WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental studies classification

  1. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: Classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Vicki, E-mail: v.stone@napier.ac.uk [School of Life Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT (United Kingdom); Nowack, Bernd [Materials, Products and the Environment Group, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5 CH - 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Baun, Anders [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, NanoDTU, Building 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Brink, Nico van den [Alterra, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Kammer, Frank von der [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Vienna University, Althanstrasse 14, Wien 1090 (Austria); Dusinska, Maria [Health Effects Laboratory, Centre for Ecological Economics, Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Instituttveien, 18, 2027 Kjeller (Norway); Handy, Richard [University of Plymouth, Davy Building, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Hankin, Steven [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Research Avenue North, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AP (United Kingdom); Hasselloev, Martin [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Nanoparticle Research Group, Goeteborg University, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Joner, Erik [Bioforsk Soil and Environment, Fredrik A Dahls vei 20, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Fernandes, Teresa F. [School of Life Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key questions: 1.What properties should be characterised for nanomaterials used in environmental and ecotoxicology studies? 2.What reference materials should be developed for use in environmental and ecotoxicological studies? 3.Is it possible to group different nanomaterials into categories for consideration in environmental studies? Such questions have been, at least partially, addressed by other projects/workshops especially in relation to human health effects. Such projects provide a useful basis on which this workshop was based, but in this particular case these questions were reformulated in order to focus specifically on environmental studies. The workshop participants, through a series of discussion and reflection sessions, generated the conclusions listed below. The physicochemical characterisation information identified as important for environmental studies included measures of aggregation/agglomeration/dispersability, size, dissolution (solubility), surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry/composition, with the assumption that chemical composition would already be known. There is a need to have test materials for ecotoxicology, and several substances are potentially useful, including TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, polystyrene beads labelled with fluorescent dyes, and silver nanoparticles. Some of these test materials could then be developed into certified reference materials over time. No clear consensus was reached regarding the classification of nanomaterials into categories to aid environmental studies, except that a chemistry-based classification system was a reasonable starting point, with some modifications. It was suggested, that additional work may be

  2. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: Classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Vicki; Nowack, Bernd; Baun, Anders; Brink, Nico van den; Kammer, Frank von der; Dusinska, Maria; Handy, Richard; Hankin, Steven; Hasselloev, Martin; Joner, Erik; Fernandes, Teresa F.

    2010-01-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key questions: 1.What properties should be characterised for nanomaterials used in environmental and ecotoxicology studies? 2.What reference materials should be developed for use in environmental and ecotoxicological studies? 3.Is it possible to group different nanomaterials into categories for consideration in environmental studies? Such questions have been, at least partially, addressed by other projects/workshops especially in relation to human health effects. Such projects provide a useful basis on which this workshop was based, but in this particular case these questions were reformulated in order to focus specifically on environmental studies. The workshop participants, through a series of discussion and reflection sessions, generated the conclusions listed below. The physicochemical characterisation information identified as important for environmental studies included measures of aggregation/agglomeration/dispersability, size, dissolution (solubility), surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry/composition, with the assumption that chemical composition would already be known. There is a need to have test materials for ecotoxicology, and several substances are potentially useful, including TiO 2 nanoparticles, polystyrene beads labelled with fluorescent dyes, and silver nanoparticles. Some of these test materials could then be developed into certified reference materials over time. No clear consensus was reached regarding the classification of nanomaterials into categories to aid environmental studies, except that a chemistry-based classification system was a reasonable starting point, with some modifications. It was suggested, that additional work may be required

  3. The environmental perspective in the territorial classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva Franco, Pablo

    1998-01-01

    The article is about the environmental aspects in the territorial classification, of the constitutional structure and its reaches, of the precision in the approaches and procedures and of the law 388 of 1997 it understands each other for the environmental thing the relationship between the systems and natural processes and the systems and social, economic and cultural processes; this way the environmental thing transcends the ecological thing and the geographical thing to become a new dimension of the science, of the knowledge and of the culture. The environmental thing also acquires a particular concretion when serving like basic instrument for the interpretation of the necessities of the society and in the way of satisfying them without damage of the natural thing and territorial classification as the process of reflection of a society on the form of occupying the space, of taking advantage of the natural resources, of building establishments, of establishing an infrastructure and of managing the relationships and the economic flows, to obtain a disposition and space arrangements of their activities finally, in harmony with the nature that they correspond to their culture and the form like it wants to maintain or to improve their quality of life in a sustainable way

  4. CREST--classification resources for environmental sequence tags.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Lanzén

    Full Text Available Sequencing of taxonomic or phylogenetic markers is becoming a fast and efficient method for studying environmental microbial communities. This has resulted in a steadily growing collection of marker sequences, most notably of the small-subunit (SSU ribosomal RNA gene, and an increased understanding of microbial phylogeny, diversity and community composition patterns. However, to utilize these large datasets together with new sequencing technologies, a reliable and flexible system for taxonomic classification is critical. We developed CREST (Classification Resources for Environmental Sequence Tags, a set of resources and tools for generating and utilizing custom taxonomies and reference datasets for classification of environmental sequences. CREST uses an alignment-based classification method with the lowest common ancestor algorithm. It also uses explicit rank similarity criteria to reduce false positives and identify novel taxa. We implemented this method in a web server, a command line tool and the graphical user interfaced program MEGAN. Further, we provide the SSU rRNA reference database and taxonomy SilvaMod, derived from the publicly available SILVA SSURef, for classification of sequences from bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. Using cross-validation and environmental datasets, we compared the performance of CREST and SilvaMod to the RDP Classifier. We also utilized Greengenes as a reference database, both with CREST and the RDP Classifier. These analyses indicate that CREST performs better than alignment-free methods with higher recall rate (sensitivity as well as precision, and with the ability to accurately identify most sequences from novel taxa. Classification using SilvaMod performed better than with Greengenes, particularly when applied to environmental sequences. CREST is freely available under a GNU General Public License (v3 from http://apps.cbu.uib.no/crest and http://lcaclassifier.googlecode.com.

  5. LOCAL WEATHER CLASSIFICATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna PIOTROWICZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two approaches of local weather type definitions are presented and illustrated for selected stations of Poland and Hungary. The subjective classification, continuing long traditions, especially in Poland, relies on diurnal values of local weather elements. The main types are defined according to temperature with some sub-types considering relative sunshine duration, diurnal precipitation totals, relative humidity and wind speed. The classification does not make a difference between the seasons of the year, but the occurrence of the classes obviously reflects the annual cycle. Another important feature of this classification is that only a minor part of the theoretically possible combination of the various types and sub-types occurs in all stations of both countries. The objective version of the classification starts from ten possible weather element which are reduced to four according to factor analysis, based on strong correlation between the elements. This analysis yields 3 to 4 factors depending on the specific criteria of selection. The further cluster analysis uses four selected weather elements belonging to different rotated factors. They are the diurnal mean values of temperature, of relative humidity, of cloudiness and of wind speed. From the possible ways of hierarchical cluster analysis (i.e. no a priori assumption on the number of classes, the method of furthest neighbours is selected, indicating the arguments of this decision in the paper. These local weather types are important tools in understanding the role of weather in various environmental indicators, in climatic generalisation of short samples by stratified sampling and in interpretation of the climate change.

  6. Soft computing based feature selection for environmental sound classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakoor, A.; May, T.M.; Van Schijndel, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental sound classification has a wide range of applications,like hearing aids, mobile communication devices, portable media players, and auditory protection devices. Sound classification systemstypically extract features from the input sound. Using too many features increases complexity

  7. Environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Tadza Abd Rahman

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear Technology offers unique method, yet effective for environmental research. Nuclear techniques are invented to carry out research activities on environmental pollutions, erosion and slope stability, landslide ground water studies and water pollution

  8. Comprehensive classification of environmental aspects in a manufacturing enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive approach to classification of environmental aspects with a broad set of criteria which may be useful in a manufacturing enterprise in defining the relevant aspects. Additionally, the publication presents the list of key environmental aspects for metallurgical enterprise. According to standard ISO 14001:2004 process of environmental aspects identification should be planned. The paper finishes with a scheme presenting the place of the environmental aspects identification procedure in the system of environmental management.

  9. A Two-Level Sound Classification Platform for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios A. Mitilineos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available STORM is an ongoing European research project that aims at developing an integrated platform for monitoring, protecting, and managing cultural heritage sites through technical and organizational innovation. Part of the scheduled preventive actions for the protection of cultural heritage is the development of wireless acoustic sensor networks (WASNs that will be used for assessing the impact of human-generated activities as well as for monitoring potentially hazardous environmental phenomena. Collected sound samples will be forwarded to a central server where they will be automatically classified in a hierarchical manner; anthropogenic and environmental activity will be monitored, and stakeholders will be alarmed in the case of potential malevolent behavior or natural phenomena like excess rainfall, fire, gale, high tides, and waves. Herein, we present an integrated platform that includes sound sample denoising using wavelets, feature extraction from sound samples, Gaussian mixture modeling of these features, and a powerful two-layer neural network for automatic classification. We contribute to previous work by extending the proposed classification platform to perform low-level classification too, i.e., classify sounds to further subclasses that include airplane, car, and pistol sounds for the anthropogenic sound class; bird, dog, and snake sounds for the biophysical sound class; and fire, waterfall, and gale for the geophysical sound class. Classification results exhibit outstanding classification accuracy in both high-level and low-level classification thus demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  10. Hazard classification of environmental restoration activities at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peatross, R.G.

    1996-04-01

    The following documents require that a hazard classification be prepared for all activities for which US Department of Energy (DOE) has assumed environmental, safety, and health responsibility: the DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System and DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. A hazard classification defines the level of hazard posed by an operation or activity, assuming an unmitigated release of radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous material. For environmental restoration activities, the release threshold criteria presented in Hazard Baseline Documentation (DOE-EM-STD-5502-94) are used to determine classifications, such as Radiological, Nonnuclear, and Other Industrial facilities. Based upon DOE-EM-STD-5502-94, environmental restoration activities in all but one of the sites addressed by the scope of this classification (see Section 2) can be classified as ''Other Industrial Facility''. DOE-EM-STD-5502-94 states that a Health and Safety Plan and compliance with the applicable Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards are sufficient safety controls for this classification

  11. Classification,Hazards and Countermeasures of Agricultural Environmental Pollution Emergencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming; CHUAI; Haixia; ZHOU; Jianping; ZHAO; Shubo; CHENG; Jiang; YU

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural environmental pollution emergencies have become a hot research topic because of the high incidence and influence depth.This paper introduces classification and features of agricultural environmental pollution emergencies:by pollutant type,it falls into organic pollution emergencies and inorganic pollution emergencies;by the approach of entering agricultural environment,it falls into water resource agricultural environmental pollution emergencies and non-water resource agricultural environmental pollution emergencies.Hazards of agricultural environmental pollution emergencies are analyzed from 4 perspectives:personal security,indirect loss,ecological environment and social stability.In view of the hazards,countermeasures are given to deal with the pollution emergencies as(i)establishing a risk evaluation mechanism for agricultural environment;(ii)enhancing the capacity of handling agricultural environmental pollution emergencies;(iii)introducing new management concepts for environmental emergencies,and cultivating keen emergency management consciousness.

  12. Environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The utility of high-resolution liquid chromatography for separating organophosphorus compounds from natural waters and effluents from coal processing plants was investigated. The procedures were optimized for the separation of phenol-type compounds from aqueous effluents from coal liquefaction processes. Preliminary results are reported from applications for the analysis of marine waters from estuaries and municipal drinking water. An automated analytical system, using a bifurcated, fiber-optic fluorometer, was developed for the isolation and identification of trace polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons for the continuous monitoring of coal liquefaction and coal gasification liquid effluents. The practice of chlorinating cooling waters was evaluated with respect to the formation of toxic chlorinated organic compounds of environmental importance

  13. Impact of environmental factors in home rehabilitation--a qualitative study from the perspective of older persons using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to describe facilitators and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randström, Kerstin Björkman; Asplund, Kenneth; Svedlund, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore older people's experience of environmental factors that impact on their activity and participation in home rehabilitation. Older people aged between 68 and 93 years and receiving home rehabilitation were interviewed. A qualitative content analysis was performed on the interview text using the predetermined structure of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) environmental domain. The text was linked to the closest ICF category. The results identified environmental facilitators and barriers that influenced activity and participation among older people receiving home rehabilitation. Approaches that provided a facilitative environment were access to assistive products and technologies, alterations to the physical environment, social support and relationships, and adjusted health and social care services. A qualitative study using ICF-listed environmental factors contributed a holistic view of facilitators and barriers in home rehabilitation for older people. Awareness of the importance of the impact of the social environment on activities and participation could improve home rehabilitation services for older people. The study represents an important step towards a holistic approach using the ICF, which aims to enable all health care professionals to describe, plan and evaluate rehabilitation services together with older people across the health and social care sectors.

  14. Classification across gene expression microarray studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuner Ruprecht

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing number of gene expression microarray studies represents an important resource in biomedical research. As a result, gene expression based diagnosis has entered clinical practice for patient stratification in breast cancer. However, the integration and combined analysis of microarray studies remains still a challenge. We assessed the potential benefit of data integration on the classification accuracy and systematically evaluated the generalization performance of selected methods on four breast cancer studies comprising almost 1000 independent samples. To this end, we introduced an evaluation framework which aims to establish good statistical practice and a graphical way to monitor differences. The classification goal was to correctly predict estrogen receptor status (negative/positive and histological grade (low/high of each tumor sample in an independent study which was not used for the training. For the classification we chose support vector machines (SVM, predictive analysis of microarrays (PAM, random forest (RF and k-top scoring pairs (kTSP. Guided by considerations relevant for classification across studies we developed a generalization of kTSP which we evaluated in addition. Our derived version (DV aims to improve the robustness of the intrinsic invariance of kTSP with respect to technologies and preprocessing. Results For each individual study the generalization error was benchmarked via complete cross-validation and was found to be similar for all classification methods. The misclassification rates were substantially higher in classification across studies, when each single study was used as an independent test set while all remaining studies were combined for the training of the classifier. However, with increasing number of independent microarray studies used in the training, the overall classification performance improved. DV performed better than the average and showed slightly less variance. In

  15. Jabiluka environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, A.W.; Koontz, D.V.; Sanderson, N.T. (Pancontinental Mining Ltd., Sydney (Australia))

    1984-02-01

    Environmental baseline studies associated with development of the Jabiluka uranium deposits are described. Some basic characteristics of the area local to the deposits are reported and a brief explanation is provided of the nature of, and philosophy behind the environmental studies. The major findings from this program are discussed.

  16. Jabiluka environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, A.W.; Koontz, D.V.; Sanderson, N.T.

    1984-01-01

    Environmental baseline studies associated with development of the Jabiluka uranium deposits are described. Some basic characteristics of the area local to the deposits are reported and a brief explanation is provided of the nature of, and philosophy behind the environmental studies. The major findings from this program are discussed. (author)

  17. Environmental pollution studies

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Gerry

    1999-01-01

    This book examines a number of important contemporary environmental issues in an informative and easy-to-read style. The topics covered include sewage treatment, eutrophication, air pollution, acid rain, global warming and pollution from farming. A particularly valuable section of the book describes a range of tests that can be carried out on various environmental parameters. The procedures require relatively simple equipment and they have been pre-tested in a school laboratory. "Environmental Pollution Studies" will be of value to senior school pupils and students at college or university embarking on courses in environmental science.

  18. Building Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper

    We will in this paper approach the challenge of building integrated environmental studies by presenting a crude frame of analysis which take into account both the physical aspects and the social-discursive articulations of environmental problems. This framework partly mirrors the approach of our...... department (Dept. of Environment, Technology and Social Studies, Roskilde University), and has originally in another version been presented in the book “Miljøregulering - tværvidenskabelige studier (Environmental Regulation. Interdisciplinary Studies)” (Holm, Kjærgård & Pedersen eds. 1997, in Danish) written...

  19. Mechanism-based drug exposure classification in pharmacoepidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdel, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanism-based classification of drug exposure in pharmacoepidemiological studies In pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacovigilance, the relation between drug exposure and clinical outcomes is crucial. Exposure classification in pharmacoepidemiological studies is traditionally based on

  20. In the shadow of the Cosmetic Directive--inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, A; Bejgarn, S; Rudén, C; Molander, L; Breitholtz, M

    2013-09-01

    UV-filters are chemicals with potentially environmental hazardous properties. In the European Union (EU), UV-filters contained in sunscreen products are currently regulated by the Cosmetic Directive (from July 2013 by the Cosmetic Products Regulation). Environmental hazard classifications according to the regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) must be determined for UV-filters contained in industrial chemical products, whereas UV-filters contained in sunscreens are exempted from CLP. In this study we determined the potential environmental hazard classifications of UV-filters and sunscreen products if the CLP regulation was to be required for cosmetic products. Two sunscreen products were evaluated in accordance with the aquatic environmental hazard criteria for mixtures. The results highlight that the inconsistencies in the current EU regulation of UV filters hamper the risk management of environmental hazards of UV filters used in cosmetic products. Almost 50% of the investigated UV-filters approved for use in cosmetic products on the European market according to the current Cosmetic Directive were identified to meet the CLP classification as being hazardous to the aquatic environment. Assuming a worst-case scenario, the two examined sunscreens could both be classified as hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-lasting effects according to CLP classification criteria. Hence, if the CLP regulation was applicable to sunscreen products, both brands could potentially be labelled with the environmental hazard pictogram and associated hazard and precautionary statements. Including cosmetic products, and thereby sunscreens, in the CLP regulation would contribute to a more harmonized and transparent regulation of potentially hazardous substances on the EU market. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  2. Application Study of Fire Severity Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Hwan; Kim, Hyeong Taek; Jee, Moon Hak; Kim, Yun Jung

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the Fire Incidents Severity Classification Method for Korean NPPs that may be derived directly from the data fields and feasibility study for domestic uses. FEDB was characterized in more detail and assessed based on the significance of fire incidents in the updated database and five fire severity categories were defined. The logical approach to determine the fire severity starts from the most severe characteristics, namely challenging fires, and continues to define the less challenging and undetermined categories in progress. If the FEDB is utilized for Korean NPPs, the ways of Fire Severity Classification suggested in 2.4 above can be utilized for the quantitative fire risk analysis in future. The Fire Events Database (FEDB) is the primary source of fire data which are used for fire frequency in Fire PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment). The purpose of its development is to calculate the quantitative fire frequency at the comprehensive and consolidated source derived from the fire incident information available for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Recently, the Fire Events Database (FEDB) was updated by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in U. S. The FEDB is intended to update the fire event history up to 2009. A significant enhancement to it is the reorganization and refinement of the database structure and data fields. It has been expanded and improved data fields, coding consistency, incident detail, data review fields, and reference data source traceability. It has been designed to better support several Fire PRA uses as well

  3. Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discusses definitions of the term “classification” and the related concepts “Concept/conceptualization,”“categorization,” “ordering,” “taxonomy” and “typology.” It further presents and discusses theories of classification including the influences of Aristotle...... and Wittgenstein. It presents different views on forming classes, including logical division, numerical taxonomy, historical classification, hermeneutical and pragmatic/critical views. Finally, issues related to artificial versus natural classification and taxonomic monism versus taxonomic pluralism are briefly...

  4. Punta Higuero environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.D.; Youngbluth, M.J.; Nutt, M.E.; Yeaman, M.N.; Yoshioka, P.; Canoy, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    Site selection surveys and environmental research studies of seven coastal sites in Puerto Rico for construction of power generating facilities were carried out. Data are presented on the physical, chemical, and geological parameters of the Punta Higuero site, and the ecological parameters of zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and fish communities. Plant associations are included. (U.S.)

  5. In the shadow of the Cosmetic Directive — Inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobek, A.; Bejgarn, S.; Rudén, C.; Molander, L.; Breitholtz, M.

    2013-01-01

    UV-filters are chemicals with potentially environmental hazardous properties. In the European Union (EU), UV-filters contained in sunscreen products are currently regulated by the Cosmetic Directive (from July 2013 by the Cosmetic Products Regulation). Environmental hazard classifications according to the regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) must be determined for UV-filters contained in industrial chemical products, whereas UV-filters contained in sunscreens are exempted from CLP. In this study we determined the potential environmental hazard classifications of UV-filters and sunscreen products if the CLP regulation was to be required for cosmetic products. Two sunscreen products were evaluated in accordance with the aquatic environmental hazard criteria for mixtures. The results highlight that the inconsistencies in the current EU regulation of UV filters hamper the risk management of environmental hazards of UV filters used in cosmetic products. Almost 50% of the investigated UV-filters approved for use in cosmetic products on the European market according to the current Cosmetic Directive were identified to meet the CLP classification as being hazardous to the aquatic environment. Assuming a worst-case scenario, the two examined sunscreens could both be classified as hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-lasting effects according to CLP classification criteria. Hence, if the CLP regulation was applicable to sunscreen products, both brands could potentially be labelled with the environmental hazard pictogram and associated hazard and precautionary statements. Including cosmetic products, and thereby sunscreens, in the CLP regulation would contribute to a more harmonized and transparent regulation of potentially hazardous substances on the EU market. - Highlights: • UV-filters are used in both cosmetic and industrial products/applications • UV-filters in cosmetic products are excluded from CLP • We

  6. Geospatial intelligence and visual classification of environmentally observed species in the Future Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab-Zavar, B.; Chakravarthy, A.; Sabeur, Z. A.

    2012-04-01

    The rapid development of advanced smart communication tools with good quality and resolution video cameras, audio and GPS devices in the last few years shall lead to profound impacts on the way future environmental observations are conducted and accessed by communities. The resulting large scale interconnections of these "Future Internet Things" form a large environmental sensing network which will generate large volumes of quality environmental observations and at highly localised spatial scales. This enablement in environmental sensing at local scales will be of great importance to contribute in the study of fauna and flora in the near future, particularly on the effect of climate change on biodiversity in various regions of Europe and beyond. The Future Internet could also potentially become the de facto information space to provide participative real-time sensing by communities and improve our situation awarness of the effect of climate on local environments. In the ENVIROFI(2011-2013) Usage Area project in the FP7 FI-PPP programme, a set of requirements for specific (and generic) enablers is achieved with the potential establishement of participating community observatories of the future. In particular, the specific enablement of interest concerns the building of future interoperable services for the management of environmental data intelligently with tagged contextual geo-spatial information generated by multiple operators in communities (Using smart phones). The classification of observed species in the resulting images is achieved with structured data pre-processing, semantic enrichement using contextual geospatial information, and high level fusion with controlled uncertainty estimations. The returned identification of species is further improved using future ground truth corrections and learning by the specific enablers.

  7. [The physiological classification of human thermal states under high environmental temperatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrov, A F; Kuznets, E I

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the physiological classification of human thermal states in a hot environment. A review of the basic systems of classifications of thermal states is given, their main drawbacks are discussed. On the basis of human functional state research in a broad range of environmental temperatures the system of evaluation and classification of human thermal states is proposed. New integral one-dimensional multi-parametric criteria for evaluation are used. For the development of these criteria methods of factor, cluster and canonical correlation analyses are applied. Stochastic nomograms capable of identification of human thermal state for different intensity of influence are given. In this case evaluation of intensity is estimated according to one-dimensional criteria taking into account environmental temperature, physical load and time of man's staying in overheating conditions.

  8. Two Classification Methods for Grouping Common Environmental Sounds in Terms of Perceived Pleasantness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    NUMBER OF PAGES 24 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Kelly Dickerson a. REPORT Unclassified b. ABSTRACT Unclassified c . THIS...ARL-TR-7960 ● FEB 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Two Classification Methods for Grouping Common Environmental Sounds in Terms...of Perceived Pleasantness by Kelly Dickerson, Brandon S Perelman, Laura Sherry, and Jeremy R Gaston Approved for public

  9. A unified classification of alien species based on the magnitude of their environmental impacts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blackburn, T. M.; Essl, F.; Evans, T.; Hulme, P. E.; Jeschke, J.M.; Kühn, I.; Kumschick, S.; Marková, Zuzana; Mrugala, A.; Nentwig, W.; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Rabitsch, W.; Ricciardi, A.; Richardson, D. M.; Sendek, A.; Vila, M.; Wilson, J. R. U.; Winter, M.; Genovesi, P.; Bacher, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 5 (2014), s. 1-11, e1001850 E-ISSN 1545-7885 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028; GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * classification * environmental impact Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 9.343, year: 2014

  10. The ITE Land classification: Providing an environmental stratification of Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, R G; Barr, C J; Gillespie, M K; Howard, D C

    1996-01-01

    The surface of Great Britain (GB) varies continuously in land cover from one area to another. The objective of any environmentally based land classification is to produce classes that match the patterns that are present by helping to define clear boundaries. The more appropriate the analysis and data used, the better the classes will fit the natural patterns. The observation of inter-correlations between ecological factors is the basis for interpreting ecological patterns in the field, and the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology (ITE) Land Classification formalises such subjective ideas. The data inevitably comprise a large number of factors in order to describe the environment adequately. Single factors, such as altitude, would only be useful on a national basis if they were the only dominant causative agent of ecological variation.The ITE Land Classification has defined 32 environmental categories called 'land classes', initially based on a sample of 1-km squares in Great Britain but subsequently extended to all 240 000 1-km squares. The original classification was produced using multivariate analysis of 75 environmental variables. The extension to all squares in GB was performed using a combination of logistic discrimination and discriminant functions. The classes have provided a stratification for successive ecological surveys, the results of which have characterised the classes in terms of botanical, zoological and landscape features.The classification has also been applied to integrate diverse datasets including satellite imagery, soils and socio-economic information. A variety of models have used the structure of the classification, for example to show potential land use change under different economic conditions. The principal data sets relevant for planning purposes have been incorporated into a user-friendly computer package, called the 'Countryside Information System'.

  11. Criteria for classification of competitive housing projects in terms of their environmental friendliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezhnikova, Ekaterina

    2017-10-01

    This article deals with social and economic essence of strategy of the housing industry development, both complex system of economic relations in field of production and consumption, which is regulated through the mechanism of prices and implemented through formation and realization of priority directions. Developed criteria for classification of housing construction projects as environmentally friendly and the quality criteria of variables for assessment of the environmental friendliness of residential buildings allowed to determine the ways of development of the industry on the basis of creation of competitive projects in interrelation with quality, environmental friendliness and price of consumption.

  12. Calcaneal fracture classification: a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Tim; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Ginai, Abida Z.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; Heetveld, Martin J.; Patka, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Comparing different types of calcaneal fractures, associated treatment options, and outcome data is currently hampered by the lack of consensus regarding fracture classification. A systematic search for articles dealing with calcaneal fracture was performed, and the prevalence of use of each

  13. Classification of phosphogypsum as a waste material from the aspect of environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphogypsum is primarily classified as a heavy waste. The classification of phosphogypsum as dangerous waste may be only maintained under the condition that phosphates with the highest content of radio nuclides are used in the production of H3PO4 by the so called "wet procedure" (Morocco, Florida, which, due to the great quantity of present radio nuclides, causes considerable environmental pollution by radon. The classification of phosphogypsum as a separate category of radioactive waste may be conditionally accepted, because phosphogypsum is not a radioactive waste. All the instructions about the collection, documentation and storage of phosphogypsum so far on disposal sites, and possible transport, also due to non-existing legal recommendations must comply with the classification of phosphogypsum as dangerous waste.

  14. Environmental health studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1978-01-01

    The two major thrusts of the environmental health studies have been in the areas of health physics aspects of fusion power and methodology for assessing health effects related to nuclear facilities. Researchers were unable to discern a dose-response relationship or to find adverse health effects in the local population around nuclear facilities which might be related to radiation exposure. A second study analyzed the trends in incidence of cancer, congenital malformation, and fetal and infant mortality for Oak Ridge, Anderson County, and Roane County relative to Tennessee. Finally, a more in-depth study on congenital malformations and fetal mortality trends for nine East Tennessee counties surrounding Oak Ridge was completed. The objective of the Health Physics Aspects of Fusion Power Program is to provide, on a timely basis, scientific information and technical evaluations on the potential impacts of fusion power to occupational workers and to members of the public. The primary areas of study in this program during the past year have been (1) factors affecting calculations of dose resulting from a release of tritium, (2) an assessment of the potential for reducing occupational risk from exposures to tritium, and (3) experimental studies of tritium conversion from molecular hydrogen to tritiated water

  15. Genetic diversity, classification and comparative study on the larval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity, classification and comparative study on the larval phenotypic ... B. mori showed different performance based on larval phenotypic data. The analysis of variance regarding the studied traits showed that different strains have ...

  16. Hydrological classification of natural flow regimes to support environmental flow assessments in intensively regulated Mediterranean rivers, Segura River Basin (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmar, Oscar; Velasco, Josefa; Martinez-Capel, Francisco

    2011-05-01

    Hydrological classification constitutes the first step of a new holistic framework for developing regional environmental flow criteria: the "Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration (ELOHA)". The aim of this study was to develop a classification for 390 stream sections of the Segura River Basin based on 73 hydrological indices that characterize their natural flow regimes. The hydrological indices were calculated with 25 years of natural monthly flows (1980/81-2005/06) derived from a rainfall-runoff model developed by the Spanish Ministry of Environment and Public Works. These indices included, at a monthly or annual basis, measures of duration of droughts and central tendency and dispersion of flow magnitude (average, low and high flow conditions). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated high redundancy among most hydrological indices, as well as two gradients: flow magnitude for mainstream rivers and temporal variability for tributary streams. A classification with eight flow-regime classes was chosen as the most easily interpretable in the Segura River Basin, which was supported by ANOSIM analyses. These classes can be simplified in 4 broader groups, with different seasonal discharge pattern: large rivers, perennial stable streams, perennial seasonal streams and intermittent and ephemeral streams. They showed a high degree of spatial cohesion, following a gradient associated with climatic aridity from NW to SE, and were well defined in terms of the fundamental variables in Mediterranean streams: magnitude and temporal variability of flows. Therefore, this classification is a fundamental tool to support water management and planning in the Segura River Basin. Future research will allow us to study the flow alteration-ecological response relationship for each river type, and set the basis to design scientifically credible environmental flows following the ELOHA framework.

  17. Empirical study on mutual fund objective classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xue-jun; Yang, Xiao-lan

    2004-05-01

    Mutual funds are usually classified on the basis of their objectives. If the activities of mutual funds are consistent with their stated objectives, investors may look at the latter as signals of their risks and incomes. This work analyzes mutual fund objective classification in China by statistical methods of distance analysis and discriminant analysis; and examines whether the stated investment objectives of mutual funds adequately represent their attributes to investors. That is, if mutual funds adhere to their stated objectives, attributes must be heterogeneous between investment objective groups and homogeneous within them. Our conclusion is to some degree, the group of optimized exponential funds is heterogeneous to other groups. As a whole, there exist no significant differences between different objective groups; and 50% of mutual funds are not consistent with their objective groups.

  18. [Object-oriented remote sensing image classification in epidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniasis in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Andréa Sobral de; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Resendes, Ana Paula da Costa

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the use of object-oriented classification of remote sensing imagery in epidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas. To obtain temperature and environmental information, an object-oriented classification approach was applied to Landsat 5 TM scenes from the city of Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil. For 1993-1996, VL incidence rates correlated positively with census tracts covered by dense vegetation, grass/pasture, and bare soil and negatively with areas covered by water and densely populated areas. In 2001-2006, positive correlations were found with dense vegetation, grass/pasture, bare soil, and densely populated areas and negative correlations with occupied urban areas with some vegetation. Land surface temperature correlated negatively with VL incidence in both periods. Object-oriented classification can be useful to characterize landscape features associated with VL in urban areas and to help identify risk areas in order to prioritize interventions.

  19. Building Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Conceptual analytical-methodological conceptualization of crossdisciplinary sustainability studies......Conceptual analytical-methodological conceptualization of crossdisciplinary sustainability studies...

  20. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Classification of the Outer Coast, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains arcs representing the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) classification of the outer coast of Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and...

  1. A study on the validity of strategic classification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Jae Woong; Shin, Dong Hun

    2013-01-01

    The commodity classification is to identify strategic commodity. The export license is to verify that exports have met the conditions required by the international export control system. NSSC (Nuclear Safety and Security Commission) operates the NEPS (Nuclear Export Promotion Service) for export control of nuclear items. NEPS contributed to reduce process time related to submission of documents, issuing certificates and licenses, etc. Nonetheless, it became necessary to enhance capacity to implement export control precisely and efficiently as development of Korean nuclear industry led to sharp increase of export. To provide more efficient ways, development of the advanced export control system, IXCS (Intelligent eXport Control System) was suggested. To build IXCS successfully, export control experts have analyzed Korean export control system. Two classification processes of items and technology were derived as a result of the research. However, it may reflect real cases insufficiently because it is derived by experts' discussion. This study evaluated how well the process explains real cases. Although the derived processes explained real cases well, some recommendations for improvement were found through this study. These evaluation results will help to make classification flow charts more compatible to the current export system. Most classification reports on equipment and material deliberated specification and functions while related systems were not considered. If a 'specification review' stage is added to the current process and delete unnecessary stages, this will improve accuracy of the flow chart. In the classification of nuclear technology, detailed process to identify specific information and data need to be specified to decrease subjectivity. Whether they are imitations or not is an unnecessary factor in both processes. The successful development of IXCS needs accurate export control processes as well as IT technology. If these classification processes are

  2. Biotechnology and environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    This program is concerned with the development of biochemical engineering technology whereby individual process steps, at least one of which utilizes a biological entity, can be integrated to result in a highly useful overall process. Areas of concern to DOE that will benefit directly from this technology include energy production and conservation, resource recovery, and pollution abatement. Investigations specific to problems in nuclear waste management include the removal of radionuclides and chemical contaminants from aqueous process and effluent streams. Bioengineering research activities were focused on three areas during this reporting period: enzyme catalysis; treatment of aqueous effluents from coal conversion processes; and bioreactor scale-up and process modeling studies

  3. Geologic environmental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Jhin Wung

    2000-05-01

    The geoscience research works are focused on the production of geologic basic data accompanying with the technical development of geology and hydrogeologic characterization. The lithology of the Korean peninsula consists of a complex structure of 29 rock types from Archean to Quaternary. The wide distribution of Mesozoic plutonic rock is an important consideration as a potential host rock allowing flexibility of siting. The recent tectonic activities are limited to localized particular area, which can be avoided by excluding in the early stage of siting. Three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the further study on HLW disposal system. This report contains grouping of regional faults, and on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zones) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical provinces. The regional groundwater regime can be grouped into 3 regimes by tectonic setting and four groundwater regions based on an altitute. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rocks. The origin of groundwater was proposed by isotope ({sup 1}8O, {sup 2}H, {sup 1}3C, {sup 3}4S, {sup 8}7Sr, {sup 1}5N) studies and the residence time of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based on the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs.

  4. Geologic environmental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown; Chun, Kwan Sik; Kim, Jhin Wung

    2000-05-01

    The geoscience research works are focused on the production of geologic basic data accompanying with the technical development of geology and hydrogeologic characterization. The lithology of the Korean peninsula consists of a complex structure of 29 rock types from Archean to Quaternary. The wide distribution of Mesozoic plutonic rock is an important consideration as a potential host rock allowing flexibility of siting. The recent tectonic activities are limited to localized particular area, which can be avoided by excluding in the early stage of siting. Three rock types such as plutonic rocks, crystalline gneisses and massive volcanic rocks were suggested as the preferred host rocks for the further study on HLW disposal system. This report contains grouping of regional faults, and on the distributional characteristics of faults and fractures(zones) in terms of lithological domain and tectonical provinces. The regional groundwater regime can be grouped into 3 regimes by tectonic setting and four groundwater regions based on an altitute. Groundwaters can be grouped by their chemistry and host rocks. The origin of groundwater was proposed by isotope ( 1 8O, 2 H, 1 3C, 3 4S, 8 7Sr, 1 5N) studies and the residence time of groundwater was inferred from their tritium contents. Based on the geochemical and isotope characteristics, the geochemical evolutions of each types of groundwater were simulated using SOLVEQ/CHILLER and PHREEQC programs

  5. A structuralist approach in the study of evolution and classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der L.

    1985-01-01

    A survey is given of structuralism as a method that can be applied in the study of evolution and classification. The results of a structuralist approach are illustrated by examples from the laws underlying numerical changes, from the laws underlying changes in the chelicerate life-cycle, and from

  6. A unified classification of alien species based on the magnitude of their environmental impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim M Blackburn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Species moved by human activities beyond the limits of their native geographic ranges into areas in which they do not naturally occur (termed aliens can cause a broad range of significant changes to recipient ecosystems; however, their impacts vary greatly across species and the ecosystems into which they are introduced. There is therefore a critical need for a standardised method to evaluate, compare, and eventually predict the magnitudes of these different impacts. Here, we propose a straightforward system for classifying alien species according to the magnitude of their environmental impacts, based on the mechanisms of impact used to code species in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Global Invasive Species Database, which are presented here for the first time. The classification system uses five semi-quantitative scenarios describing impacts under each mechanism to assign species to different levels of impact-ranging from Minimal to Massive-with assignment corresponding to the highest level of deleterious impact associated with any of the mechanisms. The scheme also includes categories for species that are Not Evaluated, have No Alien Population, or are Data Deficient, and a method for assigning uncertainty to all the classifications. We show how this classification system is applicable at different levels of ecological complexity and different spatial and temporal scales, and embraces existing impact metrics. In fact, the scheme is analogous to the already widely adopted and accepted Red List approach to categorising extinction risk, and so could conceivably be readily integrated with existing practices and policies in many regions.

  7. Study for Updated Gout Classification Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, William J; Fransen, Jaap; Jansen, Tim L

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine which clinical, laboratory, and imaging features most accurately distinguished gout from non-gout. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of consecutive rheumatology clinic patients with ≥1 swollen joint or subcutaneous tophus. Gout was defined by synovial fluid...... (MTP1) joint ever involved (multivariate OR 2.30), location of currently tender joints in other foot/ankle (multivariate OR 2.28) or MTP1 joint (multivariate OR 2.82), serum urate level >6 mg/dl (0.36 mmoles/liter; multivariate OR 3.35), ultrasound double contour sign (multivariate OR 7...

  8. Classifying Classifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically analyzes seventeen game classifications. The classifications were chosen on the basis of diversity, ranging from pre-digital classification (e.g. Murray 1952), over game studies classifications (e.g. Elverdam & Aarseth 2007) to classifications of drinking games (e.g. LaBrie et...... al. 2013). The analysis aims at three goals: The classifications’ internal consistency, the abstraction of classification criteria and the identification of differences in classification across fields and/or time. Especially the abstraction of classification criteria can be used in future endeavors...... into the topic of game classifications....

  9. Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svingor, E.; Molnar, M.; Palcsu, L.; Futo, I.; Rinyu, L.; Mogyorosi, M.; Major, Z.; Bihari, A.; Vodila, G.; Janovics, R.; Papp, L.; Major, I.

    2010-01-01

    1. Introduction. The Hertelendi Laboratory for Environmental Studies (HEKAL) belongs to the Section of Environmental and Earth Sciences. It is a multidisciplinary laboratory dedicated to environmental research, to the development of nuclear analytical methods and to systems technology. During its existence of more than 15 years it has gained some reputation as a prime laboratory of analytical techniques, working with both radio- and stable isotopes. It has considerable expertise in isotope concentration measurements, radiocarbon dating, tritium measurements, in monitoring radioactivity around nuclear facilities and in modelling the movement of radionuclides in the environment. Many of its projects are within the scope of interest of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant. Our research activity is mainly concerned with the so-called environmental isotopes. This term denotes isotopes, both stable and radioactive, that are present in the natural environment either as a result of natural processes or of human activities. In environmental research isotopes are generally applied either as tracers or as age indicators. An ideal tracer is defined as a substance that behaves in the system studied exactly as the material to be traced as far as the examined parameters are concerned, but has at least one property that distinguishes it from the traced material. The mass number of an isotope is such an ideal indicator. In 2007 the laboratory assumed the name of Dr. Ede Hertelendi to honour the memory of the reputed environmental physicist who founded the group and headed it for many years. The current core of the laboratory staff is made up of his pupils and coworkers. This team was like a family to him. The group owes it to his fatherly figure that it did not fall apart after his death, but advanced with intense work and tenacity during the last decade. One of his first pupils, Mihaly Veres returned to the laboratory as a private entrepreneur and investor in 2005, and in the framework of

  10. Environmental Studies and Utilitarian Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Brian G.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental ethicists have focused much attention on the limits of utilitarianism and have generally defined "environmental ethics" in a manner that treats utilitarian environmental ethics as an oxymoron. This is unfortunate because utilitarian ethics can support strong environmental policies, and environmental ethicists have not yet produced a…

  11. Exploratory study on classification and individualisation of earprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijerman, Lynn; Sholl, Sarah; De Conti, Francesca; Giacon, Marta; van der Lugt, Cor; Drusini, Andrea; Vanezis, Peter; Maat, George

    2004-02-10

    The FearID research project is aimed at the individualisation of earprints for the purpose of forensic research. The study presented here was carried out within the framework of this project. It intends to combine a review of what is known from literature on the classification and individualisation of earprints with results from a preliminary study of earprints. Possibilities for, and limitations to, the use of earprints in forensic investigation are addressed. Differences between eliminating a suspect, placing a suspect at a crime scene, and linking crimes by prints left at different scenes are considered.

  12. 25 CFR 211.7 - Environmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental studies. 211.7 Section 211.7 Indians BUREAU... DEVELOPMENT General § 211.7 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that all environmental studies are prepared as required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the...

  13. 25 CFR 225.24 - Environmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental studies. 225.24 Section 225.24 Indians... SOLID MINERALS AGREEMENTS Minerals Agreements § 225.24 Environmental studies. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that all environmental studies are prepared as required by the National Environmental Policy Act...

  14. The influence of spine surgeons' experience on the classification and intraobserver reliability of the novel AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system : an international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadiqi, Said; Oner, F. Cumhur; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. International validation study. Objective. To investigate the influence of the spine surgeons' level of experience on the intraobserver reliability of the novel AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification system, and the appropriate classification according to this system.

  15. Case Studies of Environmental Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Patlakas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance gap between simulation and reality has been identified as a major challenge to achieving sustainability in the Built Environment. While Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE surveys are an integral part of better understanding building performance, and thus addressing this issue, the importance of POE remains relatively unacknowledged within the wider Built Environment community. A possible reason that has been highlighted is that POE survey data is not easily understood and utilizable by non-expert stakeholders, including designers. A potential method by which to address this is the visualization method, which has well established benefits for communication of big datasets. This paper presents two case studies where EnViz (short for “Environmental Visualization”, a prototype software application developed for research purposes, was utilized and its effectiveness tested via a range of analysis tasks. The results are discussed and compared with those of previous work that utilized variations of the methods presented here. The paper concludes by presenting the lessons drawn from the five-year period of EnViz, emphasizing the potential of environmental visualization for decision support in environmental design and engineering for the built environment, and suggests directions for future development.

  16. Experimental study on multi-sub-classifier for land cover classification: a case study in Shangri-La, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-ying; Wang, Jin-liang; Wang, Ping; Hu, Wen-yin; Su, Shao-hua

    2015-12-01

    High accuracy remote sensed image classification technology is a long-term and continuous pursuit goal of remote sensing applications. In order to evaluate single classification algorithm accuracy, take Landsat TM image as data source, Northwest Yunnan as study area, seven types of land cover classification like Maximum Likelihood Classification has been tested, the results show that: (1)the overall classification accuracy of Maximum Likelihood Classification(MLC), Artificial Neural Network Classification(ANN), Minimum Distance Classification(MinDC) is higher, which is 82.81% and 82.26% and 66.41% respectively; the overall classification accuracy of Parallel Hexahedron Classification(Para), Spectral Information Divergence Classification(SID), Spectral Angle Classification(SAM) is low, which is 37.29%, 38.37, 53.73%, respectively. (2) from each category classification accuracy: although the overall accuracy of the Para is the lowest, it is much higher on grasslands, wetlands, forests, airport land, which is 89.59%, 94.14%, and 89.04%, respectively; the SAM, SID are good at forests classification with higher overall classification accuracy, which is 89.8% and 87.98%, respectively. Although the overall classification accuracy of ANN is very high, the classification accuracy of road, rural residential land and airport land is very low, which is 10.59%, 11% and 11.59% respectively. Other classification methods have their advantages and disadvantages. These results show that, under the same conditions, the same images with different classification methods to classify, there will be a classifier to some features has higher classification accuracy, a classifier to other objects has high classification accuracy, and therefore, we may select multi sub-classifier integration to improve the classification accuracy.

  17. Hydrologic classification of rivers based on cluster analysis of dimensionless hydrologic signatures: Applications for environmental instream flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praskievicz, S. J.; Luo, C.

    2017-12-01

    Classification of rivers is useful for a variety of purposes, such as generating and testing hypotheses about watershed controls on hydrology, predicting hydrologic variables for ungaged rivers, and setting goals for river management. In this research, we present a bottom-up (based on machine learning) river classification designed to investigate the underlying physical processes governing rivers' hydrologic regimes. The classification was developed for the entire state of Alabama, based on 248 United States Geological Survey (USGS) stream gages that met criteria for length and completeness of records. Five dimensionless hydrologic signatures were derived for each gage: slope of the flow duration curve (indicator of flow variability), baseflow index (ratio of baseflow to average streamflow), rising limb density (number of rising limbs per unit time), runoff ratio (ratio of long-term average streamflow to long-term average precipitation), and streamflow elasticity (sensitivity of streamflow to precipitation). We used a Bayesian clustering algorithm to classify the gages, based on the five hydrologic signatures, into distinct hydrologic regimes. We then used classification and regression trees (CART) to predict each gaged river's membership in different hydrologic regimes based on climatic and watershed variables. Using existing geospatial data, we applied the CART analysis to classify ungaged streams in Alabama, with the National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus) catchment (average area 3 km2) as the unit of classification. The results of the classification can be used for meeting management and conservation objectives in Alabama, such as developing statewide standards for environmental instream flows. Such hydrologic classification approaches are promising for contributing to process-based understanding of river systems.

  18. Best Practices in Academic Management. Study Programs Classification Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Ema Aleca

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes and tests a set of performance indicators for the assessment of Bachelor and Master studies, from two perspectives: the study programs and the disciplines. The academic performance at the level of a study program shall be calculated based on success and efficiency rates, and at discipline level, on the basis of rates of efficiency, success and absenteeism. This research proposes a model of classification of the study programs within a Bachelor and Master cycle based on the education performance and efficiency. What recommends this model as a best practice model in academic management is the possibility of grouping a study program or a discipline in a particular category of efficiency

  19. Classification of Global Urban Centers Using ASTER Data: Preliminary Results From the Urban Environmental Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, W. L.; Stefanov, W. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2001-05-01

    Land cover and land use changes associated with urbanization are important drivers of global ecologic and climatic change. Quantification and monitoring of these changes are part of the primary mission of the ASTER instrument, and comprise the fundamental research objective of the Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) Program. The UEM program will acquire day/night, visible through thermal infrared ASTER data twice per year for 100 global urban centers over the duration of the mission (6 years). Data are currently available for a number of these urban centers and allow for initial comparison of global city structure using spatial variance texture analysis of the 15 m/pixel visible to near infrared ASTER bands. Variance texture analysis highlights changes in pixel edge density as recorded by sharp transitions from bright to dark pixels. In human-dominated landscapes these brightness variations correlate well with urbanized vs. natural land cover and are useful for characterizing the geographic extent and internal structure of cities. Variance texture analysis was performed on twelve urban centers (Albuquerque, Baghdad, Baltimore, Chongqing, Istanbul, Johannesburg, Lisbon, Madrid, Phoenix, Puebla, Riyadh, Vancouver) for which cloud-free daytime ASTER data are available. Image transects through each urban center produce texture profiles that correspond to urban density. These profiles can be used to classify cities into centralized (ex. Baltimore), decentralized (ex. Phoenix), or intermediate (ex. Madrid) structural types. Image texture is one of the primary data inputs (with vegetation indices and visible to thermal infrared image spectra) to a knowledge-based land cover classifier currently under development for application to ASTER UEM data as it is acquired. Collaboration with local investigators is sought to both verify the accuracy of the knowledge-based system and to develop more sophisticated classification models.

  20. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines; » Copyright Notice. Author Guidelines. Guide to Authors: The Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management (EJESM) are based in Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Bahir Dar University, ...

  1. Archives: Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 54 ... Archives: Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management. Journal Home > Archives: Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management: About this journal. Journal Home > Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Relationships (I) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses for parenchymal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) has been developed for the screening, diagnosis, and epidemiological reporting of respiratory diseases caused by occupational hazards. This study aimed to establish a correlation between readings of HRCT (according to the ICOERD) and those of chest radiography (CXR) pneumoconiotic parenchymal opacities (according to the International Labor Organization Classification/International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses [ILO/ICRP]). Forty-six patients with and 28 controls without mineral dust exposure underwent posterior-anterior CXR and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' exposure and smoking history. Experts independently read CXRs (using ILO/ICRP). Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). The correlation between the ICOERD summed grades and ILO/ICRP profusions was evaluated using Spearman's rank-order correlation. Twenty-three patients had small opacities on CXR. HRCT showed that 21 patients had RO; 20 patients, IR opacities; and 23 patients, EM. The correlation between ILO/ICRP profusions and the ICOERD grades was 0.844 for rounded opacities (p<0.01). ICOERD readings from HRCT scans correlated well with previously validated ILO/ICRP criteria. The ICOERD adequately detects pneumoconiotic micronodules and can be used for the interpretation of pneumoconiosis.

  4. 30 CFR 256.82 - Environmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental studies. 256.82 Section 256.82... OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Studies § 256.82 Environmental studies. (a) The Director... practicable, be designed to predict environmental impacts of pollutants introduced into the environments and...

  5. A comparative study of machine learning models for ethnicity classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Advait; Bessie Amali, D. Geraldine

    2017-11-01

    This paper endeavours to adopt a machine learning approach to solve the problem of ethnicity recognition. Ethnicity identification is an important vision problem with its use cases being extended to various domains. Despite the multitude of complexity involved, ethnicity identification comes naturally to humans. This meta information can be leveraged to make several decisions, be it in target marketing or security. With the recent development of intelligent systems a sub module to efficiently capture ethnicity would be useful in several use cases. Several attempts to identify an ideal learning model to represent a multi-ethnic dataset have been recorded. A comparative study of classifiers such as support vector machines, logistic regression has been documented. Experimental results indicate that the logical classifier provides a much accurate classification than the support vector machine.

  6. Establishment of water quality classification scheme: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A water quality classification scheme based on 11 routinely measured physicochemical variables has been developed for the Calabar River Estuary. The variables considered include water temperature, pH. Eh, DO, DO saturation, BOD5, COD, TSS, turbidity, NH4-N and electrical conductivity. Classification of water source ...

  7. Characteristics and application study of AP1000 NPPs equipment reliability classification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Gao

    2013-01-01

    AP1000 nuclear power plant applies an integrated approach to establish equipment reliability classification, which includes probabilistic risk assessment technique, maintenance rule administrative, power production reliability classification and functional equipment group bounding method, and eventually classify equipment reliability into 4 levels. This classification process and result are very different from classical RCM and streamlined RCM. It studied the characteristic of AP1000 equipment reliability classification approach, considered that equipment reliability classification should effectively support maintenance strategy development and work process control, recommended to use a combined RCM method to establish the future equipment reliability program of AP1000 nuclear power plants. (authors)

  8. Natural radioactivity in environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijnis, H.; Jenkinson, A.; Chisari, R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The use natural radioactivity in environmental studies has proven a very powerful tool to determine the dynamics of both natural and antrophogenic processes in our environment. The use of 14 C in archeology and past climate studies has led to many scientific discoveries (i.e. shroud of Turin and Utze 'the ice-man' from Austria). The use of the 238 U-decay series is of at least equal value to studies in archeology and past climates. Some of the Isotopes studied supplement 14 C (which is limited to 40,000 years) up to 350,000 years and others can be utilized to date very young sediments, which can't be dated by 14 C. The so-called 210 Pb dating method has been used over the past 3 decades to date recent sediment. The method uses the disequilibrium in the 238 U decay chain, caused by the escape of the intermediate daughter 222 Rn (a noble gas) from the earth's crust. In the atmosphere the 222 Rn decays via short-lived daughter isotopes to 210 Pb. This 210 Pb with a very convenient half-life of 22,3 years decays to stable 206 Pb. By measuring the surface activity of a sediment core and subsequent samples at regular intervals one can establish a chronology for the sediment core. By studying the trace metals in these cores, one could deduce a contamination history for the region. Examples of studies supported by AINSE and ANSTO will be given

  9. Comparative study of environmental impact assessment methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to introduce and systematically investigate the environmental issues during important decision-making stages. Meanwhile, impacts of development on the environmental components will be also analyzed. This research studies various methods of predicting the environmental changes and determining the ...

  10. Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This special issue ‘Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health’ is part of the internationally leading 'International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health’. I was invited to be the guest editor, and to oversee the refereeing process and subsequent selection of timely, relevant and high quality papers highlighting particularly novel aspects concerned with sustainability issues in environmental studies. [...

  11. Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Miklas

    2009-01-01

    This special issue ‘Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health’ is part of the internationally leading 'International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health’. I was invited to be the guest editor, and to oversee the refereeing process and subsequent selection of timely, relevant and high quality papers highlighting particularly novel aspects concerned with sustainability issues in environmental studies. [...

  12. [Aetiological classification of ischaemic strokes: comparison of the new A-S-C-O classification and the classification by the Spanish Society of Neurology's Cerebrovascular Disease Study Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino García, P; García Pastor, A; García Arratibel, A; Vicente Peracho, G; Rodriguez Cruz, P M; Pérez Sánchez, J R; Díaz Otero, F; Vázquez Alén, P; Villanueva Osorio, J A; Gil Núñez, A

    2013-09-01

    The A-S-C-O classification may be better than other methods for classifying ischaemic stroke by aetiology. Our aims are to describe A-S-C-O phenotype distribution (A: atherosclerosis, S: small vessel disease, C: cardiac source, O: other causes; 1: potential cause, 2: causality uncertain, 3: unlikely to be a direct cause although disease is present) and compare them to the Spanish Society of Neurology's Cerebrovascular Disease Study Group (GEECV/SEN) classification. We will also find the degree of concordance between these classification methods and determine whether using the A-S-C-O classification delivers a smaller percentage of strokes of undetermined cause. We analysed those patients with ischaemic stroke admitted to our stroke unit in 2010 with strokes that were classified according to GEECV/SEN and A-S-C-O criteria. The study included 496 patients. The percentages of strokes caused by atherosclerosis and small vessel disease according to GEECV/SEN criteria were higher than the percentages for potential atherosclerotic stroke (A1) (14.1 vs. 11.9%; P=.16) and potential small vessel stroke (S1) (14.3 vs. 3%; Pcause of stroke and other potential causes (O1) were observed. Some degree of atherosclerosis was present in 53.5% of patients (A1, A2, or A3); 65.5% showed markers of small vessel disease (S1, S2, or S3), and 74.9% showed signs of cardioembolism (C1, C2, or C3). Fewer patients in the group without scores of 1 or 2 for any of the A-S-C-O phenotypes were identified as having a stroke of undetermined cause (46.6 vs. 29.2%; P0.8 (unusual causes and O1). Our results show that GEECV/SEN and A-S-C-O classifications are neither fully comparable nor consistent. Using the A-S-C-O classification provided additional information on co-morbidities and delivered a smaller percentage of strokes classified as having an undetermined cause. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential environmental impacts of light-emitting diodes (LEDs): metallic resources, toxicity, and hazardous waste classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Kang, Daniel; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are advertised as environmentally friendly because they are energy efficient and mercury-free. This study aimed to determine if LEDs engender other forms of environmental and human health impacts, and to characterize variation across different LEDs based on color and intensity. The objectives are as follows: (i) to use standardized leachability tests to examine whether LEDs are to be categorized as hazardous waste under existing United States federal and California state regulations; and (ii) to use material life cycle impact and hazard assessment methods to evaluate resource depletion and toxicity potentials of LEDs based on their metallic constituents. According to federal standards, LEDs are not hazardous except for low-intensity red LEDs, which leached Pb at levels exceeding regulatory limits (186 mg/L; regulatory limit: 5). However, according to California regulations, excessive levels of copper (up to 3892 mg/kg; limit: 2500), Pb (up to 8103 mg/kg; limit: 1000), nickel (up to 4797 mg/kg; limit: 2000), or silver (up to 721 mg/kg; limit: 500) render all except low-intensity yellow LEDs hazardous. The environmental burden associated with resource depletion potentials derives primarily from gold and silver, whereas the burden from toxicity potentials is associated primarily with arsenic, copper, nickel, lead, iron, and silver. Establishing benchmark levels of these substances can help manufacturers implement design for environment through informed materials substitution, can motivate recyclers and waste management teams to recognize resource value and occupational hazards, and can inform policymakers who establish waste management policies for LEDs.

