Nevertheless, effective vaccinations, global surveillance network, development of accurate viral diagnosis prompted the historical challenge, global polio eradication initiative (GPEI). Environmental surveillance of poliovirus means monitoring of wild polio virus (WPV) and vaccine derived polio virus (cVDPV) circulation in human populations by examining environmental specimens supposedly contaminated by human feces. The rationale for surveillance is based on the fact that PV-infected individuals, whether presenting with disease symptoms or not, shed large amounts of PV in the feces for several weeks. As the morbidity: infection ratio of PV infection is very low, and therefore this fact contributes to the sensitivity of poliovirus surveillance, which under optimal conditions can be better than that of the standard acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. The World Health Organization (WHO) has included environmental surveillance of poliovirus in the new Strategic Plan of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative for years 2010-2012 to be increasingly used in PV surveillance, supplementing AFP surveillance and the strategic advisory group of experts on immunization (SAGE) recommended a switch from tOPV-bOPV to remove the threat of cVDPV2 and to accelerate the elimination of WPV type 1 and 3 as bOPV is a more immunogenic vaccine and to introduce one dose of IPV in their vaccination schedule prior to OPV cessation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Does routine child health surveillance contribute to the early detection of children with pervasive developmental disorders? – An epidemiological study in Kent, U.K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritchie Jane

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently changed guidelines for child health surveillance in the United Kingdom (U.K. suggest targeted checks only, instead of the previously conducted routine or universal screening at 2 years and 3.5 years. There are concerns that these changes could lead to a delay in the detection of children with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDD. Recent U.K. studies have suggested that the prevalence of PDD is much higher than previously estimated. This study establishes to which extent the routine checks contributed to the early detection and assessment of cases of PDD. Simultaneously we have evaluated the process involved and estimate the prevalence of PDD in our district. Methods Retrospective study design utilising community medical files. Headteachers of schools (n = 75 within Maidstone district (Kent were asked to report all children with an established diagnosis of autism or PDD attending year 4 (born '91 and '92 / n = 2536 in October 2000 based on educational records. Results 59 schools (78.7% took part in the study. A total of 33 children were reported. 21 fulfilled the inclusion criteria (12 falsely reported. The prevalences were (per 10,000: PDD 82.8 (male to female ratio 6:1, childhood autism 23.7, Asperger's syndrome 11.8 and autistic spectrum disorder 47.3. Co-existing medical conditions were noted in 14.3%; 52.4% were attending mainstream schools. In 63.2% of cases concerns – mainly in the area of speech and language development (SLD – had been documented at the 2 year check. At the 3.5 year check concerns were noted in 94.1% – the main area was again SLD (76.5%, although behavioural abnormalities were becoming more frequent (47.1%. A total of 13 children (68.4% were referred for further assessment as a direct result of the checks. Conclusions The prevalences for different types of PDD were similar to figures published recently, but much higher than reported a few years ago. Analysis of our

  11. Switch from oral to inactivated poliovirus vaccine in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia: summary of coverage, immunity, and environmental surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahjuhono, Gendro; Revolusiana; Widhiastuti, Dyah; Sundoro, Julitasari; Mardani, Tri; Ratih, Woro Umi; Sutomo, Retno; Safitri, Ida; Sampurno, Ondri Dwi; Rana, Bardan; Roivainen, Merja; Kahn, Anna-Lea; Mach, Ondrej; Pallansch, Mark A; Sutter, Roland W

    2014-11-01

    Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is rarely used in tropical developing countries. To generate additional scientific information, especially on the possible emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) in an IPV-only environment, we initiated an IPV introduction project in Yogyakarta, an Indonesian province. In this report, we present the coverage, immunity, and VDPV surveillance results. In Yogyakarta, we established environmental surveillance starting in 2004; and conducted routine immunization coverage and seroprevalence surveys before and after a September 2007 switch from oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) to IPV, using standard coverage and serosurvey methods. Rates and types of polioviruses found in sewage samples were analyzed, and all poliovirus isolates after the switch were sequenced. Vaccination coverage (>95%) and immunity (approximately 100%) did not change substantially before and after the IPV switch. No VDPVs were detected. Before the switch, 58% of environmental samples contained Sabin poliovirus; starting 6 weeks after the switch, Sabin polioviruses were rarely isolated, and if they were, genetic sequencing suggested recent introductions. This project demonstrated that under almost ideal conditions (good hygiene, maintenance of universally high IPV coverage, and corresponding high immunity against polioviruses), no emergence and circulation of VDPV could be detected in a tropical developing country setting. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Radiation protection in nuclear facilities. The Caise environmental surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, H. de; Voelz, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Computer Aided Surveillance System for the Environment of Nuclear Installations (Caise) has been designed for permanent surveillance of the environment of nuclear installations under normal operating conditions and for unusual events on the basis of radiological and meteorological measured data. In normal operation, the data measured on line are fed to the system by way of a defined interface, while off-line data can be entered manually in the dialog mode. Subsequently, the measured data are stored, filed away, and secured. Short-time dispersion factors can be calculated permanently in the on-line mode, while the off-line mode allows short-term and long-term dispersions to be calculated for randomly selectable periods of time under the General Administrative Rule of Sec. 45 of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. The corresponding dose distributions in the environment of the plant can be determined next. Under conditions of increased emissions (accidents, failures), Caise assists in quick decision-making by its capacity for real-time dispersion calculations including current on-line and off-line emission sample measurements. In this way, the contributions by various different exposure pathways to the calculated dose can be determined more accurately. (orig.) [de

  13. Standard protocol for conducting pre-operational environmental surveillance around nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegde, A G; Verma, P C; Rajan, M P [Health Safety and Environment Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2009-02-15

    This document presents the standard procedures for evaluation of site specific environmental transfer factors around NPP sites. The scope of this document is to provide standard protocol to be followed for conducting pre-operational environmental surveillance around nuclear facilities. Such surveillances have been proposed to be carried out by university professionals under DAE-BRNS projects. This document contains a common methodology in terms of sampling, processing, measurements and analysis of elemental/radionuclides, while keeping the site specific requirements also in place. (author)

  14. Standard protocol for conducting pre-operational environmental surveillance around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, A.G.; Verma, P.C.; Rajan, M.P.

    2009-02-01

    This document presents the standard procedures for evaluation of site specific environmental transfer factors around NPP sites. The scope of this document is to provide standard protocol to be followed for conducting pre-operational environmental surveillance around nuclear facilities. Such surveillances have been proposed to be carried out by university professionals under DAE-BRNS projects. This document contains a common methodology in terms of sampling, processing, measurements and analysis of elemental/radionuclides, while keeping the site specific requirements also in place. (author)

  15. Environmental surveillance of low-level radioactive waste management areas at Los Alamos during 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report was compiled as a part of the DOE-sponsored radioactive waste site surveillance program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The report is a source document for data collected in 1985. However, an attempt is made to interpret the data as it relates to radionuclide transport to serve in guiding future waste site surveillance activities. This report contains information on one active and 11 inactive radioactive waste management areas at Los Alamos. Sections include the use history, current status, and future stabilization needs for all sites; the results of detailed surveillance activities at Areas G and C; and a dose evaluation based on the waste site and Laboratory environmental surveillance data. 9 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs

  16. Personnel, Area And Environmental Surveillance Practices At The PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligam, A.S.; Zarina Masood; Mohammad Suhaimi Kassim; Ismail Sulaiman; Mohd Fazli Zakaria; Ahmad Nabil Abdul Rahim

    2013-01-01

    Personnel, area and environmental surveillance at research reactors are important to ensure that the worker, public and environment do not receive radiation doses exceeding the prescribed national limits. A surveillance programme has been in place ever since the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) first started its operation in 1982. The results of the surveillance have to be reported to the national regulatory body as well as the International Atomic Energy Agency. This paper will discuss the findings and improvements of the surveillance programme over the past few years. It can be concluded that workers, public and the environment does not receive doses in excess of the prescribed limits due to the operation of the RTP.(author)

  17. Colonie Interim Storage Site environmental surveillance report for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of environmental surveillance activities conducted at the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) during calendar year 1993. It includes an overview of site operations, the basis for radiological and nonradiological monitoring, dose to the offsite population, and summaries of environmental programs at CISS. Environmental surveillance activities were conducted in accordance with the site environmental monitoring plan, which describes the rationale and design criteria for the surveillance program, the frequency of sampling and analysis, specific sampling and analysis procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Appendix A contains a discussion of the nature of radiation, the way it is measured, and common sources of it. The primary environmental guidelines and limits applicable to CISS are given in US Department of Energy (DOE) orders and mandated by six federal acts: the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); the Toxic Substances Control Act; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). DOE began environmental monitoring of CISS in 1984 when DOE was authorized by Congress through the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act to conduct a decontamination research and development program at the site. The site was subsequently assigned to DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

  18. Environmental radiological surveillance in perspective: the relative importance of environmental media as a function of effluent pathway and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.

    1977-10-01

    Most published guidelines for environmental surveillance emphasize the collection and analysis of specific media (e.g. air, water, milk, direct radiation) without total regard for the potential dose impact of the radionuclides expected in or actually present in the effluent streams from nuclear facilities. To determine the relative importance of medium/nuclide combinations in environmental surveillance, the experience at major ERDA sites and at operating nuclear power plants was reviewed. Typical release rates for nuclide groupings (tritium, noble gases, radioiodine, mixed fission or activation products, and transuranics) in those effluent streams were followed through various environmental pathways. By using this scheme the environmental medium which is most prominent in the critical dose pathway to man was determined. It was also possible to determine points of short-or long-term contaminant accumulation. Following these calculations, each medium was ranked for a given nuclide/effluent pathway combination providing the relative importance of sampling specific environmental media with emphasis on the radiation dose to a critical population group. Finally, the results of these environmental pathway studies are presented in tabular form to provide ready reference for environmental surveillance program design or evaluation

  19. Environmental radiological surveillance in perspective: the relative importance of environmental media as a function of effluent pathway and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    Most published guidelines for environmental surveillance emphasize the collection and analysis of specific media (e.g. air, water, milk, direct radiation) without total regard for the potential dose impact of the radionuclides expected in or actually present in the effluent streams FR-om nuclear facilities. To determine the relative importance of medium/nuclide combinations in environmental surveillance, the experience at major ERDA sites and at operating nuclear power plants was reviewed. Typical release rates for nuclide groupings (tritium, noble gases, radioiodine, mixed fission or activation products, and transuranics) in those effluent streams were followed through various environmental pathways. By using this scheme the environmental medium which is most prominent in the critical dose pathway to man was determined. It was also possible to determine points of short-or long-term contaminant accumulation. Following these combination providing the relative importance of sampling specific environmental media with emphasis on the radiation dose to a critical population group. Finally, the results of these environmental pathway studies are presented in tabular form to provide ready reference for environmental surveillance program design or evaluation

  20. Can routine surveillance samples from tracheal aspirate predict bacterial flora in cases of ventilator-associated pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampati, L; Maggioni, E; Langer, M; Malacarne, P; Mozzo, R; Pesenti, A; Fumagalli, R

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that periodical sampling of the tracheo-bronchial tree in the absence of clinical suspicion of pneumonia is useful to identify bacteria responsible for subsequent late ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). This was a retrospective observational human study carried out in two medical-surgical intensive care units of two different hospitals. From January 1999 to December 2000, 559 patients, who received invasive respiratory support for more than 48 hours, were screened. Tracheal aspiration (TA) was performed once or twice weekly in all mechanically ventilated patients. The microbiological findings from TA surveillance cultures done in the eight days before suspicion of VAP were compared to those isolated from the positive diagnostic samples done for late onset VAP (after more than four days of mechanical ventilation). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values of the ability of the surveillance sample to anticipate the VAP pathogen were calculated. Among the microorganisms isolated from TA, 68% were retrieved from diagnostic samples. All VAP pathogens previously isolated were from 43% of the TA samples. If TA was collected 2-4 days before the clinical diagnosis of VAP, pathogens were detected in 58% of samples. In contrast, only 27% were collected more than four days earlier (PVAP is suspected.

  1. Insights from a Systematic Search for Information on Designs, Costs, and Effectiveness of Poliovirus Environmental Surveillance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Zimmermann, Marita; Pallansch, Mark A; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2017-12-01

    Poliovirus surveillance plays a critical role in achieving and certifying eradication and will play a key role in the polio endgame. Environmental surveillance can provide an opportunity to detect circulating polioviruses prior to the observation of any acute flaccid paralysis cases. We completed a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications on environmental surveillance for polio including the search terms "environmental surveillance" or "sewage," and "polio," "poliovirus," or "poliomyelitis," and compared characteristics of the resulting studies. The review included 146 studies representing 101 environmental surveillance activities from 48 countries published between 1975 and 2016. Studies reported taking samples from sewage treatment facilities, surface waters, and various other environmental sources, although they generally did not present sufficient details to thoroughly evaluate the sewage systems and catchment areas. When reported, catchment areas varied from 50 to over 7.3 million people (median of 500,000 for the 25% of activities that reported catchment areas, notably with 60% of the studies not reporting this information and 16% reporting insufficient information to estimate the catchment area population size). While numerous studies reported the ability of environmental surveillance to detect polioviruses in the absence of clinical cases, the review revealed very limited information about the costs and limited information to support quantitative population effectiveness of conducting environmental surveillance. This review motivates future studies to better characterize poliovirus environmental surveillance systems and the potential value of information that they may provide in the polio endgame.

  2. Environmental surveillance report for the Nevada Test Site (January 1981 through December 1981)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoggins, W.A.

    1982-05-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site as conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) onsite radiological safety contractor from January 1981 through December 1981. The results and evaluations of measurements of radioactivity in air and water, and of direct gamma radiation exposure rates are presented. Relevancy to DOE concentration guides (CG'S) is established

  3. Environmental-surveillance report for the Nevada Test Site (January 1982 through December 1982)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoggins, W.A.

    1983-06-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site as conducted from January 1982 through December 1982. The results and evaluations of measurements of radioactivity in air and water, and of direct gamma radiation exposure rates are presented. Relevancy to DOE concentration guides (CG's) is established

  4. Wisconsin’s Environmental Public Health Tracking Network: Information Systems Design for Childhood Cancer Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Lawrence P.; Anderson, Henry A.; Busby, Brian; Bekkedal, Marni; Sieger, Thomas; Stephenson, Laura; Knobeloch, Lynda; Werner, Mark; Imm, Pamela; Olson, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    In this article we describe the development of an information system for environmental childhood cancer surveillance. The Wisconsin Cancer Registry annually receives more than 25,000 incident case reports. Approximately 269 cases per year involve children. Over time, there has been considerable community interest in understanding the role the environment plays as a cause of these cancer cases. Wisconsin’s Public Health Information Network (WI-PHIN) is a robust web portal integrating both Health Alert Network and National Electronic Disease Surveillance System components. WI-PHIN is the information technology platform for all public health surveillance programs. Functions include the secure, automated exchange of cancer case data between public health–based and hospital-based cancer registrars; web-based supplemental data entry for environmental exposure confirmation and hypothesis testing; automated data analysis, visualization, and exposure–outcome record linkage; directories of public health and clinical personnel for role-based access control of sensitive surveillance information; public health information dissemination and alerting; and information technology security and critical infrastructure protection. For hypothesis generation, cancer case data are sent electronically to WI-PHIN and populate the integrated data repository. Environmental data are linked and the exposure–disease relationships are explored using statistical tools for ecologic exposure risk assessment. For hypothesis testing, case–control interviews collect exposure histories, including parental employment and residential histories. This information technology approach can thus serve as the basis for building a comprehensive system to assess environmental cancer etiology. PMID:15471739

  5. Environmental monitoring of the Cea Valduc centre; La surveillance environnementale du site du CEAValduc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetat, Ph. [CEA Valduc, Dir. adjoint, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Jaskula, L. [CEA Valduc, service de protection contre les rayonnements, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2010-06-15

    This paper describes the main features of the environmental control in the vicinity of the CEA Valduc centre, explains the site specific characteristics, the surveillance policy, and some historical elements about tritium atmospheric release. Some levels of activities are given, corresponding to an exposure level below 0.02% of natural irradiation. (author)

  6. Environmental surveillance report for the Nevada Test Site (January 1980-December 1980)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoggins, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented for the environmental surveillance program at the Nevada Test Site as conducted by the Department of Energy (DOE) onsite radiological safety contractor from January 1980 through December 1980. The results and evaluations of measurements of radioactivity in air and water, and of direct gamma radiation exposure rates are presented. Relevancy to DOE concentration guides (CG'S) is established

  7. Guide for: environmental radiological surveillance at US Department of Energy installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, J.P.; Denham, D.H.; Jaquish, R.E.; Michels, D.E.; Olsen, A.R.; Waite, D.A.

    1981-07-01

    This second edition of the Guide, originally published in 1977, is presented as an interim revision and does not contain major changes in content. The original objectives and scope of the Guide have not changed. The Guide is intended to: provide recommended methods, procedures, and performance criteria to bring greater comparability to DOE environmental monitoring and reporting systems; provide DOE management, particularly the Headquarters' Operational and Environmental Safety Division (OESD) and field offices, with a broad review of accepted radiological surveillance practices for use in the evaluation of environmental surveillance programs at DOE facilities; and delineate the capabilities and limitations of the various environmental monitoring systems for radioactivity currently used at DOE sites, including technical areas where there is either an inadequate basis for procedural selection or where further development work may be warranted. The document is intended as a guide, not a manual of detailed mandatory procedure

  8. Environmental surveillance of the US Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding environs during 1986: Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Wiehle, W.E.; Valentine, B.L.

    1987-04-01

    This report provides monitoring data for the installation and surrounding environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site; provides detailed information about the installation; provides detailed information on input and assumption used in all calculations; integrates monitoring data and related studies in one document to pull together, highlight, and summarize the information contained in many documents; provides trend analyses, where possible, to indicate increases and decreases in environmental conditions; and provides general information on the plant site and quality assurance. Routine monitoring and sampling for radiation, radioactive materials, and chemical substances on and off the DOE reservation and PORTS are used to document compliance with appropriate standards, identify trends, provide information for the public, and contribute to general environmental knowledge. The surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of protecting the public, employees, and the environment from harm that could be caused by its activities and reducing negative environmental impacts to the greatest degree practicable. Environmental monitoring information complements data on specific releases, trends, and summaries. 68 refs., 203 figs., 112 tabs

  9. Routine data for disease surveillance in the undeveloped region of the OR Tambo district of the Eastern Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuya, Chrispin; Wright, Graham; Odama, Anthony; O'Mahoney, Don

    2014-01-01

    The research team needed to upsize the solution previously tested so that it could expand the routine data collected via tablet computers. The research team identified the general flow of data within clinics. Data was mainly collected from registers, which were later converted to electronic form and checked for duplication. A database was designed for the collection of demographic data (Patient Master Index), which was aimed at eliminating duplication of patients' data in several registers. Open Data Kit (ODK) Collect was setup on Android tablets for collecting disease related routine data, while ODK Aggregate as the storage and aggregates of data captured by ODK Collect and the Patient Master Index for demographic data, were setup on an Apple Mini Mac server. Data collection is in progress. The expected results include improved data quality, reliability and quick access to summary data. Secondly, instant retrieval of patient demographic details and clinic numbers are included. Thirdly, ability to form standard reporting from the SQL database and lastly exporting data into the TIER.net and DHIS systems via CVS files thus eliminating the need for data capturers are shown.

  10. Westinghouse Hanford Company environmental surveillance annual report -- 200/600 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.W.; Huckfeldt, C.R.; Johnson, A.R.; McKinney, S.M.

    1990-06-01

    This document presents the results of near-field environmental surveillance as performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1989 for the Operations Area of the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. These activities were conducted in the 200 and 600 Areas to assess operational control on the work environment. Surveillance activities included external radiation measurements and radiological surveys of waste disposal sites, radiological control areas, and roads, as well as sampling and analysis of ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sediments, soil, and biota. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Westinghouse Hanford Company Environmental surveillance annual report--200/600 Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.W.; Huckfeldt, C.R.; Johnson, A.R.; McKinney, S.M.

    1991-06-01

    This document presents the results of near-field environmental surveillance in 1990 of the Operations Area of the Hanford Site, in south central Washington State, as performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. These activities are conducted in the 200 and 600 Areas to assess and control the impacts of operations on the workers and the local environment. Surveillance activities include sampling and analyses of ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sediments, soil, and biota. Also, external radiation measurements and radiological surveys are taken of waste disposal sites, radiological control areas, and roads. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Environmental surveillance program of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.H.

    1976-04-01

    The major radiological environmental impact of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is due to the operation of four particle accelerators. Potential sources of population exposure at the Laboratory are discussed. The major source of population exposure due to accelerator operation arises from the prompt radiation field which consists principally of neutrons and photons. Release of small quantities of radionuclides is also a potential source of population exposure but is usually an order of magnitude less significant. Accelerator produced radiation levels at the Laboratory boundary are comparable with the magnitudes of the fluctuations found in the natural background radiation. Environmental monitoring of accelerator-produced radiation and of radionuclides is carried on throughout the Laboratory, at the Laboratory perimeter, and in the regions surrounding the Laboratory. The techniques used are described. The models used to calculate population exposure are described and discussed

  13. Comparison of Molecular Typing Methods Useful for Detecting Clusters of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli Isolates through Routine Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Eduardo; Grant, Christopher C. R.; Blakeston, Connie; Pollari, Frank; Marshall, Barbara; Rahn, Kris; MacKinnon, Joanne; Daignault, Danielle; Pillai, Dylan; Ng, Lai-King

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter spp. may be responsible for unreported outbreaks of food-borne disease. The detection of these outbreaks is made more difficult by the fact that appropriate methods for detecting clusters of Campylobacter have not been well defined. We have compared the characteristics of five molecular typing methods on Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolates obtained from human and nonhuman sources during sentinel site surveillance during a 3-year period. Comparative genomic fingerprinting (CGF) appears to be one of the optimal methods for the detection of clusters of cases, and it could be supplemented by the sequencing of the flaA gene short variable region (flaA SVR sequence typing), with or without subsequent multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Different methods may be optimal for uncovering different aspects of source attribution. Finally, the use of several different molecular typing or analysis methods for comparing individuals within a population reveals much more about that population than a single method. Similarly, comparing several different typing methods reveals a great deal about differences in how the methods group individuals within the population. PMID:22162562

  14. Summary of environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    Linking the Rio Grande Valley and the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico's Pajarito Plateau is home to a world-class scientific institution. Los Alamos National Laboratory (or the Laboratory), managed by the Regents of the University of California, is a government-owned, Department of Energy-supervised complex investigating all areas of modern science for the purposes of national defense, health, conservation, and ecology. This report briefly describes the environmental monitoring program for the Laboratory

  15. Hazelwood Interim Storage Site environmental surveillance report for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of environmental surveillance activities conducted at the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) during calendar year 1993. It includes an overview of site operations, the basis for monitoring for radioactive and non-radioactive parameters, summaries of environmental program at HISS, a summary of the results, and the calculated hypothetical radiation dose to the offsite population. Environmental surveillance activities were conducted in accordance with the site environmental monitoring plan, which describes the rationale and design criteria for the surveillance program, the frequency of sampling and analysis, specific sampling and analysis procedures, and quality assurance requirements. The US Department of Energy (DOE) began environmental monitoring of HISS in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and subsequent to DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remediation Action Program (FUSRAP). Contamination at HISS originated from uranium processing work conducted at Mallinckrodt Chemical Works at the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS) from 1942 through 1957

  16. Evaluating PET-CT in routine surveillance and follow-up after treatment for cervical cancer: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, P; Barton, P; Meads, C; Davenport, C; Małysiak, S; Kowalska, M; Zapalska, A; Guest, P; Martin-Hirsch, P; Borowiack, E; Khan, K; Sundar, S; Roberts, T

    2014-03-01

    To undertake a cost-effectiveness analysis that compares positron emission tomography - computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging plus standard practice with standard practice alone in the diagnosis of recurrent or persistent cervical cancer during routine surveillance and follow-up of women who have previously been diagnosed and treated. Model-based economic evaluation using data from a systematic review, supplemented with data from other sources, and taking a UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Secondary Care in England. Women at least 3 months after the completion of treatment, with either recurrent or persistent cervical cancer. A state transition (Markov) model was developed using TreeAge Pro 2011. The structure of the model was informed by the reviews of the trials and clinical input. In the model, two diagnostic strategies were examined. A one-way sensitivity analysis, probabilistic sensitivity analysis, and a value of information analysis were also carried out. Cost-effectiveness based on incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Adding PET-CT to the current treatment strategy of clinical examination and scanning [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or CT scan] during the routine surveillance and follow-up of women with recurrent or persistent cervical cancer is significantly more costly, with only a minimal increase in effectiveness. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for the strategy of PET-CT as an adjunct to the standard treatment strategy that included clinical examination, MRI, and/or CT scan, compared with the usual treatment alone, was over £1 million per QALY. The results of the current analysis suggest that use of PET-CT in the diagnosis of recurrent or persistent cervical cancer is not cost-effective. Current guidelines recommending imaging using PET-CT as a diagnostic or surveillance tool need to be reconsidered in light of these results. This study did not specifically investigate the use of PET-CT in women

  17. Contributions to environmental research and surveillance. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeppler, M.

    1980-01-01

    The current optimisation of automated or mechanised methods for the elements Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Ni, Cu, Mn, Tl etc. is demonstrated. These methods mainly include atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV) and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) together with the necessary sampling and sample pretreatment procedures. The application of these methods in the course of extended environmental studies is reviewed. The main application fields were: Biopsy materials as whole blood, urine and head hair, various continental and marine food, sea water, freshwater, inland waters and rainwater as well as brown and pit coal. The state-of-art of the methods applied and the results of the performed studies are finally critically discussed. (orig.) [de

  18. Ciguatera fish poisoning and environmental change: a case for strengthening health surveillance in the Pacific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derne, Bonnie; Fearnley, Emily; Goater, Sarah; Carter, Karen; Weinstein, Philip

    2010-09-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP), a significant public health problem in the Pacific, is intrinsically linked to the health of coral reef ecosystems. Incidence data on CFP could therefore be used, in theory, as indicators of disruption to coral reefs. Some disruptions, such as increasing sea surface temperatures, result from global environmental change--therefore suggesting that CFP is likely to become an increasing public health problem in the region. The proactive management of increasing numbers of cases will depend on an understanding of the ecology of the disease, sound health surveillance systems to report cases of CFP including appropriate case definitions, and quantifiable correlations between case numbers and environmental variables. Here, we briefly review the knowledge about these components in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs), including summarising regional variation in symptoms of CFP cases, investigating media as an enhanced surveillance tool, and summarising regional environmental drivers of CFP cases. We conclude that CFP could be an important indicator of the health of reef ecosystems in the face of global climate change and more novel approaches such as combining environmental and health data, need to be implemented to improve surveillance of CFP.

  19. Imaging tests in staging and surveillance of non-metastatic breast cancer: changes in routine clinical practice and cost implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Placido, S; De Angelis, C; Giuliano, M; Pizzi, C; Ruocco, R; Perrone, V; Bruzzese, D; Tommasielli, G; De Laurentiis, M; Cammarota, S; Arpino, G; Arpino, G

    2017-03-14

    Although guidelines do not recommend computerised tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the staging or follow-up of asymptomatic patients with non-metastatic breast cancer, they are often requested in routine clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine the staging and follow-up patterns, and relative costs in a large population of breast cancer patients living and treated in a Southern Italian region. We analysed the clinical computerised information recorded by 567 primary-care physicians assisting about 650 000 inhabitants in the Campania region. Patients with non-metastatic breast cancer were identified and divided into calendar years from 2001 to 2010. The number of diagnostic tests prescribed per 100 patients (N/Pts) and the mean cost per patient was determined 3 months before diagnosis and up to 1 year after diagnosis. Costs are expressed in constant 2011 euros. We identified 4680 newly diagnosed cases of asymptomatic non-metastatic breast cancer. N/Pts increased significantly (Ptests'), and costs was unchanged. However, the number of CT, PET scans and MRI ('new tests')prescriptions almost quadrupled and the mean cost per patient related to these procedures significantly increased from [euro ]357 in 2001 to [euro ]830 in 2010 (Ptest prescriptions and relative costs significantly and steadily increased throughout the study period. At present there is no evidence that the delivery of new tests to asymptomatic patients improves breast cancer outcome. Well-designed clinical trials are urgently needed to shed light on the impact of these tests on clinical outcome and overall survival.

  20. Optimised method for the routine determination of Technetium-99 in environmental samples by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigley, F.; Warwick, P.E.; Croudace, I.W.; Caborn, J.; Sanchez, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    A method has been developed for the routine determination of 99 Tc in a range of environmental matrices using 99m Tc (t 1/2 =6.06 h) as an internal yield monitor. Samples are ignited stepwise to 550C and the 99 Tc is extracted from the ignited residue with 8 M nitric acid. Many contaminants are co-precipitated with Fe(OH) 3 and the Tc in the supernatant is pre-concentrated and further purified using anion exchange chromatography. Final separation of Tc from Ru is achieved by extraction of Tc into 5% tri-n-octylamine in xylene from 2 M sulphuric acid. The xylene fraction is mixed directly with a commercial liquid scintillant cocktail. The chemical yield is determined through the measurement of 99m Tc by gamma spectrometry and the 99 Tc activity is measured using liquid scintillation counting after a further two weeks to allow decay of the 99m Tc activity. Typical recoveries for this method are in the order 70-95%. The method has a detection limit of 1.7 Bq kg -1 based on a 2 h count time and a 10 g sample size. The chemical separation for 24 samples of sediment or marine biota can be completed by one analyst in a working week. A further week is required to allow the samples to decay before determination. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Environmental surveillance data report for the third quarter of 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, K.L.; Goldberg, P.Y.; Horwedel, B.M.; McCollough, I.L.; Osborne-Lee, A.E.; Owenby, R.K.; Watson, J.B.; Wilson, M.M.

    1987-12-01

    During the third quarter of 1987, over 1600 samples which represent more than 5000 analyses and measurements were collected by the Environmental Monitoring and Compliance (EMC) Department. Uranium concentrations measured on air filters near the Y-12 plant were higher than normal due to a release from that facility in May. More than 60% of the noncompliances with the NPDES permit for the third quarter occurred in July. These were primarily in total suspended solids at the Sewage Treatment Plant. The cause of these high concentrations has been explored with the plant operating staff but is currently unresolved. Because of past noncompliances in fecal coliform and chlorine concentrations at the Sewage Treatment Plant, an engineering review has been initiated to examine the present chlorination system. This review is intended to provide a permanent solution to these types of problems. Maximum concentrations of total radioactive strontium ( 89 Sr + 90 Sr) in bluegill were lower than those measured during the second quarter. There were not significant differences in the total radioactive strontium in blue gill at any of the Clinch River locations. 17 figs., 45 tabs

  2. Environmental surveillance data report for the first quarter of 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasing, T.J.; Daniels, K.L.; Goldberg, P.Y.; Horwedel, B.M.; McCollough, I.L.; Osborne-Lee, A.E.; Valentine, C.K.; Wolf, D.A.

    1988-08-01

    During the first quarter of 1988, over 1800 samples which represent more than 6000 analyses and measurements were collected by the Environmental Monitoring and Compliance (EMC) Department. More than ten real-time monitoring stations, which telemeter 10-minute averaged readings of radiation levels, total precipitation, flows, water, and air quality parameters around ORNL also reported data. In addition, three meteorological towers sent weather data at various heights to a host computer every 15-minutes. Real-time measurements of external gamma radiation are now being reported from several stations, included some recently activated or upgraded stations. Measurements this quarter indicate that external gamma radiation around ORNL is close to background, except at station 4, which is located between the Waste Treatment Plant and waste treatment ponds and therefore experiences higher levels of radiation. Cobalt-60 concentrations in Melton Branch remained low, as they had been during the fourth quarter of 1987. Lack of discharge from the HFIR ponds is the apparent cause of the reduced concentrations, as these ponds appear to be the source of most of the cobalt-60 that does occur in Melton Branch. Flow-weighted concentration of radionuclides in surface water were found to be generally much lower than the DOE derived concentration guidelines except for tritium in Melton Branch. Tritium concentrations measured at Melton Branch Site 1 exceeded the corresponding guideline by 30% during March

  3. Compact and maintenance-free radio probes for environmental surveillance of the gamma dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genrich, V.

