WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental stress agents

  1. An Agent-Based Modeling Framework for Simulating Human Exposure to Environmental Stresses in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Emlyn Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches have been used to assess potential human exposure to environmental stresses and achieve optimal results under various conditions, such as for example, for different scales, groups of people, or points in time. A thorough literature review in this paper identifies the research gap regarding modeling approaches for assessing human exposure to environment stressors, and it indicates that microsimulation tools are becoming increasingly important in human exposure assessments of urban environments, in which each person is simulated individually and continuously. The paper further describes an agent-based model (ABM framework that can dynamically simulate human exposure levels, along with their daily activities, in urban areas that are characterized by environmental stresses such as air pollution and heat stress. Within the framework, decision-making processes can be included for each individual based on rule-based behavior in order to achieve goals under changing environmental conditions. The ideas described in this paper are implemented in a free and open source NetLogo platform. A basic modeling scenario of the ABM framework in Hamburg, Germany, demonstrates its utility in various urban environments and individual activity patterns, as well as its portability to other models, programs, and frameworks. The prototype model can potentially be extended to support environmental incidence management through exploring the daily routines of different groups of citizens, and comparing the effectiveness of different strategies. Further research is needed to fully develop an operational version of the model.

  2. The mosaic of environment involvement in autoimmunity: the abrogation of viral latency by stress, a non-infectious environmental agent, is an intrinsic prerequisite prelude before viruses can rank as infectious environmental agents that trigger autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temajo, Norbert O; Howard, Neville

    2014-06-01

    An autoimmune disease (AD), organ-specific or systemic, results from an aberrant response in which the protective immune system normally schooled to recognize and destroy invading infectious agents (viruses, etc.) instead fails to distinguish self-antigens and proceeds to attack and destroy the host's organs. There can be familial aggregation in which a single AD may occur in members of a family, or a single family may be afflicted with multiple ADs. Finally, sometimes multiple ADs co-occur in a single individual: the kaleidoscope of autoimmunity. Autoimmunity is a multifactorial process in which genetic, hormonal, immunological and environmental factors act in concert to materialize the mosaic of autoimmunity phenomenon. A genetically primed individual may yet not develop an AD: the contribution by an environmental factor (non-infectious or infectious) is essential for completion of the act. Of the non-infectious factors, stress plays a determinative step in autoimmunity in that it abrogates viral latency and thereby ordains the viruses to qualify as infectious environmental factors that trigger ADs. This is note-worthy as viruses rank first as the most important environmental triggers of ADs. Furthermore, all these viruses experience going through latency. Hence the hypothesis: "The abrogation of viral latency by stress, a non-infectious environmental agent, is an intrinsic prerequisite prelude before viruses can rank as infectious environmental agents that trigger autoimmune diseases". There is collaboration here between non-infectious- and infectious-agent to achieve the cause of autoimmunity. We say viral latency and stress have a covenant: continued perpetration of autoimmunity is dependent on the intervention by stress to reactivate latent infections. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Biochemical toxicology of environmental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, A. de

    1976-01-01

    A thorough and up-to-date account of the molecular-biological aspects of harmful agents - both chemical and physical - is given. This current treatise is principally intended to serve as an informative reference work for researchers in various areas of the field. In the pursuit of this aim, a devision of the entire field into 42 chapters has been made. Each chapter starts with a short introductory account dealing with the biochemical essentials of the particular subject. Radiation effects are discussed briefly at the end of each treatise. In order to make the treatise useful as a source book, a substantial collection of pertinent literature references is provided which are numbered in order of citation in the text. Initial chapters are devoted to the metabolic fate of the major classes of xenobiotic compounds. Peripheral topics, closely related to metabolism and dealing with modification of xenobiotic-metabolizing ability, as well as interaction phenomena follow (chs. 5-8). Subjects that draw heavily on the practical field of occupational hygiene are dealt with in chapters 9 and 10. The systematic treatment of how chemical and physical agents interact with the various biochemical and enzymatic systems they encounter during their passage through the organism occupies quantitatively the main part of the book (chs. 11-36). Finally, radiation biochemistry is discussed from the viewpoint of its high degree of scientific advancement, and secondly because the type of biochemical changes produced in vivo by X-rays closely parallel those evoked by chemical agents

  4. Pharmacological stress agents in nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscombe, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Treadmill test combined with myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is a commonly used technique in the assessment of coronary artery disease. However there are a group of patients who may not be able to undergo treadmill tests. Patients with underlying conditions like neuromuscular disease, musculoskeletal disorder, heart failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on renal dialysis would find it difficult to perform exercise on a treadmill or bicycle ergometer. These conditions prevent them from performing adequate exercise. Such patients would benefit from pharmacological stress procedures combined with MPS. Nuclear medicine departments use various pharmacological agents while performing stress tests on cardiac patients. The most commonly used pharmacological agents for cardiac stress are coronary vasodilators and catecholamines. In addition to these agents, adjuvant use of nitrates and atropine is also a common practice in nuclear cardiology. This review addresses various physiological and pharmacological properties of the commonly used pharmacological stress agents in MPS and critically analyses their advantages and disadvantages, as well as their safety and efficacy. (author)

  5. Protein Sulfenylation: A Novel Readout of Environmental Oxidant Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress is a commonly cited mechanism of toxicity of environmental agents. Ubiquitous environmental chemicals such as the diesel exhaust component 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ)induce oxidative stress by redox cycling, which generates hydrogen peroxide (H202). Cysteinylthio...