  14. Study on remote sensing method for drawing up and utilizing ecological and natural map II; concentrated on drawing up a plant ecological classification map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong Woo; Chung, Hwui Chul [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Following with the flows of the environmental conservation, Korea has revised the law of natural environmental conservation. In this law, it has suggested to draw up an ecological nature figure for efficient preservation and utilization of a country. To draw up an ecological nature figure, it requires several evaluating factors. Among them, a plant ecological classification is a very important evaluating factor since it can evaluate a habitation area of natural organisms. This study investigated a drawing up method of plant ecological classification using satellite image data. However the limit of satellite image data and the quality of required plant ecological classification are not quite matched but if the satellite image data and the infrared color aerial photograph are mixed, it can be expected to have an excellent quality of plant ecological classification. 85 refs., 86 figs., 45 tabs.

  15. Comparative study of PCA in classification of multichannel EMG signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethanjali, P

    2015-06-01

    Electromyographic (EMG) signals are abundantly used in the field of rehabilitation engineering in controlling the prosthetic device and significantly essential to find fast and accurate EMG pattern recognition system, to avoid intrusive delay. The main objective of this paper is to study the influence of Principal component analysis (PCA), a transformation technique, in pattern recognition of six hand movements using four channel surface EMG signals from ten healthy subjects. For this reason, time domain (TD) statistical as well as auto regression (AR) coefficients are extracted from the four channel EMG signals. The extracted statistical features as well as AR coefficients are transformed using PCA to 25, 50 and 75 % of corresponding original feature vector space. The classification accuracy of PCA transformed and non-PCA transformed TD statistical features as well as AR coefficients are studied with simple logistic regression (SLR), decision tree (DT) with J48 algorithm, logistic model tree (LMT), k nearest neighbor (kNN) and neural network (NN) classifiers in the identification of six different movements. The Kruskal-Wallis (KW) statistical test shows that there is a significant reduction (P PCA transformed features compared to non-PCA transformed features. SLR with non-PCA transformed time domain (TD) statistical features performs better in accuracy and computational power compared to other features considered in this study. In addition, the motion control of three drives for six movements of the hand is implemented with SLR using TD statistical features in off-line with TMSLF2407 digital signal controller (DSC).

  16. Empirical Studies On Machine Learning Based Text Classification Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Shweta C. Dharmadhikari; Maya Ingle; Parag Kulkarni

    2011-01-01

    Automatic classification of text documents has become an important research issue now days. Properclassification of text documents requires information retrieval, machine learning and Natural languageprocessing (NLP) techniques. Our aim is to focus on important approaches to automatic textclassification based on machine learning techniques viz. supervised, unsupervised and semi supervised.In this paper we present a review of various text classification approaches under machine learningparadig...

  17. It's time to set some standards: Environmental classification of freshwater wetlands in New Zealand and their protection from eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith; Clarkson, Beverly

    Most natural resource plans provide protection for lakes and rivers from catchment activities leading to eutrophication. However, they are often silent about wetlands, due to the lack of information available for setting standards, defining reference conditions, and predicting responses to nutrient...... states in New Zealand wetlands, present an environmental classification based on physico-chemical and nutrient data, compare wetlands in New Zealand with those in other temperate regions, and argue for some catchment land use standards to protect wetlands from nutrient enrichment. Our database reveals...... that New Zealand wetlands, like those in other temperate climates, are defined by specific alkalinity and nutrient gradients and that there is a wide range of fertility levels. Using regression tree analysis, we have identified environmental groups of wetlands with significantly distinct nutrient regimes...

  18. On using the Multiple Signal Classification algorithm to study microbaroms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcillo, O. E.; Blom, P. S.; Euler, G. G.

    2016-12-01

    Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) (Schmidt, 1986) is a well-known high-resolution algorithm used in array processing for parameter estimation. We report on the application of MUSIC to infrasonic array data in a study of the structure of microbaroms. Microbaroms can be globally observed and display energy centered around 0.2 Hz. Microbaroms are an infrasonic signal generated by the non-linear interaction of ocean surface waves that radiate into the ocean and atmosphere as well as the solid earth in the form of microseisms. Microbaroms sources are dynamic and, in many cases, distributed in space and moving in time. We assume that the microbarom energy detected by an infrasonic array is the result of multiple sources (with different back-azimuths) in the same bandwidth and apply the MUSIC algorithm accordingly to recover the back-azimuth and trace velocity of the individual components. Preliminary results show that the multiple component assumption in MUSIC allows one to resolve the fine structure in the microbarom band that can be related to multiple ocean surface phenomena.

  19. A Study on the Systematization of Classification Process for NSG Trigger List Items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seunghyo; Tae, Jaewoong; Shin, Donghoon [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control/Nuclear Export Control Div., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In 1978, Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) was established to prevent nuclear items from being used for nuclear weapons. NSG drew up the NSG Guidelines (INFCIRC/254) that regulates export control items(so-called NSG trigger list items) and procedures. NSG recommends its member countries to reflect these guidelines on their export control systems and fulfill their obligations. Korea has carried out export controls on nuclear items by reflecting NSG Guidelines on Notice on Trade of Strategic Item of Foreign Trade Act since joining NSG in 1995. Nuclear export control starts with Classification that determines whether export items can be used for strategic items (goods and technologies that can be exclusively used for the manufacture, development and use of WMD). The standard of Classification is based on the NSG Guidelines. However, due to the qualitative characteristics of the Guidelines, there take place lots of difficulties in the Classification. Thus this study aims to suggest the systematic Classification process. Recently, the number of Classification requests is rapidly increasing due to the UAE commercial nuclear power plants and the Jordan reactors export. It is required to provide a more systematic Classification standard and process in order to provide an efficient and consistent Classification. Thus, this study analyzed limitations of EDP which causes difficulties in the process of classification due to its qualitative characteristics. Besides, it established systematic Classification process by quantitatively analyzing EDP. Consequently, it is expected that the results of this study will be used for as actual Classification. It still remains to establish a criterion of detailed information, which is one of the most important in the Classification for technology. Therefore, a further study will be conducted to establish a criterion of detailed information by analyzing Classification cases through the text mining techniques.

  20. A Study on the Systematization of Classification Process for NSG Trigger List Items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seunghyo; Tae, Jaewoong; Shin, Donghoon

    2013-01-01

    In 1978, Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) was established to prevent nuclear items from being used for nuclear weapons. NSG drew up the NSG Guidelines (INFCIRC/254) that regulates export control items(so-called NSG trigger list items) and procedures. NSG recommends its member countries to reflect these guidelines on their export control systems and fulfill their obligations. Korea has carried out export controls on nuclear items by reflecting NSG Guidelines on Notice on Trade of Strategic Item of Foreign Trade Act since joining NSG in 1995. Nuclear export control starts with Classification that determines whether export items can be used for strategic items (goods and technologies that can be exclusively used for the manufacture, development and use of WMD). The standard of Classification is based on the NSG Guidelines. However, due to the qualitative characteristics of the Guidelines, there take place lots of difficulties in the Classification. Thus this study aims to suggest the systematic Classification process. Recently, the number of Classification requests is rapidly increasing due to the UAE commercial nuclear power plants and the Jordan reactors export. It is required to provide a more systematic Classification standard and process in order to provide an efficient and consistent Classification. Thus, this study analyzed limitations of EDP which causes difficulties in the process of classification due to its qualitative characteristics. Besides, it established systematic Classification process by quantitatively analyzing EDP. Consequently, it is expected that the results of this study will be used for as actual Classification. It still remains to establish a criterion of detailed information, which is one of the most important in the Classification for technology. Therefore, a further study will be conducted to establish a criterion of detailed information by analyzing Classification cases through the text mining techniques

  1. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management (EJESM) is based in the Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. Its aim is to publish original research output in the area of Geography, Ecology, Botany, Conservation studies, Food and Nutrition, Water Resources, ...

  2. Study design considerations in evaluating environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan T. Lebow; Paul A. Cooper; Patricia Lebow

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to make the reader aware of how choices in study parameters may influence the outcome of treated-wood environmental impact evaluations. Evaluation of the leaching and environmental accumulation of preservatives from treated wood is a complex process. and many factors can influence the results of such studies. In laboratory studies, the...

  3. Hotel Classification Systems: A Comparison of International Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Minazzi,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades we have witnessed an increasing interest of scholars andespecially operators in service quality in the lodging business. Firstly, it is important to observe thatthe diverseness of the hospitality industry also affects the classification of hotel quality. We canactually find many programmes, classifications and seals of quality promoted by public authoritiesand private companies that create confusion in the consumer perceptions of hotel quality. Moreover,new electronic distribution channels and their ratings are becoming a new way to gather informationabout a hotel and its quality. Secondly, a point that can cause complications is that different countriesand regions can choose differing approaches depending on the features of the classification (numberof levels, symbols used, etc. and the nature of the programme (public, private. Considering theseassumptions and the recent changes in the Italian hotel classification system, this paper aims toanalyse the situation in Italy, underlining both its positive and negative aspects and comparing it withother European and North American cases. Based on a review of literature and tourism laws as wellas personal interviews with public authorities and exponents of the private sectors, we were able toidentify critical issues and trends in hotel classification systems. The comparison of case studiesshows a heterogeneous situation. Points in common are the scale and the symbol used but, if weanalyse the requirements of each category, we discover very different circumstances, also sometimesin the same country. A future European classification system could be possible only after astandardization of minimum requirements and criteria at a national level. In this situation brands andonline consumers’ feedbacks become even more considered by the customers in the hospitalityindustry.

  4. Etiological classifications of transient ischemic attacks: subtype classification by TOAST, CCS and ASCO--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amort, Margareth; Fluri, Felix; Weisskopf, Florian; Gensicke, Henrik; Bonati, Leo H; Lyrer, Philippe A; Engelter, Stefan T

    2012-01-01

    In patients with transient ischemic attacks (TIA), etiological classification systems are not well studied. The Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST), the Causative Classification System (CCS), and the Atherosclerosis Small Vessel Disease Cardiac Source Other Cause (ASCO) classification may be useful to determine the underlying etiology. We aimed at testing the feasibility of each of the 3 systems. Furthermore, we studied and compared their prognostic usefulness. In a single-center TIA registry prospectively ascertained over 2 years, we applied 3 etiological classification systems. We compared the distribution of underlying etiologies, the rates of patients with determined versus undetermined etiology, and studied whether etiological subtyping distinguished TIA patients with versus without subsequent stroke or TIA within 3 months. The 3 systems were applicable in all 248 patients. A determined etiology with the highest level of causality was assigned similarly often with TOAST (35.9%), CCS (34.3%), and ASCO (38.7%). However, the frequency of undetermined causes differed significantly between the classification systems and was lowest for ASCO (TOAST: 46.4%; CCS: 37.5%; ASCO: 18.5%; p CCS, and ASCO, cardioembolism (19.4/14.5/18.5%) was the most common etiology, followed by atherosclerosis (11.7/12.9/14.5%). At 3 months, 33 patients (13.3%, 95% confidence interval 9.3-18.2%) had recurrent cerebral ischemic events. These were strokes in 13 patients (5.2%; 95% confidence interval 2.8-8.8%) and TIAs in 20 patients (8.1%, 95% confidence interval 5.0-12.2%). Patients with a determined etiology (high level of causality) had higher rates of subsequent strokes than those without a determined etiology [TOAST: 6.7% (95% confidence interval 2.5-14.1%) vs. 4.4% (95% confidence interval 1.8-8.9%); CSS: 9.3% (95% confidence interval 4.1-17.5%) vs. 3.1% (95% confidence interval 1.0-7.1%); ASCO: 9.4% (95% confidence interval 4.4-17.1%) vs. 2.6% (95% confidence interval

  5. Classification of baseline toxicants for QSAR predictions to replace fish acute toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nendza, Monika; Müller, Martin; Wenzel, Andrea

    2017-03-22

    Fish acute toxicity studies are required for environmental hazard and risk assessment of chemicals by national and international legislations such as REACH, the regulations of plant protection products and biocidal products, or the GHS (globally harmonised system) for classification and labelling of chemicals. Alternative methods like QSARs (quantitative structure-activity relationships) can replace many ecotoxicity tests. However, complete substitution of in vivo animal tests by in silico methods may not be realistic. For the so-called baseline toxicants, it is possible to predict the fish acute toxicity with sufficient accuracy from log K ow and, hence, valid QSARs can replace in vivo testing. In contrast, excess toxicants and chemicals not reliably classified as baseline toxicants require further in silico, in vitro or in vivo assessments. Thus, the critical task is to discriminate between baseline and excess toxicants. For fish acute toxicity, we derived a scheme based on structural alerts and physicochemical property thresholds to classify chemicals as either baseline toxicants (=predictable by QSARs) or as potential excess toxicants (=not predictable by baseline QSARs). The step-wise approach identifies baseline toxicants (true negatives) in a precautionary way to avoid false negative predictions. Therefore, a certain fraction of false positives can be tolerated, i.e. baseline toxicants without specific effects that may be tested instead of predicted. Application of the classification scheme to a new heterogeneous dataset for diverse fish species results in 40% baseline toxicants, 24% excess toxicants and 36% compounds not classified. Thus, we can conclude that replacing about half of the fish acute toxicity tests by QSAR predictions is realistic to be achieved in the short-term. The long-term goals are classification criteria also for further groups of toxicants and to replace as many in vivo fish acute toxicity tests as possible with valid QSAR

  6. Bonus Point System for Refuse Classification and Sustainable Development: A Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of household waste not only endangers the environment and people’s health, but also limits social and economic development. The effective sorting and recycling of garbage can control this problem. Adopting a semi-quantitative case study method, our researchers investigated the effect of a bonus point system for refuse classification that improves the accuracy of refuse classification and the residents’ environment awareness. In the system, residents will receive some gifts after sorting the garbage correctly. We also investigated the attitudes of residents and companies towards this novel system. Our researchers employed various methods to analyze garbage-sorting data, questionnaires completed by residents, and interview records. The results show that use of a bonus point system affects the management of domestic waste by improving the accuracy and enhancing the awareness of garbage sorting. Overall, residents support the system and benefit from it, which increases participation and consciousness of environmental protection. However, continuous publicity and coordination of various policies are required to promote the wide-range implementation and sustainable development of this system.

  7. 25 CFR 212.7 - Environmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental studies. 212.7 Section 212.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.7 Environmental studies. The provisions of § 211.7 of this subchapter...

  8. The Environmental Action and Philosophy Matrix: An Exploratory Study of the Environmental Attitudes of Recreation Management and Environmental Studies Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jeremy R.; Simpson, Steven; Elfessi, Abdulaziz M.

    2011-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of the environmental philosophies of college undergraduates enrolled in a Midwestern university. Two courses were used for the research, one from a recreation management curriculum and the other from environmental studies. The study utilized a survey instrument called the Environmental Action and Philosophy…

  9. Summer Undergraduate Research Program: Environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J. [ed.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. The students are offered research topics at the Medical University in the scientific areas of pharmacology and toxicology, epidemiology and risk assessment, environmental microbiology, and marine sciences. Students are also afforded the opportunity to work with faculty at the University of Charleston, SC, on projects with an environmental theme. Ten well-qualified students from colleges and universities throughout the eastern United States were accepted into the program.

  10. landscape incorporation in the environmental impact studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez G, Luz Angela

    2000-01-01

    A general overview on landscape analysis showing the two principal approaches to their study, the article emphasize on the need of taking landscape in consideration on the making of the environmental impact study of any project of development

  11. Measuring Environmental Factors: Unique and Overlapping International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Coverage of 5 Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Allen W; Miskovic, Ana; Semik, Patrick; Wong, Alex; Dashner, Jessica; Baum, Carolyn; Magasi, Susan; Hammel, Joy; Tulsky, David S; Garcia, Sofia F; Jerousek, Sara; Lai, Jin-Shei; Carlozzi, Noelle E; Gray, David B

    2016-12-01

    To describe the unique and overlapping content of the newly developed Environmental Factors Item Banks (EFIB) and 7 legacy environmental factor instruments, and to evaluate the EFIB's construct validity by examining associations with legacy instruments. Cross-sectional, observational cohort. Community. A sample of community-dwelling adults with stroke, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury (N=568). None. EFIB covering domains of the built and natural environment; systems, services, and policies; social environment; and access to information and technology; the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors (CHIEF) short form; the Facilitators and Barriers Survey/Mobility (FABS/M) short form; the Home and Community Environment Instrument (HACE); the Measure of the Quality of the Environment (MQE) short form; and 3 of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System's (PROMIS) Quality of Social Support measures. The EFIB and legacy instruments assess most of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) environmental factors chapters, including chapter 1 (products and technology; 75 items corresponding to 11 codes), chapter 2 (natural environment and human-made changes; 31 items corresponding to 7 codes), chapter 3 (support and relationships; 74 items corresponding to 7 codes), chapter 4 (attitudes; 83 items corresponding to 8 codes), and chapter 5 (services, systems, and policies; 72 items corresponding to 16 codes). Construct validity is provided by moderate correlations between EFIB measures and the CHIEF, MQE barriers, HACE technology mobility, FABS/M community built features, and PROMIS item banks and by small correlations with other legacy instruments. Only 5 of the 66 legacy instrument correlation coefficients are moderate, suggesting they measure unique aspects of the environment, whereas all intra-EFIB correlations were at least moderate. The EFIB measures provide a brief and focused assessment of ICF

  12. The Environmental Assessment Technique: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Jesse U., IV

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of Alexander Astin's Environmental Assessment Technique (EAT) in describing the environmental press at a large public university, California State University at Los Angeles. Results indicate that EAT is a very economical method for broadly describing aspects of a university's…

  13. Understanding the use of standardized nursing terminology and classification systems in published research: A case study using the International Classification for Nursing Practice(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strudwick, Gillian; Hardiker, Nicholas R

    2016-10-01

    In the era of evidenced based healthcare, nursing is required to demonstrate that care provided by nurses is associated with optimal patient outcomes, and a high degree of quality and safety. The use of standardized nursing terminologies and classification systems are a way that nursing documentation can be leveraged to generate evidence related to nursing practice. Several widely-reported nursing specific terminologies and classifications systems currently exist including the Clinical Care Classification System, International Classification for Nursing Practice(®), Nursing Intervention Classification, Nursing Outcome Classification, Omaha System, Perioperative Nursing Data Set and NANDA International. However, the influence of these systems on demonstrating the value of nursing and the professions' impact on quality, safety and patient outcomes in published research is relatively unknown. This paper seeks to understand the use of standardized nursing terminology and classification systems in published research, using the International Classification for Nursing Practice(®) as a case study. A systematic review of international published empirical studies on, or using, the International Classification for Nursing Practice(®) were completed using Medline and the Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Since 2006, 38 studies have been published on the International Classification for Nursing Practice(®). The main objectives of the published studies have been to validate the appropriateness of the classification system for particular care areas or populations, further develop the classification system, or utilize it to support the generation of new nursing knowledge. To date, most studies have focused on the classification system itself, and a lesser number of studies have used the system to generate information about the outcomes of nursing practice. Based on the published literature that features the International Classification for Nursing

  14. Desert plains classification based on Geomorphometrical parameters (Case study: Aghda, Yazd)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazeh, mahdi; Kalantari, Saeideh

    2013-04-01

    This research focuses on plains. There are several tremendous methods and classification which presented for plain classification. One of The natural resource based classification which is mostly using in Iran, classified plains into three types, Erosional Pediment, Denudation Pediment Aggradational Piedmont. The qualitative and quantitative factors to differentiate them from each other are also used appropriately. In this study effective Geomorphometrical parameters in differentiate landforms were applied for plain. Geomorphometrical parameters are calculable and can be extracted using mathematical equations and the corresponding relations on digital elevation model. Geomorphometrical parameters used in this study included Percent of Slope, Plan Curvature, Profile Curvature, Minimum Curvature, the Maximum Curvature, Cross sectional Curvature, Longitudinal Curvature and Gaussian Curvature. The results indicated that the most important affecting Geomorphometrical parameters for plain and desert classifications includes: Percent of Slope, Minimum Curvature, Profile Curvature, and Longitudinal Curvature. Key Words: Plain, Geomorphometry, Classification, Biophysical, Yazd Khezarabad.

  15. The Study on Integrating WebQuest with Mobile Learning for Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Sian; Chen, Tzung-Shi; Hsu, Wei-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This study is to demonstrate the impact of different teaching strategies on the learning performance of environmental education using quantitative methods. Students learned about resource recycling and classification through an instructional website based on the teaching tool of WebQuest. There were 103 sixth-grade students participating in this…

  16. A study on the systematization of commodity classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Jae Woong; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    International community is trying to prevent the spread of WMD (Weapons of Mass Destruction), especially nuclear weapons. These efforts result in the declaration of UNSC Resolution 1540 in 2004, which made export controls the international norms for all nations in the world. Korea enacted Foreign Trade Act in 1989 to adhere to the export control standards worldwide. Export control system in Korea consists of commodity classification system and export license system. The commodity classification system is used to identify strategic commodity. The Export License system is used to verify that exports have met the conditions required by the international export control system. NSG guidelines, the NSG handbook and Public Notice on Trade of Strategic Items are used to classify items and technology However, some items or technology in NSG guidelines should be especially designed or prepared (EDP). It is difficult to determine which items or technology is strategic commodity because EDP criteria are qualitative. NSG or participant states don't provide clear criteria to classify items and technology but recommend establishing standards autonomously. Hence the result of deliberation on the same items and technology may be different by reviewer's experience, knowledge and governmental policy. It causes confusion of reviewers and export companies In this research, commodity classification systematization by EDP criteria's clarification was performed to increase consistency and efficiency

  17. Stroke subtyping for genetic association studies? A comparison of the CCS and TOAST classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranconi, Silvia; Markus, Hugh S

    2013-12-01

    A reliable and reproducible classification system of stroke subtype is essential for epidemiological and genetic studies. The Causative Classification of Stroke system is an evidence-based computerized algorithm with excellent inter-rater reliability. It has been suggested that, compared to the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification, it increases the proportion of cases with defined subtype that may increase power in genetic association studies. We compared Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment and Causative Classification of Stroke system classifications in a large cohort of well-phenotyped stroke patients. Six hundred ninety consecutively recruited patients with first-ever ischemic stroke were classified, using review of clinical data and original imaging, according to the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment and Causative Classification of Stroke system classifications. There was excellent agreement subtype assigned by between Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment and Causative Classification of Stroke system (kappa = 0·85). The agreement was excellent for the major individual subtypes: large artery atherosclerosis kappa = 0·888, small-artery occlusion kappa = 0·869, cardiac embolism kappa = 0·89, and undetermined category kappa = 0·884. There was only moderate agreement (kappa = 0·41) for the subjects with at least two competing underlying mechanism. Thirty-five (5·8%) patients classified as undetermined by Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment were assigned to a definite subtype by Causative Classification of Stroke system. Thirty-two subjects assigned to a definite subtype by Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment were classified as undetermined by Causative Classification of Stroke system. There is excellent agreement between classification using Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment and Causative Classification of Stroke systems but no evidence that Causative

  18. A comparative study of PCA, SIMCA and Cole model for classification of bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejadgholi, Isar; Bolic, Miodrag

    2015-08-01

    Due to safety and low cost of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), classification of BIS can be potentially a preferred way of detecting changes in living tissues. However, for longitudinal datasets linear classifiers fail to classify conventional Cole parameters extracted from BIS measurements because of their high variability. In some applications, linear classification based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has shown more accurate results. Yet, these methods have not been established for BIS classification, since PCA features have neither been investigated in combination with other classifiers nor have been compared to conventional Cole features in benchmark classification tasks. In this work, PCA and Cole features are compared in three synthesized benchmark classification tasks which are expected to be detected by BIS. These three tasks are classification of before and after geometry change, relative composition change and blood perfusion in a cylindrical organ. Our results show that in all tasks the features extracted by PCA are more discriminant than Cole parameters. Moreover, a pilot study was done on a longitudinal arm BIS dataset including eight subjects and three arm positions. The goal of the study was to compare different methods in arm position classification which includes all three synthesized changes mentioned above. Our comparative study on various classification methods shows that the best classification accuracy is obtained when PCA features are classified by a K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) classifier. The results of this work suggest that PCA+KNN is a promising method to be considered for classification of BIS datasets that deal with subject and time variability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Voice classification and vocal tract of singers: a study of x-ray images and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roers, Friederike; Mürbe, Dirk; Sundberg, Johan

    2009-01-01

    This investigation compares vocal tract dimensions and the classification of singer voices by examining an x-ray material assembled between 1959 and 1991 of students admitted to the solo singing education at the University of Music, Dresden, Germany. A total of 132 images were available to analysis. Different classifications' values of the lengths of the total vocal tract, the pharynx, and mouth cavities as well as of the relative position of the larynx, the height of the palatal arch, and the estimated vocal fold length were analyzed statistically, and some significant differences were found. The length of the pharynx cavity seemed particularly influential on the total vocal tract length, which varied systematically with classification. Also studied were the relationships between voice classification and the body height and weight and the body mass index. The data support the hypothesis that there are consistent morphological vocal tract differences between singers of different voice classifications.

  20. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management (EJESM) is based in ... Remote sensing and gis applications in determining shoreline and surface ... Assessment Of Labile Metals In Effluents From Lubricating Oil Company In ...

  1. Application of radiotracers in environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, V.S.

    1994-01-01

    An attempt has been made to present recently emerging trends in the applicability of radiotracers in environmental studies. Since the topic is of general interest and still in the infancy, basic aspects of sampling, instrumentation and methodology are also covered

  2. International classifications of accounting systems as a result of influence of various environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Mijoč

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Activities of various environmental factors resulted in the emergence of accounting clusters that in- clude equal or similar countries, observed through evaluation (measurement criteria and publishing, which has led to group formation, i.e. clusterisation of accounting systems within similar or equal groups, subgroups and clusters. The key principle of group formation of accounting systems within certain clusters implies similar accounting practices, primarily the practice of measuring (evaluating positions and publishing information in financial reports. The measurement level and the quantity of published information is related to the environmental factors, primarily to cultural heritage, which, according to claims of numerous authors, is of crucial importance. If accounting practices of the com- pared countries are observed according to this factor, then it is possible to form at least two or more clusters, which is significant in the world of financial reporting as there are some controversies in the relation between IASB and FASB even today.

  3. Use of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to describe patient-reported disability in multiple sclerosis and identification of relevant environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fary; Pallant, Julie F

    2007-01-01

    To use the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to describe patient-reported disability in multiple sclerosis and identify relevant environmental factors. Cross-sectional survey of 101 participants in the community. Their multiple sclerosis-related problems were linked with ICF categories (second level) using a checklist, consensus between health professionals and the "linking rules". The impact of multiple sclerosis on health areas corresponding to 48 ICF categories was also assessed. A total of 170 ICF categories were identified (mean age 49 years, 72 were female). Average number of problems reported was 18. The categories include 48 (42%) for body function, 16 (34%) body structure, 68 (58%) activities and participation and 38 (51%) for environmental factors. Extreme impact in health areas corresponding to ICF categories for activities and participation were reported for mobility, work, everyday home activities, community and social activities. While those for the environmental factors (barriers) included products for mobility, attitudes of extended family, restriction accessing social security and health resources. This study is a first step in the use of the ICF in persons with multiple sclerosis and towards development of the ICF Core set for multiple sclerosis from a broader international perspective.

  4. Radiological assessments, environmental monitoring, and study design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.R.; Elle, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Studies of the behavior of transuranic elements in the environment form the basic data for applied programs in radiological assessment, environmental monitoring, derivation of radiation-protection standards, and environmental impact statements. This chapter introduces some of the major information requirements of these applications of transuranic research data. Characteristics of the source terms from nuclear activities usually are needed for an analysis of environmental pathways or deployment of monitoring systems. Major inhalation and ingestion pathways are considered in assessments of hazards from transuranics and are discussed from the viewpoint of research needed

  5. The organization of nuclear plants environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Marechal, M.

    1980-01-01

    The author first defines the objectives of environmental studies. Next, he describes the scope and organization of sites studies as well as biological and radioecological general studies. At last, he puts forward the available means that are used for such studies and the different offices responsible for their achievement [fr

  6. Environmental impact assessment: Classification of ecosystems with respect to vulnerability for radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blytt, Line Diana

    1999-01-01

    This presentation recommends that an environmental impact assessment should be made ahead of any major action plan in the environment. The final document should point out to the authorities and public that expertise has been systematised in order to predict the effects of an action plan on the environment. This should be done for different scenarios and time scales. A useful tool for an environmental impact assessment is GIS, Geographic Information Systems. It can be used to identify areas and ecosystems that are vulnerable to radioactive contamination. To predict the radiation dose to humans and biota, a vulnerability assessment considers population density, land use, economic resources and the chemical and biological pathways of radionuclides in different ecosystems. Supplemented with knowledge of consumption and dietary habits a vulnerability assessment can be used to identify critical groups and to calculate doses to these groups. For ecosystems, vulnerability can be quantified by using critical loads for radioactive contamination or flux of radionuclides from an area. One criterion for critical load can be that intervention limits for food products should not be exceeded. If the critical load is low, this indicates a high vulnerability. The flux from an area can also identify vulnerability and it can be used to calculate collective dose. The vulnerability approach is a methodology that can be used to select areas that are suitable for treatment, transport and disposal of radioactive waste

  7. Citizen science land cover classification based on ground and satellite imagery: Case study Day River in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Son Tung; Minkman, Ellen; Rutten, Martine

    2016-04-01

    Citizen science is being increasingly used in the context of environmental research, thus there are needs to evaluate cognitive ability of humans in classifying environmental features. With the focus on land cover, this study explores the extent to which citizen science can be applied in sensing and measuring the environment that contribute to the creation and validation of land cover data. The Day Basin in Vietnam was selected to be the study area. Different methods to examine humans' ability to classify land cover were implemented using different information sources: ground based photos - satellite images - field observation and investigation. Most of the participants were solicited from local people and/or volunteers. Results show that across methods and sources of information, there are similar patterns of agreement and disagreement on land cover classes among participants. Understanding these patterns is critical to create a solid basis for implementing human sensors in earth observation. Keywords: Land cover, classification, citizen science, Landsat 8

  8. A Preliminary Study on the Multiple Mapping Structure of Classification Systems for Heterogeneous Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Seok-Hyoung Lee; Hwan-Min Kim; Ho-Seop Choe

    2012-01-01

    While science and technology information service portals and heterogeneous databases produced in Korea and other countries are integrated, methods of connecting the unique classification systems applied to each database have been studied. Results of technologists' research, such as, journal articles, patent specifications, and research reports, are organically related to each other. In this case, if the most basic and meaningful classification systems are not connected, it is difficult to ach...

  9. Environmental concepts in rural Honduras: A case study of their range and application within environmental education design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Robert Sanders

    1998-12-01

    The rate of environmental degradation in the Third World continues to present residents of countries like Honduras with conditions that threaten the quality of life and ecological systems. How people conceptualize their environment could be a point of entry into a greater understanding of environmental problems. Through individual interviews and focus group discussions, this study comprises a qualitative examination of the environmental concepts of a sample of 75 rural Hondurans. Analysis of their concepts was used to construct a tentative interpretation of the rural Honduran worldview characteristics of Self, Other, Relationship, Classification, Causality, Time, and Space. The findings of this investigation indicated that rural Hondurans conceptualize their environment through the worldview lenses of survival and poverty, leading to a sense of fatalism when confronting the complex and multifaceted problems associated with quality of life and environmental quality. Analysis of concepts and worldview also indicated that rural Hondurans generally do not believe their environmental problems are solvable, nor do they appear to understand that these problems are also cultural problems whose solutions will most likely require some revision of their current worldview. An educational approach that fosters the integration of compatible environmental concepts into the rural Honduran worldview is recommended through the application of design strategies for a prospective environmental education process.

  10. 846 Department of Geography and Environmental Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-10-23

    Oct 23, 2015 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 8(Suppl. 1): 846 – 854 ... explain causes for regional variations of road development. Secondary ... stock road network was 6400 km in 1951 .... Figure 1: Growth of Rural and urban Roads in Ethiopia, 1992-2009 ..... Zone: A Case Study of Ethiopia”.

  11. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  12. Comprehensive Study on Lexicon-based Ensemble Classification Sentiment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Augustyniak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel method for counting sentiment orientation that outperforms supervised learning approaches in time and memory complexity and is not statistically significantly different from them in accuracy. Our method consists of a novel approach to generating unigram, bigram and trigram lexicons. The proposed method, called frequentiment, is based on calculating the frequency of features (words in the document and averaging their impact on the sentiment score as opposed to documents that do not contain these features. Afterwards, we use ensemble classification to improve the overall accuracy of the method. What is important is that the frequentiment-based lexicons with sentiment threshold selection outperform other popular lexicons and some supervised learners, while being 3–5 times faster than the supervised approach. We compare 37 methods (lexicons, ensembles with lexicon’s predictions as input and supervised learners applied to 10 Amazon review data sets and provide the first statistical comparison of the sentiment annotation methods that include ensemble approaches. It is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of domain sentiment analysis in the literature.

  13. Estimation methods of eco-environmental water requirements: Case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhifeng; CUI Baoshan; LIU Jingling

    2005-01-01

    Supplying water to the ecological environment with certain quantity and quality is significant for the protection of diversity and the realization of sustainable development. The conception and connotation of eco-environmental water requirements, including the definition of the conception, the composition and characteristics of eco-environmental water requirements, are evaluated in this paper. The classification and estimation methods of eco-environmental water requirements are then proposed. On the basis of the study on the Huang-Huai-Hai Area, the present water use, the minimum and suitable water requirement are estimated and the corresponding water shortage is also calculated. According to the interrelated programs, the eco-environmental water requirements in the coming years (2010, 2030, 2050) are estimated. The result indicates that the minimum and suitable eco-environmental water requirements fluctuate with the differences of function setting and the referential standard of water resources, and so as the water shortage. Moreover, the study indicates that the minimum eco-environmental water requirement of the study area ranges from 2.84×1010m3 to 1.02×1011m3, the suitable water requirement ranges from 6.45×1010m3 to 1.78×1011m3, the water shortage ranges from 9.1×109m3 to 2.16×1010m3 under the minimum water requirement, and it is from 3.07×1010m3 to 7.53×1010m3 under the suitable water requirement. According to the different values of the water shortage, the water priority can be allocated. The ranges of the eco-environmental water requirements in the three coming years (2010, 2030, 2050) are 4.49×1010m3-1.73×1011m3, 5.99×10m3?2.09×1011m3, and 7.44×1010m3-2.52×1011m3, respectively.

  14. British athletics muscle injury classification: a reliability study for a new grading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, A.; Chakraverty, J.; Pollock, N.; Chakraverty, R.; Suokas, A.K.; James, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To implement and validate the newly proposed British athletics muscle injury classification in the assessment of hamstring injuries in track and field athletes and to analyse the nature and frequency of the discrepancies. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study analysing hamstring injuries in elite British athletes using the proposed classification system. Classification of 65 hamstring injuries in 45 high-level athletes by two radiologists at two time points 4 months apart to determine interrater variability, intrarater variability, and feasibility of the classification system was undertaken. Results: Interrater Kappa values of 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67–0.92; p<0.0001) for Round 1 and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.76–1.00; p<0.0001) for Round 2 of the review were observed. Percentages of agreement were 85% for Round 1 and 91% for Round 2. The intrarater Kappa value for the two reviewers were 0.76 (95% CI: 0.63–0.88; p<0.0001) and 0.65 (95% CI: 0.53–0.76; p<0.0001) and the average was 0.71 suggesting substantial overall agreement. The percentages of agreement were 82% and 72%, respectively. Conclusions: This classification system is straightforward to use and produces both reproducible and consistent results based on interrater and intrarater Kappa values with at least substantial agreement in all groups. Further work is ongoing to investigate whether individual grades within this classification system provide prognostic information and could guide clinical management. - Highlights: • This classification system is based on MRI parameters shown to have prognostic relevance. • It is simple to use, reproducible and clinically relevant which will enhance clinical practice. • Once clinicians are familiar with the classification inter & intrarater reliability will improve.

  15. Jupiter Environmental Research & Field Studies Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttemeyer, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development and workings of the Jupiter Environmental Research and Field Studies Academy that focuses on enabling both teachers and students to participate in real-life learning experiences. Discusses qualifications for admittance, curriculum, location, ongoing projects, students, academics, preparation for life, problem solving, and…

  16. Tortuguero Bay [Puerto Rico] environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.D.; Youngbluth, M.J.; Nutt, M.E.; Yoshioka, P.; Canoy, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    Site selection surveys and environmental research studies of seven coastal sites in Puerto Rico for construction of power generating facilities were carried out. Data are presented on the physical, chemical, and geological parameters of the Tortuguero Bay site, and the ecological parameters of zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, plant and fish communities. (U.S.)

  17. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management: Advanced Search ... AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., archive ((journal OR conference) NOT theses); Search for an exact ...

  18. Evaluating the potential for site-specific modification of LiDAR DEM derivatives to improve environmental planning-scale wetland identification using Random Forest classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Gina L.; Goodall, Jonathan L.; Watson, Layne T.

    2018-04-01

    Wetlands are important ecosystems that provide many ecological benefits, and their quality and presence are protected by federal regulations. These regulations require wetland delineations, which can be costly and time-consuming to perform. Computer models can assist in this process, but lack the accuracy necessary for environmental planning-scale wetland identification. In this study, the potential for improvement of wetland identification models through modification of digital elevation model (DEM) derivatives, derived from high-resolution and increasingly available light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data, at a scale necessary for small-scale wetland delineations is evaluated. A novel approach of flow convergence modelling is presented where Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), curvature, and Cartographic Depth-to-Water index (DTW), are modified to better distinguish wetland from upland areas, combined with ancillary soil data, and used in a Random Forest classification. This approach is applied to four study sites in Virginia, implemented as an ArcGIS model. The model resulted in significant improvement in average wetland accuracy compared to the commonly used National Wetland Inventory (84.9% vs. 32.1%), at the expense of a moderately lower average non-wetland accuracy (85.6% vs. 98.0%) and average overall accuracy (85.6% vs. 92.0%). From this, we concluded that modifying TWI, curvature, and DTW provides more robust wetland and non-wetland signatures to the models by improving accuracy rates compared to classifications using the original indices. The resulting ArcGIS model is a general tool able to modify these local LiDAR DEM derivatives based on site characteristics to identify wetlands at a high resolution.

  19. A Comparative Study of Feature Selection and Classification Methods for Gene Expression Data

    KAUST Repository

    Abusamra, Heba

    2013-05-01

    Microarray technology has enriched the study of gene expression in such a way that scientists are now able to measure the expression levels of thousands of genes in a single experiment. Microarray gene expression data gained great importance in recent years due to its role in disease diagnoses and prognoses which help to choose the appropriate treatment plan for patients. This technology has shifted a new era in molecular classification, interpreting gene expression data remains a difficult problem and an active research area due to their native nature of “high dimensional low sample size”. Such problems pose great challenges to existing classification methods. Thus, effective feature selection techniques are often needed in this case to aid to correctly classify different tumor types and consequently lead to a better understanding of genetic signatures as well as improve treatment strategies. This thesis aims on a comparative study of state-of-the-art feature selection methods, classification methods, and the combination of them, based on gene expression data. We compared the efficiency of three different classification methods including: support vector machines, k- nearest neighbor and random forest, and eight different feature selection methods, including: information gain, twoing rule, sum minority, max minority, gini index, sum of variances, t- statistics, and one-dimension support vector machine. Five-fold cross validation was used to evaluate the classification performance. Two publicly available gene expression data sets of glioma were used for this study. Different experiments have been applied to compare the performance of the classification methods with and without performing feature selection. Results revealed the important role of feature selection in classifying gene expression data. By performing feature selection, the classification accuracy can be significantly boosted by using a small number of genes. The relationship of features selected in

  20. Using methods from the data mining and machine learning literature for disease classification and prediction: A case study examining classification of heart failure sub-types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C.; Tu, Jack V.; Ho, Jennifer E.; Levy, Daniel; Lee, Douglas S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Physicians classify patients into those with or without a specific disease. Furthermore, there is often interest in classifying patients according to disease etiology or subtype. Classification trees are frequently used to classify patients according to the presence or absence of a disease. However, classification trees can suffer from limited accuracy. In the data-mining and machine learning literature, alternate classification schemes have been developed. These include bootstrap aggregation (bagging), boosting, random forests, and support vector machines. Study design and Setting We compared the performance of these classification methods with those of conventional classification trees to classify patients with heart failure according to the following sub-types: heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) vs. heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). We also compared the ability of these methods to predict the probability of the presence of HFPEF with that of conventional logistic regression. Results We found that modern, flexible tree-based methods from the data mining literature offer substantial improvement in prediction and classification of heart failure sub-type compared to conventional classification and regression trees. However, conventional logistic regression had superior performance for predicting the probability of the presence of HFPEF compared to the methods proposed in the data mining literature. Conclusion The use of tree-based methods offers superior performance over conventional classification and regression trees for predicting and classifying heart failure subtypes in a population-based sample of patients from Ontario. However, these methods do not offer substantial improvements over logistic regression for predicting the presence of HFPEF. PMID:23384592

  1. A Preliminary Study on the Multiple Mapping Structure of Classification Systems for Heterogeneous Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hyoung Lee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available While science and technology information service portals and heterogeneous databases produced in Korea and other countries are integrated, methods of connecting the unique classification systems applied to each database have been studied. Results of technologists' research, such as, journal articles, patent specifications, and research reports, are organically related to each other. In this case, if the most basic and meaningful classification systems are not connected, it is difficult to achieve interoperability of the information and thus not easy to implement meaningful science technology information services through information convergence. This study aims to address the aforementioned issue by analyzing mapping systems between classification systems in order to design a structure to connect a variety of classification systems used in the academic information database of the Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, which provides science and technology information portal service. This study also aims to design a mapping system for the classification systems to be applied to actual science and technology information services and information management systems.

  2. Effect of e-learning program on risk assessment and pressure ulcer classification - A randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredesen, Ida Marie; Bjøro, Karen; Gunningberg, Lena; Hofoss, Dag

    2016-05-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) are a problem in health care. Staff competency is paramount to PU prevention. Education is essential to increase skills in pressure ulcer classification and risk assessment. Currently, no pressure ulcer learning programs are available in Norwegian. Develop and test an e-learning program for assessment of pressure ulcer risk and pressure ulcer classification. Forty-four nurses working in acute care hospital wards or nursing homes participated and were assigned randomly into two groups: an e-learning program group (intervention) and a traditional classroom lecture group (control). Data was collected immediately before and after training, and again after three months. The study was conducted at one nursing home and two hospitals between May and December 2012. Accuracy of risk assessment (five patient cases) and pressure ulcer classification (40 photos [normal skin, pressure ulcer categories I-IV] split in two sets) were measured by comparing nurse evaluations in each of the two groups to a pre-established standard based on ratings by experts in pressure ulcer classification and risk assessment. Inter-rater reliability was measured by exact percent agreement and multi-rater Fleiss kappa. A Mann-Whitney U test was used for continuous sum score variables. An e-learning program did not improve Braden subscale scoring. For pressure ulcer classification, however, the intervention group scored significantly higher than the control group on several of the categories in post-test immediately after training. However, after three months there were no significant differences in classification skills between the groups. An e-learning program appears to have a greater effect on the accuracy of pressure ulcer classification than classroom teaching in the short term. For proficiency in Braden scoring, no significant effect of educational methods on learning results was detected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prediction of cause of death from forensic autopsy reports using text classification techniques: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Ghulam; Shuib, Liyana; Raj, Ram Gopal; Rajandram, Retnagowri; Shaikh, Khairunisa

    2018-07-01

    Automatic text classification techniques are useful for classifying plaintext medical documents. This study aims to automatically predict the cause of death from free text forensic autopsy reports by comparing various schemes for feature extraction, term weighing or feature value representation, text classification, and feature reduction. For experiments, the autopsy reports belonging to eight different causes of death were collected, preprocessed and converted into 43 master feature vectors using various schemes for feature extraction, representation, and reduction. The six different text classification techniques were applied on these 43 master feature vectors to construct a classification model that can predict the cause of death. Finally, classification model performance was evaluated using four performance measures i.e. overall accuracy, macro precision, macro-F-measure, and macro recall. From experiments, it was found that that unigram features obtained the highest performance compared to bigram, trigram, and hybrid-gram features. Furthermore, in feature representation schemes, term frequency, and term frequency with inverse document frequency obtained similar and better results when compared with binary frequency, and normalized term frequency with inverse document frequency. Furthermore, the chi-square feature reduction approach outperformed Pearson correlation, and information gain approaches. Finally, in text classification algorithms, support vector machine classifier outperforms random forest, Naive Bayes, k-nearest neighbor, decision tree, and ensemble-voted classifier. Our results and comparisons hold practical importance and serve as references for future works. Moreover, the comparison outputs will act as state-of-art techniques to compare future proposals with existing automated text classification techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. [Difficulties of the methods for studying environmental exposure and neural tube defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja-Aburto, V H; Bermúdez-Castro, O; Lacasaña-Navarro, M; Kuri, P; Bustamante-Montes, P; Torres-Meza, V

    1999-01-01

    To discuss the attitudes in the assessment of environmental exposures as risk factors associated with neural tube defects, and to present the main risk factors studied to date. Environmental exposures have been suggested to have a roll in the genesis of birth defects. However, studies conducted in human populations have found difficulties in the design and conduction to show such an association for neural tube defects (anencephaly, espina bifida and encephalocele) because of problems raised from: a) the frequency measures used to compare time trends and communities, b) the classification of heterogeneous malformations, c) the inclusion of maternal, paternal and fetal factors as an integrated process and, d) the assessment of environmental exposures. Hypothetically both maternal and paternal environmental exposures can produce damage before and after conception by direct action on the embryo and the fetus-placenta complex. Therefore, in the assessment of environmental exposures we need to take into account: a) both paternal and maternal exposures; b) the critical exposure period, three months before conception for paternal exposures and one month around the conceptional period for maternal exposures; c) quantitatively evaluate environmental exposures when possible, avoiding a dichotomous classification; d) the use of biological markers of exposure is highly recommended as well as markers of genetic susceptibility.

  5. Environmental injustice: case studies from the South

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Frumkin, Howard

    2007-01-01

    We selected three case studies to illustrate environmental injustice issues in the South. These examples relate to migrant agricultural workers, the maquiladora industry and artisanal mining, while reviewing some of the major mechanisms involved, e.g. multinational corporations, the development of free trade zones, multilateral free trade agreements and the export of hazards. A series of strategies are discussed in order to address environmental injustice and health disparities that exist on a global scale. Some of the recommendations involve policy initiatives; others, such as research and mentorship, fall within the traditional domain of public health practice. In this paper, special attention is given to concerned environmental and occupational health professionals using evidence-based data for advocacy. For lasting changes to be made, however, stronger institutions and legislation are required. Those who have the 'right to know' about environmental injustice issues include communities of concern, workers' representatives and lawyers. Government officials and company officials may eventually work on the basis of conflict resolution, compensation and remediation, to quote some examples. Systematic approaches to protect both the environment and public health must be updated

  6. Environmental injustice: case studies from the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Frumkin, Howard

    2007-10-01

    We selected three case studies to illustrate environmental injustice issues in the South. These examples relate to migrant agricultural workers, the maquiladora industry and artisanal mining, while reviewing some of the major mechanisms involved, e.g. multinational corporations, the development of free trade zones, multilateral free trade agreements and the export of hazards. A series of strategies are discussed in order to address environmental injustice and health disparities that exist on a global scale. Some of the recommendations involve policy initiatives; others, such as research and mentorship, fall within the traditional domain of public health practice. In this paper, special attention is given to concerned environmental and occupational health professionals using evidence-based data for advocacy. For lasting changes to be made, however, stronger institutions and legislation are required. Those who have the 'right to know' about environmental injustice issues include communities of concern, workers' representatives and lawyers. Government officials and company officials may eventually work on the basis of conflict resolution, compensation and remediation, to quote some examples. Systematic approaches to protect both the environment and public health must be updated.

  7. Reliability assessment of AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system and Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS) for thoracolumbar spine injuries: results of a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Rahul; Chhabra, Harvinder Singh; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Abel, Rainer; Tuli, Sagun; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Das, Kali Dutta; Mohapatra, Bibhudendu; Nanda, Ankur; Sangondimath, Gururaj M; Bansal, Murari Lal; Patel, Nishit

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this multicentre study was to determine whether the recently introduced AOSpine Classification and Injury Severity System has better interrater and intrarater reliability than the already existing Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS) for thoracolumbar spine injuries. Clinical and radiological data of 50 consecutive patients admitted at a single centre with a diagnosis of an acute traumatic thoracolumbar spine injury were distributed to eleven attending spine surgeons from six different institutions in the form of PowerPoint presentation, who classified them according to both classifications. After time span of 6 weeks, cases were randomly rearranged and sent again to same surgeons for re-classification. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability for each component of TLICS and new AOSpine classification were evaluated using Fleiss Kappa coefficient (k value) and Spearman rank order correlation. Moderate interrater and intrarater reliability was seen for grading fracture type and integrity of posterior ligamentous complex (Fracture type: k = 0.43 ± 0.01 and 0.59 ± 0.16, respectively, PLC: k = 0.47 ± 0.01 and 0.55 ± 0.15, respectively), and fair to moderate reliability (k = 0.29 ± 0.01 interobserver and 0.44+/0.10 intraobserver, respectively) for total score according to TLICS. Moderate interrater (k = 0.59 ± 0.01) and substantial intrarater reliability (k = 0.68 ± 0.13) was seen for grading fracture type regardless of subtype according to AOSpine classification. Near perfect interrater and intrarater agreement was seen concerning neurological status for both the classification systems. Recently proposed AOSpine classification has better reliability for identifying fracture morphology than the existing TLICS. Additional studies are clearly necessary concerning the application of these classification systems across multiple physicians at different level of training and trauma centers to evaluate not

  8. Environmental Studies at the Guiana Space Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Sandrine

    2013-09-01

    The Environmental Commitment of the French Space Agency at the Guiana Space Centre (CNES / CSG) specifies that the environmental protection is a major stake. Consequently, CNES participates in numerous space programs that contribute significantly to a better knowledge, management and protection of our environment at a global scale.The studies and researches that are done at CNES / CSG meet several objectives:* Assessment of safety and environmental effects and risk related to the effects overflowing due to a pollution caused by ground and flight activities* Improvement of the studies related to the knowledge of the environment (flora and fauna monitoring).* Risk assessment and management which may affect the safety of people , property, and protection of public health and environment * Verification of the compliance of the results of impact studies of launch vehicle in flight phase provided by the launch operator (Technical Regulation) with the French Safety Operational Acts.In this note, study and research programs are presented. They allow a better knowledge of the surrounding environment and of impacts caused by the industrial activities done in Guiana Space Center.

  9. Distribution and classification of Serine β-lactamases in Brazilian Hospital Sewage and Other Environmental Metagenomes deposited in Public Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Fróes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available β-lactam is the most used antibiotic class in the clinical area and it acts on blocking the bacteria cell wall synthesis, causing cell death. However, some bacteria have evolved resistance to these antibiotics mainly due the production of enzymes known as β-lactamases. Hospital sewage is an important source of dispersion of multidrug-resistant bacteria in rivers and oceans. In this work, we used next-generation DNA sequencing to explore the diversity and dissemination of serine β-lactamases in two hospital sewage from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (South -SZ- and North Zone -NZ, presenting different profiles, and to compare them with public environmental data available. Also, we propose a Hidden-Markov-Model approach to screen potential serine β-lactamases genes (in public environments samples and generated hospital sewage data, exploring its evolutionary relationships. Due to the high variability in β-lactamases, we used a position-specific scoring matrix search method (RPS-BLAST against conserved domain database profiles (CDD, Pfam, and COG followed by visual inspection to detect conserved motifs, to increase the reliability of the results and remove possible false positives. We were able to identify novel β-lactamases from Brazilian hospital sewage and to estimate relative abundance of its types. The highest relative abundance found in SZ was the Class A (50%, while Class D is predominant in NZ (55%. CfxA (65% and ACC (47% types were the most abundant genes detected in SZ, while in NZ the most frequent were OXA-10 (32%, CfxA (28%, ACC (21%, CEPA (20% and FOX (19%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed β-lactamases from Brazilian hospital sewage grouped in the same clade and close to sequences belonging to Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes groups, but distant from potential β-lactamases screened from public environmental data, that grouped closer to β-lactamases of Proteobacteria. Our results demonstrated that HMM-based approach identified homologs of

  10. Distribution and Classification of Serine β-Lactamases in Brazilian Hospital Sewage and Other Environmental Metagenomes Deposited in Public Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fróes, Adriana M; da Mota, Fábio F; Cuadrat, Rafael R C; Dávila, Alberto M R

    2016-01-01

    β-lactam is the most used antibiotic class in the clinical area and it acts on blocking the bacteria cell wall synthesis, causing cell death. However, some bacteria have evolved resistance to these antibiotics mainly due the production of enzymes known as β-lactamases. Hospital sewage is an important source of dispersion of multidrug-resistant bacteria in rivers and oceans. In this work, we used next-generation DNA sequencing to explore the diversity and dissemination of serine β-lactamases in two hospital sewage from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (South Zone, SZ and North Zone, NZ), presenting different profiles, and to compare them with public environmental data available. Also, we propose a Hidden-Markov-Model approach to screen potential serine β-lactamases genes (in public environments samples and generated hospital sewage data), exploring its evolutionary relationships. Due to the high variability in β-lactamases, we used a position-specific scoring matrix search method (RPS-BLAST) against conserved domain database profiles (CDD, Pfam, and COG) followed by visual inspection to detect conserved motifs, to increase the reliability of the results and remove possible false positives. We were able to identify novel β-lactamases from Brazilian hospital sewage and to estimate relative abundance of its types. The highest relative abundance found in SZ was the Class A (50%), while Class D is predominant in NZ (55%). CfxA (65%) and ACC (47%) types were the most abundant genes detected in SZ, while in NZ the most frequent were OXA-10 (32%), CfxA (28%), ACC (21%), CEPA (20%), and FOX (19%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed β-lactamases from Brazilian hospital sewage grouped in the same clade and close to sequences belonging to Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes groups, but distant from potential β-lactamases screened from public environmental data, that grouped closer to β-lactamases of Proteobacteria. Our results demonstrated that HMM-based approach identified homologs of

  11. Course Descriptions in Environmental Studies Part Two: Interdisciplinary Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Riley; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents descriptions (syllabi, outlines, goals) of interdisciplinary environmental studies courses. Topic areas of these courses include: environmental sociology; human ecology (politics, institutions, and the environment); humans and the environment in historical perspective; environmental management; humans, hazards, and disasters; and other…

  12. Course Descriptions in Environmental Studies Part One: Historical Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Donald; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents descriptions (syllabi, outlines, goals) of selected environmental studies courses which approach the discipline from an historical and humanistic perspective. Areas explored in the courses include human ecology, American environmental history, environmental politics, and others. (JN)

  13. Etiological classification of ischemic stroke in young patients: a comparative study of TOAST, CCS, and ASCO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçal, Elif; Niftaliyev, Elvin; Asil, Talip

    2017-09-01

    Analysis of stroke subtypes is important for making treatment decisions and prognostic evaluations. The TOAST classification system is most commonly used, but the CCS and ASCO classification systems might be more useful to identify stroke etiologies in young patients whose strokes have a wide range of different causes. In this manuscript, we aim to compare the differences in subtype classification between TOAST, CCS, and ASCO in young stroke patients. The TOAST, CCS, and ASCO classification schemes were applied to 151 patients with ischemic stroke aged 18-49 years old and the proportion of subtypes classified by each scheme was compared. For comparison, determined etiologies were defined as cases with evident and probable subtypes when using the CCS scheme and cases with grade 1 and 2 subtypes but no other grade 1 subtype when using the ASCO scheme. The McNemar test with Bonferroni correction was used to assess significance. By TOAST, 41.1% of patients' stroke etiology was classified as undetermined etiology, 19.2% as cardioembolic, 13.2% as large artery atherosclerosis, 11.3% as small vessel occlusion, and 15.2% as other causes. Compared with TOAST, both CCS and ASCO assigned fewer patients to the undetermined etiology group (30.5% p CCS and ASCO classification schemes in young stroke patients seems feasible, and using both schemes may result in fewer patients being classified as undetermined etiology. New studies with more patients and a prospective design are needed to explore this topic further.

  14. A Comprehensive Study of Features and Algorithms for URL-Based Topic Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, I; Henzinger, M; Baykan, E

    2011-01-01

    Given only the URL of a Web page, can we identify its topic? We study this problem in detail by exploring a large number of different feature sets and algorithms on several datasets. We also show that the inherent overlap between topics and the sparsity of the information in URLs makes this a very challenging problem. Web page classification without a page's content is desirable when the content is not available at all, when a classification is needed before obtaining the content, or when classification speed is of utmost importance. For our experiments we used five different corpora comprising a total of about 3 million (URL, classification) pairs. We evaluated several techniques for feature generation and classification algorithms. The individual binary classifiers were then combined via boosting into metabinary classifiers. We achieve typical F-measure values between 80 and 85, and a typical precision of around 86. The precision can be pushed further over 90 while maintaining a typical level of recall betw...