    1998-01-01

    The author reports on his experience with the operation of radio data networks for the continuous observation of the gamma dose rate in nuclear installations. Practically at every location (within) the installation the hermetically sealed probes can record the measurement values. Moreover, the probes have proved successful in environmental surveillance where they typically work in the form of measurement rings in 10 to 30 km distance. All measurement data are organized in the form of a data base. They can be disposed of in the form of an SQL-server in the computer network (LAN) of the power plant or the institution in charge of environmental surveillance. In comparison to conventional, e.g. cable-bound measurement networks with the new radio transmission technology there are numerous advantages: - minimal cost for projection - minimal cost for installation due to simple fixing - quasi-mobile use with highest possible flexibility - maintenance-free operation and high degree of operating reliability. (orig.) [de

  4. Radiation protection and environmental surveillance programme in and around Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, R.M.

    2018-01-01

    Radiation safety is an integral part of the operation of the Indian nuclear fuel cycle facilities and safety culture has been inculcated in all the spheres of its operation. Nuclear fuel cycle comprises of mineral exploration, mining, ore processing, fuel fabrication, power plants, reprocessing, waste management and accelerator facilities. Health Physics Division of BARC is entrusted with the responsibility of radiation protection and environmental surveillance in all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities

  5. Niagara Falls Storage Site environmental surveillance report for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of environmental surveillance activities conducted at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) during calendar year 1993. It includes an overview of site operations, the basis for radiological and nonradiological monitoring, a summary of the results, and the estimated dose to the offsite population. Environmental surveillance activities were conducted in accordance with the site environmental monitoring plan, which describes the rationale and design criteria for the surveillance program, the frequency of sampling and analysis, specific sampling and analysis procedures, and quality assurance requirements. NFSS is in compliance with National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) Subpart H of the Clean Air Act as well as the requirements of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) under the Clean Water Act. Located in northwestern New York, the site covers 191 acres. From 1944 to the present, the primary use of NFSS has been storage of radioactive residues that were by-products of uranium production. Most onsite areas of residual radioactivity above regulatory guidelines were remediated during the early 1980s. Additional isolated areas of onsite contamination were remediated in 1989, and the materials were consolidated into the waste containment structure in 1991. Remediation of the site has now been completed

  6. Using routinely collected health data for surveillance, quality improvement and research: Framework and key questions to assess ethics, privacy and data access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lusignan, Simon; Liyanage, Harshana; Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; Chan, Tom; Liaw, Siaw-Teng

    2016-01-19

    The use of health data for public health, surveillance, quality improvement and research is crucial to improve health systems and health care. However, bodies responsible for privacy and ethics often limit access to routinely collected health data. Ethical approvals, issues around protecting privacy and data access are often dealt with by different layers of regulations, making approval processes appear disjointed. To create a comprehensive framework for defining the ethical and privacy status of a project and for providing guidance on data access. The framework comprises principles and related questions. The core of the framework will be built using standard terminology definitions such as ethics-related controlled vocabularies and regional directives. It is built in this way to reduce ambiguity between different definitions. The framework is extensible: principles can be retired or added to, as can their related questions. Responses to these questions should allow data processors to define ethical issues, privacy risk and other unintended consequences. The framework contains three steps: (1) identifying possible ethical and privacy principles relevant to the project; (2) providing ethics and privacy guidance questions that inform the type of approval needed; and (3) assessing case-specific ethics and privacy issues. The outputs from this process should inform whether the balance between public interests and privacy breach and any ethical considerations are tipped in favour of societal benefits. If they are then this should be the basis on which data access is permitted. Tightly linking ethical principles to governance and data access may help maintain public trust.

  7. Advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: US/chest radiography for detection of relapse in patients in first complete remission--a randomized trial of routine surveillance imaging procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Marco; Pugliese, Novella; Cirillo, Michele; Zeppa, Pio; Cozzolino, Imma; Ciancia, Giuseppe; Pettinato, Guido; Salvatore, Claudia; Quintarelli, Concetta; Pane, Fabrizio

    2014-07-01

    chest radiography are diagnostic tools that enable effective, safe, and low-cost routine surveillance imaging for patients at high risk of Hodgkin lymphoma relapse. © RSNA, 2014.

  8. Co-ordinated research and environmental surveillance programme related to sea disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Sea disposal operations of packaged low-level radioactive waste are carried out under the provisions of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, also referred to as the London Dumping Convention. The environmental impact of this disposal method is continuously kept under review, in particular within the IAEA which has provided the ''Definition of High-Level Radioactive Waste or Other High-Level Radioactive Matter Unsuitable for Dumping at Sea'' for the purpose of the Convention and within the OECD-NEA in the framework of its Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste. The NEA Co-Ordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme (CRESP) is focussed on the actual North-East Atlantic dump site. Its objective is to increase the available scientific data base related to the oceanographic and biological characteristics of the dump site and elaborate a site specific model of the transfers of radionuclides to human populations. Future site suitability reviews, as periodically requested under the terms of the Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism, will therefore be based on a more accurate and comprehensive scientific basis

  9. Advancing environmental health surveillance in the US through a national human biomonitoring network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latshaw, Megan Weil; Degeberg, Ruhiyyih; Patel, Surili Sutaria; Rhodes, Blaine; King, Ewa; Chaudhuri, Sanwat; Nassif, Julianne

    2017-03-01

    The United States lacks a comprehensive, nationally-coordinated, state-based environmental health surveillance system. This lack of infrastructure leads to: • varying levels of understanding of chemical exposures at the state & local levels • often inefficient public health responses to chemical exposure emergencies (such as those that occurred in the Flint drinking water crisis, the Gold King mine spill, the Elk river spill and the Gulf Coast oil spill) • reduced ability to measure the impact of public health interventions or environmental policies • less efficient use of resources for cleaning up environmental contamination Establishing the National Biomonitoring Network serves as a step toward building a national, state-based environmental health surveillance system. The Network builds upon CDC investments in emergency preparedness and environmental public health tracking, which have created advanced chemical analysis and information sharing capabilities in the state public health systems. The short-term goal of the network is to harmonize approaches to human biomonitoring in the US, thus increasing the comparability of human biomonitoring data across states and communities. The long-term goal is to compile baseline data on exposures at the state level, similar to data found in CDC's National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Barriers to success for this network include: available resources, effective risk communication strategies, data comparability & sharing, and political will. Anticipated benefits include high quality data on which to base public health and environmental decisions, data with which to assess the success of public health interventions, improved risk assessments for chemicals, and new ways to prioritize environmental health research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. The insertion of the environmental health surveillance in the unified health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilo Baltazar Barreira Filho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of environmental monitoring activities in the Unified Health System (SUS shows some characteristics that differentiate it from the practice of epidemiological surveillance. This occurs mainly because much data on exposure to environmental factors is obtained outside the health sector and the adoption of actions that seek to control and/or prevent requires, in most cases, an intra andintersectoral understanding and articulation, since the health sector is not able, by itself, to provide answers to environmental health issues.In recent years, there has been an increasingly consolidation of the field of environmental health, which includes the area of public health, accustomed to scientific knowledge, to the formulation of public policies and the corresponding interventions (actions related to the interaction between human health and both natural and anthropic environmental factors, which determine, modulate and influence such interaction, in order to improve the quality of human life from the point of view of sustainability(1.As agreed at the Ist Seminar of the National Environmental Health, held in October 2005 and consolidated in the first National Conference on Environmental Health, held in December 2009, it is understood as an area of intersectoral and interdisciplinarypractice focused on the outcomes, in human health, of ecogeossocialrelations between man and environment(1.Accordingly, the Ministry of Health has been implementing, throughout the country, a Surveillance System in Environmental Health (SINVISA, seeking the improvement of this “model” of activities, establishing expertise into the three levels of government, aiming to consolidate the practice of Environmental Health within the SUS.Normative Instruction No. 1, March 7, 2005, creates SINVISA, establishes the area of action, the scope of the three levels of management within SUS and defines the Environmental Health Surveillance as a set of actions and services

  11. Environmental surveillance and research at the Nevada Test Site: The beginning and the rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elle, D.R.; Church, B.W.; Bingham, F.E.

    1990-01-01

    Concurrently with the first nuclear-weapons tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in 1951, an environmental surveillance and monitoring program was established offsite. Initial emphasis was on tracking fallout clouds and measuring external radiation exposure rates. An environmental research program was also initiated. Establishment of comprehensive programs has facilitated the ability to address issues such as the inventory and distribution of radionuclides in surface soils, reconstruction of offsite population doses, and recognition of areas requiring additional information. We have learned that a successful environmental monitoring program must be flexible and responsive to change; must address public as well as technical and regulatory concerns; and results must be continuously interpreted to ensure that all pathways are considered and the programs are proactive in their approach

  12. Environmental surveillance report for the INEL radioactive waste management complex. Annual report, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolenc, M.R.; Janke, D.H.

    1977-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance activities during 1976 at the two solid waste facilities of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The monitoring program encompasses periodic and random sampling of air, water, and soil within and adjacent to the Radioactive Waste Management Complex and SL-1 Burial Ground. It was found that operation of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex and SL-1 during 1976 had little radiological impact on the environment and radioactivity levels were shown to be within appropriate guidelines for worker safety

  13. Using routinely collected health data for surveillance, quality improvement and research: Framework and key questions to assess ethics, privacy and data access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of health data for public health, surveillance, quality improvement and research is crucial to improve health systems and health care. However, bodies responsible for privacy and ethics often limit access to routinely collected health data. Ethical approvals, issues around protecting privacy and data access are often dealt with by different layers of regulations, making approval processes appear disjointed.Objective To create a comprehensive framework for defining the ethical and privacy status of a project and for providing guidance on data access.Method The framework comprises principles and related questions. The core of the framework will be built using standard terminology definitions such as ethics-related controlled vocabularies and regional directives. It is built in this way to reduce ambiguity between different definitions. The framework is extensible: principles can be retired or added to, as can their related questions. Responses to these questions should allow data processors to define ethical issues, privacy risk and other unintended consequences.Results The framework contains three steps: (1 identifying possible ethical and privacy principles relevant to the project; (2 providing ethics and privacy guidance questions that inform the type of approval needed; and (3 assessing case-specific ethics and privacy issues. The outputs from this process should inform whether the balance between public interests and privacy breach and any ethical considerations are tipped in favour of societal benefits. If they are then this should be the basis on which data access is permitted. Tightly linking ethical principles to governance and data access may help maintain public trust.

  14. Using routine surveillance data to estimate the epidemic potential of emerging zoonoses: application to the emergence of US swine origin influenza A H3N2v virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Cauchemez

    Full Text Available Prior to emergence in human populations, zoonoses such as SARS cause occasional infections in human populations exposed to reservoir species. The risk of widespread epidemics in humans can be assessed by monitoring the reproduction number R (average number of persons infected by a human case. However, until now, estimating R required detailed outbreak investigations of human clusters, for which resources and expertise are not always available. Additionally, existing methods do not correct for important selection and under-ascertainment biases. Here, we present simple estimation methods that overcome many of these limitations.Our approach is based on a parsimonious mathematical model of disease transmission and only requires data collected through routine surveillance and standard case investigations. We apply it to assess the transmissibility of swine-origin influenza A H3N2v-M virus in the US, Nipah virus in Malaysia and Bangladesh, and also present a non-zoonotic example (cholera in the Dominican Republic. Estimation is based on two simple summary statistics, the proportion infected by the natural reservoir among detected cases (G and among the subset of the first detected cases in each cluster (F. If detection of a case does not affect detection of other cases from the same cluster, we find that R can be estimated by 1-G; otherwise R can be estimated by 1-F when the case detection rate is low. In more general cases, bounds on R can still be derived.We have developed a simple approach with limited data requirements that enables robust assessment of the risks posed by emerging zoonoses. We illustrate this by deriving transmissibility estimates for the H3N2v-M virus, an important step in evaluating the possible pandemic threat posed by this virus. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  15. Postauthorization safety surveillance of ADVATE [antihaemophilic factor (recombinant), plasma/albumin-free method] demonstrates efficacy, safety and low-risk for immunogenicity in routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, J; Goudemand, J; Valentino, L; Richards, M; Luu, H; Kriukov, A; Gajek, H; Spotts, G; Ewenstein, B

    2010-11-01

      Postauthorization safety surveillance of factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates is essential for assessing rare adverse event incidence. We determined safety and efficacy of ADVATE [antihaemophilic factor (recombinant), plasma/albumin-free method, (rAHF-PFM)] during routine clinical practice. Subjects with differing haemophilia A severities and medical histories were monitored during 12 months of prophylactic and/or on-demand therapy. Among 408 evaluable subjects, 386 (95%) received excellent/good efficacy ratings for all on-demand assessments; the corresponding number for subjects with previous FVIII inhibitors was 36/41 (88%). Among 276 evaluable subjects receiving prophylaxis continuously in the study, 255 (92%) had excellent/good ratings for all prophylactic assessments; the corresponding number for subjects with previous FVIII inhibitors was 41/46 (89%). Efficacy of surgical prophylaxis was excellent/good in 16/16 evaluable procedures. Among previously treated patients (PTPs) with >50 exposure days (EDs) and FVIII≤2%, three (0.75%) developed low-titre inhibitors. Two of these subjects had a positive inhibitor history; thus, the incidence of de novo inhibitor formation in PTPs with FVIII≤2% and no inhibitor history was 1/348 (0.29%; 95% CI, 0.01-1.59%). A PTP with moderate haemophilia developed a low-titre inhibitor. High-titre inhibitors were reported in a PTP with mild disease (following surgery), a previously untreated patient (PUP) with moderate disease (following surgery) and a PUP with severe disease. The favourable benefit/risk profile of rAHF-PFM previously documented in prospective clinical trials has been extended to include a broader range of haemophilia patients, many of whom would have been ineligible for registration studies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. RENDAC: Integrated System Data for the Information Control the Environmental Radiological Surveillance the National Network in Cuban Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Ramos, M.; Prendes Alonso, M.

    1998-01-01

    With the objective to evaluate, process, control and to store the information that is generated in the National Environmental Radiological Surveillance Network, it is designed and I program the on-line RENDAC system that allows to capture and evaluate the parameters that characterize the environmental radiological situation

  17. High Incidence of Mammalian Orthoreovirus Identified by Environmental Surveillance in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Y Lim

    Full Text Available Wild poliovirus (WPV persists in diverse locales worldwide, spreading outward from endemic areas. In response to the international threat of WPV transmission and changes in the national vaccination policy, we established an environmental surveillance system to monitor the circulation of wild and vaccine-related poliovirus in Taiwan. From July 2012 to December 2013, we collected sewage specimens every month from 10 sewage treatment plants located throughout Taiwan. The specimens were concentrated by the two-phase separation method and then inoculated into L20B, RD, and A549 cells for virus isolation. Viral isolates were identified and serotyped by immunofluorescence assay or molecular analysis. A total of 300 sewage samples were collected, and the results showed 163 samples (54.3% were positive for virus, and 268 isolates were identified. Among these, 75 samples (25% were positive for enterovirus (EV, but no poliovirus was found. In addition, 92 isolates were identified as enteroviruses and the most common serotypes were coxsackievirus B4, coxsackievirus B3, and coxsackievirus B2. Interestingly, 102 (34% and 82 (27.3% specimens were positive for mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV and adenovirus, respectively. This study confirmed that sewage surveillance can be a useful additional modality for monitoring the possible presence of wild-type or vaccine-derived poliovirus in wastewater, and can indicate the current types of viruses circulating in the population. Furthermore, since MRV was found in children with acute necrotizing encephalopathy and meningitis, the high incidence of MRV detected by environmental surveillance warrants further investigation.

  18. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the surveillance and maintenance project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    DOE Order 5820.2 mandates that a surveillance and maintenance program be established in all shut-down facilities to ensure adequate containment of contamination, provide physical safety and security, and reduce potential public and environmental hazards. A key consideration in this process is the prevention of any waste to be generated from these activities. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Surveillance and Maintenance (S ampersand M) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document their PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments

  19. Environmental surveillance results for 1995 for the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCague, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    This memorandum presents and interprets analytical results and measurements obtained as part of the 1995 environmental surveillance program for the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The discussion provides a comparative analysis of average historical background conditions and applicable regulatory criteria to the 1995 results reported for external gamma radiation and for samples from the media investigated (air, surface water, sediment, groundwater, and stormwater). Results from the 1995 environmental surveillance program at HISS indicate that, with the exception of thorium-230 in streambed sediment, applicable US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines were not exceeded for any measured parameter or for any dose calculated for potentially exposed members of the general public. In the absence of sediment guidelines, DOE soil guidelines serve as a standard of comparison for data obtained from stream bed sediment; two samples from downstream locations contained concentrations of thorium-230 that exceeded DOE soil guidelines. All stormwater sample results were in compliance with permit-specified limits. Other radioactive materials include radium 226 and natural uranium

  20. Translation of environmental leadership objectives into routine project execution for the uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breker, J.; Studer, T.; Voykin, N.; Berg, B.; Scott, W.

    2010-01-01

    Cameco Corporation (Cameco) aligns its social and environmental responsibilities with its vision, mission and values. Environmental Leadership is established as a corporate objective that emphasizes the triple-bottom-line and a systematic approach to understanding environmental, social and economic issues, risks and opportunities. These are ingrained in the project culture, systems and processes and used to influence solutions derived by the project teams to achieve Cameco's objectives. This paper traces the organizational objectives from the early stages of a project through to implementation and turn over to Operations. A case study is used to demonstrate how an asset is influenced by Cameco's strategy. (author)

  1. Translation of environmental leadership objectives into routine project execution for the uranium mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breker, J.; Studer, T.; Voykin, N.; Berg, B., E-mail: jeremy_breker@cameco.com [Cameco Corp., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Scott, W. [Wardrop Engineering, Thunder Bay, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Cameco Corporation (Cameco) aligns its social and environmental responsibilities with its vision, mission and values. Environmental Leadership is established as a corporate objective that emphasizes the triple-bottom-line and a systematic approach to understanding environmental, social and economic issues, risks and opportunities. These are ingrained in the project culture, systems and processes and used to influence solutions derived by the project teams to achieve Cameco's objectives. This paper traces the organizational objectives from the early stages of a project through to implementation and turn over to Operations. A case study is used to demonstrate how an asset is influenced by Cameco's strategy. (author)

  2. The use of environmental DNA in invasive species surveillance of the Great Lakes commercial bait trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Lucas R; Jerde, Christopher L; Budny, Michelle L; Mahon, Andrew R

    2015-04-01

    Over 180 non-native species have been introduced in the Laurentian Great Lakes region, many posing threats to native species and ecosystem functioning. One potential pathway for introductions is the commercial bait trade; unknowing or unconcerned anglers commonly release unused bait into aquatic systems. Previous surveillance efforts of this pathway relied on visual inspection of bait stocks in retail shops, which can be time and cost prohibitive and requires a trained individual that can rapidly and accurately identify cryptic species. Environmental DNA (eDNA) surveillance, a molecular tool that has been used for surveillance in aquatic environments, can be used to efficiently detect species at low abundances. We collected and analyzed 576 eDNA samples from 525 retail bait shops throughout the Laurentian Great Lake states. We used eDNA techniques to screen samples for multiple aquatic invasive species (AIS) that could be transported in the bait trade, including bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and silver carp (H. molitrix), round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), tubenose goby (Proterorhinus marmoratus), Eurasian rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus), and goldfish (Carassius auratus). Twenty-seven samples were positive for at least one target species (4.7% of samples), and all target species were found at least once, except bighead carp. Despite current regulations, the bait trade remains a potential pathway for invasive species introductions in the Great Lakes region. Alterations to existing management strategies regarding the collection, transportation, and use of live bait are warranted, including new and updated regulations, to prevent future introductions of invasive species in the Great Lakes via the bait trade. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Program of environmental radiological surveillance of the radioactive wastes storage center of Maquixco in the period January-December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaso P, M.I.

    1991-12-01

    The primary objective of all program of environmental radiological surveillance (PVRA), it is to follow the evolution of the radioactive content of the links of the chains that constitute the different ways of transfer of the radioactivity toward the man, with the purpose of making a realistic evaluation of the environmental impact produced by the installation under surveillance. In the CADER in Mexico, only accidents or escapes of radioactivity of slow evolution can be detected. At the moment the radioactive wastes in this installation are not treated. In this report the results obtained during the year 1991 are presented. (Author)

  4. Contribution of Environmental Surveillance Toward Interruption of Poliovirus Transmission in Nigeria, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson Muluh, Ticha; Hamisu, Abdullahi Walla; Craig, Kehinde; Mkanda, Pascal; Andrew, Etsano; Adeniji, Johnson; Akande, Adefunke; Musa, Audu; Ayodeji, Isiaka; Nicksy, Gumede; Banda, Richard; Tegegne, Sisay G; Nsubuga, Peter; Oyetunji, Ajiboye; Diop, Ousmane; Vaz, Rui G; Muhammad, Ado J G

    2016-05-01

    Cases of paralysis caused by poliovirus have decreased by >99% since the 1988 World Health Assembly's resolution to eradicate polio. The World Health Organization identified environmental surveillance (ES) of poliovirus in the poliomyelitis eradication strategic plan as an activity that can complement acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. This article summarizes key public health interventions that followed the isolation of polioviruses from ES between 2012 and 2015. The grap method was used to collect 1.75 L of raw flowing sewage every 2-4 weeks. Once collected, samples were shipped at 4 °C to a polio laboratory for concentration. ES data were then used to guide program implementation. From 2012 to 2015, ES reported 97 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV2) and 14 wild polioviruses. In 2014 alone, 54 cVDPV type 2 cases and 1 WPV type 1 case were reported. In Sokoto State, 58 cases of AFP were found from a search of 9426 households. A total of 2 252 059 inactivated polio vaccine and 2 460 124 oral polio vaccine doses were administered to children aged poliovirus transmission in Nigeria. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.

  5. Environmental surveillance for EG ampersand G Idaho Waste Management facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. 1993 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmsen, R.N.; Wright, K.C.; McBride, D.W.; Borsella, B.W.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes calendar year 1993 environmental surveillance activities of Environmental Monitoring of EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., performed at EG ampersand G Idaho operated Waste Management facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The major facilities monitored include the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility, the Mixed Waste Storage Facility, and two surplus facilities. Included are results of the sampling performed by the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory and the United States Geological Survey. The primary purposes of monitoring are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to ensure compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1993 environmental surveillance data with US Department of Energy derived concentration guides and with data from previous years

  6. Annual report -- 1992: Environmental surveillance for EG ampersand G Idaho Waste Management Facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmsen, R.N.; Wright, K.C.; McBride, D.W.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the 1992 environmental surveillance activities of the Environmental Monitoring Unit of EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., at EG ampersand G Idaho-operated Waste Management facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The major facilities monitored include the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility, the Mixed Waste Storage Facility, and two surplus facilities. Included are some results of the sampling performed by the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory and the United States Geological Survey. The primary purposes of monitoring are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to ensure compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1992 environmental surveillance data with DOE derived concentration guides, and with data from previous years

  7. Validity and design of environmental surveillance systems for operating nuclear power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichholz, G.G.

    1977-12-01

    The composition and procedures of environmental surveillance programs at completed and operating nuclear power plants have been examined with respect to their validity, continuing significance and cost. It was found that many programs contain components that are mainly an extension of preoperational baseline measurements that need not be continued indefinitely and that others lack the statistical validity to make their continued application meaningful. To identify the practical limits imposed by counting statistics and realistic equipment capacity measurements were done on iodine-131 and cesium-137 containing samples to establish detectability limits and proportionate costs for sample preparation and counting. It was found that under commercial conditions effective detectability limits and expected confidence limits were substantially higher than those mentioned in NRC Regulatory Guides. This imposes a need for either selecting fewer samples and counting them for longer times or accepting a lesser accuracy on more samples, within the bounds of reasonable cost per sample

  8. Release monitoring and environmental surveillance of Cea centers. Assessment and regulation and method 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The quality of the natural environment around the centers of the Commissariat a l Energie Atomique is an important point of its safety policy. The environmental protection is based on the control of risks coming from research and development activities of its installations. It aims to reduce as low as possible, the impact of its activities on man and his environment. This publication develops the sampling and measurement methods that are made on effluents and in environment, according to the radionuclides characteristics, that are present. It gives also the regulation that applied to the effluents monitoring. The results of radioactive effluents releases (liquid and gaseous) and the surveillance of environment around cea centers is given in the 'Bilan 1999' publication. An analysis of these results on the 1995-1999 period allows to follow their evolution. (N.C.)

  9. A latent process model for forecasting multiple time series in environmental public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kathryn T; Shaddick, Gavin; Henderson, Sarah B; Buckeridge, David L

    2016-08-15

    This paper outlines a latent process model for forecasting multiple health outcomes arising from a common environmental exposure. Traditionally, surveillance models in environmental health do not link health outcome measures, such as morbidity or mortality counts, to measures of exposure, such as air pollution. Moreover, different measures of health outcomes are treated as independent, while it is known that they are correlated with one another over time as they arise in part from a common underlying exposure. We propose modelling an environmental exposure as a latent process, and we describe the implementation of such a model within a hierarchical Bayesian framework and its efficient computation using integrated nested Laplace approximations. Through a simulation study, we compare distinct univariate models for each health outcome with a bivariate approach. The bivariate model outperforms the univariate models in bias and coverage of parameter estimation, in forecast accuracy and in computational efficiency. The methods are illustrated with a case study using healthcare utilization and air pollution data from British Columbia, Canada, 2003-2011, where seasonal wildfires produce high levels of air pollution, significantly impacting population health. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Radioactive waste disposal areas and associated environmental surveillance data at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.

    1979-12-01

    Environmental surveillance data have been collected around radioactive waste disposal areas for the past thirty years at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The wealth of data collected around the ORNL radioactive waste burial grounds is presented in this review. The purpose of this paper is to describe the solid waste burial grounds in detail along with the environmental monitoring data. The various monitoring systems are reviewed, and the liquid discharge trends are discussed. Monitoring at White Oak Dam, the last liquid control point for the Laboratory, was started in the late 1940's and is continuing. Presently, a network of five environmental monitoring stations is in operation to monitor the radionuclide content of surface waters in the White Oak Creek watershed. Facts observed during the lifetime of the disposal sites include: (1) a large amount of 106 Ru released during 1959 to 1964 due to the fact that Conasauga shale did not retain this element as well as it retained other radionuclides. (2) Large quantities of tritiated water have been released to the Clinch River in recent years, but, from a practical standpoint, little can be done to inhibit or control these releases. (3) A general downward trend in the number of curies released has been observed for all other radionuclides. A number of corrective measures that have been initiated at ORNL to reduce the radioactive liquid discharges are outlined in the paper

  11. Avian influenza shedding patterns in waterfowl: implications for surveillance, environmental transmission, and disease spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henaux, Viviane; Samuel, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recognized importance of fecal/oral transmission of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) via contaminated wetlands, little is known about the length, quantity, or route of AI virus shed by wild waterfowl. We used published laboratory challenge studies to evaluate the length and quantity of low pathogenic (LP) and highly pathogenic (HP) virus shed via oral and cloacal routes by AI-infected ducks and geese, and how these factors might influence AI epidemiology and virus detection. We used survival analysis to estimate the duration of infection (from virus inoculation to the last day virus was shed) and nonlinear models to evaluate temporal patterns in virus shedding. We found higher mean virus titer and longer median infectious period for LPAI-infected ducks (10–11.5 days in oral and cloacal swabs) than HPAI-infected ducks (5 days) and geese (7.5 days). Based on the median bird infectious dose, we found that environmental contamination is two times higher for LPAI- than HPAI-infectious ducks, which implies that susceptible birds may have a higher probability of infection during LPAI than HPAI outbreaks. Less environmental contamination during the course of infection and previously documented shorter environmental persistence for HPAI than LPAI suggest that the environment is a less favorable reservoir for HPAI. The longer infectious period, higher virus titers, and subclinical infections with LPAI viruses favor the spread of these viruses by migratory birds in comparison to HPAI. Given the lack of detection of HPAI viruses through worldwide surveillance, we suggest monitoring for AI should aim at improving our understanding of AI dynamics (in particular, the role of the environment and immunity) using long-term comprehensive live bird, serologic, and environmental sampling at targeted areas. Our findings on LPAI and HPAI shedding patterns over time provide essential information to parameterize environmental transmission and virus spread in predictive

  12. Establishing a routine procedure for determination of environmental tritium concentration at ICIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Faurescu, I.; Vagner, I.; Faurescu, D.; Bogdan, D.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The Cryogenic Pilot is an experimental project within the national nuclear energy research program, which has the aim of developing technologies for tritium and deuterium separation by cryogenic distillation. The process used in this installation is based on a combined method for liquid-phase catalytic exchange (LPCE) and cryogenic distillation. There are two ways in which the Cryogenic Pilot can interact with the environment: by atmospheric release and through the sewage system. In order to establish the base level of tritium concentration in the environment around the nuclear facilities, we investigated the sample preparation treatment for different types of samples: spinach, spring wheat, onion, hay, grass, apple, garden lettuce, soil, milk, and meat. For the azeotropic distillation of all types of samples were used two solvents, toluene and cyclohexane, and all measurements for the determination of environmental tritium concentration were carried out using liquid scintillation counting (LSC), with ultra-low liquid scintillation spectrometer Quantulus 1220 specially designed for environmental samples and low radioactivity. Sample scintillation cocktail ratio was 8:12 ml and liquid scintillation cocktail was UltimaGold LLT. The background determined for the prepared blank samples was between 0.926 CPM and 1.002 CPM and the counting efficiency between 25.37% and 26.10%. The counting time was 1000 minutes (50 minutes/20 cycles) for each sample, and the minimum detectable activity according to ISO 9698 was 8.9 TU and 9.05 TU, respectively, at a confidence factor of 3. (authors)

  13. An overview of background environmental radiological surveillance around Kudankulam nuclear power project site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.P.; Vijayakumar, B.; George, Thomas; Rajan, P.S.; Rana, B.K.; Kumar, M.; Hegde, A.G.; Chougaonkar, M.P.

    2005-01-01

    A modern Environmental Survey Laboratory (ESL) equipped with state-of-art nuclear counting, chemical and ecological equipment's has been set up at Kudankulam at the very beginning of construction activities to carry out pre operational and baseline radioactivity measurements. Construction activities for the two VVER type 1000 MWe reactors at the site are progressing ahead of schedule and the first unit is slated to be critical in the year 2007. This paper presents the results of environmental radiological surveillance carried out for the last one year in Kudankulam environs. General radiation background in the area varies in the range of 0.1 - 0.7 μGy/h and elevated levels as high as 20 μGy/h are noticed in beach areas. The major contribution to the background radiation in high background areas comes from 232 Th and its daughter products. The concentrations of 40 K are of normal order and comparable to other NPP sites and normal background areas. The concentrations of fallout nuclides are very low and are at global fallout levels. (author)

  14. Overview of a comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program: The role of fish and wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.H.

    1988-05-01

    Concern about the effects of potential releases from nuclear and non-nuclear activities on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington has evolved over four decades into a comprehensive environmental monitoring and surveillance program. The program includes field sampling, and chemical and physical analyses of air, surface and ground water, fish and wildlife, soil, foodstuffs, and natural vegetation. In addition to monitoring radioactivity in fish and wildlife, population numbers of key species are determined, usually during the breeding season. Data from monitoring efforts are used to assess the environmental impacts of Hanford operations and calculate the overall radiological dose to humans onsite, at the Site perimeter, or residing in nearby communities. Chinook salmon spawning in the Columbia River at Hanford has increased in recent years with a concomitant increase in winter nesting activity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). An elk (Cervus elaphus) herd, established by immigration in 1972, is also increasing. Nesting Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and great blue heron (Ardea herodias), and various other animals, e.g., mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) are common. Measured exposure to penetrating radiation and calculated radiation doses to the public are well below applicable regulatory limits

  15. Environmental surveillance in the Marshall Islands: an application of alternative energy sources in the Third World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse, N.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Recent assessments of potential radiation exposure pathways at Bikini and Enewetak have indicated that doses in excess of current radiation protection guidelines are possible or even likely for persons living in these areas. Rongelap and Utirik Atolls, which were downwind of the 1954 BRAVO event, also received significant fallout; potential radiological problems exist in these areas as well. In view of this prospect, followup environmental monitoring and personnel monitoring programs are being established to maintain our cognizance of radiological conditions, and to take corrective action where necessary. Various aspects of this program require the operation of scientific equipment in remote areas which have no electrical power. In order to solve this problem, windpowered electrical generators were installed on three islands in a planned program through which they will be turned over to the local inhabitants for community use after about two years. This paper describes environmental surveillance efforts for the inhabitants of Pacific Islands who were the recipients of radioactive fallout from US nuclear weapons tests in the Pacific

  16. Co-ordinated research and environmental surveillance programme related to sea disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The co-ordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme relevant to sea disposal of radioactive waste (CRESP) was created in 1981 in the framework of the 1977 Decision of the OECD Council establishing a Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste. CRESP was essentially a scientific research programme. Its main objective was to increase the knowledge of processes controlling the transfer of radionuclides in the marine environment, so that safety assessments could be based on more accurate and comprehensive scientific data. From 1986, in response to a request from the Paris Commission, CRESP also considered the scientific aspects of coastal releases. CRESP made it possible to co-ordinate national research activities and generated an important international co-operation in its areas of work. The vast amount of scientific information gathered in this framework increased strongly our knowledge of the impact of radionuclides introduced to the deep sea environment. In particular, CRESP provided the basis for a comprehensive safety analysis of sea dumping operations. This study, published by the NEA in 1985, is still e reference on the subject. In November 1993, the Sixteenth Consultative Meeting of Contracting Parties to the London Convention 1972 voted a total ban on the disposal at sea of radioactive wastes and other radioactive matter. Considering this decision, the conclusions of the 1985 safety analysis, and CRESP's view that new scientific findings are unlikely to alter these conclusions, the NEA Steering Committee for nuclear Energy decided in October 1995 to terminate the programme. The present report summarises the knowledge accumulated within CRESP over its fifteen years of existence. (author)

  17. NEA Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme related to sea disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruegger, B.; Templeton, W.L.; Gurbutt, P.

    1983-05-01

    Sea dumping operations of certain types of packaged low and medium-level radioactive wastes have been carried out since 1967 in the North-East Atlantic under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. On the occasion of the 1980 review of the continued suitability of the North-East Atlantic site used for the disposal of radioactive waste, it was recommended that an effort should be made to increase the scientific data base relating to the oceanographic and biological characteristics of the dumping area. In particular, it was suggested that a site specific model of the transfer of radionuclides in the marine environment be developed, which would permit a better assessment of the potential radiation doses to man from the dumping of radioactive waste. To fulfill these objectives a research and environmental surveillance programme related to sea disposal of radioactive waste was set up in 1981 with the participation of thirteen Member countries and the International Laboratory for Marine Radioactivity of the IAEA in Monaco. The research program is focused on five research areas which are directly relevant to the preparation of more site-specific assessments in the future. They are: model development; physical oceanography; geochemistry; biology; and radiological surveillance. Promising results have already been obtained and more are anticipated in the not too distant future. An interim description of the NEA dumping site has been prepared which provides an excellent data base for this area (NEA 1983).It includes data in bathymetry, isopycnal topography, local and larger scale currents, sediment distribution and sedimentary processes, hydrochemistry, deep ocean biology and results of radiochemical analyses of sea water, sediments and biological materials. The modelling work is also well advanced allowing comparison of results obtained from different codes. After integration of the models, sensitivity analyses will provide indications for future research needs

  18. Using routine diagnostic data as a method of surveillance of arboviral infection in travellers: A comparative analysis with a focus on dengue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleton, Natalie; Reusken, Chantal; Murk, Jean-Luc; de Jong, Menno; Reimerink, Johan; van der Eijk, Annemiek; Koopmans, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Background: In a large part of the developing world, limited infectious disease surveillance is performed. In laboratory information management systems data on diagnostic requests is available and may be amenable to trend analyses. We explored this potential, using DENV diagnostic requests as a

  19. Surveillance and Control of Malaria Transmission in Thailand using Remotely Sensed Meteorological and Environmental Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Richard K.; Adimi, Farida; Soika, Valerii; Nigro, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    These slides address the use of remote sensing in a public health application. Specifically, this discussion focuses on the of remote sensing to detect larval habitats to predict current and future endemicity and identify key factors that sustain or promote transmission of malaria in a targeted geographic area (Thailand). In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, which is part of the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Applications Program, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health's decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) identification of the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) implementation of a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity; 3) implementation of a dynamic transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission. The potential benefits are: 1) increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) reduced damage to environment. !> Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. The NASA Earth science data sets that have been used for malaria surveillance and risk assessment include AVHRR Pathfinder, TRMM, MODIS, NSIPP, and SIESIP. Textural-contextual classifications are used to identify small larval habitats. Neural network methods are used to model malaria cases as a function of the remotely sensed parameters. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records. Discrete event simulations are used for modeling the detailed interactions among the vector life cycle, sporogonic cycle and human infection cycle, under the explicit influences of selected extrinsic and intrinsic factors

  20. 2003 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Idaho National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. Environmental surveillance of the Oak Ridge Reservation and surrounding environs during 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    Routine monitoring and sampling for radiation, radioactive materials, and chemical substances on and off the Oak Ridge Reservation are used to document compliance with appropriate standards, identify undesirable trends, provide information for the public, and contribute to general environmental knowledge. Regional stations located at distances of up to 140 km (90 miles) from the ORR provide a basis for determining conditions beyond the range of potential influence of the three Oak Ridge installations. Stations within the Reservation, around the perimeters and within each plant site, and in residential and community areas document conditions in areas occupied and visited by the public and potentially affected by the Oak Ridge operations. In all, during 1985 some 115,000 analyses of environmental samples were completed as part of the Reservation-wide and regional monitoring program. Included were approxiately 61,000 air, 41,000 surface water, 8090 groundwater, 2400 wastewater, 80 fish, 231 soil, 132 grass, 36 pine needle, 360 sediment, and 80 external gamma analyses

  2. Environmental surveillance of the Oak Ridge Reservation and surrounding environs during 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-04-01

    Routine monitoring and sampling for radiation, radioactive materials, and chemical substances on and off the Oak Ridge Reservation are used to document compliance with appropriate standards, identify undesirable trends, provide information for the public, and contribute to general environmental knowledge. Regional stations located at distances of up to 140 km (90 miles) from the ORR provide a basis for determining conditions beyond the range of potential influence of the three Oak Ridge installations. Stations within the Reservation, around the perimeters and within each plant site, and in residential and community areas document conditions in areas occupied and visited by the public and potentially affected by the Oak Ridge operations. In all, during 1985 some 115,000 analyses of environmental samples were completed as part of the Reservation-wide and regional monitoring program. Included were approxiately 61,000 air, 41,000 surface water, 8090 groundwater, 2400 wastewater, 80 fish, 231 soil, 132 grass, 36 pine needle, 360 sediment, and 80 external gamma analyses.

  3. An overview of the Environmental Response Team's air surveillance procedures at emergency response activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, R.D.; Campagna, P.R. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (USA))

    The Safety and Air Surveillance Section of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Response Team responds to emergency air releases such as tire fires and explosions. The air surveillance equipment and procedures used by the organization are described, and case studies demonstrating the various emergency response activities are presented. Air response activities include emergency air responses, occupational and human health air responses and remedial air responses. Monitoring and sampling equipment includes photoionization detectors, combustible gas meters, real-time aerosol monitors, personal sampling pumps, and high flow pumps. Case histories presented include disposal of dioxane from a cotton plant, response to oil well fires in Kuwait, disposal of high pressure cylinders in American Samoa, and response to hurricane Hugo. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Audit of Helicobacter pylori Testing in Microbiology Laboratories in England: To Inform Compliance with NICE Guidance and the Feasibility of Routine Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalie Allison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guidance recommends that dyspeptic patients are tested for Helicobacter pylori using a urea breath test, stool antigen test, or serology. Antibiotic resistance in H. pylori is globally increasing, but treatment in England is rarely guided by susceptibility testing or surveillance. Aims. To determine compliance of microbiology laboratories in England with NICE guidance and whether laboratories perform culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST. Methods. In 2015, 170 accredited English microbiology laboratories were surveyed, by email. Results. 121/170 (71% laboratories responded; 96% provided H. pylori testing (78% on site. 94% provided H. pylori diagnosis using stool antigen; only four provided serology as their noninvasive test; 3/4 of these encouraged urea breath tests in their acute trusts. Only 22/94 (23% of the laboratories performed H. pylori cultures from gastric biopsies on site; 9/22 performed AST, but the vast majority processed less than one specimen/week. Conclusions. Only five laboratories in England do not comply with NICE guidance; these will need the guidance reinforced. National surveillance needs to be implemented; culture-based AST would need to be centralised. Moving forward, detection of resistance in H. pylori from stool specimens using molecular methods (PCR needs to be explored.

  5. Cyanobacteria and Algae Blooms: Review of Health and Environmental Data from the Harmful Algal Bloom-Related Illness Surveillance System (HABISS) 2007–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Lorraine C.; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; LePrell, Rebecca; Bolton, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Algae and cyanobacteria are present in all aquatic environments. We do not have a good sense of the extent of human and animal exposures to cyanobacteria or their toxins, nor do we understand the public health impacts from acute exposures associated with recreational activities or chronic exposures associated with drinking water. We describe the Harmful Algal Bloom-related Illness Surveillance System (HABISS) and summarize the collected reports describing bloom events and associated adverse human and animal health events. For the period of 2007–2011, Departments of Health and/or Environment from 11 states funded by the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention contributed reports for 4534 events. For 2007, states contributed 173 reports from historical data. The states participating in the HABISS program built response capacity through targeted public outreach and prevention activities, including supporting routine cyanobacteria monitoring for public recreation waters. During 2007–2010, states used monitoring data to support196 public health advisories or beach closures. The information recorded in HABISS and the application of these data to develop a wide range of public health prevention and response activities indicate that cyanobacteria and algae blooms are an environmental public health issue that needs continuing attention. PMID:25826054

  6. Environmental surveillance monitoring in the Alligator Rivers Region. Report for the six months period ending 30 September 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report outlines the activities of the Northern Territory Supervising Authorities in meeting their responsibilities for environmental management and surveillance, occupational safety, relating to uranium mining and environment protection in the Alligator Rivers Region. Environmental monitoring was carried out at the Nabarlek Mine, which site has now been rehabilitated and revegetated, and at Ranger, the only mine currently operating in the region. Other uranium projects such as Jabiluka and Koongarra have been delayed due to the former Commonwealth Government's 'three mines policy'. 4 tabs., 10 figs

  7. Environmental Radiation Surveillance Results from over the Last Decade of Operational Experience at the Regional Radiation Monitoring Stations(RRMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae Young [Daegu Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Dong Han [Ulsan Regional Radiation Monitoring Station, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The objectives of the current program are to monitor environmental radiation/radioactivity level in Korea and to provide the base-line data on environmental radiation/radioactivity which will be useful in the case of radiological emergency situations. This program plays an important role in the view of protecting the public health against the potential hazards of radiation and maintaining a clean environment. This paper describes an introduction to the Regional Radiation Monitoring Stations (RRMS), and also presents some results of recent years (2001-2014). The environmental radiation surveillance results of years 2001-2014 have been described. It indicates normal levels of radiation in the past years. These kinds of studies are very important in providing references in understanding the environmental radioactivity level in a particular region.

  8. The use of animals as a surveillance tool for monitoring environmental health hazards, human health hazards and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Jacqueline Pei Shan; Tan, Boon Huan

    2017-05-01

    This review discusses the utilization of wild or domestic animals as surveillance tools for monitoring naturally occurring environmental and human health hazards. Besides providing early warning to natural hazards, animals can also provide early warning to societal hazards like bioterrorism. Animals are ideal surveillance tools to humans because they share the same environment as humans and spend more time outdoors than humans, increasing their exposure risk. Furthermore, the biologically compressed lifespans of some animals may allow them to develop clinical signs more rapidly after exposure to specific pathogens. Animals are an excellent channel for monitoring novel and known pathogens with outbreak potential given that more than 60 % of emerging infectious diseases in humans originate as zoonoses. This review attempts to highlight animal illnesses, deaths, biomarkers or sentinel events, to remind human and veterinary public health programs that animal health can be used to discover, monitor or predict environmental health hazards, human health hazards, or bioterrorism. Lastly, we hope that this review will encourage the implementation of animals as a surveillance tool by clinicians, veterinarians, ecosystem health professionals, researchers and governments. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Overview of environmental surveillance and compliance at Los Alamos during 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    After introductory remarks about the National Lab, the report discusses background radiation, human-produced radiation, radionuclide migration, doses, and health physics risk; the environmental programs at LANL including environmental protection, restoration, waste management, quality assurance, environmental oversight, environmental safety and training; environmental monitoring of external penetrating radiation, surface waters, sediments, soils, foodstuffs, and associated biota; and environmental compliance with existing regulations.

  10. Overview of environmental surveillance and compliance at Los Alamos during 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    After introductory remarks about the National Lab, the report discusses background radiation, human-produced radiation, radionuclide migration, doses, and health physics risk; the environmental programs at LANL including environmental protection, restoration, waste management, quality assurance, environmental oversight, environmental safety and training; environmental monitoring of external penetrating radiation, surface waters, sediments, soils, foodstuffs, and associated biota; and environmental compliance with existing regulations

  11. The insertion of the environmental health surveillance in the unified health system - 10.5020/18061230.2012.p3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilo Baltazar Barreira Filho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of environmental monitoring activities in the Unified Health System (SUS shows some characteristics that differentiate it from the practice of epidemiological surveillance. This occurs mainly because much data on exposure to environmental factors is obtained outside the health sector and the adoption of actions that seek to control and/or prevent requires, in most cases, an intra andintersectoral understanding and articulation, since the health sector is not able, by itself, to provide answers to environmental health issues.In recent years, there has been an increasingly consolidation of the field of environmental health, which includes the area of public health, accustomed to scientific knowledge, to the formulation of public policies and the corresponding interventions (actions related to the interaction between human health and both natural and anthropic environmental factors, which determine, modulate and influence such interaction, in order to improve the quality of human life from the point of view of sustainability(1.As agreed at the Ist Seminar of the National Environmental Health, held in October 2005 and consolidated in the first National Conference on Environmental Health, held in December 2009, it is understood as an area of intersectoral and interdisciplinarypractice focused on the outcomes, in human health, of ecogeossocialrelations between man and environment(1.Accordingly, the Ministry of Health has been implementing, throughout the country, a Surveillance System in Environmental Health (SINVISA, seeking the improvement of this “model” of activities, establishing expertise into the three levels of government, aiming to consolidate the practice of Environmental Health within the SUS.Normative Instruction No. 1, March 7, 2005, creates SINVISA, establishes the area of action, the scope of the three levels of management within SUS and defines the Environmental Health Surveillance as a set of actions and services

  12. The insertion of the environmental health surveillance in the unified health system - 10.5020/18061230.2012.p1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilo Baltazar Barreira Filho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of environmental monitoring activities in the Unified Health System (SUS shows some characteristics that differentiate it from the practice of epidemiological surveillance. This occurs mainly because much data on exposure to environmental factors is obtained outside the health sector and the adoption of actions that seek to control and/or prevent requires, in most cases, an intra andintersectoral understanding and articulation, since the health sector is not able, by itself, to provide answers to environmental health issues.In recent years, there has been an increasingly consolidation of the field of environmental health, which includes the area of public health, accustomed to scientific knowledge, to the formulation of public policies and the corresponding interventions (actions related to the interaction between human health and both natural and anthropic environmental factors, which determine, modulate and influence such interaction, in order to improve the quality of human life from the point of view of sustainability(1.As agreed at the Ist Seminar of the National Environmental Health, held in October 2005 and consolidated in the first National Conference on Environmental Health, held in December 2009, it is understood as an area of intersectoral and interdisciplinarypractice focused on the outcomes, in human health, of ecogeossocialrelations between man and environment(1.Accordingly, the Ministry of Health has been implementing, throughout the country, a Surveillance System in Environmental Health (SINVISA, seeking the improvement of this “model” of activities, establishing expertise into the three levels of government, aiming to consolidate the practice of Environmental Health within the SUS.Normative Instruction No. 1, March 7, 2005, creates SINVISA, establishes the area of action, the scope of the three levels of management within SUS and defines the Environmental Health Surveillance as a set of actions and services

  13. Principles and results of environmental surveillance of the Austrian Research Center at Seibersdorf within the last twenty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, F.; Etzersdorfer, E.; Sorantin, H.

    1980-01-01

    The Research Center at Seibersdorf uses its 12 MW- reactor for isotope production, fuel testing and activation analyses and also operates a waste management department, including an incineration plant. Since the center is situated near Vienna and is surrounded by an agricultural area, a strict monitoring program has been maintained. Details about number and places of water-, air-, aerosol- and biological sampling stations are given and the surveillance of uranium and plutonium handling laboratories is described. Also, TL-dosimeters in special casings and calibrated GM counters are installed at various locations in and around the center to measure the immersion doses. Evaluation of the obtained results shows rather small fluctuations and allows an immediate recognition of values over the routine levels. By measurement of the emissions it could also be proved that the measured values were far below the limits set by the authorities. (author)

  14. A prospective, multicenter, post marketing surveillance study to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the Superia-Sirolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System (SSECSS) implanted during routine clinical practice in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Praveen; Kumar, Tarun

    2014-01-01

    A prospective, multicenter, post marketing surveillance study to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the Superia-Sirolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System (SSECSS) implanted during routine clinical practice in India. 1. To study the MACE and in stent and In-segment Loss at Six Months (in a pre selected group of 50 patients). 1. Clinical and procedural success. This is a prospective, open label, single-arm, multicenter (16 sites), post marketing observational study enrolling patients implanted with Superia-Sirolimus Eluting Coronary Stent (SSECS) in routine clinical practice in India. A total of 200 Patients of coronary Artery Disease (CAD) implanted with Superia-Sirolimus Eluting Coronary Stent (SSECS) were enrolled. Clinical assessments were done at 30 days, 180 days and at 1, 2 years either telephonically or office visit. A cohort of 50 pre-selected patients were followed up for angiographic evaluation at 180 days. MACE at 12 month of follow up was 1.71%.Late lumen loss, in segment was 0.14 and in stent was 0.10 mm at 6 month of follow-up. TLR was required only in 2 patients. Superia stent is as safe as other biodegradable polymer stent in the market and time has come for biodegradable polymer stent with thin struts. Copyright © 2014 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Final generic environmental statement on the routine use of plutonium-powered cardiac pacemakers. Update of information on power sources for pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-05-01

    The Final Environmental Statement on Routine Use of Plutonium-Powered Cardiac Pacemakers (FES) was issued in July 1976. Supplement 1, prepared in 1978, updates the FES with respect to power sources for pacemakers. Particular attention is given to the non-nuclear lithium batteries as alternatives to 238-Pu power sources in pacemakers. Supplement 1 also considers the current extent of pacemaker use and makeup of the patient population and concludes that the FES' conclusion is still valid that distribution of 238-Pu powered pacemakers for routine use should be authorized subject to specific conditions

  16. Pesticide-related illness reported to and diagnosed in Primary Care: implications for surveillance of environmental causes of ill-health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Vera

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Great Britain (GB, data collected on pesticide associated illness focuses on acute episodes such as poisonings caused by misuse or abuse. This study aimed to investigate the extent and nature of pesticide-related illness presented and diagnosed in Primary Care and the feasibility of establishing a routine monitoring system. Methods A checklist, completed by General Practitioners (GP for all patients aged 18+ who attended surgery sessions, identified patients to be interviewed in detail on exposures and events that occurred in the week before their symptoms appeared. Results The study covered 59320 patients in 43 practices across GB and 1335 detailed interviews. The annual incidence of illness reported to GPs because of concern about pesticide exposure was estimated to be 0.04%, potentially 88400 consultations annually, approximately 1700 per week. The annual incidence of consultations where symptoms were diagnosed by GPs as likely to be related to pesticide exposure was 0.003%, an annual estimate of 6630 consultations i.e. about 128 per week. 41% of interviewees reported using at least one pesticide at home in the week before symptoms occurred. The risk of having symptoms possibly related to pesticide exposure compared to unlikely was associated with home use of pesticides after adjusting for age, gender and occupational pesticide exposure (OR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.51 – 2.35. Conclusion GP practices were diverse and well distributed throughout GB with similar symptom consulting patterns as in the Primary Care within the UK. Methods used in this study would not be feasible for a routine surveillance system for pesticide related illness. Incorporation of environmental health into Primary Care education and practice is needed.

  17. Legionella spp. and legionellosis in southeastern Italy: disease epidemiology and environmental surveillance in community and health care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbuti Giovanna

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the publication of the Italian Guidelines for the control and prevention of legionellosis an environmental and clinical surveillance has been carried out in Southeastern Italy. The aim of the study is to identify the risk factors for the disease, so allowing better programming of the necessary prevention measures. Methods During the period January 2000 - December 2009 the environmental surveillance was carried out by water sampling of 129 health care facilities (73 public and 56 private hospitals and 533 buildings within the community (63 private apartments, 305 hotels, 19 offices, 4 churches, 116 gyms, 3 swimming pools and 23 schools. Water sampling and microbiological analysis were carried out following the Italian Guidelines. From January 2005, all facilities were subject to risk analysis through the use of a standardized report; the results were classified as good (G, medium (M and bad (B. As well, all the clinical surveillance forms for legionellosis, which must be compiled by physicians and sent to the Regional Centre for Epidemiology (OER, were analyzed. Results Legionella spp. was found in 102 (79.1% health care facilities and in 238 (44.7% community buildings. The percentages for the contamination levels 10,000 cfu/L were respectively 33.1%, 53.4% and 13.5% for samples from health care facilities and 33.5%, 43.3% and 23.2% for samples from the community. Both in hospital and community environments, Legionella pneumophila serogroup (L. pn sg 2-14 was the most frequently isolate (respectively 54.8% and 40.8% of positive samples, followed by L. pn sg 1 (respectively 31.3% and 33%. The study showed a significant association between M or B score at the risk analysis and Legionella spp. positive microbiological test results (p Conclusions Our experience suggests that risk analysis and environmental microbiological surveillance should be carried out more frequently to control the environmental spread of Legionella

  18. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the

  19. Surface Environmental Surveillance Project: Locations Manual Volume 1 – Air and Water Volume 2 – Farm Products, Soil & Vegetation, and Wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Patton, Gregory W.; Stegen, Amanda; Poston, Ted M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes all environmental monitoring locations associated with the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. Environmental surveillance of the Hanford site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The environmental surveillance sampling design is described in the Hanford Site Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operation Office (DOE/RL-91-50). This document contains the locations of sites used to collect samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP). Each section includes directions, maps, and pictures of the locations. A general knowledge of roads and highways on and around the Hanford Site is necessary to successfully use this manual. Supplemental information (Maps, Gazetteer, etc.) may be necessary if user is unfamiliar with local routes. The SESP is a multimedia environmental surveillance effort to measure the concentrations of radionuclides and chemicals in environmental media to demonstrate compliance with applicable environmental quality standards and public exposure limits, and assessing environmental impacts. Project personnel annually collect selected samples of ambient air, surface water, agricultural products, fish, wildlife, and sediments. Soil and vegetation samples are collected approximately every 5 years. Analytical capabilities include the measurement of radionuclides at very low environmental concentrations and, in selected media, nonradiological chemicals including metals, anions, volatile organic compounds, and total organic carbon.

  20. Neural nets for the plausibility check of measured values in the integrated measurement and information system for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity (IMIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, G.

    2003-01-01

    Neural nets to the plausibility check of measured values in the ''integrated measurement and information system for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity, IMIS'' is a research project supported by the Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. A goal of this project was the automatic recognition of implausible measured values in the data base ORACLE, which measured values from surveillance of environmental radioactivity of most diverse environmental media contained. The conversion of this project [ 1 ] was realized by institut of logic, complexity and deduction systems of the university Karlsruhe under the direction of Professor Dr. Menzel, Dr. Martin Riedmueller and Martin Lauer. (orig.)

  1. Annual summary report on the surveillance and maintenance activities for the Oak Rige National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program for fiscal year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Annual Summary Report on the Surveillance and Maintenance Activities for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program for Fiscal Year 1995 was prepared to communicate the accomplishments of the Program during fiscal year 1995. This work was performed under work breakdown structure element 1.4.12.6.1.14.20 (activity data sheet 3314, ''Remedial Action Surveillance and Maintenance''). Publication of this document meets the Life Cycle Baseline milestone date of November 30, 1995. This document provides the accomplishments for both the Remedial Action and Decontamination and Decommissioning Surveillance and Maintenance programs

  2. Evaluation 2000 and regulation and method. Release monitoring and environmental surveillance around Cea centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This publication counts for the year 2000 for the evaluation of liquid and gaseous radioactive effluents releases and the radioactivity levels measured in the vicinity of Cea centers, through the air, water, vegetation and milk surveillance. An analysis of the results from 1996 to 2000 allows to follow their evolution. A second booklet develops the sampling and measurement methods made on effluents in environment. It present besides the regulation applied to effluents monitoring. (N.C.)

  3. Radiological safety and environmental surveillance during the mining and milling of beach minerals and processing of monazite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, P.M.B.; Khan, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper highlights the occupational and environmental radiological safety aspects and surveillance activities associated with mining and milling of beach minerals and processing of monazite, based on the experience gained over more than three decades of operations of the plants of Indian Rare Earths Ltd, at Chavara (Kerala), Manavalakurichi (Tamilnadu) and Udyogamandal (Kerala). The mining of beach sands, mineral separation and chemical processing of monazite for the recovery of Th and U involve occupational radiation hazards and safety problems of varying magnitudes. This part of the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle involves average per-capita occupational exposures ranging from 1.0 mSv to 8 mSv per year. The collective doses involved work out to 4.5 to 5.4 Person Sieverts per year and involve nearly 1000 radiation workers. Internal exposure contributes to nearly half of the exposure. Mechanization of the operations, process modifications, administrative controls and constant safety surveillance have over the years helped to reduce the exposures and to maintain them at levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Environmental releases resulting from the operations are well within the limits stipulated by competent authorities and exposures to public from the mining, mineral separation and monazite processing are not significant. (author)

  4. Sheen surveillance: An environmental monitoring program subsequent to the 1989 Exxon Valdez shoreline cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taft, D.G.; Egging, D.E.; Kuhn, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    In the fall of 1989, an aerial surveillance program was implemented to locate oil sheens (or slicks) originating from shorelines affected by the Exxon Valdez spill. The objectives of the program were to identify any oil on the water that warranted response and to identify those sections of shoreline that would be priority candidates for further cleanup in 1990. The program initially surveyed the entire affected area, but, because proportionally fewer sheens were spotted in the Gulf of Alaska, the program was refocused on Prince Williams Sound in early 1990. The surveillance program consisted of frequent low-altitude flights with trained observers in a deHavilland Twin otter outfitted with observation ports and communication equipment. The primary surveillance technique used was direct visual observation. Other techniques, including photography, were tested but proved less effective. The flights targeted all shorelines of concern, particularly those near fishing, subsistence, and recreational areas.the observers attempted to locate all sheens, estimate their size and color, ad identify the source of the oil found in the sheen. Size and color were used to estimate the volume of oil in each sheen. Samples were collected whenever possible during the summer of 1990 using a floating Teflon trademark sampling device that was developed for easy deployment from a boat or the pontoon of a float plane. Forty four samples were analyzed by UV-fluorescence spectroscopy. Eleven of these samples were also analyzed by GC/MS. In general, the analyses confirmed the observers' judgment of source. 16 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Modification of an environmental surveillance program to monitor PCDD/Fs and metals around a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Martí; Mari, Montse; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2009-11-01

    Since the mid-90s, an environmental surveillance program has been on-going to provide information on the levels of PCDD/Fs and various metals in soil and vegetation samples collected in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain). However, the presence of other potential sources of pollution in the zone, such as traffic, forest fires, local industries, etc., makes hard to determine the impact concerning the MSWI. Therefore, in 2007 a change in the monitoring program was implemented by collecting additional ambient air samples through active and passive sampling devices. Mean PCDD/F levels in herbage and soil were 0.10 ng I-TEQ/kg dry weight (range: 0.05-0.17 ng I-TEQ/kg dw) and 0.64 ng I-TEQ/kg dw (range: 0.13-2.41 ng I-TEQ/kg dw), respectively. A significant reduction of the PCDD/F concentration in both monitors was observed with respect to our previous surveys. Air mean concentrations of PCDD/Fs were 12.04 and 15.21 fg WHO-TEQ/m(3) in 2007 and 2008, respectively, meaning a non-significant increase of 26%. In addition, a generalized increase of environmental metal levels with respect to our baseline study was not observed. The current concentrations of PCDD/Fs and metals in the vicinity of the MSWI of Tarragona are relatively low in comparison with other areas under the influence of emissions from waste incinerators. This indicates that the environmental impact of the MSWI of Tarragona is not significant. Moreover, the modification of the surveillance program has proven to be successful.

  6. Arabidopsis MADS-Box Transcription Factor AGL21 Acts as Environmental Surveillance of Seed Germination by Regulating ABI5 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lin-Hui; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Zi-Sheng; Miao, Zi-Qing; Zhao, Ping-Xia; Wang, Zhen; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2017-06-05

    Seed germination is a crucial checkpoint for plant survival under unfavorable environmental conditions. Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling plays a vital role in integrating environmental information to regulate seed germination. It has been well known that MCM1/AGAMOUS/DEFICIENS/SRF (MADS)-box transcription factors are key regulators of seed and flower development in Arabidopsis. However, little is known about their functions in seed germination. Here we report that MADS-box transcription factor AGL21 is a negative regulator of seed germination and post-germination growth by controlling the expression of ABA-INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) in Arabidopsis. The AGL21-overexpressing plants were hypersensitive to ABA, salt, and osmotic stresses during seed germination and early post-germination growth, whereas agl21 mutants were less sensitive. We found that AGL21 positively regulated ABI5 expression in seeds. Consistently, genetic analyses showed that AGL21 is epistatic to ABI5 in controlling seed germination. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further demonstrated that AGL21 could directly bind to the ABI5 promoter in plant cells. Moreover, we found that AGL21 responded to multiple environmental stresses and plant hormones during seed germination. Taken together, our results suggest that AGL21 acts as a surveillance integrator that incorporates environmental cues and endogenous hormonal signals into ABA signaling to regulate seed germination and early post-germination growth. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The NEA research and environmental surveillance programme related to sea disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugger, B.; Templeton, W. L.; Gurbutt, P.

    1983-05-01

    Sea dumping operations of certain types of packaged low and medium level radioactive wastes have been carried out since 1967 in the North-East Atlantic under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. On the occasion of the 1980 review of the continued suitability of the North-East Atlantic site used for the disposal of radioactive waste, it was recommended that an effort should be made to increase the scientific data base relating to the oceanographic and biological characteristics of the dumping area. In particular, it was suggested that a site specific model of the transfer of radionuclides in the marine environment be developed, which would permit a better assessment of the potential radiation doses to man from the dumping of radioactive waste. To fulfill these objectives a research and environmental surveillance program related to sea disposal of radioactive waste was set up in 1981 with the participation of thirteen Member countries and the International Laboratory for Marine Radioactivity of the IAEA in Monaco. The research program is focused on five research areas which are directly relevant to the preparation of more site specific assessments in the future. They are: model development; physical oceanography; geochemistry; biology; and radiological surveillance. Promising results have already been obtained and more are anticipated in the not too distant future. An interim description of the NEA dumping site has been prepared which provides an excellent data base for this area.