  15. Environmental hazards from natural hydrocarbons seepage: Integrated classification of risk from sediment chemistry, bioavailability and biomarkers responses in sentinel species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, Maura; Gorbi, Stefania; Fattorini, Daniele; D'Errico, Giuseppe; Piva, Francesco; Pacitti, Davide; Regoli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Potential effects of natural emissions of hydrocarbons in the marine environment have been poorly investigated. In this study, a multidisciplinary weight of evidence (WOE) study was carried out on a shallow seepage, integrating sediment chemistry with bioavailability and onset of subcellular responses (biomarkers) in caged eels and mussels. Results from different lines of evidence (LOEs) were elaborated within a quantitative WOE model which, based on logical flowcharts, provide synthetic indices of hazard for each LOE, before their integration in a quantitative risk assessment. Evaluations of different LOEs were not always in accordance and their overall elaboration summarized as Moderate the risk in the seepage area. This study provided first evidence of biological effects in organisms exposed to natural hydrocarbon emissions, confirming the limit of chemical characterization as stand-alone criteria for environmental quality assessment and the utility of multidisciplinary investigations to determine the good environmental status as required by Environmental Directives. -- Highlights: • Hazards from natural seepage were evaluated through a multidisciplinary WOE study. • Caged eels and mussels were chosen as bioindicator organisms. • Evaluations obtained from various LOEs were not always in accordance. • Biological effects of natural hydrocarbons release were demonstrated. • WOE approach could discriminate different levels of hazard in low impacted conditions. -- A multidisciplinary WOE study in a shallow coastal seepage summarized a Moderate level of risk based on integration of sediment chemistry with biological effects in caged organisms

  16. A study for Unsafe Act classification under crew interaction during procedure-driven operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Park, Jinkyun; Kim, Yochan; Kim, Seunghwan; Jung, Wondea

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The procedure driven operation was divided into four stages by considering the crew relations such as instructions and responses. • Ten patterns of UA occurrence paths and the related operators per path were identified. • The UA type classification scheme was proposed based on the ten patterns of UA occurrence paths. • A case study to implement the UA type classification and to define the related operators per UA was performed. • The UA type classification scheme can be practical in that it prevents bias by subjective judgment. - Abstract: In this study, a method for UA (Unsafe Act) classification under a simulated procedure driven operation was proposed. To this end, a procedure driven operation was divided into four stages by considering the crew relations such as instructions and responses. Based on the four stages of a procedure driven operation, ten patterns of UA occurrence paths and the related operators per path were identified. From the ten types of UA occurrence paths including related operators, it is practicable to trace when and by whom a UA is initiated during a procedure driven operation, and the interaction or causality among the crew after the UA is initiated. Therefore, the types of UAs were classified into ‘Instruction UA’, ‘Reporting UA’, and ‘Execution UA’ by considering the initiation time and initiator of UA. A case study to implement the UA type classification and to define the related operators per UA was performed with the ISLOCA scenario simulator training data. The UA classification scheme proposed in this paper can be practical in that it does not require expertise relatively in a human performance analysis and it prevents bias by subjective judgment because it is based on an observation-based approach to exclude subjective judgment.

  17. A Study on improvement of comprehensive environmental management system - activation of liberalized environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hweu Sung; Kang, Chul Goo [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    As a part of improvement on a comprehensive environmental management system, this study was attempted to find an activating policy for a liberalized environmental management. This study provided an activation plan of reasonable environmental regulation reform and liberalized environmental management through the analysis of foreign examples and domestic situation. Furthermore, it analyzed an institutional mechanism for a smooth operation of liberalized environmental management. 68 refs., 5 figs., 51 tabs.

  18. Feasibility study on application of new concept of environmental assessment to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Eal; Lee, Kun Jai

    2000-01-01

    The existing environmental assessments of nuclear energy are focused on the two kinds of issues such as prevention of green house gas emission and radiological impact assessment. So, the comparative assessment of the other resources such as fossil fuels has been the main part and this result has been the side of nuclear power as the clean energy resource. However, now is when to develop the methodology that approaches to environmental assessment of energy in terms of the various environmental categories. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) would be the effective environmental assessment tool, which is able to meet the necessity mentioned above. Also classification of the radiological impact and calculation of the environmental impact from the radioactive substances are indispensable as long as the nuclear energy is considered in the application of LCA for the utilization of energy in the industry. However, direct introduction of LCA to the nuclear energy is difficult more or less due to the absence of the methodology for the radiological impact assessment within the LCA framework. Therefore, this study suggests the new concept of environmental assessment. Also current status of development for the classification factor of radiological impact is introduced and investigates the feasibility of application of it to nuclear power generation system

  19. CIMOSA process classification for business process mapping in non-manufacturing firms: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latiffianti, Effi; Siswanto, Nurhadi; Wiratno, Stefanus Eko; Saputra, Yudha Andrian

    2017-11-01

    A business process mapping is one important means to enable an enterprise to effectively manage the value chain. One of widely used approaches to classify business process for mapping purpose is Computer Integrated Manufacturing System Open Architecture (CIMOSA). CIMOSA was initially designed for Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) system based enterprises. This paper aims to analyze the use of CIMOSA process classification for business process mapping in the firms that do not fall within the area of CIM. Three firms of different business area that have used CIMOSA process classification were observed: an airline firm, a marketing and trading firm for oil and gas products, and an industrial estate management firm. The result of the research has shown that CIMOSA can be used in non-manufacturing firms with some adjustment. The adjustment includes addition, reduction, or modification of some processes suggested by CIMOSA process classification as evidenced by the case studies.

  20. Evaluating Method Engineer Performance: an error classification and preliminary empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kelly

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe an approach to empirically test the use of metaCASE environments to model methods. Both diagrams and matrices have been proposed as a means for presenting the methods. These different paradigms may have their own effects on how easily and well users can model methods. We extend Batra's classification of errors in data modelling to cover metamodelling, and use it to measure the performance of a group of metamodellers using either diagrams or matrices. The tentative results from this pilot study confirm the usefulness of the classification, and show some interesting differences between the paradigms.

  1. The applicability of the WHO classification in paediatric AML. A NOPHO-AML study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl, Julie D; Kjeldsen, Eigil; Abrahamsson, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of myeloid leukaemia was revised in 2008. It incorporates newly recognized entities and emphasizes the pivotal role of cytogenetic abnormalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usability of the WHO classification when applied to a large......(7q) into one group. We found that -7 (n = 14) had significantly poorer outcome than del(7q) (n = 11); 5-year event-free survival 26% vs. 67%, (P = 0·02), and 5-year overall survival 51% vs. 90%, (P = 0·04). The largest group was the highly heterogeneous AML not otherwise specified (NOS) (n = 280...

  2. Application of PCA and SIMCA statistical analysis of FT-IR spectra for the classification and identification of different slag types with environmental origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpe, B; Engel, T; Steinweg, B; Marschner, B

    2012-04-03

    In the past, different slag materials were often used for landscaping and construction purposes or simply dumped. Nowadays German environmental laws strictly control the use of slags, but there is still a remaining part of 35% which is uncontrolled dumped in landfills. Since some slags have high heavy metal contents and different slag types have typical chemical and physical properties that will influence the risk potential and other characteristics of the deposits, an identification of the slag types is needed. We developed a FT-IR-based statistical method to identify different slags classes. Slags samples were collected at different sites throughout various cities within the industrial Ruhr area. Then, spectra of 35 samples from four different slags classes, ladle furnace (LF), blast furnace (BF), oxygen furnace steel (OF), and zinc furnace slags (ZF), were determined in the mid-infrared region (4000-400 cm(-1)). The spectra data sets were subject to statistical classification methods for the separation of separate spectral data of different slag classes. Principal component analysis (PCA) models for each slag class were developed and further used for soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Precise classification of slag samples into four different slag classes were achieved using two different SIMCA models stepwise. At first, SIMCA 1 was used for classification of ZF as well as OF slags over the total spectral range. If no correct classification was found, then the spectrum was analyzed with SIMCA 2 at reduced wavenumbers for the classification of LF as well as BF spectra. As a result, we provide a time- and cost-efficient method based on FT-IR spectroscopy for processing and identifying large numbers of environmental slag samples.

  3. The Study of Land Use Classification Based on SPOT6 High Resolution Data

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Song; Jiang Qigang

    2016-01-01

    A method is carried out to quick classification extract of the type of land use in agricultural areas, which is based on the spot6 high resolution remote sensing classification data and used of the good nonlinear classification ability of support vector machine. The results show that the spot6 high resolution remote sensing classification data can realize land classification efficiently, the overall classification accuracy reached 88.79% and Kappa factor is 0.8632 which means that the classif...

  4. Environmental impact and human health risks of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator: a case study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferré-Huguet, Núria; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L.

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFICATION: adverse effects;analysis;Benzofurans;cancer epidemiology;Dioxins;Environmental Exposure;Environmental Health;Environmental Monitoring;Hazardous Waste;Humans;Incineration;metabolism;Refuse Disposal;Research;Risk Assessment;Spain;Toxicology. The purpose of this study was to assess the environmental impact of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) 4 years after regular operation of the...

  5. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Classification of Studies Employing Psychological Endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandberg DavidE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychological outcomes in persons with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH have received substantial attention. The objectives of this paper were to (1 catalog psychological endpoints assessed in CAH outcome studies and (2 classify the conceptual/theoretical model shaping the research design and interpretation of CAH-related psychological effects. A total of 98 original research studies, published between 1955 and 2009, were categorized based on psychological endpoints examined as well as the research design and conceptual model guiding analysis and interpretation of data. The majority of studies (68% investigated endpoints related to psychosexual differentiation. The preponderance of studies (76% examined a direct relationship (i.e., inferring causality between prenatal androgen exposure and psychological outcomes. Findings are discussed in relation to the observed imbalance between theoretical interest in the role of prenatal androgens in shaping psychosexual differentiation and a broader conceptual model that examines the role of other potential factors in mediating or moderating the influence of CAH pathophysiology on psychological outcomes in both affected females and males. The latter approach offers to identify factors amenable to clinical intervention that enhance both health and quality of life outcomes in CAH as well as other disorders of sex development.

  6. Query Classification and Study of University Students' Search Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maabreh, Majdi A.; Al-Kabi, Mohammed N.; Alsmadi, Izzat M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study is an attempt to develop an automatic identification method for Arabic web queries and divide them into several query types using data mining. In addition, it seeks to evaluate the impact of the academic environment on using the internet. Design/methodology/approach: The web log files were collected from one of the higher…

  7. Evaluating and comparing imaging techniques: a review and classification of study designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    The design of studies to evaluate and compare imaging techniques are reviewed. Thirteen principles for the design of studies of diagnostic accuracy are given. Because of the 'independence principle' these studies are not able directly to evaluate the contribution of a technique to clinical management. For the latter, the 'clinical value' study design is recommended. A classification of study designs is proposed in parallel with the standard classification of clinical trials. Studies of diagnostic accuracy are analogous to Phase II, whereas studies evaluating the contribution to clinical management correspond to the Phase III category. Currently the majority of published studies employ the Phase II design. More emphasis on Phase III studies is required. (author)

  8. Comprehensive Planning for Classification and Disposal of Solid Waste at the Industrial Parks regarding Health and Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hashemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the comprehensive planning for integrated management of solid waste at the industrial parks. The share of each industrial group including food, metal, chemical, non-metallic minerals, textile, electrical and electronical, and cellulose industries were 48.2, 14.9, 6.7, 22, 0.9, 0.6, and 6.5 percent, respectively. The results showed that nearly half of total industrial waste produced from the range of biological materials are biodegradable and discharging them without observing environmental regulations leads to short-term pollution and nuisance in the acceptor environment. Also some parts of case study waste were recyclable which is considerable from viewpoint of economical and environmental pollution. Long-term impacts will appear due to improper site selection of disposal from the spatial standpoint. In this way, an approach for site selection using several socioeconomic, physical, and environmental criteria based on multicriteria decision making model (MCDM is introduced. Health risks and environment pollution such as soil and surface water may be done. It is essential to revise the studied industries layout, particularly those units which produce special waste which should be more cautious. Also stricter enforcement is required as an effective step in reducing the harmful impacts of it.

  9. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System: an external agreement validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Audige, L.; Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Bolger, C.; Deverall, H.; Dhoke, P.; Diekerhof, C.H.; Govaert, G.A.; Guimera, V.; Koller, H.; Morris, S.A.; Setiobudi, T.; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In 2007, the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification (SLIC) system was introduced demonstrating moderate reliability in an internal validation study. PURPOSE: To assess the agreement on the SLIC system using clinical data from a spinal trauma population and whether the SLIC

  10. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification System : an external agreement validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Middendorp, Joost J.; Audige, Laurent; Bartels, Ronald H.; Bolger, Ciaran; Deverall, Hamish; Dhoke, Priyesh; Diekerhof, Carel H.; Govaert, Geertje A. M.; Guimera, Vicente; Koller, Heiko; Morris, Stephen A. C.; Setiobudi, Tony; Hosman, Allard J. F.

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: In 2007, the Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification (SLIC) system was introduced demonstrating moderate reliability in an internal validation study. PURPOSE: To assess the agreement on the SLIC system using clinical data from a spinal trauma population and whether the SLIC

  11. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - MO 2009 Water Quality Standards - Table G Lake Classifications and Use Designations (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set contains Missouri Water Quality Standards (WQS) lake classifications and use designations described in the Missouri Code of State Regulations (CSR), 10...

  12. Environmental and Social Impact Study: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    The tsetse control project (commonly known as tsetse flies) is an initiative of the Directorate of Livestock (project coordinating institution) and the ISRA (Senegalese Agricultural Research Institute) Accompaniment and diagnosis of the project. It is part of the cooperation between Senegal and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).The method of control that will be applied is the technique of sterile males.This technique of sterile males, however, is coupled with the use of deltamethrin (D6), a neurotoxic chemical (in adult insects) that is fast and fairly rapidly biodegradable in the environment.This study is carried out with the aim of taking good account of the environmental impacts of the various activities envisaged by the project. Its objective is to assess the biophysical, social and economic impacts of the project and to propose measures to mitigate or compensate for negative impacts and to reinforce positive impacts within the framework of an Environmental Management Plan and (ESMP). It also presents an environmental and social monitoring and monitoring plan to assess the effectiveness of the proposed mitigation measures.

  13. A Comparative Study of Feature Selection and Classification Methods for Gene Expression Data of Glioma

    KAUST Repository

    Abusamra, Heba

    2013-11-01

    Microarray gene expression data gained great importance in recent years due to its role in disease diagnoses and prognoses which help to choose the appropriate treatment plan for patients. This technology has shifted a new era in molecular classification. Interpreting gene expression data remains a difficult problem and an active research area due to their native nature of “high dimensional low sample size”. Such problems pose great challenges to existing classification methods. Thus, effective feature selection techniques are often needed in this case to aid to correctly classify different tumor types and consequently lead to a better understanding of genetic signatures as well as improve treatment strategies. This paper aims on a comparative study of state-of-the- art feature selection methods, classification methods, and the combination of them, based on gene expression data. We compared the efficiency of three different classification methods including: support vector machines, k-nearest neighbor and random forest, and eight different feature selection methods, including: information gain, twoing rule, sum minority, max minority, gini index, sum of variances, t-statistics, and one-dimension support vector machine. Five-fold cross validation was used to evaluate the classification performance. Two publicly available gene expression data sets of glioma were used in the experiments. Results revealed the important role of feature selection in classifying gene expression data. By performing feature selection, the classification accuracy can be significantly boosted by using a small number of genes. The relationship of features selected in different feature selection methods is investigated and the most frequent features selected in each fold among all methods for both datasets are evaluated.

  14. A Comparative Study of Feature Selection and Classification Methods for Gene Expression Data of Glioma

    KAUST Repository

    Abusamra, Heba

    2013-01-01

    Microarray gene expression data gained great importance in recent years due to its role in disease diagnoses and prognoses which help to choose the appropriate treatment plan for patients. This technology has shifted a new era in molecular classification. Interpreting gene expression data remains a difficult problem and an active research area due to their native nature of “high dimensional low sample size”. Such problems pose great challenges to existing classification methods. Thus, effective feature selection techniques are often needed in this case to aid to correctly classify different tumor types and consequently lead to a better understanding of genetic signatures as well as improve treatment strategies. This paper aims on a comparative study of state-of-the- art feature selection methods, classification methods, and the combination of them, based on gene expression data. We compared the efficiency of three different classification methods including: support vector machines, k-nearest neighbor and random forest, and eight different feature selection methods, including: information gain, twoing rule, sum minority, max minority, gini index, sum of variances, t-statistics, and one-dimension support vector machine. Five-fold cross validation was used to evaluate the classification performance. Two publicly available gene expression data sets of glioma were used in the experiments. Results revealed the important role of feature selection in classifying gene expression data. By performing feature selection, the classification accuracy can be significantly boosted by using a small number of genes. The relationship of features selected in different feature selection methods is investigated and the most frequent features selected in each fold among all methods for both datasets are evaluated.

  15. A study on feature analysis for musical instrument classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jeremiah D; Simmermacher, Christian; Cranefield, Stephen

    2008-04-01

    In tackling data mining and pattern recognition tasks, finding a compact but effective set of features has often been found to be a crucial step in the overall problem-solving process. In this paper, we present an empirical study on feature analysis for recognition of classical instrument, using machine learning techniques to select and evaluate features extracted from a number of different feature schemes. It is revealed that there is significant redundancy between and within feature schemes commonly used in practice. Our results suggest that further feature analysis research is necessary in order to optimize feature selection and achieve better results for the instrument recognition problem.

  16. Supervised Classification in the Presence of Misclassified Training Data: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study in the Three Group Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn E Bolin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Statistical classification of phenomena into observed groups is very common in the social and behavioral sciences. Statistical classification methods, however, are affected by the characteristics of the data under study. Statistical classification can be further complicated by initial misclassification of the observed groups. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of initial training data misclassification on several statistical classification and data mining techniques. Misclassification conditions in the three-group case will be simulated and results will be presented in terms of overall as well as subgroup classification accuracy. Results show decreased classification accuracy as sample size, group separation and group size ratio decrease and as misclassification percentage increases with random forests demonstrating the highest accuracy across conditions.

  17. The Interplay among Environmental Attitudes, Pro-Environmental Behavior, Social Identity, and Pro-Environmental Institutional Climate. A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Gabriele; Albanesi, Cinzia; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    By using a panel design in a sample of 298 undergraduate/master students at an Italian public university, the present study aimed to test longitudinally the interplay among environmental attitudes, pro-environmental behavior, social identity, and pro-environmental institutional climate. The relationships were tested with cross-lagged analysis…

  18. Usability Study to Assess the IGBP Land Cover Classification for Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanki Sidhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Our research focuses on assessing the usability of the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP classification scheme provided in the MODIS MCD12Q1-1 dataset for assessing the land cover of the city-state, Singapore. We conducted a user study with responses from 33 users by providing them with Google Earth images from different parts of Singapore, asking survey-takers to classify these images according to their understanding by the IGBP definitions provided. We also conducted interviews with experts from major governmental agencies working with satellite imagery, which highlighted the need for a detailed land classification for Singapore. In addition to the qualitative analysis of the IGBP land classification scheme, we carried out a validation of the MCD12Q1-1 remote sensing product against SPOT-5 imagery for our study area. The user study revealed that survey-takers were able to correctly classify urban areas, as well as densely forested areas. Misclassifications between Cropland and Mixed Forest classes were highest and were attributed by users to the broad terminology of the IGBP of the two land cover class definitions. For the accuracy assessment, we obtained validation points using weighted and unweighted stratified sampling. The overall classification accuracy for all 17 IGBP land classes is 62%. Upon selecting only the four most occurring IGBP land classes in Singapore, the classification accuracy improved to 71%. Validation of the MCD12Q1-1 against ground truth for Singapore revealed less-common land classes that may be of importance in a global context but are sources of error when the same product is applied at a smaller scale. Combining the user study with the accuracy assessment gives a comprehensive overview of the challenges associated with using global-level land cover data to derive localized land cover information specifically for smaller land masses like Singapore.

  19. Transcriptomic resources for environmental risk assessment: a case study in the Venice lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, M; Pauletto, M; Boffo, L; Carrer, C; Sorrentino, F; Ferrari, G; Pavan, L; Patarnello, T; Bargelloni, L

    2015-02-01

    The development of new resources to evaluate the environmental status is becoming increasingly important representing a key challenge for ocean and coastal management. Recently, the employment of transcriptomics in aquatic toxicology has led to increasing initiatives proposing to integrate eco-toxicogenomics in the evaluation of marine ecosystem health. However, several technical issues need to be addressed before introducing genomics as a reliable tool in regulatory ecotoxicology. The Venice lagoon constitutes an excellent case, in which the assessment of environmental risks derived from the nearby industrial activities represents a crucial task. In this context, the potential role of genomics to assist environmental monitoring was investigated through the definition of reliable gene expression markers associated to chemical contamination in Manila clams, and their subsequent employment for the classification of Venice lagoon areas. Overall, the present study addresses key issues to evaluate the future outlooks of genomics in the environmental monitoring and risk assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Land Cover Classification from Multispectral Data Using Computational Intelligence Tools: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mora

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how computational intelligence techniques are applied to fuse spectral images into a higher level image of land cover distribution for remote sensing, specifically for satellite image classification. We compare a fuzzy-inference method with two other computational intelligence methods, decision trees and neural networks, using a case study of land cover classification from satellite images. Further, an unsupervised approach based on k-means clustering has been also taken into consideration for comparison. The fuzzy-inference method includes training the classifier with a fuzzy-fusion technique and then performing land cover classification using reinforcement aggregation operators. To assess the robustness of the four methods, a comparative study including three years of land cover maps for the district of Mandimba, Niassa province, Mozambique, was undertaken. Our results show that the fuzzy-fusion method performs similarly to decision trees, achieving reliable classifications; neural networks suffer from overfitting; while k-means clustering constitutes a promising technique to identify land cover types from unknown areas.

  1. Risk factors and classification of stillbirth in a Middle Eastern population: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjachen Maducolil, Mariam; Abid, Hafsa; Lobo, Rachael Marian; Chughtai, Ambreen Qayyum; Afzal, Arjumand Muhammad; Saleh, Huda Abdullah Hussain; Lindow, Stephen W

    2017-12-21

    To estimate the incidence of stillbirth, explore the associated maternal and fetal factors and to evaluate the most appropriate classification of stillbirth for a multiethnic population. This is a retrospective population-based study of stillbirth in a large tertiary unit. Data of each stillbirth with a gestational age >/=24 weeks in the year 2015 were collected from electronic medical records and analyzed. The stillbirth rate for our multiethnic population is 7.81 per 1000 births. Maternal medical factors comprised 52.4% in which the rates of hypertensive disorders, diabetes and other medical disorders were 22.5%, 20.8% and 8.3%, respectively. The most common fetal factor was intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) (22.5%) followed by congenital anomalies (21.6%). All cases were categorized using the Wigglesworth, Aberdeen, Tulip, ReCoDe and International Classification of Diseases-perinatal mortality (ICD-PM) classifications and the rates of unclassified stillbirths were 59.2%, 46.6%, 16.6%, 11.6% and 7.5%, respectively. An autopsy was performed in 9.1% of cases reflecting local religious and cultural sensitivities. This study highlighted the modifiable risk factors among the Middle Eastern population. The most appropriate classification was the ICD-PM. The low rates of autopsy prevented a detailed evaluation of stillbirths, therefore it is suggested that a minimally invasive autopsy [postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] may improve the quality of care.

  2. A study of earthquake-induced building detection by object oriented classification approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuncu, Asli; Damla Uca Avci, Zehra; Sunar, Filiz

    2017-04-01

    Among the natural hazards, earthquakes are the most destructive disasters and cause huge loss of lives, heavily infrastructure damages and great financial losses every year all around the world. According to the statistics about the earthquakes, more than a million earthquakes occur which is equal to two earthquakes per minute in the world. Natural disasters have brought more than 780.000 deaths approximately % 60 of all mortality is due to the earthquakes after 2001. A great earthquake took place at 38.75 N 43.36 E in the eastern part of Turkey in Van Province on On October 23th, 2011. 604 people died and about 4000 buildings seriously damaged and collapsed after this earthquake. In recent years, the use of object oriented classification approach based on different object features, such as spectral, textural, shape and spatial information, has gained importance and became widespread for the classification of high-resolution satellite images and orthophotos. The motivation of this study is to detect the collapsed buildings and debris areas after the earthquake by using very high-resolution satellite images and orthophotos with the object oriented classification and also see how well remote sensing technology was carried out in determining the collapsed buildings. In this study, two different land surfaces were selected as homogenous and heterogeneous case study areas. In the first step of application, multi-resolution segmentation was applied and optimum parameters were selected to obtain the objects in each area after testing different color/shape and compactness/smoothness values. In the next step, two different classification approaches, namely "supervised" and "unsupervised" approaches were applied and their classification performances were compared. Object-based Image Analysis (OBIA) was performed using e-Cognition software.

  3. A comprehensive simulation study on classification of RNA-Seq data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökmen Zararsız

    Full Text Available RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq is a powerful technique for the gene-expression profiling of organisms that uses the capabilities of next-generation sequencing technologies. Developing gene-expression-based classification algorithms is an emerging powerful method for diagnosis, disease classification and monitoring at molecular level, as well as providing potential markers of diseases. Most of the statistical methods proposed for the classification of gene-expression data are either based on a continuous scale (eg. microarray data or require a normal distribution assumption. Hence, these methods cannot be directly applied to RNA-Seq data since they violate both data structure and distributional assumptions. However, it is possible to apply these algorithms with appropriate modifications to RNA-Seq data. One way is to develop count-based classifiers, such as Poisson linear discriminant analysis and negative binomial linear discriminant analysis. Another way is to bring the data closer to microarrays and apply microarray-based classifiers. In this study, we compared several classifiers including PLDA with and without power transformation, NBLDA, single SVM, bagging SVM (bagSVM, classification and regression trees (CART, and random forests (RF. We also examined the effect of several parameters such as overdispersion, sample size, number of genes, number of classes, differential-expression rate, and the transformation method on model performances. A comprehensive simulation study is conducted and the results are compared with the results of two miRNA and two mRNA experimental datasets. The results revealed that increasing the sample size, differential-expression rate and decreasing the dispersion parameter and number of groups lead to an increase in classification accuracy. Similar with differential-expression studies, the classification of RNA-Seq data requires careful attention when handling data overdispersion. We conclude that, as a count

  4. Study on the Safety Classification Criteria of Mechanical Systems and Components for Open Pool-Type Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belal, Al Momani [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Jong Chull [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This paper describes a new compromised safety classification approach based on the comparative study of the different practices in safety classification of mechanical systems and components of open pool-type RRs, which have been adopted by several developed countries in the nuclear power area. It is hoped that the proposed safety classification criteria will be used to develop a harmonized consensus international standard. Different safety classification criteria for systems, structures, and components (SSCs) of nuclear reactors are used among the countries that export or import nuclear reactor technology, which may make the nuclear technology trade and exchange difficult. Thus, such various different approaches of safety classification need to be compromised to establish a global standard. This article proposes practicable optimized criteria for safety classification of SSCs for open pool-type research reactors (RRs)

  5. Study on the Safety Classification Criteria of Mechanical Systems and Components for Open Pool-Type Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belal, Al Momani; Jo, Jong Chull

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new compromised safety classification approach based on the comparative study of the different practices in safety classification of mechanical systems and components of open pool-type RRs, which have been adopted by several developed countries in the nuclear power area. It is hoped that the proposed safety classification criteria will be used to develop a harmonized consensus international standard. Different safety classification criteria for systems, structures, and components (SSCs) of nuclear reactors are used among the countries that export or import nuclear reactor technology, which may make the nuclear technology trade and exchange difficult. Thus, such various different approaches of safety classification need to be compromised to establish a global standard. This article proposes practicable optimized criteria for safety classification of SSCs for open pool-type research reactors (RRs)

  6. The classification problem in machine learning: an overview with study cases in emotion recognition and music-speech differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Cadavid, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    This work addresses the well-known classification problem in machine learning -- The goal of this study is to approach the reader to the methodological aspects of the feature extraction, feature selection and classifier performance through simple and understandable theoretical aspects and two study cases -- Finally, a very good classification performance was obtained for the emotion recognition from speech

  7. A Study of Hand Back Skin Texture Patterns for Personal Identification and Gender Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human hand back skin texture (HBST is often consistent for a person and distinctive from person to person. In this paper, we study the HBST pattern recognition problem with applications to personal identification and gender classification. A specially designed system is developed to capture HBST images, and an HBST image database was established, which consists of 1,920 images from 80 persons (160 hands. An efficient texton learning based method is then presented to classify the HBST patterns. First, textons are learned in the space of filter bank responses from a set of training images using the -minimization based sparse representation (SR technique. Then, under the SR framework, we represent the feature vector at each pixel over the learned dictionary to construct a representation coefficient histogram. Finally, the coefficient histogram is used as skin texture feature for classification. Experiments on personal identification and gender classification are performed by using the established HBST database. The results show that HBST can be used to assist human identification and gender classification.

  8. A COMPARISON STUDY OF DIFFERENT MARKER SELECTION METHODS FOR SPECTRAL-SPATIAL CLASSIFICATION OF HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Akbari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective approach based on the Minimum Spanning Forest (MSF, grown from automatically selected markers using Support Vector Machines (SVM, has been proposed for spectral-spatial classification of hyperspectral images by Tarabalka et al. This paper aims at improving this approach by using image segmentation to integrate the spatial information into marker selection process. In this study, the markers are extracted from the classification maps, obtained by both SVM and segmentation algorithms, and then are used to build the MSF. The segmentation algorithms are the watershed, expectation maximization (EM and hierarchical clustering. These algorithms are used in parallel and independently to segment the image. Moreover, the pixels of each class, with the largest population in the classification map, are kept for each region of the segmentation map. Lastly, the most reliable classified pixels are chosen from among the exiting pixels as markers. Two benchmark urban hyperspectral datasets are used for evaluation: Washington DC Mall and Berlin. The results of our experiments indicate that, compared to the original MSF approach, the marker selection using segmentation algorithms leads in more accurate classification maps.

  9. Agreement between TOAST and CCS ischemic stroke classification: the NINDS SiGN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Patrick F; Kittner, Steven J; Ay, Hakan; Brown, Robert D; Meschia, James F; Rundek, Tatjana; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Woo, Daniel; Andsberg, Gunnar; Biffi, Alessandro; Brenner, David A; Cole, John W; Corriveau, Roderick; de Bakker, Paul I W; Delavaran, Hossein; Dichgans, Martin; Grewal, Raji P; Gwinn, Katrina; Huq, Mohammed; Jern, Christina; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Jood, Katarina; Kaplan, Robert C; Katschnig, Petra; Katsnelson, Michael; Labovitz, Daniel L; Lemmens, Robin; Li, Linxin; Lindgren, Arne; Markus, Hugh S; Peddareddygari, Leema R; Pedersén, Annie; Pera, Joanna; Redfors, Petra; Roquer, Jaume; Rosand, Jonathan; Rost, Natalia S; Rothwell, Peter M; Sacco, Ralph L; Sharma, Pankaj; Slowik, Agnieszka; Sudlow, Cathie; Thijs, Vincent; Tiedt, Steffen; Valenti, Raffaella; Worrall, Bradford B

    2014-10-28

    The objective of this study was to assess the level of agreement between stroke subtype classifications made using the Trial of Org 10172 Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) and Causative Classification of Stroke (CCS) systems. Study subjects included 13,596 adult men and women accrued from 20 US and European genetic research centers participating in the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Stroke Genetics Network (SiGN). All cases had independently classified TOAST and CCS stroke subtypes. Kappa statistics were calculated for the 5 major ischemic stroke subtypes common to both systems. The overall agreement between TOAST and CCS was moderate (agreement rate, 70%; κ = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58-0.60). Agreement varied widely across study sites, ranging from 28% to 90%. Agreement on specific subtypes was highest for large-artery atherosclerosis (κ = 0.71, 95% CI 0.69-0.73) and lowest for small-artery occlusion (κ = 0.56, 95% CI 0.54-0.58). Agreement between TOAST and CCS diagnoses was moderate. Caution is warranted when comparing or combining results based on the 2 systems. Replication of study results, for example, genome-wide association studies, should utilize phenotypes determined by the same classification system, ideally applied in the same manner. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Environmental Studies Group progress report for 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, D.C.; Hurley, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The 1979 progress report gives descriptions, results, and/or status on programs involving (1) physical transport of radionuclides in blowing dust, (2) radionuclide distributions in the sediment of area water bodies, (3) management of open space lands (including a remote sensing program) at Rocky Flats, (4) the ecology and radioecology of terrestrial open space areas in Plant site lands, (5) biological pathways for radionuclide transport, (6) evaluations of environmental monitoring data on radionuclides in air and water, (7) results of a special soil sampling program on lands adjacent to the Plant site, and (8) two special programs - one concerning evaluations of epidemiological studies of health effects purported to be related to the Plant, and a second that specifies information on accumulations of material in process building filter plenums required for evaluation of potential accidents

  11. Environmental Comparative Risk Assessment: A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Health and environmental impacts associated with energy production and industrial activities as well as food production and agricultural activities have had great concern in the last decades. Early activities emerged in late 80s of the last century through an Inter- Agency project (lAEA, UNDY, WHO, ... ) on the comparative risk assessment from energy systems and industrial complexes. A work-shop on Risk Assessment and Management in large industrial areas was held in Alexandria Egypt on 20-33 Det 1993, sponsored by IAEA. Several conferences, experts work groups and workshops were held there of Recent trends in determining risks are: 1. Use of probabilistic risk assessment approach to identify hazardous activities and accident scenario. 2. development of data base on failure probabilities and appropriate physical models. 3. Development of related directives and regulations and criteria Comparative risk assessment case study as a tool for comparing risk is emphasized Criteria of exposure to human and ecological risks are addressed

  12. Study on a pattern classification method of soil quality based on simplified learning sample dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiahua; Liu, S.; Hu, Y.; Tian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the massive soil information in current soil quality grade evaluation, this paper constructed an intelligent classification approach of soil quality grade depending on classical sampling techniques and disordered multiclassification Logistic regression model. As a case study to determine the learning sample capacity under certain confidence level and estimation accuracy, and use c-means algorithm to automatically extract the simplified learning sample dataset from the cultivated soil quality grade evaluation database for the study area, Long chuan county in Guangdong province, a disordered Logistic classifier model was then built and the calculation analysis steps of soil quality grade intelligent classification were given. The result indicated that the soil quality grade can be effectively learned and predicted by the extracted simplified dataset through this method, which changed the traditional method for soil quality grade evaluation. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  13. Joint HVAC transmission EMF environmental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stormshak, F.; Thompson, J. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the rationale, procedures, and results of a carefully controlled study conducted to establish whether chronic exposure of female (ewe) Suffolk lambs to the environment of a 500-kV 60-Hz transmission line would affect various characteristics of growth, endocrine function, and reproductive development. This experiment used identical housing and management schemes for control and line-exposed ewes, thus minimizing these factors as contributors to between-group experimental error. Further, throughout the 10-month duration of this study, changes in electric and magnetic fields, audible noise, and weather conditions were monitored continuously by a computerized system. Such measurements provided the opportunity to identify any relationship between environmental factors and biological responses. Because of reports in the literature that electric and magnetic fields alter concentrations of melatonin in laboratory animals, the primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether a similar effect occurs in lambs exposed to a 500-kV a-c line in a natural setting. In addition, onset of puberty, changes in body weight, wool growth, and behavior were monitored. To determine whether the environment of a 500-kV line caused stress in the study animals, serum levels of cortisol were measured. The study was conducted at Bonneville Power Administration's Ostrander Substation near Estacada, Oregon.

  14. Acorrelation study between histological results and thyroid ultrasound findings. The TI-RADS classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Moncó Fernández, Carlos; Serrano-Moreno, Clara; Donnay-Candil, Sergio; Carrero-Alvaro, Juan

    2018-04-01

    There are several classifications based on thyroid ultrasound for selecting suspected malignant thyroid nodules. The Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) classification proposed by Horvath in 2009 includes 6 categories. To assess the sensitivity of the TI-RADS classification for diagnosing thyroid nodules. A retrospective study of all patients who underwent thyroidectomy at our hospital (n=263) from September 2013 to December 2015. After thyroidectomy, histological results were correlated to the ultrasound findings reported. Of the 263 study patients, 75 (28.5%) were diagnosed with thyroid cancer and 188 (71.5%) with benign disease. Correlation of histological results with preoperative ultrasound reports showed an initial sensitivity of 65%. After excluding 15 patients diagnosed with occult microcarcinoma, sensitivity increased to 81.6%. The ultrasound images from 11 false negatives cases were then reassessed by a radiologist who knew histological diagnosis and reclassified 10 of them as TI-RADS≥4. This procedure could have increased sensitivity up to 98.3%. Although the sensitivity initially found in our study using the TI-RADS scale was relatively low, the value markedly improved when patients with occult microcarcinoma were excluded. Thus, use of the TI-RADS scale would allow for an adequate selection of patients amenable to fine needle aspiration of the nodule. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Neutron Activation Analysis and Moessbauer Correlations of Archaeological Pottery from Amazon Basin for Classification Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellido, A. V. B.; Latini, R. M.; Nicoli, I.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Solorzano, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the correlation between data obtained by means of two analytical methods, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and Moessbauer Spectroscopy of pottery samples combined with multivariate statistical analysis in order to optimize quantitative analysis in the classification studies. Ceramics recently discovered in archaeological earth circular structures sites in Acre state Brazil. 199 samples were analyzed by INAA, allowing simultaneous determination of twenty elements chemical concentrations, and 44 samples by using Moessbauer Spectroscopy, allowing the determination of fourteen hyperfine parameters. For the correlation study, data were treated by two multivariate statistical methods: cluster analysis for the classification and the principal component analysis for the data correlations. INAA data show that some of REE (rare earth elements) were the discriminating variables for this technique. Mossbauer parameters that exhibit the same behavior are being investigated, remarkable improve can be seem for the combined REE and the Mossbauer variables showing a good results considering the limited number of samples. This data matrix is being used for the understanding in the studies of classification and provenance of ceramics prehistory of the Amazonic basin.

  16. Mining vehicle classifications from the Columbus Metropolitan Freeway Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle classification data are used in many transportation applications, including: pavement design, : environmental impact studies, traffic control, and traffic safety. Ohio has over 200 permanent count stations, : supplemented by many more short-t...

  17. A Comparative Observational Study of YSO Classification in Four Small Star-forming H ii Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sung-Ju; Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Kerton, C. R., E-mail: sjkang@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: kerton@iastate.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    We have developed a new young stellar object (YSO) identification and classification technique using mid-infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data. We compare this new technique with previous WISE YSO detection and classification methods that used either infrared colors or spectral energy distribution slopes. In this study, we also use the new technique to detect and examine the YSO population associated with four small H ii regions: KR 7, KR 81, KR 120, and KR 140. The relatively simple structure of these regions allows us to effectively use both spatial and temporal constraints to identify YSOs that are potential products of triggered star formation. We are also able to identify regions of active star formation around these H ii regions that are clearly not influenced by the H ii region expansion, and thus demonstrate that star formation is on-going on megayear timescales in some of these molecular clouds.

  18. Study of Image Analysis Algorithms for Segmentation, Feature Extraction and Classification of Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Gamarra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in microcopy and improvements in image processing algorithms have allowed the development of computer-assisted analytical approaches in cell identification. Several applications could be mentioned in this field: Cellular phenotype identification, disease detection and treatment, identifying virus entry in cells and virus classification; these applications could help to complement the opinion of medical experts. Although many surveys have been presented in medical image analysis, they focus mainly in tissues and organs and none of the surveys about image cells consider an analysis following the stages in the typical image processing: Segmentation, feature extraction and classification. The goal of this study is to provide comprehensive and critical analyses about the trends in each stage of cell image processing. In this paper, we present a literature survey about cell identification using different image processing techniques.

  19. An eye tracking study of bloodstain pattern analysts during pattern classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, R M; Hoogenboom, J; Green, R D; Taylor, M C; de Bruin, K G

    2018-05-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is the forensic discipline concerned with the classification and interpretation of bloodstains and bloodstain patterns at the crime scene. At present, it is unclear exactly which stain or pattern properties and their associated values are most relevant to analysts when classifying a bloodstain pattern. Eye tracking technology has been widely used to investigate human perception and cognition. Its application to forensics, however, is limited. This is the first study to use eye tracking as a tool for gaining access to the mindset of the bloodstain pattern expert. An eye tracking method was used to follow the gaze of 24 bloodstain pattern analysts during an assigned task of classifying a laboratory-generated test bloodstain pattern. With the aid of an automated image-processing methodology, the properties of selected features of the pattern were quantified leading to the delineation of areas of interest (AOIs). Eye tracking data were collected for each AOI and combined with verbal statements made by analysts after the classification task to determine the critical range of values for relevant diagnostic features. Eye-tracking data indicated that there were four main regions of the pattern that analysts were most interested in. Within each region, individual elements or groups of elements that exhibited features associated with directionality, size, colour and shape appeared to capture the most interest of analysts during the classification task. The study showed that the eye movements of trained bloodstain pattern experts and their verbal descriptions of a pattern were well correlated.

  20. Fuzzy Continuous Review Inventory Model using ABC Multi-Criteria Classification Approach: A Single Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriastuti - Ginting

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Inventory is considered as the most expensive, yet important,to any companies. It representsapproximately 50% of the total investment. Inventory cost has become one of the majorcontributorsto inefficiency, therefore it should be managed effectively. This study aims to propose an alternative inventory model,  by using ABC multi-criteria classification approach to minimize total cost. By combining FANP (Fuzzy Analytical Network Process and TOPSIS (Technique of Order Preferences by Similarity to the Ideal Solution, the ABC multi-criteria classification approach identified 12 items of 69 inventory items as “outstanding important class” that contributed to 80% total inventory cost. This finding  is then used as the basis to determine the proposed continuous review inventory model.This study found that by using fuzzy trapezoidal cost, the inventory  turnover ratio can be increased, and inventory cost can be decreased by 78% for each item in “class A” inventory.Keywords:ABC multi-criteria classification, FANP-TOPSIS, continuous review inventory model lead-time demand distribution, trapezoidal fuzzy number 

  1. An NRG Oncology/GOG study of molecular classification for risk prediction in endometrioid endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Casey M; Tritchler, David L; Cohn, David E; Mutch, David G; Rush, Craig M; Lankes, Heather A; Creasman, William T; Miller, David S; Ramirez, Nilsa C; Geller, Melissa A; Powell, Matthew A; Backes, Floor J; Landrum, Lisa M; Timmers, Cynthia; Suarez, Adrian A; Zaino, Richard J; Pearl, Michael L; DiSilvestro, Paul A; Lele, Shashikant B; Goodfellow, Paul J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of a simplified, clinically accessible classification system for endometrioid endometrial cancers combining Lynch syndrome screening and molecular risk stratification. Tumors from NRG/GOG GOG210 were evaluated for mismatch repair defects (MSI, MMR IHC, and MLH1 methylation), POLE mutations, and loss of heterozygosity. TP53 was evaluated in a subset of cases. Tumors were assigned to four molecular classes. Relationships between molecular classes and clinicopathologic variables were assessed using contingency tests and Cox proportional methods. Molecular classification was successful for 982 tumors. Based on the NCI consensus MSI panel assessing MSI and loss of heterozygosity combined with POLE testing, 49% of tumors were classified copy number stable (CNS), 39% MMR deficient, 8% copy number altered (CNA) and 4% POLE mutant. Cancer-specific mortality occurred in 5% of patients with CNS tumors; 2.6% with POLE tumors; 7.6% with MMR deficient tumors and 19% with CNA tumors. The CNA group had worse progression-free (HR 2.31, 95%CI 1.53-3.49) and cancer-specific survival (HR 3.95; 95%CI 2.10-7.44). The POLE group had improved outcomes, but the differences were not statistically significant. CNA class remained significant for cancer-specific survival (HR 2.11; 95%CI 1.04-4.26) in multivariable analysis. The CNA molecular class was associated with TP53 mutation and expression status. A simple molecular classification for endometrioid endometrial cancers that can be easily combined with Lynch syndrome screening provides important prognostic information. These findings support prospective clinical validation and further studies on the predictive value of a simplified molecular classification system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application (III) - Drawing the Swamp Classification Map around River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong Woo; Cho, Jeong Keon; Jeong, Hwi Chol [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The map of ecology/nature in the amended Natural Environment Conservation Act is the necessary data, which is drawn through assessing the national land with ecological factors, to execute the Korea's environmental policy. Such important ecology/nature map should be continuously revised and improved the reliability with adding several new factors. In this point of view, this study has the significance in presenting the improvement scheme of ecology/nature map. 'A Study on Remote Probing Method for Drawing Ecology/Nature Map and the Application' that has been performed for 3 years since 1998 has researched the drawing method of subject maps that could be built in a short time - a land-covering classification map, a vegetation classification map, and a swamp classification map around river - and the promoting principles hereafter. This study also presented the possibility and limit of classification by several satellite image data, so it would be a big help to build the subject map in the Government level. The land-covering classification map, a result of the first year, has been already being built by Ministry of Environment as a national project, and the improvement scheme of the vegetation map that was presented as a result of second year has been used in building the basic ecology/nature map. We hope that the results from this study will be applied as basic data to draw an ecology/nature map and contribute to expanding the understanding on the usefulness of the several ecosystem analysis methods with applying an ecology/nature map and a remote probe. 55 refs., 38 figs., 24 tabs.

  3. Transcriptomic resources for environmental risk assessment: a case study in the Venice lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milan, M.; Pauletto, M.; Boffo, L.; Carrer, C.; Sorrentino, F.; Ferrari, G.; Pavan, L.; Patarnello, T.; Bargelloni, L.

    2015-01-01

    The development of new resources to evaluate the environmental status is becoming increasingly important representing a key challenge for ocean and coastal management. Recently, the employment of transcriptomics in aquatic toxicology has led to increasing initiatives proposing to integrate eco-toxicogenomics in the evaluation of marine ecosystem health. However, several technical issues need to be addressed before introducing genomics as a reliable tool in regulatory ecotoxicology. The Venice lagoon constitutes an excellent case, in which the assessment of environmental risks derived from the nearby industrial activities represents a crucial task. In this context, the potential role of genomics to assist environmental monitoring was investigated through the definition of reliable gene expression markers associated to chemical contamination in Manila clams, and their subsequent employment for the classification of Venice lagoon areas. Overall, the present study addresses key issues to evaluate the future outlooks of genomics in the environmental monitoring and risk assessment. - Highlights: • Growing need to develop new resources for the evaluation of the environmental status. • Identification of gene expression markers associated to chemical contamination. • Employment of genomics to evaluate the environmental status of Venice lagoon areas. • Hurdles and future outlooks of genomic tools in environmental risk assessment. - Genomics in risk assessment of Venice lagoon

  4. Study on the subject system of environmental radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang Yi zhong

    1992-11-01

    The environmental radiochemistry is a new frontier discipline. So, it is very important to study the system of this subject. A brief introduction of its development background and history are presented. The definition of the environmental radiochemistry has been studied. Main contents containing in the subject have been classified and reviewed in accordance with different modalities. Five major features of the environmental radiochemistry are suggested. Issues to be considered recently in the environmental radiochemistry are also discussed

  5. A Study on improvement of environmental assessment system in social, economic, and environmental sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Young Sook; Koo, Doh Wan; Keum, Kee Yong [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The environmental assessment system is assessed as a mechanism that can achieve the goal for environmental policy in 21st century. As it can evaluate social and economic feasibility of large-scale development program, this system can achieve a sustainable society by mitigating social conflicts arising from environmental problems. For making the environmental assessment system substantial, this study was implemented by the need of improvement of the system, by analyzing problems of social, economic, and environmental evaluation, which is implemented under the present system. 44 refs., 1 fig., 25 tabs.

  6. Towards Automatic Classification of Exoplanet-Transit-Like Signals: A Case Study on Kepler Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadegan, Hamed; Martin, Rodney; McCauliff, Sean D.; Jenkins, Jon Michael; Catanzarite, Joseph; Oza, Nikunj C.

    2015-08-01

    Building new catalogues of planetary candidates, astrophysical false alarms, and non-transiting phenomena is a challenging task that currently requires a reviewing team of astrophysicists and astronomers. These scientists need to examine more than 100 diagnostic metrics and associated graphics for each candidate exoplanet-transit-like signal to classify it into one of the three classes. Considering that the NASA Explorer Program's TESS mission and ESA's PLATO mission survey even a larger area of space, the classification of their transit-like signals is more time-consuming for human agents and a bottleneck to successfully construct the new catalogues in a timely manner. This encourages building automatic classification tools that can quickly and reliably classify the new signal data from these missions. The standard tool for building automatic classification systems is the supervised machine learning that requires a large set of highly accurate labeled examples in order to build an effective classifier. This requirement cannot be easily met for classifying transit-like signals because not only are existing labeled signals very limited, but also the current labels may not be reliable (because the labeling process is a subjective task). Our experiments with using different supervised classifiers to categorize transit-like signals verifies that the labeled signals are not rich enough to provide the classifier with enough power to generalize well beyond the observed cases (e.g. to unseen or test signals). That motivated us to utilize a new category of learning techniques, so-called semi-supervised learning, that combines the label information from the costly labeled signals, and distribution information from the cheaply available unlabeled signals in order to construct more effective classifiers. Our study on the Kepler Mission data shows that semi-supervised learning can significantly improve the result of multiple base classifiers (e.g. Support Vector Machines, Ada

  7. An Empirical Study on User-oriented Association Analysis of Library Classification Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Tieh Pu

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Library classification schemes are mostly organized based on disciplines with a hierarchical structure. From the user point of view, some highly related yet non-hierarchical classes may not be easy to perceive in these schemes. This paper is to discover hidden associations between classes by analyzing users’ usage of library collections. The proposed approach employs collaborative filtering techniques to discover associated classes based on the circulation patterns of similar users. Many associated classes scattered across different subject hierarchies could be discovered from the circulation patterns of similar users. The obtained association norms between classes were found to be useful in understanding users' subject preferences for a given class. Classification schemes can, therefore, be made more adaptable to changes of users and the uses of different library collections. There are implications for applications in information organization and retrieval as well. For example, catalogers could refer to the ranked associated classes when they perform multi-classification, and users could also browse the associated classes for related subjects in an enhanced OPAC system. In future research, more empirical studies will be needed to validate the findings, and methods for obtaining user-oriented associations can still be improved.[Article content in Chinese

  8. The Rural Inpatient Mortality Study: Does Urban-Rural County Classification Predict Hospital Mortality in California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnen, Daniel T; Kornak, John; Stephens, Caroline

    2018-03-28

    Evidence suggests an association between rurality and decreased life expectancy. To determine whether rural hospitals have higher hospital mortality, given that very sick patients may be transferred to regional hospitals. In this ecologic study, we combined Medicare hospital mortality ratings (N = 1267) with US census data, critical access hospital classification, and National Center for Health Statistics urban-rural county classifications. Ratings included mortality for coronary artery bypass grafting, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart attack, heart failure, and pneumonia across 277 California hospitals between July 2011 and June 2014. We used generalized estimating equations to evaluate the association of urban-rural county classifications on mortality ratings. Unfavorable Medicare hospital mortality rating "worse than the national rate" compared with "better" or "same." Compared with large central "metro" (metropolitan) counties, hospitals in medium-sized metro counties had 6.4 times the odds of rating "worse than the national rate" for hospital mortality (95% confidence interval = 2.8-14.8, p centers may contribute to these results, a potential factor that future research should examine.

  9. A Study on environmental pollution accounts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Woo; Choi, Yong Jae [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    According to the industrial classification of 1995 inter-industry relation table, pollutants discharging unit was prepared by industry or by economic activity. Then the method analyzing correlation between pollutant discharge and economic activities by inter-industry analysis mechanism was presented after estimating direct and indirect effects of generation of pollutants. Based on this analysis, the industry causing a large quantity of pollutant discharge was found out and correlation between pollutant discharge coefficient and production inducing effect was analyzed. 23 refs., 52 tabs.

  10. Environmental studies using earth orbital photography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wobber, F J

    1969-01-01

    Orbital remote sensing, and particularly orbital photography, can provide immediately useful data for scientists familiar with applying aerial photographic techniques to environmental problems. Despite the expansion of analytical techniques in the earth sciences, the environmental data base has remained relatively static compared with increased information needs because of the difficulty of effective worldwide surveys and the high cost of timely data collection. Color, color infrared and black and white space photographs obtained incident to the Gemini and Apollo programs provide unique synoptic tools for analyzing modern environments and processes, and data that cannot be duplicated by aerial photographic mosaics. Principal advantages of orbital surveys include repetitious worldwide coverage promising environmental synthesis within the full spectrum of seasonal contrasts, and synoptic observations on a scale generally impossible from aircraft. The general categories of environmental data that can be extracted from orbital photography are summarized. 26 references, 37 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Comparative study of environmental impact assessment methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... 3Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. .... lines in a virtual place aiming at goals opportunity. .... available to show the reality of quantitative model.

  12. AUTOMATIC TRAINING SITE SELECTION FOR AGRICULTURAL CROP CLASSIFICATION: A CASE STUDY ON KARACABEY PLAIN, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ozdarici Ok

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study implements a traditional supervised classification method to an optical image composed of agricultural crops by means of a unique way, selecting the training samples automatically. Panchromatic (1m and multispectral (4m Kompsat-2 images (July 2008 of Karacabey Plain (~100km2, located in Marmara region, are used to evaluate the proposed approach. Due to the characteristic of rich, loamy soils combined with reasonable weather conditions, the Karacabey Plain is one of the most valuable agricultural regions of Turkey. Analyses start with applying an image fusion algorithm on the panchromatic and multispectral image. As a result of this process, 1m spatial resolution colour image is produced. In the next step, the four-band fused (1m image and multispectral (4m image are orthorectified. Next, the fused image (1m is segmented using a popular segmentation method, Mean- Shift. The Mean-Shift is originally a method based on kernel density estimation and it shifts each pixel to the mode of clusters. In the segmentation procedure, three parameters must be defined: (i spatial domain (hs, (ii range domain (hr, and (iii minimum region (MR. In this study, in total, 176 parameter combinations (hs, hr, and MR are tested on a small part of the area (~10km2 to find an optimum segmentation result, and a final parameter combination (hs=18, hr=20, and MR=1000 is determined after evaluating multiple goodness measures. The final segmentation output is then utilized to the classification framework. The classification operation is applied on the four-band multispectral image (4m to minimize the mixed pixel effect. Before the image classification, each segment is overlaid with the bands of the image fused, and several descriptive statistics of each segment are computed for each band. To select the potential homogeneous regions that are eligible for the selection of training samples, a user-defined threshold is applied. After finding those potential regions, the

  13. A Classification of Statistics Courses (A Framework for Studying Statistical Education)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A classification of statistics courses in presented, with main categories of "course type,""methods of presentation,""objectives," and "syllabus." Examples and suggestions for uses of the classification are given. (DT)

  14. Environmental Studies and Environmental Science at GCE '0' and 'A' Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayford, Christopher G.

    1983-01-01

    Reports on environmental studies/science at General Certificate of Examination (GCE) ordinary ("0") and advanced ("A") levels. Questionnaires were used to survey teachers (focusing on their professional training and why they teach environmental studies/science courses) and to determine the relationship between environmental…

  15. Environmental impact study. 'Cyclical approach case study VEGA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setzman, E.; Braennstroem-Norberg, B.M.; Rosen-Lidholm, S.

    1993-06-01

    The aim of this study has been to identify, describe and assess the environmental factors in the fuel chain which may be of significance for the possibilities of establishing biofuel-fired plants for the production of electricity and heat. The description is based on the documentation for the planned combined heat and power plant in Eskilstuna which will utilize pressurized gasification of biofuel in a combined cycle (VEGA). The study shows that the emissions from the plant are limited and do not give rise to any identifiable environmental effects. The emissions of nitrogen oxides from transportation and from fuel production are equivalent to those from combustion. The environmental consequences of a biofuel-fired plant of this size will be primarily local. The regional effects will be limited and of little significance providing that fuel extraction is not carried out in sensitive areas, transportation by road over long distances is minimized, and the removal of important nutrients through the extraction of biofuels is compensated for, for example by returning ash to the soil. 26 refs, 29 figs, 38 tabs

  16. Tritium environmental transport studies at TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, P.D.; Dolan, T.J.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental tritium concentrations will be measured near the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to help validate dynamic models of tritium transport in the environment. For model validation the database must contain sequential measurements of tritium concentrations in key environmental compartments. Since complete containment of tritium is an operational goal, the supplementary monitoring program should be able to glean useful data from an unscheduled acute release. Portable air samplers will be used to take samples automatically every 4 hours for a weak after an acute release, thus obtaining the time resolution needed for code validation. Samples of soil, vegetation, and foodstuffs will be gathered daily at the same locations as the active air monitors. The database may help validate the plant/soil/air part of tritium transport models and enhance environmental tritium transport understanding for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

  17. Tritium environmental transport studies at TFTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, P. D.; Dolan, T. J.; Longhurst, G. R.

    1993-06-01

    Environmental tritium concentrations will be measured near the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to help validate dynamic models of tritium transport in the environment. For model validation the database must contain sequential measurements of tritium concentrations in key environmental compartments. Since complete containment of tritium is an operational goal, the supplementary monitoring program should be able to glean useful data from an unscheduled acute release. Portable air samplers will be used to take samples automatically every 4 hours for a week after an acute release, thus obtaining the time resolution needed for code validation. Samples of soil, vegetation, and foodstuffs will be gathered daily at the same locations as the active air monitors. The database may help validate the plant/soil/air part of tritium transport models and enhance environmental tritium transport understanding for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER).