  8. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  9. A new code for spectrometric analysis for environmental radiological surveillance on monitors focused on gamma radioactivity on aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Blas, Alfredo; Tapia, Carlos; Riego, Albert; Garcia, Roger; Dies, Javier; Diaz, Pedro [Nuclear Engineering Research Group, Departament of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain); Toral, Juan [Raditel Serveis, Tarragona (Spain); Batalla, Enric [Radiological Activities Corrdination Service - SCAR, Generalitat de Catalunya. Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    pGamma is a code developed by the NERG group of the Technical University of Catalonia - Barcelona Tech for the analysis of gamma spectra generated by the Equipment for the Continuous Measurement and Identification of Gamma Radioactivity on Aerosols with Paper Filter developed for our group and Raditel Servies company. Nowadays the code is in the process of adaptation for the monitors of the Environmental Radiological Surveillance Network of the Local Government of Catalonia (Generalitat of Catalonia), Spain. The code is a Spectrum Analysis System, it identifies the gamma emitters on the spectrum, determines its Concentration of Activity, generates alarms depending on the Activity of the emitters and generates a report. The Spectrum Analysis System includes a library with emitters of interest, NORM and artificial. The code is being used on the three stations with the aerosol monitor of the Network (Asco and Vandellos, near both Nuclear Power Plants and Barcelona). (authors)

  10. Environmental surveillance during an outbreak of tularaemia in hares, the Netherlands, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse, Ingmar; Maas, Miriam; Rijks, Jolianne M; Koene, Miriam; van der Plaats, Rozemarijn Qj; Engelsma, Marc; van der Tas, Peter; Braks, Marieta; Stroo, Arjan; Notermans, Daan W; de Vries, Maaike C; Reubsaet, Frans; Fanoy, Ewout; Swaan, Corien; Kik, Marja Jl; IJzer, Jooske; Jaarsma, Ryanne I; van Wieren, Sip; de Roda-Husman, Ana Maria; van Passel, Mark; Roest, Hendrik-Jan; van der Giessen, Joke

    2017-08-31

    Tularaemia, a disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, is a re-emerging zoonosis in the Netherlands. After sporadic human and hare cases occurred in the period 2011 to 2014, a cluster of F. tularensis-infected hares was recognised in a region in the north of the Netherlands from February to May 2015. No human cases were identified, including after active case finding. Presence of F. tularensis was investigated in potential reservoirs and transmission routes, including common voles, arthropod vectors and surface waters. F. tularensis was not detected in common voles, mosquito larvae or adults, tabanids or ticks. However, the bacterium was detected in water and sediment samples collected in a limited geographical area where infected hares had also been found. These results demonstrate that water monitoring could provide valuable information regarding F. tularensis spread and persistence, and should be used in addition to disease surveillance in wildlife. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  11. Environmental Surveillance of Polioviruses in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in Support to the Activities of Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Pereira, Joseane Simone; da Silva, Lidiane Rodrigues; de Meireles Nunes, Amanda; de Souza Oliveira, Silas; da Costa, Eliane Veiga; da Silva, Edson Elias

    2016-03-01

    Wild polioviruses still remain endemic in three countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria) and re-emergency of wild polio has been reported in previously polio-free countries. Environmental surveillance has been used as a supplementary tool in monitoring the circulation of wild poliovirus (PVs) and/or vaccine-derived PVs even in the absence of acute flaccid paralysis cases. This study aimed to monitor the presence of polioviruses in wastewater samples collected at one wastewater treatment plant located in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From December 2011 to June 2012 and from September to December 2012, 31 samples were collected and processed. RD and L20B cell cultures were able to isolate PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in 27/31 samples. Polioviruses were isolated in eight samples (type 1 Sabin = 1, type 2 Sabin = 5, and type 3 Sabin = 2). Vaccine-derived polioviruses were not detected nor evidence of recombination with other PVs or non-polio enterovirus serotypes were observed among the isolates. The Sabin-related serotypes 2 and 3 presented nucleotide substitutions in positions associated with the neurovirulent phenotype at the 5'-UTR. Changes in important Amino acid residues at VP1 were also observed in the serotypes 2 and 3. Environmental surveillance has been used successfully in monitoring the circulation of PVs and non-polio enteroviruses and it is of crucial importance in the final stages of the WHO global polio eradication initiative. Our results show the continuous circulation of Sabin-like PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in the analyzed area during the study period.

  12. An estimate of the magnitude and trend of HIV/AIDS epidemic using data from the routine VCT services as an alternative data source to ANC sentinel surveillance in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Yehenew; Gotu, Butte; Enquselassie, Fikre

    2010-10-01

    Since early 1980s when AIDS was first recognized, there has been uncertainty about the future trend and the ultimate dimensions of the pandemic. This uncertainty persists because of difficulties in measuring HIV incidence and prevalence with a substantial degree of precision in a given population. One of the many factors for the lack of precision is the problem of obtaining representative data sources that can be extrapolated to the general population. National and regional HIV estimates for Ethiopia are derived from ANC based HIV surveillance data. Alternative data sources have not been exhaustively explored as potential tools to monitor the trend of HIV/ AIDS epidemic in the country. To estimate the magnitude and trend of HIV/AIDS epidemic using data from the routine VCT services as an alternative data source to ANC sentinel surveillance data. The study used secondary data sources from all government, private and NGO VCT centers, of the period of 2003-2005 in Addis Ababa. For the purpose of making comparative analysis of the VCT based estimations and projections, records of all five sentinel sites in Addis Ababa for the period 1983-2003 were reviewed. Both ANC and VCT data sources showed similar and regular trends from the beginning of the HIV epidemic till the year 1995 where the ANC showed a relatively higher prevalence rates than VCT data, with a maximum difference in HIV prevalence of 1.06% in 1993. However, a higher HIV prevalence was noted for the VCT than the ANC data source for the period of 1996-2002, with a maximum difference of 1.4% in 1998, the year when both the ANC and VCT modeled HIV prevalence reached the highest peak in Addis Ababa. On the contrary, the ANC based prevalence was higher than the VCT data for the period 2004-2010, with a maximum difference of 2.2%. This study suggests that VCT based HIV prevalence data closely approximates the ANC based data. Therefore VCT data source can be valuable to complement the ANC data in monitoring the HIV

  13. Radiological and environmental surveillance in front-end fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.H.; Sahoo, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the occupational and environmental radiological safety measures associated with the operations of front end nuclear fuel cycle. Radiological monitoring in the facilities is important to ensure safe working environment, protection of workers against exposure to radiation and comply with regulatory limits of exposure. The radiation exposure of workers in different units of the front end nuclear fuels cycle facilities operated by IREL, UCIL and NFC and environmental monitoring results are summarised

  14. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolation from Clinical and Environmental Samples in Iran: Twenty Years of Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Velayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are opportunistic pathogens that are widely distributed in the environment. There is a lack of data on species distribution of these organisms from Iran. This study consists of a review of NTM articles published in Iran between the years 1992 and 2014. In this review, 20 articles and 14 case reports were identified. Among the 20 articles, 13 (65% studies focused on NTM isolates from clinical specimens, 6 (30% studies examined NTM isolates from environmental samples, and one (5% article included both clinical and environmental isolates. M. fortuitum (229/997; 23% was recorded as the most prevalent and rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM species in both clinical (28% and environmental (19% isolated samples (P < 0.05. Among slow growing mycobacteria (SGM, M. simiae (103/494; 21% demonstrated a higher frequency in clinical samples whereas in environmental samples it was M. flavescens (44/503; 9%. These data represent information from 14 provinces out of 31 provinces of Iran. No information is available in current published data on clinical or environmental NTM from the remaining 17 provinces in Iran. These results emphasize the potential importance of NTM as well as the underestimation of NTM frequency in Iran. NTM is an important clinical problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Iran. Continued research is needed from both clinical and environmental sources to help clinicians and researchers better understand and address NTM treatment and prevention.

  15. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolation from Clinical and Environmental Samples in Iran: Twenty Years of Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayati, Ali Akbar; Farnia, Parissa; Mozafari, Mohadese; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are opportunistic pathogens that are widely distributed in the environment. There is a lack of data on species distribution of these organisms from Iran. This study consists of a review of NTM articles published in Iran between the years 1992 and 2014. In this review, 20 articles and 14 case reports were identified. Among the 20 articles, 13 (65%) studies focused on NTM isolates from clinical specimens, 6 (30%) studies examined NTM isolates from environmental samples, and one (5%) article included both clinical and environmental isolates. M. fortuitum (229/997; 23%) was recorded as the most prevalent and rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM) species in both clinical (28%) and environmental (19%) isolated samples (P < 0.05). Among slow growing mycobacteria (SGM), M. simiae (103/494; 21%) demonstrated a higher frequency in clinical samples whereas in environmental samples it was M. flavescens (44/503; 9%). These data represent information from 14 provinces out of 31 provinces of Iran. No information is available in current published data on clinical or environmental NTM from the remaining 17 provinces in Iran. These results emphasize the potential importance of NTM as well as the underestimation of NTM frequency in Iran. NTM is an important clinical problem associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Iran. Continued research is needed from both clinical and environmental sources to help clinicians and researchers better understand and address NTM treatment and prevention.

  16. Oconee Nuclear Station, Units 1, 2, and 3. Annual operating report for 1976, volume 1: nonradiological environmental surveillance report; II: summary of operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The non-radiological environmental surveillance program including thermal and chemical effluents, water quality, fish populations, benthos, fish impingement, gas-bubble disease, and plankton, fish larvae and fish egg entrainment is described. Information is also presented concerning operations, personnel radiation exposures, and fuel examinations

  17. Complementing the surveillance law principles of the Court of Strasbourg with its environmental law principles. An integrated technology approach to a human rights framework for surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hert, P.J.A.; Galetta, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    If one looks at the case law of the European Court of Human Rights on surveillance matters, a well mature set of principles emerge, namely: legality, legitimacy, proportionality (the standard check) and, if the Court is "on it", also necessity and subsidiarity (the closer scrutiny check). We pass

  18. Machine Learning Technologies Translates Vigilant Surveillance Satellite Big Data into Predictive Alerts for Environmental Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. P.; Rohrer, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    The application of scientific research pertaining to satellite imaging and data processing has facilitated the development of dynamic methodologies and tools that utilize nanosatellites and analytical platforms to address the increasing scope, scale, and intensity of emerging environmental threats to national security. While the use of remotely sensed data to monitor the environment at local and global scales is not a novel proposition, the application of advances in nanosatellites and analytical platforms are capable of overcoming the data availability and accessibility barriers that have historically impeded the timely detection, identification, and monitoring of these stressors. Commercial and university-based applications of these technologies were used to identify and evaluate their capacity as security-motivated environmental monitoring tools. Presently, nanosatellites can provide consumers with 1-meter resolution imaging, frequent revisits, and customizable tasking, allowing users to define an appropriate temporal scale for high resolution data collection that meets their operational needs. Analytical platforms are capable of ingesting increasingly large and diverse volumes of data, delivering complex analyses in the form of interpretation-ready data products and solutions. The synchronous advancement of these technologies creates the capability of analytical platforms to deliver interpretable products from persistently collected high-resolution data that meet varying temporal and geographic scale requirements. In terms of emerging environmental threats, these advances translate into customizable and flexible tools that can respond to and accommodate the evolving nature of environmental stressors. This presentation will demonstrate the capability of nanosatellites and analytical platforms to provide timely, relevant, and actionable information that enables environmental analysts and stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding the prevention

  19. Air surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995)

  20. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  1. Emerging various environmental threats to brain and overview of surveillance system with zebrafish model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vargas

    Full Text Available Pathologies related to neurotoxicity represent an important percentage of the diseases that determine the global burden of diseases. Neurotoxicity may be related to the increasing levels of potentially neurotoxic agents that pollute the environment, which generates concern, since agents that affect children may increase the incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting the quality of life of future citizens. Many environmental contaminants have been detected, and many of them derive from several human activities, including the mining, agriculture, manufacturing, pharmaceutical, beverage and food industries. These problems are more acute in third world countries, where environmental regulations are lax or non-existent. An additional major emerging problem is drug contamination. Periodic monitoring should be performed to identify potential neurotoxic substances using biological tests capable of identifying the risk. In this sense the fish embryo test (FET, which is performed on zebrafish embryos, is a useful, reliable and economical alternative that can be implemented in developing countries. Keywords: Neurotoxicity, Global burden disease, Environmental contaminants, Zebrafish embryo test

  2. Environmental Monitoring and Surveillance of Rodents and Vectors for Francisella tularensis Following Outbreaks of Human Tularemia in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elashvili, Eka; Kracalik, Ian; Burjanadze, Irma; Datukishvili, Sophio; Chanturia, Gvantsa; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Beridze, Levan; Shavishvili, Merab; Dzneladze, Archil; Grdzelidze, Marina; Imnadze, Paata; Pearson, Andrew; Blackburn, Jason K

    2015-10-01

    Tularemia is a re-emerging bacterial zoonosis, broadly distributed across the northern hemisphere. In Georgia, there is a history of human tularemia outbreaks dating back to the 1940s. In response to outbreaks, health officials initiated long-term field surveillance and environmental monitoring. The objective of our study was to obtain information from 57 years of field surveys to identify species that play a role in the occurrence Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica in the environment in Georgia. We collected historical data on human outbreaks, field collections, population dynamics of the common vole (Microtus arvalis), and conducted surveys on small mammals and vectors from five regions in Georgia during 1956-2012. Bacterial isolation was conducted using standard culturing techniques, and isolation rates for species were obtained for a subset of years. We used a Spearman rank correlation to test for associations between the density of the common vole and isolation rates. From 1956 through 2012, there were four recorded outbreaks of human tularemia (362 cases). A total of 465 bacterial isolates of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica were obtained from 27 species and environmental samples. The number of isolations was highest in the common vole (M. arvalis; 149 isolates; 32%) and Dermacentor marginatus ticks (132 isolates; 28%); isolation rates ranged between 0-0.91% and 0-0.47%, respectively. Population dynamics of the common vole were not correlated with the isolation rate. Given the history of tularemia re-emergence in Georgia, continued field surveys and environmental monitoring may provide an early indication of outbreak risk in humans. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence of long-standing foci of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica that are likely maintained by the common vole-tick cycle.

  3. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Stenner, R.D.; Eddy, P.A.; Jaquish, R.E.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1988-07-01

    Licensing of a facility for low-level radioactive waste disposal requires the review of the environmental monitoring and surveillance programs. A set of review criteria is recommended for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff to use in each monitoring phase---preoperational, operational, and post operational---for evaluating radiological and selected nonradiological parameters in proposed environmental monitoring and surveillance programs at low-level waste disposal facilities. Applicable regulations, industry standards, and technical guidance on low-level radioactive waste are noted throughout the document. In the preoperational phase, the applicant must demonstrate that the environmental monitoring program identifies radiation levels and radionuclide concentrations at the site and also provides adequate basic data on the disposal site. Data recording and statistical analyses for this phase are addressed

  4. Savannah River Plant environmental report: Volume 1, Text: Annual report for 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, C.C.; Heath, E.M.; Taus, L.B.; Todd, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities, summaries of environmental protection programs that are in progress, a summary of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities and a listing of environmental permits and their status issued by regulatory agencies

  5. Applications of stable isotope analysis in foodstuffs surveillance and environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichlmayer, F.; Blochberger, F.

    1991-12-01

    The instrumental coupling of Elemental Analysis and Mass Spectrometry, constituting a convenient tool for isotope ratio measurements of the bioelements in solid or liquid samples is now well established. Advantages of this technique compared with the so far usual wet chemistry sample preparation are: speed of analysis, easy operation and minor sample consumption. The performance of the system is described and some applications are given. Detection of foodstuffs adulterations is mainly based on the natural carbon isotope differences between C 3 - and C 4 -plants. In the field of environmental research the existing small isotopic variations of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur in nature, which depend on substance origin and history, are used as intrinsic signature of the considered sample. Examples of source appointment or exclusion by help of this natural isotopic tracer method are dealt with. (authors)

  6. Radioecological surveillance around an old mining and milling site during environmental remediation works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M.; Malta, Margarida

    2008-01-01

    The main site of historic uranium mining and milling in Portugal, near the town of Canas de Senhorim, contains around 2.5 million tones of solid waste containing radioactivity in various mill tailings and spoil heaps. Approval of an environmental remediation plan for this area was followed by the start of engineering works, including the transportation of milling waste to the main milling pile and re shaping and contouring the waste heap to put a cap layer. These works were mostly performed in 2006 and 2007. During part of this period monitoring of radioactivity, including radon, was performed in the surface air, surface waters from the area, including the monitoring of the small river that receives drainage from the mill tailings area, and agriculture products. This paper presents the results of measurements of the main alpha emitting radionuclides of uranium series and compares them with previous data from the region. Implications for the radiological protection of the population are discussed. (author)

  7. Control of effluents and environmental surveillance of the CEA centres. 1997 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The environmental quality in the vicinity of CEA facilities is a major concern of the safety policy of the CEA. The aim of this document is to inform the public about the gaseous and liquids radioactive effluents released by the CEA centres under the permission of the ministry. It provides a status of the effluents and of the radioactivity levels measured near the CEA centres in 1997, using air, water, vegetation and milk samples. A comparison is made with the measurements performed during the 1993-1996 period. The data presented comes from the regulatory registers transmitted to the agency for the protection against ionizing radiations (OPRI) which belongs to the ministry of health. (J.S.)

  8. Lead line in rodents: an old sign of lead intoxication turned into a new method for environmental surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, Fellipe Augusto Tocchini; Ramos, Junia; Kawakita, Erika R Hashimoto; Bilal, Alina S; de Sousa, Frederico B; Swaim, William D; Issa, Joao P Mardegan; Gerlach, Raquel F

    2016-11-01

    The "lead line" was described by Henry Burton in 1840. Rodents are used as sentinels to monitor environmental pollution, but their teeth have not been used to determine lead. To determine whether lead deposits can be observed in the teeth of lead-exposed animals, since the gingival deposits known as "lead line" would likely have a correlate in the calcified tissue to which the gums are opposed during life. Male Wistar rats were exposed to lead in the drinking water (30 mg/L) since birth until 60 days-old. Molars and the incisors of each hemimandible were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on regular and backscattered electrons (BSE) mode. Elements were determined using electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Clean cervical margins were observed on control teeth, as opposed to the findings of extensive deposits on lead-exposed animals, even in hemimandibles that had been exhumed after being buried for 90 days. BSE/EDS indicated that those deposits were an exogenous material compatible with lead sulfite. Presence of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, carbon, lead, and oxygen is presented. Lead-exposed animals presented marked root resorption. The lead deposits characterized here for the first time show that the "lead line" seen in gums has a calcified tissue counterpart, that is detectable post-mortem even in animals exposed to a low dose of lead. This is likely a good method to detect undue lead exposure and will likely have wide application for pollution surveillance using sentinels.

  9. A large, multicentre, observational, post-marketing surveillance study of the 2:1 formulation of follitropin alfa and lutropin alfa in routine clinical practice for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Klaus; Naether, Olaf G J; Bilger, Wilma

    2014-01-14

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) both have a role to play in follicular development during the natural menstrual cycle. LH supplementation during controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) for assisted reproductive technology (ART) is used for patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. However, the use of exogenous LH in COS in normogonadotropic women undergoing ART is the subject of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of infertile women who received the 2:1 formulation of follitropin alfa and lutropin alfa (indicated for stimulation of follicular development in women with severe LH and FSH deficiency) in German clinical practice. A 3-year, multicentre, open-label, observational/non-interventional, post-marketing surveillance study of women (21-45 years) undergoing ART. Primary endpoint: reason for prescribing the 2:1 formulation of follitropin alfa and lutropin alfa. Secondary variables included: COS duration/dose; oocytes retrieved; fertilization; clinical pregnancy; ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). In total, 2220 cycles were assessed; at least one reason for prescribing the 2:1 formulation was given in 1834/2220 (82.6%) cycles. Most common reasons were: poor ovarian response (POR) (39.4%), low baseline LH (17.8%), and age (13.8%). COS: mean dose of the 2:1 formulation on first day, 183.1/91.5 IU; mean duration, 10.8 days. In 2173/2220 (97.9%) cycles, human chorionic gonadotrophin was administered. Oocyte pick-up (OPU) was attempted in 2108/2220 (95.0%) cycles; mean (standard deviation) 8.0 (5.4) oocytes retrieved/OPU cycle. Fertilization (≥1 oocyte fertilized) rates: in vitro fertilization (IVF), 391/439 (89.1%) cycles; intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)/IVF + ICSI, 1524/1613 (94.5%) cycles. Clinical pregnancy rate: all cycles, 25.9%; embryo transfer cycles, 31.3%. OHSS: hospitalization for OHSS, 8 (0.36%) cycles, Grade 2, 60 (2.7%), and Grade 3, 1 (0.05%). In German routine clinical

  10. Historical review of long-term soil sampling for environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site and vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1997-08-01

    Soil samples have been collected routinely from the environs of the Hanford Site and analyzed since 1971. Correct interpretation of results depends on samples being collected from the same locations, the locations remaining relatively undisturbed, and collection and analytical procedures remaining the same or being equivalent. Historical files, documents, and annual environmental reports were reviewed to evaluate these factors. It was determined that 20 soil sampling locations, 11 onsite and 9 offsite, were established between 1971 and 1977 and represent long-term sampling locations. Sample collection and analytical procedures have remained essentially the same since 1971. The physical ecological attributes of each long-term soil sampling location were evaluated. During the review of historical records, a few results for 1970, 1971, and 1972 were noted as previously unreported in annual or special reports. These results are included in Appendix A. To complete the record, results previously reported in annual environmental reports are given in Appendix B. Global Positioning System (GPS) reading for 20 long-term soil sampling locations are provided in Appendix C.

  11. Historical review of long-term soil sampling for environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1997-08-01

    Soil samples have been collected routinely from the environs of the Hanford Site and analyzed since 1971. Correct interpretation of results depends on samples being collected from the same locations, the locations remaining relatively undisturbed, and collection and analytical procedures remaining the same or being equivalent. Historical files, documents, and annual environmental reports were reviewed to evaluate these factors. It was determined that 20 soil sampling locations, 11 onsite and 9 offsite, were established between 1971 and 1977 and represent long-term sampling locations. Sample collection and analytical procedures have remained essentially the same since 1971. The physical ecological attributes of each long-term soil sampling location were evaluated. During the review of historical records, a few results for 1970, 1971, and 1972 were noted as previously unreported in annual or special reports. These results are included in Appendix A. To complete the record, results previously reported in annual environmental reports are given in Appendix B. Global Positioning System (GPS) reading for 20 long-term soil sampling locations are provided in Appendix C

  12. Intelligent Routines

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassiou, George A

    “Intelligent Routines II: Solving Linear Algebra and Differential Geometry with Sage” contains numerous of examples and problems as well as many unsolved problems. This book extensively applies the successful software Sage, which can be found free online http://www.sagemath.org/. Sage is a recent and popular software for mathematical computation, available freely and simple to use. This book is useful to all applied scientists in mathematics, statistics and engineering, as well for late undergraduate and graduate students of above subjects. It is the first such book in solving symbolically with Sage problems in Linear Algebra and Differential Geometry. Plenty of SAGE applications are given at each step of the exposition.

  13. Surveillance of Environmental and Procedural Measures of Infection Control in the Operating Theatre Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Dallolio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological contamination of operating theatres and the lack of adherence to best practices by surgical staff represent some of the factors affecting Surgical Site Infections (SSIs. The aim of the present study was to assess the microbiological quality of operating settings and the staff compliance to the SSI evidence-based control measures. Ten operating rooms were examined for microbiological contamination of air and surfaces, after cleaning procedures, in “at rest” conditions. Furthermore, 10 surgical operations were monitored to assess staff compliance to the recommended practices. None of the air samples exceeded microbiological reference standards and only six of the 200 surface samples (3.0% were slightly above recommended levels. Potentially pathogenic bacteria and moulds were never detected. Staff compliance to best practices varied depending on the type of behaviour investigated and the role of the operator. The major not compliant behaviours were: pre-operative skin antisepsis, crowding of the operating room and hand hygiene of the anaesthetist. The good environmental microbiological quality observed is indicative of the efficacy of the cleaning-sanitization procedures adopted. The major critical point was staff compliance to recommended practices. Awareness campaigns are therefore necessary, aimed at improving the organisation of work so as to facilitate compliance to operative protocols.

  14. Plan of routine environmental radiological monitoring in the vicinity of nuclear and radioactive facilities of the Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerniczyniec, M.A; Bonetto, J.P.; Giustina, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) carries out the monitoring of the environment surrounding Argentina nuclear power plants, independently from the operators' own monitoring programmes. Recently, there has been a review of the criteria used for selecting target radionuclides, sampling matrix, sampling location, and sampling frequency. This revision was based on ARN objectives for an environmental radiological monitoring programme, which are: verification of discharge monitoring results and detection of unadverted/unauthorized emissions; verification of models assumptions and checking that doses to the critical groups are not exceeded; detection of radionuclides presence in the environment and trend analysis; and to provide information to the public. The criteria proposed for adoption implies the monitoring of the relevant radionuclides mentioned in the discharge authorization license, using specific analysis for those considered indicators and screening techniques for the others. The matrix to be sampled must be related with the different exposure pathways, from those related with direct exposure, which require higher sampling frequencies, to accumulating/concentrating matrices, which imply lower sampling frequencies. At least, three points should be sampled, related to both airborne and liquid emissions: a background location, the representative person location, and that where the concentration of a target radionuclide is expected to be maximum. Available modeling software was used for positioning the sampling points. (author)

  15. Performance of data acceptance criteria over 50 months from an automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanovas, R.; Morant, J.J.; Lopez, M.; Hernandez-Giron, I.; Batalla, E.; Salvado, M.

    2011-01-01

    The automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network of Catalonia (Spain) comprises two subnetworks; one with 9 aerosol monitors and the other with 8 Geiger monitors together with 2 water monitors located in the Ebre river. Since September 2006, several improvements were implemented in order to get better quality and quantity of data, allowing a more accurate data analysis. However, several causes (natural causes, equipment failure, artificial external causes and incidents in nuclear power plants) may produce radiological measured values mismatched with the own station background, whether spurious without significance or true radiological values. Thus, data analysis for a 50-month period was made and allowed to establish an easily implementable statistical criterion to find those values that require special attention. This criterion proved a very useful tool for creating a properly debugged database and to give a quick response to equipment failures or possible radiological incidents. This paper presents the results obtained from the criterion application, including the figures for the expected, raw and debugged data, percentages of missing data grouped by causes and radiological measurements from the networks. Finally, based on the discussed information, recommendations for the improvement of the network are identified to obtain better radiological information and analysis capabilities. - Highlights: → Causes producing data mismatching with the own stations background are described. → Causes may be natural, equipment failure, external or nuclear plants incidents. → These causes can produce either spurious or true radiological data. → A criterion to find these data was implemented and tested for a 50-month period. → Recommendations for the improvement of the network are identified.

  16. Detection of multiple cocirculating wild poliovirus type 1 lineages through environmental surveillance: impact and progress during 2011-2013 in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Masroor; Shaukat, Shahzad; Sharif, Salmaan; Angez, Mehar; Khurshid, Adnan; Malik, Farzana; Rehman, Lubna; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor

    2014-11-01

    The environmental surveillance has proven to be a useful tool to identify poliovirus circulation in different countries and was started in Pakistan during July 2009 to support the acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance system. Sewage samples were collected from 27 environmental sampling (ENV) sites and processed for poliovirus isolation through 2-phase separation method. Poliovirus isolates were identified as Sabin-like or wild type through real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Wild-type strains were subjected to VP1 gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis performed using MEGA 5.0. During 2011-2013, a total of 668 samples were collected from 4 provinces that resulted in 40% of samples positive for wild poliovirus type-1 (WPV-1). None of the samples were positive for WPV-3. The areas with high frequency of WPV-1 detection were Karachi-Gadap (69%), Peshawar (82%), and Rawalpindi (65%), whereas the samples from Quetta and Sukkur remained negative for WPV during 2013. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 3 major clusters with multiple poliovirus lineages circulating across different country areas as well as in bordering areas of Afghanistan. Environmental surveillance in Pakistan has been proven to be a powerful tool to detect WPV circulation in the absence of poliomyelitis cases in many communities. Our findings emphasize the need to continue and expand such surveillance activities to other high-risk areas in the country. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Environmental surveillance for the EG and G Idaho Radioactive Waste Management areas at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, B.D.; Case, M.J.; Wilhelmsen, R.N.

    1986-08-01

    The 1985 environmental surveillance report for the EG and G Idaho, Inc., radioactive waste management areas at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory describes the environmental monitoring activities at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF), the Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP), and two surplus facilities. The purpose of these monitoring activities is to provide for continuous evaluation and awareness of environmental conditions resulting from current operations, to detect significant trends, and to project possible future conditions. This report provides a public record comparing RWMC, WERF, PREPP, and surplus facility environmental data with past results and radiation protection standards or concentration guides established for operation of Department of Energy facilities

  18. Routine Responses to Disruption of Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Mahua

    2015-01-01

    "Organisational routines" is a widely studied research area. However, there is a dearth of research on disruption of routines. The few studies on disruption of routines discussed problem-solving activities that are carried out in response to disruption. In contrast, this study develops a theory of "solution routines" that are a…

  19. Routine radiochemical method for the determination of 90Sr, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am and 244Cm in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageyev, V.A.; Sajeniouk, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Routine analytical procedures have been developed for the reliable simultaneous determination of 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 242-244 Cm, Chernobyl derived radioisotopes and fallout after nuclear weapon tests in a wide range of environmental samples: soil (100-200 g), sediments, aerosols, water and vegetation. This procedure has been applied to thousands of soil and sediment samples and hundreds of biological and water samples taken in the exclusive zone of Chernobyl NPP and different regions of Ukraine from 1989 to the present. After the sample has been properly prepared and isotopic tracers added, plutonium, americium and curium are precipitated with calcium oxalate and then lanthanum fluoride. Plutonium is separated from americium and curium by anion-exchange. Americium and curium are separated from rare earths by cation-exchange with gradient elute α-hydroxy-iso-butyric acid. During projects by AQCS IAEA 'Evaluation of Methods for 90 Sr in a Mineral Matrix' and 'Proficiency Test for 239 Pu, 241 Pu and 241 Am Measurement in a Mineral Matrix' accuracy and precision for 90 Sr, 239 Pu and 241 Am by present procedure was evaluated. Advantages, difficulties and limitations of the method are discussed. (author)

  20. Radiation hygienic annual report 2012. General environmental radioactivity and radiation surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfau, T.; Bernkopf, J.; Klement, R.; Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Augsburg

    2013-01-01

    The radiation hygienic annual report 2012 includes the following issues: (1) Introduction: Legal aspects of the surveillance, implementation of the radiation protection law, nuclear facility sites in Bavaria, interim storage facilities in Bavaria. (2) Natural radioactivity surveillance: measured data for the exposure paths air, water, food chain land, food chain water, residuals and waste. (3) Radiation surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear facilities in Bavaria: measures for air, precipitation, soils, plants, food chain land, milk and milk products, surface water, food chain water, drinking and ground water; measured data in the vicinity of NNP Isar 1 bd Isar 2 (KKI1/KKI2), NPP Gundremmingen (KGG), NPP Grafenrheinfeld (KKG), research neutron source Muenchen FRM II; emissions, meteorological conditions, spreading calculations.

  1. Release monitoring and environmental surveillance of Cea centers. Assessment and regulation and method 1999; Controle des rejets et surveillance de l'environnement des centres CEA. Bilan et reglementation et methode 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The quality of the natural environment around the centers of the Commissariat a l Energie Atomique is an important point of its safety policy. The environmental protection is based on the control of risks coming from research and development activities of its installations. It aims to reduce as low as possible, the impact of its activities on man and his environment. This publication develops the sampling and measurement methods that are made on effluents and in environment, according to the radionuclides characteristics, that are present. It gives also the regulation that applied to the effluents monitoring. The results of radioactive effluents releases (liquid and gaseous) and the surveillance of environment around cea centers is given in the 'Bilan 1999' publication. An analysis of these results on the 1995-1999 period allows to follow their evolution. (N.C.)

  2. Citizen surveillance for environmental monitoring: combining the efforts of citizen science and crowdsourcing in a quantitative data framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welvaert, Marijke; Caley, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Citizen science and crowdsourcing have been emerging as methods to collect data for surveillance and/or monitoring activities. They could be gathered under the overarching term citizen surveillance . The discipline, however, still struggles to be widely accepted in the scientific community, mainly because these activities are not embedded in a quantitative framework. This results in an ongoing discussion on how to analyze and make useful inference from these data. When considering the data collection process, we illustrate how citizen surveillance can be classified according to the nature of the underlying observation process measured in two dimensions-the degree of observer reporting intention and the control in observer detection effort. By classifying the observation process in these dimensions we distinguish between crowdsourcing, unstructured citizen science and structured citizen science. This classification helps the determine data processing and statistical treatment of these data for making inference. Using our framework, it is apparent that published studies are overwhelmingly associated with structured citizen science, and there are well developed statistical methods for the resulting data. In contrast, methods for making useful inference from purely crowd-sourced data remain under development, with the challenges of accounting for the unknown observation process considerable. Our quantitative framework for citizen surveillance calls for an integration of citizen science and crowdsourcing and provides a way forward to solve the statistical challenges inherent to citizen-sourced data.

  3. Control of effluents and environmental surveillance of the CEA centres. 1997 status; Controle des rejets et surveillance de l'environnement des centres CEA. Bilan 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The environmental quality in the vicinity of CEA facilities is a major concern of the safety policy of the CEA. The aim of this document is to inform the public about the gaseous and liquids radioactive effluents released by the CEA centres under the permission of the ministry. It provides a status of the effluents and of the radioactivity levels measured near the CEA centres in 1997, using air, water, vegetation and milk samples. A comparison is made with the measurements performed during the 1993-1996 period. The data presented comes from the regulatory registers transmitted to the agency for the protection against ionizing radiations (OPRI) which belongs to the ministry of health. (J.S.)

  4. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  5. Co-ordinated research and environmental surveillance programme related to sea disposal of radioactive waste CRESP activity report 1986-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Co-ordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme relevant to sea disposal of radioactive waste (CRESP) was created in 1981 in the framework of the 1977 Decision of the OECD Council establishing a Multilateral Consultation and Surveillance Mechanism for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Waste. The main task of CRESP was to set up a site-specific scientific research programme to increase current knowledge of the processes controlling the transfer of radionuclides in the marine environment, so that impact of past dumping could be monitored and future assessments could be based on more accurate and comprehensive scientific data. The CRESP mandate was extended in 1987 to respond to a request from the Paris Commission to include consideration of radioactive discharges in the maritime area covered by the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Land-Based Sources. This report summarizes the CRESP activities carried out during the 1986-1990 five year phase. Concerning the review of deep sea results, the report relates progress achieved above the level of knowledge which was available when the present phase of the CRESP programme was decided and which has been taken into account in the 1985 Site Suitability Review. With respect to coastal discharges, it presents a summary of R and D work undertaken by member countries, including those carried out in other programmes such as MARINA. Finally, it makes proposals for future work within CRESP

  6. Surveillance Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    What does it mean to live in a world full of surveillance? In this documentary film, we take a look at everyday life in Denmark and how surveillance technologies and practices influence our norms and social behaviour. Researched and directed by Btihaj Ajana and Anders Albrechtslund....

  7. Crowdsourcing, citizen sensing and Sensor Web technologies for public and environmental health surveillance and crisis management: trends, OGC standards and application examples

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N

    2011-12-21

    Abstract \\'Wikification of GIS by the masses\\' is a phrase-term first coined by Kamel Boulos in 2005, two years earlier than Goodchild\\'s term \\'Volunteered Geographic Information\\'. Six years later (2005-2011), OpenStreetMap and Google Earth (GE) are now full-fledged, crowdsourced \\'Wikipedias of the Earth\\' par excellence, with millions of users contributing their own layers to GE, attaching photos, videos, notes and even 3-D (three dimensional) models to locations in GE. From using Twitter in participatory sensing and bicycle-mounted sensors in pervasive environmental sensing, to creating a 100,000-sensor geo-mashup using Semantic Web technology, to the 3-D visualisation of indoor and outdoor surveillance data in real-time and the development of next-generation, collaborative natural user interfaces that will power the spatially-enabled public health and emergency situation rooms of the future, where sensor data and citizen reports can be triaged and acted upon in real-time by distributed teams of professionals, this paper offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the overlapping domains of the Sensor Web, citizen sensing and \\'human-in-the-loop sensing\\' in the era of the Mobile and Social Web, and the roles these domains can play in environmental and public health surveillance and crisis\\/disaster informatics. We provide an in-depth review of the key issues and trends in these areas, the challenges faced when reasoning and making decisions with real-time crowdsourced data (such as issues of information overload, "noise", misinformation, bias and trust), the core technologies and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards involved (Sensor Web Enablement and Open GeoSMS), as well as a few outstanding project implementation examples from around the world.

  8. Crowdsourcing, citizen sensing and sensor web technologies for public and environmental health surveillance and crisis management: trends, OGC standards and application examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    'Wikification of GIS by the masses' is a phrase-term first coined by Kamel Boulos in 2005, two years earlier than Goodchild's term 'Volunteered Geographic Information'. Six years later (2005-2011), OpenStreetMap and Google Earth (GE) are now full-fledged, crowdsourced 'Wikipedias of the Earth' par excellence, with millions of users contributing their own layers to GE, attaching photos, videos, notes and even 3-D (three dimensional) models to locations in GE. From using Twitter in participatory sensing and bicycle-mounted sensors in pervasive environmental sensing, to creating a 100,000-sensor geo-mashup using Semantic Web technology, to the 3-D visualisation of indoor and outdoor surveillance data in real-time and the development of next-generation, collaborative natural user interfaces that will power the spatially-enabled public health and emergency situation rooms of the future, where sensor data and citizen reports can be triaged and acted upon in real-time by distributed teams of professionals, this paper offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the overlapping domains of the Sensor Web, citizen sensing and 'human-in-the-loop sensing' in the era of the Mobile and Social Web, and the roles these domains can play in environmental and public health surveillance and crisis/disaster informatics. We provide an in-depth review of the key issues and trends in these areas, the challenges faced when reasoning and making decisions with real-time crowdsourced data (such as issues of information overload, "noise", misinformation, bias and trust), the core technologies and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards involved (Sensor Web Enablement and Open GeoSMS), as well as a few outstanding project implementation examples from around the world. PMID:22188675

  9. Crowdsourcing, citizen sensing and sensor web technologies for public and environmental health surveillance and crisis management: trends, OGC standards and application examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Boulos Maged N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 'Wikification of GIS by the masses' is a phrase-term first coined by Kamel Boulos in 2005, two years earlier than Goodchild's term 'Volunteered Geographic Information'. Six years later (2005-2011, OpenStreetMap and Google Earth (GE are now full-fledged, crowdsourced 'Wikipedias of the Earth' par excellence, with millions of users contributing their own layers to GE, attaching photos, videos, notes and even 3-D (three dimensional models to locations in GE. From using Twitter in participatory sensing and bicycle-mounted sensors in pervasive environmental sensing, to creating a 100,000-sensor geo-mashup using Semantic Web technology, to the 3-D visualisation of indoor and outdoor surveillance data in real-time and the development of next-generation, collaborative natural user interfaces that will power the spatially-enabled public health and emergency situation rooms of the future, where sensor data and citizen reports can be triaged and acted upon in real-time by distributed teams of professionals, this paper offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the overlapping domains of the Sensor Web, citizen sensing and 'human-in-the-loop sensing' in the era of the Mobile and Social Web, and the roles these domains can play in environmental and public health surveillance and crisis/disaster informatics. We provide an in-depth review of the key issues and trends in these areas, the challenges faced when reasoning and making decisions with real-time crowdsourced data (such as issues of information overload, "noise", misinformation, bias and trust, the core technologies and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC standards involved (Sensor Web Enablement and Open GeoSMS, as well as a few outstanding project implementation examples from around the world.

  10. Crowdsourcing, citizen sensing and sensor web technologies for public and environmental health surveillance and crisis management: trends, OGC standards and application examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N; Resch, Bernd; Crowley, David N; Breslin, John G; Sohn, Gunho; Burtner, Russ; Pike, William A; Jezierski, Eduardo; Chuang, Kuo-Yu Slayer

    2011-12-21

    'Wikification of GIS by the masses' is a phrase-term first coined by Kamel Boulos in 2005, two years earlier than Goodchild's term 'Volunteered Geographic Information'. Six years later (2005-2011), OpenStreetMap and Google Earth (GE) are now full-fledged, crowdsourced 'Wikipedias of the Earth' par excellence, with millions of users contributing their own layers to GE, attaching photos, videos, notes and even 3-D (three dimensional) models to locations in GE. From using Twitter in participatory sensing and bicycle-mounted sensors in pervasive environmental sensing, to creating a 100,000-sensor geo-mashup using Semantic Web technology, to the 3-D visualisation of indoor and outdoor surveillance data in real-time and the development of next-generation, collaborative natural user interfaces that will power the spatially-enabled public health and emergency situation rooms of the future, where sensor data and citizen reports can be triaged and acted upon in real-time by distributed teams of professionals, this paper offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the overlapping domains of the Sensor Web, citizen sensing and 'human-in-the-loop sensing' in the era of the Mobile and Social Web, and the roles these domains can play in environmental and public health surveillance and crisis/disaster informatics. We provide an in-depth review of the key issues and trends in these areas, the challenges faced when reasoning and making decisions with real-time crowdsourced data (such as issues of information overload, "noise", misinformation, bias and trust), the core technologies and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards involved (Sensor Web Enablement and Open GeoSMS), as well as a few outstanding project implementation examples from around the world.

  11. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R.B.; Brooks, R.W.; Roush, D.; Martin, D.B. [Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lantz, B.S. [Dept. of Energy, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho Operations Office

    1998-08-01

    To verify that exposures resulting from operations at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities remain very small, each site at which nuclear activities are conducted operates an environmental surveillance program to monitor the air, water and any other pathway whereby radionuclides from operations might conceivably reach workers and members of the public. Environmental surveillance and monitoring results are reported annually to the DOE-Headquarters. This report presents a compilation of data collected in 1997 for the routine environmental surveillance programs conducted on and around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The results of the various monitoring programs for 1997 indicated that radioactivity from the INEEL operations could generally not be distinguished from worldwide fallout and natural radioactivity in the region surrounding the INEEL. Although some radioactive materials were discharged during INEEL operations, concentrations in the offsite environment and doses to the surrounding population were far less than state of Idaho and federal health protection guidelines.

  12. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.B.; Brooks, R.W.; Roush, D.; Martin, D.B.; Lantz, B.S.

    1998-08-01

    To verify that exposures resulting from operations at Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities remain very small, each site at which nuclear activities are conducted operates an environmental surveillance program to monitor the air, water and any other pathway whereby radionuclides from operations might conceivably reach workers and members of the public. Environmental surveillance and monitoring results are reported annually to the DOE-Headquarters. This report presents a compilation of data collected in 1997 for the routine environmental surveillance programs conducted on and around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The results of the various monitoring programs for 1997 indicated that radioactivity from the INEEL operations could generally not be distinguished from worldwide fallout and natural radioactivity in the region surrounding the INEEL. Although some radioactive materials were discharged during INEEL operations, concentrations in the offsite environment and doses to the surrounding population were far less than state of Idaho and federal health protection guidelines

  13. Issues ignored in laboratory quality surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jing; Li Xingyuan; Zhang Tingsheng

    2008-01-01

    According to the work requirement of the related laboratory quality surveillance in ISO17025, this paper analyzed and discussed the issued ignored in the laboratory quality surveillance. In order to solve the present problem, it is required to understand the work responsibility in the quality surveillance correctly, to establish the effective working routine in the quality surveillance, and to conduct, the quality surveillance work. The object in the quality surveillance shall be 'the operator' who engaged in the examination/calibration directly in the laboratory, especially the personnel in training (who is engaged in the examination/calibration). The quality supervisors shall be fully authorized, so that they can correctly understand the work responsibility in quality surveillance, and are with the rights for 'full supervision'. The laboratory also shall arrange necessary training to the quality supervisor, so that they can obtain sufficient guide in time and are with required qualification or occupation prerequisites. (authors)

  14. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    The notorious intensification and digitalization of surveillance technologies and practices in today’s society has brought about numerous changes. These changes have been widely noticed, described and discussed across many academic disciplines. However, the contexts of entertainment, play...

  15. Use of a simplified pathways model to improve the environmental surveillance program at the radioactive waste management complex of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, M.J.; Rope, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    Systems analysis, including a simple pathways model based on first-order kinetics, is a useful way to design or improve environmental monitoring networks. This method allows investigators and administrators to consider interactions that may be occurring in the system and provides guidance in determining the need to collect data on various system components and processes. A simplified pathways model of radionuclide movement from low-level waste and transuranic waste buried at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex was developed (1) to identify critical pathways that should be monitored and (2) to identify key input parameters that need investigation by special studies. The model was modified from the Savannah River Laboratory DOSTOMAN code. Site-specific data were used in the model, if available. Physical and biological pathways include airborne and waterborne transport of surface soil, subsurface migration to the aquifer, waste container degradation, plant uptake, small mammal burrowing, and a few simplified food chain pathways. The model was run using a set of radionuclides determined to be significant in terms of relative hazard. Critical transport pathways which should be monitored were selected based on relative influence on model results. Key input parameters were identified for possible special studies by evaluating the sensitivity of model response to the parameters used to define transport pathways. A description of the approaches used and the guidance recommended to improve the environmental surveillance program are presented in this paper. 5 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  16. Six-monthly report on surveillance of environmental monitoring in Alligator Rivers Region for the period 1 April-30 September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report outlines the activities of Northern Territory Government authorities (Department of Mines and Energy (DME), Conservation Commission and Department of Health and Community Services (DHCS) in meeting their responsibilities for surveillance of environmental monitoring in the Alligator Rivers Region for the period 1 April to 30 September 1988. The responsibility for DME activities derives principally from the Mining Act, the Mines Safety Control Act, the Control of Waters Act and the Uranium Mining (Environment Control) Act, referred to in this report as the UMEC Act. The Land Conservation Unit (LCU) of the Conservation Commission and the Occupational and Environmental Health Branch of DHCS, furnish technical advice to the Alligator Rivers Region Unit of DME, which then collates the data for Authorizations, approvals and compliance reports. The responsibilities of the Conservation Commission derive from the Soil Conservation and Land Utilization Act. DHCS activities derive from, in addition to the relevant Mines Acts, the Silicosis and Tuberculosis (Mine Workers and Prospectors) Act, Radiation (Safety Control) Act and the Public Health Act

  17. Defense Health Care: DOD Needs to Clarify Policies Related to Occupational and Environmental Health Surveillance and Monitor Risk Mitigation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    information on the types of illnesses that may result from an exposure. VBA officials told us that they have access to unclassified POEMS through a MESL...Environmental Monitoring Summaries USARCENT U.S. Army Central VA Department of Veterans Affairs VBA Veterans Benefits Administration VHA...Administration ( VBA ) and the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to identify the ways in which OEHS data is being used, including its use in

  18. Crowdsourcing, citizen sensing and Sensor Web technologies for public and environmental health surveillance and crisis management: trends, OGC standards and application examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged; Resch, Bernd; Crowley, David N.; Breslin, John G.; Sohn, Gunho; Burtner, Edwin R.; Pike, William A.; Jeziersk, Eduardo; Slayer Chuang, Kuo Yu

    2011-12-21

    The PIE Activity Awareness Environment is designed to be an adaptive data triage and decision support tool that allows role and activity based situation awareness through a dynamic, trainable filtering system. This paper discusses the process and methodology involved in the application as well as some of its capabilities. 'Wikification of GIS by the masses' is a phrase-term first coined by Kamel Boulos in 2005, two years earlier than Goodchild's term 'Volunteered Geographic Information'. Six years later (2005-2011), OpenStreetMap and Google Earth (GE) are now full-fledged, crowdsourced 'Wikipedias of the Earth' par excellence, with millions of users contributing their own layers to GE, attaching photos, videos, notes and even 3-D (three dimensional) models to locations in GE. From using Twitter in participatory sensing and bicycle-mounted sensors in pervasive environmental sensing, to creating a 100,000-sensor geo-mashup using Semantic Web technology, to the 3-D visualisation of indoor and outdoor surveillance data in real-time and the development of next-generation, collaborative natural user interfaces that will power the spatially-enabled public health and emergency situation rooms of the future, where sensor data and citizen reports can be triaged and acted upon in real-time by distributed teams of professionals, this paper offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the overlapping domains of the Sensor Web, citizen sensing and 'human-in-the-loop sensing' in the era of the Mobile and Social Web, and the roles these domains can play in environmental and public health surveillance and crisis/disaster informatics. We provide an in-depth review of the key issues and trends in these areas, the challenges faced when reasoning and making decisions with real-time crowdsourced data (such as issues of information overload, 'noise', misinformation, bias and trust), the core technologies and Open Geospatial

  19. Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling: Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, R.; Childs, M.; Rivera-Dirks, C.; Coriz, F.

    1995-07-01

    Area G, in Technical Area 54, has been the principle facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the storage and disposal of low-level and transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes since 1957. The current environmental investigation consisted of ESH-19 personnel who collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G to characterize possible contaminant movement through surface-water runoff. These samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241 (soil only), and cesium 137. The metals, mercury, lead, and barium, were analyzed using x-ray fluorescence

  20. Review of environmental surveillance data around low-level waste disposal areas at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.

    1979-01-01

    White Oak Creek and Melton Branch tributary surface streams flow through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reservation and receive treated low-level radioactive liquid waste which originates from various Laboratory operations. The streams receive additional low-level liquid waste generated by seepage of radioactive materials from solid-waste burial grounds, hydrofracture sites, and intermediate-level liquid-waste sites. Over the years, various liquid-waste treatment and disposal processes have been employed at ORNL; some of these processes have included: settling basins, impoundment, storage tanks, evaporation, ground disposal in trenches and pits, and hydrofracture. Burial of solid radioactive waste was initiated in the early 1940's, and there are six burial grounds at ORNL with two currently in use. Monitoring at White Oak Dam, the last liquid control point for the Laboratory, was started in the late 1940's and is continuing. Presently, a network of five environmental monitoring stations is in operation to monitor the radionuclide content of surface waters in the White Oak watershed. In this paper, the solid waste burial grounds will be described in detail, and the environmental data tabulated over the past 29 years will be presented. The various monitoring systems used during the years will also be reviewed. The liquid effluent discharge trends at ORNL from the radioactive waste operations will be discussed

  1. Quantify environmental effects in shaping the genetic diversification pattern of Oncomelania hupensis and its implications in surveillance of human susceptibility to Schistosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, L.; Liao, J. S.; Gong, P.

    2012-12-01

    of explanation in genetic diversification. Different types of genes respond different to landscape effects, and it is suspected to be related with their evolution rate. Our study raises an important opportunity for public health decision making by combining geo-informatics and bio-informatics technology. Since the schistomiasis disease persistence, establishment, and intervention optimization are dependent on the genetic diversification pattern of O.hupensis populations, and that pattern is strongly environmentally determined, then certain key environmental features or landscape distances have the potential to inform public health decisions such as where to focus surveillance efforts, or disrupt the connection to stop the gene exchange. This is especially useful for Yangze River basin region under both extensive anthropogenic activities and climate change.

  2. High-performance metabolic profiling of plasma from seven mammalian species for simultaneous environmental chemical surveillance and bioeffect monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngja H; Lee, Kichun; Soltow, Quinlyn A; Strobel, Frederick H; Brigham, Kenneth L; Parker, Richard E; Wilson, Mark E; Sutliff, Roy L; Mansfield, Keith G; Wachtman, Lynn M; Ziegler, Thomas R; Jones, Dean P

    2012-05-16

    High-performance metabolic profiling (HPMP) by Fourier-transform mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography gives relative quantification of thousands of chemicals in biologic samples but has had little development for use in toxicology research. In principle, the approach could be useful to detect complex metabolic response patterns to toxicologic exposures and to detect unusual abundances or patterns of potentially toxic chemicals. As an initial study to develop these possible uses, we applied HPMP and bioinformatics analysis to plasma of humans, rhesus macaques, marmosets, pigs, sheep, rats and mice to determine: (1) whether more chemicals are detected in humans living in a less controlled environment than captive species and (2) whether a subset of plasma chemicals with similar inter-species and intra-species variation could be identified for use in comparative toxicology. Results show that the number of chemicals detected was similar in humans (3221) and other species (range 2537-3373). Metabolite patterns were most similar within species and separated samples according to family and order. A total of 1485 chemicals were common to all species; 37% of these matched chemicals in human metabolomic databases and included chemicals in 137 out of 146 human metabolic pathways. Probability-based modularity clustering separated 644 chemicals, including many endogenous metabolites, with inter-species variation similar to intra-species variation. The remaining chemicals had greater inter-species variation and included environmental chemicals as well as GSH and methionine. Together, the data suggest that HPMP provides a platform that can be useful within human populations and controlled animal studies to simultaneously evaluate environmental exposures and biological responses to such exposures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The importance of recording physical and chemical variables simultaneously with remote radiological surveillance of aquatic systems: a perspective for environmental modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abril, J.M.; El-Mrabet, R.; Barros, H.

    2004-01-01

    Modern nuclear metrological tools allow the remote surveillance of the radiological status of the aquatic systems, providing an important advance in the protection of the environment. Nevertheless, the significance of the radiological data could be highly improved through simultaneous recording of physical and chemical variables that govern the behaviour and bioavailability of radionuclides in these aquatic systems. This work reviews some of these variables from the point of view of the environmental modelling. The amount, nature and dynamics of the suspended loads and bottom sediments strongly influence the behaviour of particle-reactive radionuclides. The kinetics of this process has a very fast component, as it is shown from our recent studies with 241 Am, 239 Pu and 133 Ba in several aquatic systems from southern Spain. Changes in pH, temperature and in the electrical conductivity are influencing the uptake kinetics and the final partitioning of the radioactivity. Water currents govern the radionuclide transport and dispersion. These points are illustrated with modelling exercises in the scenarios of the Suez Canal (Egypt) and the Haersvatten Lake (Sweden)

  4. Influenza surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Bednarska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza surveillance was established in 1947. From this moment WHO (World Health Organization has been coordinating international cooperation, with a goal of monitoring influenza virus activity, effective diagnostic of the circulating viruses and informing society about epidemics or pandemics, as well as about emergence of new subtypes of influenza virus type A. Influenza surveillance is an important task, because it enables people to prepare themselves for battle with the virus that is constantly mutating, what leads to circulation of new and often more virulent strains of influenza in human population. As vaccination is the most effective method of fighting the virus, one of the major tasks of GISRS is developing an optimal antigenic composition of the vaccine for the current epidemic season. European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN has also developed over the years. EISN is running integrated epidemiological and virological influenza surveillance, to provide appropriate data to public health experts in member countries, to enable them undertaking relevant activities based on the current information about influenza activity. In close cooperation with GISRS and EISN are National Influenza Centres - national institutions designated by the Ministry of Health in each country.

  5. Empowering Local Organizations and Decision-makers in a Changing Climate: EO-guided Environmental Surveillance of Cholera and Rotavirus for South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Hasan, M. A.; Jutla, A.; Aziz, S.; Alam, M.; Ahsan, G. U.; Huq, A.; Colwell, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Despite significant advancements in scientific research, diarrheal diseases remain a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the developing world. Although under-5 child mortality due to such diseases is dropping, prevalence of most diarrheal diseases has increased over past decades, exerting a terrible toll on global public health. Providing safe water and sanitation access, and a safe and clean environment in a sustainable manner remains a critical challenge in the face of rapid population growth, urbanization and increasing threats of natural hazards in a changing climate. We focus on the Bengal Delta region of South Asia, where Cholera and Rotavirus diarrhea continue to have a devastating impact on the public health burden. Climatic change and anthropogenic forcings have greatly affected available water quantity and quality, while the lack of effective institutions and capacity have greatly affected the water-sanitation and public health sectors. The region suffers from recurring dry season freshwater scarcity and temperature extremes, salinity intrusion in coastal areas, inland flooding during monsoons, and resulting water contamination across the delta region. We use earth observation (EO) datasets and techniques to develop a series of tools for surveillance, analysis and decision support to empower government, academic, and non-government stakeholder organizations in South Asia to monitor changes in environmental conditions related to the two most devastating diarrheal diseases, cholera and rotavirus. The developed tools will enable decision makers and stakeholders to significantly increase their understanding of the threats to public health and environmental and climatic conditions related to these diseases, ways to monitor future projections of disease risk, and help identify required policy interventions and strategies to strengthen prevention efforts and limit disease burden in near- (tactical) and long- (strategic) terms.

  6. Poliovirus Laboratory Based Surveillance: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor; Asghar, Humayun; Sharif, Salmaan; Alam, Muhammad Masroor

    2016-01-01

    World Health Assembly (WHA) in 1988 encouraged the member states to launch Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) (resolution WHA41.28) against "the Crippler" called poliovirus, through strong routine immunization program and intensified surveillance systems. Since its launch, global incidence of poliomyelitis has been reduced by more than 99 % and the disease squeezed to only three endemic countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria) out of 125. Today, poliomyelitis is on the verge of eradication, and their etiological agents, the three poliovirus serotypes, are on the brink of extinction from the natural environment. The last case of poliomyelitis due to wild type 2 strain occurred in 1999 in Uttar Pradesh, India whereas the last paralytic case due to wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) was seen in November, 2012 in Yobe, Nigeria. Despite this progress, undetected circulation cannot fully rule out the eradication as most of the poliovirus infections are entirely subclinical; hence sophisticated environmental surveillance is needed to ensure the complete eradication of virus. Moreover, the vaccine virus in under-immunized communities can sometimes revert and attain wild type characteristics posing a big challenge to the program.

  7. Global expertise of the ten-year environmental situation of AREVA N.C..2. part: environmental impact at the level of catchment basins and surveillance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The second step of the expertise of the ten-year environmental assessment 1994-2003 of Areva NC allowed to complete the work on the themes and the sites that were not treated during the first step. The analysis concerned the impacts on the mine installations of the mine division of La Crouzille and more particularly of impacts observed since the sites refitting. The detail of this analysis and the results to which it allowed to achieve are the object of this present report. (N.C.)

  8. Data format translation routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, R.D.

    1981-02-01

    To enable the effective connection of several dissimilar computers into a network, modification of the data being passed from one computer to another may become necessary. This document describes a package of routines which permit the translation of data in PDP-8 formats to PDP-11 or DECsystem-10 formats or from PDP-11 format to DECsystem-10 format. Additional routines are described which permit the effective use of the translation routines in the environment of the Fusion Energy Division (FED) network and the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) data base

  9. Routines and Organizational Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Sangyoon; Becker, Markus; Knudsen, Thorbjørn

    2014-01-01

    Routines have been perceived as a source of inertia in the process of organizational change. In this study, we suggest an overlooked, but prevalent, mechanism by which the inertial nature of routines helps, rather than hinders, organizational adaptation. Routine-level inertia plays a hidden role...... to cope with its task environment. In our nuanced perspective, inertia is not only a consequence of adaptation but also a source of adaptation. This logic is helpful to understand why reliable but apparently inertial organizations keep surviving and often exhibit outstanding performance. We conclude...

  10. Rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Rinderpest is probably the most lethal virus disease of cattle and buffalo and can destroy whole populations; damaging economies; undermining food security and ruining the livelihood of farmers and pastoralists. The disease can be eradicated by vaccination and control of livestock movement. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division to provide advice, training and materials to thirteen states through the 'Support for Rinderpest Surveillance in West Asia' project. (IAEA)

  11. Health surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Code includes a number of requirements for the health surveillance of employees associated with the mining and milling of radioactive ores. This guideline is particularly directed at determining the level of fitness of employees and prospective employees, detecting any symptom which might contraindicate exposure to the environment encountered in mine/mill situations, examination of any employee who may have been exposed to radiation in excess of defined limits and the accumulation and provision of data on the health of employees

  12. Tritium analysis in environmental samples around Nuclear Power Plants and nationwide surveillance of radionuclides in some environmental samples(meat and drinking water)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Woo; Han, Man Jung; Cho, Seong Won; Cho, Hong Jun; Oh, Hyeon Kyun; Lee, Jeong Min; Chang, Jae Sook [KORTIC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    12 kind of environmental samples such as soil, underground water, seawater, etc. around the Nuclear Power Plants(NPP) and surface seawater around the Korea peninsula were sampled, For the samples of rain, pine-needle, air, seawater, underground water, chinese cabbage, grain of rice and milk sampled around NPP, and surface seawater and rain sampled all around country, tritium concentration was measured, The tritium concentration in the tap water and the gamma activity in the domestic and imported beef that were sampled at ward in the large city in Korea(Seoul, Pusan, Taegu, Taejun, Inchun, Kwangju) were analyzed for the meat and drinking waters. As the results of analyzing, tritium concentration in rain and tap water were very low all around country, but a little higher around the NPP than general surrounding. At the Wolsung NPP, tritium concentration was descend according to distance from the stack. Tritium activity of surface seawater around the Korea peninsula was also, very low. The measured radioactive elements in the beef is the same as the radioactive elements on the earth surface.

  13. Distributed data processing for public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Katherine

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems for routine public health surveillance rely on centralized collection of potentially identifiable, individual, identifiable personal health information (PHI records. Although individual, identifiable patient records are essential for conditions for which there is mandated reporting, such as tuberculosis or sexually transmitted diseases, they are not routinely required for effective syndromic surveillance. Public concern about the routine collection of large quantities of PHI to support non-traditional public health functions may make alternative surveillance methods that do not rely on centralized identifiable PHI databases increasingly desirable. Methods The National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program (NDP is an example of one alternative model. All PHI in this system is initially processed within the secured infrastructure of the health care provider that collects and holds the data, using uniform software distributed and supported by the NDP. Only highly aggregated count data is transferred to the datacenter for statistical processing and display. Results Detailed, patient level information is readily available to the health care provider to elucidate signals observed in the aggregated data, or for ad hoc queries. We briefly describe the benefits and disadvantages associated with this distributed processing model for routine automated syndromic surveillance. Conclusion For well-defined surveillance requirements, the model can be successfully deployed with very low risk of inadvertent disclosure of PHI – a feature that may make participation in surveillance systems more feasible for organizations and more appealing to the individuals whose PHI they hold. It is possible to design and implement distributed systems to support non-routine public health needs if required.

  14. Routine sputum culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sputum culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... Elsevier; 2018:chap 36. Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Culture, routine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory ...

  15. Consuming technologies - developing routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    technologies and in this article these processes will be investigated from three different perspectives: an historical perspective of how new technologies have entered homes, a consumer perspective of how both houses and new technologies are purchased and finally, as the primary part of the article, a user...... perspective of how routines develop while these technologies are being used. In the conclusion these insights are discussed in relation to possible ways of influencing routines....