  18. Environmental management in Slovenian industrial enterprises - Empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Čančer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available timulated with the firm belief that environmental management helps enterprises to achieve business success, expressed by a majority of managers in the sample enterprises, we present the results of an empirical study in the Slovene processing industry. The purpose of our research work is to identify, analyse and present the importance of the environment in business decision-making, the role of environmental management in strategic decision-making and its distribution across the business functions; environmental performance in business processes; the use of the methods for environmentally oriented business decision-making and the developmental tendencies of environmental management in Slovene enterprises of the processing industry. We define the key drivers of environmental management and their effect on the environmental behaviour of these enterprises. We present and interpret data indicating that environmental management is caused not only by compliance and regulation, but also by competition and enterprises’ own initiative.

  19. Learning to recognise : A study on one-class classification and active learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juszczak, P.

    2006-01-01

    The thesis treats classification problems which are undersampled or where there exist an unbalance between classes in the sampling. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first two parts treat the problem of one-class classification. In the one-class classification problem, it is assumed that

  20. Classification of Tropical River Using Chemometrics Technique: Case Study in Pahang River, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Nur Hishaam Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    River classification is very important to know the river characteristic in study areas, where this database can help to understand the behaviour of the river. This article discusses about river classification using Chemometrics techniques in mainstream of Pahang River. Based on river survey, GIS and Remote Sensing database, the chemometric analysis techniques have been used to identify the cluster on the Pahang River using Hierarchical Agglomerative Cluster Analysis (HACA). Calibration and validation process using Discriminant Analysis (DA) has been used to confirm the HACA result. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) study to see the strong coefficient where the Pahang River has been classed. The results indicated the main of Pahang River has been classed to three main clusters as upstream, middle stream and downstream. Base on DA analysis, the calibration and validation model shows 100 % convinced. While the PCA indicates there are three variables that have a significant correlation, domination slope with R"2 0.796, L/D ratio with R"2 -0868 and sinuosity with R"2 0.557. Map of the river classification with moving class also was produced. Where the green colour considered in valley erosion zone, yellow in a low terrace of land near the channels and red colour class in flood plain and valley deposition zone. From this result, the basic information can be produced to understand the characteristics of the main Pahang River. This result is important to local authorities to make decisions according to the cluster or guidelines for future study in Pahang River, Malaysia specifically and for Tropical River generally. The research findings are important to local authorities by providing basic data as a guidelines to the integrated river management at Pahang River, and Tropical River in general. (author)

  1. Using fuzzy logic for automatic control: Case study of a problem of cereals samples classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhoua Najeh Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the use of fuzzy logic for automatic control of industrial systems particularly the way to approach a problem of classification. We present a case study of a grading system of cereals that allows us to determine the price of transactions of cereals in Tunisia. Our contribution in this work consists in proposing not only an application of the fuzzy logic on the grading system of cereals but also a methodology enabling the proposing of a new grading system based on the concept of 'Grade' while using the fuzzy logic techniques. .

  2. A Study on Environmental Education Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerba, Diana

    The degree of communication between the film industry and educators and its effect on the future directions of environmental education films are the focus of this report. Separate surveys were mailed to 100 film industry producers and distributors and 150 elementary and secondary educators in Maine, Kansas, Pennsylvania, California, and Alabama.…

  3. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell Gottlieb; Robert Panne; Chris Smerecnik; Gerjo Kok

    2012-01-01

    Background: While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how

  4. Environmental Health Ethics in Study of Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, L. E.; Hansen, P. W.; Pedersen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Children are not small adults in relation to exposure and vulnerability. Rapid growth, development, and anatomical and physiological changes in various organs and organ systems differentiate children from adults in relation to exposure and vulnerability to environmental exposures. The unborn chil...

  5. An Environmental Unit for the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Claudia J.

    Based on the inquiry method of learning, this instructional unit attempts to encourage students to discover for themselves the facts, problems, values, conflicts, and potential solutions of an environmental issue. Specifically, it deals with surface mining in the United States, with special focus on surface mining in Illinois. Materials and…

  6. Nickel oxide reduction studied by environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Q.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2012-01-01

    In situ reduction of an industrial NiO powder is performed under 1.3 mbar of H2 (2 mlN/min) in a differentially pumped FEI Titan 80-300 environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM). Images, diffraction patterns and electron energy loss spectra (EELS) are acquired to monitor the structura...

  7. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H; Panne, Robert; Smerecnik, Chris

    2012-11-28

    While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how these are composed of methods for individual change ('Bundling') and how within one environmental level, organizations, methods differ when directed at the management ('At') or applied by the management ('From'). The first part of this online survey dealt with examining the 'bundling' of individual level methods to methods at the environmental level. The question asked was to what extent the use of an environmental level method would involve the use of certain individual level methods. In the second part of the survey the question was whether there are differences between applying methods directed 'at' an organization (for instance, by a health promoter) versus 'from' within an organization itself. All of the 20 respondents are experts in the field of health promotion. Methods at the individual level are frequently bundled together as part of a method at a higher ecological level. A number of individual level methods are popular as part of most of the environmental level methods, while others are not chosen very often. Interventions directed at environmental agents often have a strong focus on the motivational part of behavior change.There are different approaches targeting a level or being targeted from a level. The health promoter will use combinations of motivation and facilitation. The manager will use individual level change methods focusing on self-efficacy and skills. Respondents think that any method may be used under the right circumstances, although few endorsed coercive methods. Taxonomies of theoretical change methods for environmental change should include combinations of individual level methods that may be bundled and separate suggestions for methods targeting a level

  8. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Gerjo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how these are composed of methods for individual change (‘Bundling’ and how within one environmental level, organizations, methods differ when directed at the management (‘At’ or applied by the management (‘From’. Methods The first part of this online survey dealt with examining the ‘bundling’ of individual level methods to methods at the environmental level. The question asked was to what extent the use of an environmental level method would involve the use of certain individual level methods. In the second part of the survey the question was whether there are differences between applying methods directed ‘at’ an organization (for instance, by a health promoter versus ‘from’ within an organization itself. All of the 20 respondents are experts in the field of health promotion. Results Methods at the individual level are frequently bundled together as part of a method at a higher ecological level. A number of individual level methods are popular as part of most of the environmental level methods, while others are not chosen very often. Interventions directed at environmental agents often have a strong focus on the motivational part of behavior change. There are different approaches targeting a level or being targeted from a level. The health promoter will use combinations of motivation and facilitation. The manager will use individual level change methods focusing on self-efficacy and skills. Respondents think that any method may be used under the right circumstances, although few endorsed coercive methods. Conclusions Taxonomies of theoretical change methods for environmental change should include combinations of individual

  9. Designing Interventions that Last: A Classification of Environmental Behaviors in Relation to the Activities, Costs, and Effort Involved for Adoption and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Harriet E.; Boldero, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Policy makers draw on behavioral research to design interventions that promote the voluntary adoption of environmental behavior in societies. Many environmental behaviors will only be effective if they are maintained over the long-term. In the context of climate change and concerns about future water security, behaviors that involve reducing energy consumption and improving water quality must be continued indefinitely to mitigate global warming and preserve scarce resources. Previous reviews of environmental behavior have focused exclusively on factors related to adoption. This review investigates the factors that influence both adoption and maintenance, and presents a classification of environmental behaviors in terms of the activities, costs, and effort required for both adoption and maintenance. Three categories of behavior are suggested. One-off behaviors involve performing an activity once, such as purchasing an energy efficient washing machine, or signing a petition. Continuous behaviors involve the performance of the same set of behaviors for adoption and for maintenance, such as curbside recycling. Dynamic behaviors involve the performance of different behaviors for adoption and maintenance, such as revegetation. Behaviors can also be classified into four categories related to cost and effort: those that involve little cost and effort for adoption and maintenance, those that involve moderate cost and effort for adoption and maintenance, those that involve a high cost or effort for adoption and less for maintenance, and those that involve less cost or effort for adoption and a higher amount for maintenance. In order to design interventions that last, policy makers should consider the factors that influence the maintenance as well as the adoption of environmental behaviors. PMID:29163265

  10. Environmental Pricing: Studies in Policy Choices and Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    areas of current practice that must be addressed. Empirical studies of policy strategies are discussed to illustrate the extent to which current climate change policy is integrated against the proposed successful policy combinations that are presented in this insightful book. Environmental pricing......Environmental taxes can be efficient tools for successful environmental policy. Their use, however, has been limited in many countries. This thoughtful book explores the scope of environmental pricing and examines a variety of national experiences in environmental policy integration, to identify...

  11. Study of classification and disposed method for disused sealed radioactive source in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl; Lee, Seung Hee [FNC Technology Co., Ltd.,Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    In accordance with the classification system of radioactive waste in Korea, all the disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRSs) fall under the category of EW, VLLW or LILW, and should be managed in compliance with the restrictions for the disposal method. In this study, the management and disposal method are drawn in consideration of half-life of radionuclides contained in the source and A/D value (i.e. the activity A of the source dividing by the D value for the relevant radionuclide, which is used to provide an initial ranking of relative risk for sources) in addition to the domestic classification scheme and disposal method, based on the characteristic analysis and review results of the management practices in IAEA and foreign countries. For all the DSRSs that are being stored (as of March 2015) in the centralized temporary disposal facility for radioisotope wastes, applicability of the derivation result is confirmed through performing the characteristic analysis and case studies for assessing quantity and volume of DSRSs to be managed by each method. However, the methodology derived from this study is not applicable to the following sources; i) DSRSs without information on the radioactivity, ii) DSRSs that are not possible to calculate the specific activity and/or the source-specific A/D value. Accordingly, it is essential to identify the inherent characteristics for each of DSRSs prior to implementation of this management and disposal method.

  12. Empirical study of classification process for two-stage turbo air classifier in series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Liu, Jiaxiang; Li, Gang

    2013-05-01

    The suitable process parameters for a two-stage turbo air classifier are important for obtaining the ultrafine powder that has a narrow particle-size distribution, however little has been published internationally on the classification process for the two-stage turbo air classifier in series. The influence of the process parameters of a two-stage turbo air classifier in series on classification performance is empirically studied by using aluminum oxide powders as the experimental material. The experimental results show the following: 1) When the rotor cage rotary speed of the first-stage classifier is increased from 2 300 r/min to 2 500 r/min with a constant rotor cage rotary speed of the second-stage classifier, classification precision is increased from 0.64 to 0.67. However, in this case, the final ultrafine powder yield is decreased from 79% to 74%, which means the classification precision and the final ultrafine powder yield can be regulated through adjusting the rotor cage rotary speed of the first-stage classifier. 2) When the rotor cage rotary speed of the second-stage classifier is increased from 2 500 r/min to 3 100 r/min with a constant rotor cage rotary speed of the first-stage classifier, the cut size is decreased from 13.16 μm to 8.76 μm, which means the cut size of the ultrafine powder can be regulated through adjusting the rotor cage rotary speed of the second-stage classifier. 3) When the feeding speed is increased from 35 kg/h to 50 kg/h, the "fish-hook" effect is strengthened, which makes the ultrafine powder yield decrease. 4) To weaken the "fish-hook" effect, the equalization of the two-stage wind speeds or the combination of a high first-stage wind speed with a low second-stage wind speed should be selected. This empirical study provides a criterion of process parameter configurations for a two-stage or multi-stage classifier in series, which offers a theoretical basis for practical production.

  13. The Effects of an Environmental Studies Course on Selected Variables Related To Environmentally Responsible Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.

    1995-01-01

    Reports that students completing an environmental studies course displayed significant gains when compared with students not completing such a course. These gains were made in acquiring a more internally-oriented locus of control of reinforcement for environmentally responsible behavior, a higher perception of their knowledge of and skill in using…

  14. The relationship between environmental lead and blood lead in children : a study in environmental epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B.

    1985-01-01

    This study deals with the relationship between environmental lead and blood lead in children.
    Chapter 1 provides a summary of the environmental health aspects of lead. The occurrence of lead in the environment and in man is described; children are discussed as a population at

  15. Study on Biopharmaceutics Classification and Oral Bioavailability of a Novel Multikinase Inhibitor NCE for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Specific biopharmaceutics classification investigation and study on phamacokinetic profile of a novel drug candidate (2-methylcarbamoyl-4-{4-[3- (trifluoromethyl benzamido] phenoxy} pyridinium 4-methylbenzenesulfonate monohydrate, NCE were carried out. Equilibrium solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR of NCE were estimated in different phosphate buffers. Effective intestinal permeability (Peff of NCE was determined using single-pass intestinal perfusion technique in rat duodenum, jejunum and ileum at three concentrations. Theophylline (high permeability and ranitidine (low permeability were also applied to access the permeability of NCE as reference compounds. The bioavailability after intragastrical and intravenous administration was measured in beagle dogs. The solubility of NCE in tested phosphate buffers was quite low with the maximum solubility of 81.73 μg/mL at pH 1.0. The intrinsic dissolution ratio of NCE was 1 × 10−4 mg·min−1·cm−2. The Peff value of NCE in all intestinal segments was more proximate to the high-permeability reference theophylline. Therefore, NCE was classified as class II drug according to Biopharmaceutics Classification System due to its low solubility and high intestinal permeability. In addition, concentration-dependent permeability was not observed in all the segments, indicating that there might be passive transportation for NCE. The absolute oral bioavailability of NCE in beagle dogs was 26.75%. Therefore, dissolution promotion will be crucial for oral formulation development and intravenous administration route will also be suggested for further NCE formulation development. All the data would provide a reference for biopharmaceutics classification research of other novel drug candidates.

  16. Study on biopharmaceutics classification and oral bioavailability of a novel multikinase inhibitor NCE for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Fan, Chun-Mei; He, Xuan; Ren, Ke; Zhang, Jin-Kun; He, Ying-Ju; Yu, Luo-Ting; Zhao, Ying-Lan; Gong, Chang-Yang; Zheng, Yu; Song, Xiang-Rong; Zeng, Jun

    2014-04-25

    Specific biopharmaceutics classification investigation and study on phamacokinetic profile of a novel drug candidate (2-methylcarbamoyl-4-{4-[3- (trifluoromethyl) benzamido] phenoxy} pyridinium 4-methylbenzenesulfonate monohydrate, NCE) were carried out. Equilibrium solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) of NCE were estimated in different phosphate buffers. Effective intestinal permeability (P(eff)) of NCE was determined using single-pass intestinal perfusion technique in rat duodenum, jejunum and ileum at three concentrations. Theophylline (high permeability) and ranitidine (low permeability) were also applied to access the permeability of NCE as reference compounds. The bioavailability after intragastrical and intravenous administration was measured in beagle dogs. The solubility of NCE in tested phosphate buffers was quite low with the maximum solubility of 81.73 μg/mL at pH 1.0. The intrinsic dissolution ratio of NCE was 1 × 10⁻⁴ mg·min⁻¹·cm⁻². The P(eff) value of NCE in all intestinal segments was more proximate to the high-permeability reference theophylline. Therefore, NCE was classified as class II drug according to Biopharmaceutics Classification System due to its low solubility and high intestinal permeability. In addition, concentration-dependent permeability was not observed in all the segments, indicating that there might be passive transportation for NCE. The absolute oral bioavailability of NCE in beagle dogs was 26.75%. Therefore, dissolution promotion will be crucial for oral formulation development and intravenous administration route will also be suggested for further NCE formulation development. All the data would provide a reference for biopharmaceutics classification research of other novel drug candidates.

  17. SAW Classification Algorithm for Chinese Text Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Guo; Huiyu Sun; Tiehua Zhou; Ling Wang; Zhaoyang Qu; Jiannan Zang

    2015-01-01

    Considering the explosive growth of data, the increased amount of text data’s effect on the performance of text categorization forward the need for higher requirements, such that the existing classification method cannot be satisfied. Based on the study of existing text classification technology and semantics, this paper puts forward a kind of Chinese text classification oriented SAW (Structural Auxiliary Word) algorithm. The algorithm uses the special space effect of Chinese text where words...

  18. Studies of environmental compatability. Umweltbundesamt - Texte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The evaluation of the methodical quality of the examples by means of a verification pattern had the result that approaches using quantitative methods - as for example the value in use analysis obtained better results: The representation of the state of the environment and of possible impairments of the environment, which had bejudged, achieved a higher degree of representativeness and completeness. Furthermore the concreteness of the used criteria for the description of the repercussions of a plan and the possibility to quantify same had to be judged more favourable. It must critically be remarked that by using quantitative methods difficulties may appear if impairments of the environment overlap or if there are correlations between the media respectively if there are non-linear repercussions of measures causing environmental damages. The present level of research should be developed to a strenghtened inclusion of complex and dynamic correlations of effects. More exacting investigations concerning environmental compatability are on the long term integrated in administrative procedures only at few authorities. With the demand for an extension of environmental compatability assessment to all steps of planning and procedure for the realization of a plan an early and more intensive participation of the public should be connected.

  19. Study of wavelet packet energy entropy for emotion classification in speech and glottal signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling; Lech, Margaret; Zhang, Jing; Ren, Xiaomei; Deng, Lihua

    2013-07-01

    The automatic speech emotion recognition has important applications in human-machine communication. Majority of current research in this area is focused on finding optimal feature parameters. In recent studies, several glottal features were examined as potential cues for emotion differentiation. In this study, a new type of feature parameter is proposed, which calculates energy entropy on values within selected Wavelet Packet frequency bands. The modeling and classification tasks are conducted using the classical GMM algorithm. The experiments use two data sets: the Speech Under Simulated Emotion (SUSE) data set annotated with three different emotions (angry, neutral and soft) and Berlin Emotional Speech (BES) database annotated with seven different emotions (angry, bored, disgust, fear, happy, sad and neutral). The average classification accuracy achieved for the SUSE data (74%-76%) is significantly higher than the accuracy achieved for the BES data (51%-54%). In both cases, the accuracy was significantly higher than the respective random guessing levels (33% for SUSE and 14.3% for BES).

  20. A study of environmental polluting factors by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paunoiu, C.; Doca, C.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents: a) some importance factors of the environmental pollution; b) the theoretical aspects of the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) used in the study of the environmental pollution; c) the NAA specific hardware and software facilities existing at the Institute for Nuclear Research; d) a direct application of the NAA method in the study of the environmental pollution for Pitesti city by the analysis of some ground and vegetation samples; e) results and conclusions. (authors)

  1. [Study on the correlation between syndrome differ classification of knee osteoarthritis and X-ray image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li-Kun; Zhang, Guo-Zhong; Tang, Ke; Liu, Yang

    2010-12-01

    To study the correlation between syndrome differ classification of knee osteoarthritis and X-ray image, so as to provide evidence for clinical diagnosis and treatment. From Jun. 2007 to Dec. 2007, 78 patients (108 knees) with knee osteoarthritis were reviewed, including 65 females (89 knees) and 13 males (19 knees), ranging in age from 41 to 77 years. According to the standards for the differentiation of syndrome in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis defined in Principle of Clinical Research for New Traditional Herbs, the patients were divided into three types: Type I, insufficiency of the liver and kidney, with stagnation of tendons and muscles, 43 knees; Type II, insufficiency of the spleen and kidney, with dampness infusion into bone and joints, 26 knees; Type I, deficiency of the liver and kidney, with inter-obstruction of phlegm and stasis 39 knees. Normotopia and lateral plain film of knee joint of weigh loading and in erect position, and patellofemoral Skyline plain flim was taken. Joint space narrow, osteophyte generation, subchondral osteosclerosis and subchondral cystic degeneration were evaluated. All data were analyzed by K independent samples nonparametric test in order to find out the correlation between syndrome differ classification of knee osteoarthritis and X-ray image. It was shown that after K independent samples nonparametric test about syndrome differ classification of knee osteoarthritis and X-ray image: there were significant differences among three types about lateral patella osteophyte, condyles of tibia osteophyte and Type II was the most serious, Type I was secondary, Type II was the lightest. Other index had no obvious difference among the three groups. There is certain correlation between syndrome differ classification of knee osteoarthritis and X-ray image. There are significant differences among three types about lateral patella osteophyte, condyles of tibia osteophyte, the Type II is the most serious,Type I is secondary, Type II

  2. A Comparative Study of Land Cover Classification by Using Multispectral and Texture Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Qadri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to find out the importance of machine vision approach for the classification of five types of land cover data such as bare land, desert rangeland, green pasture, fertile cultivated land, and Sutlej river land. A novel spectra-statistical framework is designed to classify the subjective land cover data types accurately. Multispectral data of these land covers were acquired by using a handheld device named multispectral radiometer in the form of five spectral bands (blue, green, red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared while texture data were acquired with a digital camera by the transformation of acquired images into 229 texture features for each image. The most discriminant 30 features of each image were obtained by integrating the three statistical features selection techniques such as Fisher, Probability of Error plus Average Correlation, and Mutual Information (F + PA + MI. Selected texture data clustering was verified by nonlinear discriminant analysis while linear discriminant analysis approach was applied for multispectral data. For classification, the texture and multispectral data were deployed to artificial neural network (ANN: n-class. By implementing a cross validation method (80-20, we received an accuracy of 91.332% for texture data and 96.40% for multispectral data, respectively.

  3. Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection and Protectionism. Book cover Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection and Protectionism. Directeur(s) : Veena Jha. Maison(s) d'édition : Edward Elgar, IDRC. 1 janvier 2006. ISBN : 184542512X. 250 pages. e-ISBN : 155250185X.

  4. Environmental ethics and wilderness management: an empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Valliere; Robert E. Manning

    1995-01-01

    The underlying hypothesis of this study is that environmental ethics influence public attitudes toward wilderness management. To study this hypothesis, environmental ethics were defined, categorized, and measured empirically. Additionally, attitudes toward selected wilderness management issues were measured. Associations were found between beliefs in selected...

  5. Environmental impact study of Orion Nebula dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardelli, J.A.; Clayton, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, new high-quality extinction curves are presented for Theta-1 Ori A, C, and D, and Theta-2 Ori A and B, over the wavelength range 3300-6000 A. These are coupled with near-infrared and ultraviolet data to produce extinction curves from 0.12 to 3.5 microns. The Orion Nebula region is interesting in that most of the known processes of dust-grain growth, processing, and destruction may be operating nearly simultaneously in close proximity to one another. Each of these processes is considered with respect to the observed extinction curves and environmental conditions in the Orion Nebula and its associated molecular cloud. Plausible grain populations are fit to the observed extinction curves. A good fit to the average Theta Ori extinction curve can be obtained with: (1) a combination of larger than normal silicate grains produced through coagulation and accretion; (2) evaporation of volatile mantles; and (3) a reduction in the column density of small (smaller than 0.01 micron) grains responsible for the bump and far-ultraviolet extinction through differential acceleration due to radiation pressure and possible evaporation. It seems plausible to explain the observed peculiar extinction in the Orion Nebula simply by environmental effects on otherwise normal grains. 59 references

  6. Environmental Studies of Schizophrenia Through the Prism of Epigenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Gabriel; Petronis, Arturas

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, etiological research of schizophrenia has been focused on elucidating predisposing genes and environmental risk factors. While numerous putative environmental hazards have been suggested, inconsistencies and methodological limitations of epidemiological studies have made it difficult to identify even a single exogenous cause of schizophrenia. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that environmental risk factors may not play as much of a significant role in schizophrenia as ...

  7. Classification, disease, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Classification shapes medicine and guides its practice. Understanding classification must be part of the quest to better understand the social context and implications of diagnosis. Classifications are part of the human work that provides a foundation for the recognition and study of illness: deciding how the vast expanse of nature can be partitioned into meaningful chunks, stabilizing and structuring what is otherwise disordered. This article explores the aims of classification, their embodiment in medical diagnosis, and the historical traditions of medical classification. It provides a brief overview of the aims and principles of classification and their relevance to contemporary medicine. It also demonstrates how classifications operate as social framing devices that enable and disable communication, assert and refute authority, and are important items for sociological study.

  8. DOE LLW classification rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, A.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This report was about the rationale which the US Department of Energy had with low-level radioactive waste (LLW) classification. It is based on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's classification system. DOE site operators met to review the qualifications and characteristics of the classification systems. They evaluated performance objectives, developed waste classification tables, and compiled dose limits on the waste. A goal of the LLW classification system was to allow each disposal site the freedom to develop limits to radionuclide inventories and concentrations according to its own site-specific characteristics. This goal was achieved with the adoption of a performance objectives system based on a performance assessment, with site-specific environmental conditions and engineered disposal systems

  9. Environmental radiation studies relevant to thermoluminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.S.; Bowman, S.G.E.; Aitken, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    To determine the age of a potsherd by the thermoluminescence (TL) technique, one must have an accurate knowledge of the cosmic and environmental gamma dose rate in quartz. This is obtained by leaving a sensitive TL dosimeter buried as near as possible to the position from which the sherd was removed. The ratios of the response of a quartz-like dosimeter to those of CaF 2 and LiF have been measured. This experiment used a 1-m cube of concrete containing 3000 ppM of uranium and its daughters. Smaller, less active matrixes of 40 K and thorium and its daughters have also been constructed. A means of making direct dose-rate determinations when the site context remains but burial of a dosimeter is impractical was developed using a NaI(Tl) system. The equipment was field tested on approx. 40 Peruvian archaeological sites, and results are compared with CaF 2 measurements

  10. Environmental studies in the Timmins area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsillie, D; McGovern, P C

    1973-01-01

    In 1970 the Phytotoxicology Section of the Air Management Branch initiated a pre-pollution background survey of the environmental situation in the Timmins area where Texas Gulf Sulphur was expected to construct an electrolytic zinc refinery near Hoyle (12 miles northeast of Timmins). In April 1972, the refinery began production, and during the 1972 growing season this new plant operated at a rate of 70 to 90% of the theoretical capacity. The refinery is located adjacent to the ore concentrator which has been operative since November 1966. During 1970, 1971, and 1972, Phytotoxicology personnel conducted an extensive program of environmental analysis and evaluation in the area. The information gathered to date indicates that within a 20 mile radius of the refinery, the condition of the vegetation (trees, shrubs, and ground flora) is similar to that existing in the control areas (number of species, number of plants, growth rate, crown condition etc.) which are located 50 miles from Hoyle. The lead peroxide candle survey showed that only background levels of sulfur dioxide were present in the ambient air both before and after the initiation of operations at the refinery. No SO/sub 2/ injury to vegetation has been observed in the Hoyle area. Chemical analysis of the vegetation, soil, and water samples collected at twelve established plots in 1971 shows elevated levels of metals in the soil immediately to the east and northeast of Hoyle. These same metals were elevated also in the vegetation collected at plots 1 and 2, close to the plant. Further work is planned to determine the source of this contamination. 13 tables.

  11. Comparison between different methodologies of environmental sensitivity classification for lagoons; Comparacao entre diferentes metodologias de classificacao do indice de sensibilidade do litoral a derramamentos de oleo para ambientes lagunares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Carine; Cabral, Alexandre; Griep, Gilberto Henrique [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper aims to show a brief presentation about the variation of Environmental Sensibility Index (ISL) to west coast of Patos Lagoon, in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, between the seasons winter and summer. Furthermore, it compares two different methodologies for Sensibility Classification: the first one, for fluvial environments, which was suggested by PETROBRAS, 2006 and other one for either coastal and tidal environments, suggested by Environmental Ministry, 2002. (author)

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL REPORTING AT INTERNATIONAL LEVEL (STUDY OF THE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IENCIU Ionel-Alin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important areas of development during the last 15 years, as far as accounting is concerned, has been the environmental reporting and accounting, generating interests beyond the restrictions imposed by purely academic discussions or the professional accountants community. The objective of the paper is represented by the analysis of scientific knowledge and existing practices in the area of environmental reporting. Mathews (1997, 2001 and Parker (2005 are one of the most representative studies that examine the evolution and status of researches in the area of accounting and environmental reporting. Because of the fact that reports offered by the traditional financial accounting system are insufficient for reflecting a clear and complete image of the company's environmantal impact, I monitored the frameworks or mechanisms of environmental information. Also, the paper analysis the articles treating international environmental reporting, articles publised in ISI quoted or BDI indexed journals. The collection and analysis of reporting frames, the interpretation and analysis thereof represent the main instruments used in order to bring to the forefront the main existing reporting frames for environmental information, found at international level. The quantitative, applicative research is used to reflect the current status of researches in the field of environmental reporting, using the non-participative observation to reflect the current status of researches in the field of environmental reporting, by using the non-participative observation, the collection and analysis of articles as main research instruments. The study concludes that environmental reporting continues to represent the main attraction of researchers in the field of environmental accounting. The main reason for researches on environmental reporting is represented by the description, investigation and improvement of practices on accounting and reporting environmental

  13. Environmental Studies Center Teacher Books. 4th Grade - Mangrove Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin County Schools, Jensen Beach, FL. Environmental Studies Center.

    This teacher's guide, one of nine teacher packages developed for use in the sequential, hands-on, field-oriented, K-8 environmental education program of the Martin County Schools in Florida, was developed for use with elementary children in grade four prior to and after a visit to an environmental studies center located near an estuarine area. The…

  14. Study questions environmental impact of fuel-cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ned

    2015-09-01

    Fuel-cell electric vehicles are seen by many as an environmentally friendly technology that can reduce greenhousegas emissions by producing no harmful emissions. But a new study has found that overall a fuel cell electric vehicle has about the same negative environmental impact as a luxury sports car.

  15. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  16. Speed and accuracy of facial expression classification in avoidant personality disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M Zachary; Kim, Kwanguk; Herr, Nathaniel R; Smoski, Moria J; Cheavens, Jennifer S; Lynch, Thomas R; Kosson, David S

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to examine whether individuals with avoidant personality disorder (APD) could be characterized by deficits in the classification of dynamically presented facial emotional expressions. Using a community sample of adults with APD (n = 17) and non-APD controls (n = 16), speed and accuracy of facial emotional expression recognition was investigated in a task that morphs facial expressions from neutral to prototypical expressions (Multi-Morph Facial Affect Recognition Task; Blair, Colledge, Murray, & Mitchell, 2001). Results indicated that individuals with APD were significantly more likely than controls to make errors when classifying fully expressed fear. However, no differences were found between groups in the speed to correctly classify facial emotional expressions. The findings are some of the first to investigate facial emotional processing in a sample of individuals with APD and point to an underlying deficit in processing social cues that may be involved in the maintenance of APD.

  17. Polymerase chain reaction in diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi infections and studies on taxonomic classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2002-01-01

    been studied by phenotypic and genotypic traits and have been shown to be highly heterogeneous. Our first approach was to genotype a panel of human B. burgdorferi isolates by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of three genes. Thereafter, sequencing and dideoxy fingerprinting of osp...... for PCR amplification and subsequent identification of B. burgdorferi specific sequences were established and used. For all assays the analytical sensitivity was a few genome copies using purified DNA as template. The efficacy of PCR was initially evaluated using tissue samples from experimentally...... classification by Baranton et al., According to this the term B. burgdorferi sensu lato comprises three different human pathogenic genospecies B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii and B. afzelii. All three genospecies have been isolated among Danish patients with Lyme borreliosis and are thus prevalent...

  18. Comparison analysis for classification algorithm in data mining and the study of model use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junde; Zhang, Defu

    2018-04-01

    As a key technique in data mining, classification algorithm was received extensive attention. Through an experiment of classification algorithm in UCI data set, we gave a comparison analysis method for the different algorithms and the statistical test was used here. Than that, an adaptive diagnosis model for preventive electricity stealing and leakage was given as a specific case in the paper.

  19. Comparative study of SVM methods combined with voxel selection for object category classification on fMRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sutao; Zhan, Zhichao; Long, Zhiying; Zhang, Jiacai; Yao, Li

    2011-02-16

    Support vector machine (SVM) has been widely used as accurate and reliable method to decipher brain patterns from functional MRI (fMRI) data. Previous studies have not found a clear benefit for non-linear (polynomial kernel) SVM versus linear one. Here, a more effective non-linear SVM using radial basis function (RBF) kernel is compared with linear SVM. Different from traditional studies which focused either merely on the evaluation of different types of SVM or the voxel selection methods, we aimed to investigate the overall performance of linear and RBF SVM for fMRI classification together with voxel selection schemes on classification accuracy and time-consuming. Six different voxel selection methods were employed to decide which voxels of fMRI data would be included in SVM classifiers with linear and RBF kernels in classifying 4-category objects. Then the overall performances of voxel selection and classification methods were compared. Results showed that: (1) Voxel selection had an important impact on the classification accuracy of the classifiers: in a relative low dimensional feature space, RBF SVM outperformed linear SVM significantly; in a relative high dimensional space, linear SVM performed better than its counterpart; (2) Considering the classification accuracy and time-consuming holistically, linear SVM with relative more voxels as features and RBF SVM with small set of voxels (after PCA) could achieve the better accuracy and cost shorter time. The present work provides the first empirical result of linear and RBF SVM in classification of fMRI data, combined with voxel selection methods. Based on the findings, if only classification accuracy was concerned, RBF SVM with appropriate small voxels and linear SVM with relative more voxels were two suggested solutions; if users concerned more about the computational time, RBF SVM with relative small set of voxels when part of the principal components were kept as features was a better choice.

  20. Environmental study of nylon flocking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, J; Piacitelli, C; Schwegler-Berry, D; Jones, W

    1999-05-14

    Environmental measurements for a variety of gas, particulate, and microbiological agents have been made in order to characterize exposures associated with the nylon flocking process. Of all agents measured, particulate is the predominant exposure. Levels of total particulate ranged from O.1 to 240 mg/m3 (x = 11.4 mg/m3). Average respirable particulate was 2.2 mg/m3, ranging from 0.5 to 39.9 mg/m3. Highest levels of particulates were found in the flocking room, and direct reading dust measurements indicate that the highest peak exposures are associated with "blowdown" (a cleaning procedure used between flocking runs). The nature of the airborne particles was investigated using polarized light and scanning electron microscopy. Air samples were found to contain flock particles (fibers nominally 10-15 microm in diameter by about 1000 microm in length) and a variety of respirable particles types, several of which were linked directly to the process. Of special interest were elongated respirable particles, which by microscopic analysis, complemented with melting-point determination, were found to be shreds of nylon.

  1. A comparative study of deep learning models for medical image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Suvajit; Manideep, B. C. S.; Rai, Shalva; Vijayarajan, V.

    2017-11-01

    Deep Learning(DL) techniques are conquering over the prevailing traditional approaches of neural network, when it comes to the huge amount of dataset, applications requiring complex functions demanding increase accuracy with lower time complexities. Neurosciences has already exploited DL techniques, thus portrayed itself as an inspirational source for researchers exploring the domain of Machine learning. DL enthusiasts cover the areas of vision, speech recognition, motion planning and NLP as well, moving back and forth among fields. This concerns with building models that can successfully solve variety of tasks requiring intelligence and distributed representation. The accessibility to faster CPUs, introduction of GPUs-performing complex vector and matrix computations, supported agile connectivity to network. Enhanced software infrastructures for distributed computing worked in strengthening the thought that made researchers suffice DL methodologies. The paper emphases on the following DL procedures to traditional approaches which are performed manually for classifying medical images. The medical images are used for the study Diabetic Retinopathy(DR) and computed tomography (CT) emphysema data. Both DR and CT data diagnosis is difficult task for normal image classification methods. The initial work was carried out with basic image processing along with K-means clustering for identification of image severity levels. After determining image severity levels ANN has been applied on the data to get the basic classification result, then it is compared with the result of DNNs (Deep Neural Networks), which performed efficiently because of its multiple hidden layer features basically which increases accuracy factors, but the problem of vanishing gradient in DNNs made to consider Convolution Neural Networks (CNNs) as well for better results. The CNNs are found to be providing better outcomes when compared to other learning models aimed at classification of images. CNNs are

  2. Feature ranking and rank aggregation for automatic sleep stage classification: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdi, Shirin; Gharbali, Ali Abdollahi; Fonseca, José Manuel

    2017-08-18

    Nowadays, sleep quality is one of the most important measures of healthy life, especially considering the huge number of sleep-related disorders. Identifying sleep stages using polysomnographic (PSG) signals is the traditional way of assessing sleep quality. However, the manual process of sleep stage classification is time-consuming, subjective and costly. Therefore, in order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the sleep stage classification, researchers have been trying to develop automatic classification algorithms. Automatic sleep stage classification mainly consists of three steps: pre-processing, feature extraction and classification. Since classification accuracy is deeply affected by the extracted features, a poor feature vector will adversely affect the classifier and eventually lead to low classification accuracy. Therefore, special attention should be given to the feature extraction and selection process. In this paper the performance of seven feature selection methods, as well as two feature rank aggregation methods, were compared. Pz-Oz EEG, horizontal EOG and submental chin EMG recordings of 22 healthy males and females were used. A comprehensive feature set including 49 features was extracted from these recordings. The extracted features are among the most common and effective features used in sleep stage classification from temporal, spectral, entropy-based and nonlinear categories. The feature selection methods were evaluated and compared using three criteria: classification accuracy, stability, and similarity. Simulation results show that MRMR-MID achieves the highest classification performance while Fisher method provides the most stable ranking. In our simulations, the performance of the aggregation methods was in the average level, although they are known to generate more stable results and better accuracy. The Borda and RRA rank aggregation methods could not outperform significantly the conventional feature ranking methods. Among

  3. STUDY ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF GAOFEN-3 POLARIMETRIC SAR IMAGES USING DEEP NEURAL NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar(POLSAR) imaging principle determines that the image quality will be affected by speckle noise. So the recognition accuracy of traditional image classification methods will be reduced by the effect of this interference. Since the date of submission, Deep Convolutional Neural Network impacts on the traditional image processing methods and brings the field of computer vision to a new stage with the advantages of a strong ability to learn deep features and excellent ability to fit large datasets. Based on the basic characteristics of polarimetric SAR images, the paper studied the types of the surface cover by using the method of Deep Learning. We used the fully polarimetric SAR features of different scales to fuse RGB images to the GoogLeNet model based on convolution neural network Iterative training, and then use the trained model to test the classification of data validation.First of all, referring to the optical image, we mark the surface coverage type of GF-3 POLSAR image with 8m resolution, and then collect the samples according to different categories. To meet the GoogLeNet model requirements of 256 × 256 pixel image input and taking into account the lack of full-resolution SAR resolution, the original image should be pre-processed in the process of resampling. In this paper, POLSAR image slice samples of different scales with sampling intervals of 2 m and 1 m to be trained separately and validated by the verification dataset. Among them, the training accuracy of GoogLeNet model trained with resampled 2-m polarimetric SAR image is 94.89 %, and that of the trained SAR image with resampled 1 m is 92.65 %.

  4. ASME stress linearization and classification - a discussion based on a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Carlos A. de J.; Faloppa, Altair A.; Mattar Neto, Miguel; Fainer, Gerson

    2011-01-01

    The ASME code, specially in its Nuclear Division (Subsection NB - Class I Components), gives some recommendations to the structural analyst on how to perform the verifications required to prove the design as good as the by-analysis prevented failures modes. Each of these failure modes has specific stress limits which are established based on simple but conservative hypothesis like the material perfectly plastic behavior and the shell theory with its typical membrane and bending stresses with linear distribution along the thickness. Other detail to keep in mind is the code distinction between primary and secondary stresses (respectively, stress that came due to equilibrium and due to displacement compatibility). In general, the numerical models used in the analyses are developed with plane or 3D solid elements and due this fact no direct comparison with the code limits can be done and, besides that, the programs do not distinguish between primary and secondary stresses. Mostly, the later are produced due to the temperature variation but they also appear near discontinuities. Sometimes, this classification is not so clear or direct. To perform the required ASME Code verifications the analyst should obtain the membrane and bending stresses from the plane or 3-D model which is called stress linearization and, also, should classify them as primary and secondary. (The excess between the maximum stress at a point and the sum of these linearized values is called peak stress and is included in the fatigue verification.) This task, most of the time is not a simple one due to the nature of the involved load and/or the complex geometry under analysis. In fact, there are several studies discussing on how to perform these stress classification and linearization. The present paper shows a discussion on how to perform these verifications based on a generic geometry found in many plants, from petrochemical to nuclear, which emphasizes some of theses issues. (author)

  5. Study on the Classification of GAOFEN-3 Polarimetric SAR Images Using Deep Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (POLSAR) imaging principle determines that the image quality will be affected by speckle noise. So the recognition accuracy of traditional image classification methods will be reduced by the effect of this interference. Since the date of submission, Deep Convolutional Neural Network impacts on the traditional image processing methods and brings the field of computer vision to a new stage with the advantages of a strong ability to learn deep features and excellent ability to fit large datasets. Based on the basic characteristics of polarimetric SAR images, the paper studied the types of the surface cover by using the method of Deep Learning. We used the fully polarimetric SAR features of different scales to fuse RGB images to the GoogLeNet model based on convolution neural network Iterative training, and then use the trained model to test the classification of data validation.First of all, referring to the optical image, we mark the surface coverage type of GF-3 POLSAR image with 8m resolution, and then collect the samples according to different categories. To meet the GoogLeNet model requirements of 256 × 256 pixel image input and taking into account the lack of full-resolution SAR resolution, the original image should be pre-processed in the process of resampling. In this paper, POLSAR image slice samples of different scales with sampling intervals of 2 m and 1 m to be trained separately and validated by the verification dataset. Among them, the training accuracy of GoogLeNet model trained with resampled 2-m polarimetric SAR image is 94.89 %, and that of the trained SAR image with resampled 1 m is 92.65 %.

  6. ASME stress linearization and classification - a discussion based on a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Carlos A. de J.; Faloppa, Altair A.; Mattar Neto, Miguel; Fainer, Gerson, E-mail: cmiranda@ipen.b, E-mail: afaloppa@ipen.b, E-mail: mmattar@ipen.b, E-mail: gfainer@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The ASME code, specially in its Nuclear Division (Subsection NB - Class I Components), gives some recommendations to the structural analyst on how to perform the verifications required to prove the design as good as the by-analysis prevented failures modes. Each of these failure modes has specific stress limits which are established based on simple but conservative hypothesis like the material perfectly plastic behavior and the shell theory with its typical membrane and bending stresses with linear distribution along the thickness. Other detail to keep in mind is the code distinction between primary and secondary stresses (respectively, stress that came due to equilibrium and due to displacement compatibility). In general, the numerical models used in the analyses are developed with plane or 3D solid elements and due this fact no direct comparison with the code limits can be done and, besides that, the programs do not distinguish between primary and secondary stresses. Mostly, the later are produced due to the temperature variation but they also appear near discontinuities. Sometimes, this classification is not so clear or direct. To perform the required ASME Code verifications the analyst should obtain the membrane and bending stresses from the plane or 3-D model which is called stress linearization and, also, should classify them as primary and secondary. (The excess between the maximum stress at a point and the sum of these linearized values is called peak stress and is included in the fatigue verification.) This task, most of the time is not a simple one due to the nature of the involved load and/or the complex geometry under analysis. In fact, there are several studies discussing on how to perform these stress classification and linearization. The present paper shows a discussion on how to perform these verifications based on a generic geometry found in many plants, from petrochemical to nuclear, which emphasizes some of theses issues. (author)

  7. Study of the environmental cycling of mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Frades, J P; Hildebrand, S G; Huckabee, J W; Murias, B; Diaz, F S; Wilson, R H

    1977-01-01

    A study of mercury in the environment is under way near the mercury mine at Almaden, Spain. The main aspects of the project are: ecology; atmospheric monitoring; and human studies. The mercury deposit at Almaden is described. The liquid effluent from the mine and smelter contains high concentrations of mercury that pollute nearby rivers. Sample collection and analytical methods used in the ecological survey are reviewed. Ecological experiments are considered. Air monitoring studies and human studies currently being performed are assessed. (1 map)

  8. Mixture effects of 30 environmental contaminants on incident metabolic syndrome-A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Lars; Salihovic, Samira; Lampa, Erik; Lind, P Monica

    2017-10-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have linked different environmental contaminants to the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, mixture effects have not been investigated and no prospective studies exist regarding environmental contaminants and the MetS. To study mixture effects of contaminants on the risk of incident MetS in a prospective fashion. Our sample consisted of 452 subjects from the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (50% women, all aged 70years) free from the MetS at baseline, being followed for 10years. At baseline, 30 different environmental contaminants were measured; 6 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, one dioxin, one polybrominated diphenyl ether (all in plasma), 8 perfluoroalkyl substances (in plasma) and 11 metals (in whole blood). The MetS was defined by the ATPIII/NCEP criteria. Gradient boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CARTs) was used to evaluate potential synergistic and additive mixture effects on incident MetS. During 10-year follow-up, 92 incident cases of the MetS occurred. PCB126, PCB170, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCB118 levels were all associated with incident MetS in an additive fashion (OR 1.73 for a change from 10th to 90th percentile (95%CI 1.24-3.04) for PCB126, OR 0.63 (0.42-0.78) for PCB170, OR 1.44 (1.09-2.20) for HCB and OR 1.46 (1.13-2.43) for PCB118). No synergistic effects were found. A mixture of environmental contaminants, with PCB126, PCB170, HCB and PCB118 being the most important, showed associations with future development of the MetS in an additive fashion in this prospective study. Thus, mixture effects of environmental contaminants could contribute to the development of cardio-metabolic derangements. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental confounding in gene-environment interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderweele, Tyler J; Ko, Yi-An; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2013-07-01

    We show that, in the presence of uncontrolled environmental confounding, joint tests for the presence of a main genetic effect and gene-environment interaction will be biased if the genetic and environmental factors are correlated, even if there is no effect of either the genetic factor or the environmental factor on the disease. When environmental confounding is ignored, such tests will in fact reject the joint null of no genetic effect with a probability that tends to 1 as the sample size increases. This problem with the joint test vanishes under gene-environment independence, but it still persists if estimating the gene-environment interaction parameter itself is of interest. Uncontrolled environmental confounding will bias estimates of gene-environment interaction parameters even under gene-environment independence, but it will not do so if the unmeasured confounding variable itself does not interact with the genetic factor. Under gene-environment independence, if the interaction parameter without controlling for the environmental confounder is nonzero, then there is gene-environment interaction either between the genetic factor and the environmental factor of interest or between the genetic factor and the unmeasured environmental confounder. We evaluate several recently proposed joint tests in a simulation study and discuss the implications of these results for the conduct of gene-environment interaction studies.

  10. Gene Expression Profiles for Predicting Metastasis in Breast Cancer: A Cross-Study Comparison of Classification Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Burton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning has increasingly been used with microarray gene expression data and for the development of classifiers using a variety of methods. However, method comparisons in cross-study datasets are very scarce. This study compares the performance of seven classification methods and the effect of voting for predicting metastasis outcome in breast cancer patients, in three situations: within the same dataset or across datasets on similar or dissimilar microarray platforms. Combining classification results from seven classifiers into one voting decision performed significantly better during internal validation as well as external validation in similar microarray platforms than the underlying classification methods. When validating between different microarray platforms, random forest, another voting-based method, proved to be the best performing method. We conclude that voting based classifiers provided an advantage with respect to classifying metastasis outcome in breast cancer patients.

  11. Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of Acer I-Study History of the Infrageneric Classification(1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shing-Fan Huang

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Historical biogeography is a study of taxa in time and space including their origin, migration and diversification. This kind of study requires fossil data and an understanding of phylogenetic relationships. These requirements make Acer a good model to study because Acer 1 has a relatively complete fossil record, 2 contains many species, 3 is a major northern temperate floristic element, and 4 is well known. Because fossils are only confidently assigned to section or species group, section as a unit is suitable for tracing evolutionary history of Acer. However, the circumscription of section of Acer is different to each classification through the long history of studies. This work reviews and summarizes the studying history of Acer. Delendick in 1981concluded that the system of Ogata in 1967 and that of Jong in 1976 were superior to others except that most Jong’s series should be raised to section. This work, therefore, follows Delendick’s delineation of section except Distyla and Parviflora, which are combined as Parviflora, to elucidate the development of the circumscription of section based on the system of Pax in 1885 and 1886, Pojarkova in 1933, Momotani in 1962, Fang in 1966, Ogata in 1967, Murray in 1970, Jong in 1976, Delendick in 1990 and Xu in 1996.

  12. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 7(2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-11-01

    Nov 1, 2013 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 7(2): 153 – 159, 2014. ISSN:1998-0507 ... and food processing industries, battery, cement, milling and ..... risks, but can provide basic information on source of water ...

  13. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 7(2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-03-27

    Mar 27, 2013 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 7(2): 108 – 116, 2014. ISSN:1998- ... cement factory on a sample of 126 tenements from 11 residential settlements within Ewekoro local .... health risk but aesthetics.

  14. Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of Protection ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2006-01-01

    Jan 1, 2006 ... Book cover Environmental Regulation and Food Safety: Studies of ... are sometimes perceived in developing countries as nontariff barriers to trade. ... In some cases, products that had initially been refused access to a ...

  15. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 7(3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2014-03-24

    Mar 24, 2014 ... by inbreeding and a weakened gene pool as the breeders tried to cross breed Asiatic and .... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 7 no.3 2014 ..... hand gloves and face masks. This close contact.

  16. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 7(3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2014-04-23

    Apr 23, 2014 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 7(3): 289 – 297, 2014. ... heart, blood vessels and nervous system, Iron may facilitate growth of certain pathogenic .... result from incineration of metal scrap, use of.

  17. Competitiveness Implications of Environmental Regulations: Case Studies (1992- 1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This collection of reports is part of a series of case studies designed to examine Michael Porter’s hypothesis that innovative companies responding to environmental regulation can create competitive advantage through lower costs or higher sales.

  18. Page 1 242 Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-03-17

    Mar 17, 2015 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 8(3): 242 – 251, 2015. .... Central Kenya hardly used innovations on botanical pesticides. ..... science of the pests. Similarly ... Management Project in Western. Kenya ...

  19. Describing Peripancreatic Collections According to the Revised Atlanta Classification of Acute Pancreatitis: An International Interobserver Agreement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwense, Stefan A; van Brunschot, Sandra; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Besselink, Marc G; Bollen, Thomas L; Bakker, Olaf J; Banks, Peter A; Boermeester, Marja A; Cappendijk, Vincent C; Carter, Ross; Charnley, Richard; van Eijck, Casper H; Freeny, Patrick C; Hermans, John J; Hough, David M; Johnson, Colin D; Laméris, Johan S; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia; Mortele, Koenraad J; Sarr, Michael G; Stedman, Brian; Vege, Santhi Swaroop; Werner, Jens; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G; Gooszen, Hein G; Horvath, Karen D

    2017-08-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis is associated with peripancreatic morphologic changes as seen on imaging. Uniform communication regarding these morphologic findings is crucial for accurate diagnosis and treatment. For the original 1992 Atlanta classification, interobserver agreement is poor. We hypothesized that for the revised Atlanta classification, interobserver agreement will be better. An international, interobserver agreement study was performed among expert and nonexpert radiologists (n = 14), surgeons (n = 15), and gastroenterologists (n = 8). Representative computed tomographies of all stages of acute pancreatitis were selected from 55 patients and were assessed according to the revised Atlanta classification. The interobserver agreement was calculated among all reviewers and subgroups, that is, expert and nonexpert reviewers; interobserver agreement was defined as poor (≤0.20), fair (0.21-0.40), moderate (0.41-0.60), good (0.61-0.80), or very good (0.81-1.00). Interobserver agreement among all reviewers was good (0.75 [standard deviation, 0.21]) for describing the type of acute pancreatitis and good (0.62 [standard deviation, 0.19]) for the type of peripancreatic collection. Expert radiologists showed the best and nonexpert clinicians the lowest interobserver agreement. Interobserver agreement was good for the revised Atlanta classification, supporting the importance for widespread adaption of this revised classification for clinical and research communications.

  20. Automatic Classification of High Resolution Satellite Imagery - a Case Study for Urban Areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, A.; Alrajhi, M.; Alobeid, A.; Heipke, C.

    2017-05-01

    Updating topographic geospatial databases is often performed based on current remotely sensed images. To automatically extract the object information (labels) from the images, supervised classifiers are being employed. Decisions to be taken in this process concern the definition of the classes which should be recognised, the features to describe each class and the training data necessary in the learning part of classification. With a view to large scale topographic databases for fast developing urban areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia we conducted a case study, which investigated the following two questions: (a) which set of features is best suitable for the classification?; (b) what is the added value of height information, e.g. derived from stereo imagery? Using stereoscopic GeoEye and Ikonos satellite data we investigate these two questions based on our research on label tolerant classification using logistic regression and partly incorrect training data. We show that in between five and ten features can be recommended to obtain a stable solution, that height information consistently yields an improved overall classification accuracy of about 5%, and that label noise can be successfully modelled and thus only marginally influences the classification results.

  1. A Comparative Study of Landsat TM and SPOT HRG Images for Vegetation Classification in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dengsheng; Batistella, Mateus; de Miranda, Evaristo E.; Moran, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    Complex forest structure and abundant tree species in the moist tropical regions often cause difficulties in classifying vegetation classes with remotely sensed data. This paper explores improvement in vegetation classification accuracies through a comparative study of different image combinations based on the integration of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT High Resolution Geometric (HRG) instrument data, as well as the combination of spectral signatures and textures. A maximum likelihood classifier was used to classify the different image combinations into thematic maps. This research indicated that data fusion based on HRG multispectral and panchromatic data slightly improved vegetation classification accuracies: a 3.1 to 4.6 percent increase in the kappa coefficient compared with the classification results based on original HRG or TM multispectral images. A combination of HRG spectral signatures and two textural images improved the kappa coefficient by 6.3 percent compared with pure HRG multispectral images. The textural images based on entropy or second-moment texture measures with a window size of 9 pixels × 9 pixels played an important role in improving vegetation classification accuracy. Overall, optical remote-sensing data are still insufficient for accurate vegetation classifications in the Amazon basin. PMID:19789716

  2. A Comparative Study of Landsat TM and SPOT HRG Images for Vegetation Classification in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dengsheng; Batistella, Mateus; de Miranda, Evaristo E; Moran, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    Complex forest structure and abundant tree species in the moist tropical regions often cause difficulties in classifying vegetation classes with remotely sensed data. This paper explores improvement in vegetation classification accuracies through a comparative study of different image combinations based on the integration of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT High Resolution Geometric (HRG) instrument data, as well as the combination of spectral signatures and textures. A maximum likelihood classifier was used to classify the different image combinations into thematic maps. This research indicated that data fusion based on HRG multispectral and panchromatic data slightly improved vegetation classification accuracies: a 3.1 to 4.6 percent increase in the kappa coefficient compared with the classification results based on original HRG or TM multispectral images. A combination of HRG spectral signatures and two textural images improved the kappa coefficient by 6.3 percent compared with pure HRG multispectral images. The textural images based on entropy or second-moment texture measures with a window size of 9 pixels × 9 pixels played an important role in improving vegetation classification accuracy. Overall, optical remote-sensing data are still insufficient for accurate vegetation classifications in the Amazon basin.

  3. Environmental studies and clearance compliance of Kudankulam Atomic Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.K.; Singh, Jitendra

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear industry has played a leading role in evolving proper and effective environmental management impact from development practices right form inception thus minimizing the environmental impact from developmental activities of man. In the engineering design of nuclear power plant, safety is further enhanced considerably by providing double back-upped engineered safety systems. Besides the engineered safety, the other factors considered for ensuring environmental impact minimization are siting criteria, conservative rad-waste management, effluent treatment, application of stringent environmental protection standards for limiting waste discharges, an elaborate environmental surveillance program and an on site and off site emergency preparedness plan. Recently, nuclear power industry has taken a drive to develop and implement Environmental Management System (EMS) to all its operating stations in line with ISO-14001 standards. For Kudankulam atomic power project, a number of studies specifically for environmental protection are carried out to meet the requirements of Russian Federation, new guidelines of Ministry of environment and Forests (MOEF) and Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). In the present paper an attempt has been made to present the environmental management plan and clearance compliance status of the project

  4. SPERA 98: radioactivity and the environment, environmental radioactivity and its application in environmental studies: conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The 1998 workshop of the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA) was held in Christchurch, New Zealand. Presentations were grouped around the themes of soil erosion, waste disposal and treatment, atmospheric studies, radioactivity in water, human exposure pathways and foodchains, sediment studies and atmospheric radon. This volume contains extended abstracts. A list of participants is also included

  5. An environmentally sustainable transport system in Sweden. A scenario study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brokking, P.; Emmelin, L.; Engstroem, M-G.; Nilsson, Jan-Evert; Eriksson, Gunnar; Wikberg, O.