  16. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  17. Water radiological surveillance (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo San Martin de, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the characteristics of the Environmental Surveillance Radiological Networks (ESRN) currently operating in CEDEX. In the first part, the Spanish Continental Waters ESRN has been presented. This second one describes Spanish Costal Waters ESRN and the High Sensitivity Networks in Continental and Marine Waters. It also presents the Radiological Surveillance of Drinking Waters that CEDEX carries out in waters of public consumption management by the Canal de Isabel II (CYII) and by the Mancomunity of Canals Taibilla (M.C.T.). The legislation applicable in each case is reviewed as well. Due to its extension the article has been divided into two parts. As Spanish Continental Waters ESRN has been reviewed in the first part, the others ESRN are discussed in this second one. (Author) 10 refs

  18. Surface-water surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995)

  19. Evaluation 2000 and regulation and method. Release monitoring and environmental surveillance around Cea centers; Bilan 2000 et reglementation et methode. Controle des rejets et surveillance de l'environnement des centres CEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This publication counts for the year 2000 for the evaluation of liquid and gaseous radioactive effluents releases and the radioactivity levels measured in the vicinity of Cea centers, through the air, water, vegetation and milk surveillance. An analysis of the results from 1996 to 2000 allows to follow their evolution. A second booklet develops the sampling and measurement methods made on effluents in environment. It present besides the regulation applied to effluents monitoring. (N.C.)

  20. Indicadores socioambientais para vigilância da dengue em nível local Socio-environmental indicators for dengue surveillance in the local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Fernandes Flauzino

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo caracteriza uma localidade quanto às condições de saneamento e processos de degradação ambiental que possam estar relacionados à transmissão da dengue, além de discutir a construção de novos indicadores socioambientais visando à vigilância epidemiológica. A área de estudo foi a Ilha da Conceição, no município de Niterói, RJ. Informantes-chave foram entrevistados para obter informações que pudessem ser utilizadas nas construções de novos indicadores. Ao se compararem os dados do IBGE com os fornecidos pelos informantes, foram encontradas algumas diferenças. Os dados dos informantes são mais condizentes com a realidade local, propiciando, de acordo com a área, a observação de diferentes modus operandi de coleta de lixo e limpeza pública. Os casos concentraram-se nos setores favela plana e favela morro. Concluiu-se que os indicadores referentes à frequência de abastecimento de água e coleta de lixo se mostram importantes para serem analisados em estudos de nível local associados com a incidência da dengue.This paper characterizes a local area in terms of sanitary conditions and environmental degradation processes that may be related to dengue transmission, and discusses the construction of new social and environmental indicators aiming at epidemiological surveillance. The studied area was Ilha da Conceição, in the municipality of Niterói, state of Rio de Janeiro. Key informants were interviewed to obtain information that could be used in the construction of new indicators. Comparing the data from the IBGE with those provided by the informants, we found some differences. The data provided by the latter are more reliable regarding the local reality, and they enable, according to the area, the observation of different modus operandi of garbage collection and public cleansing. The cases were concentrated on flat slum and hill slum areas. It was concluded that it is important to analyze indicators

  1. Nutritional surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J B; Mitchell, J T

    1983-01-01

    The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means "to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations". Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups.Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional "status" indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate.DATA COME FROM TWO MAIN TYPES OF SOURCE: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be

  2. Groundwater surveillance plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forstrom, J.M.; Smith, E.D.; Winters, S.L.; McMaster, W.M.

    1994-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 requires the preparation of environmental monitoring plans and implementation of environmental monitoring programs for all DOE facilities. The order identifies two distinct components of environmental monitoring, namely effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. In general, effluent monitoring has the objectives of characterizing contaminants and demonstrating compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, whereas environmental surveillance has the broader objective of monitoring the effects of DOE activities on on- and off-site environmental and natural resources. The purpose of this document is to support the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) by describing the groundwater component of the environmental surveillance program for the DOE facilities on the ORR. The distinctions between groundwater effluent monitoring and groundwater surveillance have been defined in the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Groundwater Surveillance Strategy. As defined in the strategy, a groundwater surveillance program consists of two parts, plant perimeter surveillance and off-site water well surveillance. This document identifies the sampling locations, parameters, and monitoring frequencies for both of these activities on and around the ORR and describes the rationale for the program design. The program was developed to meet the objectives of DOE Order 5400.1 and related requirements in DOE Order 5400.5 and to conform with DOE guidance on environmental surveillance and the Energy Systems Groundwater Surveillance Strategy

  3. Savannah River Site environmental data for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, M.W. [ed.

    1994-05-01

    The figures and tables in this report represent a capsule view of the routine environmental monitoring and surveillance programs at the Savannah River Site. An attempt has been made to include all available data from environmental research programs. The first section of the book is a collection of maps of radiological and nonradiological sampling locations. Also included are general radiological and nonradiological sampling and analysis schedules; a list of the media sampled, along with sample sizes and representative aliquots; a list of the lower limits of detection for radiological detection instruments; the minimum detectable concentrations for gamma analysis of water and air samples; and the minimum detectable concentrations for gamma analysis of soil, food, fish and wildlife, and vegetation samples. Following the first section are data tables containing radiological and nonradiological effluent monitoring results, radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance results, dose estimates, quality assurance activities, and results of nonroutine occurrences and special surveys.

  4. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  5. Atmospheric surveillance self-propelling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartoux, Gerard.

    1980-11-01

    The atmospheric surveillance self-propelling device of the Saclay Nuclear Research Center can, by its conception (autonomy, rapid put into service, multiplicity of sampling and measurements), be used for all kind of measuring campains: pollution radioactive or not, routine or accidental situation, technical and logistic support and as a coordination or investigation vehicle [fr

  6. Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-01-01

    Supporting material for the plan includes: QUALITY ASSURANCE, ANALYSIS, AND SAMPLING PLAN FOR NTS AIR; QUALITY ASSURANCE, ANALYSIS, AND SAMPLING PLAN FOR WATER ON AND OFF THE NEVADA TEST SITE; QUALITY ASSURANCE, ANALYSIS, AND SAMPLING PLAN FOR NTS BIOTA; QUALITY ASSURANCE, ANALYSIS, AND SAMPLING PLAN FOR DIRECT RADIATION MONITORING; DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES PROCESS; VADOSE ZONE MONITORING PLAN CHECKLIST

  7. Calibration and study of the measurement capabilities of real-time gamma spectrometry equipment, developed for the renewal of the network of automatic stations for environmental radiological surveillance of the Generalitat de Catalunya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanovas, R.; Prieto, E.; Salvado, M.

    2013-01-01

    The renewal of the automatic environmental radiation surveillance network of the Gereralitat of Catalunya has been carried out through the development and implementation of gamma-spectrometry-based equipment. The monitors use scintillation cristals, either NaI(Tl) or LaBr 3 (Ce) and currently, there are 3 types of equipment: water radioactivity monitors, aerosols on a particulate filter monitors and direct measurement monitors. In this paper, we expose the basic features of its operation, the details of their calibration and the minimum detectable activity concentrations for some isotopes

  8. Annual evaluation of routine radiological survey/monitoring frequencies for the High Ranking Facilities Deactivating Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The Bethel Valley Watershed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has several Environmental Management (EM) facilities that are designated for deactivation and subsequent decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). The Surplus Facilities Program at ORNL provides surveillance and maintenance support for these facilities as deactivation objectives are completed to reduce the risks associated with radioactive material inventories, etc. The Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC Radiological Control (RADCON) Program has established requirements for radiological monitoring and surveying radiological conditions in these facilities. These requirements include an annual evaluation of routine radiation survey and monitoring frequencies. Radiological survey/monitoring frequencies were evaluated for two High Ranking Facilities Deactivation Project facilities, the Bulk Shielding Facility and Tower Shielding Facility. Considerable progress has been made toward accomplishing deactivation objectives, thus the routine radiological survey/monitoring frequencies are being reduced for 1999. This report identifies the survey/monitoring frequency adjustments and provides justification that the applicable RADCON Program requirements are also satisfied

  9. The embeddedness of selfish Routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2001-01-01

    Routines have traditionally been seen as an organisational feature. However, like genes, routines may be carriers and initiators of organisations as well......Routines have traditionally been seen as an organisational feature. However, like genes, routines may be carriers and initiators of organisations as well...

  10. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARTINEZ, R.

    2000-01-01

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M) activities. However, ongoing S and M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations

  11. 2002 WIPP Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-30

    DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE | facility to prepare an environmental management plan (EMP). This document is | prepared for WIPP in accordance with the guidance contained in DOE Order 5400.1; DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment; applicable sections of Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T; DOE, 1991); and the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 834, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment'' (draft). Many sections of DOE Order 5400.1 have been replaced by DOE Order 231.1, which is the driver for the annual Site Environmental Report (SER) and the guidance source for preparing many environmental program documents. The WIPP Project is operated by Westinghouse TRU Solutions (WTS) for the DOE. This plan defines the extent and scope of WIPP's effluent and environmental | monitoring programs during the facility's operational life and also discusses WIPP's quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program as it relates to environmental monitoring. In addition, this plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP including: A summary of environmental programs, including the status of environmental monitoring activities A description of the WIPP Project and its mission A description of the local environment, including demographics An overview of the methodology used to assess radiological consequences to the public, including brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences Responses to the requirements described in the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  12. Who is Surveilling Whom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This article concerns the particular form of counter-surveillance termed “sousveillance”, which aims to turn surveillance at the institutions responsible for surveillance. Drawing on the theoretical perspectives “mediatization” and “aerial surveillance,” the article studies WikiLeaks’ publication...

  13. Monitoring and surveillance of former uranium sites in Haute-Vienne (France): main outcomes of the review of a ten-year environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallerand, Marie-Odile; Gay, Didier; Andres, Christian

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, more than 200 sites were prospected and mined to extract uranium in France. Haute-Vienne, in the Midwest of the country, played a leading position. Up to the present, rehabilitation of the sites is nearly complete and surveillance is the way of assessing its efficiency. In 2003, AREVA NC was asked to produce a report presenting the results of the ten-year (1994-2003) monitoring and surveillance of the rehabilitated sites and their environment. In 2006, the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) was asked to perform the technical review of this report. This review led IRSN to recommend actions to improve the monitoring systems and minimise discharges to the environment. Results and recommendations were presented to and discussed with the pluralistic expert group (GEP) created in 2006 by the French ministries of environment, health and industry. (author)

  14. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-07-08

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).

  15. Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The Project Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (PSMP) describes the procedures that will be used by the US Department of Energy (DOE), or other agency as designated by the President to verify that inactive uranium tailings disposal facilities remain in compliance with licensing requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for remedial actions. The PSMP will be used as a guide for the development of individual Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (part of a license application) for each of the UMTRA Project sites. The PSMP is not intended to provide minimum requirements but rather to provide guidance in the selection of surveillance measures. For example, the plan acknowledges that ground-water monitoring may or may not be required and provides the [guidance] to make this decision. The Site Surveillance and Maintenance Plans (SSMPs) will form the basis for the licensing of the long-term surveillance and maintenance of each UMTRA Project site by the NRC. Therefore, the PSMP is a key milestone in the licensing process of all UMTRA Project sites. The Project Licensing Plan (DOE, 1984a) describes the licensing process. 11 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.G.; Peterson, D.; Hoff, D.L.

    1996-08-01

    This report presents a compilation of data collected in 1995 for the routine environmental surveillance programs conducted on and around the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1995, the offsite surveillance program was conducted by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation. Onsite surveillance was performed by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO). Ground-water monitoring, both on and offsite, was performed by the US Geological Survey (USGS). This report also presents summaries of facility effluent monitoring data collected by INEL contractors. This report, prepared in accordance with the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, is not intended to cover the numerous special environmental research programs being conducted at the INEL by the Foundation, LITCO, USGS, and others

  17. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R.G.; Peterson, D.; Hoff, D.L.

    1996-08-01

    This report presents a compilation of data collected in 1995 for the routine environmental surveillance programs conducted on and around the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1995, the offsite surveillance program was conducted by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation. Onsite surveillance was performed by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO). Ground-water monitoring, both on and offsite, was performed by the US Geological Survey (USGS). This report also presents summaries of facility effluent monitoring data collected by INEL contractors. This report, prepared in accordance with the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, is not intended to cover the numerous special environmental research programs being conducted at the INEL by the Foundation, LITCO, USGS, and others.

  18. Final Environmental Assessment, Construct Antenna Parts Storage Facility, Upgrade Perimeter Security Fence and Demolish Camera Shed, Red River Air Force Space Surveillance Station (AFSSS), Lewisville, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    root plowed for construction of the Installation. Now the Installation consists mostly of short grasses which are routinely mowed. Woods border...aristata* bracted plantain Rumex crispus* curly dock Setaria parviflora yellow bristlegrass Solanum carolinense* Carolina horse nettle Sorghum...the land was covered with a hardwood forest. The land was cleared and root plowed dur- ing construction of the Installation. Earthen platforms were

  19. Ideology, Critique and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Herzogenrath-Amelung

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The 2013 revelations concerning global surveillance programmes demonstrate in unprecedented clarity the need for Critical Theory of information and communication technologies (ICTs to address the mechanisms and implications of increasingly global, ubiquitous surveillance. This is all the more urgent because of the dominance of the “surveillance ideology” (the promise of security through surveillance that supports the political economy of surveillance. This paper asks which theoretical arguments and concepts can be useful for philosophically grounding a critique of this surveillance ideology. It begins by examining how the surveillance ideology works through language and introduces the concept of the ‘ideological packaging’ of ICTs to show how rhetoric surrounding the implementation of surveillance technologies reinforces the surveillance ideology. It then raises the problem of how ideology-critique can work if it relies on language itself and argues that Martin Heidegger’s philosophy can make a useful contribution to existing critical approaches to language.

  20. Improving Outreach and Surveillance Efforts Following a Large-Scale Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Paul D; Vogt, Christy M; Wozniak, Ryan J; Camponeschi, Jenny; Werner, Mark A; Meiman, Jonathan G

    In December 2014, the largest carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Wisconsin's history occurred at an ice arena. Following this event, the Wisconsin Environmental Public Health Tracking (WI EPHT) Program sought to improve outreach and surveillance efforts. WI EPHT designed and distributed educational materials on CO poisoning prevention and surveyed stakeholders to gauge the effectiveness of outreach efforts. To enhance surveillance, WI EPHT utilized data from the Wisconsin Poison Center (WPC) to generate real-time alerts of anomalous numbers of CO-related calls. WI EPHT found that 42% of stakeholders reviewed the outreach materials, and 1 ice arena had installed a CO detector as a result. CO alerts were developed using WPC data and are now routinely used in statewide public health surveillance. WI EPHT staff improved CO poisoning prevention outreach and saw a positive response among stakeholders. This work demonstrates ways that health agencies can improve outreach and surveillance for CO poisoning. Improvements in these areas can bolster public health response and may prevent CO-related illness and injury.

  1. Acting of the radiological surveillance of food in Cuba before anomalous situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez G, I.M.; Rodriguez C, G.; Carrazana G, J.; Capote F, E.

    2006-01-01

    Keeping in mind the real possibility of that would be imported to Cuba polluted foods with radionuclides, product of a nuclear or radiological accident happens one contamination of foods inside the national territory, it was designed and was into effect in January, 2000, a Program of Radiological Surveillance of Foods and Water, in the marks of the National Program of Surveillance of Pollutants in Foods and Water. This surveillance is executed in group among the National Unit of Health Environmental of the Ministry of Health and the Center of Protection and Hygiene of those Radiations of the Ministry of Sciences, Technology and Environment. In this work the design in the way of acting of the Radiological Surveillance of Foods and Water in Cuba, in the event of detection of anomalous situations is presented. The same one includes, the establishment of investigation levels for radionuclides in foods, the ways of performance of the System, of to be overcome or to be equaled the performance levels or established investigation, the flow of the information, as well as the work routine to continue by the essay laboratories, in the event of an anomalous situation. (Author)

  2. Program of environmental radiological surveillance of the radioactive wastes storage center of Maquixco in the period January-December 1991; Programa de vigilancia radiologica ambiental del centro de almacenamiento de deschos radiactivos de Maquixco en el periodo Enero-Diciembre dde 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaso P, M.I

    1991-12-15

    The primary objective of all program of environmental radiological surveillance (PVRA), it is to follow the evolution of the radioactive content of the links of the chains that constitute the different ways of transfer of the radioactivity toward the man, with the purpose of making a realistic evaluation of the environmental impact produced by the installation under surveillance. In the CADER in Mexico, only accidents or escapes of radioactivity of slow evolution can be detected. At the moment the radioactive wastes in this installation are not treated. In this report the results obtained during the year 1991 are presented. (Author)

  3. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence

  4. Containment and surveillance devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Johnson, C.S.; Stieff, L.R.

    The growing acceptance of containment and surveillance as a means to increase safeguards effectiveness has provided impetus to the development of improved surveillance and containment devices. Five recently developed devices are described. The devices include one photographic and two television surveillance systems and two high security seals that can be verified while installed

  5. Routine sanitary radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Hygienic bases and organization principles of radiation monitoring realized in the process of operation of nuclear power engineering enterprises are considered. The monitoring is aimed at prevention from a negative effect of ionizing radiations on public heath. It is achieved by solution of the following tasks: realization of control over radioactive waste disposal into environment, control over the level of radioactive substance content in evironmental objects, control over external and internal irradiation of population assessment of environmental radiactivity of certain regions and of the territory of the country with the subsequent informing the corresponding organizations and population

  6. Evaluation of the novel respiratory virus surveillance program: Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance (PEWSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Patricia A; Nguyen, Linh M; Lutman, Michelle L; Middaugh, John P

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by respiratory viruses are associated with recurrent epidemics and widespread morbidity and mortality. Routine surveillance of these pathogens is necessary to determine virus activity, monitor for changes in circulating strains, and plan for public health preparedness. The Southern Nevada Health District in Las Vegas, Nevada, recruited five pediatric medical practices to serve as sentinel sites for the Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance (PEWSS) program. Sentinel staff collected specimens throughout the year from ill children who met the influenza-like illness case definition and submitted specimens to the Southern Nevada Public Health Laboratory for molecular testing for influenza and six non-influenza viruses. Laboratory results were analyzed and reported to the medical and general communities in weekly bulletins year-round. PEWSS data were also used to establish viral respiratory seasonal baselines and in influenza vaccination campaigns. The surveillance program was evaluated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems. PEWSS met three of six program usefulness criteria and seven of nine surveillance system attributes, which exceeded the CDC Guidelines evaluation criteria for a useful and complete public health surveillance program. We found that PEWSS is a useful and complete public health surveillance system that is simple, flexible, accessible, and stable.

  7. Epidemiological modelling for the assessment of bovine tuberculosis surveillance in the dairy farm network in Emilia-Romagna (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Rossi

    2015-06-01

    Our analysis showed that slaughterhouse inspection is the most effective surveillance component in reducing the time for disease detection, while routine surveillance in reducing the number of multi-farms epidemics. On the other hand, testing exchanged cattle improved the performance of the surveillance system only marginally.

  8. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site environmental report for Calendar Year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R.G.; Peterson, D. [Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hoff, D.L. [USDOE Idaho Operations Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of data collected in 1994 for routine environmental surveillance programs conducted on and around INEL. EG&G conducted the onsite surveillance program January-- September; Lockheed Idaho conducted the program October--December. The offsite surveillance program was conducted by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation. Ground water monitoring (both on and off site) was performed by USGS. This report presents summaries of facility effluent monitoring data collected by INEL contractors. It includes collection of foodstuffs at the INEL boundary and distant offsite locations, and the collection of air and water samples at onsite locations and offsite boundary and distant locations. The report also compares and evaluates the sample results to federal regulations and standards.

  9. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site environmental report for Calendar Year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.G.; Peterson, D.; Hoff, D.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of data collected in 1994 for routine environmental surveillance programs conducted on and around INEL. EG ampersand G conducted the onsite surveillance program January-- September; Lockheed Idaho conducted the program October--December. The offsite surveillance program was conducted by the Environmental Science and Research Foundation. Ground water monitoring (both on and off site) was performed by USGS. This report presents summaries of facility effluent monitoring data collected by INEL contractors. It includes collection of foodstuffs at the INEL boundary and distant offsite locations, and the collection of air and water samples at onsite locations and offsite boundary and distant locations. The report also compares and evaluates the sample results to federal regulations and standards

  10. Bedtime routines child wellbeing & development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsaras, George; Goodwin, Michaela; Allan, Julia; Kelly, Michael P; Pretty, Iain A

    2018-03-21

    Bedtime routines has shown important associations with areas associated with child wellbeing and development. Research into bedtime routines is limited with studies mainly focusing on quality of sleep. The objectives of the present study were to examine the relationship between bedtime routines and a variety of factors associated with child wellbeing and to examine possible determinants of bedtime routines. A total of 50 families with children between 3 and 5 years old took part in the study. Data on bedtime routines, parenting styles, school readiness, children's dental health, and executive function were collected. Children in families with optimal bedtime routines showed better performance in terms of executive function, specifically working memory (t (44)= - 8.51, p ≤ .001), inhibition and attention (t (48)= - 9.70, p ≤ .001) and cognitive flexibility (t (48)= - 13.1, p ≤ .001). Also, children in households with optimal bedtime routines scored higher in their readiness for school (t (48)= 6.92, p ≤ .001) and had better dental health (U = 85.5, p = .011). Parents in households with suboptimal bedtime routines showed worse performance on all measures of executive function including working memory (t (48)= - 10.47, p ≤ .001), inhibition-attention (t (48)= - 10.50, p ≤ .001) and cognitive flexibility (t (48)= - 13.6, p ≤ .001). Finally, parents with optimal bedtime routines for their children deployed a more positive parenting style in general (i.e. authoritative parenting) compared to those with suboptimal bedtime routines (t (48)= - 6.45, p ≤ .001). The results of the present study highlight the potentially important role of bedtime routines in a variety of areas associated with child wellbeing and the need for further research.

  11. Microfoundations of Routines and Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Heimriks, Koen H.

    We discuss the microfoundations of routines and capabilities, including why a microfoundations view is needed and how it may inform work on organizational and competitive heterogeneity. Building on extant research, we identify three primary categories of micro-level components underlying routines...

  12. Environmental surveillance status and assessment of the marking of ground waters and waterways around nuclear sites and radioactive waste old warehousing sites. Report for the High Committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After a recall of the general objectives of environment radioactivity surveillance (notions about origin and behaviour of radioactive species in the environment, role of surveillance), this report describes the environment surveillance organisation and the investigations performed by the IRSN. It presents an overview of the current knowledge of the radiological status around the various French nuclear sites (radioactive effluent rejections, nuclear waste old warehousing sites, surface waters and soils, ground waters). It recalls and describes how surveillance results are published by the different involved parties. Each site is more precisely presented in appendix with its geological context, its surveillance equipment and results

  13. Operational environmental monitoring plan for the waste isolation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, D.D.; Baker, P.L.; Cockman, J.S.; Fischer, N.T.; Flynn, D.T.; Harvill, J.P.; Knudtsen, K.L.; Louderbough, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    This plan defines the scope and extent of the WIPP effluent and environmental monitoring programs during the facility's operational life. It also discusses the quality assurance/quality control programs which ensure that samples collected and the resulting analytical data are representative of actual conditions at the WIPP site. This plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP, including: a summary of environmental program information, including an update of the status of environmental permits and compliance activities; a description of the WIPP project and its mission; a description of the local environment, including demographics; a summary of applicable standards and regulatory requirements and brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences; a summary of the preoperational environmental monitoring and assessment activities and responses to the requirements (Appendix A) and guidelines presented in the ''Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance for US DOE Operations.'' 166 refs., 28 figs., 27 tabs

  14. Chemical-gene interaction networks and causal reasoning for biological effects prediction and prioritization of contaminants for environmental monitoring and surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating the potential human health and ecological risks associated with exposures to complex chemical mixtures in the environment is one of the main challenges of chemical safety assessment and environmental protection. There is a need for approaches that can help to integrat...

  15. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstrom, Jenifer [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This plan provides a high-level summary of environmental monitoring performed by various organizations within and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, Guide DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance, and in accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. The purpose of these orders is to 1) implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations, and 2) to establish standards and requirements for the operations of DOE and DOE contractors with respect to protection of the environment and members of the public against undue risk from radiation. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL Site, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. Detailed monitoring procedures, program plans, or other governing documents used by contractors or agencies to implement requirements are referenced in this plan. This plan covers all planned monitoring and environmental surveillance. Non-routine activities such as special research studies and characterization of individual sites for environmental restoration are outside the scope of this plan.

  16. Savannah River Site (SRS) environmental overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rear, M.G.; Steele, J.L.; Kitchen, B.G.

    1990-01-01

    The environmental surveillance activities at and in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site (SRS) [formerly the Savannah River Plant (SRP)] comprise one of the most comprehensive and extensive environmental monitoring programs in the United States. This overview contains monitoring data from routine and nonroutine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities, summaries of environmental protection programs in progress, a summary of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities, and a listing of environmental permits (Appendix A) issued by regulatory agencies. This overview provides information about the impact of SRS operations on the public and the environment. The SRS occupies a large area of approximately 300 square miles along the Savannah River, principally in Aiken and Barnwell counties of South Carolina. SRS's primary function is the production of tritium, plutonium, and other special nuclear materials for national defense, for other governmental uses, and for some civilian purposes. From August 1950 to March 31, 1989, SRS was operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by E. I. du Pont de Nemours ampersand Co. On April 1, 1989 the Westinghouse Savannah River Company assumed responsibility as the prime contractor for the Savannah River Site

  17. Redefining syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Katz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field’s capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries.

  18. Airborne Video Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blask, Steven

    2002-01-01

    The DARPA Airborne Video Surveillance (AVS) program was established to develop and promote technologies to make airborne video more useful, providing capabilities that achieve a UAV force multiplier...

  19. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  20. Radiation detectors as surveillance monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlau, P.E.; Dowdy, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) proposes to use personnel dosimetry radiation detectors as surveillance monitors for safeguards purposes. It plans to place these YES/NO monitors at barrier penetration points declared closed under IAEA safeguards to detect the passage of plutonium-bearing nuclear material, usually spent fuel. For this application, commercially available dosimeters were surveyed as well as other radiation detectors that appeared suitable and likely to be marketed in the near future. No primary advantage was found in a particular detector type because in this application backgrounds vary during long counting intervals. Secondary considerations specify that the monitor be inexpensive and easy to tamper-proof, interrogate, and maintain. On this basis radiophotoluminescent, thermoluminescent, and electronic dosimeters were selected as possible routine monitors; the latter two may prove useful for data-base acquisition

  1. Electronic health record case studies to advance environmental public health tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namulanda, Gonza; Qualters, Judith; Vaidyanathan, Ambarish; Roberts, Eric; Richardson, Max; Fraser, Alicia; McVeigh, Katharine H; Patterson, Scott

    2018-03-01

    Data from traditional public health surveillance systems can have some limitations, e.g., timeliness, geographic level, and amount of data accessible. Electronic health records (EHRs) could present an opportunity to supplement current sources of routinely collected surveillance data. The National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program) sought to explore the use of EHRs for advancing environmental public health surveillance practices. The Tracking Program funded four state/local health departments to obtain and pilot the use of EHR data to address several issues including the challenges and technical requirements for accessing EHR data, and the core data elements required to integrate EHR data within their departments' Tracking Programs. The results of these pilot projects highlighted the potential of EHR data for public health surveillance of rare diseases that may lack comprehensive registries, and surveillance of prevalent health conditions or risk factors for health outcomes at a finer geographic level. EHRs therefore, may have potential to supplement traditional sources of public health surveillance data. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Exposure to and colonisation by antibiotic-resistant E. coli in UK coastal water users: Environmental surveillance, exposure assessment, and epidemiological study (Beach Bum Survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Anne F C; Zhang, Lihong; Balfour, Andrew J; Garside, Ruth; Hawkey, Peter M; Murray, Aimee K; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Gaze, William H

    2018-05-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) present a global public health problem. With numbers of community-acquired resistant infections increasing, understanding the mechanisms by which people are exposed to and colonised by ARB can help inform effective strategies to prevent their spread. The role natural environments play in this is poorly understood. This is the first study to combine surveillance of ARB in bathing waters, human exposure estimates and association between exposure and colonisation by ARB in water users. 97 bathing water samples from England and Wales were analysed for the proportion of E. coli harbouring bla CTX-M . These data were used to estimate the likelihood of water users ingesting bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli. Having identified surfers as being at risk of exposure to ARB, a cross-sectional study was conducted. Regular surfers and non-surfers were recruited to assess whether there is an association between surfing and gut colonisation by bla CTX-M- bearing E. coli. 11 of 97 bathing waters sampled were found to contain bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli. While the percentage of bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli in bathing waters was low (0.07%), water users are at risk of ingesting these ARB. It is estimated that over 2.5 million water sports sessions occurred in 2015 resulting in the ingestion of at least one bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli. In the epidemiological survey, 9/143 (6.3%) surfers were colonised by bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli, as compared to 2/130 (1.5%) of non-surfers (risk ratio=4.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 16.4, p=0.046). Surfers are at risk of exposure to and colonisation by clinically important antibiotic-resistant E. coli in coastal waters. Further research must be done on the role natural environments play in the transmission of ARB. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental monitoring master sampling schedule, January--December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for calendar year 1990 for the Environment Surveillance and Ground-Water Monitoring Projects. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. This schedule includes ground-water sampling performed by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  4. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1984-09-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  5. Problems with radiological surveillance instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.; Tanner, J.E.; Fleming, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Many radiological surveillance instruments are in use at DOE facilities throughout the country. These instruments are an essential part of all health physics programs, and poor instrument performance can increase program costs or compromise program effectiveness. Generic data from simple tests on newly purchased instruments shows that many instruments will not meet requirements due to manufacturing defects. In other cases, lack of consideration of instrument use has resulted in poor acceptance of instruments and poor reliability. The performance of instruments is highly variable for electronic and mechanical performance, radiation response, susceptibility to interferences and response to environmental factors. Poor instrument performance in these areas can lead to errors or poor accuracy in measurements

  6. LLNL Livermore site Groundwater Surveillance Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 establishes environ-mental protection program requirements, authorities, and responsibilities for DOE operations to assume compliance with federal, state, and local environmental protection laws and regulations; Federal Executive Orders; and internal DOE policies. ne DOE Order contains requirements and guidance for environmental monitoring programs, the objectives of which are to demonstrate compliance with legal and regulatory requirements imposed by federal, state, and local agencies; confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection polices; and support environmental management decisions. The environmental monitoring programs consist of two major activities: (1) measurement and monitoring of effluents from DOE operations, and (2) surveillance through measurement, monitoring, and calculation of the effects of those operations on the environment and public health. The latter concern, that of assessing the effects, if any, of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations and activities on on-site and off-site surface waters and groundwaters is addressed by an Environmental Surveillance Program being developed by LLNL. The Groundwater Surveillance Plan presented here has been developed on a sitespecific basis, taking into consideration facility characteristics, applicable regulations, hazard potential, quantities and concentrations of materials released, the extent and use of local water resources, and specific local public interest and concerns

  7. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    As activists move from alternative media platforms to commercial social media platforms they face increasing challenges in protecting their online security and privacy. While government surveillance of activists is well-documented in both scholarly research and the media, corporate surveillance...

  8. Reassembling Surveillance Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical developm......We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical...... development or in empirical analyses. Accordingly, this article contributes to this special issue on the usefulness of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) by suggesting that ANT can advance our understanding of ‘surveillance creep’. Based on ANT’s model of translation and a historical study of the Danish DNA database......, we argue that surveillance creep involves reassembling the relations in surveillance networks between heterogeneous actors such as the watchers, the watched, laws, and technologies. Second, surveillance creeps only when these heterogeneous actors are adequately interested and aligned. However...

  9. Epidemiology, public health, and health surveillance around point sources of pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbings, J.H. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    In industrial society a large number of point sources of pollution exist, such as chemical plants, smelters, and nuclear power plants. Public concern has forced the practising epidemiologist to undertake health surveillance of the usually small populations living around point sources. Although not justifiable as research, such epidemiologic surveillance activities are becoming a routine part of public health practice, and this trend will continue. This introduction reviews concepts of epidemiologic surveillance, and institutional problems relating to the quality of such applied research

  10. Adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) software routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlis, N.E.

    1980-07-01

    An Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) was developed to collect information from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique digital data-compression, storage, and formatting system; it also incorporates a capability for video selection and recording for assessment of the sensors monitored by the system. The system is software reprogrammable to numerous configurations that may be used for the collection of environmental, bilevel, analog, and video data. This report describes the software routines that control the different AIDS data-collection modes, the diagnostic programs to test the operating hardware, and the data format. Sample data printouts are also included

  11. 1990 Environmental Monitoring Report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.; Yeager, G.; Wolff, T.; Parsons, A.; Dionne, D.; Massey, C.; Schwartz, B.; Fish, J.; Thompson, D.; Goodrich, M.

    1991-05-01

    This 1990 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 2.0 x 10 -3 mrem. The total 50-mile population received a collective dose of 0.82 person-rem during 1990 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, the 1990 SNL operations had no adverse impact on the general public or on the environment. This report is prepared for the US Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1. 97 refs., 30 figs., 137 tabs

  12. 1993 Site environmental report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culp, T.A.; Cheng, C.F.; Cox, W.; Durand, N.; Irwin, M.; Jones, A.; Lauffer, F.; Lincoln, M.; McClellan, Y.; Molley, K.

    1994-11-01

    This 1993 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, environmental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 0.0016 millirem. The total population within a 50-mile (80 kilometer) radius of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico received an estimated collective dose of 0.027 person-rem during 1993 from the laboratories operations, As in the previous year, the 1993 operations at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment. This report is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1

  13. ROUTINE IMMUNIZATION IN INDIA: A PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Taneja

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Universal Immunization Programme is possibly the longest and one of the biggest public health intervention measures undertaken in India. To improve immunization coverage in the country various initiatives have been undertaken since the inception of the programme in 1985; key inputs being strengthening and expanding the cold chain system, establishing a network of outreach immunization sites, alternate vaccine delivery model, capacity building of health functionaries and medical officers and intensified polio control measures. Introduction of new and underutilized vaccines, drafting of the national vaccine policy, tracking of beneficiaries through the Maternal and Child Tracking system are some of the recent developments. However in spite of more than 25 years since inception the programme is still adversely impacted by challenges across key thematic areas of programme management, cold chain and vaccine management, recording and reporting and injection safety. To further strengthen and improve service delivery 2012-13 has been declared as the “Year of Intensification of Routine Immunization” with the objective of improving immunization coverage rates across poor performing districts and states so as to attain Global Immunization Vision and Strategy goals of 90% coverage at national and more than 80% coverage at district level. Key activities planned during the year include sustained advocacy at all levels, improved communication and social mobilization, robust and regular program reviews, comprehensive microplanning, strengthening cold chain and vaccine logistics system, special catch up rounds through immunization weeks, piloting the teeka express, improved surveillance systems, strengthened partnerships and operational research activities. The current review pertains to the existing scenario of Universal Immunization Program in the country with impetus on the existing challenges, progress achieved till date as a result of various

  14. Spatio-temporal analysis of Salmonella surveillance data in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Vieira, Antonio; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the usefulness of spatio-temporal statistical tools to detect outbreaks using routine surveillance data where limited epidemiological information is available. A dataset from 2002 to 2007 containing information regarding date, origin, source and serotype of 29 586 Salmonella ...

  15. Oak Ridge Research reactor shutdown maintenance and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, G.H.; Laughlin, D.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Department of Energy ordered the Oak Ridge Research Reactor to be placed in permanent shutdown on July 14, 1987. The paper outlines routine maintenance activities and surveillance tests performed April through September, 1990, on the reactor instrumentation and controls, process system, and the gaseous waste filter system. Preparations are being made to transfer the facility to the Remedial Action Program. 6 tabs

  16. Surveillance of environmental risks for the health in the area of the construction of hydroelectric project Porce ll, Antioquia Colombia 1997 -2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez P, Claudia; Rios V Claudia; Osorio Q, Lisardo; Valencia Lia, Marta; Escobar V, Juan Pablo; Lopez A, Yolanda

    2002-01-01

    The effects on the health of the human populations generated by the construction of dams for the energy production, not always have been considered when the construction of the work is planned. Van Thiel (1962), Gartrell et al. (1972), Ackerman et al. (1973), Brown and Deom (1973), Waddy (1973, 1975), Stanley and Alpers (1975), Worthington (1978), Eguniwe (1976) y Paiva (1982). This study pilot in the country watched during four years the environmental conditions of risk for the health in the hydroelectric project Porce ll during its construction and the pertinent measures were recommended, to protect the conditions of health of the population worker and the inhabitants of the area of influence of this one. In periodic form, the work camping, work fronts and medical centers were inspected. The main problem observed through the time was related to the deficient processes of washing and disinfections in the sanitary services and restaurants and the presence of diverse vectors breeding place of diseases, appearing greater problem in the rims in disuse and carps that were used to cover the structures and equipment that was stored outdoors. Most of the factors of risk for the health they were corrected Colombia. Through the time and in so me it was necessary to insist on the given recommendations

  17. Prospective surveillance for influenza. virus in Chinese swine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin D; Ma, Mai-Juan; Wang, Guo-Lin; Bi, Zhen-Qiang; Lu, Bing; Wang, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chuang-Xin; Chen, Shan-Hui; Qian, Yan-Hua; Song, Shao-Xia; Li, Min; Zhao, Teng; Wu, Meng-Na; Borkenhagen, Laura K; Cao, Wu-Chun; Gray, Gregory C

    2018-05-16

    Pork production in China is rapidly increasing and swine production operations are expanding in size and number. However, the biosecurity measures necessary to prevent swine disease transmission, particularly influenza. viruses (IAV) that can be zoonotic, are often inadequate. Despite this risk, few studies have attempted to comprehensively study IAV ecology in swine production settings. Here, we present environmental and animal sampling data collected in the first year of an ongoing five-year prospective epidemiological study to assess IAV ecology as it relates to swine workers, their pigs, and the farm environment. From March 2015 to February 2016, we collected 396 each of environmental swab, water, bioaerosol, and fecal/slurry samples, as well as 3300 pig oral secretion samples from six farms in China. The specimens were tested with molecular assays for IAV. Of these, 46 (11.6%) environmental swab, 235 (7.1%) pig oral secretion, 23 (5.8%) water, 20 (5.1%) bioaerosol, and 19 (4.8%) fecal/slurry specimens were positive for influenza. by qRT-PCR. Risk factors for IAV detection among collected samples were identified using bivariate logistic regression. Overall, these first year data suggest that IAV is quite ubiquitous in the swine production environment and demonstrate an association between the different types of environmental sampling used. Given the mounting evidence that some of these viruses freely move between pigs and swine workers, and that mixing of these viruses can yield progeny viruses with pandemic potential, it seems imperative that routine surveillance for novel IAVs be conducted in commercial swine farms.

  18. Multimodal surveillance sensors, algorithms, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zhigang

    2007-01-01

    From front-end sensors to systems and environmental issues, this practical resource guides you through the many facets of multimodal surveillance. The book examines thermal, vibration, video, and audio sensors in a broad context of civilian and military applications. This cutting-edge volume provides an in-depth treatment of data fusion algorithms that takes you to the core of multimodal surveillance, biometrics, and sentient computing. The book discusses such people and activity topics as tracking people and vehicles and identifying individuals by their speech.Systems designers benefit from d

  19. The institutionalization of a routine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian

    2008-01-01

    -which has before largely been treated in overview by institutionalism-plays an important role in the making of a routine. In my empirical study, I demonstrate that the concept and practice of the valve changes, and that it is identified in a number of ways, as it passes through the testing phase...... of production. I argue that the negotiation of these changes during test production is the fulcrum in the routinization of the production procedure. It is through these identity shifts that the valve is both reified, and rendered producible and applicable in the customer world....

  20. The Copyright Surveillance Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Zajko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Creative works are now increasingly distributed as digital “content” through the internet, and copyright law has created powerful incentives to monitor and control these flows. This paper analyzes the surveillance industry that has emerged as a result. Copyright surveillance systems identify copyright infringement online and identify persons to hold responsible for infringing acts. These practices have raised fundamental questions about the nature of identification and attribution on the internet, as well as the increasing use of algorithms to make legal distinctions. New technologies have threatened the profits of some media industries through copyright infringement, but also enabled profitable forms of mass copyright surveillance and enforcement. Rather than a system of perfect control, copyright enforcement continues to be selective and uneven, but its broad reach results in systemic harm and provides opportunities for exploitation. It is only by scrutinizing copyright surveillance practices and copyright enforcement measures that we can evaluate these consequences.

  1. Deployment Health Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeNicola, Anthony D

    2004-01-01

    ... of stress in causing chronic illness. The lack of comprehensive deployment health surveillance has made it difficult to determine possible causes of adverse health effects reported by Gulf War veterans...

  2. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  3. Sanitary surveillance and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volnei Garrafa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory practices in the field of health surveillance are indispensable. The aim of this study is to show ‒ taking the Brazilian National Surveillance Agency, governing body of sanitary surveillance in Brazil as a reference ‒ that bioethics provides public bodies a series of theoretical tools from the field of applied ethics for the proper exercise and control of these practices. To that end, the work uses two references of bioethics for the development of a comparative and supportive analysis to regulatory activities in the field of health surveillance: the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights of Unesco and the theory of intervention bioethics. We conclude that organizations and staff working with regulatory activities can take advantage of the principles and frameworks proposed by bioethics, especially those related to the Declaration and the theory of intervention bioethics, the latter being set by the observation and use of the principles of prudence, precaution, protection and prevention.

  4. Microfoundations of Routines and Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felin, Tippo; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Heimericks, Koen H.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the Special Issue and discusses the microfoundations of routines and capabilities, including why a microfoundations view is needed and how it may inform work on organizational and competitive heterogeneity. Building on extant research, we identify three primary categories ...

  5. Approaches to the Surveillance of Foodborne Disease: A Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Laura; Miller, Megge; Cawthorne, Amy; Fearnley, Emily; Kirk, Martyn

    2015-12-01

    Foodborne disease surveillance aims to reduce the burden of illness due to contaminated food. There are several different types of surveillance systems, including event-based surveillance, indicator-based surveillance, and integrated food chain surveillance. These approaches are not mutually exclusive, have overlapping data sources, require distinct capacities and resources, and can be considered a hierarchy, with each level being more complex and resulting in a greater ability to detect and control foodborne disease. Event-based surveillance is generally the least resource-intensive system and makes use of informal data sources. Indicator-based surveillance is seen as traditional notifiable disease surveillance and consists of routinely collected data. Integrated food chain surveillance is viewed as the optimal practice for conducting continuous risk analysis for foodborne diseases, but also requires significant ongoing resources and greater multisectoral collaboration compared to the other systems. Each country must determine the most appropriate structure for their surveillance system for foodborne diseases based on their available resources. This review explores the evidence on the principles, minimum capabilities, and minimum requirements of each type of surveillance and discusses examples from a range of countries. This review forms the evidence base for the Strengthening the Surveillance and Response for Foodborne Diseases: A Practical Manual.

  6. Annual summary report on the surveillance and maintenence plan for Waste Area Groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for period ending September 30, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.; Jones, R.G.

    1992-11-01

    Surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) of 75 sites was conducted by the Remedial Action Section for the Environmental Restoration Program for surplus facilities and sites contaminated with radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. S ampersand M activities on these facilities and sites was started at the end of their operating life and will continue until final facility disposal or site stabilization. The objectives of the Waste Area Grouping S ampersand M Program are met by maintaining a program of routine S ampersand M as well as by implementing interim corrective maintenance when deemed necessary as a result of site surveillance. This report briefly presents this program's activities and includes tables indicating tank levels and dry well data for FY 1992

  7. Prospective evaluation of the SeptiFAST multiplex real-time PCR assay for surveillance and diagnosis of infections in haematological patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation compared to routine microbiological assays and an in-house real-time PCR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elges, Sandra; Arnold, Renate; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Kofla, Grzegorz; Mikolajewska, Agata; Schwartz, Stefan; Uharek, Lutz; Ruhnke, Markus

    2017-12-01

    We prospectively evaluated a multiplex real-time PCR assay (SeptiFast, SF) in a cohort of patients undergoing allo-BMT in comparison to an in-house PCR method (IH-PCR). Overall 847 blood samples (mean 8 samples/patient) from 104 patients with haematological malignancies were analysed. The majority of patients had acute leukaemia (62%) with a mean age of 52 years (54% female). Pathogens could be detected in 91 of 847 (11%) samples by SF compared to 38 of 205 (18.5%) samples by BC, and 57 of 847 (6.7%) samples by IH-PCR. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=41 in SF, n=29 in BC) were the most frequently detected bacteria followed by Escherichia coli (n=9 in SF, n=6 in BC). Candida albicans (n=17 in SF, n=0 in BC, n=24 in IH-PCR) was the most frequently detected fungal pathogen. SF gave positive results in 5% of samples during surveillance vs in 26% of samples during fever episodes. Overall, the majority of blood samples gave negative results in both PCR methods resulting in 93% overall agreement resulting in a negative predictive value of 0.96 (95% CI: 0.95-0.97), and a positive predictive value of 0.10 (95% CI: -0.01 to 0.21). SeptiFast appeared to be superior over BC and the IH-PCR method. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. 1991 Environmental monitoring report Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culp, T.; Cox, W.; Hwang, S.; Jones, A.; Longley, S.; Parsons, A.; Wolff, T.; Fish, J.; Ward, S.

    1992-11-01

    This 1991 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. Summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress such as National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation, environmental permits, envirorunental restoration (ER), and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque (SNL, Albuquerque) are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 1.3 x 10 -3 mrem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of SNL, Albuquerque, received a collective dose of 0.53 person-rem during 1991 from SNL, Albuquerque, operations. As in the previous year, the 1991 operations at SNL, Albuquerque, had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment

  9. 1992 Environmental monitoring report, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culp, T.; Cox, W.; Hwang, H.; Irwin, M.; Jones, A.; Matz, B.; Molley, K.; Rhodes, W.; Stermer, D.; Wolff, T.

    1993-09-01

    This 1992 report contains monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological environmental surveillance activities. summaries of significant environmental compliance programs in progress, such as National Environmental Policy Act documentation, environmental permits, envirorunental restoration, and various waste management programs for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are included. The maximum offsite dose impact was calculated to be 0.0034 millirem. The total population within a 50-mile radius of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico received an estimated collective dose of 0.019 person-rem during 1992 from the laboratories' operations. As in the previous year, the 1992 operations at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico had no discernible impact on the general public or on the environment

  10. Results and experiences from environmental monitoring at Rheinsberg nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettenhuber, E.; Loennig, M.; Hoffmann, M.L.; Roehnsch, W.; Babenzien, C.; Lehmann, R.; Schreiter, W.D.

    1975-12-01

    The paper presents the routine monitoring program at the Rheinsberg nuclear power plant including the methods applied therein. On the basis of data gathered during 1966 to 1973 it is shown, that the impact of nuclear power plant operation on the radioactivity level of the examined environmental media was exceedingly small compared to that of global fallout. Therefore only by means of a system based on assessment of radiation exposure from effluent data and environmental surveillance is it possible to prove the observance of maximum permissible values to individual members of the public. (author)

  11. 2002 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-01-01

    DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE | facility to prepare an environmental management plan (EMP). This document is | prepared for WIPP in accordance with the guidance contained in DOE Order 5400.1; DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment; applicable sections of Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T; DOE, 1991); and the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 834, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment'' (draft). Many sections of DOE Order 5400.1 have been replaced by DOE Order 231.1, which is the driver for the annual Site Environmental Report (SER) and the guidance source for preparing many environmental program documents. The WIPP Project is operated by Westinghouse TRU Solutions (WTS) for the DOE. This plan defines the extent and scope of WIPP's effluent and environmental | monitoring programs during the facility's operational life and also discusses WIPP's quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program as it relates to environmental monitoring. In addition, this plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP including: A summary of environmental programs, including the status of environmental monitoring activities A description of the WIPP Project and its mission A description of the local environment, including demographics An overview of the methodology used to assess radiological consequences to the public, including brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences Responses to the requirements described in the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance

  12. GRALIB, DISSPLA Plot Routines Emulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, L.

    1999-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: GRALIB is a library of graphics subroutines used by PLOTEF. 2 - Method of solution: The PLOTEF library contains routines to generate and manipulate data which are independent of the output graphics device. In order to produce output for a given graphics device - which interact with GRALIB using the DISSPLA conventions - a device driver must be written by the user for this device

  13. Routine Design for Mechanical Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkop, Axel; Laudwein, Norbert; Maasen, Rudiger

    1995-01-01

    COMIX (configuration of mixing machines) is a system that assists members of the EKATO Sales Department in designing a mixing machine that fulfills the requirements of a customer. It is used to help the engineer design the requested machine and prepare an offer that's to be submitted to the customer. comix integrates more traditional software techniques with explicit knowledge representation and constraint propagation. During the process of routine design, some design decisions have to be mad...

  14. Niagara Falls Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 1397 Pletcher Road, Lewiston, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and provides the results for 1992. From 1944 to the present, the primary use of NFSS has been storage of radioactive residues produced as a by-product of uranium production. All onsite areas of residual radioactivity above guidelines have been remediated. Materials generated during remediation are stored onsite in the 4-ha (10-acre) waste containment structure (WCS). The WCS is a clay-lined, clay-capped, and grass-covered storage pile. The environmental surveillance program at NFSS includes sampling networks for radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and total uranium and radium-226 concentrations in surface water, sediments, and groundwater. Several chemical parameters, including seven metals, are also routinely measured in groundwater. This surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Results of environmental monitoring during 1992 indicate that levels of the parameters measured were in compliance with all but one requirement: Concentrations of iron and manganese in groundwater were above NYSDEC groundwater quality standards. However, these elements occur naturally in the soils and groundwater associated with this region. In 1992 there were no environmental occurrences or reportable quantity releases

  15. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alan P.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance involves the collection and analysis of data for the detection and monitoring of threats to public health. Surveillance should also inform as to the epidemiology of the threat and its burden in the population. A further key component of surveillance is the timely feedback of data to stakeholders with a view to generating action aimed at reducing or preventing the public health threat being monitored. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation. Correlation of these data with demographic and clinical data for the patient populations from whom the pathogens were isolated gives insight into the underlying epidemiology and facilitates the formulation of rational interventions aimed at reducing the burden of resistance. This article describes a range of surveillance activities that have been undertaken in the UK over a number of years, together with current interventions being implemented. These activities are not only of national importance but form part of the international response to the global threat posed by antibiotic resistance. PMID:25918439

  16. Radioactivity surveillance in Peruvian fishmeal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Edith; Osores, Jose; Gonzales, Susana; Martinez, Jorge; Jara, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Fishmeal is a derived product of fish which is widely used to feed livestock. It is the brown flour obtained after cooking, pressing, drying and milling whole fish and food fish trimmings. Use of whole fish is almost exclusively from small, bony species of pelagic fish (generally living in the surface waters or middle depths of the sea), for which there is little or no demand for human consumption. In many cases, it constitutes the main source of protein in the diet of livestock. Traditionally, Peru has been a producer and exporter country of fish and its derived products. It is considered one of the top producers of fish worldwide. In Peru, anchovy (Engraulis ringens) is by far the most important species for fishmeal production. As part of the Peruvian national program of environmental surveillance, samples of fishmeal taken from different places of sampling (plants of production located in the northern coast of Peru) were measured and analyzed by HpGe gamma spectrometry. This study shows the results of radioactivity surveillance in Peruvian fishmeal, focusing in the contents of 137 Cs, which indicates that the levels of this radionuclide in the samples are below the order of the minimum detectable concentration (Bq/kg). These results are consistent with those obtained by the UK Food Standards Agency in 1999. According to many international regulations, the level of 137 Cs in foodstuff must be below 600 Bq/kg. (author)

  17. Devising an Indicator to Detect Mid-Term Abortions in Dairy Cattle: A First Step Towards Syndromic Surveillance of Abortive Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; H?naux, Viviane; Madouasse, Aur?lien; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Bovine abortion surveillance is essential for human and animal health because it plays an important role in the early warning of several diseases. Due to the limited sensitivity of traditional surveillance systems, there is a growing interest for the development of syndromic surveillance. Our objective was to assess whether, routinely collected, artificial insemination (AI) data could be used, as part of a syndromic surveillance system, to devise an indicator of mid-term abortions in dairy ca...

  18. Optimizing the response to surveillance alerts in automated surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Masoumeh; Buckeridge, David L

    2011-02-28

    Although much research effort has been directed toward refining algorithms for disease outbreak alerting, considerably less attention has been given to the response to alerts generated from statistical detection algorithms. Given the inherent inaccuracy in alerting, it is imperative to develop methods that help public health personnel identify optimal policies in response to alerts. This study evaluates the application of dynamic decision making models to the problem of responding to outbreak detection methods, using anthrax surveillance as an example. Adaptive optimization through approximate dynamic programming is used to generate a policy for decision making following outbreak detection. We investigate the degree to which the model can tolerate noise theoretically, in order to keep near optimal behavior. We also evaluate the policy from our model empirically and compare it with current approaches in routine public health practice for investigating alerts. Timeliness of outbreak confirmation and total costs associated with the decisions made are used as performance measures. Using our approach, on average, 80 per cent of outbreaks were confirmed prior to the fifth day of post-attack with considerably less cost compared to response strategies currently in use. Experimental results are also provided to illustrate the robustness of the adaptive optimization approach and to show the realization of the derived error bounds in practice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Acting of the radiological surveillance of food in Cuba before anomalous situations; Actuacion de la vigilancia radiologica de alimentos en Cuba ante situaciones anomalas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez G, I.M.; Rodriguez C, G.; Carrazana G, J.; Capote F, E. [CPHR, Calle 20, No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, La Habana, 11300 (Cuba)]. e-mail: isis@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    Keeping in mind the real possibility of that would be imported to Cuba polluted foods with radionuclides, product of a nuclear or radiological accident happens one contamination of foods inside the national territory, it was designed and was into effect in January, 2000, a Program of Radiological Surveillance of Foods and Water, in the marks of the National Program of Surveillance of Pollutants in Foods and Water. This surveillance is executed in group among the National Unit of Health Environmental of the Ministry of Health and the Center of Protection and Hygiene of those Radiations of the Ministry of Sciences, Technology and Environment. In this work the design in the way of acting of the Radiological Surveillance of Foods and Water in Cuba, in the event of detection of anomalous situations is presented. The same one includes, the establishment of investigation levels for radionuclides in foods, the ways of performance of the System, of to be overcome or to be equaled the performance levels or established investigation, the flow of the information, as well as the work routine to continue by the essay laboratories, in the event of an anomalous situation. (Author)

  20. Validating soil phosphorus routines in the SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus transfer from agricultural soils to surface waters is an important environmental issue. Commonly used models like SWAT have not always been updated to reflect improved understanding of soil P transformations and transfer to runoff. Our objective was to validate the ability of the P routin...

  1. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme 1988-89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequeira, S.; Pollard, D.; Hayden, E.; Dunne, B.; Colgan, P.A.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1990-06-01

    The Nuclear Energy Board measures radionuclides in air, rainwater, total fallout, drinking water supplies and milk as part of its programme to monitor radioactivity in the Irish environment. The report presents the results of measurements made during 1988 and 1989

  2. Environmental surveillance of PWR power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, M.

    1980-01-01

    The action of Electricite de France with respect to the environment of PWR nuclear power stations is essentially centred on prevention. Controls are carried out at two levels: - before the power station goes on stream (radioecological study), - when the power station is operational. The purpose of the controls effected on the radioactive effluents and the environment is to check that the maximum discharge rate stipulated in the corresponding orders is complied with and to ensure that there are no anomalies in the environment [fr

  3. Annual summary report of the Decontamination and Decommissioning surveillance and maintenance program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for period ending September 30, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program is part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration D ampersand D Program and has continued to provide surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) support for 34 surplus facilities. The objectives are (1) to ensure adequate containment of residual radioactive materials remaining in the facilities, (2) to provide safety and security controls to minimize the potential hazards to on-site personnel and to the general public, and (3) to manage the facilities in the most cost-effective manner while awaiting decommissioning. This support has included work in three principal areas: (1) S ampersand M planning, (2) routine S ampersand M, and (3) special projects designed to correct serious facility deficiencies beyond the scope of routine maintenance

  4. The significance of routines in nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytterström, Patrik; Unosson, Mitra; Arman, Maria

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to illuminate the significance of routines in nursing practice. Clinical nursing is performed under the guidance of routines to varying degrees. In the nursing literature, routine is described as having both negative and positive aspects, but use of the term is inconsistent, and empirical evidence is sparse. In the research on organisational routines, a distinction is made between routine as a rule and routine as action. A qualitative design using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. Data collection from three focus groups focused on nurses' experience of routines. Seventeen individual interviews from a previous study focusing on caring culture were also analysed in a secondary qualitative analysis. All participants were employed as 'qualified nursing pool' nurses. Routines are experienced as pragmatic, obstructive and meaningful. The aim of the pragmatic routine was to ensure that daily working life works; this routine is practised more on the basis of rational arguments and obvious intentions. The obstructive routine had negative consequences for nursing practice and was described as nursing losing its humanity and violating the patient's integrity. The meaningful routine involved becoming one with the routine and for the nurses, it felt right and meaningful to adapt to it. Routines become meaningful when the individual action is in harmony with the cultural pattern on which the nursing work is based. Instead of letting contemporary practice passively become routine, routines can be assessed and developed using research and theoretical underpinnings as a starting point for nursing practice. Leaders have a special responsibility to develop and support meaningful routines. One approach could be to let wards examine their routines from a patient perspective on the basis of the themes of pragmatic, meaningful and obstructive routine. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The plays and arts of surveillance: studying surveillance as entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Dubbeld, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests a direction in the development of Surveillance Studies that goes beyond current attention for the caring, productive and enabling aspects of surveillance practices. That is, surveillance could be considered not just as positively protective, but even as a comical, playful,

  6. Estimating transmission of avian influenza in wild birds from incomplete epizootic data: implications for surveillance and disease spreac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henaux, Viviane; Jane Parmley,; Catherine Soos,; Samuel, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating disease transmission in wildlife populations is critical to understand host–pathogen dynamics, predict disease risks and prioritize surveillance activities. However, obtaining reliable estimates for free-ranging populations is extremely challenging. In particular, disease surveillance programs may routinely miss the onset or end of epizootics and peak prevalence, limiting the ability to evaluate infectious processes.

  7. Duplex ultrasound surveillance after carotid artery endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shakarchi, Julien; Lowry, Danielle; Nath, Jay; Khawaja, Aurangzaib Z; Inston, Nicholas; Tiwari, Alok

    2016-06-01

    After carotid endarterectomy (CEA), patients have been regularly followed up by duplex ultrasound imaging. However, the evidence for long-term follow-up is not clear, especially if the results from an early duplex scan are normal. This study assessed and systematically reviewed the evidence base for long-term surveillance after CEA and a normal early scan. Electronic databases were searched for studies assessing duplex surveillance after CEA in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The primary outcome for this study was the incidence of restenosis after a normal early scan. The secondary outcome was the number of reinterventions after a normal early scan. The review included seven studies that reported 2317 procedures. Of those patients with a normal early scan, 2.8% (95% confidence interval, 0.7%-6%) developed a restenosis, and 0.4% (95% confidence interval, 0%-0.9%) underwent a reintervention for their restenosis during the follow-up period. This review confirms that routine postoperative duplex ultrasound surveillance after CEA is not necessary if the early duplex scan is normal. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. System specification for the integrated monitoring and surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This System Specification establishes the requirements for the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS). In this document, ''Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System'' is used to describe the concept of integrated sensors, computers, personnel, and systems that perform the functions of sensing conditions, acquiring data, monitoring environmental safety and health, controlling and accounting for materials, monitoring material stability, monitoring container integrity, transferring data, and analyzing, reporting, and storing data. This concept encompasses systems (e.g. sensors, personnel, databases, etc.) that are already in place at the sites but may require modifications or additions to meet all identified surveillance requirements. The purpose of this System Specification is to provide Department of Energy (DOE) sites that store plutonium materials with a consolidation of all known requirements for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides. This compilation may be used (1) as a baseline for surveillance system design specifications where 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides will be stored and monitored; (2) as a checklist for evaluating existing surveillance systems to ensure that all requirements are met for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides; and (3) as a baseline for preparing procurement specifications tailored for site specific storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides

  9. Optimization of environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, M.

    1986-01-01

    The routine work and tasks related to prevention in environmental monitoring of nuclear facilities range from low level methodology to the necessity of being likewise prepared to perform environmental impact measurements after nuclear incidents and accidents are presented [pt

  10. Conic surveillance evasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewin, J.; Olsder, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    A surveillance-evasion differential game of degree with a detection zone in the shape of a two-dimensional cone is posed. The nature of the optimal strategies and the singular phenomena of the value function are described and correlated to subsets of the space of all possible parameter combinations,

  11. Laser surveillance system (LASSY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Hammer, J.

    1988-01-01

    The development progress during the reporting period 1988 of the laser surveillance system of spent fuel pools is summarized. The present engineered system comes close to a final version for field application as all technical questions have been solved in 1988. 14 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  12. Laser surveillance system (LASSY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1991-09-01

    Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) is a beam of laser light which scans a plane above the water or under-water in a spent-fuel pond. The system can detect different objects and estimates its coordinates and distance as well. LASSY can operate in stand-alone configuration or in combination with a video surveillance to trigger signal to a videorecorder. The recorded information on LASSY computer's disk comprises date, time, start and stop angle of detected alarm, the size of the disturbance indicated in number of deviated points and some other information. The information given by the laser system cannot be fully substituted by TV camera pictures since the scanning beam creates a horizontal surveillance plan. The engineered prototype laser system long-term field test has been carried out in Soluggia (Italy) and has shown its feasibility and reliability under the conditions of real spent fuel storage pond. The verification of the alarm table on the LASSY computer with the recorded video pictures of TV surveillance system confirmed that all alarm situations have been detected. 5 refs

  13. Infectieziekten Surveillance Informatie Systeem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprenger MJW; van Pelt W; CIE

    1994-01-01

    In the Netherlands an electronic network has been proposed for structured data transfer and communication concerning the control of infectious diseases. This project has been baptized ISIS (Infectious diseases Surveillance Information System). It is an initiative of the Dutch Government. ISIS

  14. Surveillance and Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Albrechtslund, Anders; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    , and acquaintances are up to on social media. In turn, they also leave trails of digital footprints that may be collected and analyzed by governments, businesses, or hackers. The imperceptible nature of this new surveillance raises some pressing concerns about our digital lives as our data doubles increasingly...