    1997-02-01

    This is a short version of a scenario study concerning the possibilities to reach an Environmentally Sustainable Transport system in Sweden in a perspective of 30 years. The aim of the scenario study has been to describe one of several possible paths from today`s transport system to an environmentally adopted one. However, this does not imply that the task is to predict how such a transformation can be accomplished. The aim is rather to illustrate what such transformation require in the form of political decisions. The transformation of the transport system in to an environmentally adopted one, is primarily treated as a political problem, and a political perspective has accordingly been chosen for the study. In this English version of the scenario, the carbon dioxide problem is used to illuminate the many conflicts in goals and other problem that will attend an environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, and to highlight the analytical points of departure for the scenario study. The analysis shows that it is possible to reach the national environmental goals that characterise, with given definitions, an environmentally sustainable transport system. However, this implies many severe political decisions over a long period of time, which in turn, implies a long term national consensus about the importance to reach the overall goal. Other results the scenario points out, is the risk that a policy focused on one sector leads to `solving` a problem by moving it outside systems limitations, and the limitations on a national environmental policy: Being able to count on assistance from other countries through an environmental adoption of the transport system in the European Union or globally, would drastically facilitate the environmental adoption of the Swedish transport system, through, among other things, a more rapid technological development. This indicates the necessity of promoting issues involving transportation and the environment in international

  6. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Luciana; Bergmann, Anke; Bahia, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review the use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in observational studies. This study is a systematic review of articles that use the ICF in observational studies. We took into account the observational design papers available in databases such as PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO, published in English and Portuguese from January 2001 to June 2011. We excluded those in which the samples did not comprise individuals, those about children and adolescents, and qualitative methodology articles. After reading the abstracts of 265 identified articles, 65 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 18 were excluded. The STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) adapted Checklist, with 15 items needed for observational studies, was applied to the 47 remaining articles. Any paper that met 12 of these criteria was included in this systematic review. 29 articles were reviewed. Regarding the ICF application methodology, the checklist was used in 31% of the articles, the core set in 31% and the ICF categories in 31%. In the remaining 7%, it was not possible to define the applied methodology. In most papers (41%), qualifiers were used in their original format. As far as the area of knowledge is concerned, most of the studies were related to Rheumatology (24%) and Orthopedics (21%). Regarding the study design, 83% of the articles used cross-sectional studies. Results indicate a wide scientific production related to ICF over the past 10 years. Different areas of knowledge are involved in the debate on the improvement of information on morbidity. However, there are only a few quantitative epidemiological studies involving the use of ICF. Future studies are needed to improve data related to functioning and disability.

  7. Patient characteristics in low back pain subgroups based on an existing classification system. A descriptive cohort study in chiropractic practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eirikstoft, Heidi; Kongsted, Alice

    2014-01-01

    reducible disc syndromes followed by facet joint pain, dysfunction and sacroiliac (SI)-joint pain. Classification was inconclusive in 5% of the patients. Differences in pain, activity limitation, and psychological factors were small across subgroups. Within 10 days, 82% were reported to belong to the same......Sub-grouping of low back pain (LBP) is believed to improve prediction of prognosis and treatment effects. The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine whether chiropractic patients could be sub-grouped according to an existing pathoanatomically-based classification system, (2) to describe...... patient characteristics within each subgroup, and (3) to determine the proportion of patients in whom clinicians considered the classification to be unchanged after approximately 10 days. A cohort of 923 LBP patients was included during their first consultation. Patients completed an extensive...

  8. Study on effects of environmental regulation on competitiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Man Ok; Lim, Hyun Jeong [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    For Korea, the claim that the enhancement of environmental regulation is worsening the international competitiveness of the business is dominant. However, it is too early to reestablish a relationship between environmental regulation and competitiveness with the above new aspect. In fact, the economic development, which is brought a quantitative growth, and the maintenance of environmental quality, which is brought a qualitative growth, are very important on decision making in economic and social policy. In this study, it represents the results of existing positive studies on the relationship between the enhancement of environmental regulation, trade and productivity. Moreover, the objective of this study is on applying it based on the data of Korea. 86 refs., 13 figs., 35 tabs.

  9. Artificial neural networks for classification in metabolomic studies of whole cells using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brougham, D F

    2011-01-01

    We report the successful classification, by artificial neural networks (ANNs), of (1)H NMR spectroscopic data recorded on whole-cell culture samples of four different lung carcinoma cell lines, which display different drug resistance patterns. The robustness of the approach was demonstrated by its ability to classify the cell line correctly in 100% of cases, despite the demonstrated presence of operator-induced sources of variation, and irrespective of which spectra are used for training and for validation. The study demonstrates the potential of ANN for lung carcinoma classification in realistic situations.

  10. Towards the use of similarity distances to music genre classification: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goienetxea, Izaro; Martínez-Otzeta, José María; Sierra, Basilio; Mendialdua, Iñigo

    2018-01-01

    Music genre classification is a challenging research concept, for which open questions remain regarding classification approach, music piece representation, distances between/within genres, and so on. In this paper an investigation on the classification of generated music pieces is performed, based on the idea that grouping close related known pieces in different sets -or clusters- and then generating in an automatic way a new song which is somehow "inspired" in each set, the new song would be more likely to be classified as belonging to the set which inspired it, based on the same distance used to separate the clusters. Different music pieces representations and distances among pieces are used; obtained results are promising, and indicate the appropriateness of the used approach even in a such a subjective area as music genre classification is.

  11. Towards the use of similarity distances to music genre classification: A comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaro Goienetxea

    Full Text Available Music genre classification is a challenging research concept, for which open questions remain regarding classification approach, music piece representation, distances between/within genres, and so on. In this paper an investigation on the classification of generated music pieces is performed, based on the idea that grouping close related known pieces in different sets -or clusters- and then generating in an automatic way a new song which is somehow "inspired" in each set, the new song would be more likely to be classified as belonging to the set which inspired it, based on the same distance used to separate the clusters. Different music pieces representations and distances among pieces are used; obtained results are promising, and indicate the appropriateness of the used approach even in a such a subjective area as music genre classification is.

  12. Studying the potential impact of automated document classification on scheduling a systematic review update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Systematic Reviews (SRs) are an essential part of evidence-based medicine, providing support for clinical practice and policy on a wide range of medical topics. However, producing SRs is resource-intensive, and progress in the research they review leads to SRs becoming outdated, requiring updates. Although the question of how and when to update SRs has been studied, the best method for determining when to update is still unclear, necessitating further research. Methods In this work we study the potential impact of a machine learning-based automated system for providing alerts when new publications become available within an SR topic. Some of these new publications are especially important, as they report findings that are more likely to initiate a review update. To this end, we have designed a classification algorithm to identify articles that are likely to be included in an SR update, along with an annotation scheme designed to identify the most important publications in a topic area. Using an SR database containing over 70,000 articles, we annotated articles from 9 topics that had received an update during the study period. The algorithm was then evaluated in terms of the overall correct and incorrect alert rate for publications meeting the topic inclusion criteria, as well as in terms of its ability to identify important, update-motivating publications in a topic area. Results Our initial approach, based on our previous work in topic-specific SR publication classification, identifies over 70% of the most important new publications, while maintaining a low overall alert rate. Conclusions We performed an initial analysis of the opportunities and challenges in aiding the SR update planning process with an informatics-based machine learning approach. Alerts could be a useful tool in the planning, scheduling, and allocation of resources for SR updates, providing an improvement in timeliness and coverage for the large number of medical topics needing SRs

  13. Selection of Objective Function For Imbalanced Classification: An Industrial Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Abdul Rauf; Schiøler, Henrik; Kulahci, Murat

    2017-01-01

    In this article we discuss the issue of selecting suitable objective function for Genetic Algorithm to solve an imbalanced classification problem. More precisely, first we discuss the need of specialized objective function to solve a real classification problem from our industrial partner and the...... and then we compare the results of our proposed objective function with commonly used candidates to serve this purpose. Our comparison is based on the analysis of real data collected during the quality control stages of the manufacturing process....

  14. A Comparative Study of Feature Selection and Classification Methods for Gene Expression Data

    KAUST Repository

    Abusamra, Heba

    2013-01-01

    Different experiments have been applied to compare the performance of the classification methods with and without performing feature selection. Results revealed the important role of feature selection in classifying gene expression data. By performing feature selection, the classification accuracy can be significantly boosted by using a small number of genes. The relationship of features selected in different feature selection methods is investigated and the most frequent features selected in each fold among all methods for both datasets are evaluated.

  15. Expert consensus statement to guide the evidence-based classification of Paralympic athletes with vision impairment: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravensbergen, H J C Rianne; Mann, D L; Kamper, S J

    2016-04-01

    Paralympic sports are required to develop evidence-based systems that allocate athletes into 'classes' on the basis of the impact of their impairment on sport performance. However, sports for athletes with vision impairment (VI) classify athletes solely based on the WHO criteria for low vision and blindness. One key barrier to evidence-based classification is the absence of guidance on how to address classification issues unique to VI sport. The aim of this study was to reach expert consensus on how issues specific to VI sport should be addressed in evidence-based classification. A four-round Delphi study was conducted with 25 participants who had expertise as a coach, athlete, classifier and/or administrator in Paralympic sport for VI athletes. The experts agreed that the current method of classification does not fulfil the requirements of Paralympic classification, and that the system should be different for each sport to account for the sports' unique visual demands. Instead of relying only on tests of visual acuity and visual field, the panel agreed that additional tests are required to better account for the impact of impairment on sport performance. There was strong agreement that all athletes should not be required to wear a blindfold as a means of equalising the impairment during competition. There is strong support within the Paralympic movement to change the way that VI athletes are classified. This consensus statement provides clear guidance on how the most important issues specific to VI should be addressed, removing key barriers to the development of evidence-based classification. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Environmental reference materials methods and case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm-Nielsen, Karina Edith

    1998-01-01

    . This study lasted 22 months as well. The samples were produced and stored according to a 2³ factorial design. The influences of storage temperature, UV radiation and ultra-filtration on the stability of NH4-N and total phosphorous have been investigated. A Youden plot method is suggested for the graphical....... The methods have been evaluated with regard to their robustness towards variations in the chemical analytical method and with regard to the number of times a significant out of control situation is indicated. The second study regards the stability of NH4-N and total phosphorous in autoclaved seawater samples...... with wastewater. The purpose was to improve ortho-phosphate (and total phosphorous) homogeneity. A procedure is suggested which includes freeze-drying and redissolving. All calculations have been performed in SAS® primarily by means of elementary procedures, analyses of variance procedures, SAS Insight and SAS...

  17. Environmental studies group. Annual report for 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, D.C.; Hurley, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Group projects included radioecological studies of aquatic and terrestrial systems, land management activities, foodstuff monitoring, dust transport studies including fugitive dust measurements and modeling, and several support programs involving evaluation of the plant's ambient air samplers and airborne tritium monitoring techniques. Some salient results from the several project reports include determination of an appropriate model for mechanically generated fugitive dust dispersion, a radionuclide inventory of Smart Ditch Pond (Pond D-1), a coefficient of community determination for two terrestrial sample plots on the plant site buffer zone, a natality and mortality rate determination for fawns in the plant deer herd (including one positive coyote-kill determination), inlet loss and filter paper collection efficiencies for the plant ambient air samplers, and differential tritium sampling measurements of the vapor in Building 771 stack effluent

  18. Environmental studies group. Annual report for 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D. C.; Hurley, J. D. [eds.

    1980-08-21

    Group projects included radioecological studies of aquatic and terrestrial systems, land management activities, foodstuff monitoring, dust transport studies including fugitive dust measurements and modeling, and several support programs involving evaluation of the plant's ambient air samplers and airborne tritium monitoring techniques. Some salient results from the several project reports include determination of an appropriate model for mechanically generated fugitive dust dispersion, a radionuclide inventory of Smart Ditch Pond (Pond D-1), a coefficient of community determination for two terrestrial sample plots on the plant site buffer zone, a natality and mortality rate determination for fawns in the plant deer herd (including one positive coyote-kill determination), inlet loss and filter paper collection efficiencies for the plant ambient air samplers, and differential tritium sampling measurements of the vapor in Building 771 stack effluent.

  19. Relationships (II) of International Classification of High-resolution Computed Tomography for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases with ventilatory functions indices for parenchymal abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Taro; Suganuma, Narufumi; Hering, Kurt G; Vehmas, Tapio; Itoh, Harumi; Akira, Masanori; Takashima, Yoshihiro; Hirano, Harukazu; Kusaka, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) is used to screen and diagnose respiratory illnesses. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we investigated the relationship between subject characteristics and parenchymal abnormalities according to ICOERD, and the results of ventilatory function tests (VFT). Thirty-five patients with and 27 controls without mineral-dust exposure underwent VFT and HRCT. We recorded all subjects' occupational history for mineral dust exposure and smoking history. Experts independently assessed HRCT using the ICOERD parenchymal abnormalities (Items) grades for well-defined rounded opacities (RO), linear and/or irregular opacities (IR), and emphysema (EM). High-resolution computed tomography showed that 11 patients had RO; 15 patients, IR; and 19 patients, EM. According to the multiple regression model, age and height had significant associations with many indices ventilatory functions such as vital capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). The EM summed grades on the upper, middle, and lower zones of the right and left lungs also had significant associations with FEV1 and the maximum mid-expiratory flow rate. The results suggest the ICOERD notation is adequate based on the good and significant multiple regression modeling of ventilatory function with the EM summed grades.

  20. I Evolution of Environmental Costs Discolsur: A Study in Cellulose and Paper Companies - Members of Corporate Sustainability Index - CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fonseca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyse, in relation to previous studies, the evolution of classification and disclosure of environmental costs on cellulose and paper companies listed on the CSI. The research, of a descriptive, documentary and qualitative nature, was based on content analysis of financial statements, accompanying notes, management reports and sustainability reports in the fiscal years 2010 to 2014. The results indicate that companies show environmental costs mainly in a qualitative way and of the positive type. The most part of this information is contained in the sustainability report. As to the classification, the highlighted environmental costs are of these types, (a prevention costs; (b internal failure costs; (c indirect costs; (d internal costs; (e costs for contingencies; (f potentially hidden costs; (g image and relationship costs, though not by these names. These results demonstrate a change, compared to previous studies on the quality and quantity of disclosure of environmental costs. It is suggested for future research the broadening of samples for other organizational activity sectors, with the aim of possible understanding of the Brazilian environment.

  1. Comparison Effectiveness of Pixel Based Classification and Object Based Classification Using High Resolution Image In Floristic Composition Mapping (Study Case: Gunung Tidar Magelang City)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardha Aryaguna, Prama; Danoedoro, Projo

    2016-11-01

    Developments of analysis remote sensing have same way with development of technology especially in sensor and plane. Now, a lot of image have high spatial and radiometric resolution, that's why a lot information. Vegetation object analysis such floristic composition got a lot advantage of that development. Floristic composition can be interpreted using a lot of method such pixel based classification and object based classification. The problems for pixel based method on high spatial resolution image are salt and paper who appear in result of classification. The purpose of this research are compare effectiveness between pixel based classification and object based classification for composition vegetation mapping on high resolution image Worldview-2. The results show that pixel based classification using majority 5×5 kernel windows give the highest accuracy between another classifications. The highest accuracy is 73.32% from image Worldview-2 are being radiometric corrected level surface reflectance, but for overall accuracy in every class, object based are the best between another methods. Reviewed from effectiveness aspect, pixel based are more effective then object based for vegetation composition mapping in Tidar forest.

  2. A comparative study: classification vs. user-based collaborative filtering for clinical prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Hao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recommender systems have shown tremendous value for the prediction of personalized item recommendations for individuals in a variety of settings (e.g., marketing, e-commerce, etc.. User-based collaborative filtering is a popular recommender system, which leverages an individuals’ prior satisfaction with items, as well as the satisfaction of individuals that are “similar”. Recently, there have been applications of collaborative filtering based recommender systems for clinical risk prediction. In these applications, individuals represent patients, and items represent clinical data, which includes an outcome. Methods Application of recommender systems to a problem of this type requires the recasting a supervised learning problem as unsupervised. The rationale is that patients with similar clinical features carry a similar disease risk. As the “Big Data” era progresses, it is likely that approaches of this type will be reached for as biomedical data continues to grow in both size and complexity (e.g., electronic health records. In the present study, we set out to understand and assess the performance of recommender systems in a controlled yet realistic setting. User-based collaborative filtering recommender systems are compared to logistic regression and random forests with different types of imputation and varying amounts of missingness on four different publicly available medical data sets: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2011-2012 on Obesity, Study to Understand Prognoses Preferences Outcomes and Risks of Treatment (SUPPORT, chronic kidney disease, and dermatology data. We also examined performance using simulated data with observations that are Missing At Random (MAR or Missing Completely At Random (MCAR under various degrees of missingness and levels of class imbalance in the response variable. Results Our results demonstrate that user-based collaborative filtering is consistently inferior

  3. A comparative study: classification vs. user-based collaborative filtering for clinical prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fang; Blair, Rachael Hageman

    2016-12-08

    Recommender systems have shown tremendous value for the prediction of personalized item recommendations for individuals in a variety of settings (e.g., marketing, e-commerce, etc.). User-based collaborative filtering is a popular recommender system, which leverages an individuals' prior satisfaction with items, as well as the satisfaction of individuals that are "similar". Recently, there have been applications of collaborative filtering based recommender systems for clinical risk prediction. In these applications, individuals represent patients, and items represent clinical data, which includes an outcome. Application of recommender systems to a problem of this type requires the recasting a supervised learning problem as unsupervised. The rationale is that patients with similar clinical features carry a similar disease risk. As the "Big Data" era progresses, it is likely that approaches of this type will be reached for as biomedical data continues to grow in both size and complexity (e.g., electronic health records). In the present study, we set out to understand and assess the performance of recommender systems in a controlled yet realistic setting. User-based collaborative filtering recommender systems are compared to logistic regression and random forests with different types of imputation and varying amounts of missingness on four different publicly available medical data sets: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2011-2012 on Obesity), Study to Understand Prognoses Preferences Outcomes and Risks of Treatment (SUPPORT), chronic kidney disease, and dermatology data. We also examined performance using simulated data with observations that are Missing At Random (MAR) or Missing Completely At Random (MCAR) under various degrees of missingness and levels of class imbalance in the response variable. Our results demonstrate that user-based collaborative filtering is consistently inferior to logistic regression and random forests with different

  4. A study into life cycle environmental impacts of photovoltaic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This study presents a Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Cells (LCA). It was undertaken by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) on behalf of ETSU for the United Kingdom Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). This study uses the technique of LCA to examine all aspects of the production, use and disposal of PVs and the consequent environmental effects. This allows an appraisal of the environmental effects of increasing UK production of PVs to supply more demand for electricity in the EU and the developing world. Impacts result from obtaining raw materials, manufacturing solar power generating equipment, and any final disposal or recycling requirements. The environmental impacts resulting from these phases are known as the PV LIfe Cycle impacts. (author)

  5. A subtype of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with poor treatment outcome: a genome-wide classification study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. den Boer (Monique); M.A. van Slegtenhorst (Marjon); R.X. de Menezes (Renee); M.H. Cheok (Meyling); J.G.C.A.M. Buijs-Gladdines (Jessica); S.T.C.J.M. Arentsen-Peters (Susan); L.J.C.M. van Zutven (Laura); H.B. Beverloo (Berna); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); G. Escherich (Gabriele); M.A. Horstmann (Martin); G.E. Janka-Schaub (Gritta); W.A. Kamps (Willem); W.E. Evans (William); R. Pieters (Rob)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Genetic subtypes of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) are used to determine risk and treatment in children. 25% of precursor B-ALL cases are genetically unclassified and have intermediate prognosis. We aimed to use a genome-wide study to improve prognostic classification of

  6. Coso geothermal environmental overview study ecosystem quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, P.

    1981-09-01

    The Coso Known Geothermal Resource Area is located just east of the Sierra Nevada, in the broad transition zone between the Mohave and Great Basin desert ecosystems. The prospect of large-scale geothermal energy development here in the near future has led to concern for the protection of biological resources. Objectives here are the identification of ecosystem issues, evaluation of the existing data base, and recommendation of additional studies needed to resolve key issues. High-priority issues include the need for (1) site-specific data on the occurrence of plant and animal species of special concern, (2) accurate and detailed information on the nature and extent of the geothermal resource, and (3) implementation of a comprehensive plan for ecosystem protection.

  7. Landscape Classifications for Landscape Metrics-based Assessment of Urban Heat Island: A Comparative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, X F; Deng, L; Wang, H N; Chen, F; Hua, L Z

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, some studies have been carried out on the landscape analysis of urban thermal patterns. With the prevalence of thermal landscape, a key problem has come forth, which is how to classify thermal landscape into thermal patches. Current researches used different methods of thermal landscape classification such as standard deviation method (SD) and R method. To find out the differences, a comparative study was carried out in Xiamen using a 20-year winter time-serial Landsat images. After the retrieval of land surface temperature (LST), the thermal landscape was classified using the two methods separately. Then landscape metrics, 6 at class level and 14 at landscape level, were calculated and analyzed using Fragstats 3.3. We found that: (1) at the class level, all the metrics with SD method were evened and did not show an obvious trend along with the process of urbanization, while the R method could. (2) While at the landscape level, 6 of the 14 metrics remains the similar trends, 5 were different at local turn points of the curve, 3 of them differed completely in the shape of curves. (3) When examined with visual interpretation, SD method tended to exaggerate urban heat island effects than the R method

  8. ERP adoption cost factors identification and classification: a study in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutaz Haddara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise resource planning (ERP systems adoptions require substantial resources and investments. The majority of businesses around the globe can be considered to be small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. Thus, SMEs are seen to be typical companies that are the cornerstone of most economies. Compared with large enterprises, an SME-context contains several characteristics, and scarcity of resources is among the top of them. For SMEs, unplanned costs escalation could pose a serious threat to their stability and survival in the market. Frequently, ERP projects have crossed their estimated budgets and schedules. Researchers and practitioners state that a prevailing number of ERP adoption projects fail due to inaccurate or to too optimistic budgets/schedules. In addition, many organizations face difficulties in identifying the potential cost factors that could occur during their ERP adoption lifecycle. While focusing on the SME-context, this research attempts to identify potential costs that could occur in ERP adoptions. The research method employed in this study targeted diverse stakeholders and experts involved in ERP projects in Egypt. This research provides a list of cost factors and their classifications that could aid adopting organizations to better estimate their needed ERP project budgets. In particular, this research explores the direct and indirect cost factors that occur in ERP adoptions in Egyptian SMEs. Also, this study investigates the influence of some SME-specific contextual factors on costs. Moreover, the paper provides a ranking of cost factors according to their impact on total adoption costs.

  9. Predicting smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis with classification trees and logistic regression: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritski Afrânio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT accounts for 30% of pulmonary tuberculosis cases reported yearly in Brazil. This study aimed to develop a prediction model for SNPT for outpatients in areas with scarce resources. Methods The study enrolled 551 patients with clinical-radiological suspicion of SNPT, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The original data was divided into two equivalent samples for generation and validation of the prediction models. Symptoms, physical signs and chest X-rays were used for constructing logistic regression and classification and regression tree models. From the logistic regression, we generated a clinical and radiological prediction score. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, sensitivity, and specificity were used to evaluate the model's performance in both generation and validation samples. Results It was possible to generate predictive models for SNPT with sensitivity ranging from 64% to 71% and specificity ranging from 58% to 76%. Conclusion The results suggest that those models might be useful as screening tools for estimating the risk of SNPT, optimizing the utilization of more expensive tests, and avoiding costs of unnecessary anti-tuberculosis treatment. Those models might be cost-effective tools in a health care network with hierarchical distribution of scarce resources.

  10. Health problems among detainees in Switzerland: a study using the ICPC-2 classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Dominique

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the health status of prisoners in Switzerland. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the health problems presented by detainees in Switzerland's largest remand prison. Methods In this retrospective cross-sectional study we reviewed the health records of all detainees leaving Switzerland's largest remand prison in 2007. The health problems were coded using the International Classification for Primary Care (ICPC-2. Analyses were descriptive, stratified by gender. Results A total of 2195 health records were reviewed. Mean age was 29.5 years (SD 9.5; 95% were male; 87.8% were migrants. Mean length of stay was 80 days (SD 160. Illicit drug use (40.2% and mental health problems (32.6% were frequent, but most of these detainees (57.6% had more generic primary care problems, such as skin (27.0%, infectious diseases (23.5%, musculoskeletal (19.2%, injury related (18.3%, digestive (15.0% or respiratory problems (14.0%. Furthermore, 7.9% reported exposure to violence during arrest by the police. Conclusion Morbidity is high in this young, predominantly male population of detainees, in particular in relation to substance abuse. Other health problems more commonly seen in general practice are also frequent. These findings support the further development of coordinated primary care and mental health services within detention centers.

  11. A new flood type classification method for use in climate change impact studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Turkington

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flood type classification is an optimal tool to cluster floods with similar meteorological triggering conditions. Under climate change these flood types may change differently as well as new flood types develop. This paper presents a new methodology to classify flood types, particularly for use in climate change impact studies. A weather generator is coupled with a conceptual rainfall-runoff model to create long synthetic records of discharge to efficiently build an inventory with high number of flood events. Significant discharge days are classified into causal types using k-means clustering of temperature and precipitation indicators capturing differences in rainfall amount, antecedent rainfall and snow-cover and day of year. From climate projections of bias-corrected temperature and precipitation, future discharge and associated change in flood types are assessed. The approach is applied to two different Alpine catchments: the Ubaye region, a small catchment in France, dominated by rain-on-snow flood events during spring, and the larger Salzach catchment in Austria, affected more by rainfall summer/autumn flood events. The results show that the approach is able to reproduce the observed flood types in both catchments. Under future climate scenarios, the methodology identifies changes in the distribution of flood types and characteristics of the flood types in both study areas. The developed methodology has potential to be used flood impact assessment and disaster risk management as future changes in flood types will have implications for both the local social and ecological systems in the future.

  12. Streamflow profile classification using functional data analysis: A case study on the Kelantan River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Suhaila

    2017-05-01

    Extreme rainfall events such as floods and prolonged dry spells have become common phenomena in tropical countries like Malaysia. Floods are regular natural disasters in Malaysia, and happen nearly every year during the monsoon season. Recently, the magnitude of streamflow seems to have altered frequently, both spatially and temporally. Therefore, in order to have effective planning and an efficient water management system, it is advisable that streamflow data are analysed continuously over a period of time. If the data are treated as a set of functions rather than as a set of discrete values, then this ensures that they are not restricted by physical time. In addition, the derivatives of the functions may themselves be treated as functional data, which provides new information. The objective of this study is to develop a functional framework for hydrological applications using streamflow as the functional data. The daily flow series from the Kelantan River Basin were used as the main input in this study. Seven streamflow stations were employed in the analysis. Classification between the stations was done using the functional principal component, which was based on the results of the factor scores. The results indicated that two stations, namely the Kelantan River (Guillemard Bridge) and the Galas River, have a different flow pattern from the other streamflow stations. The flow curves of these two rivers are considered as the extreme curves because of their different magnitude and shape.

  13. Efficient use of unlabeled data for protein sequence classification: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuksa, Pavel; Huang, Pai-Hsi; Pavlovic, Vladimir

    2009-04-29

    Recent studies in computational primary protein sequence analysis have leveraged the power of unlabeled data. For example, predictive models based on string kernels trained on sequences known to belong to particular folds or superfamilies, the so-called labeled data set, can attain significantly improved accuracy if this data is supplemented with protein sequences that lack any class tags-the unlabeled data. In this study, we present a principled and biologically motivated computational framework that more effectively exploits the unlabeled data by only using the sequence regions that are more likely to be biologically relevant for better prediction accuracy. As overly-represented sequences in large uncurated databases may bias the estimation of computational models that rely on unlabeled data, we also propose a method to remove this bias and improve performance of the resulting classifiers. Combined with state-of-the-art string kernels, our proposed computational framework achieves very accurate semi-supervised protein remote fold and homology detection on three large unlabeled databases. It outperforms current state-of-the-art methods and exhibits significant reduction in running time. The unlabeled sequences used under the semi-supervised setting resemble the unpolished gemstones; when used as-is, they may carry unnecessary features and hence compromise the classification accuracy but once cut and polished, they improve the accuracy of the classifiers considerably.

  14. [Biopharmaceutics classification and absorption mechanisms primary study on four kinds of flavonoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Dong; Qu, Wen-Jun; Wang, Hai-Lin; Liu, Yang; Borjigdai, Almaz; Cui, Jian; Dong, Zheng-Qi

    2016-04-01

    The solubility and permeability on four kinds of flavonoids (kaempferol, hesperidin, apigenin, genistein) were test according to the theory of biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS), and their absorption mechanism. The solubility was investigated by the method in determination of solubility of "Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010". To detect appearance permeability of compounds mentioned above, the appropriate concentrations were selected by the MTT method in cell transfer experiments in Caco-2 cell model, which established by in vitro cell culture method. Therefore, these compounds were classified with BCS according to solubility and permeability. In addition, to explore absorption mechanisms, the experiments in three different concentrations of compounds in high, medium and low in bidirectional transformation methods in Caco-2 cell model contacted. The study indicated that all of kaempferol, hesperidin, apigenin, genistein have the characteristics in low solubility and high permeability, which belong to BCSⅡ, and the absorption mechanism of kaempferol was active transportation. Whereas, hesperidin, apigenin, genistein were passive transportation. In this study, it carried out initial explorations on establishment of determination for solubility and permeability in flavonoids, and provided theoretical reference for further research on BCS in traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Study and ranking of determinants of Taenia solium infections by classification tree models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwape, Kabemba E; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Dorny, Pierre; Muma, John B; Zulu, Gideon; Speybroeck, Niko; Gabriël, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is an important public health problem occurring mainly in developing countries. This work aimed to study the determinants of human T. solium infections in the Eastern province of Zambia and rank them in order of importance. A household (HH)-level questionnaire was administered to 680 HHs from 53 villages in two rural districts and the taeniasis and cysticercosis status determined. A classification tree model (CART) was used to define the relative importance and interactions between different predictor variables in their effect on taeniasis and cysticercosis. The Katete study area had a significantly higher taeniasis and cysticercosis prevalence than the Petauke area. The CART analysis for Katete showed that the most important determinant for cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) and for taeniasis was the number of HH inhabitants > 6. The most important determinant in Petauke for cysticercosis was the age of head of household > 32 years and for taeniasis it was age taeniasis and cysticercosis infections was the number of HH inhabitants (6 to 10) in Katete district and age in Petauke. The results suggest that control measures should target HHs with a high number of inhabitants and older individuals. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Environmental health scoping study at Bruce Heavy Water Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, M.; Mostrom, M.; Coppock, R.; Florence, Z.

    1995-10-01

    There are concerns that hydrogen sulfide released from the Heavy Water Plant near Kincardine, Ontario may be the cause of the mortalities and morbidities observed in a nearby flock of sheep. The Philosopher's Wool sheep farm is about four kilometres south-southeast of the Bruce Heavy Water Plant. Ontario Hydro, the owner and operator of the Bruce Heavy Water Plant, claims that hydrogen sulphide emissions from the Bruce Heavy Water Plant are within regulatory limits and well below levels that cause harm. Accordingly, the Atomic Energy Control Board commissioned the Alberta Environmental Centre, Alberta Department of Environmental Protection, to develop a scoping study for this environmental health issue. The first objective was to describe a field investigation model to define clearly the environmental health and operation of the sheep farm. The second objective was to describe possible exposure patterns and develop a holistic environmental pathway model. If appropriate, the third study objective was to describe animal models of the actual situation to elucidate specific aspects of the environmental health concerns. It was not the objective of this report to provide a definitive answer to the present environmental health issue. Ontario Hydro provided data to the Alberta Environmental Centre, as di the sheep farmer, the attending veterinarian, the University of Guelph study team, and the Atomic Energy Control Board. A six-tiered strategy of sequential evaluations of the ovine health problem is based on the multiple-response paradigm. It assumes the observed ovine health results are the result of multiple effector events. Each tier constitutes a separate, but inter-related, study. Sequential evaluation and feedback of each tier allow sound scientific judgements and efficient use of resources. (author). 59 refs., 11 tabs., 22 figs

  17. Study of environmental aerosols using PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape, F.; Diaz, R.V.; Anguiano, G.; Flores M, J.

    1990-03-01

    This experimental study consists in make falling a particle beam on a collected sample of the air pollutants. In the present work protons coming from a particle accelerator were used. The magnet baffle of this it selects the protons energy according to the experiment. The beam current is generally of the order of nano amperes and it can be measured and integrated. At the interact the beam with the sample there are produced X rays characteristic of each one of those present elements in it. These X rays are registered by a Li-Si detector of which proportional pulses are obtained to the energy of the same ones. Finally this pulses are electronically processed in a typical arrangement (preamplifier-amplifier-multichannel) that delivers an energy spectra characteristic of the sample elements. Each one of the peaks of the spectra represents an element which is possible to identify. From the under curve area of each peak it can be evaluated the concentration corresponding to each element. (Author)

  18. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattenden, N.J.; Cambray, R.S.; Playford, K.

    1987-06-01

    Five stations collecting samples of atmospheric deposition were set up in north Cumbria along a line running inland from the coast for about 17 km. Sampling was continuous from September 1980 to September 1981. Monthly samples were analysed for 106 Ru, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 238 Pu, sup(239,240)Pu, 241 Am, 7 Be and stable Na, Cl and Al. The objective of the work was to measure the deposition of radionuclides as a function of distance from the sea. By estimating the contributions to the deposition of nuclear weapon test material and of the atmospheric discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels plc works at Sellafield, the effects of the transfer to air and land of radionuclides in the sea could be established. The marine radionuclides were due to the discharges to sea from the Sellafield works. The measurements showed that the deposition was largely due to the sea-to-land transfer process. The highest depositions observed were at 20 m from high water mark, the annual values (rounded, in Bq m -2 ) being 106 Ru, 500; 137 Cs, 650; plutonium, 70; 241 Am, 30. The highest concentrations in rainwater for the radionuclides studied were less than 3 per cent of the fresh water limits (drinking only) GDL values. The highest estimated accumulations in soil due to atmospheric deposition were less than 1 per cent of the limits. (author)

  19. Direct traumatic carotid cavernous fistula: angiographic classification and treatment strategies. Study of 172 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Cuong Tran; Nguyen, Dang; Duc, Vo Tan; Chau, Huynh Hong; Son, Vo Tan

    2014-01-01

    We report our experience in treatment of traumatic direct carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) via endovascular intervention. We hereof recommend an additional classification system for type A CCF and suggest respective treatment strategies. Only type A CCF patients (Barrow's classification) would be recruited for the study. Based on the angiographic characteristics of the CCF, we classified type A CCF into three subtypes including small size, medium size and large size fistula depending on whether there was presence of the anterior carotid artery (ACA) and/or middle carotid artery (MCA). Angiograms with opacification of both ACA and MCA were categorized as small size fistula. Angiograms with opacification of either ACA or MCA were categorized as medium size fistula and those without opacification of neither ACA nor MCA were classified as large size fiatula. After the confirm angiogram, endovascular embolization would be performed impromptu using detachable balloon, coils or both. All cases were followed up for complication and effect after the embolization. A total of 172 direct traumatic CCF patients were enrolled. The small size fistula was accountant for 12.8% (22 cases), medium size 35.5% (61 cases) and large size fistula accountant for 51.7% (89 cases). The successful rate of fistula occlusion under endovascular embolization was 94% with preservation of the carotid artery in 70%. For the treatment of each subtype, a total of 21/22 cases of the small size fistulas were successfully treated using coils alone. The other single case of small fistula was defaulted. Most of the medium and large size fistulas were cured using detachable balloons. When the fistula sealing could not be obtained using detachable balloon, coils were added to affirm the embolization of the cavernous sinus via venous access. There were about 2.9% of patient experienced direct carotid artery puncture and 0.6% puncture after carotid artery cut-down exposure. About 30% of cases experienced

  20. Classification of Arabic Twitter Users: A Study Based on User Behaviour and Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullatif Alabdullatif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Social networks are among the most popular interactive media today due to their simplicity and their ability to break down the barriers of community rules and their speed and because of the increasing pressures of work environments that make it more difficult for people to visit or call friends. There are many social networking products available and they are widely used for social interaction. As the amount of threading data is growing, producing analysis from this large volume of communications is becoming increasingly difficult for public and private organisations. One of the important applications of this work is to determine the trends in social networks that depend on identifying relationships between members of a community. This is not a trivial task as it has numerous challenges. Information shared between social members does not have a formal data structure but is transmitted in the form of texts, emoticons, and multimedia. The inspiration for addressing this area is that if a company is advertising a sports product, for example, it has a difficulty in identifying targeted samples of Arab people on social networks who are interested in sports. In order to accomplish this, an experiment oriented approach is adopted in this study. A goal for this company is to discover users who have been interacting with other users who have the same interests, so they can receive the same type of message or advertisement. This information will help a company to determine how to develop advertisements based on Arab people’s interests. Examples of such work include the timely advertisement of the utilities that can be effectively marketed to increase the audience; for example, on the weekend days, the effective market approaches can yield considerable results in terms of increasing the sales and profits. In addition, finding an efficient way to recommend friends to a user based on interest similarity, celebrity degree, and online behaviour is of

  1. Applied dendroecology and environmental forensics. Characterizing and age dating environmental releases: fundamentals and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Balouet; Gil Oudijk; Kevin T. Smith; Ioana Petrisor; Hakan Grudd; Bengt. Stocklassa

    2007-01-01

    Dendroecology, or the use of ring patterns to assess the age of trees and environmental factors controlling their growth, is a well-developed method in climatologic studies. This method holds great potential as a forensic tool for age dating, contamination assessment, and characterization of releases. Moreover, the method is independent of the physical presence of...

  2. Radiochemical studies on environmental radioactivity in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam, Adam Khatir [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1998-09-01

    {sup -9} Gy/h and 2.59 x 10 {sup -9} Gy/h at 1 m above ground level for Uro and Kurun rock phosphate fertilizers, respectively. In marine sediments analyzed, the maximum activity concentrations of {sup 238} U, {sup 226} Ra, {sup 210} Po, {sup 232} Th, {sup 40} K and {sup 137} Cs were found to be 53, 59.9, 94.7, 19.3, 515 and 10.1 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Comparison of the data on natural radionuclides from coastal marine sediments with those collected from 30 km off-shore (Sanganeb atoll) reveals that both anthropogenic and terrestrial influx from the hinterland into the data is negligible. However, values for {sup 236} Ra and {sup 210} Po are higher in the sediments from Port Sudan harbour relative to those from the adjacent fringing reefs. Uranium content is higher in shallow-water sediments and the authigenic fraction constitutes 12% on the average. The {sup 228} Th/{sup 232} Th disequilibrium in sediments indicates a rapid rate of sedimentation at the sampling sites. The activity levels detected for {sup 137} Cs in sediments collected from the Port Sudan harbour are fairly high as compared with the values from other sampling areas. On the basis of individual data, the variations are insignificant with regard to the uptake of natural radionuclides by marine species considered in this study. However, {sup 137} Cs activity in algae ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 Bq/kg with Sargassum (brown algae) showing the highest level. 189 refs. , 33 tabs. , 17 figs.

  3. Radiochemical studies on environmental radioactivity in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, Adam Khatir

    1998-01-01

    , respectively. In marine sediments analyzed, the maximum activity concentrations of 238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Po, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs were found to be 53, 59.9, 94.7, 19.3, 515 and 10.1 Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Comparison of the data on natural radionuclides from coastal marine sediments with those collected from 30 km off-shore (Sanganeb atoll) reveals that both anthropogenic and terrestrial influx from the hinterland into the data is negligible. However, values for 236 Ra and 210 Po are higher in the sediments from Port Sudan harbour relative to those from the adjacent fringing reefs. Uranium content is higher in shallow-water sediments and the authigenic fraction constitutes 12% on the average. The 228 Th/ 232 Th disequilibrium in sediments indicates a rapid rate of sedimentation at the sampling sites. The activity levels detected for 137 Cs in sediments collected from the Port Sudan harbour are fairly high as compared with the values from other sampling areas. On the basis of individual data, the variations are insignificant with regard to the uptake of natural radionuclides by marine species considered in this study. However, 137 Cs activity in algae ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 Bq/kg with Sargassum (brown algae) showing the highest level

  4. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. Summer undergraduate research program: Environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. Ten students from throughout the midwestern and eastern areas of the country were accepted into the program. These students selected projects in the areas of marine sciences, biostatistics and epidemiology, and toxicology. The research experience for all these students and their mentors was very positive. The seminars were well attended and the students showed their interest in the presentations and environmental sciences as a whole by presenting the speakers with thoughtful and intuitive questions. This report contains the research project written presentations prepared by the student interns.

  5. Geothermal environmental studies, Heber Region, Imperial Valley, California. Environmental baseline data acquisition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been studying the feasibility of a Low Salinity Hydrothermal Demonstration Plant as part of its Geothermal Energy Program. The Heber area of the Imperial Valley was selected as one of the candidate geothermal reservoirs. Documentation of the environmental conditions presently existing in the Heber area is required for assessment of environmental impacts of future development. An environmental baseline data acquisition program to compile available data on the environment of the Heber area is reported. The program included a review of pertinent existing literature, interviews with academic, governmental and private entities, combined with field investigations and meteorological monitoring to collect primary data. Results of the data acquisition program are compiled in terms of three elements: the physical, the biological and socioeconomic settings.

  6. Impact of corpus domain for sentiment classification: An evaluation study using supervised machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsi, Redouane; Zaim, Mounia; El Alami, Jamila

    2017-07-01

    Thanks to the development of the internet, a large community now has the possibility to communicate and express its opinions and preferences through multiple media such as blogs, forums, social networks and e-commerce sites. Today, it becomes clearer that opinions published on the web are a very valuable source for decision-making, so a rapidly growing field of research called “sentiment analysis” is born to address the problem of automatically determining the polarity (Positive, negative, neutral,…) of textual opinions. People expressing themselves in a particular domain often use specific domain language expressions, thus, building a classifier, which performs well in different domains is a challenging problem. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of domain for sentiment classification when using machine learning techniques. In our study three popular machine learning techniques: Support Vector Machines (SVM), Naive Bayes and K nearest neighbors(KNN) were applied on datasets collected from different domains. Experimental results show that Support Vector Machines outperforms other classifiers in all domains, since it achieved at least 74.75% accuracy with a standard deviation of 4,08.

  7. A Comparison Study on Multidomain EEG Features for Sleep Stage Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction from physiological signals of EEG (electroencephalogram is an essential part for sleep staging. In this study, multidomain feature extraction was investigated based on time domain analysis, nonlinear analysis, and frequency domain analysis. Unlike the traditional feature calculation in time domain, a sequence merging method was developed as a preprocessing procedure. The objective is to eliminate the clutter waveform and highlight the characteristic waveform for further analysis. The numbers of the characteristic activities were extracted as the features from time domain. The contributions of features from different domains to the sleep stages were compared. The effectiveness was further analyzed by automatic sleep stage classification and compared with the visual inspection. The overnight clinical sleep EEG recordings of 3 patients after the treatment of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP were tested. The obtained results showed that the developed method can highlight the characteristic activity which is useful for both automatic sleep staging and visual inspection. Furthermore, it can be a training tool for better understanding the appearance of characteristic waveforms from raw sleep EEG which is mixed and complex in time domain.

  8. Mining vehicle classifications from the Columbus Metropolitan Freeway Management System : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle classification data are used in many transportation applications, including: pavement design, : environmental impact studies, traffic control, and traffic safety. Ohio has over 200 permanent count : stations, supplemented by many more short-t...

  9. Comprehensive Planning for Classification and Disposal of Solid Waste at the Industrial Parks regarding Health and Environmental Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Hassan; Pourzamani, Hamidreza; Rahmani Samani, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is the comprehensive planning for integrated management of solid waste at the industrial parks. The share of each industrial group including food, metal, chemical, non-metallic minerals, textile, electrical and electronical, and cellulose industries were 48.2, 14.9, 6.7, 22, 0.9, 0.6, and 6.5 percent, respectively. The results showed that nearly half of total industrial waste produced from the range of biological materials are biodegradable and discharging them without o...

  10. Environmental impact assessment for surface coal mine - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, P.; Chakraborty, K.

    1994-01-01

    Surface coal mines being the largest contributor to the national coal production, the study of environmental impacts due to this becomes mandatory as it will help in proper planning and safe operations of the mine in an environmentally compatible manner. Within the scope of this paper, a model for preparation of comprehensive environmental impact assessment (EIA) by utilising a new evaluation methodology leading to determination of Environmental Quality Designation an index has been developed and this model has been validated by using data from a running surface coal mine in Wardha Valley Coalfield. Based on this exercise, the overall impact of the surface coal mine under consideration on environment indicates a medium level and accordingly the control measures have to be planned. Thus repair to the environment has to be made a concurrent activity with mining i.e. to say we have to design with nature not against it

  11. Ecosystem classification, Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Robin-Abbott; L.H. Pardo

    2011-01-01

    The ecosystem classification in this report is based on the ecoregions developed through the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) for North America (CEC 1997). Only ecosystems that occur in the United States are included. CEC ecoregions are described, with slight modifications, below (CEC 1997) and shown in Figures 2.1 and 2.2. We chose this ecosystem...

  12. Feasibility Study of Land Cover Classification Based on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for Landslide Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilanki Dahigamuwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable land cover leads to excessive damage from landslides and other natural hazards, whereas the presence of vegetation is expected to mitigate rainfall-induced landslide potential. Hence, unexpected and rapid changes in land cover due to deforestation would be detrimental in landslide-prone areas. Also, vegetation cover is subject to phenological variations and therefore, timely classification of land cover is an essential step in effective evaluation of landslide hazard potential. The work presented here investigates methods that can be used for land cover classification based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, derived from up-to-date satellite images, and the feasibility of application in landslide risk prediction. A major benefit of this method would be the eventual ability to employ NDVI as a stand-alone parameter for accurate assessment of the impact of land cover in landslide hazard evaluation. An added benefit would be the timely detection of undesirable practices such as deforestation using satellite imagery. A landslide-prone region in Oregon, USA is used as a model for the application of the classification method. Five selected classification techniques—k-nearest neighbor, Gaussian support vector machine (GSVM, artificial neural network, decision tree and quadratic discriminant analysis support the viability of the NDVI-based land cover classification. Finally, its application in landslide risk evaluation is demonstrated.

  13. Identification and Classification of Earthworm Species in Guyana

    OpenAIRE

    Preeta Saywack; Abdullah Adil Ansari

    2011-01-01

    Earthworms are very important organisms, they are both environmentally and economically beneficial and hence their correct identification and classification is very vital. Taxonomy aims to classify organisms based on their similarities and differences. The present study was carried out during the year 2006-2007 at University of Guyana, Georgetown focusing on identification and classification of local earthworm species of Guyana and comparison with a known non-native species (California red). ...

  14. Reactor parameters for European economic, safety and environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.; Cooke, P.I.H.; Spears, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Parameter sets for five 1200 MW e tokamak reactors were developed for the European Study Group on the Environmental, Safety-related and Economic Potential of Fusion Power, showing today's perception of the range of reactors likely to be available as a result of the Commission's fusion programme. On the basis of the cost of generating electricity, relative to a fission reactor, a reference set was chosen and endorsed by the Group for further studies including that on the environmental impact of fusion power. Key physics and technology parameters for the reference reactor are compared with values used in the ITER design, and with those from American studies. (author)

  15. Feature Selection as a Time and Cost-Saving Approach for Land Suitability Classification (Case Study of Shavur Plain, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Hamzeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Land suitability classification is important in planning and managing sustainable land use. Most approaches to land suitability analysis combine a large number of land and soil parameters, and are time-consuming and costly. In this study, a potentially useful technique (combined feature selection and fuzzy-AHP method to increase the efficiency of land suitability analysis was presented. To this end, three different feature selection algorithms—random search, best search and genetic methods—were used to determine the most effective parameters for land suitability classification for the cultivation of barely in the Shavur Plain, southwest Iran. Next, land suitability classes were calculated for all methods by using the fuzzy-AHP approach. Salinity (electrical conductivity (EC, alkalinity (exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, wetness and soil texture were selected using the random search method. Gypsum, EC, ESP, and soil texture were selected using both the best search and genetic methods. The result shows a strong agreement between the standard fuzzy-AHP methods and methods presented in this study. The values of Kappa coefficients were 0.82, 0.79 and 0.79 for the random search, best search and genetic methods, respectively, compared with the standard fuzzy-AHP method. Our results indicate that EC, ESP, soil texture and wetness are the most effective features for evaluating land suitability classification for the cultivation of barely in the study area, and uses of these parameters, together with their appropriate weights as obtained from fuzzy-AHP, can perform good results for land suitability classification. So, the combined feature selection presented and the fuzzy-AHP approach has the potential to save time and money for land suitability classification.

  16. Comparison of Computational Algorithms for the Classification of Liver Cancer using SELDI Mass Spectrometry: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Hickey

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As an alternative to DNA microarrays, mass spectrometry based analysis of proteomic patterns has shown great potential in cancer diagnosis. The ultimate application of this technique in clinical settings relies on the advancement of the technology itself and the maturity of the computational tools used to analyze the data. A number of computational algorithms constructed on different principles are available for the classification of disease status based on proteomic patterns. Nevertheless, few studies have addressed the difference in the performance of these approaches. In this report, we describe a comparative case study on the classification accuracy of hepatocellular carcinoma based on the serum proteomic pattern generated from a Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI mass spectrometer.Methods: Nine supervised classifi cation algorithms are implemented in R software and compared for the classification accuracy.Results: We found that the support vector machine with radial function is preferable as a tool for classification of hepatocellular carcinoma using features in SELDI mass spectra. Among the rest of the methods, random forest and prediction analysis of microarrays have better performance. A permutation-based technique reveals that the support vector machine with a radial function seems intrinsically superior in learning from the training data since it has a lower prediction error than others when there is essentially no differential signal. On the other hand, the performance of the random forest and prediction analysis of microarrays rely on their capability of capturing the signals with substantial differentiation between groups.Conclusions: Our finding is similar to a previous study, where classification methods based on the Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI mass spectrometry are compared for the prediction accuracy of ovarian cancer. The support vector machine, random forest and prediction

  17. [Study on biopharmaceutics classification system for Chinese materia medica of extract of Huanglian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yin, Xiu-Wen; Wang, Zi-Yu; Li, Xue-Lian; Pan, Meng; Li, Yan-Ping; Dong, Ling

    2017-11-01

    One of the advantages of biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica (CMMBCS) is expanding the classification research level from single ingredient to multi-components of Chinese herb, and from multi-components research to holistic research of the Chinese materia medica. In present paper, the alkaloids of extract of huanglian were chosen as the main research object to explore their change rules in solubility and intestinal permeability of single-component and multi-components, and to determine the biopharmaceutical classification of extract of Huanglian from holistic level. The typical shake-flask method and HPLC were used to detect the solubility of single ingredient of alkaloids from extract of huanglian. The quantitative research of alkaloids in intestinal absorption was measured in single-pass intestinal perfusion experiment while permeability coefficient of extract of huanglian was calculated by self-defined weight coefficient method. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Intestinal permeability study of minoxidil: assessment of minoxidil as a high permeability reference drug for biopharmaceutics classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Makoto; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Zur, Moran; Dahan, Arik; Amidon, Gordon L

    2015-01-05

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate minoxidil as a high permeability reference drug for Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). The permeability of minoxidil was determined in in situ intestinal perfusion studies in rodents and permeability studies across Caco-2 cell monolayers. The permeability of minoxidil was compared with that of metoprolol, an FDA reference drug for BCS classification. In rat perfusion studies, the permeability of minoxidil was somewhat higher than that of metoprolol in the jejunum, while minoxidil showed lower permeability than metoprolol in the ileum. The permeability of minoxidil was independent of intestinal segment, while the permeability of metoprolol was region-dependent. Similarly, in mouse perfusion study, the jejunal permeability of minoxidil was 2.5-fold higher than that of metoprolol. Minoxidil and metoprolol showed similar permeability in Caco-2 study at apical pH of 6.5 and basolateral pH of 7.4. The permeability of minoxidil was independent of pH, while metoprolol showed pH-dependent transport in Caco-2 study. Minoxidil exhibited similar permeability in the absorptive direction (AP-BL) in comparison with secretory direction (BL-AP), while metoprolol had higher efflux ratio (ER > 2) at apical pH of 6.5 and basolateral pH of 7.4. No concentration-dependent transport was observed for either minoxidil or metoprolol transport in Caco-2 study. Verapamil did not alter the transport of either compounds across Caco-2 cell monolayers. The permeability of minoxidil was independent of both pH and intestinal segment in intestinal perfusion studies and Caco-2 studies. Caco-2 studies also showed no involvement of carrier mediated transport in the absorption process of minoxidil. These results suggest that minoxidil may be an acceptable reference drug for BCS high permeability classification. However, minoxidil exhibited higher jejunal permeability than metoprolol and thus to use minoxidil as a reference drug would raise the

  19. Comparative Study of Classification Techniques on Breast Cancer FNA Biopsy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Rumbe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnostic detection of the cancerous cells in a patient is critical and may alter the subsequent treatment and increase the chances of survival rate. Machine learning techniques have been instrumental in disease detection and are currently being used in various classification problems due to their accurate prediction performance. Various techniques may provide different desired accuracies and it is therefore imperative to use the most suitable method which provides the best desired results. This research seeks to provide comparative analysis of Support Vector Machine, Bayesian classifier and other Artificial neural network classifiers (Backpropagation, linear programming, Learning vector quantization, and K nearest neighborhood on the Wisconsin breast cancer classification problem.

  20. A Novel Approach to Developing a Supervised Spatial Decision Support System for Image Classification: A Study of Paddy Rice Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hsun Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paddy rice area estimation via remote sensing techniques has been well established in recent years. Texture information and vegetation indicators are widely used to improve the classification accuracy of satellite images. Accordingly, this study employs texture information and vegetation indicators as ancillary information for classifying paddy rice through remote sensing images. In the first stage, the images are attained using a remote sensing technique and ancillary information is employed to increase the accuracy of classification. In the second stage, we decide to construct an efficient supervised classifier, which is used to evaluate the ancillary information. In the third stage, linear discriminant analysis (LDA is introduced. LDA is a well-known method for classifying images to various categories. Also, the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is employed to optimize the LDA classification outcomes and increase classification performance. In the fourth stage, we discuss the strategy of selecting different window sizes and analyze particle numbers and iteration numbers with corresponding accuracy. Accordingly, a rational strategy for the combination of ancillary information is introduced. Afterwards, the PSO algorithm improves the accuracy rate from 82.26% to 89.31%. The improved accuracy results in a much lower salt-and-pepper effect in the thematic map.

  1. Classification and clinical features of headache patients: an outpatient clinic study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jiying; Fan, Xiaoping; Li, Xuelian; Ran, Li; Tan, Ge; Chen, Lixue; Wang, Kuiyun; Liu, Bowen

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze and classify the clinical features of headache in neurological outpatients. A cross-sectional study was conducted consecutively from March to May 2010 for headache among general neurological outpatients attending the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Personal interviews were carried out and a questionnaire was used to collect medical records. Diagnosis of headache was according to the International classification of headache disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Headache patients accounted for 19.5% of the general neurology clinic outpatients. A total of 843 (50.1%) patients were defined as having primary headache, 454 (27%) secondary headache, and 386 (23%) headache not otherwise specified (headache NOS). For primary headache, 401 (23.8%) had migraine, 399 (23.7%) tension-type headache (TTH), 8 (0.5%) cluster headache and 35 (2.1%) other headache types. Overall, migraine patients suffered (1) more severe headache intensity, (2) longer than 6 years of headache history and (3) more common analgesic medications use than TTH ones (p headaches than migraine patients, and typically headache frequency exceeded 15 days/month (p headache patients were defined as chronic daily headache. Almost 20% of outpatient visits to the general neurology department were of headache patients, predominantly primary headache of migraine and TTH. In outpatient headaches, more attention should be given to headache intensity and duration of headache history for migraine patients, while more attention to headache frequency should be given for the TTH ones.

  2. Addiction and Engagement: An Explorative Study Toward Classification Criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehenbauer-Baum, Mario; Klaps, Armin; Kovacovsky, Zuzana; Witzmann, Karolin; Zahlbruckner, Raphaela; Stetina, Birgit U

    2015-06-01

    The DSM-5 introduced Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as a condition needing more research. Proposed criteria include tolerance, preoccupation, deceiving, or continued excess despite psychosocial problems. However, studies suggest differences between addicted and engaged players. Therefore, this study investigated differences between engagement and addiction in a German-speaking sample of expert World of Warcraft players. Using an online-based questionnaire, 682 participants were surveyed (Mage=23.26 years; 84.9% male) from German-speaking areas. An adapted version of the "Asheron's call" questionnaire (which covers six addiction criteria, including salience, euphoria, and tolerance), the WHOQOL-BREF, the Gaming Motivation Scale, the BDI, the SPIN, and a brief version of the personality questionnaire BFI-10 were used. The average gamer in the sample played on level 87.93 and had been playing for 5.42 years. Addicted players had higher scores on the BDI and SPIN and significantly lower scores in all dimensions of quality of life. Addicted gamers played for 39.25 hours per week (engaged players: 11.93 hours per week) with significantly higher scores in items tapping achievement and immersion. There were differences regarding the BFI-10 in terms of "agreeableness," "conscientiousness," and "neuroticism." The results suggest that factors such as achievement and immersion set engaged and addicted users apart. Addiction seems to be significantly more connected to other psychopathologies such as depression and social anxiety. The results suggest that euphoria, tolerance, and cognitive salience should be handled with caution when it comes to a classification of IGD similar to (behavioral) addiction.

  3. The environmental factors to be considered in the site selection studies of the spent fuel final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeikaes, Timo

    1985-10-01

    The ojective of the work has been to elucidate environmental factors, which could have an influence on the selection of areas. The factors were identified and their significance evaluated by going through the present plan for the final disposal of spent fuel. Population density and transport conditions were the most important factors. Protected areas, groundwater reservoirs and restrictions presented in regional land-use plans were also noted. The potential areas have been identified by the Geological Survey of Finland. First 327 large bedrock blocks were identified. The extent of the block areas was between 100-200 km 2 . The environmental factors of these areas were mapped and the areas were classified. The study was based on maps, published regional plans and inventory of groundwater reservoirs. The Geological Survey of Finland selected 162 block areas for preliminary characterization and geological classification. 61 block areas were chosen for further geological studies. By interpretation of aerial photographs and field reconnaissance trip the Geological Survey identified 134 potential investigation areas. A large block area typically contained two possible investigation areas. The extent of these areas varied between 5-10 km 2 . The environmental factors of 134 possible investigation areas were studied in detail. Due to the classification made earlier, the areas were typically sparsely populated forest areas. In the detailed study the main emphasis was but on evaluation of population density, transport and inventory of land ownership. The land-ownership is important for practical reasons. Land-owner's permission is needed for the operations in the field. Areas were classified separately according to population density, transport and land-ownership. In classification the most suitable areas were uninhabited regions with few landowners and locating close (less than 10 km) to the railroad. Only a minority of the areas fell in this category with the requirement

  4. A study on the environmental friendliness of nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. J.; Lee, B. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Lim, C. Y.; Choi, Y. S.; Lee, Y. E.; Hong, D. S.; Cheong, J. H; Park, J. B.; Kim, K. K.; Cheong, H. Y; Song, M. C; Lee, H. J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop methodologies for quantifying environmental and socio-political factors involved with nuclear fuel cycle and finally to evaluate nuclear fuel cycle options with special emphasis given to the factors. Moreover, methodologies for developing practical radiological health risk assessment code system will be developed by which the assessment could be achieved for the recycling and reuse of scrap materials containing residual radioactive contamination. Selected scenarios are direct disposal, DUPIC(Direct use of PWR spent fuel in CANDU), and MOX recycle, land use, radiological effect, and non-radiological effect were chosen for environmental criteria and public acceptance and non-proliferation of nuclear material for socio-political ones. As a result of this study, potential scenarios to be chosen in Korea were selected and methodologies were developed to quantify the environmental and socio-political criteria. 24 refs., 27 tabs., 29 figs. (author)

  5. Comparative study of deep learning methods for one-shot image classification (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogaert, J.; Mohseni, H.; Khodier, M.; Stoyanov, Y.; Mocanu, D.C.; Menkovski, V.

    2017-01-01

    Training deep learning models for images classification requires large amount of labeled data to overcome the challenges of overfitting and underfitting. Usually, in many practical applications, these labeled data are not available. In an attempt to solve this problem, the one-shot learning paradigm

  6. Study on Classification Accuracy Inspection of Land Cover Data Aided by Automatic Image Change Detection Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, W.-J.; Zhang, L.; Chen, H.-P.; Zhou, J.; Mao, W.-J.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of carrying out national geographic conditions monitoring is to obtain information of surface changes caused by human social and economic activities, so that the geographic information can be used to offer better services for the government, enterprise and public. Land cover data contains detailed geographic conditions information, thus has been listed as one of the important achievements in the national geographic conditions monitoring project. At present, the main issue of the production of the land cover data is about how to improve the classification accuracy. For the land cover data quality inspection and acceptance, classification accuracy is also an important check point. So far, the classification accuracy inspection is mainly based on human-computer interaction or manual inspection in the project, which are time consuming and laborious. By harnessing the automatic high-resolution remote sensing image change detection technology based on the ERDAS IMAGINE platform, this paper carried out the classification accuracy inspection test of land cover data in the project, and presented a corresponding technical route, which includes data pre-processing, change detection, result output and information extraction. The result of the quality inspection test shows the effectiveness of the technical route, which can meet the inspection needs for the two typical errors, that is, missing and incorrect update error, and effectively reduces the work intensity of human-computer interaction inspection for quality inspectors, and also provides a technical reference for the data production and quality control of the land cover data.

  7. Pattern Classification Using an Olfactory Model with PCA Feature Selection in Electronic Noses: Study and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbao Zheng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biologically-inspired models and algorithms are considered as promising sensor array signal processing methods for electronic noses. Feature selection is one of the most important issues for developing robust pattern recognition models in machine learning. This paper describes an investigation into the classification performance of a bionic olfactory model with the increase of the dimensions of input feature vector (outer factor as well as its parallel channels (inner factor. The principal component analysis technique was applied for feature selection and dimension reduction. Two data sets of three classes of wine derived from different cultivars and five classes of green tea derived from five different provinces of China were used for experiments. In the former case the results showed that the average correct classification rate increased as more principal components were put in to feature vector. In the latter case the results showed that sufficient parallel channels should be reserved in the model to avoid pattern space crowding. We concluded that 6~8 channels of the model with principal component feature vector values of at least 90% cumulative variance is adequate for a classification task of 3~5 pattern classes considering the trade-off between time consumption and classification rate.

  8. Unclassified sarcomas : a study to improve classification in a cohort of Golden Retriever dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerkamp, Kim M; Hellmén, Eva; Willén, Helena; Grinwis, Guy C M; Teske, Erik; Rutteman, Gerard R

    2016-01-01

    Morphologically, canine soft-tissue sarcomas (STSs) resemble human STSs. In humans, proper classification of STSs is considered essential to improve insight in the biology of these tumors, and to optimize diagnosis and therapy. To date, there is a paucity of data published on the significance of

  9. A method to assess obstetric outcomes using the 10-Group Classification System: a quantitative descriptive study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rossen, Janne

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, the 10-Group Classification System (TGCS) has been used to report caesarean section rates, but analysis of other outcomes is also recommended. We now aim to present the TGCS as a method to assess outcomes of labour and delivery using routine collection of perinatal information.

  10. Classification of clinical autofluorescence spectra of oral leukoplakia using an artificial neural network : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Staveren, HJ; van Veen, RLP; Speelman, OC; Witjes, MJH; Roodenburg, JLN

    The performance of an artificial neural network was evaluated as an alternative classification technique of autofluorescence spectra of oral leukoplakia, which may reflect the grade of tissue dysplasia. Twenty-two visible lesions of 21 patients suffering from oral leukoplakia and six locations on

  11. Study on the forward-feed neural network used for the classification of high energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Guangxuan; Dai Guiliang

    1997-01-01

    Neural network has been applied in the field of high energy physics experiment for the classification of particles and gained good results. The author emphasizes the systematic analysis of the fundamental principle of the forward-feed neural network and discusses the problems and solving methods in application

  12. A Comparative Study of Classification and Regression Algorithms for Modelling Students' Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecht, Pedro; Cruz, Luís; Soares, Carlos; Mendes-Moreira, João; Abreu, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the success or failure of a student in a course or program is a problem that has recently been addressed using data mining techniques. In this paper we evaluate some of the most popular classification and regression algorithms on this problem. We address two problems: prediction of approval/failure and prediction of grade. The former is…

  13. An Australian casemix classification for palliative care: lessons and policy implications of a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagar, Kathy; Gordon, Robert; Green, Janette; Smith, Michael

    2004-04-01

    To provide a nontechnical discussion of the development of a palliative care casemix classification and some policy implications of its implementation. 3866 palliative care patients who, in a three month period, had 4596 episodes of care provided by 58 palliative care services in Australia and New Zealand. A detailed clinical and service utilization profile was collected on each patient with staff time and other resources measured on a daily basis. A statistical summary of the clinical variables was compiled as the first stage of the analysis. Palliative care phase was found to be a good predictor of resource use, with patients fairly evenly distributed across the five categories. Clients treated in an inpatient setting had poorer function and higher symptom severity scores than those treated in an ambulatory setting, a result that is not surprising in this Australian setting. Implementation of the resultant AN-SNAP classification has been proceeding since 1998 in some Australian jurisdictions. The development and implementation of a classification such as AN-SNAP provides the possibility of having a consistent approach to collecting palliative care data in Australia as well as a growing body of experience on how to progressively improve the classification over time.

  14. A Study of Applications of Machine Learning Based Classification Methods for Virtual Screening of Lead Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Renu; Bapat, Sanket; Jain, Esha; Tambe, Sanjeev S; Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Kulkarni, Bhaskar D

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-based virtual screening of combinatorial libraries employs a number of statistical modeling and machine learning methods. A comprehensive analysis of the application of these methods for the diversity oriented virtual screening of biological targets/drug classes is presented here. A number of classification models have been built using three types of inputs namely structure based descriptors, molecular fingerprints and therapeutic category for performing virtual screening. The activity and affinity descriptors of a set of inhibitors of four target classes DHFR, COX, LOX and NMDA have been utilized to train a total of six classifiers viz. Artificial Neural Network (ANN), k nearest neighbor (k-NN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Naïve Bayes (NB), Decision Tree--(DT) and Random Forest--(RF). Among these classifiers, the ANN was found as the best classifier with an AUC of 0.9 irrespective of the target. New molecular fingerprints based on pharmacophore, toxicophore and chemophore (PTC), were used to build the ANN models for each dataset. A good accuracy of 87.27% was obtained using 296 chemophoric binary fingerprints for the COX-LOX inhibitors compared to pharmacophoric (67.82%) and toxicophoric (70.64%). The methodology was validated on the classical Ames mutagenecity dataset of 4337 molecules. To evaluate it further, selectivity and promiscuity of molecules from five drug classes viz. anti-anginal, anti-convulsant, anti-depressant, anti-arrhythmic and anti-diabetic were studied. The TPC fingerprints computed for each category were able to capture the drug-class specific features using the k-NN classifier. These models can be useful for selecting optimal molecules for drug design.

  15. Breast tissue classification in digital breast tomosynthesis images using texture features: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Despina; Berger, Rachelle; Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2009-02-01

    Mammographic breast density is a known breast cancer risk factor. Studies have shown the potential to automate breast density estimation by using computerized texture-based segmentation of the dense tissue in mammograms. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a tomographic x-ray breast imaging modality that could allow volumetric breast density estimation. We evaluated the feasibility of distinguishing between dense and fatty breast regions in DBT using computer-extracted texture features. Our long-term hypothesis is that DBT texture analysis can be used to develop 3D dense tissue segmentation algorithms for estimating volumetric breast density. DBT images from 40 women were analyzed. The dense tissue area was delineated within each central source projection (CSP) image using a thresholding technique (Cumulus, Univ. Toronto). Two (2.5cm)2 ROIs were manually selected: one within the dense tissue region and another within the fatty region. Corresponding (2.5cm)3 ROIs were placed within the reconstructed DBT images. Texture features, previously used for mammographic dense tissue segmentation, were computed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate feature classification performance. Different texture features appeared to perform best in the 3D reconstructed DBT compared to the 2D CSP images. Fractal dimension was superior in DBT (AUC=0.90), while contrast was best in CSP images (AUC=0.92). We attribute these differences to the effects of tissue superimposition in CSP and the volumetric visualization of the breast tissue in DBT. Our results suggest that novel approaches, different than those conventionally used in projection mammography, need to be investigated in order to develop DBT dense tissue segmentation algorithms for estimating volumetric breast density.

  16. Environmental management and firm performance: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claver, Enrique; López, María D; Molina, José F; Tarí, Juan J

    2007-09-01

    This study has as its aim to help to clarify the relationship between environmental management and economic performance by integrating it into a wider framework that includes the relationship between environmental strategy and firm performance, the latter being understood as the combination of environmental performance, competitive advantage and economic performance. A case study of the COATO farming cooperative showed us that its environmental management, focused on prevention logic, has had a positive net effect on its environmental performance. Besides, the order in which these practices were adopted favoured the development of new organisational capabilities that have contributed to the appearance of advantages derived from the greater accumulated experience of employees in creating new projects that are designed to reduce residues and pollution. COATO has also obtained a competitive advantage in differentiation thanks to an improved brand image and to its increased credibility in business relationships. Finally, a positive correlation exists between the pioneering proactive strategy adopted by this cooperative and the improvement of its firm performance with respect to the other firms in its sector.

  17. Breast tumor classification using axial shear strain elastography: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thitaikumar, Arun; Ophir, Jonathan; Mobbs, Louise M; Kraemer-Chant, Christina M; Garra, Brian S

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the feasibility of visualizing the characteristics of bonding at an inclusion-background boundary using axial-shear strain elastography was demonstrated. In this paper, we report a feasibility study on the utility of the axial-shear strain elastograms in the classification of in vivo breast tumor as being benign or malignant. The study was performed using data sets obtained from 15 benign and 15 malignant cases that were biopsy proven. A total of three independent observers were trained, and their services were utilized for the study. A total of 9 cases were used as training set and the remaining cases were used as testing set. The feature from the axial-shear strain elastogram, namely, the area of the axial-shear region, was extracted by the observers. The observers also outlined the tumor area on the corresponding sonogram, which was used to normalize the area of the axial-shear strain region. There are several observations that can be drawn from the results. First, the result indicates that the observers consistently (∼82% of the cases) noticed the characteristic pattern of the axial-shear strain distribution data as predicted in the previous simulation studies, i.e. alternating regions of positive and negative axial-shear strain values around the tumor-background interface. Second, the analysis of the result suggests that in approximately 57% of the cases in which the observers did not visualize tumor in the sonogram, the elastograms helped them to locate the tumor. Finally, the analysis of the result suggests that for the discriminant feature value of 0.46, the number of unnecessary biopsies could be reduced by 56.3% without compromising on sensitivity and on negative predictive value (NPV). Based on the results in this study, feature values greater than 0.75 appear to be indicative of malignancy, while values less than 0.46 to be indicative of benignity. Feature values between 0.46 and 0.75 may result in an overlap between benign and malignant

  18. A Cross-Cultural Study on Environmental Risk Perception and Educational Strategies: Implications for Environmental Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hongxia; Fortner, Rosanne

    2010-01-01

    This cross-cultural study examined college students' environmental risk perception and their preference in terms of risk communication and educational strategies in China and the United States. The results indicated that the Chinese respondents were more concerned about environmental risk, and they perceived the environmental issues to be more…

  19. A statistical approach to root system classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot eBodner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant root systems have a key role in ecology and agronomy. In spite of fast increase in root studies, still there is no classification that allows distinguishing among distinctive characteristics within the diversity of rooting strategies. Our hypothesis is that a multivariate approach for plant functional type identification in ecology can be applied to the classification of root systems. We demonstrate that combining principal component and cluster analysis yields a meaningful classification of rooting types based on morphological traits. The classification method presented is based on a data-defined statistical procedure without a priori decision on the classifiers. Biplot inspection is used to determine key traits and to ensure stability in cluster based grouping. The classification method is exemplified with simulated root architectures and morphological field data. Simulated root architectures showed that morphological attributes with spatial distribution parameters capture most distinctive features within root system diversity. While developmental type (tap vs. shoot-borne systems is a strong, but coarse classifier, topological traits provide the most detailed differentiation among distinctive groups. Adequacy of commonly available morphologic traits for classification is supported by field data. Three rooting types emerged from measured data, distinguished by diameter/weight, density and spatial distribution respectively. Similarity of root systems within distinctive groups was the joint result of phylogenetic relation and environmental as well as human selection pressure. We concluded that the data-define classification is appropriate for integration of knowledge obtained with different root measurement methods and at various scales. Currently root morphology is the most promising basis for classification due to widely used common measurement protocols. To capture details of root diversity efforts in architectural measurement

  20. Analysis of Environmental Vulnerability in The Landslide Areas (Case Study: Semarang Regency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hani'ah; Firdaus, H. S.; Nugraha, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Land conversion can increase the risk of landslide disaster in Semarang Regency caused by human activity. Remote sensing and geographic information system to be used in this study to mapping the landslide areas because satellite image data can represent the object on the earth surface in wide area coverage. Satellite image Landsat 8 is used to mapping land cover that processed by supervised classification method. The parameters to mapping landslide areas are based on land cover, rainfall, slope, geological factors and soil types. Semarang Regency have the minimum value of landslide is 1.6 and the maximum value is 4.3, which is dominated by landslide prone areas about 791.27 km2. The calculation of the environmental vulnerability index in the study area is based on Perka BNPB No. 2/2012. Accumulation score of environmental vulnerability index is moderate value, that means environment condition must be considered, such as vegetation as ground cover and many others aspects. The range of NDVI value shows that density level in conservation areas (0.030 - 0.844) and conservation forest (0.045 - 0.849), which rarely until high density level. The results of this study furthermore can be assessed to reduce disaster risks from landslide as an effort of disaster preventive.

  1. Catchment Classification: Connecting Climate, Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicz, K. A.; Wagener, T.; Sivapalan, M.; Troch, P. A.; Carrillo, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrology does not yet possess a generally accepted catchment classification framework. Such a classification framework needs to: [1] give names to things, i.e. the main classification step, [2] permit transfer of information, i.e. regionalization of information, [3] permit development of generalizations, i.e. to develop new theory, and [4] provide a first order environmental change impact assessment, i.e., the hydrologic implications of climate, land use and land cover change. One strategy is to create a catchment classification framework based on the notion of catchment functions (partitioning, storage, and release). Results of an empirical study presented here connects climate and structure to catchment function (in the form of select hydrologic signatures), based on analyzing over 300 US catchments. Initial results indicate a wide assortment of signature relationships with properties of climate, geology, and vegetation. The uncertainty in the different regionalized signatures varies widely, and therefore there is variability in the robustness of classifying ungauged basins. This research provides insight into the controls of hydrologic behavior of a catchment, and enables a classification framework applicable to gauged and ungauged across the study domain. This study sheds light on what we can expect to achieve in mapping climate, structure and function in a top-down manner. Results of this study complement work done using a bottom-up physically-based modeling framework to generalize this approach (Carrillo et al., this session).

  2. The impact of complications on quality of life following colorectal surgery : A prospective cohort study to evaluate the Clavien-Dindo classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, E.; Pullens, M.J.J.; de Vries, J.; Roukema, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim This prospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the impact of complications on quality of life (QOL) in colorectal surgery. The Clavien–Dindo complication classification (CDCC) is promising, but has not been evaluated by relating the classification to patient-reported outcome measures.

  3. 7 CFR 1794.31 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification. 1794.31 Section 1794.31 Agriculture... Classification. (a) Electric and telecommunications programs. RUS will normally determine the proper environmental classification of projects based on its evaluation of the project description set forth in the...

  4. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report.

  5. A facility for using cluster research to study environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This report begins by describing the general application of cluster based research to environmental chemistry and the development of a Cluster Structure and Dynamics Research Facility (CSDRF). Next, four important areas of cluster research are described in more detail, including how they can impact environmental problems. These are: surface-supported clusters, water and contaminant interactions, time-resolved dynamic studies in clusters, and cluster structures and reactions. These facilities and equipment required for each area of research are then presented. The appendices contain workshop agenda and a listing of the researchers who participated in the workshop discussions that led to this report

  6. Radiological environmental study in area to future anthropogenic transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinnan, T.; MIller, C.R.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this work the existent relationship is identified between the data radioecologics and the geological formations to the north area Holguin with the objective to study the possible incidence that this can have in the rate environmental dose in the event of transformations anthropogenic the place

  7. Cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.M.; Booth, S.R.

    1994-02-01

    This paper examines cost effectiveness studies of environmental technologies including the following: (1) In Situ Air Stripping, (2) Surface Towed Ordinance Locator System, (3) Ditch Witch Horizontal Boring Technology, (4) Direct Sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer, (5) In Situ Vitrification, (6) Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System, (7) In Situ Bioremediation, and (8) SEAMIST Membrane System Technology

  8. Some Environmental Issues of Inland Valleys: A Case Study | Asiam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study concluded that inland valleys can be real environmental liability because produce from such valleys can be polluted and hence can be a source of social conflict particularly when they fringe mineral concessions as the adverse impacts could be unfortunately attributed to mining activity and similar land uses.

  9. 76 FR 50274 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Draft Regulatory Guides in the ``Regulatory Guides'' collection of the NRC's Library at http://www.nrc... Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for comment... draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-4016, ``Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations...

  10. Psoriasis and associated variables in classification and outcome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis - an eight-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Maria; Aalto, Kristiina; Fasth, Anders

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To study the impact of psoriasis and features associated with psoriasis on classification and outcome in a population-based follow-up cohort of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). METHODS: In all, 440 children with JIA were followed for a median of 8 years...... in a prospective Nordic population-based cohort study. Data for remission was available for 427 of these children. The presence of psoriasis, psoriasis-like rash, dactylitis, nail pitting, enthesitis, tenosynovitis and heredity was assessed in relation to ILAR classification and remission. RESULTS: Clinical...... findings associated with psoriasis developed consecutively during the 8-year period. Six of 14 children with psoriasis were not classified as juvenile psoriatic arthritis according to the ILAR criteria at 8 year follow-up. Dactylitis was more common in children with early onset of JIA. After 8 years we...

  11. Multispectral and Panchromatic used Enhancement Resolution and Study Effective Enhancement on Supervised and Unsupervised Classification Land – Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, S. S.; Abbas, W. A.

    2018-05-01

    The goal of the study is to support analysis Enhancement of Resolution and study effect on classification methods on bands spectral information of specific and quantitative approaches. In this study introduce a method to enhancement resolution Landsat 8 of combining the bands spectral of 30 meters resolution with panchromatic band 8 of 15 meters resolution, because of importance multispectral imagery to extracting land - cover. Classification methods used in this study to classify several lands -covers recorded from OLI- 8 imagery. Two methods of Data mining can be classified as either supervised or unsupervised. In supervised methods, there is a particular predefined target, that means the algorithm learn which values of the target are associated with which values of the predictor sample. K-nearest neighbors and maximum likelihood algorithms examine in this work as supervised methods. In other hand, no sample identified as target in unsupervised methods, the algorithm of data extraction searches for structure and patterns between all the variables, represented by Fuzzy C-mean clustering method as one of the unsupervised methods, NDVI vegetation index used to compare the results of classification method, the percent of dense vegetation in maximum likelihood method give a best results.

  12. Behavioural Spillover in the Environmental Domain: An Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanzini, Pietro; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    This study tests hypotheses about behavioural spillover in the environmental domain as well as the impacts of monetary inducements and verbal praise on behavioural spillover by means of a field experiment. A sample of 194 students from a large university in Denmark were randomly allocated...... to a control group or to one of two experimental conditions where they were encouraged to purchase "green" products by means of either financial compensation and incentives or verbal encouragement and praise. Participants answered a baseline survey containing questions concerning a wide range...... of environmentally relevant behaviours and after a six weeks intervention period where they were requested to keep track of their purchases by means of a shopping diary they answered a second survey with the same content as the first. This allowed us to analyse the change in self-reported pro- environmental...

  13. A qualitative description of falls in a neuro-rehabilitation unit: the use of a standardised fall report including the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) to describe activities and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saverino, Alessia; Moriarty, Amy; Rantell, Khadija; Waller, Denise; Ayres, Rachael; Playford, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Falls are a recognised problem for people with long-term neurological conditions but less is known about fall risk in young adults. This study describes fallers' and falls' characteristics in adults less than 60 years old, in a neuro-rehabilitation unit. This single-centre, longitudinal, observational study included 114 consecutive admissions to a UK neuro-rehabilitation unit over 20 months. The demographic and clinical characteristics of eligible patients included age, sex, diagnosis, hospital length of stay and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). Falls were recorded prospectively in a fall report, using the activities and environmental domains of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). A total of 34 (30%) patients reported a fall, with 50% experiencing more than one fall. The majority of falls (60%) occurred during the first 2 weeks, during day-time (90%) and during mobile activities (70%). Overall, falls rate (95% confidence interval) was 1.33 (1.04 to 1.67) per 100 d of patient hospital stay. Factors associated with increased falls included becoming a walker during admission or being cognitively impaired. There were no serious fall-related injuries. The first 2 weeks of admission is a high risk time for fallers, in particular those who become walkers or are cognitively impaired. Prevention policies should be put in place based on fall characteristics. Implications for Rehabilitation The ICF is a valuable instrument for describing subject and environmental factors during a fall-event. Falls are frequent events but do not usually cause serious injuries during inpatient rehabilitation. There is an increased fall risk for subjects with cognitive impairments or those relearning how to walk.

  14. Study on environmental results improvement plan through flexible industrial environmental regulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyun Joo; Chang, Kee Bok; Lee, Young Soon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    As the economic environment has been changed to the direction of decentralization and diversification, there shows various changes in the area and method of market intervention by the government. In the environmental sector, it has been discussed to extend its use of economic incentive coming out of an existing direct regulation policy. Recently the importance on the new forms of government role such as voluntary agreements and information opening have been emphasized. Although the existing direct regulation policy has an advantage of visible and direct effect, it blocked the chance to explore technological and economical alternatives toward environmental problems by business sector. Therefore it is recognized that there is a fundamental limit on inducing the efficient pollution resisting activities from the business sector. Therefore this study analyzed and recommended theoretical characteristics on mechanism that a voluntary approach can bring appropriate results on policy objectives. 98 refs. 7 figs., 47 tabs.

  15. Environmental process improvement feasibility study and demonstration program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rodger L.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the final product of an environmental study conducted by Western Commercial Space Center, Inc. under contract to Tennessee-Calspan Center for Space Transportation and Applied Research. The purpose of this investigation is to accurately document the current environmental and permitting processes associated with commercial space launch activity at Vandenberg AFB, and make recommendations to streamline those processes. The particular areas of interest focus on: identifying applicable Federal, state, and local laws, Department of Defense directives, and Air force regulations; defining the environmental process on Vandenberg AFB and how it relates with other agencies, including Federal and state regulatory agencies; and defining the air quality permit process. Study investigation results are applied to an example Pilot Space Launch Vehicle (PSLV) planning to launch from Vandenberg AFB. The PSLV space hardware is analyzed with respect to environmental and permitting issues associated with vehicle processing, facilities required (existing or new), and launch. The PSLV verified the earlier findings of the study and gave insight into streamlining recommendations.

  16. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A.

    2013-01-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  17. Chemical elements in invertebrate orders for environmental quality studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Marcelo R.L.; Franca, Elvis J.; Paiva, Jose D.S.; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: marcelo_rlm@hotmail.com, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: dan-paiva@hotmail.com, E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio A., E-mail: felipe-yamada@hotmail.com, E-mail: lis@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mabacchi@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Among the biomonitors of environmental quality, there is a lack of studies on using invertebrates to evaluate quantitatively chemical elements in ecosystems. This group of animals is quite numerous, widely distributed and adaptable to the most diverse environmental conditions. These features are very useful for the environmental quality assessment, as well as the several occurring insect-plant interactions performing essential functions in ecosystems. The objective of this work is to study the variability of chemical composition of invertebrate orders for using in environmental quality monitoring studies. Instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA was applied to determine some nutrients and trace elements in invertebrate samples. Sampling by pitfall traps was carried out in riverine ecosystems from the urban area from the Piracicaba Municipality, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Invertebrate and reference material samples were irradiated in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN. Fragments of a Ni-Cr alloy were irradiated for monitoring the thermal neutron flux. Hymenoptera order was considered the most representative according to the total number of sampled species (about 60%). Significant amounts of Ba, Br, Fe and Sc were found in invertebrates of the order Opiliones. Potassium, rubidium and zinc were highly accumulated in species from Blattodea order, indicating a consistent pattern of accumulation for this invertebrate order. Taking into account the abundance of Hymenoptera order, the chemical composition of its species was significant different at the 95% confidence level for Br and Na in the sampled locals. (author)

  18. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry analysis linked with chemometrics for food classification - a case study: geographical provenance and cultivar classification of monovarietal clarified apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Heng-Hui; Soukoulis, Christos; Fisk, Ian

    2014-03-01

    In the present work, we have evaluated for first time the feasibility of APCI-MS volatile compound fingerprinting in conjunction with chemometrics (PLS-DA) as a new strategy for rapid and non-destructive food classification. For this purpose 202 clarified monovarietal juices extracted from apples differing in their botanical and geographical origin were used for evaluation of the performance of APCI-MS as a classification tool. For an independent test set PLS-DA analyses of pre-treated spectral data gave 100% and 94.2% correct classification rate for the classification by cultivar and geographical origin, respectively. Moreover, PLS-DA analysis of APCI-MS in conjunction with GC-MS data revealed that masses within the spectral ACPI-MS data set were related with parent ions or fragments of alkyesters, carbonyl compounds (hexanal, trans-2-hexenal) and alcohols (1-hexanol, 1-butanol, cis-3-hexenol) and had significant discriminating power both in terms of cultivar and geographical origin. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of aspects of functioning, disability and health relevant to patients experiencing vertigo: a qualitative study using the international classification of functioning, disability and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Aims of this study were to identify aspects of functioning and health relevant to patients with vertigo expressed by ICF categories and to explore the potential of the ICF to describe the patient perspective in vertigo. Methods We conducted a series of qualitative semi-structured face-to-face interviews using a descriptive approach. Data was analyzed using the meaning condensation procedure and then linked to categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Results From May to July 2010 12 interviews were carried out until saturation was reached. Four hundred and seventy-one single concepts were extracted which were linked to 142 different ICF categories. 40 of those belonged to the component body functions, 62 to the component activity and participation, and 40 to the component environmental factors. Besides the most prominent aspect “dizziness” most participants reported problems within “Emotional functions (b152), problems related to mobility and carrying out the daily routine. Almost all participants reported “Immediate family (e310)” as a relevant modifying environmental factor. Conclusions From the patients’ perspective, vertigo has impact on multifaceted aspects of functioning and disability, mainly body functions and activities and participation. Modifying contextual factors have to be taken into account to cover the complex interaction between the health condition of vertigo on the individuals’ daily life. The results of this study will contribute to developing standards for the measurement of functioning, disability and health relevant for patients suffering from vertigo. PMID:22738067

  20. Ethics in studies on children and environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, D F; Knudsen, L E; Matusiewicz, K; Niebrój, L; Vähäkangas, K H

    2007-07-01

    Children, because of age-related reasons, are a vulnerable population, and protecting their health is a social, scientific and emotional priority. The increased susceptibility of children and fetuses to environmental (including genotoxic) agents has been widely discussed by the scientific community. Children may experience different levels of chemical exposure than adults, and their sensitivity to chemical toxicities may be increased or decreased in comparison with adults. Such considerations also apply to unborn (fetal exposure) and newborn (neonatal exposure) children. Therefore, research on children is necessary in both clinical and environmental fields, to provide age-specific relevant data regarding the efficacy and safety of medical treatments, and regarding the assessment of risk from unintended environmental exposure. In this context, the stakeholders are many, including children and their parents, physicians and public health researchers, and the society as a whole, with its ethical, regulatory, administrative and political components. The important ethical issues are information of participants and consent to participate. Follow-up and protection of data (samples and information derived from samples) should be discussed in the context of biobanks, where children obtain individual rights when they become adults. It is important to realise that there are highly variable practices within European countries, which may have, in the past, led to differences in practical aspects of research in children. A number of recommendations are provided for research with children and environmental health. Environmental research with children should be scientifically justified, with sound research questions and valid study protocols of sufficient statistical power, ensuring the autonomy of the child and his/her family at the time of the study and later in life, if data and samples are used for follow-up studies. When children are enrolled, we recommend a consent dyad

  1. Short-term regulation of hydro powerplants. Studies on the environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinisalmi, T.; Riihimaeki, J.; Vehanen, T.; Yrjaenae, T.

    1997-01-01

    The publication is a final report on a project studying effects of short-term regulation of hydro power plants. The project consists of two parts: (1) examining and developing methods for evaluation, (2) applying methods in a case study at the Oulujoki River. The economic value of short-term regulation was studied with a model consisting of an optimization model and a river simulation model. Constraints on water level or discharge variations could be given to the power plants and their economical influence could be studied. Effects on shoreline recreation use due to water level fluctuation were studied with a model where various effects are made commensurable and expressed in monetary terms. A literature survey and field experiments were used to study the methods for assessing effects of short-term regulation on river habitats. The state and development needs of fish stocks and fisheries in large regulated rivers were studied and an environmental classification was made. Remedial measures for the short-term regulated rivers were studied with a literature survey and enquiries. A comprehensive picture of the various effects of short-term regulation was gained in the case study in Oulujoki River (110 km long, 7 power plants). Harmful effects can be reduced with the given recommendations of remedial measures on environment and the usage of the hydro power plants. (orig.) 52 refs

  2. Short-term regulation of hydro powerplants. Studies on the environmental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinisalmi, T. [ed.; Forsius, J.; Muotka, J.; Soimakallio, H. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Riihimaeki, J. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Vehanen, T. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst. (Finland); Yrjaenae, T. [North Ostrobothnia Regional Environmental Centre, Oulu (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The publication is a final report on a project studying effects of short-term regulation of hydro power plants. The project consists of two parts: (1) examining and developing methods for evaluation, (2) applying methods in a case study at the Oulujoki River. The economic value of short-term regulation was studied with a model consisting of an optimization model and a river simulation model. Constraints on water level or discharge variations could be given to the power plants and their economical influence could be studied. Effects on shoreline recreation use due to water level fluctuation were studied with a model where various effects are made commensurable and expressed in monetary terms. A literature survey and field experiments were used to study the methods for assessing effects of short-term regulation on river habitats. The state and development needs of fish stocks and fisheries in large regulated rivers were studied and an environmental classification was made. Remedial measures for the short-term regulated rivers were studied with a literature survey and enquiries. A comprehensive picture of the various effects of short-term regulation was gained in the case study in Oulujoki River (110 km long, 7 power plants). Harmful effects can be reduced with the given recommendations of remedial measures on environment and the usage of the hydro power plants. (orig.) 52 refs.

  3. Comparative study of wine tannin classification using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectrometry and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Katherina; Labarca, Ximena; Bordeu, Edmundo; Guesalaga, Andrés; Agosin, Eduardo

    2007-11-01

    Wine tannins are fundamental to the determination of wine quality. However, the chemical and sensorial analysis of these compounds is not straightforward and a simple and rapid technique is necessary. We analyzed the mid-infrared spectra of white, red, and model wines spiked with known amounts of skin or seed tannins, collected using Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) transmission spectroscopy (400-4000 cm(-1)). The spectral data were classified according to their tannin source, skin or seed, and tannin concentration by means of discriminant analysis (DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) to obtain a probabilistic classification. Wines were also classified sensorially by a trained panel and compared with FT-MIR. SIMCA models gave the most accurate classification (over 97%) and prediction (over 60%) among the wine samples. The prediction was increased (over 73%) using the leave-one-out cross-validation technique. Sensory classification of the wines was less accurate than that obtained with FT-MIR and SIMCA. Overall, these results show the potential of FT-MIR spectroscopy, in combination with adequate statistical tools, to discriminate wines with different tannin levels.

  4. A study of several CAD methods for classification of clustered microcalcifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liyang; Yang, Yongyi; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Jiang, Yulei

    2005-04-01

    In this paper we investigate several state-of-the-art machine-learning methods for automated classification of clustered microcalcifications (MCs), aimed to assisting radiologists for more accurate diagnosis of breast cancer in a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) scheme. The methods we consider include: support vector machine (SVM), kernel Fisher discriminant (KFD), and committee machines (ensemble averaging and AdaBoost), most of which have been developed recently in statistical learning theory. We formulate differentiation of malignant from benign MCs as a supervised learning problem, and apply these learning methods to develop the classification algorithms. As input, these methods use image features automatically extracted from clustered MCs. We test these methods using a database of 697 clinical mammograms from 386 cases, which include a wide spectrum of difficult-to-classify cases. We use receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to evaluate and compare the classification performance by the different methods. In addition, we also investigate how to combine information from multiple-view mammograms of the same case so that the best decision can be made by a classifier. In our experiments, the kernel-based methods (i.e., SVM, KFD) yield the best performance, significantly outperforming a well-established CADx approach based on neural network learning.

  5. Environmental study of the use of biomonitors and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochmann, Sonnia

    2000-06-01

    In June of 1999, the National Nuclear Energy Commission has begun the Project of Investigation Environmental Studies by the employment of biomonitors, summoning and integrating a multidisciplinary team. In the first stage, the Area Sampling of Asuncion area was defined including 16 intersections of important avenues and an area of reference. The criteria in this case has been that the main source of pollution is constituted by vehicular traffic. The pollution studies have been done by means of field measurements [es

  6. Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James F.; Lewis, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.

  7. PIXE and NRA environmental studies by means of lichen indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrynkiewicz, A.Z.; Szymczyk, S.; Kajfosz, J.; Olech, M.

    1980-01-01

    The trace element accumulating and integrating properties of epiphytic lichens were used for the study of air pollutions in Southern Poland. For the investigation of fluorine pollution by an aluminium plant the 19 F(p, p'γ) 19 F nuclear reaction, whereas for Pb and Br traffic pollution and heavy elements industrial pollution the PIXE method was used. The applicability of the lichen indicator method in environmental studies is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Isotope techniques in the study of environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency, among its efforts to promote the wider use of isotope techniques in hydrology and related environmental disciplines, organized an International Symposium on Applications of Isotope Techniques in Studying Past and Current Environmental Changes in the Hydrosphere and the Atmosphere, held in 1993 in Vienna. The broad scientific interest and abundant participation in the symposium, as well as the rapid progress seen in this field since then, encouraged the IAEA to organize a second symposium of this kind. It was held from 14 to 18 April 1997 in Vienna and brought together 177 scientists representing 46 Member States, UNESCO, FAO, WMO, the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). The symposium was structured in five sessions of oral presentations, a poster session and a round table discussion that focused on trends and future requirements in isotope hydrology and on applications in climate and environmental research. The major themes covered by the presentations included the use of isotopic tracers in studies of atmospheric and hydrospheric changes and of the human impact on water and the environment. Special emphasis was placed on isotopic archives of climatic and environmental change. Some contributions addressed new technical approaches

  9. Outcome measures used in clinical studies on neonatal brachial plexus palsy: A systematic literature review using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Cigdem; Duijnisveld, Bouke J; van der Weide, Amber; Schoones, Jan W; Malessy, Martijn J A; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Vlieland, Thea P M Vliet

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of a neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) can vary widely among individuals and numerous clinical studies have been performed to identify the natural history and to improve treatment. The aim of this study was to identify and describe all outcome measures used in clinical studies on patients with an NBPP and categorize these outcome measures according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Electronic searches of different databases were carried out. All clinical studies describing one or more outcomes of NBPP were selected. Data on outcome measures was systematically extracted and the contents were analyzed and linked to the ICF. A total of 217 full texts were selected and 59 different outcome measures were identified. The 5 most frequently used outcome measures included range of motion of the shoulder (n= 166 studies, 76%), range of motion of the elbow (n= 87 studies, 40%), the Mallet scale (n= 66 studies, 30%), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (n= 37 studies, 17%) and the Medical Research Council motor grading scale (n= 31 studies, 14%). Assessments related to Body functions and Structures were most frequent, whereas assessments associated with Activities and Participation and Environmental Factors were relatively uncommon. There was a high variability among the outcome measures used, with measures within the ICF component Body Functions being most common. These results underscore the need for the development and usage of outcome measures representing all domains of health status in patients with NBPP.

  10. The 5th conference of the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA). Environmental radioactivity and its application in environmental studies. Conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    SPERA98 focused primarily on applications of environmental radionuclides in environmental studies and problem solving. The conference program included 7 sessions covering topics such as: soil erosion, waste disposal and treatment, atmospheric studies, radioactivity in water, human exposure pathways, sediment and atmospheric studies

  11. The 5th conference of the South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA). Environmental radioactivity and its application in environmental studies. Conference papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    SPERA98 focused primarily on applications of environmental radionuclides in environmental studies and problem solving. The conference program included 7 sessions covering topics such as: soil erosion, waste disposal and treatment, atmospheric studies, radioactivity in water, human exposure pathways, sediment and atmospheric studies.

  12. Study of Environmental Data Complexity using Extreme Learning Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Michael; Kanevski, Mikhail

    2017-04-01

    The main goals of environmental data science using machine learning algorithm deal, in a broad sense, around the calibration, the prediction and the visualization of hidden relationship between input and output variables. In order to optimize the models and to understand the phenomenon under study, the characterization of the complexity (at different levels) should be taken into account. Therefore, the identification of the linear or non-linear behavior between input and output variables adds valuable information for the knowledge of the phenomenon complexity. The present research highlights and investigates the different issues that can occur when identifying the complexity (linear/non-linear) of environmental data using machine learning algorithm. In particular, the main attention is paid to the description of a self-consistent methodology for the use of Extreme Learning Machines (ELM, Huang et al., 2006), which recently gained a great popularity. By applying two ELM models (with linear and non-linear activation functions) and by comparing their efficiency, quantification of the linearity can be evaluated. The considered approach is accompanied by simulated and real high dimensional and multivariate data case studies. In conclusion, the current challenges and future development in complexity quantification using environmental data mining are discussed. References - Huang, G.-B., Zhu, Q.-Y., Siew, C.-K., 2006. Extreme learning machine: theory and applications. Neurocomputing 70 (1-3), 489-501. - Kanevski, M., Pozdnoukhov, A., Timonin, V., 2009. Machine Learning for Spatial Environmental Data. EPFL Press; Lausanne, Switzerland, p.392. - Leuenberger, M., Kanevski, M., 2015. Extreme Learning Machines for spatial environmental data. Computers and Geosciences 85, 64-73.

  13. Classification of patients with sepsis according to blood genomic endotype: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scicluna, Brendon P; van Vught, Lonneke A; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Wiewel, Maryse A; Davenport, Emma E; Burnham, Katie L; Nürnberg, Peter; Schultz, Marcus J; Horn, Janneke; Cremer, Olaf L; Bonten, Marc J; Hinds, Charles J; Wong, Hector R; Knight, Julian C; van der Poll, Tom

    2017-10-01

    significantly improved risk prediction to 0·33 (0·09-0·58; p=0·008). A 140-gene expression signature reliably stratified patients with sepsis to the four endotypes in both the first and second validation cohorts. Only Mars1 was consistently significantly associated with 28-day mortality across the cohorts. To facilitate possible clinical use, a biomarker was derived for each endotype; BPGM and TAP2 reliably identified patients with a Mars1 endotype. This study provides a method for the molecular classification of patients with sepsis to four different endotypes upon ICU admission. Detection of sepsis endotypes might assist in providing personalised patient management and in selection for trials. Center for Translational Molecular Medicine, Netherlands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating and operationalizing an environmental auditing program: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Laura; Bruce, Natalie; Suh, Kathryn N; Roth, Virginia

    2014-07-01

    Environmental auditing is an important tool to ensure consistent and effective cleaning. Our pilot study compared an alcohol-based fluorescent marking product and an adenosine-5'-triphosphate bioluminescence product for use in an environmental auditing program to determine which product was more practical and acceptable to users. Both products were tested on 15 preselected high touch objects in randomly selected patient rooms, following regular daily cleaning. A room was considered a "pass" if ≥80% of surfaces were adequately cleaned as defined by manufacturers' guidelines. A qualitative survey assessed user preference and operational considerations. Using fluorescent marking, 9 of 37 patient rooms evaluated (24%) were considered a "pass" after daily cleaning. Using adenosine-5'-triphosphate bioluminescence, 21 of 37 patient rooms passed (57%). There was great variability in results between different high touch objects. Eighty percent of users preferred the alcohol-based fluorescent marking product because it provided an effective visual aid to coach staff on proper cleaning techniques and allowed simple and consistent application. Environmental auditing using translucent, alcohol-based fluorescent marking best met the requirements of our organization. Our results reinforce the importance of involving a multidisciplinary team in evaluating and operationalizing an environmental auditing program. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Economic and environmental packaging sustainability: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván González Boubeta

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyze the suitability of the packaging strategy of an important Spanish agro-food company, regarding to economic and environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Three different types of packaging are analyzed to obtain a diagnostic of the initial situation. In this process, cost and carbon footprint are calculated in order to measure the economic and environmental impacts, respectively. Then, a new packaging allocation logic is proposed with the aim of improving both aspects. Findings: The results show that the carbon footprint is strongly and positively affected by the cost reduction, showing the viability of a win-win relationship between both aspects. Research limitations/implications: The strength of this win-win relationship may be conditioned by the input values considered in this case study. Conversion factors used to calculate carbon footprint vary a lot among researchers, showing the need of standardization in this topic. Practical implications: Since the existence of a positive relationship between economic and environmental sustainability has been demonstrated, organizations should find this kind of situations in themselves to satisfy their own stakeholders. Originality/value: This article shows the potential of unite waste elimination with eco-friendly activities with the aim of increasing the competitiveness of companies. This paper also contributes to the knowledge of economic and environmental sustainability and reinforces theoretical aspects, paving the way for further research on these topics.

  16. Feasibility study on a portable field pest classification system design based on DSP and 3G wireless communication technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruizhen; He, Yong; Liu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study on a real-time in field pest classification system design based on Blackfin DSP and 3G wireless communication technology. This prototype system is composed of remote on-line classification platform (ROCP), which uses a digital signal processor (DSP) as a core CPU, and a host control platform (HCP). The ROCP is in charge of acquiring the pest image, extracting image features and detecting the class of pest using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifier. It sends the image data, which is encoded using JPEG 2000 in DSP, to the HCP through the 3G network at the same time for further identification. The image transmission and communication are accomplished using 3G technology. Our system transmits the data via a commercial base station. The system can work properly based on the effective coverage of base stations, no matter the distance from the ROCP to the HCP. In the HCP, the image data is decoded and the pest image displayed in real-time for further identification. Authentication and performance tests of the prototype system were conducted. The authentication test showed that the image data were transmitted correctly. Based on the performance test results on six classes of pests, the average accuracy is 82%. Considering the different live pests' pose and different field lighting conditions, the result is satisfactory. The proposed technique is well suited for implementation in field pest classification on-line for precision agriculture.

  17. Feasibility Study on a Portable Field Pest Classification System Design Based on DSP and 3G Wireless Communication Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a feasibility study on a real-time in field pest classification system design based on Blackfin DSP and 3G wireless communication technology. This prototype system is composed of remote on-line classification platform (ROCP, which uses a digital signal processor (DSP as a core CPU, and a host control platform (HCP. The ROCP is in charge of acquiring the pest image, extracting image features and detecting the class of pest using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN classifier. It sends the image data, which is encoded using JPEG 2000 in DSP, to the HCP through the 3G network at the same time for further identification. The image transmission and communication are accomplished using 3G technology. Our system transmits the data via a commercial base station. The system can work properly based on the effective coverage of base stations, no matter the distance from the ROCP to the HCP. In the HCP, the image data is decoded and the pest image displayed in real-time for further identification. Authentication and performance tests of the prototype system were conducted. The authentication test showed that the image data were transmitted correctly. Based on the performance test results on six classes of pests, the average accuracy is 82%. Considering the different live pests’ pose and different field lighting conditions, the result is satisfactory. The proposed technique is well suited for implementation in field pest classification on-line for precision agriculture.

  18. New casemix classification as an alternative method for budget allocation in thai oral healthcare service: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisaijohn, Thunthita; Pimkhaokham, Atiphan; Lapying, Phenkhae; Itthichaisri, Chumpot; Pannarunothai, Supasit; Igarashi, Isao; Kawabuchi, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new casemix classification system as an alternative method for the budget allocation of oral healthcare service (OHCS). Initially, the International Statistical of Diseases and Related Health Problem, 10th revision, Thai Modification (ICD-10-TM) related to OHCS was used for developing the software "Grouper". This model was designed to allow the translation of dental procedures into eight-digit codes. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the factors used for developing the model and the resource consumption. Furthermore, the coefficient of variance, reduction in variance, and relative weight (RW) were applied to test the validity. The results demonstrated that 1,624 OHCS classifications, according to the diagnoses and the procedures performed, showed high homogeneity within groups and heterogeneity between groups. Moreover, the RW of the OHCS could be used to predict and control the production costs. In conclusion, this new OHCS casemix classification has a potential use in a global decision making.

  19. New Casemix Classification as an Alternative Method for Budget Allocation in Thai Oral Healthcare Service: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thunthita Wisaijohn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a new casemix classification system as an alternative method for the budget allocation of oral healthcare service (OHCS. Initially, the International Statistical of Diseases and Related Health Problem, 10th revision, Thai Modification (ICD-10-TM related to OHCS was used for developing the software “Grouper”. This model was designed to allow the translation of dental procedures into eight-digit codes. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the factors used for developing the model and the resource consumption. Furthermore, the coefficient of variance, reduction in variance, and relative weight (RW were applied to test the validity. The results demonstrated that 1,624 OHCS classifications, according to the diagnoses and the procedures performed, showed high homogeneity within groups and heterogeneity between groups. Moreover, the RW of the OHCS could be used to predict and control the production costs. In conclusion, this new OHCS casemix classification has a potential use in a global decision making.

  20. Instrumental neutron activation analysis in environmental studies of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, L.

    1975-06-01

    The application of a routine instrumental nuclear method is described in relation to environmental surveys and studies. A working rather than formal review is made of the techniques applied with particular reference to the data processing methods involved. The elements measured by instrumental activation analysis were: Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, In, La, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Zn. (author)

  1. Measurement of environmental tritium for isotope hydrology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The Section of Isotope Hydrology of the IAEA Division of Research and Laboratories gains valuable hydrological information from studies of the concentration of environmental tritium in precipitation, surface and groundwater samples from various sites around the world. This photo story shows the steps in the measurement of these very low levels of tritium in water as performed in the Isotope Hydrology Laboratory of the Agency. (author)

  2. Environmental accounts and trade - a Swedish pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadeskog, A.

    2001-01-01

    Environmental accounts are supposed to register environmental impacts of economic activities performed by residents on a national basis. However, the international division of labour is not explicitly addressed. A small, open, economy like Sweden use resources, and thereby cause emissions, in other countries due to what is imported for intermediate or final use. On the other hand, the things we export to other countries cause emissions in Sweden. This means that there is an environmental balance of trade that is not explicitly addressed in the accounts. There are however possibilities to estimate these effects. Through input-output analysis it is possible to analyse the value added chain of the different goods and service that make up the final demand, i.e. a form of cradle-to-grave analysis. Environmental trade can be estimated in several ways. One method is to assume that emissions follow the pattern of the trade balance and equal out over time, i.e. ignore the problem. Another method is to calculate the effect of differences in volume and composition in exports and imports. In most cases this is done using the domestic input-output tables and emission coefficients, i.e. assuming that all trading partners have identical resource use, technology and economic structure. A pilot study of the environmental trade balance for Sweden, using different aggregated emissions data for our trading partners and the Swedish input-output table, show that the results calculated with these methods will underestimate external emissions considerably for carbon dioxides and sulphur dioxides. However, for nitrogen oxides emission these methods seem to suffice

  3. Prognostic classifications of lymph node involvement in lung cancer and current International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer descriptive classification in zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquet, Marc; Arame, Alex; Foucault, Christophe; Le Pimpec Barthes, Françoise

    2010-09-01

    The lymphatic drainage of solid organ tumors crosses through the lymph nodes (LNs) whose tumoral involvement may still be considered as local disease. Concerning lung cancer, LN involvement may be intrapulmonary (N1), and mediastinal and/or extra-thoracic. More than 30 years ago, mediastinal involved LNs were all considered as N2, and outside the scope of surgery. In 1978, Naruke presented an original article entitled 'Lymph node mapping and curability at various levels of metastasis in resected lung cancer', demonstrating that N2 was not a contraindication to surgery in all patients. The map permitted to localize the favorable N2 on the lung cancer ipsilateral side of the mediastinum. Several maps ensued aiming to discriminate between right and left involvement (1983), and to distinguish N2 (ipsilateral) and N3 (contralateral) mediastinal LN involvement (1983, 1986). The last map (1997 regional LN classification) was recently replaced by a descriptive classification in anatomical zones. This new LN map of the TNM classification for lung cancer is a step toward using anatomical view points which might be the best way to better understand lung cancer lymphatic spread. Nowadays, the LNs are easily identified by current radiological imaging, and their resectability may be anticipated. Each LN chain may be removed by en-bloc lymphadenectomy performed during radical lung resection, a safe procedure which seems to be more oncological based than sampling, and which avoids the source of discrepancies pointed out during the labeling of LN stations by surgeons.

  4. Environmental quality of transitional waters: the lagoon of Venice case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletti, C; Gottardo, S; Critto, A; Chiarato, S; Marcomini, A

    2011-01-01

    The health status of European aquatic environments, including transitional waters such as coastal lagoons, is regulated by the Water Framework Directive (WFD), which requires the classification of the water bodies' environmental quality and the achievement of a good ecological status by 2015. In the Venice lagoon, a transitional water body located in the northeastern part of Italy, the achievement of a good ecological status is hampered by several anthropogenic and natural pressures, such as sediment and water chemical contamination, and sediment erosion. In order to evaluate the lagoon's environmental quality according to the WFD (i.e. 5 quality classes, from High to Bad), an integrated Weight-of-Evidence methodology was developed and applied to classify the quality of the lagoon water bodies, integrating biological, physico-chemical, chemical, ecotoxicological, and hydromorphological data (i.e. Lines of Evidence, LOE). The quality assessment was carried out in two lagoon habitat typologies (previously defined on the basis of morphological, sediment, and hydrodynamic characteristics) which were selected taking into account the ecological gradient from sea to land, and the differences in anthropogenic pressure and contamination levels. The LOE classification was carried out by using indicators scored by comparing site specific conditions to reference conditions measured in lagoon reference sites, or provided by local, national or European regulations (e.g. Environmental Quality Standards, EQS, for chemicals). Finally, the overall quality status for each water body was calculated by a probabilistic approach, i.e. by reporting the final result as the frequency distribution of quality classes. The developed procedure was applied by using data and information concerning selected LOE and collected from monitoring programs and research studies carried out in the last 15 years in the lagoon of Venice. A set of sampling stations characterized by spatially and temporally

  5. Support vector machine for breast cancer classification using diffusion-weighted MRI histogram features: Preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidić, Igor; Egnell, Liv; Jerome, Neil P; Teruel, Jose R; Sjøbakk, Torill E; Østlie, Agnes; Fjøsne, Hans E; Bathen, Tone F; Goa, Pål Erik

    2018-05-01

    Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) is currently one of the fastest developing MRI-based techniques in oncology. Histogram properties from model fitting of DWI are useful features for differentiation of lesions, and classification can potentially be improved by machine learning. To evaluate classification of malignant and benign tumors and breast cancer subtypes using support vector machine (SVM). Prospective. Fifty-one patients with benign (n = 23) and malignant (n = 28) breast tumors (26 ER+, whereof six were HER2+). Patients were imaged with DW-MRI (3T) using twice refocused spin-echo echo-planar imaging with echo time / repetition time (TR/TE) = 9000/86 msec, 90 × 90 matrix size, 2 × 2 mm in-plane resolution, 2.5 mm slice thickness, and 13 b-values. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), relative enhanced diffusivity (RED), and the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters diffusivity (D), pseudo-diffusivity (D*), and perfusion fraction (f) were calculated. The histogram properties (median, mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis) were used as features in SVM (10-fold cross-validation) for differentiation of lesions and subtyping. Accuracies of the SVM classifications were calculated to find the combination of features with highest prediction accuracy. Mann-Whitney tests were performed for univariate comparisons. For benign versus malignant tumors, univariate analysis found 11 histogram properties to be significant differentiators. Using SVM, the highest accuracy (0.96) was achieved from a single feature (mean of RED), or from three feature combinations of IVIM or ADC. Combining features from all models gave perfect classification. No single feature predicted HER2 status of ER + tumors (univariate or SVM), although high accuracy (0.90) was achieved with SVM combining several features. Importantly, these features had to include higher-order statistics (kurtosis and skewness), indicating the importance to account for heterogeneity. Our

  6. Electric and hybrid vehicles environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in the passenger compartment of electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. Various methods of obtaining the desired temperature control for the battery pack is also studied. The functional requirements of ECS equipment is defined. Following categorization by methodology, technology availability and risk, all viable ECS concepts are evaluated. Each is assessed independently for benefits versus risk, as well as for its feasibility to short, intermediate and long term product development. Selection of the preferred concept is made against these requirements, as well as the study's major goal of providing safe, highly efficient and thermally confortable ECS equipment.

  7. Unsettling Environmental Management: Reflections from Two Environmental Studies Graduates in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ezra; Ang, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Environmental and sustainability programmes in higher education have gained traction over the last several decades. More-than-disciplinary epistemologies and innovative pedagogies promise transformational learning to grapple with contemporary environmental challenges. Environmental programmes thus have implicit messages of social change.…

  8. Optimizing Ship Classification in the Arctic Ocean: A Case Study of Multi-Disciplinary Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Rahmes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe a multi-disciplinary system model for determining decision making strategies based upon the ability to perform data mining and pattern discovery utilizing open source actionable information to prepare for specific events or situations from multiple information sources. We focus on combining detection theory with game theory for classifying ships in Arctic Ocean to verify ship reporting. More specifically, detection theory is used to determine probability of deciding if a ship or certain ship class is present or not. We use game theory to fuse information for optimal decision making on ship classification. Hierarchy game theory framework enables complex modeling of data in probabilistic modeling. However, applicability to big data is complicated by the difficulties of inference in complex probabilistic models, and by computational constraints. We provide a framework for fusing sensor inputs to help compare if the information of a ship matches its AIS reporting requirements using mixed probabilities from game theory. Our method can be further applied to optimizing other choke point scenarios where a decision is needed for classification of ground assets or signals. We model impact on decision making on accuracy by adding more parameters or sensors to the decision making process as sensitivity analysis.

  9. Supervised Classification Processes for the Characterization of Heritage Elements, Case Study: Cuenca-Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, J. C.; Heras, V.; Abril, C.; Sinchi, E.