  15. Experience and improved techniques in radiological environmental monitoring at major DOE low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    A summary of routine radiological environmental surveillance programs conducted at major active US Department of Energy (DOE) solid low-level waste (LLW) disposal sites is provided. The DOE disposal sites at which monitoring programs were reviewed include those located at Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Plant (SRP). The review is limited to activities conducted for the purpose of monitoring disposal site performance. Areas of environmental monitoring reviewed include air monitoring for particulates and gases, monitoring of surface water runoff, surface water bodies, ground water, monitoring of surface soils and the vadose zone, and monitoring of ambient penetrating radiation. Routine environmental surveillance is conducted at major LLW disposal sites at various levels of effort for specific environmental media. In summary, all sites implement a routine monitoring program for penetrating radiation. Four sites (INEL, NTS, LANL, and SRP) monitor particulates in air specifically at LLW disposal sites. Hanford monitors particulates at LLW sites in conjunction with monitoring of other site operations. Particulates are monitored on a reservationwide network at ORNL. Gases are monitored specifically at active LLW sites operated at NTS, LANL, and SRP. Ground water is monitored specifically at LLW sites at INEL, LANL, and SRP, in conjunction with other operations at Hanford, and as part of a reservationwide program at NTS and ORNL. Surface water is monitored at INEL, LANL, and SRP LLW sites. Surface soil is sampled and analyzed on a routine basis at INEL and LANL. Routine monitoring of the vadose zone is conducted at the INEL and SRP. Techniques and equipment in use are described and other aspects of environmental monitoring programs, such as quality assurance and data base management, are reviewed

  16. Vascular access surveillance: case study of a false paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, William D; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine E

    2013-01-01

    The hemodialysis vascular access surveillance controversy provides a case study of how enthusiasm for a new test or treatment can lead to adoption of a false paradigm. Paradigms are the beliefs and assumptions shared by those in a field of knowledge, and are commonly included in clinical practice guidelines. The guidelines of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative recommend that arteriovenous vascular accesses undergo routine surveillance for detection and correction of stenosis. This recommendation is based on the paradigm that surveillance of access blood flow or dialysis venous pressure combined with correction of stenosis improves access outcomes. However, the quality of evidence that supports this paradigm has been widely criticized. We tested the validity of the surveillance paradigm by applying World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for evaluating screening tests to a literature review of published vascular access studies. These criteria include four components: undesired condition, screening test, intervention, and desired outcome. The WHO criteria show that surveillance as currently practiced fails all four components and provides little or no significant benefit, suggesting that surveillance is a false paradigm. Once a paradigm is established, however, challenges to its validity are usually resisted even as new evidence indicates the paradigm is not valid. Thus, it is paramount to apply rigorous criteria when developing guidelines. Regulators may help promote needed changes in paradigms when cost and safety considerations coincide. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Performance of Models in Radiological Impact Assessment for Normal Operation. Report of Working Group 1 Reference Methodologies for Controlling Discharges of Routine Releases of EMRAS II Topical Heading Reference Approaches for Human Dose Assessment. Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS II) Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication provides the results from Working Group 1, on Reference Methodologies for Controlling Discharges of Routine Releases, of the IAEA’s EMRAS II (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) programme, which ran from 2009 to 2011. This Working Group carried out an intercomparison of methods used for assessing radiological impacts to people and the environment due to authorized releases of radionuclides during normal operation of nuclear facilities. Three important types of exposure scenarios were considered, those related to atmospheric, marine and river releases. The publication describes the details of the hypothetical radioactive release scenarios, the environmental pathways considered, the environmental transfer models applied, the calculation methods and the results obtained. An analysis of the results and the main findings and conclusions relevant for the use of the described input data and methodologies in regulatory applications is included. The publication also presents considerations on selection of the ‘representative person’ and a summary of the different approaches in some States for the regulatory control of radioactive discharges. Input data is included in the annex.

  18. Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. (ed.) (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

    1990-10-01

    This calendar year 1989 annual report on environmental surveillance of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) and its environs consists of two parts: the Summary, Discussion, and Conclusions (Part 1) and the Data Presentation (Part 2). The objectives of this report are the following: report 1989 monitoring data for the installation and its environs that may have been affected by operations on the plant site, provide reasonably detailed information about the plant site and plant operations, provide detailed information on input and assumptions used in all calculations, provide trend analyses (where appropriate) to indicate increases and decreases in environmental impact, and provide general information on plant quality assurance. Routine monitoring and sampling for radiation, radioactive materials, and chemical substances on and off the DOE site are used to document compliance with appropriate standards, to identify trends, to provide information for the public, and to contribute to general environmental knowledge. The surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of protecting the public, employees, and environment from harm that could be caused by its activities and reducing negative environmental impacts to the greatest degree practicable. Environmental-monitoring information complements data on specific releases, trends, and summaries. 26 refs.

  19. Measurements of environmental radioactivity and radiation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yuming; Huang Chingchung

    1993-01-01

    Established in 1974, the Taiwan Radiation Monitoring Center (TRMC) is responsible for the environmental radiation surveillance and related fields in Taiwan. Its environmental radiation monitoring programs can be categorized into two parts: surveillance of natural ionizing radiation and surveillance of man-made ionizing radiation. For natural ionizing radiation, surveillance programs are mainly to establish the radiation baseline data including radon. For man-made ionizing radiation, surveillance programs include the radio-fallout surveillance and the environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities. This article summarizes the relevant studies carried out by TRMC in the recent years

  20. Routine Early Angioplasty after Fibrinolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Liang, Bo; Mei, Qibing

    2009-01-01

    patients in the group that underwent routine early PCI than in the group that received standard treatment received clopidogrel (Ppatients who undergo PCI, as well as in those who do not, is well established,1...... with early beta-blocker therapy is taken into consideration.3 The overall benefit of clopidogrel and beta-blocker therapy could have influenced the outcome in patients who underwent early PCI. These facts leave the conclusion of the TRANSFER-AMI trial still highly uncertain.......To the Editor: Cantor et al. report that there is a significantly reduced rate of ischemic complications among patients with myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation who are transferred for PCI within 6 hours after fibrinolysis. However, Table 2 of the article shows that significantly more...

  1. Fit Between Organization Design and Organizational Routines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance E. Helfat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research on both organization design and organizational routines, little research has analyzed the relationship between them. Here we propose a normative theory in which the effectiveness of organization design and redesign depends on the characteristics of routines. The analysis shows which types of organization designs may be useful as well as which design changes may or may not succeed depending on (a the specificity of routines and (b the dynamic versus static purposes of organizational routines.

  2. Routines Are the Foundation of Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Robin Rawlings; Allanson, Patricia Bolton; Notar, Charles E.

    2017-01-01

    Classroom management is the key to learning. Routines are the foundation of classroom management. Students require structure in their lives. Routines provide that in all of their life from the time they awake until the time they go to bed. Routines in a school and in the classroom provide the environment for learning to take place. The paper is…

  3. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a program...

  4. Disaster prevention surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Satoru; Kamiya, Eisei

    2001-01-01

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. has supplied many management systems to nuclear reactor institution. 'The nuclear countermeasures-against-calamities special-measures' was enforced. A nuclear entrepreneur has devised the measure about expansion prevention and restoration of a calamity while it endeavors after prevention of generating of a nuclear calamity. Our company have supplied the 'disaster prevention surveillance system' to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokai Research Establishment aiming at strengthening of the monitoring function at the time (after the accident) of the accident used as one of the above-mentioned measures. A 'disaster prevention surveillance system' can share the information on the accident spot in an on-site command place, an activity headquarters, and support organizations, when the serious accident happens. This system is composed of various sensors (temperature, pressure and radiation), cameras, computers and network. (author)

  5. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Illness Prevention and Sun Safety. “Sun Safety.” https:// phc.amedd.army.mil/ topics /discond/hipss/Pages/ SunSafety.aspx. Accessed on 7 December 2016. 22...febrile illness; however, after its wide- spread introduction into immunologically MSMR Vol. 23 No. 12 December 2016 Page 8 naïve populations, a...October 2016 (data as of 22 November 2016) MSMR’s Invitation to Readers Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR) invites readers to submit topics for

  6. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  7. History of trichinellosis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blancou J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The origin of trichinellosis, which existed in ancient times as testified by the discovery of parasite larvae on an Egyptian mummy, unfolded in several stages: discovery of encapsulated larvae (in the 1820s, identification and scientific description of these larvae (Paget Owen, 1835, followed by experimental infestations of animals (dogs, pigs, rabbits, mice or of humans as from 1850.The main occurrences of trichinellosis were followed with particular attention in Europe (Germany, Denmark, France, etc. and in the United States of America at the end of the XIXth century. They affected numerous domestic animal species (pigs, horses, etc. or wildlife and humans. Germany paid the heaviest toll with regard to the disease in humans, between 1860 and 1880, with several thousands of patients and more than 500 deaths.Different trichinellosis surveillance systems were set up in the relevant countries in the 1860s. In humans, this surveillance was carried out on affected living patients by a biopsy of the biceps muscles and subsequently by an analysis of eosinophilia (1895. In animals, surveillance was for a long time solely based on postmortem examination of the muscles of the affected animals. This method was used for the first time in 863 in Germany, and from the 1 890s, on several hundreds of thousands of pigs in Europe or in the United States of America.

  8. Improving Automation Routines for Automatic Heating Load Detection in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Timlin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy managers use weather compensation data and heating system cut off routines to reduce heating energy consumption in buildings and improve user comfort. These routines are traditionally based on the calculation of an estimated building load that is inferred from the external dry bulb temperature at any point in time. While this method does reduce heating energy consumption and accidental overheating, it can be inaccurate under some weather conditions and therefore has limited effectiveness. There remains considerable scope to improve on the accuracy and relevance of the traditional method by expanding the calculations used to include a larger range of environmental metrics. It is proposed that weather compensation and automatic shut off routines that are commonly used could be improved notably with little additional cost by the inclusion of additional weather metrics. This paper examines the theoretical relationship between various external metrics and building heating loads. Results of the application of an advanced routine to a recently constructed building are examined, and estimates are made of the potential savings that can be achieved through the use of the routines proposed.

  9. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site environmental report for calendar year 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, D.L.; Mitchell, R.G.; Bowman, G.C.; Moore, R.

    1990-06-01

    To verify that exposures resulting from operations at the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities have remained very small, each site at which nuclear activities are underway operates an environmental surveillance program to monitor the air, water and any other pathway where radionuclides from operations might conceivably reach workers or members of the public. This report presents data collected in 1989 for the routine environmental surveillance program conducted by the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL) of DOE and the US Geological Survey (USGS) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site. The environmental surveillance program for the INEL and vicinity for 1989 included the collection and analysis of samples from potential exposure pathways. Three basic groups of samples were collected. Those collected within the INEL boundaries will be referred to as onsite samples. Samples collected outside, but near, the Site boundaries will be referred to as boundary samples or part of a group of offsite samples. Samples collected from locations considerably beyond the Site boundaries will be referred to as distant samples or part of the offsite group. With the exception of Craters of the Moon National Monument, the distant locations are sufficiently remote from the Site to ensure that detectable radioactivity is primarily due to natural background sources or sources other than INEL operations. 35 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs

  10. Mound Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, L.R.; Tullis, M.S.; Paulick, R.P.; Roush, L.L.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) is to describe the environmental monitoring and surveillance programs in place at Mound. The Plan is required by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE, 1990). The programs described in the EMP are required by the DOE 5400 Order series and by the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environment Surveillance (DOE 1991a), referred to as the Regulatory Guide throughout this Plan

  11. The Present and Future of Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS and Whole Metagenome Sequencing (WMS for Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistant Microorganisms and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes across the Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Oniciuc

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance (AMR surveillance is a critical step within risk assessment schemes, as it is the basis for informing global strategies, monitoring the effectiveness of public health interventions, and detecting new trends and emerging threats linked to food. Surveillance of AMR is currently based on the isolation of indicator microorganisms and the phenotypic characterization of clinical, environmental and food strains isolated. However, this approach provides very limited information on the mechanisms driving AMR or on the presence or spread of AMR genes throughout the food chain. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS of bacterial pathogens has shown potential for epidemiological surveillance, outbreak detection, and infection control. In addition, whole metagenome sequencing (WMS allows for the culture-independent analysis of complex microbial communities, providing useful information on AMR genes occurrence. Both technologies can assist the tracking of AMR genes and mobile genetic elements, providing the necessary information for the implementation of quantitative risk assessments and allowing for the identification of hotspots and routes of transmission of AMR across the food chain. This review article summarizes the information currently available on the use of WGS and WMS for surveillance of AMR in foodborne pathogenic bacteria and food-related samples and discusses future needs that will have to be considered for the routine implementation of these next-generation sequencing methodologies with this aim. In particular, methodological constraints that impede the use at a global scale of these high-throughput sequencing (HTS technologies are identified, and the standardization of methods and protocols is suggested as a measure to upgrade HTS-based AMR surveillance schemes.

  12. Radiation surveillance in Austria in 2000. Dates and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobek, E.; Streeruwitz, E.

    2001-11-01

    This report presents results of the radiation surveillance in Austria in 2000, performed by the competent authorities, based on the Austrian Radiation Protection Act. In particular data of large scale monitoring concerning radioactive contamination and of nuclear research reactor emission and immission control are given. In Austria an extensive program is realized for the purpose of large scale surveillance on radioactivity. On the one hand an early radiation warning system with 336 gamma dose rate monitors and several partly nuclide specific air contamination monitors is operated. The data are automatically communicated to various authorities in real-time. On the other hand the radionuclide content of various media such as air, precipitation, surface water, foodstuffs etc is monitored by periodic sampling and subsequent analysis in laboratories. In addition to this routine program special projects are carried out for investigation of specific media and to improve the knowledge of the time dependence respectively of regional aspects of the contamination situation. The inspection of the nuclear installations by the authorities concerning emissions and immissions is set up of two parts: inspection of the quality of the internal control by the operator and independent surveillance by examination of samples taken by the authority. In 2000 the average annual radiation exposure of the Austrian population amounted to about 4.2 mSv effective dose per person. The contributions dominating by far originate from natural and medical sources of radiation. In comparison with these, contributions from all other sources of radiation are extremely small. The average annual effective dose caused by natural radiation amounts to approximately 2.9 mSv per person. The inhalation of the radioactive noble gas radon and its short lived progeny in the mean contributes more than half to this exposure. Mainly because of different radon concentrations considerable variations in natural

  13. Situation of the environmental surveillance and situation of the water table and rivers labelling around nuclear sites and old radioactive waste storages. Report for the high committee for the transparency and information on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The High Committee for the openness and information on nuclear safety (H.C.T.I.S.N.) requested a study at I.R.S.N. concerning the situation of the surveillance of media and their quality and the diffusion of this information near the public, the identification of ground water or rivers that would present a radiological or chemical labelling, the link of these elements with the future national network of the radioactivity measurement in environment. This assessment must also allow to take stock of the situation relative to the surveillance of the quality of ground water that flow out of the level of old radioactive waste storages, especially registered in the ANDRA inventory. I.R.S.N. chose to limit its contribution: to the sites housing nuclear base installations and nuclear base installations that have been classified secret that come under the Minister in charge of energy; to old radioactive wastes storages located in these installations. (N.C.)

  14. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease surveillance in Australia: update to December 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Genevieve M; Boyd, Alison; Sarros, Shannon; Stehmann, Christiane; Simpson, Marion; McLean, Catriona; Masters, Colin L; Collins, Steven J

    2016-06-30

    Nation-wide surveillance of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (also known as prion diseases), the most common being Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, is performed by the Australian National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Registry, based at the University of Melbourne. Prospective surveillance has been undertaken since 1993 and over this dynamic period in transmissible spongiform encephalopathy research and understanding, the unit has evolved and adapted to changes in surveillance practices and requirements concomitant with the emergence of new disease subtypes, improvements in diagnostic capabilities and the overall heightened awareness of prion diseases in the health care setting. In 2014, routine national surveillance continued and this brief report provides an update of the cumulative surveillance data collected by the Australian National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Registry prospectively from 1993 to December 2014, and retrospectively to 1970.

  15. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease surveillance in Australia: update to December 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Genevieve M; Boyd, Alison; Sarros, Shannon; Stehmann, Christiane; Simpson, Marion; McLean, Catriona A; Masters, Colin L; Collins, Steven J

    2016-09-30

    Nation-wide surveillance of human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (also known as prion diseases), the most common being Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, is performed by the Australian National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Registry, based at the University of Melbourne. Prospective surveillance has been undertaken since 1993 and over this dynamic period in transmissible spongiform encephalopathy research and understanding, the unit has evolved and adapted to changes in surveillance practices and requirements concomitant with the delineation of new disease subtypes, improvements in diagnostic capabilities and the overall heightened awareness of prion diseases in the health care setting. In 2015, routine national surveillance continued and this brief report provides an update of the cumulative surveillance data collected by the Australian National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Registry prospectively from 1993 to December 2015, and retrospectively to 1970.

  16. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  17. Routine medicare and radiation exposure. Introductory remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Hideki; Saito, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    As an introduction of the title series, outlines of radiation in physics, chemistry, biochemistry, biological effect and protection are explained from the clinical doctors' aspect of routine medicare, and of radiation exposure in which people's interest is raised after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident in 2011. For physics, ionizing effects of radiation are described in relation to its quantum energy transfer and its medical utilization like imaging and radiotherapy. Then mentioned in brief is the radiation from elements consisting of human body, cosmic ray and background radiation from the earth, with reference to natural and standardized limits of exposure doses. Radiations from 226 Rn and 40 K are explained as an instance of environmental natural sources together with the concepts of radioactive decay series/scheme, of internal exposure, of hazard like double strand break (DSB) and of medical use such as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). For an artifact radiation source, shown are fission products of 235 U by neutron, first yielded in 1945. Evidence of evolution in biochemical repair mechanisms of DSB is explained with a comparison of irradiated drosophila mutation where linear non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis is proposed, and human non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination. Historical process of occupational, medical, public exposures and their protection is finally described from the discovery of X-ray in 1895 to the first ICRP publication in 1958 via the A-bomb explosion in 1945. (T.T.)

  18. Self-surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    Gadgets and applications are increasingly being developed and used for tracking, quantifying, and documenting everyday life activities and especially health and fitness devices such as GPS-enabled sports watches are well-known and popular. However, self-surveillance practices involving networked...... pressure, fitness activities, sleep cycles, etc. can be broadcasted, e.g. as tweets on Twitter or status updates on Facebook. Such quantification practices with monitoring technologies become co-producing when individuals constitute themselves as subjects engaging in self-tracking, self-care, and self...

  19. Surveillance test interval optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.; Mavko, B.

    1995-01-01

    Technical specifications have been developed on the bases of deterministic analyses, engineering judgment, and expert opinion. This paper introduces our risk-based approach to surveillance test interval (STI) optimization. This approach consists of three main levels. The first level is the component level, which serves as a rough estimation of the optimal STI and can be calculated analytically by a differentiating equation for mean unavailability. The second and third levels give more representative results. They take into account the results of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) calculated by a personal computer (PC) based code and are based on system unavailability at the system level and on core damage frequency at the plant level

  20. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  1. Surveillance and remote sensing: ITOPF participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Although the Federation does not sponsor or undertake surveillance and remote sensing research and development projects, it is a potential user of remote sensing equipment when responding to oil spills. Indeed, the Federation has already made use of suitably equipped aircraft on a number of occasions in Europe. Several countries in north west Europe, viz. France, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the U.K., operate aircraft fitted with broadly similar systems comprising side-looking airborne radar (SLAR), infra-red line scanners (IRLS) and ultra-violet line scanners (UVLS). These aircraft are used routinely for the detection of operational discharges of oil from ships in violation of the International Convention on the Prevention of Pollution from Ships 73/78 (MARPOL 73/78)

  2. The critical role of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangermann, Rudolf H; Lamoureux, Christine; Tallis, Graham; Goel, Ajay

    2017-05-01

    Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance is a key strategy used by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) to measure progress towards reaching the global eradication goal. Supported by a global polio laboratory network, AFP surveillance is conducted in 179 of 194 WHO member states. Active surveillance visits to priority health facilities are used to assure all children polio laboratories. The quality of AFP surveillance is regularly monitored with standardized surveillance quality indicators. In highest risk countries and areas, the sensitivity of AFP surveillance is enhanced by environmental surveillance (testing of sewage samples). Genetic sequencing of detected poliovirus isolates yields programmatically important information on polio transmission pathways. AFP surveillance is one of the most valuable assets of the GPEI, with the potential to serve as a platform to build integrated disease surveillance systems. Continued support to maintain AFP surveillance systems will be essential, to reliably monitor the completion of global polio eradication, and to assure that a key resource for building surveillance capacity is transitioned post-eradication to support other health priorities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan, Volume 2 Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-12-31

    Supporting material for the plan includes: QUALITY ASSURANCE, ANALYSIS, AND SAMPLING PLAN FOR NTS AIR; QUALITY ASSURANCE, ANALYSIS, AND SAMPLING PLAN FOR WATER ON AND OFF THE NEVADA TEST SITE; QUALITY ASSURANCE, ANALYSIS, AND SAMPLING PLAN FOR NTS BIOTA; QUALITY ASSURANCE, ANALYSIS, AND SAMPLING PLAN FOR DIRECT RADIATION MONITORING; DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES PROCESS; VADOSE ZONE MONITORING PLAN CHECKLIST.

  4. Vigilancia de la calidad del agua para consumo humano en Colombia: desafíos para la salud ambiental/ Surveillance of drinking water quality in Colombia: challenges for environmental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca L. Guzmán B.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: analizar las experiencias de las autoridades de salud en el ejercicio de la vigilancia del agua de consumo en Colombia, para comprender sus fortalezas y dificultades. Metodología: La investigación se realizó a través de un estudio cualitativo de los componentes de estructura, procesos y resultados del programa de vigilancia. Se construyó un cuestionario mediante la metodología Delphi, aplicado a los coordinadores de la vigilancia en 12 municipios y 27 departamentos. Resultados: se obtuvieron mediante la metodología de análisis de contenido, identificando 3 temáticas relevantes que influyen en la implementación de la vigilancia, entre ellos la descentralización, limitaciones en el recurso humano y la aplicación de las herramientas de evaluación del riesgo. Discusión: el programa de vigilancia en Colombia requiere el fortalecimiento de la rectoría, la capacidad de gestión de los territorios, el establecimiento de una efectiva descentralización y fortalecimiento de la gobernanza, además de instaurar mecanismos que regulen la problemática de recurso humano y evalúen las herramientas de análisis de riesgo y sus resultados. / Abstract Objective: to analyze the experiences of health authorities in the exercise of surveillance of drinking water quality in Colombia, with the aim of understanding the strengths and difficulties of its implementation. Methodology: the research was conducted through a qualitative study of the components of structure, processes and results of the surveillance program. A questionnaire was built using the Delphi methodology and applied to surveillance coordinators in 12 municipalities and 27 departments. Results: The results were obtained through the content analysis methodology, and three relevant issues affecting the implementation of surveillance were identified, namely: decentralization, limitations in human resources and the application of risk assessment tools. Discussion: the

  5. Technique for comparing automatic quadrature routines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyness, J N; Kaganove, J J

    1976-02-01

    The present unconstrained proliferation of automatic quadrature routines is a phenomenon which is wasteful in human time and computing resources. At the root of the problem is an absence of generally acceptable standards or benchmarks for comparing or evaluating such routines. In this paper a general technique, based on the nature of the performance profile, is described which can be used for evaluation of routines.

  6. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  7. Routine imaging for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in first remission is not associated with better survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Galaly, Tarec; Jakobsen, Lasse Hjort; Hutchings, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Routine surveillance imaging plays a limited role in detecting recurrent diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and the value of routine imaging is controversial. The present population-based study compares the post-remission survival of Danish and Swedish DLBCL patients-two neighbour......Background: Routine surveillance imaging plays a limited role in detecting recurrent diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and the value of routine imaging is controversial. The present population-based study compares the post-remission survival of Danish and Swedish DLBCL patients...... are fully publicly funded. Follow-up (FU) for Swedish patients included symptom assessment, clinical examinations, and blood tests with 3-month intervals for 2 years and with longer intervals later in follow-up. Imaging was only performed in response to suspected relapse. FU for Danish patients...... was equivalent but included additional routine surveillance imaging (usually half-yearly CT for 2 years as a minimum). Clinico-pathological features were retrieved from the national lymphoma registries, and vital status was updated using the civil registries. OS was defined as the time from end of treatment...

  8. Monitors for the surveillance of NPP components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giera, H.D.; Grabner, A.; Hessel, G.; Koeppen, H.E.; Liewers, P.; Schumann, P.; Weiss, F.P.; Kunze, U.; Pfeiffer, G.

    1985-01-01

    Noise diagnostics have reached a level where it is possible and efficient to integrate this method as far as possible into the control and safety system of the NPP. The communication between the noise diagnostic system and the plant operator is the main problem of integration. It is necessary to refine the diagnostic results in such a manner that the operator can use them without being skilled in noise analysis respectively without contacting a noise specialist. Moreover, in this way the noise specialist can be released from routine surveillance. For selected processes which have already intensively been investigated because of their inherent risk this can be achieved by means of autonomously working monitors. Independently the monitors perform signal processing and diagnosis. In general this means that they classify the technical condition of the monitored component into one of the two categories: ''normal'' or ''anomalous''. The result will be annunciated to the plant operator who will in the first step of the development contact the noise specialist only if anomalies have occurred in order to clarify the cause. At the NPP ''Bruno Leuschner'' Greifswald, three hardware monitors for loose parts detection, control rod surveillance and main coolant pump diagnosis are being tested. Additionally a so-called software monitor for diagnosing the pressure vessel vibrations is in preparation. The techniques and the hardware used for the monitors as well as planned further improvements of the integration of noise diagnostics into the control and safety system are discussed in this paper. (author)

  9. Niagara Falls Storage Site environmental report for calendar year 1992, 1397 Pletcher Road, Lewiston, New York. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program at the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and provides the results for 1992. From 1944 to the present, the primary use of NFSS has been storage of radioactive residues produced as a by-product of uranium production. All onsite areas of residual radioactivity above guidelines have been remediated. Materials generated during remediation are stored onsite in the 4-ha (10-acre) waste containment structure (WCS). The WCS is a clay-lined, clay-capped, and grass-covered storage pile. The environmental surveillance program at NFSS includes sampling networks for radon concentrations in air; external gamma radiation exposure; and total uranium and radium-226 concentrations in surface water, sediments, and groundwater. Several chemical parameters, including seven metals, are also routinely measured in groundwater. This surveillance program assists in fulfilling the DOE policy of measuring and monitoring effluents from DOE activities and calculating hypothetical doses. Monitoring results are compared with applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) standards, DOE derived concentration guides (DCGs), dose limits, and other DOE requirements. Results of environmental monitoring during 1992 indicate that levels of the parameters measured were in compliance with all but one requirement: Concentrations of iron and manganese in groundwater were above NYSDEC groundwater quality standards. However, these elements occur naturally in the soils and groundwater associated with this region. In 1992 there were no environmental occurrences or reportable quantity releases.

  10. Integrated environmental monitoring program at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaquish, R.E.

    1990-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site, north of Richland, Washington, has a mission of defense production, waste management, environmental restoration, advanced reactor design, and research development. Environmental programs at Hanford are conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The WHC environmental programs include the compliance and surveillance activities associated with site operations and waste management. The PNL environmental programs address the site-wide and the of-site areas. They include the environmental surveillance and the associated support activities, such as dose calculations, and also the monitoring of environmental conditions to comply with federal and state environmental regulations on wildlife and cultural resources. These are called ''independent environmental programs'' in that they are conducted completely separate from site operations. The Environmental Surveillance and Oversight Program consists of the following projects: surface environmental surveillance; ground-water surveillance; wildlife resources monitoring; cultural resources; dose overview; radiation standards and calibrations; meteorological and climatological services; emergency preparedness

  11. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golchert, N.W.

    1991-05-01

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for CY 1990 are presented. The surveillance program is the ongoing remedial action that resulted from the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site. That study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current program consists of sample collection and analysis of air, surface and subsurface water, and bottom sediment. The results of the analyses are used to determine the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, establish if buries radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and generally characterize the radiological environment of the area. Tritiated water continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continues to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site or those living in the vicinity. 20 refs., 7 figs., 15 tabs

  12. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Appendix Tables A1 - A4 STD Surveillance Case Definitions Contributors Related Links STD Home STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow STD STD on Twitter STD on Facebook File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  13. [Everyday stress, routines and bipolar spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindre, C; Swendsen, J

    2010-06-01

    alpha levels within each category of activity, social interaction or environmental context. A total of 2777 valid ESM assessments were provided by the final sample concerning their behaviour and activities across diverse daily life contexts. Individuals having a lifetime history of mania or hypomania were significantly less likely than normal controls to have daily life routines relative to being at work, in class, having social contact with work colleagues or students, and to be performing personal hygiene activities. However, such individuals were more likely to be in the company of a romantic partner at the same moment each day. Time-lagged analyses demonstrated that, following conditions perceived as stressful, individuals with a history of mania or hypomania were less likely to repeat the same activities or behaviour of previous days concerning being at parents' or family's house, being at friends, and travelling or commuting, but more likely to be in a work environment, and in a bar or restaurant. The findings provide support for the notion of differences in daily life rhythms and routines among individuals with bipolar spectrum conditions, as well as the possibility of increased stress vulnerability in this population. Although a conservative analytic strategy was employed to minimize chance associations, the present findings can be considered only as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution in light of the moderate sample size, young age and non treatment-seeking nature of the sample. Future controlled investigations using ambulatory monitoring techniques are needed to pursue the investigation of these questions in treated samples. Copyright (c) 2009 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The surveillance error grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris

    2014-07-01

    Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to

  15. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  16. Smart sensing surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  17. [Entomological surveillance in Mauritius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopaul, R

    1995-01-01

    The entomological surveillance is an essential link in the fight against malaria in Mauritius. Because of the large number of malaria-infected travellers in Mauritius and the presence of the vector Anopheles arabiensis, the risk of local transmission is very real. The medical entomology division together with the malaria control unit and the health appointees exert a rigorous entomological surveillance of malaria. Field agents make entomological investigations of pilot villages and around the harbor and airport, where there have been cases of malaria, in addition to a few randomly chosen regions. All of the inhabited regions are accessible because of a good highway infrastructure, which enables a complete coverage for the entomological prospectives. Entomological controls are also conducted in the airplanes and the ships. All of the captured mosquitos and the harvested larva are transferred to a laboratory for identification, dissection or sensibility tests, etc. The larva of A. arabiensis have not yet developed resistance to Temephos and the adults are still sensitive to DDT. Thus, the larval habitats are treated with Temephos and DDT is sprayed in the residences where there have been native cases of malaria. The entomology division studies the ecology and the evolution of the larval habitats, as well as the impact of the anti-larval fight on the anophelene density. In addition to the chemical fight, a biological control is being tried with larva-eating fish such as Lebistes and Tilapia. In general, the anophelene density in Mauritius is low, but after the big summer rains, especially during a period of cyclones, there is a considerable increase of larval habitats and consequently a higher number of A. arabiensis. Therefore during this season, it is necessary to make an even more rigorous entomological surveillance. A. arabiensis has a strong exophile tendency even if it is endophage and exophage. This mosquito is zoophile, mostly towards cattle, and the

  18. Surveillance theory and its implications for law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timan, Tjerk; Galic, Masa; Koops, Bert-Jaap; Brownsword, Roger; Scotford, Eloise; Yeung, Karen

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of key surveillance theories and their implications for law and regulation. It presents three stages of theories that characterise changes in thinking about surveillance in society and the disciplining, controlling, and entertaining functions of surveillance.

  19. Reporting and Surveillance for Norovirus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the United States CDC's Vessel Sanitation Program CDC Feature: Surveillance for Norovirus Outbreaks Top ...

  20. Surveillance of vector-borne pathogens under imperfect detection: lessons from Chagas disease risk (mis)measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuzzi-Souza, Thaís Tâmara Castro; Nitz, Nadjar; Cuba, César Augusto Cuba; Hagström, Luciana; Hecht, Mariana Machado; Santana, Camila; Ribeiro, Marcelle; Vital, Tamires Emanuele; Santalucia, Marcelo; Knox, Monique; Obara, Marcos Takashi; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2018-01-09

    Vector-borne pathogens threaten human health worldwide. Despite their critical role in disease prevention, routine surveillance systems often rely on low-complexity pathogen detection tests of uncertain accuracy. In Chagas disease surveillance, optical microscopy (OM) is routinely used for detecting Trypanosoma cruzi in its vectors. Here, we use replicate T. cruzi detection data and hierarchical site-occupancy models to assess the reliability of OM-based T. cruzi surveillance while explicitly accounting for false-negative and false-positive results. We investigated 841 triatomines with OM slides (1194 fresh, 1192 Giemsa-stained) plus conventional (cPCR, 841 assays) and quantitative PCR (qPCR, 1682 assays). Detections were considered unambiguous only when parasitologists unmistakably identified T. cruzi in Giemsa-stained slides. qPCR was >99% sensitive and specific, whereas cPCR was ~100% specific but only ~55% sensitive. In routine surveillance, examination of a single OM slide per vector missed ~50-75% of infections and wrongly scored as infected ~7% of the bugs. qPCR-based and model-based infection frequency estimates were nearly three times higher, on average, than OM-based indices. We conclude that the risk of vector-borne Chagas disease may be substantially higher than routine surveillance data suggest. The hierarchical modelling approach we illustrate can help enhance vector-borne disease surveillance systems when pathogen detection is imperfect.