    2017-08-01

    The proper control of built heritage entails many challenges related to the complexity of heritage elements and the extent of the area to be managed, for which the available resources must be efficiently used. In this scenario, the preventive conservation approach, based on the concept that prevent is better than cure, emerges as a strategy to avoid the progressive and imminent loss of monuments and heritage sites. Regular monitoring appears as a key tool to identify timely changes in heritage assets. This research demonstrates that the supervised learning model (Support Vector Machines - SVM) is an ideal tool that supports the monitoring process detecting visible elements in aerial images such as roofs structures, vegetation and pavements. The linear, gaussian and polynomial kernel functions were tested; the lineal function provided better results over the other functions. It is important to mention that due to the high level of segmentation generated by the classification procedure, it was necessary to apply a generalization process through opening a mathematical morphological operation, which simplified the over classification for the monitored elements.

  10. Vegetation classification and quatification by satellite image processing. A case study in north Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranha, J.T. [Dept. Florestal, UTAD, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Viana, H.F. [Instituto Politecnico de Viseu, Escola Superior Agraria, Viseu (Portugal); Rodrigues, R. [Bioflag - Consulting - Santo Tirso (Portugal)

    2008-07-01

    The expected increase in Forest Biomass demand for energy production leads to derive expeditious and non-expensive techniques in order to classify vegetal land cover and evaluate the available biomass like to be harvested. Satellite image processing and classification, combined to field work, is a suitable tool to achieve these aims. A vegetation index (NDVI) was created by means of a Landsat TM image, from 2006, manipulation, in order to create a general vegetation map. Then, the same image was submitted to a supervised classification process in order to produce a land cover map (overall accuracy of 85%). In a second stage, they were collected NDVI values for each sampling plot, in order to update the database previous developed with data collected within forestry stands and shrubland. This data merging enabled to transform general vegetation map into available biomass within forestry stands and shrubland. The results showed a range of values from 0.25 up to 6.00 dry ton./ha for recent and former burnt areas recovered by Pinus pinaster (maritime pine) young trees and from 2.00 up to 9.00 dry ton./ha for recent and former burnt areas recovered by shrubs (e.g. genista or broom).

  11. [A magnetoencephalographic study of generalised developmental disorders. A new proposal for their classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Yunta, J A; Palau Baduell, M; Salvado Salvado, B; Amo, C; Fernandez Lucas, A; Maestu, F; Ortiz, T

    2004-02-01

    Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) is a term that is not included in DSM IV or in ICD 10, which are the diagnostic tools most commonly used by clinical professionals but can offer problems in research when it comes to finding homogenous groups. From a neuropaediatric point of view, there is a need for a classification of the generalised disorders affecting development and for this purpose we used Wing's triad, which defines the continuum of the autistic spectrum, and the information provided by magnetoencephalography (MEG) as grouping elements. Specific generalised developmental disorders were taken as being those syndromes that partially expressed some autistic trait, but with their own personality so that they could be considered to be a specific disorder. ASD were classified as being primary, cryptogenic or secondary. The primary disorders, in turn, express a continuum that ranges from Savant syndrome to Asperger's syndrome and the different degrees of early infantile autism. MEG is a functional neuroimaging technique that has enabled us to back up this classification.

  12. Optimizing Neuropsychological Assessments for Cognitive, Behavioral, and Functional Impairment Classification: A Machine Learning Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronilla Battista

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD show loss of cognitive functions and change in behavioral and functional state affecting the quality of their daily life and that of their families and caregivers. A neuropsychological assessment plays a crucial role in detecting such changes from normal conditions. However, despite the existence of clinical measures that are used to classify and diagnose AD, a large amount of subjectivity continues to exist. Our aim was to assess the potential of machine learning in quantifying this process and optimizing or even reducing the amount of neuropsychological tests used to classify AD patients, also at an early stage of impairment. We investigated the role of twelve state-of-the-art neuropsychological tests in the automatic classification of subjects with none, mild, or severe impairment as measured by the clinical dementia rating (CDR. Data were obtained from the ADNI database. In the groups of measures used as features, we included measures of both cognitive domains and subdomains. Our findings show that some tests are more frequently best predictors for the automatic classification, namely, LM, ADAS-Cog, AVLT, and FAQ, with a major role of the ADAS-Cog measures of delayed and immediate memory and the FAQ measure of financial competency.

  13. A study on the development of a real-time intelligent system for ultrasonic flaw classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Hak Joon; Lee, Hyun; Lee, Seung Seok

    1998-01-01

    In spite of significant progress in research on ultrasonic pattern recognition it is not widely used in many practical field inspection in weldments. For the convenience of field application of this methodology, following four key issues have to be suitably addressed; 1) a software where the ultrasonic pattern recognition algorithm is efficiently implemented, 2) a real-time ultrasonic testing system which can capture the digitized ultrasonic flaw signal so the pattern recognition software can be applied in a real-time fashion, 3) database of ultrasonic flaw signals in weldments, which is served as a foundation of the ultrasonic pattern recognition algorithm, and finally, 4) ultrasonic features which should be invariant to operational variables of the ultrasonic test system. Presented here is the recent progress in the development of a real-time ultrasonic flaw classification by the novel combination of followings; an intelligent software for ultrasonic flaw classification in weldments, a computer-base real-time ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation system, database of ultrasonic flaw signals, and invariant ultrasonic features called 'normalized features.'

  14. Study on control method of the actuators accepting commands from different classifications in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lixue; Zhang Nan; Fan Jin; Li Liang

    2015-01-01

    The distributed control system has become the main control system for the nuclear power plant, consisting of 1E and non-1E parts. Because the safety actuators accept commands from different safety classifications, this is a difficulty of controlling those actuators in nuclear power plant. This article discusses about the control method for safety actuators accepting commands from different classifications. Firstly, one control method adopted in new nuclear power projects is introduced. Then based on this, an optimized method is raised. The new method mainly concludes two points than the adopted method: 1. The concept 'local control mode' is introduced into the signal priority logic modules, and the priority logic module turns into local mode for the non-1E control system once it accepts safety signal; 2. The 'remote control mode' is added into the module of the safety actuator in the non-1E control system, and this can make the non-1E control system abandon controlling the safety actuator when the relevant priority logic module accept the safety signal. Based on verifying the correctness of modified scheme, comparisons between the fore-and-aft schemes are provided to summary the merits of the optimized method. It is concluded that optimized scheme is better in the aspects of reliability, safety and economy. (authors)

  15. Environmental management and business profitability - a case study of NPCIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, P.M.; Singh, Jitendra

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) is responsible for the design, construction, commissioning and operation of nuclear power plants in India for electricity generation. NPCIL presently has fourteen units in commercial operation. Over the last few years, the performance of Indian nuclear power plants have registered a marked improvement. This has been achieved through sustained and systematic efforts to upgrade all aspects of the plant activities on one hand and on the other, development and implementation of latest tools, techniques and management systems to further enhance their effectiveness. In addition, development and implementation of International Standards on Environmental, Safety and Quality Management have been institutionalized for continual improvement. WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators) Peer Reviews are also being conducted. The present paper is an attempt to present a case study of Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited in view of the changing perceptions on environmental management and overall business plan. (author)

  16. Electricity generation and environmental externalities: Case studies, September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-28

    Electricity constitutes a critical input in sustaining the Nation`s economic growth and development and the well-being of its inhabitants. However, there are byproducts of electricity production that have an undesirable effect on the environment. Most of these are emissions introduced by the combustion of fossil fuels, which accounts for nearly 70 percent of the total electricity generated in the United States. The environmental impacts (or damages) caused by these emissions are labeled environmental ``externalities.`` Included in the generic term ``externality`` are benefits or costs resulting as an unintended byproduct of an economic activity that accrue to someone other than the parties involved in the activity. This report provides an overview of the economic foundation of externalities, the Federal and State regulatory approaches, and case studies of the impacts of the externality policies adopted by three States.

  17. Echo-waveform classification using model and model free techniques: Experimental study results from central western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desai, R.G.P.; Janakiraman, G.; Mahale, V.; Fernandes, W.A.; Rao, N.

    seafloor of India, but unable to provide a suitable means for seafloor classification. This paper also suggests a hybrid artificial neural network (ANN) architecture i.e. Learning Vector Quantisation (LVQ) for seafloor classification. An analysis...

  18. Using classification and NDVI differencing methods for monitoring sparse vegetation coverage: a case study of saltcedar in Nevada, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A change detection experiment for an invasive species, saltcedar, near Lovelock, Nevada, was conducted with multi-date Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) hyperspectral datasets. Classification and NDVI differencing change detection methods were tested, In the classification strategy, a p...

  19. A Cross-Cultural Study on Environmental Risk Perception and Educational Strategies: Implications for Environmental Education in China

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Hongxia; Fortner, Rosanne

    2010-01-01

    This cross-cultural study examined college students’ environmental risk perception and their preference in terms of risk communication and educational strategies in China and the U.S. The results indicated that the Chinese respondents were more concerned about environmental risk, and they perceived the environmental issues to be more harmful to health, to the environment, and to social economic development of the nation than did the American respondents. Both groups desired transpar...

  20. Strategies for baseline/environmental impact studies in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odu, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in order to assess the environmental impact of site activities and ecosystem change brought about by stress, basic baseline data are necessary to characterize the normal environment so that environmental quality control programs can be developed with a firm ecological base. The program and methodology adopted in our field surveys to assess the character, magnitude and extent of pollutant effects on soil, vegetation and water, as a basis for economic assessment of pollutant effects on agriculture, forestry and the aquatic system and for preparing environmental impact statements, are presented. These techniques were modified and adopted in the environmental impact study of the Isampou Manifold Oil Spill, a study which circumstances made necessary seven years after the oil spill. Reliance on the extent of pollution soon after the incidence was based on the determination of total hydrocarbons at creek bottoms as well as on the determinations of nickel/vanadium ratios. Hydrocarbon contents of creek banks and creek bottoms were within biogenic levels at the time of field sampling. Ni/V ratios were high in heavy impact areas and decreased in areas of medium and very light impact areas. Use of the Ni/V ratio as evidence of past oil pollution agreed closely with a sketch of the extent of crude oil pollution drawn by the Shell Petroleum Development Company seven years earlier. There were nor abnormal vegetation features. The presence of 10-15 years old Musanga cecropioides at the edge of the manifold slot and creeks indicated that vegetation above water level was not affected by the oil spillage. The physico-chemical properties of the waters, plankton composition and density of the species found, as well as the presence of endroproct bryozoan in the benthos showed that the aquatic system had by the time of sample collection, completely recovered from the oil spillage

  1. Wuskwatim generation project : Canadian Environmental Assessment Act comprehensive study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    This study report described the plan by Manitoba Hydro and the Nisichawayasihk Cree Nation (NCN) to construct a new 200- megawatt (MW) generating station at Taskinigup Falls on the Burntwood River, near the outlet of Wuskwatim Lake. This hydroelectric power project will allow Manitoba Hydro to meet its projected energy needs within the next two decades as identified in its 2002/03 Power Resource Plan. It will also allow Manitoba Hydro and NCN to obtain additional export revenues and profits by advancing the in-service date of the Project from 2020 to 2009. A formal environmental assessment is required under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) because Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) has determined that the Project would cause fish habitat losses requiring an authorization under the Fisheries Act. Many of the structures to be built in navigable waters would also require formal approval under the Navigable Waters Protection Act (NWPA), which has prompted this application of the CEAA. This environmental assessment report has been prepared by DFO in consultation with Transport Canada and other federal authorities concerned. It provides a summary of the Wuskwatim Generation Project and the environment in which it will be built and operated. In addition, the results of public consultations are discussed. It presents an assessment of the Project's influence on fish and fish habitat, birds, species at risk, human health (local air quality, quality of drinking water and consumption of fishery products), navigation, use of renewable resources, and current use of lands and resources for traditional purposes by Aboriginal persons (hunting, trapping, gathering, subsistence fishing and heritage sites). It was concluded that the proposed Project, as defined by the scope of the study, is not likely to cause significant adverse environmental effects. 45 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs., 3 appendices

  2. A study on the establishment of the regulatory guide to the characteristics and classification criteria of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon Jae; Paek, Min Hoon; Park, Jong Gil; Han, Byeong Seop; Cheong, Jae Hak; Lee, Hae Chan; Yang, Jin Yeong; Hong, Hei Kwan; Park, Jin Baek [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-15

    The objectives of this study are the development of regulatory guidance to the establishment of the necessary technology standard of the characteristics and classification criteria of low and intermediate level radioactive waste for the safe operation of the waste repositories. In followings, the contents of our report will be presented in two parts. Survey of the characteristics of radioactive waste : investigate and analyze the source, types and characteristics of domestic radioactive waste as a basis for this study, radiochemical analysis of radioactive waste based on foreign and domestic data base, determination of the methodology for the application of the characteristic analysis of waste classification technology. Establishment of the classification criteria of the radioactive waste : collection and analysis of foreign and domestic data base on the classification methodology and criteria, development of low and intermediate level waste classification criteria and the set up of the classification methodology through the analysis of waste data, establishment of the systematic classification methodology of the low and intermediate radioactive waste through the careful survey of the current domestic regulation.

  3. Ethics in studies on children and environmental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlo, D F; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Matusiewicz, K

    2007-01-01

    Children, because of age-related reasons, are a vulnerable population, and protecting their health is a social, scientific and emotional priority. The increased susceptibility of children and fetuses to environmental (including genotoxic) agents has been widely discussed by the scientific community...... and his/her family at the time of the study and later in life, if data and samples are used for follow-up studies. When children are enrolled, we recommend a consent dyad, including (1) parental (or legal guardian) informed consent and (2) the child's assent and/or informed consent from older minors...

  4. Study of the environmental radiation in Zacatecas City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirino, L.L.; Mireles, F.; Davila, J.I.; Rios, C.; Lugo, J.F.; Pinedo, J.L.; Lopez, H.; Garcia, M.L.; Soriano, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    A study of detection of environmental radiation in the inner of an office is presented and a comparison of the results is made when the facilities are closed or aired. The used method is based on radiation detection by means of Geiger-Mueller RM 60 and RM 70 detectors with the aid of a personal computer which provides a detection method of radiation in real time. The used method in this study is suggested to detect the variation of radiation in closed or aired environments and as a surveillance system of radiation levels. The obtained results are discussed and they are compared with those obtained in another places. (Author)

  5. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  6. Classification of the eastern alpine vegetation of Lesotho | Morris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five vegetation communities in the alpine catchment of Lesotho were identified by hierarchical classification of the botanical composition data. Discriminant analysis indicated that these communities occupy particular topographic positions. The community-environmental relationships identified in this study were similar to ...

  7. The Ecohydrological Context of Drought and Classification of Plant Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X.; Ackerly, D.; Dawson, T. E.; Manzoni, S.; Skelton, R. P.; Vico, G.; Thompson, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    Many recent studies on drought-induced vegetation mortality have explored how plant functional traits, and classifications of such traits along axes of, e.g., isohydry - anisohydry, might contribute to predicting drought survival and recovery. As these studies proliferate, concerns are growing about the consistency and predictive value of such classifications. Here, we outline the basis for a systematic classification of drought strategies that accounts for both environmental conditions and functional traits. We (1) identify drawbacks of exiting isohydricity and trait-based metrics, (2) identify major axes of trait and environmental variation that determine drought mortality pathways (hydraulic failure and carbon starvation) using non-dimensional trait groups, and (3) demonstrate that these trait groupings predict physiological drought outcomes using both measured and synthetic data. In doing so we untangle some confounding effects of environment and trait variations that undermine current classification schemes, outline a pathway to progress towards a general classification of drought vulnerability, and advocate for more careful treatment of the environmental conditions within which plant drought responses occur.

  8. A Study Regarding the Generalization Capacity of ‎Image Classification by Using Neuroal Networks In ‎Matlab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Madhi Al Rubaie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper performs an algorithmic and experimental study regarding the generalization capacity of the scheme based on neuronal networks for the recognition of new images of the face. This enables both a rendering of graphic representations and the classification of image classes in Matlab. The purpose is to describe the recognition algorithm, to project and implement an application which proposes both the graphic representation of the images used by the neuronal training algorithm but also the implementation of the perceptron neuronal algorithm and the determination of the generalization capacity of the separating hyper plane of the considered image classes

  9. Child-Pugh classification dependent alterations in serum leptin levels among cirrhotic patients: a case controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyrek Fadile

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As anorexia and hypermetabolism are common in cirrhosis, leptin levels may be increased in this disease. In this study, we investigated the relation between the severity of disease and serum leptin levels in post-hepatitis cirrhosis and the role of body composition, gender and viral aetiology of cirrhosis in this association. Methods Thirty-five cases with post-hepatitis cirrhosis and 15 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Body composition including body mass index, body fat percentage and body fat mass were determined. Serum leptin levels were assayed. Results Leptin levels were significantly higher among cirrhotic patients independent of sex compared to controls (p = 0.001. Female patients in both groups have had higher leptin levels than males (in cirrhotics p = 0.029, in controls p = 0.02. Cirrhotic patients in each of A, B and C subgroups according to the Child- Pugh classification revealed significantly different levels compared to controls (p = 0.046, p = 0.004, p = 0.0001, respectively. Male cirrhotics in Child-Pugh Class B and C subgroups had significantly higher leptin levels compared to male controls (p = 0.006, p = 0.008. On the other hand, female patients only in Child Pugh class C subgroup have had higher levels of serum leptin compared to controls (p = 0.022. Child-Pugh classification has been found to be the sole discriminator in determination of leptin levels in cirrhotics by linear regression (beta: 0.435 p = 0.015. Conclusion Serum leptin levels increase in advanced liver disease independently of gender, body composition in posthepatitic cirrhosis. The increase is more abundant among patients that belong to C subgroup according to the Child- Pugh classification.

  10. Predicted singers' vocal fold lengths and voice classification-a study of x-ray morphological measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roers, Friederike; Mürbe, Dirk; Sundberg, Johan

    2009-07-01

    Students admitted to the solo singing education at the University of Music Dresden, Germany have been submitted to a detailed physical examination of a variety of factors with relevance to voice function since 1959. In the years 1959-1991, this scheme of examinations included X-ray profiles of the singers' vocal tracts. This material of 132 X-rays of voice professionals was used to investigate different laryngeal morphological measures and their relation to vocal fold length. Further, the study aimed to investigate if there are consistent anatomical differences between singers of different voice classifications. The study design used was a retrospective analysis. Vocal fold length could be measured in 29 of these singer subjects directly. These data showed a strong correlation with the anterior-posterior diameter of the subglottis and the trachea as well as with the distance from the anterior contour of the thyroid cartilage to the anterior contour of the spine. These relations were used in an attempt to predict the 132 singers' vocal fold lengths. The results revealed a clear covariation between predicted vocal fold length and voice classification. Anterior-posterior subglottic-tracheal diameter yielded mean vocal fold lengths of 14.9, 16.0, 16.6, 18.4, 19.5, and 20.9mm for sopranos, mezzo-sopranos, altos, tenors, baritones, and basses, respectively. The data support the assumption that there are consistent anatomical laryngeal differences between singers of different voice classifications, which are of relevance to pitch range and timbre of the voice.

  11. The Materials Used and the Pupils Involved in Environmental Studies and Environmental Science at GCE 'O' and 'A' Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayford, Christopher

    1984-01-01

    Discusses types of students and materials and resources used in O- and A-level environmental studies and environmental science courses. Indicates that these subjects are very susceptable to the attitudes of teachers (as shown by their willingness to produce satisfactory materials) and by the motivation of students. (JN)

  12. Study supporting the phasing out of environmentally harmful subsidies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withana, S.; Ten Brink, P.; Franckx, L.; Hirschnitz-Garbers, M.; Mayeres, I.; Oosterhuis, F.; Porsch, L.

    2012-10-15

    The need to reform ineffective or harmful public subsidies has long been recognised and has been a contentious point of discussion for several years. The EU has a long-standing commitment to removing or phasing out environmentally harmful subsidies (EHS). Most recently, the need to phase out EHS is reiterated in the 'Roadmap for a resource efficient Europe' which includes a milestone that 'by 2020 EHS will be phased out, with due regard to the impact on people in need'. Despite several commitments, progress has been slow and subsidies remain an issue in most EU countries. This study focuses specifically on EHS at the level of EU Member States; it identifies key types of EHS and examines cases of existing EHS across a range of environmental sectors and issues, including subsidies from non-action. The study also analyses examples of good practices in the reform of EHS in EU Member States and the lessons that can be learnt from these cases. Finally, based on this analysis, it develops practical recommendations on phasing out and reforming EHS to support the objectives of the Europe 2020 Strategy and the resource efficiency agenda. The study was carried out between January and October 2012 and is based on an analysis of literature and consultation with experts and policy makers. The sectoral cases studied are listed and discussed in the annexes report: agriculture, climate and energy, fisheries, food, forestry, materials, transport, waste, and water.

  13. Speciation of trace elements in the environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.

    2012-01-01

    Elements present at trace levels, often referred as trace elements, play an important role in the environment and in the functioning of life on our planet. Trace elements in environment present as free metal ions or incorporated into colloids or attached to particulate matter or exist in different physical and chemical forms. It is well established that some elements are highly toxic and some are essential, but can become toxic at higher doses. It is also now known that the forms of elements (speciation) and their amounts are more important than the chemical dose of the elements as their interaction depends on different species. For example, Cr(VI) ions are considered far more toxic than Cr(III), whereas As(III) is more toxic than As(V). Similarly, in the case of mercury, both methylmercury and inorganic mercury are toxic but they show different levels of toxicity. Thus the adverse effects depend on the nature of species of the elements and therefore speciation studies are of paramount importance in many areas like toxicology, environmental chemistry and geochemisty. In view of this, speciation studies is a challenge to analytical chemists as the measurement methodologies have to be carefully developed, validated and applied. The grand challenge is to obtain quality data ensuring traceability, as the data obtained will be used in modeling for predicting the environmental impacts. In this talk importance of speciation and challenges to environmental analytical chemists will be discussed along with the following three speciation studies on Cr, U and Hg which were carried out in our laboratories

  14. Environmental and personal factors that support early return-to-work: a qualitative study using the ICF as a framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefsmit, Nicole; Houkes, Inge; Nijhuis, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Occupational health professionals such as occupational physicians (OPs) increasingly understand that in addition to health improvement, environmental factors (such as work adaptations) and personal factors (such as an employee's attitude towards return-to-work (RTW)) may stimulate employees on sick leave to return to work early. To target their professional interventions more specifically according to these factors, occupational health professionals need further insight into environmental and personal factors that stimulate RTW. The objectives of this study are (1) to identify which and how environmental and personal factors support RTW, and (2) to examine whether the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) can be used to describe these factors. We performed interviews with 14 employees, 15 employers and 4 OPs from multiple organisations with varying organisational sizes and types of industry such as healthcare and education. We used a qualitative data analysis partially based on the Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven. The following environmental factors were found to support early RTW: 'social support from relatives', 'belief that work stimulates health', 'adequate cooperation between stakeholders in RTW' (e.g., employees, employers and OPs) and 'the employers' communicative skills'. One personal factor stimulated RTW: 'positive perception of the working situation' (e.g. enjoyment of work). Most factors stimulated RTW directly. In addition, adequate treatment and social support stimulated medical recovery. Environmental factors can either fully (social support, belief that RTW stimulates health), partially (effective cooperation), or not (employers' communicative skills) be described using ICF codes. The personal factor could not be classified because the ICF does not contain codes for personal factors. RTW interventions should aim at the environmental and personal factors mentioned above. Professionals can use the ICF to

  15. Study of groundwater salinization in Chaj Doab using environmental isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.D.; Sajjid, M.I.; Akram, W.; Ahmad, M.; Rafiq, M.

    1991-09-01

    Environmental isotopes and chemical composition of water have been used to study the origin of groundwater salinity in Chaj Doab. Three important possible processes of salinization i.e. enrichment of salt content of water by evaopration, mixing with connate marine water and dissolution of salts from soil sediments have been investigated. No evidence for mixing with connate maine water could be found. The process of evaporation too does not seem to apply any significant role in salinization of groundwater. The dissolution of salts from soil sediments appears as dominant mechanism for increasing the salt content of water in this area. (author)

  16. Electric and hybrid vehicle environmental control subsystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    An environmental control subsystem (ECS) in electric and hybrid vehicles is studied. A combination of a combustion heater and gasoline engine (Otto cycle) driven vapor compression air conditioner is selected. The combustion heater, the small gasoline engine, and the vapor compression air conditioner are commercially available. These technologies have good cost and performance characteristics. The cost for this ECS is relatively close to the cost of current ECS's. Its effect on the vehicle's propulsion battery is minimal and the ECS size and weight do not have significant impact on the vehicle's range.

  17. Study of the space environmental effects on spacecraft engineering materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1995-01-01

    The space environment in which the Space Station Freedom and other space platforms will orbit is truly a hostile environment. For example, the current estimates of the integral fluence for electrons above 1 Mev at 2000 nautical miles is above 2 x 10(exp 10) electrons/sq cm/day. and the proton integral fluence is above 1 x 109 protons/sq cm/day. At the 200 - 400 nautical miles, which is more representative of the altitude which will provide the environment for the Space Station, each of these fluences will be proportionately less; however, the data indicates that the radiation environment will obviously have an effect on structural materials exposed to the environment for long durations. The effects of this combined environment is the issue which needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are worth performing in order to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. For example the effect of protons and electrons impacting structural materials are easily simulated through experiments using the Van de Graff and Pelletron accelerators currently housed in the Environmental Effects Facility at MSFC. Proton fluxes with energies of 700 Kev-2.5 Mev can be generated and used to impinge on sample targets to determine the effects of the particles. Also the Environmental Effects Facility has the capability to generate electron beams with energies from 700 Kev to 2.5 Mev. These facilities will be used in this research to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Ultraviolet radiation, particularly in the ultraviolet (less than 400 nm wavelength) is less well characterized at this time. The Environmental Effects Facility has a vacuum system dedicated to studying the effects of ultraviolet radiation on specific surface materials. This particular system was assembled in a previous study (NAS8-38609) in order to

  18. Studies of the environmental impact of evaporative cooling tower plumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    This ongoing research program of the environmental impact of natural-draft evaporative cooling tower plumes consists principally of a comprehensive series of airborne measurements of a variety of the physical characteristics of the plumes and, to a lesser extent, of preliminary studies of remote sodar plume probing techniques and the development of simplified dynamical numerical models suitable for use in conducting field measurement programs. The PSU Doppler sodar was used at the Keystone Power Plant in southwestern Pennsylvania for an extended series of remote measurements of the characteristics of plume turbulent temperature and velocity fluctuations and results are discussed

  19. Microelectrodes as novel research tools for environmental biofilm studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, T.; Lu, R.; Bishop, L.

    2002-01-01

    Biofilm processes are widely utilized in environmental engineering for biodegradation of contaminated waters, gases and soils. It is important to understand the structure and functions of biofilms. Microelectrodes are novel experimental tools for environmental biofilm studies. The authors reviewed the techniques of oxygen, sulfide, redox potential and pH microelectrode. These microelectrodes have tip diameters of 3 to 20 μm, resulting a high spatial resolution. They enable us directly measure the chemical conditions as results of microbial activities in biofilms. The authors also reported the laboratory and field studies of wastewater biofilms using microelectrode techniques. The results of these studies provided experimental evidence on the stratification of microbial processes and the associated redox potential change in wastewater biofilms: (1) The oxygen penetration depth was only a fraction of the biofilm thickness. This observation, first made under laboratory conditions, has been confirmed under field conditions. (2) The biofilms with both aerobic oxidation and sulfate reduction had a clearly stratified structure. This was evidenced by a sharp decrease of redox potential near the interface between the aerobic zone and the sulfate reduction zone within the biofilm. In this type of biofilms, aerobic oxidation took place only in a shallow layer near the biofilm surface and sulfate reduction occurred in the deeper anoxic zone. (3) The redox potential changed with the shift of primary microbial process in biofilms, indicating that it is possible to use redox potential to help illustrate the structure and functions of biofilms. (author)

  20. Classification of intertrochanteric fractures with computed tomography: a study of intraobserver and interobserver variability and prognostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Cary B; Herrera, Mauricio F; Binenbaum, Gil; Schweppe, Michael; Staron, Ronald B; Feldman, Frieda; Rosenwasser, Melvin P

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the level of interobserver and intraobserver agreement among orthopedic surgeons and radiologists when computed tomography (CT) scans are used with plain radiographs to evaluate intertrochanteric fractures. In addition, the prognostic value of current classifications systems concerning quality of life was evaluated. Sixty-one patients who presented with intertrochanteric fractures received open reduction and internal fixation with compression hip screw. Three orthopedic surgeons and 2 radiologists independently classified the fractures according to 2 systems: Evans-Jensen and AO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteo-synthesefragen). Fractures were initially graded with plain radiographs and then again in conjunction with CT. Results were analyzed using the (kappa) kappa coefficient. The 36-item Short-Form Health Survey was administered at baseline, 3 months, and 1 year, and results were correlated with fracture grade. Mean kappa coefficients when comparing radiography alone with radiography and CT scan were 0.63 for the AO system and 0.59 for the Evans-Jensen system. Both represent "fair" agreements. Mean overall interobserver kappa coefficients were 0.67 for radiologists and 0.57 for orthopedic surgeons. Radiologists also had higher intraobserver kappa coefficients. No significant relationships were found between follow-up Short Form Health Survey results and intraoperative grading of fractures. When these classification schemes are compared, interobserver agreement does not appear to change dramatically when information from CT scans is added. This may suggest that (1) more data have been provided by CT with greater possibilities for misinterpretation and (2) these classification schemes may not be comprehensive in describing fracture pattern and displacement. Finally, both systems failed to provide any prognostic value.

  1. Statistical Classification Of the Environmental Isotopes and the Hydrochemical data in the main Shallow Coastal Aquifer System in North West, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.A.; AL-Gamal, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis of hydrochemical data and environmental isotopes were used in differentiating ground waters of different types within the quaternary aquifer in the north western coast of Egypt. Three main groups of water types were differentiated, in close agreement with three isotopic water groups, based on field and laboratory studies. The first group includes the sodium bicarbonate water type of meteoric origin (cluster 1 in multivariate analysis and isotopic water group 1) whereas, the second group includes both sodium chloride and sodium sulphate waters.(cluster in multivariate analysis and isotopic group 2). The third group represents ground water of salt water intrusion whose water type is sodium chloride (cluster 111 and isotopic water groups 3) .The data show that salinity ranges from 385 mg/L representing very fresh water to 12260 mg/L representing water contaminated with marine water due to excessive pumping in some Localities.

  2. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  3. Trend of environmental radiation protection and its current related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Reviewed are the international trend of environmental radiation protection (ERP), Japanese studies of radiation effects on environmental livings from aspects of ecosystem to molecular level, and the future view. ERP is particularly closed up toward promotion after its first involvement in the general global conference, UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992). International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) has conducted such actions for the environment as establishing protection essentials for non-human species (2003), organizing Committee 5 (2005), and defining Reference Animals and Plants (2008) where Derived Consideration Reference Levels of 0.1-100 mGy/d are proposed, together with cooperative actions by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and European projects. Japanese NIRS is now enrolled in the project of Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety-II (IAEA). Major Japanese studies of radiation effects on environmental livings have utilized killifish (medaka: Oryzias latipes), springtail, earthworm, nematode, cultured plant cell (cedar), poplar, etc. Studies of the radiation effect on microcosm consisting of 3 livings have led to establishing a model for mathematical analysis and of 8 livings, have defined 50% affect dose of 5600 Gy gamma-ray. Irradiation of gamma-ray at 1 Gy/d for 5-10 days to the soil has been shown to result in alteration of the composition of natural earth bacterial population by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis, which being a promising tool for evaluating the alteration of soil composition and function. At molecular levels, transcriptome analysis of various cells from yeast to man, is performed after irradiation of gamma-ray, neutron, heavy particles and others to reveal radiation-induced gene expression; and Hi-CEP (high

  4. Indigenous environmental indicators for malaria: A district study in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macherera, Margaret; Chimbari, Moses J; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2017-11-01

    This paper discusses indigenous environmental indicators for the occurrence of malaria in ward 11, 15 and 18 of Gwanda district, Zimbabwe. The study was inspired by the successes of use of indigenous knowledge systems in community based early warning systems for natural disasters. To our knowledge, no study has examined the relationship between malaria epidemics and climatic factors in Gwanda district. The aim of the study was to determine the environmental indicators for the occurrence of malaria. Twenty eight key informants from the 3 wards were studied. Questionnaires, focus group discussions and PRA sessions were used to collect data. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. The local name for malaria was 'uqhuqho' literally meaning a fever. The disease is also called, "umkhuhlane wemiyane" and is derived from the association between malaria and mosquitoes. The findings of our study reveal that trends in malaria incidence are perceived to positively correlate with variations in both temperature and rainfall, although factors other than climate seem to play an important role too. Plant phenology and insects are the commonly used indicators in malaria prediction in the study villages. Other indicators for malaria prediction included the perceived noise emanating from mountains, referred to as "roaring of mountains" and certain behaviours exhibited by ostriches. The results of the present study highlight the importance of using climatic information in the analysis of malaria surveillance data, and this knowledge can be integrated into the conventional health system to develop a community based malaria forecasting system. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Study of the Environmental Risk Perceptions and Environmental Awareness Levels of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilan, Burcu

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive research was conducted to determine the levels of environmental risk perceptions and environmental awareness of high school students in Eskisehir. High school students in the towns Tepebasi and Odunpazari in the 2010-2011 school years constitute the universe of the research. The sample of the research is composed of 413 high…

  6. Environmental management system case study: textile wet processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasreldin, A A [Engineering Researches and Industrial Technologies Council, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2008-10-15

    Textile industry is one of the oldest industries, it started very early in the ancient ages, its grows and improves gradually at the first and then rapidly to satisfy other different need of the mankind, even for luxury purposes, this development caused damage to environment, then its need the treatment. Textile wet processes used significant quantities of water and various kind of chemicals marketed under the name textile auxiliaries, to enhance the appearance of the fabric, serviceability, and durability. The chemical contamination of textile wet processes can be a health risk for the mill workers, consumers and for the environment as well. A number of schemes have been proposed in different countries to control the textile wet processes to create better environment and protect the ecosystem from further degradation, the developing countries need to apply their designed policies from the beginning. A theoretical study for probability of application of environmental management system in textile industry, to prevent or eliminate textile industry pollution that considered as one of the largest polluters in Sudanese environment, especially after the government (industrial ministry) support and facilitate to textile industry development. Applying environmental management system can appreciably reduce the textile industry pollution as founded from the study.(Author)

  7. Environmental management system case study: textile wet processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreldin, A.A.

    2008-10-01

    Textile industry is one of the oldest industries, it started very early in the ancient ages, its grows and improves gradually at the first and then rapidly to satisfy other different need of the mankind, even for luxury purposes, this development caused damage to environment, then its need the treatment. Textile wet processes used significant quantities of water and various kind of chemicals marketed under the name textile auxiliaries, to enhance the appearance of the fabric, serviceability, and durability. The chemical contamination of textile wet processes can be a health risk for the mill workers, consumers and for the environment as well. A number of schemes have been proposed in different countries to control the textile wet processes to create better environment and protect the ecosystem from further degradation, the developing countries need to apply their designed policies from the beginning. A theoretical study for probability of application of environmental management system in textile industry, to prevent or eliminate textile industry pollution that considered as one of the largest polluters in Sudanese environment, especially after the government (industrial ministry) support and facilitate to textile industry development. Applying environmental management system can appreciably reduce the textile industry pollution as founded from the study.(Author)

  8. Modeling of environmentally significant interfaces: Two case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williford, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    When some parameters cannot be easily measured experimentally, mathematical models can often be used to deconvolute or interpret data collected on complex systems, such as those characteristic of many environmental problems. These models can help quantify the contributions of various physical or chemical phenomena that contribute to the overall behavior, thereby enabling the scientist to control and manipulate these phenomena, and thus to optimize the performance of the material or device. In the first case study presented here, a model is used to test the hypothesis that oxygen interactions with hydrogen on the catalyst particles of solid oxide fuel cell anodes can sometimes occur a finite distance away from the triple phase boundary (TPB), so that such reactions are not restricted to the TPB as normally assumed. The model may help explain a discrepancy between the observed structure of SOFCs and their performance. The second case study develops a simple physical model that allows engineers to design and control the sizes and shapes of mesopores in silica thin films. Such pore design can be useful for enhancing the selectivity and reactivity of environmental sensors and catalysts. This paper demonstrates the mutually beneficial interactions between experiment and modeling in the solution of a wide range of problems

  9. Environmental impact assessment system and process: A study on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient system of decision making for sustainable socioeconomic development, with an effective environmental management of the sources of environmental impact and effects of such impacts, need to be put in place in order to implement the government policy of environmental protection and safety at the regional ...

  10. Classification of prostate cancer grade using temporal ultrasound: in vivo feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavidel, Sahar; Imani, Farhad; Khallaghi, Siavash; Gibson, Eli; Khojaste, Amir; Gaed, Mena; Moussa, Madeleine; Gomez, Jose A.; Siemens, D. Robert; Leveridge, Michael; Chang, Silvia; Fenster, Aaron; Ward, Aaron D.; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Mousavi, Parvin

    2016-03-01

    Temporal ultrasound has been shown to have high classification accuracy in differentiating cancer from benign tissue. In this paper, we extend the temporal ultrasound method to classify lower grade Prostate Cancer (PCa) from all other grades. We use a group of nine patients with mostly lower grade PCa, where cancerous regions are also limited. A critical challenge is to train a classifier with limited aggressive cancerous tissue compared to low grade cancerous tissue. To resolve the problem of imbalanced data, we use Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique (SMOTE) to generate synthetic samples for the minority class. We calculate spectral features of temporal ultrasound data and perform feature selection using Random Forests. In leave-one-patient-out cross-validation strategy, an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.74 is achieved with overall sensitivity and specificity of 70%. Using an unsupervised learning approach prior to proposed method improves sensitivity and AUC to 80% and 0.79. This work represents promising results to classify lower and higher grade PCa with limited cancerous training samples, using temporal ultrasound.

  11. Application Of Nuclear Techniques In Environmental Studies And Pollution Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EI-Motaium, R A [Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Ceter, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas P.O. Box 13759, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    Environmental pollution has become a world wide concern. One of the main sources of such pollution is sewage wastewater and sludge. Their utilization without proper treatment can pollute the ecosystem (plant, soil, surface and ground water). Sewage wastewater and sludge contains several pollutants such as: pathogens, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals, high level of BOD and COD, seed weed. The reuse of sewage water and sludge in agriculture can lead to the transfer of some of these pollutants into the food chain causing health hazard. In addition, most of these contaminants are not biodegradable, becoming dangerous to plant and human health. Nuclear techniques has recently been used to control environmental pollution. Ionizing radiation provide a fast and reliable means of sewage water and sludge treatment than the conventional methods. Gamma radiation ( {sup 60}Co) and electron beam (accelerator) has been successfully used for alleviation of environmental pollution. Such alleviation includes: disinfection of harmful pathogens, degradation of toxic organic pollutants, destruction of seed weed and reduction of soluble heavy metals, odor and BOD and COD. The use of radioactive and stable isotopes are a useful tools to investigate the contribution of sludge nutrients to plant nutrition. Nitrogen, using {sup 15}N-ammonium sulfate, uptake and translocation by plant from soil amended with sewage sludge was studied under field condition. The contribution of sludge to phosphorus nutrition of plants was quantified using {sup 32}p as tracer. In both cases the principal of isotopic dilution technique was applied. The information generated from these experiments could help preserve the environment. It could help optimize the application rate of sludge to meet plant requirements while avoiding the accumulation of N and P in the soil or leaching to the aquifer. Isotope exchange kinetic technique is used to evaluate nutrients availability from sludge. Neutron moisture meter is

  12. Application Of Nuclear Techniques In Environmental Studies And Pollution Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Motaium, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental pollution has become a world wide concern. One of the main sources of such pollution is sewage wastewater and sludge. Their utilization without proper treatment can pollute the ecosystem (plant, soil, surface and ground water). Sewage wastewater and sludge contains several pollutants such as: pathogens, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals, high level of BOD and COD, seed weed. The reuse of sewage water and sludge in agriculture can lead to the transfer of some of these pollutants into the food chain causing health hazard. In addition, most of these contaminants are not biodegradable, becoming dangerous to plant and human health. Nuclear techniques has recently been used to control environmental pollution. Ionizing radiation provide a fast and reliable means of sewage water and sludge treatment than the conventional methods. Gamma radiation ( 60 Co) and electron beam (accelerator) has been successfully used for alleviation of environmental pollution. Such alleviation includes: disinfection of harmful pathogens, degradation of toxic organic pollutants, destruction of seed weed and reduction of soluble heavy metals, odor and BOD and COD. The use of radioactive and stable isotopes are a useful tools to investigate the contribution of sludge nutrients to plant nutrition. Nitrogen, using 15 N-ammonium sulfate, uptake and translocation by plant from soil amended with sewage sludge was studied under field condition. The contribution of sludge to phosphorus nutrition of plants was quantified using 32 p as tracer. In both cases the principal of isotopic dilution technique was applied. The information generated from these experiments could help preserve the environment. It could help optimize the application rate of sludge to meet plant requirements while avoiding the accumulation of N and P in the soil or leaching to the aquifer. Isotope exchange kinetic technique is used to evaluate nutrients availability from sludge. Neutron moisture meter is used to

  13. Study on the development of geological environmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Keiichi; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Ueta, Shinzo; Saito, Shigeyuki; Kawamura, Yuji; Tomiyama, Shingo; Ohashi, Toyo

    2002-03-01

    The safety performance assessment was carried out in potential geological environment in the conventional research and development of geological disposal, but the importance of safety assessment based on the repository design and scenario considering the concrete geological environment will increase in the future. The research considering the link of the major three fields of geological disposal, investigation of geological environment, repository design, and safety performance assessment, is the contemporary worldwide research theme. Hence it is important to organize information flow that contains the series of information process form the data production to analysis in the three fields, and to systemize the knowledge base that unifies the information flow hierarchically. The purpose of the research is to support the development of the unified analysis system for geological disposal. The development technology for geological environmental model studied for the second progress report by JNC are organized and examined for the purpose of developing database system with considering the suitability for the deep underground research facility. The geological environmental investigation technology and building methodology for geological structure and hydro geological structure models are organized and systemized. Furthermore, the quality assurance methods in building geological environment models are examined. Information which is used and stored in the unified analysis system are examined to design database structure of the system based on the organized methodology for building geological environmental model. The graphic processing function for data stored in the unified database are examined. furthermore, future research subjects for the development of detail models for geological disposal are surveyed to organize safety performance system. (author)

  14. Proceedings of the study of environmental change using isotope techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    Global warming is acknowledged as a major crisis facing society today, principally due to anticipated impacts on the environment, and availability and distribution of water resources. Scientific understanding of recent human-induced climate change, as well as evaluation of potential mitigation strategies, is progressively being developed through studies of atmospheric greenhouse gases and modern water energy carbon cycling processes. These efforts have been advanced through study of past global climate changes to understand mechanisms that play a role in determining natural climate fluctuations observed in ice cores, lake and sea sediments, corals, paleo-groundwater, cave deposits, tree rings, and other archives. Predictive models incorporating natural and human-induced climate change processes contribute to a better appreciation for the sensitivity of climate to specific anthropogenic perturbations. Increasingly, isotopes are being integrated in climate change studies. For example, isotope methodologies offer substantial improvements in the ability to label the origin and fate of greenhouse gases, and for studying the water and carbon cycle response to past climate changes, a high priority area for action identified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Isotopes are also widely used as diagnostic variables for validation of models aimed at providing a prognosis of future environmental conditions. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has long supported research and development of isotope applications for climate studies. The joint IAEA/WMO Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation managed by the IAEA has for the last four decades provided the basic isotope data necessary for integrating stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in climate models. The IAEA has also sponsored co-ordinated research projects on Isotope Variations of Carbon Dioxide and other Trace Gases in the Atmosphere and Isotope-Aided Studies of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

  15. Proceedings of the study of environmental change using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Global warming is acknowledged as a major crisis facing society today, principally due to anticipated impacts on the environment, and availability and distribution of water resources. Scientific understanding of recent human-induced climate change, as well as evaluation of potential mitigation strategies, is progressively being developed through studies of atmospheric greenhouse gases and modern water energy carbon cycling processes. These efforts have been advanced through study of past global climate changes to understand mechanisms that play a role in determining natural climate fluctuations observed in ice cores, lake and sea sediments, corals, paleo-groundwater, cave deposits, tree rings, and other archives. Predictive models incorporating natural and human-induced climate change processes contribute to a better appreciation for the sensitivity of climate to specific anthropogenic perturbations. Increasingly, isotopes are being integrated in climate change studies. For example, isotope methodologies offer substantial improvements in the ability to label the origin and fate of greenhouse gases, and for studying the water and carbon cycle response to past climate changes, a high priority area for action identified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Isotopes are also widely used as diagnostic variables for validation of models aimed at providing a prognosis of future environmental conditions. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has long supported research and development of isotope applications for climate studies. The joint IAEA/WMO Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation managed by the IAEA has for the last four decades provided the basic isotope data necessary for integrating stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in climate models. The IAEA has also sponsored co-ordinated research projects on Isotope Variations of Carbon Dioxide and other Trace Gases in the Atmosphere and Isotope-Aided Studies of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

  16. A dynamical classification of the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero-Romero, J. E.; Hoffman, Y.; Gottlöber, S.; Klypin, A.; Yepes, G.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a new dynamical classification of the cosmic web. Each point in space is classified in one of four possible web types: voids, sheets, filaments and knots. The classification is based on the evaluation of the deformation tensor (i.e. the Hessian of the gravitational potential) on a grid. The classification is based on counting the number of eigenvalues above a certain threshold, λth, at each grid point, where the case of zero, one, two or three such eigenvalues corresponds to void, sheet, filament or a knot grid point. The collection of neighbouring grid points, friends of friends, of the same web type constitutes voids, sheets, filaments and knots as extended web objects. A simple dynamical consideration of the emergence of the web suggests that the threshold should not be null, as in previous implementations of the algorithm. A detailed dynamical analysis would have found different threshold values for the collapse of sheets, filaments and knots. Short of such an analysis a phenomenological approach has been opted for, looking for a single threshold to be determined by analysing numerical simulations. Our cosmic web classification has been applied and tested against a suite of large (dark matter only) cosmological N-body simulations. In particular, the dependence of the volume and mass filling fractions on λth and on the resolution has been calculated for the four web types. We also study the percolation properties of voids and filaments. Our main findings are as follows. (i) Already at λth = 0.1 the resulting web classification reproduces the visual impression of the cosmic web. (ii) Between 0.2 net of interconnected filaments. This suggests a reasonable choice for λth as the parameter that defines the cosmic web. (iii) The dynamical nature of the suggested classification provides a robust framework for incorporating environmental information into galaxy formation models, and in particular to semi-analytical models.

  17. [Magnetic resonance semiotics of prostate cancer according to the PI-RADS classification. The clinical diagnostic algorithm of a study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobkin, A S; Shariya, M A; Chaban, A S; Voskanvan, G A; Vinarov, A Z

    2015-01-01

    to elaborate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs of prostate cancer (PC) in accordance with the PI-RADS classification during multiparametric MRI (mpMRI). A total of 89 men aged 20 to 82 years were examined. A control group consisted of 8 (9%) healthy volunteers younger than 30 years of age with no urological history to obtain control images and MRI plots and 20 (22.5%) men aged 26-76 years, whose morphological changes were inflammatory and hyperplastic. The second age-matched group included 61 (68.5%) patients diagnosed with prostate cancer at morphological examination. A set of studies included digital rectal examination, serum prostate-specific antigen, and transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. All the patients underwent prostate mpMRI applying a 3.0 T Achieva MRI scanner (Philips, the Netherlands). The patients have been found to have mpMRI signs that were typical of PC; its MRI semiotics according to the PI-RADS classification is presented. Each mpMRI procedure has been determined to be of importance and informative value in detecting PC. The comprehensive mpMRI approach to diagnosing PC improves the quality and diagnostic value of prostate MRI.

  18. a Comparison Study of Different Kernel Functions for Svm-Based Classification of Multi-Temporal Polarimetry SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekkehkhany, B.; Safari, A.; Homayouni, S.; Hasanlou, M.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a framework is developed based on Support Vector Machines (SVM) for crop classification using polarimetric features extracted from multi-temporal Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imageries. The multi-temporal integration of data not only improves the overall retrieval accuracy but also provides more reliable estimates with respect to single-date data. Several kernel functions are employed and compared in this study for mapping the input space to higher Hilbert dimension space. These kernel functions include linear, polynomials and Radial Based Function (RBF). The method is applied to several UAVSAR L-band SAR images acquired over an agricultural area near Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. In this research, the temporal alpha features of H/A/α decomposition method are used in classification. The experimental tests show an SVM classifier with RBF kernel for three dates of data increases the Overall Accuracy (OA) to up to 3% in comparison to using linear kernel function, and up to 1% in comparison to a 3rd degree polynomial kernel function.

  19. A Study of Deep CNN-Based Classification of Open and Closed Eyes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Wan Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The necessity for the classification of open and closed eyes is increasing in various fields, including analysis of eye fatigue in 3D TVs, analysis of the psychological states of test subjects, and eye status tracking-based driver drowsiness detection. Previous studies have used various methods to distinguish between open and closed eyes, such as classifiers based on the features obtained from image binarization, edge operators, or texture analysis. However, when it comes to eye images with different lighting conditions and resolutions, it can be difficult to find an optimal threshold for image binarization or optimal filters for edge and texture extraction. In order to address this issue, we propose a method to classify open and closed eye images with different conditions, acquired by a visible light camera, using a deep residual convolutional neural network. After conducting performance analysis on both self-collected and open databases, we have determined that the classification accuracy of the proposed method is superior to that of existing methods.

  20. An evaluation of scanpath-comparison and machine-learning classification algorithms used to study the dynamics of analogy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Robert M; Glady, Yannick; Thibaut, Jean-Pierre

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, eyetracking has begun to be used to study the dynamics of analogy making. Numerous scanpath-comparison algorithms and machine-learning techniques are available that can be applied to the raw eyetracking data. We show how scanpath-comparison algorithms, combined with multidimensional scaling and a classification algorithm, can be used to resolve an outstanding question in analogy making-namely, whether or not children's and adults' strategies in solving analogy problems are different. (They are.) We show which of these scanpath-comparison algorithms is best suited to the kinds of analogy problems that have formed the basis of much analogy-making research over the years. Furthermore, we use machine-learning classification algorithms to examine the item-to-item saccade vectors making up these scanpaths. We show which of these algorithms best predicts, from very early on in a trial, on the basis of the frequency of various item-to-item saccades, whether a child or an adult is doing the problem. This type of analysis can also be used to predict, on the basis of the item-to-item saccade dynamics in the first third of a trial, whether or not a problem will be solved correctly.

  1. Discussion of Environmental Problem and Study of Environmental Impact on Steel Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The environmental conditions in steel industry were discussed in detail. It was also pointed out that it was necessary to reduce the quantity of waste generated and discharged by improving the raw material, energy structure and consumption rate, and reinforcing the waste control and management. At the same time, the relevant mathematical models of environmental impact were set up on the basis of raw material consumption, energy consumption and waste generation and discharge in different technical routes of steelmaking. The result showed that the production route of DR-iron clearly has more environmental advantages over that of BF-hot metal.

  2. Studies on time series applications in environmental sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Bărbulescu, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Time series analysis and modelling represent a large study field, implying the approach from the perspective of the time and frequency, with applications in different domains. Modelling hydro-meteorological time series is difficult due to the characteristics of these series, as long range dependence, spatial dependence, the correlation with other series. Continuous spatial data plays an important role in planning, risk assessment and decision making in environmental management. In this context, in this book we present various statistical tests and modelling techniques used for time series analysis, as well as applications to hydro-meteorological series from Dobrogea, a region situated in the south-eastern part of Romania, less studied till now. Part of the results are accompanied by their R code. .

  3. Studying and understanding the environmental impacts of the Three Gorges Dam in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbrodt-Stitt, Sarah; Stumpf, Felix; Schmidt, Karsten; Althaus, Paul; Bi, Renneng; Bieger, Katrin; Buzzo, Giovanni; Dumperth, Christian; Fohrer, Nicola; Rohn, Joachim; Strehmel, Alexander; Udelhoven, Thomas; Wei, Xiang; Zimmermann, Karsten; Scholten, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Since its planning phase and its completion and start of operation in 2009, the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) at the Yangtze River, has been discussed in a controversial manner. Due to considerable resettlements along with the associated expansion of the infrastructure network and large-scale shifts in land use and management, the TGD in Central China is among the most prominent human-induced examples for large-scale environmental impacts. As a consequence of the rapid ecosystem changes, the region is largely characterized by an enormous boost of typical geo-risks such as soil erosion, mass movements, and diffuse sediment and matter fluxes into the reservoir. Within the joint research project YANGTZE-GEO, Chinese and German scientists jointly focus on the human-induced environmental changes in the reservoir of the TGD after the impoundment of the Yangtze River and its tributaries. An integrative approach was set up in order to combine multi-scale investigation methods and state-of-the-art techniques from soil science, geology, hydrology, geophysics, geodesy, remote sensing, and data survey and monitoring. By means of eco-hydrological and soil erosion modeling, geo-statistical approaches such as digital soil mapping and Artificial Neuronal Networks, spatially and temporally differentiated simulation of the water budget as well as the balance of diffuse matter such as phosphorus and sediment, three-dimensional dynamic modeling, seismoacoustics and terrestrial radarinterferometry, multi-temporal land use classification from recent and historical remote sensing data and laser scanning, the research aims at (i) the understanding of the mechanisms and anthropogenic and environmental control factors of the environmental changes in the highly dynamic region and (ii) the development of spatially explicit land use options and recommendations for a sustainable land use management. Finally, based on the integrate modelling, we aim at the conception of a monitoring- and measuring

  4. Environmental (in)equity in the Netherlands. A case study on the distribution of environmental quality in the Rijnmond region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruize, H.; Bouwman, A.A.

    2004-07-01

    As a part of a broader investigation on environmental inequity in the Netherlands, an exploratory case study on the socio-economic distribution on (perceived) environmental quality was carried out in the Rijnmond (industrial and urbanised) region in the western part of the Netherlands. Disparities in local environmental quality with respect to noise, air pollution, availability of public green areas, safety risks, and presence of waste disposal sites, were analysed separately and accumulatively across income levels making use of postal codes. Inhabitants' perception of environmental quality with respect to spatial and income differences was also ascertained and analysed. Recent, available national and regional databases and literature were used for the analyses. Disparities in local environmental quality were found to be linked to income level, especially for air pollution and the availability of public green areas. In addition, accumulation of environmental 'goods' (high-quality environmental conditions) were found more often in high-income than in low-income areas. Inhabitants of Rotterdam also mentioned littering and dog mess to be the greatest environmental problem. All income categories experienced annoyance, but from different, often area-specific sources. Considering these results, policy-makers are advised to take the effects of their policy on different income categories into account.

  5. An epidemiological study of environmental factors associated with canine obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courcier, E A; Thomson, R M; Mellor, D J; Yam, P S

    2010-07-01

    To assess the relationships between socioeconomic and other environmental factors with canine obesity. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire study of dog owners attending five primary veterinary practices in the UK. Owners were asked about dog age, neuter status, feeding habits, dog exercise, household income and owner age. The body condition score of the dogs was also assessed. Factors hypothesised to be associated with obesity were investigated. In total, data from 696 questionnaires were evaluated. Out of those data evaluated, 35.3% of dogs (n=246) were classed as an ideal body shape, 38.9% (n=271) were overweight, 20.4% (n=142) were obese and 5.3% (n=37) were underweight. Identified risk factors associated with obesity included owner age, hours of weekly exercise, frequency of snacks/treats and personal income. Environmental risk factors associated with canine obesity are multifactorial and include personal income, owner age, frequency of snacks/treats and amount of exercise the dog receives. Awareness about health risks associated with obesity in dogs is significantly less in people in lower income brackets. This phenomenon is recognised in human obesity.

  6. Strategic Step for Environmental Rescue: A Theoretical Legal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sutrisno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is among the developing countries that are struggling to develop in the field of industrial development. The logical consequence of any development process, especially industrial development is the emergence of associated impacts that greatly affect the durability and sustainability of the environment. Developing the equitable industry in order to create public welfare is important. However, maintaining the security and preservation of the environment is also very important, because it is only with the availability of a good environment and healthy living that human beings can perform daily living. The availability of good and healthy environment is the constitutional responsibility of the government, as well as part of the human rights of all citizens which must be given by the State. Efforts to create a good environment and healthy living will be effective if controlled by State government and institutions who understand the objective conditions on the ground. In this regard, the granting of the authority on environmental control to regional government autonomously is the right, very smart policy choice. How To Cite: Sutrisno, B. (2016. Strategic Step for Environmental Rescue: A Theoretical Legal Studies. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 27-58. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.98

  7. Environmental stability study of holographic solar spectrum splitting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysler, Benjamin D.; Ayala Pelaez, Silvana; Wu, Yuechen; Vorndran, Shelby D.; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2016-09-01

    In this study the impact of outdoor temperature variations and solar illumination exposure on spectral filter material and holographic optical elements is examined. Although holographic components have been shown to be useful for solar spectrum splitting designs, relatively little quantitative data exist to demonstrate the extent to which these materials can withstand outdoor conditions. As researchers seek to investigate practical spectrum splitting designs, the environmental stability of holographic materials should be considered as an important factor. In the experiment presented, two holographic materials, Covestro Bayfol HX photopolymer and dichromated gelatin, and 3M reflective polymer filter materials are exposed to outdoor conditions for a period of several months. The environmental effect on absorption, spectral and angular bandwidth, peak efficiency, and Bragg matching conditions for the holograms are examined. Spectral bandwidth and transmittance of the 3M reflective filter material are also monitored. Holographic gratings are recorded, measured, and mounted on glass substrates and then sealed with a glass cover plate. The test samples are then mounted on a photovoltaic panel to simulate realistic temperature conditions and placed at an outdoor test facility in Tucson, Arizona. A duplicate set of holograms and 3M filter material is stored as a control group and periodically compared over the test period.

  8. [Clinical Study of 2014 ISUP New Grade Group Classification for Prostate Cancer Patients Treated by Androgen Deprivation Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Masahiro; Kawase, Makoto; Kato, Daiki; Ishida, Takashi; Kato, Seiichi; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2018-01-01

    The 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) has proposed a new grade group (GG) classification for Gleason scores (GS). The usefulness of the new GG classification was investigated with 518 prostate cancer patients who underwent androgen deprivation therapy. According to the new GG classification, Stages B‒D and the new GG classification relapse-free rate for each stage were calculated using the Kaplan‒Meier method. The new GG classification revealed a significant difference for the relapse-free rate only between some groups. Analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model indicated that the risk of relapse was higher in GGs 4 and 5 than in GG 1. The usefulness about the relapse-free rate in androgen deprivation therapy of the 2014 ISUP new grade group classification a waits future examination.

  9. Environmental pressures from European consumption and production. A study in integrated environmental and economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D. [Copenhagen Resource Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Fernandez, J.A.; Wittmer, D. [Wuppertal Institute, Wuppertal (Germany); Gravgaerd Pedersen, O. [Statistics Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); European Topic Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    Environmental pressures from European consumption and production shows how economic and environmental data can be integrated to analyse environmental performance and material efficiency of whole economies as well as their individual elements. The analyses presented in the report provide policy makers with a tool to target economic incentives and information campaigns, encouraging a shift to more sustainable production and consumption patterns in order to reduce Europe's global footprint. The report discusses two analytical approaches. The production-based method considers direct environmental pressures caused by European industries and service providers - for example, the extraction of material resources by the mining and quarrying sector, air pollutants from power stations, greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture and so on. The consumption-based method focuses on the indirect environmental pressures caused by European consumers. In this approach, the direct production-related pressures are attributed to broad groups of products and services, also taking into account pressures that are embodied in goods imported into the EU. Using Environmentally Extended Input Output Analysis (EE-IOA) it is possible to estimate the environmental pressures ultimately generated by individual product groups and also by European consumption as a whole. Four types of environmental pressures are considered by the report: raw material use, greenhouse gas emissions, acidifying air emissions, and air pollutants leading to harmful ground-level ozone. However, the method has the potential to assess many other types of environmental pressure including land use, water use, waste generation and energy use. Thanks to the conceptual consistency between the system of national economic accounts and environmental accounts, data on environmental pressures is directly comparable to economic expenditure. Policy makers can thus see which sectors have been most successful in decoupling

  10. Global case studies of soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS: Definitions, classifications, advances, origins, and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmugam

    2017-10-01

    Problems that hinder our understanding of SSDS still remain. They are: (1 vague definitions of the phrase “soft-sediment deformation”; (2 complex factors that govern the origin of SSDS; (3 omission of vital empirical data in documenting vertical changes in facies using measured sedimentological logs; (4 difficulties in distinguishing depositional processes from tectonic events; (5 a model-driven interpretation of SSDS (i.e., earthquake being the singular cause; (6 routine application of the genetic term “seismites” to the “SSDS”, thus undermining the basic tenet of process sedimentology (i.e., separation of interpretation from observation; (7 the absence of objective criteria to differentiate 21 triggering mechanisms of liquefaction and related SSDS; (8 application of the process concept “high-density turbidity currents”, a process that has never been documented in modern oceans; (9 application of the process concept “sediment creep” with a velocity connotation that cannot be inferred from the ancient record; (10 classification of pockmarks, which are hollow spaces (i.e., without sediments as SSDS, with their problematic origins by fluid expulsion, sediment degassing, fish activity, etc.; (11 application of the Earth's climate-change model; and most importantly, (12 an arbitrary distinction between depositional process and sediment deformation. Despite a profusion of literature on SSDS, our understanding of their origin remains muddled. A solution to the chronic SSDS problem is to utilize the robust core dataset from scientific drilling at sea (DSDP/ODP/IODP with a constrained definition of SSDS.

  11. Activation, decay heat, and waste classification studies of the European DEMO concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M. R.; Eade, T.; Bachmann, C.; Fischer, U.; Taylor, N. P.

    2017-04-01

    Inventory calculations have a key role to play in designing future fusion power plants because, for a given irradiation field and material, they can predict the time evolution in chemical composition, activation, decay heat, gamma-dose, gas production, and even damage (dpa) dose. For conceptual designs of the European DEMO fusion reactor such calculations provide information about the neutron shielding requirements, maintenance schedules, and waste disposal prospects; thereby guiding future development. Extensive neutron-transport and inventory calculations have been performed for a reference DEMO reactor model with four different tritium-breeding blanket concepts. The results have been used to chart the post-operation variation in activity and decay heat from different vessel components, demonstrating that the shielding performance of the different blanket concepts—for a given blanket thickness—varies significantly. Detailed analyses of the simulated nuclide inventories for the vacuum vessel (VV) and divertor highlight the most dominant radionuclides, potentially suggesting how changes in material composition could help to reduce activity. Minor impurities in the raw composition of W used in divertor tiles, for example, are shown to produce undesirable long-lived radionuclides. Finally, waste classifications, based on UK regulations, and a recycling potential limit, have been applied to estimate the time-evolution in waste masses for both the entire vessel (including blanket modules, VV, divertor, and some ex-vessel components) and individual components, and also to suggest when a particular component might be suitable for recycling. The results indicate that the large mass of the VV will not be classifiable as low level waste on the 100 year timescale, but the majority of the divertor will be, and that both components will be potentially recyclable within that time.

  12. Environmental knowledge, environmental politics. Case studies from Canada and Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapperton, Jonathan; Piper, Liza (eds.)

    2016-07-01

    The ways in which we come to know the environment are always inherently political - as are the ways in which environmental knowledge is put to use in the world. Focusing on ''scientific knowledge'' and ''Indigenous knowledge,'' on knowledge obtained through work as well as through leisure, the contributions in this volume explore how environmental knowledge is acquired, constructed, and deployed to make political claims on or for the environment. This volume also shows how environmental knowledge is embedded in grassroots, national, and international political efforts to find solutions to environmental problems. These essays showcase examples from Canada and Western Europe, offering insights into how different forms of environmental knowledge and environmental politics come to be seen as legitimate or illegitimate. This volume contains nine topics: 1. Indigenous Ecological Knowledge and the Politics of Postcolonial Writing (Jonathan Clapperton); 2. Bitumen Exploration and the Southern Re-Inscription of Northeastern Alberta: 1875-1967 (Hereward Longley); 3. Pollution, Local Activism, and the Politics of Development in the Canadian North (John Sandlos and Arn Keeling); 4. Seeds of Knowledge: From Back-to-the-Land to Urban Gardening (Nancy Janovicek); 5. Between Stewardship and Exploitation: Private Tourism, State Parks, and Environmentalism (Jessica M. DeWitt); 6. Reflections on Water: Knowing a River (Marianna Dudley); 7. ''We Are as Gods'': The Green Technical Fix (Henry Trim); 8. Environmental Knowledge and Politics in Portugal: From Resistance to Incorporation (Margarida Queiros); 9. Coal in the Age of the Oil Sands (Liza Piper).

  13. Environmental knowledge, environmental politics. Case studies from Canada and Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapperton, Jonathan; Piper, Liza

    2016-01-01

    The ways in which we come to know the environment are always inherently political - as are the ways in which environmental knowledge is put to use in the world. Focusing on ''scientific knowledge'' and ''Indigenous knowledge,'' on knowledge obtained through work as well as through leisure, the contributions in this volume explore how environmental knowledge is acquired, constructed, and deployed to make political claims on or for the environment. This volume also shows how environmental knowledge is embedded in grassroots, national, and international political efforts to find solutions to environmental problems. These essays showcase examples from Canada and Western Europe, offering insights into how different forms of environmental knowledge and environmental politics come to be seen as legitimate or illegitimate. This volume contains nine topics: 1. Indigenous Ecological Knowledge and the Politics of Postcolonial Writing (Jonathan Clapperton); 2. Bitumen Exploration and the Southern Re-Inscription of Northeastern Alberta: 1875-1967 (Hereward Longley); 3. Pollution, Local Activism, and the Politics of Development in the Canadian North (John Sandlos and Arn Keeling); 4. Seeds of Knowledge: From Back-to-the-Land to Urban Gardening (Nancy Janovicek); 5. Between Stewardship and Exploitation: Private Tourism, State Parks, and Environmentalism (Jessica M. DeWitt); 6. Reflections on Water: Knowing a River (Marianna Dudley); 7. ''We Are as Gods'': The Green Technical Fix (Henry Trim); 8. Environmental Knowledge and Politics in Portugal: From Resistance to Incorporation (Margarida Queiros); 9. Coal in the Age of the Oil Sands (Liza Piper).

  14. Design of an environmental site assessment template for open radioactive site contamination : a radioecological risk approach and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.

    2004-01-01

    To reduce redundancy, cost, and time, while at the same time ultimately increasing the effectiveness of the radioactive risk management process, a logical framework incorporating risk assessments (human cancer and environmental risks) into the environmental site assessment process was designed for radioactive open site contamination. Risk-based corrective action is becoming an increasingly more acceptable approach for the remediation of contaminated sites. In the past, cleanup goals were usually established without any regard to the risk involved, by mandating remediation goals based solely on maximum contamination levels. Now, a multi-stage environmental site assessment template has been developed on a radioecological approach. The template gives a framework for making environmentally sound decisions based on relevant regulations and guidelines. The first stage involves the comparison of the background screening activity level to the regulated activity level, the second stage involves the use of site-specific information to determine the risk involved with the contamination, and the third stage provides a remediation decision matrix based on results from the first two stages. This environmental site assessment template is unique because it incorporates the modified Canadian National Classification System for radioactive contaminated sites and two different types of risk assessments (human cancer risks and the newly designed ecological risk) into the decision making process. The template was used to assess a radiologically contaminated site at the Canadian Forces Base at Suffield (Alberta) as a case study, and it reaffirms the Department of National Defence's action as appropriate. This particular site is a Class 3, has an overall insignificant human cancer risk ( -6 ) and a low environmental risk, and conforms to all regulated guidelines. Currently, it is restricted and should be left as is, provided that the subsurface is not disturbed. (author)

  15. Cost decreases in environmental technology. Evidence from four case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosterhuis, F. [Instituut for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit VU, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-07-15

    The cost of a new technology tends to decrease as its uptake grows, and environmental technology is no exception to this general rule. Factors that can bring about such cost reductions include economies of scale, 'learning-by-doing', incremental technological improvements, and growing competition. In preparing environmental policies, the potential for future cost reductions is often disregarded. The present study aims to provide some additional empirical evidence on the cost decreases in environmental technology and the factors that lie behind them. To this end, four exemplary case studies have been selected. The first case (NOx emission abatement by Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)), shows a wide variety in cost estimates, without a clear trend. This is even true for the costs of a fairly homogeneous type of investment (SCR in coal fired power plants). Nevertheless, it is clear that an important cost decrease has been achieved by prolonging the lifetime of the catalyst, which is one of the main cost components in SCR. In the second case (NH3 emission abatement by chemical air scrubbers in pig farming) there is not yet sufficient experience with the technology to draw conclusions on the development of costs. However, it is already clear that economizing on the capacity of the system can contribute to important cost savings. Three-way catalytic converters in cars have shown significant price decreases following their large scale introduction on the European market in the early 1990s. Probably economies of scale have played an important role in this case, as the size of the market made mass production possible. To some extent, cost reductions may also be attributed to improvements such as the need for less materials (e.g. platinum). Furthermore, the performance of catalytic converters has improved, implying that the cost per unit of emission reduction has decreased even more than the cost of the device itself. Market prices of Compact Fluorescent Lamps

  16. Nurses' perceptions of climate and environmental issues: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anåker, Anna; Nilsson, Maria; Holmner, Åsa; Elf, Marie

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of climate and environmental issues and examine how nurses perceive their role in contributing to the process of sustainable development. Climate change and its implications for human health represent an increasingly important issue for the healthcare sector. According to the International Council of Nurses Code of Ethics, nurses have a responsibility to be involved and support climate change mitigation and adaptation to protect human health. This is a descriptive, explorative qualitative study. Nurses (n = 18) were recruited from hospitals, primary care and emergency medical services; eight participated in semi-structured, in-depth individual interviews and 10 participated in two focus groups. Data were collected from April-October 2013 in Sweden; interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Two main themes were identified from the interviews: (i) an incongruence between climate and environmental issues and nurses' daily work; and (ii) public health work is regarded as a health co-benefit of climate change mitigation. While being green is not the primary task in a lifesaving, hectic and economically challenging context, nurses' perceived their profession as entailing responsibility, opportunities and a sense of individual commitment to influence the environment in a positive direction. This study argues there is a need for increased awareness of issues and methods that are crucial for the healthcare sector to respond to climate change. Efforts to develop interventions should explore how nurses should be able to contribute to the healthcare sector's preparedness for and contributions to sustainable development. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A preliminary study for investigating idiopatic normal pressure hydrocephalus by means of statistical parameters classification of intracranial pressure recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisto, A; Bramanti, A; Galeano, M; Angileri, F; Campobello, G; Serrano, S; Azzerboni, B

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate Id-iopatic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (INPH) through a multidimensional and multiparameter analysis of statistical data obtained from accurate analysis of Intracranial Pressure (ICP) recordings. Such a study could permit to detect new factors, correlated with therapeutic response, which are able to validate a predicting significance for infusion test. The algorithm developed by the authors computes 13 ICP parameter trends on each of the recording, afterward 9 statistical information from each trend is determined. All data are transferred to the datamining software WEKA. According to the exploited feature-selection techniques, the WEKA has revealed that the most significant statistical parameter is the maximum of Single-Wave-Amplitude: setting a 27 mmHg threshold leads to over 90% of correct classification.

  18. Creating the strategic basis for corporate environmental management - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn

    1998-01-01

    The concept of Strategic Environmental Audit is introduced, as a first attempt to develop an operational tool, which can be used to develop a corporate environmental strategy in order to create the strategic basis for a sound response to the environmental challenge. The initial concept of develop...... of developing environmental strategies using the SEA concept is illustrated by a case study.......The concept of Strategic Environmental Audit is introduced, as a first attempt to develop an operational tool, which can be used to develop a corporate environmental strategy in order to create the strategic basis for a sound response to the environmental challenge. The initial concept...

  19. Advances of nanotechnology in agro-environmental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Mura

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in the world population and the demand for food, new agricultural practices have been developed to improve food production through the use of more effective pesticides and fertilisers. These technologies can lead to an uncontrolled release of undesired substances into the environment, with the potential to contaminate soil and groundwater. Today, nanotechnology represents a promising approach to improve agricultural production and remediate polluted sites. This paper reviews the recent applications of nanotechnologies in agro-environmental studies with particular attention to the fate of nanomaterials once introduced in water and soil, to the advantages of their use and their possible toxicology. Findings show that the use of nanomaterials can improve the quality of the environment and help detect and remediate polluted sites. Only a small number of nanomaterials demonstrated potential toxic effects. These are discussed in detail.

  20. Environmental Rehabilitation of Closed Mines. A Chase Study on Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca COBÂRZAN

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article attempts to analyze methods that can be used to restore a former coal mining site to a condition that is well integrated into its surroundings and that recovers the abandoned and contaminated land and renders its value to the community. The key concept that guides the present paper is that the coal mining is just a temporary land use and that the cost of cleaning the mining site should be an operating expense that has to be included in the budget of a coal mine company starting with the first year of operation. The coal mining industry in Romania is presented as a case study to emphasize the effects that closed coal mines have on communities where they are located and, based on the methods that are successfully used to solve similar problems, recommendations are formulated to improve the environmental rehabilitation of the mining sites.

  1. Comparative study for environmental assessment by program characters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Chul; Lee, Young Soo; Park, Young Min; Park, Suk Soon; Chung, Kyung Tae; Cho, Hong Yun; Chae, Jang Won; Lee, Sang Don; Lee, Chan Ho; Choi, Joon Kyu; Kim, Kang Joo; Chung, Won Moo; Jin, Jae Yool [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The level of environmental assessment in Korea was diagnosed by examining the situation of its model for the entire environmental assessment implemented. Also, it proposed an improvement scheme for its problems to be able to advance. It is expected to be utilized as developing optimum model for Korea and establishing a systematic and concrete guideline for environmental assessment modeling. 244 refs., 65 figs., 28 tabs.

  2. An Integrated Computer-Aided Approach for Environmental Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Chen, Fei; Jaksland, Cecilia

    1997-01-01

    A general framework for an integrated computer-aided approach to solve process design, control, and environmental problems simultaneously is presented. Physicochemical properties and their relationships to the molecular structure play an important role in the proposed integrated approach. The sco...... and applicability of the integrated approach is highlighted through examples involving estimation of properties and environmental pollution prevention. The importance of mixture effects on some environmentally important properties is also demonstrated....

  3. Classification of tree species based on longwave hyperspectral data from leaves, a case study for a tropical dry forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, D.; Rivard, B.; Sánchez-Azofeifa, A.

    2018-04-01

    Remote sensing of the environment has utilized the visible, near and short-wave infrared (IR) regions of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum to characterize vegetation health, vigor and distribution. However, relatively little research has focused on the use of the longwave infrared (LWIR, 8.0-12.5 μm) region for studies of vegetation. In this study LWIR leaf reflectance spectra were collected in the wet seasons (May through December) of 2013 and 2014 from twenty-six tree species located in a high species diversity environment, a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica. A continuous wavelet transformation (CWT) was applied to all spectra to minimize noise and broad amplitude variations attributable to non-compositional effects. Species discrimination was then explored with Random Forest classification and accuracy improved was observed with preprocessing of reflectance spectra with continuous wavelet transformation. Species were found to share common spectral features that formed the basis for five spectral types that were corroborated with linear discriminate analysis. The source of most of the observed spectral features is attributed to cell wall or cuticle compounds (cellulose, cutin, matrix glycan, silica and oleanolic acid). Spectral types could be advantageous for the analysis of airborne hyperspectral data because cavity effects will lower the spectral contrast thus increasing the reliance of classification efforts on dominant spectral features. Spectral types specifically derived from leaf level data are expected to support the labeling of spectral classes derived from imagery. The results of this study and that of Ribeiro Da Luz (2006), Ribeiro Da Luz and Crowley (2007, 2010), Ullah et al. (2012) and Rock et al. (2016) have now illustrated success in tree species discrimination across a range of ecosystems using leaf-level spectral observations. With advances in LWIR sensors and concurrent improvements in their signal to noise, applications to large-scale species

  4. Development and validation of a casemix classification to predict costs of specialist palliative care provision across inpatient hospice, hospital and community settings in the UK: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ping; Dzingina, Mendwas; Firth, Alice M; Davies, Joanna M; Douiri, Abdel; O'Brien, Suzanne M; Pinto, Cathryn; Pask, Sophie; Higginson, Irene J; Eagar, Kathy; Murtagh, Fliss E M

    2018-03-17

    Provision of palliative care is inequitable with wide variations across conditions and settings in the UK. Lack of a standard way to classify by case complexity is one of the principle obstacles to addressing this. We aim to develop and validate a casemix classification to support the prediction of costs of specialist palliative care provision. Phase I: A cohort study to determine the variables and potential classes to be included in a casemix classification. Data are collected from clinicians in palliative care services across inpatient hospice, hospital and community settings on: patient demographics, potential complexity/casemix criteria and patient-level resource use. Cost predictors are derived using multivariate regression and then incorporated into a classification using classification and regression trees. Internal validation will be conducted by bootstrapping to quantify any optimism in the predictive performance (calibration and discrimination) of the developed classification. Phase II: A mixed-methods cohort study across settings for external validation of the classification developed in phase I. Patient and family caregiver data will be collected longitudinally on demographics, potential complexity/casemix criteria and patient-level resource use. This will be triangulated with data collected from clinicians on potential complexity/casemix criteria and patient-level resource use, and with qualitative interviews with patients and caregivers about care provision across difference settings. The classification will be refined on the basis of its performance in the validation data set. The study has been approved by the National Health Service Health Research Authority Research Ethics Committee. The results are expected to be disseminated in 2018 through papers for publication in major palliative care journals; policy briefs for clinicians, commissioning leads and policy makers; and lay summaries for patients and public. ISRCTN90752212. © Article author

  5. Classification of smooth Fano polytopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Mikkel

    A simplicial lattice polytope containing the origin in the interior is called a smooth Fano polytope, if the vertices of every facet is a basis of the lattice. The study of smooth Fano polytopes is motivated by their connection to toric varieties. The thesis concerns the classification of smooth...... Fano polytopes up to isomorphism. A smooth Fano -polytope can have at most vertices. In case of vertices an explicit classification is known. The thesis contains the classification in case of vertices. Classifications of smooth Fano -polytopes for fixed exist only for . In the thesis an algorithm...... for the classification of smooth Fano -polytopes for any given is presented. The algorithm has been implemented and used to obtain the complete classification for ....

  6. Small-scale classification schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements...... classification inherited a lot of its structure from the existing system and rendered requirements that transcended the framework laid out by the existing system almost invisible. As a result, the requirements classification became a defining element of the requirements-engineering process, though its main...... effects remained largely implicit. The requirements classification contributed to constraining the requirements-engineering process by supporting the software engineers in maintaining some level of control over the process. This way, the requirements classification provided the software engineers...

  7. New guidelines for dam safety classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dascal, O.

    1999-01-01

    Elements are outlined of recommended new guidelines for safety classification of dams. Arguments are provided for the view that dam classification systems should require more than one system as follows: (a) classification for selection of design criteria, operation procedures and emergency measures plans, based on potential consequences of a dam failure - the hazard classification of water retaining structures; (b) classification for establishment of surveillance activities and for safety evaluation of dams, based on the probability and consequences of failure - the risk classification of water retaining structures; and (c) classification for establishment of water management plans, for safety evaluation of the entire project, for preparation of emergency measures plans, for definition of the frequency and extent of maintenance operations, and for evaluation of changes and modifications required - the hazard classification of the project. The hazard classification of the dam considers, as consequence, mainly the loss of lives or persons in jeopardy and the property damages to third parties. Difficulties in determining the risk classification of the dam lie in the fact that no tool exists to evaluate the probability of the dam's failure. To overcome this, the probability of failure can be substituted for by a set of dam characteristics that express the failure potential of the dam and its foundation. The hazard classification of the entire project is based on the probable consequences of dam failure influencing: loss of life, persons in jeopardy, property and environmental damage. The classification scheme is illustrated for dam threatening events such as earthquakes and floods. 17 refs., 5 tabs

  8. The classification of phocomelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytherleigh-Strong, G; Hooper, G

    2003-06-01

    We studied 24 patients with 44 phocomelic upper limbs. Only 11 limbs could be grouped in the classification system of Frantz and O' Rahilly. The non-classifiable limbs were further studied and their characteristics identified. It is confirmed that phocomelia is not an intercalary defect.

  9. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, R.; Espen, P. van; Torres, P.P. Godo

    2006-01-01

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a 241 Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery

  10. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: roman.padilla@infomed.sld.cu; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)

    2006-02-03

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  11. The correlation study of radiological findings with pathological classification of superficial depressed (IIc type) early gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Linxiang; Deng Bingxing; Liu Yujin; Iinuma, G.; Moriyama, N.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relations between radiological findings and pathological classification of superficial depressed (II c type) early gastric cancer. Methods: Radiological features in subtonic double contrast barium examination and the endoscopic pictures of early gastric cancer compared with the global pathological specimens and micro-pathological features were prospectively studied. Combined with the gastric endoscopic pictures, the sharpness of margin of the lesions, the changes of converging mucosal folds and the changes of the depressed surface on the film of double contrast barium examination were analyzed. The correlation between the radiological features and histological classification of gastric cancer including well differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma (tub1), moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma (tub2), poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (por) and signet-ring cell carcinoma (sig) were studied. Results: In 102 cases of II c type early gastric cancer, there were tub1 27 cases, tub2 11, por 26 and sig 38 cases histologically. The margin of the depressed lesions of tubl (24 cases) and tub2 (9 cases) cancers were mostly unsharply demarcated or with fine spicular border, while the margin of lesions of por(15 cases) and sig(31 cases) were mostly clearly and sharply demarcated, with statistical significance (P<0.01). The depressed surface of tub1 and tub2 lesions (17 cases) revealed little unevenness, sometimes with evenly granulations, single nodule and scar-like depression, while that of por and sig lesions (41 cases) manifested as nodules of varying sizes, with statistical significance (P<0.01). Conclusion: The radiological findings of superficial depressed early gastric cancer in different histological types were different, the possible histological type could be speculated according to the radiological findings of the lesions. (authors)

  12. Reliability of Oronasal Fistula Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzman, Thomas J; Allori, Alexander C; Matic, Damir B; Beals, Stephen P; Fisher, David M; Samson, Thomas D; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Tse, Raymond W

    2018-01-01

    Objective Oronasal fistula is an important complication of cleft palate repair that is frequently used to evaluate surgical quality, yet reliability of fistula classification has never been examined. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of oronasal fistula classification both within individual surgeons and between multiple surgeons. Design Using intraoral photographs of children with repaired cleft palate, surgeons rated the location of palatal fistulae using the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System. Intrarater and interrater reliability scores were calculated for each region of the palate. Participants Eight cleft surgeons rated photographs obtained from 29 children. Results Within individual surgeons reliability for each region of the Pittsburgh classification ranged from moderate to almost perfect (κ = .60-.96). By contrast, reliability between surgeons was lower, ranging from fair to substantial (κ = .23-.70). Between-surgeon reliability was lowest for the junction of the soft and hard palates (κ = .23). Within-surgeon and between-surgeon reliability were almost perfect for the more general classification of fistula in the secondary palate (κ = .95 and κ = .83, respectively). Conclusions This is the first reliability study of fistula classification. We show that the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System is reliable when used by an individual surgeon, but less reliable when used among multiple surgeons. Comparisons of fistula occurrence among surgeons may be subject to less bias if they use the more general classification of "presence or absence of fistula of the secondary palate" rather than the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System.

  13. A Study on remote sensing method for drawing up and utilizing ecological and natural map - concentrated on drawing up of Land Cover Classification Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Sung Woo; Chung, Sung Moon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The drawing up of ecological and natural map, which is highly efficient using remote exploration method, was promoted in this study. As the first step of drawing up of ecological and natural map, this study is working on the drawing up of Land Cover using as a base map. Through the detailed and sufficient consideration on GAP analysis of USA, CORINE project of EU, and examples in Korea, it studied and proposed the Land Cover Classification system and method suitable for Korea. It will be helpful to draw up ecological and natural map by providing two strategies and principles for land cover classification. 26 refs., 33 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Bilateral weighted radiographs are required for accurate classification of acromioclavicular separation: an observational study of 59 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, E F; Forrest, N P; Forester, A

    2015-10-01

    Misinterpretation of the Rockwood classification system for acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) separations has resulted in a trend towards using unilateral radiographs for grading. Further, the use of weighted views to 'unmask' a grade III injury has fallen out of favour. Recent evidence suggests that many radiographic grade III injuries represent only a partial injury to the stabilising ligaments. This study aimed to determine (1) whether accurate classification is possible on unilateral radiographs and (2) the efficacy of weighted bilateral radiographs in unmasking higher-grade injuries. Complete bilateral non-weighted and weighted sets of radiographs for patients presenting with an acromioclavicular separation over a 10-year period were analysed retrospectively, and they were graded I-VI according to Rockwood's criteria. Comparison was made between grading based on (1) a single antero-posterior (AP) view of the injured side, (2) bilateral non-weighted views and (3) bilateral weighted views. Radiographic measurements for cases that changed grade after weighted views were statistically compared to see if this could have been predicted beforehand. Fifty-nine sets of radiographs on 59 patients (48 male, mean age of 33 years) were included. Compared with unilateral radiographs, non-weighted bilateral comparison films resulted in a grade change for 44 patients (74.5%). Twenty-eight of 56 patients initially graded as I, II or III were upgraded to grade V and two of three initial grade V patients were downgraded to grade III. The addition of a weighted view further upgraded 10 patients to grade V. No grade II injury was changed to grade III and no injury of any severity was downgraded by a weighted view. Grade III injuries upgraded on weighted views had a significantly greater baseline median percentage coracoclavicular distance increase than those that were not upgraded (80.7% vs. 55.4%, p=0.015). However, no cut-off point for this value could be identified to predict an

  15. River levels derived with CryoSat-2 SAR data classification - A case study in the Mekong River Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boergens, Eva; Nielsen, Karina; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2017-01-01

    becomes smaller. Therefore, we developed a classification approach to divide the observations into water and land returns based solely on the data. The classification is done with an unsupervised classification algorithm, and it is based on features derived from the SAR and range-integrated power (RIP......) waveforms. After the classification, classes representing water and land are identified. Better results are obtained when the Mekong River Basin is divided into different geographical regions: upstream, middle stream, and downstream. The measurements classified as water are used in a next step to estimate...... water levels for each crossing over a river in the Mekong River network. The resulting water levels are validated and compared to gauge data, Envisat data, and CryoSat-2 water levels derived with a land-water mask. The CryoSat-2 water levels derived with the classification lead to more valid...

  16. Teaching Urban Ecology: Environmental Studies and the Pedagogy of Intersectionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Chiro, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    Despite the recognition by early champions of the environmental movement in the United States that humans and the diverse ecosystems in which they live are indivisible, many environmental education policies and programs have tended to uphold the categorical distinction between "nature" and "culture" (e.g., Sessions; Soule and Press). In the late…

  17. Differential environmental factors in anorexia nervosa: a sibling pair study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, F; Troop, N A; Treasure, J L

    2000-06-01

    Previous studies have explored differences in psychosocial and familial factors between women who develop anorexia nervosa and those who do not. However, these studies have generally used between-group comparisons. This study looks at the environmental factors which may be antecedents of anorexia nervosa looking at sister pairs where one had anorexia nervosa and the other did not. A paired design was used to compare anorexic women with an unaffected sister on a number of background variables, including sibling interaction, parental care, peer group characteristics and other events unique to the individual. The Sibling Inventory of Differential Experience (SIDE) was used to determine non-shared environment. Out of an initial sample of 148 women with past or current anorexia nervosa, 28 were identified who had sisters with no reported history of eating disorders and who also consented to complete the questionnaire. Anorexic sisters perceived more maternal control and reported more antagonism towards and jealousy of their sisters than did unaffected sisters. In addition, anorexic women reported having had fewer friends and boyfriends than their sisters. These results confirm the perceived differences in background environment between women with and women without anorexia nervosa. These issues are discussed in relation to behavioural genetics, family dynamics and psychosexual development.

  18. Environmental studies related to additional capacity on the Manicouagan River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guertin, G.; Tremblay, S.; Delagrave, M.

    1989-01-01

    Increasing the capacity of the hydroelectric power plants on the Manicouagan River in Quebec will have the effect of increasing flows in winter and decreasing flows in summer. These changes in flow and in the tidal range at the Manicouagan estuary could have effects on the thermal balance of the reservoirs, ice formation, erosion of river banks, and other effects on wildlife and local populations using the river resources. Studies were undertaken to determine the environmental feasibility of increasing the power plant capacity, the limits of such an increase, and the measures needed to mitigate any adverse effects. The studies concentrated on the effects on the reservoirs and the estuary. It appears that the salmonids in the Manic 5 reservoir will be affected by a lowering of water levels and an accentuation in the tidal range. The reproduction of whitefish and lake charr in the reservoirs will probably be reduced by the lowering of winter flow levels. The effects on the estuary were examined by a combination of oceanographic investigations and hydrodynamic model studies. Invasion of salt water into the estuary during high tide could move upstream during low-flow periods in summer, affecting fish breeding grounds. A minimum flow of 400 m 3 /s is needed upstream of Pointe des Booms to ensure an adequate habitat for survival of larvae of anadramous fish species. The forecast maximum winter flow is not perceived to affect species survival. The effects on commercial fishing would be minimal. 2 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  19. Recent validation studies for two NRPB environmental transfer models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) developed a dynamic model for the transfer of radionuclides through terrestrial food chains some years ago. This model, now called FARMLAND, predicts both instantaneous and time integrals of concentration of radionuclides in a variety of foods. The model can be used to assess the consequences of both accidental and routine releases of radioactivity to the environment; and results can be obtained as a function of time. A number of validation studies have been carried out on FARMLAND. In these the model predictions have been compared with a variety of sets of environmental measurement data. Some of these studies will be outlined in the paper. A model to predict external radiation exposure from radioactivity deposited on different surfaces in the environment has also been developed at NRPB. This model, called EXPURT (EXPosure from Urban Radionuclide Transfer), can be used to predict radiation doses as a function of time following deposition in a variety of environments, ranging from rural to inner-city areas. This paper outlines validation studies and future extensions to be carried out on EXPURT. (12 refs., 4 figs.)

  20. Matching Three Classifications of Secondary Students to Differential Levels of Study Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Steven V.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of matching 82 secondary students (learning disabled, remedial, and nondisabled) to differential levels of study guides. The study evaluated two treatment conditions (multilevel study guides containing different levels of referential cues, and single-level study guides without referential cues), used in…

  1. The use of ecological classification in management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance A. Carpenter; Wolf-Dieter Busch; David T. Cleland; Juan Gallegos; Rick Harris; ray Holm; Chris Topik; Al Williamson

    1999-01-01

    Ecological classificafion systems range over a variety of scales and reflect a variety of scientific viewpoints. They incorporate or emphasize varied arrays of environmental factors. Ecological classifications have been developed for marine, wetland, lake, stream, and terrestrial ecosystems. What are the benefits of ecological classification for natural resource...

  2. Concept Study: Exploration and Production in Environmentally Sensitive Arctic Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Rich Haut; Tom Williams; Yuri Shur; Mikhail Kanevskiy; Cathy Hanks; Michael Lilly

    2008-12-31

    The Alaska North Slope offers one of the best prospects for increasing U.S. domestic oil and gas production. However, this region faces some of the greatest environmental and logistical challenges to oil and gas production in the world. A number of studies have shown that weather patterns in this region are warming, and the number of days the tundra surface is adequately frozen for tundra travel each year has declined. Operators are not allowed to explore in undeveloped areas until the tundra is sufficiently frozen and adequate snow cover is present. Spring breakup then forces rapid evacuation of the area prior to snowmelt. Using the best available methods, exploration in remote arctic areas can take up to three years to identify a commercial discovery, and then years to build the infrastructure to develop and produce. This makes new exploration costly. It also increases the costs of maintaining field infrastructure, pipeline inspections, and environmental restoration efforts. New technologies are needed, or oil and gas resources may never be developed outside limited exploration stepouts from existing infrastructure. Industry has identified certain low-impact technologies suitable for operations, and has made improvements to reduce the footprint and impact on the environment. Additional improvements are needed for exploration and economic field development and end-of-field restoration. One operator-Anadarko Petroleum Corporation-built a prototype platform for drilling wells in the Arctic that is elevated, modular, and mobile. The system was tested while drilling one of the first hydrate exploration wells in Alaska during 2003-2004. This technology was identified as a potentially enabling technology by the ongoing Joint Industry Program (JIP) Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program. The EFD is headed by Texas A&M University and the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), and is co-funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The EFD

  3. A new tool for supervised classification of satellite images available on web servers: Google Maps as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Flores, Agustín.; Paz-Gallardo, Abel; Plaza, Antonio; Li, Jun

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes a new web platform dedicated to the classification of satellite images called Hypergim. The current implementation of this platform enables users to perform classification of satellite images from any part of the world thanks to the worldwide maps provided by Google Maps. To perform this classification, Hypergim uses unsupervised algorithms like Isodata and K-means. Here, we present an extension of the original platform in which we adapt Hypergim in order to use supervised algorithms to improve the classification results. This involves a significant modification of the user interface, providing the user with a way to obtain samples of classes present in the images to use in the training phase of the classification process. Another main goal of this development is to improve the runtime of the image classification process. To achieve this goal, we use a parallel implementation of the Random Forest classification algorithm. This implementation is a modification of the well-known CURFIL software package. The use of this type of algorithms to perform image classification is widespread today thanks to its precision and ease of training. The actual implementation of Random Forest was developed using CUDA platform, which enables us to exploit the potential of several models of NVIDIA graphics processing units using them to execute general purpose computing tasks as image classification algorithms. As well as CUDA, we use other parallel libraries as Intel Boost, taking advantage of the multithreading capabilities of modern CPUs. To ensure the best possible results, the platform is deployed in a cluster of commodity graphics processing units (GPUs), so that multiple users can use the tool in a concurrent way. The experimental results indicate that this new algorithm widely outperform the previous unsupervised algorithms implemented in Hypergim, both in runtime as well as precision of the actual classification of the images.

  4. Spectroscopic studies of uranium species for environmental decontamination applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Charlotte

    After the Cold War, Department of Energy began to concentrate its efforts on cleanup of former nuclear material processing facilities, especially uranium-contaminated groundwater and soil. This research aims to study uranium association to both organic and inorganic compounds found in the contaminated environment in the hopes that the information gathered can be applied to the development and optimization of cost-effective remediation techniques. Spectroscopic and electrochemical methods will be employed to examine the behavior of uranium in given conditions to further our understanding of its impact on the environment. Uranium found in groundwater and soil bind with various ligands, especially organic ligands present in the environment due to natural sources (e.g. metabolic by-products or degradation of plants and animals) or man-made sources (e.g. chelating agents used in operating or cleanup of uranium processing facilities). We selected reasonable analogs of naturally occurring matter and studied their structure, chemical and electrochemical behavior and found that the structure of uranyl complexes depends heavily on the nature of the ligand and environmental factors such as pH. Association of uranium-organic complexes with anaerobic bacteria, Clostridium sp. was studied to establish if the bacteria can effectively bioreduce uranium while going through normal bacterial activity. It was found that the nature of the organic ligand affected the bioavailability and toxicity of the uranium on the bacteria. In addition, we have found that the type of iron corrosion products and uranyl species present on the surface of corroded steel depended on various environmental factors, which subsequently affected the removal rate of uranium by a citric acid/hydrogen peroxide/deionized water cleaning process. The method was found to remove uranium from only the topmost corrosion layers and residual uranium could be found (a) deeper in the corrosion layers where it is occluded by

  5. A standardized CT/HRCT classification for occupational and environmental lung diseases of the German Federal Republic; Standardisierte CT/HRCT-Klassifikation der Bundesrepublik Deutschland fuer arbeits- und umweltbedingte Thoraxerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, K.G. [Radiologische Klinik, Knappschaftskrankenhaus Dortmund (Germany); Tuengerthal, S. [Roentgenabteilung, Thoraxklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Kraus, T. [Institut fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) plays an indispensable role in the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis and other lung damage arising from inhalation. Till now, however, there has been no agreed standardized convention for the use of the technique, or for documenting results uniformly. A task-group on Diagnostic Radiology in Occupational and Environmental Diseases of the German Radiological Society has produced a coding sheet based on experience gained in production of consultants' clinical reports, experts' examinations of patients seeking compensation for occupational lung disease, and physicians' professional development courses. The coding sheet has been used in a national multicenter study. It has been further developed and tested by an international working group comprising experts from Belgium (P.A. Gevenois), Germany (K.G. Hering, T. Kraus, S. Tuengerthal), Finland (L. Kivisaari, T. Vehmas), France (M. Letourneux), Great Britain (M.D. Crane), Japan (H. Arikawa, Y. Kusaka, N. Suganuma), and the USA (J. Parker). The intention is to standardize documentation of computertomographic findings in occupationally and environmentally related lung and pleural changes, and to facilitate international comparisons of results. Such comparisons were found to be achievable reproducibly with the help of CT/HRCT reference films. The classification scheme is purely descriptive (rather than diagnostic), so that all aspects of occupationally and environmentally related parenchymal and pleural abnormalities may be recorded. Although some of the descriptive terms used are associated with pneumoconiosis (e.g., rounded opacities in silicosis, or, in asbestosis, interlobular septal and intralobular non-septal lines, as well as honeycombing) many overlapping patterns that need to be considered for differential diagnosis are also included in the scheme. (orig.) [German] Die hochaufloesende Computertomographie (HRCT, ''high resolution CT'') ist ein

  6. Does the World Health Organization histological classification predict outcomes after thymomectomy? Results of a multicentre study on 750 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrera, Francesco; Rendina, Erino Angelo; Venuta, Federico; Margaritora, Stefano; Ciccone, Anna Maria; Novellis, Pierluigi; Novero, Domenico; Anile, Marco; Bora, Giulia; Rena, Ottavio; Casadio, Caterina; Mussi, Alfredo; Evangelista, Andrea; Ruffini, Enrico; Lucchi, Marco; Filosso, Pier Luigi

    2015-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) thymoma histological classification clinical value remains a controversy. In this study, we evaluated its prognostic significance in patients with thymoma treated with radical intent. Six high-volume Italian Thoracic Surgery Institutions collaborated with their own retrospective anonymized datasets. Demographic, clinical, pathological and treatment data were examined. A WHO histological classification (WHO-HC) collapsed scheme (A/AB and B1/B2 types merged) was proposed and compared with the traditional one. Predictors of survival were assessed using a Cox model with shared frailty. Competing-risk regression models were performed to identify the association between individual factors and freedom from recurrence. Between 1990 and 2011, 750 thymomas were operated on in participating centres. Myasthenia gravis was observed in 363 (48%) patients. A complete resection was achieved in 676 (91%) cases. One hundred and nine patients (15%) had a WHO-HC A type, 166 (22%) AB, 179 (24%) B1, 158 (21%) B2 and 135 (18%) B3. The rate of 5-year OS and cumulative incidence of recurrence for all cases was 91% and 0.11, respectively. Five-year survival rates by WHO-HC in the collapsed scheme were A/AB 93%, early-B 90% and advanced-B 85%. Masaoka stage only was demonstrated to be an independent predictor for survival and recurrence. The WHO-collapsed scheme showed a trend in influencing recurrence overall survival development (hazard ratio: 1.32; P = 0.16). Our results show evidence of lack of significance by WHO-HC in influencing prognosis, even though the proposed collapsed scheme revealed a fair stratification of risk to relapses and better correlation with patients' clinical characteristics. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  7. External Validation of the European Hernia Society Classification for Postoperative Complications after Incisional Hernia Repair: A Cohort Study of 2,191 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, Leonard F; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; Lange, Johan F; Gillion, Jean-Francois

    2018-03-01

    Incisional hernia is a frequent complication after midline laparotomy. Surgical hernia repair is associated with complications, but no clear predictive risk factors have been identified. The European Hernia Society (EHS) classification offers a structured framework to describe hernias and to analyze postoperative complications. Because of its structured nature, it might prove to be useful for preoperative patient or treatment classification. The objective of this study was to investigate the EHS classification as a predictor for postoperative complications after incisional hernia surgery. An analysis was performed using a registry-based, large-scale, prospective cohort study, including all patients undergoing incisional hernia surgery between September 1, 2011 and February 29, 2016. Univariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed to identify risk factors for postoperative complications. A total of 2,191 patients were included, of whom 323 (15%) had 1 or more complications. Factors associated with complications in univariate analyses (p < 0.20) and clinically relevant factors were included in the multivariable analysis. In the multivariable analysis, EHS width class, incarceration, open surgery, duration of surgery, Altemeier wound class, and therapeutic antibiotic treatment were independent risk factors for postoperative complications. Third recurrence and emergency surgery were associated with fewer complications. Incisional hernia repair is associated with a 15% complication rate. The EHS width classification is associated with postoperative complications. To identify patients at risk for complications, the EHS classification is useful. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The economic valuation of environmental quality: A methodological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung Yucsheng.

    1991-01-01

    Conducted in the context of sportfishing, this study uses Michigan data to estimate fishing demand and resulting consumer surplus accruing from environmental-policy implementation. For the modeling of fish-species and site decisions, a nested multinomial logit model is employed. On a pre-determined choice occasion during which a trip of a specific duration will be taken, an angler is assumed first to make a fish-species decision, then choose a site. The seasonal-participation decision is modeled by a competing-risks stochastic renewal process, incorporating time-varying parameters to account for changes in site quality through time. Since the number of trips would most likely change after a potential site-quality improvement, the proposed seasonal compensating variation (CV) calculation takes into account (1) the CV associated with the trips that would have been taken before the quality improvement, and (2) the CV associated with the new trips. The approach proposed in this study is applied to two real world policy scenarios: The termination of the Ludington Pumped Storage plant operation, and the removal of PCB contamination in the Kalamazoo River. The compensating variation is derived for both applications

  9. Chromatographic separation of Iodine species for environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, E.C. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geoquimica]. E-mail: geoedin@vm.uff.br; Bellido, A.V.B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisico-Quimica]. E-mail: alf@risc2.rmn.uff.br; Bellido, L.F. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: lbellido@cnen.gov.br

    1999-07-01

    In this work a experimental method was developed to separate iodine species from environmental samples by using adsorption chromatography. The radionuclide {sup 123} I which has a half-life of 13 h and a convenient gamma ray of 159 keV was used to investigate a fast and efficient procedure for the separation of iodide and iodate ions in seawater from mangrove samples. The radio-iodine tracer technique is very useful, particularly in kinetic studies because it is easy to detect without any interference of concentration due to the small amount of tracer that is spiked. It is also possible to add two tracers (I-123 and I-131) in different oxidation states. Three chromatographic methods were studied: paper, thin layer and adsorption chromatography with silica and alumina. It was found that paper chromatography is very useful for checking the valence adjustment of the radioiodine species. Initially, several coefficient distributions of iodine species by adsorption in silica and alumina from NaOH, NaHCO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 3} solutions (in the range 05. - 0.0001 m) were determined. The best separation so far was achieved by loading the sample (after adjusting the concentration to 0.1 NNaNO{sub 3}) into a chromatographic column with Al{sub 2} O{sub 3}. The iodide passes through the column and after washing the column, the iodate was removed by eluting with 1.0 M NaHCO{sub 3} solution. (author)

  10. Chromatographic separation of Iodine species for environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, E.C.

    1999-01-01

    In this work a experimental method was developed to separate iodine species from environmental samples by using adsorption chromatography. The radionuclide 123 I which has a half-life of 13 h and a convenient gamma ray of 159 keV was used to investigate a fast and efficient procedure for the separation of iodide and iodate ions in seawater from mangrove samples. The radio-iodine tracer technique is very useful, particularly in kinetic studies because it is easy to detect without any interference of concentration due to the small amount of tracer that is spiked. It is also possible to add two tracers (I-123 and I-131) in different oxidation states. Three chromatographic methods were studied: paper, thin layer and adsorption chromatography with silica and alumina. It was found that paper chromatography is very useful for checking the valence adjustment of the radioiodine species. Initially, several coefficient distributions of iodine species by adsorption in silica and alumina from NaOH, NaHCO 3 and NaNO 3 solutions (in the range 05. - 0.0001 m) were determined. The best separation so far was achieved by loading the sample (after adjusting the concentration to 0.1 NNaNO 3 ) into a chromatographic column with Al 2 O 3 . The iodide passes through the column and after washing the column, the iodate was removed by eluting with 1.0 M NaHCO 3 solution. (author)

  11. A scoping study for an environmental impact field programme in tidal current energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study to identify the environmental impacts of tidal current energy with the aim of prioritising research. The background to the study is traced, and the interaction between tidal current energy technology and the marine environment, the modeling of the consequences of the environmental interactions, the quantification of the environmental impacts of key environmental interactions, and the formulation of a programme of research are discussed. Recommendations are given and research needs are highlighted.

  12. Fifty years of studies on environmental radioactivity in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osores, Jose M.; Gonzales, Susana; Martinez, Jorge; Lopez, Edith; Jara, Raul; Anaya, Aurelio

    2008-01-01

    In May of 1962, due to the explosions carried out by the Commission of Atomic Energy of the United States in the Christmas Island, a group of professionals of the 'Junta de Control de Energia Atomica' of Peru, created in 1957, carried out experimental evaluations of atmospheric radioactivity, obtaining acceptable results regarding those of Naval US Research Laboratory, this was the beginning of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Radioactivity that begins to operate permanently in February of 1964. In 1966, France began a program of nuclear tests in the French Polynesian, generating concern due to the meteorological conditions that could affect the peruvian population. With the support of experts and equipments on the part of the government from France, the Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity began their activities in August of 1966. At the present time, the Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity is located in the Nuclear Center RACSO of the 'Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear' and it carries out the following programs: Radiological Environmental Surveillance in the Influence Area of the Nuclear Center, Nationwide Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Marine Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Radiological Environmental Surveillance in the Peruvian Antarctic Region and Surveillance of the Radioactive Contamination of Foods. The results of the evaluations of the programs of radiological environmental surveillance, developed nationwide from 1962, show one gradual decrease of the levels of environmental radioactivity. Significant concentrations of Cs-137 and Be-7 were found in the Antarctic region, and, in the area of influence of the nuclear center RACSO, environmental discharges of I-131, Cs-137, Co-60, Cs- 134 and Te-123m were detected, however, the concentrations did not present radiological risk for the population. (author)

  13. How Twitter Is Studied in the Medical Professions: A Classification of Twitter Papers Indexed in PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shirley Ann; Terras, Melissa; Warwick, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Since their inception, Twitter and related microblogging systems have provided a rich source of information for researchers and have attracted interest in their affordances and use. Since 2009 PubMed has included 123 journal articles on medicine and Twitter, but no overview exists as to how the field uses Twitter in research. This paper aims to identify published work relating to Twitter within the fields indexed by PubMed, and then to classify it. This classification will provide a framework in which future researchers will be able to position their work, and to provide an understanding of the current reach of research using Twitter in medical disciplines. Papers on Twitter and related topics were identified and reviewed. The papers were then qualitatively classified based on the paper's title and abstract to determine their focus. The work that was Twitter focused was studied in detail to determine what data, if any, it was based on, and from this a categorization of the data set size used in the studies was developed. Using open coded content analysis additional important categories were also identified, relating to the primary methodology, domain, and aspect. As of 2012, PubMed comprises more than 21 million citations from biomedical literature, and from these a corpus of 134 potentially Twitter related papers were identified, eleven of which were subsequently found not to be relevant. There were no papers prior to 2009 relating to microblogging, a term first used in 2006. Of the remaining 123 papers which mentioned Twitter, thirty were focused on Twitter (the others referring to it tangentially). The early Twitter focused papers introduced the topic and highlighted the potential, not carrying out any form of data analysis. The majority of published papers used analytic techniques to sort through thousands, if not millions, of individual tweets, often depending on automated tools to do so. Our analysis demonstrates that researchers are starting to use knowledge

  14. How Twitter Is Studied in the Medical Professions: A Classification of Twitter Papers Indexed in PubMed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Since their inception, Twitter and related microblogging systems have provided a rich source of information for researchers and have attracted interest in their affordances and use. Since 2009 PubMed has included 123 journal articles on medicine and Twitter, but no overview exists as to how the field uses Twitter in research. Objective This paper aims to identify published work relating to Twitter within the fields indexed by PubMed, and then to classify it. This classification will provide a framework in which future researchers will be able to position their work, and to provide an understanding of the current reach of research using Twitter in medical disciplines. Methods Papers on Twitter and related topics were identified and reviewed. The papers were then qualitatively classified based on the paper’s title and abstract to determine their focus. The work that was Twitter focused was studied in detail to determine what data, if any, it was based on, and from this a categorization of the data set size used in the studies was developed. Using open coded content analysis additional important categories were also identified, relating to the primary methodology, domain, and aspect. Results As of 2012, PubMed comprises more than 21 million citations from biomedical literature, and from these a corpus of 134 potentially Twitter related papers were identified, eleven of which were subsequently found not to be relevant. There were no papers prior to 2009 relating to microblogging, a term first used in 2006. Of the remaining 123 papers which mentioned Twitter, thirty were focused on Twitter (the others referring to it tangentially). The early Twitter focused papers introduced the topic and highlighted the potential, not carrying out any form of data analysis. The majority of published papers used analytic techniques to sort through thousands, if not millions, of individual tweets, often depending on automated tools to do so. Our analysis demonstrates that

  15. Inter-rater reliability of a modified version of Delitto et al.’s classification-based system for low back pain : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn, Adri T.; van Helvoirt, Hans; Ostelo, Raymond W.; Meihuizen, Hanneke; Kamper, Steven J.; van Tulder, Maurits W.; de Vet, Henrica C W

    2016-01-01

    Study design:: Observational inter-rater reliability study. Objectives: To examine: (1) the inter-rater reliability of a modified version of Delitto et al.’s classification-based algorithm for patients with low back pain; (2) the influence of different levels of familiarity with the system; and (3)

  16. Quantification and classification of the main environmental impacts on a Halodule wrightii seagrass meadow on a tropical island in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Pitanga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiple stress mechanisms have caused a worldwide decrease in seagrasses, which are vulnerable to environmental and/or anthropogenic pressure. The loss of seagrass meadows of Halodule wrightii is reported for the littoral of Itamaracá Island (Northeastern Brazil. The present study identified the main anthropogenic factors that negatively influenced over the abundance and distribution of seagrass meadows between July and September 2007 at the Jaguaribe and Pilar Beaches, Eastern littoral of Itamaracá. Anthropogenic impact included the discharge of untreated sewage through fluvial channels, urban and commercial development along the coast, the anchoring of motorized and non-motorized boats, diverse fishing techniques and the dumping of solid waste. The data indicates that the Pilar is an environment with a higher impact index (71.43% when compared with the Jaguaribe (57.14%, standing out the number of boats with a central motor, the total number of boats, the presence of shellfish gatherers and coastal urban development. The present study reinforces the need for defining management and conservation measures for this ecosystem, which has high ecological and economic value.Múltiplos mecanismos estressores têm causado em todo mundo declínio das angiospermas marinhas, que são vulneráveis a pressões ambientais e/ou antrópicas. A perda de prados de Halodule wrightii tem sido relatada para o litoral da Ilha de Itamaracá (Nordeste do Brasil. O presente estudo identificou os principais fatores antrópicos que influenciaram negativamente na abundância e distribuição desses prados entre Julho e Setembro de 2007 nas praias de Jaguaribe e do Pilar, litoral leste de Itamaracá. O impacto antropogênico incluiu despejo de efluentes in natura nos canais fluviais, desenvolvimento urbano e comercial na linha de costa, ancoragem de embarcações motorizadas e não-motorizadas, técnicas diversas de pesca e disposição de resíduos sólidos. Os dados

  17. Pro-environmental Behavior Regarding Solid Waste Management in Householders of Kalutara Urban Council Area- A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Amarasinghe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems generated by solid waste have become a major national issue in Sri Lanka due to high levels of economic growth and consumption. Inappropriate management of solid waste may generate many problems such as environmental pollution, public health, social and economic problems as well as aesthetic issues. Therefore, this problem needs immediate attention not only for the management of waste, but also for the study of individual behavior related to solid waste production and use. This research was carried out as a case study in Kalutara urban council area, where behavior that is related to the production and management of waste is analyzed. To achieve this, a questionnaire survey was done for the households of Kalutara North, Kalutara South and Katukurunda. The households’ descriptive, inferential and informative believes were identified where they express agreement or disagreement regarding the final disposal of waste. In total 100 households completed the questionnaire. This work approached the behavioral aspect of the problem by considering the attitudes towards the environment and the beliefs about the environment. In addition, knowledge of environment and the problems raised have been considered for prediction of environmentally protective behavior. In this investigation, the classification of believes were considered in terms of austerity or limitation of consumption, conservation and material beliefs or material squandering. Further, the environmental attitudes were considered as emotional, cognitive (know and behavioral. Based on the preliminary results of this study, it can be concluded that believes and attitudes show a certain level of relation with the behavior of the households. The questionnaire survey was useful to highlight the solid waste problem that exists in the area and to indicate the trends of attitudes and behavior among the solid waste management. Further, by considering the findings of this study, an environmental

  18. Classifications in popular music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, A.; Schmutz, V.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The categorical system of popular music, such as genre categories, is a highly differentiated and dynamic classification system. In this article we present work that studies different aspects of these categorical systems in popular music. Following the work of Paul DiMaggio, we focus on four

  19. Binary Classification of a Large Collection of Environmental Chemicals from Estrogen Receptor Assays by Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship and Machine Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: There are thousands of environmental chemicals subject to regulatory decisions for endocrine disrupting potential. A promising approach to manage this large universe of untested chemicals is to use a prioritization filter that combines in vitro assays with in silico QSA...

  20. Food for Thought: An Analysis of Pro-Environmental Behaviours and Food Choices in Ontario Environmental Studies Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, Mary

    2013-01-01

    In Canada, there exists a noteworthy educational initiative referred to as Environmental Studies Programs (ESPs). These secondary school programs are interdisciplinary, helping to link subject matter and encouraging student responsibility. This paper will present student reports from five case studies where I investigated how ESP participation…