  6. Environmental Agents Service (EAS) Registry System of Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Environmental Agent Service (EAS) Registries is the information system encompassing the Ionizing Radiation Registry (IRR), the Agent Orange Registry (AOR), and...

  7. Environmental Knowledge as Design Development Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buthayna Hasan Eilouti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Linking knowledge learnt from nature with concepts of man-made product generation, Biomimetics represents an application of environmental knowledge on engineering design. In this paper, an exploratory approach that is based on the concepts of Biomimetics and their potential transformations into design processing agents is introduced. The approach is tested as a project that applies knowledge inspired by organisms in their natural biomes for the derivation of architectural designs. The project is implemented in a digital architectural design studio in order to model metamorphosis and simulate adaptations of products. The results of the project implementation seem to encourage adopting its associative environmental problem-solving techniques and inter-disciplinary methods as alternatives or complementary to conventional functional- or formal-oriented problem-solving approaches.

  8. Stress coping strategies among agricultural extension agents in Oyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress coping strategies among agricultural extension agents in Oyo State, Nigeria. ... Journal Home > Vol 20, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or ... Employees should have control over work flow to reduce work stress and increase work efficiency.

  9. Coral lipids and environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriott, V J

    1993-04-01

    Environmental monitoring of coral reefs is presently limited by difficulties in recognising coral stress, other than by monitoring coral mortality over time. A recent report described an experiment demonstrating that a measured lipid index declined in shaded corals. The technique described might have application in monitoring coral health, with a decline in coral lipid index as an indicator of coral stress. The application of the technique as a practical monitoring tool was tested for two coral species from the Great Barrier Reef. Consistent with the previous results, lipid index for Pocillopora damicornis initially declined over a period of three weeks in corals maintained in filtered seawater in the dark, indicating possible utilization of lipid stored as energy reserves. However, lipid index subsequently rose to near normal levels. In contrast, lipid index of Acropora formosa increased after four weeks in the dark in filtered seawater. The results showed considerable variability in lipid content between samples from the same colony. Results were also found to be dependent on fixation times and sample weight, introducing potential error into the practical application of the technique. The method as described would be unsuitable for monitoring environmental stress in corals, but the search for a practical method to monitor coral health should continue, given its importance in coral reef management.

  10. Appraisal of alternative skin model for the study of epidermal restoration following exposure to various environmental stress agents: ionising radiation and UV B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoir, M.

    2006-06-01

    Human skin is a major target tissue for ionising radiation (IR) and UV B. We developed a skin explant model and used 2 types of keratinocytes to study survival and oxidative stress induced by these radiations. We examined oxidative damages by measuring R.O.S. produced and cellular anti-oxidant defenses induced. We observed into skin exposed to IR a modulation of genes expression implied in the control of oxidative stress, confirmed by the decrease of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzymatic activities. The imbalance observed between anti- and pro-apoptotic genes expression shows that keratinocytes apoptosis may be partly dependent on radio-induced R.O.S. production. We showed the difference of radiosensitivity between N.H.E.K. and Ha Ca.T., which may be linked to their differential oxidative responses. In addition, during re-epithelialising, we demonstrated that activated N.H.E.K. after IR express keratin 6, release pro-inflammatory cytokines and proliferate, without modification of their differentiation. Treatment of N.H.E.K. with geranyl geranylacetone (G.G.A.) has a beneficial effect on their radio-induced activation by increasing IL-1 release, their migration in scrapped area and their survival. G.G.A. has an anti apoptotic ability (induction of Hsp70- caspase-3 pathway) and migratory properties (P38/RhoA activation) on N.H.E.K., but after IR, only caspase-3 pathway is induced. This work thus contributes to the understanding of cutaneous damages after IR and G.G.A. mechanism of action which accelerates re-epithelialising. (author)

  11. Stress influences environmental donation behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollberger, Silja; Bernauer, Thomas; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Stress has been found to have both positive and negative effects on prosocial behavior, suggesting the involvement of moderating factors such as context and underlying motives. In the present study, we investigated the conditions under which acute stress leads to an increase vs. decrease in environmental donation behavior as an indicator of prosocial behavior. In particular, we examined whether the effects of stress depended on preexisting pro-environmental orientation and stage of the donation decision (whether or not to donate vs. the amount to be donated). Male participants with either high (N=40) or low (N=39) pro-environmental orientation were randomly assigned to a social stress test or a control condition. Salivary cortisol was assessed repeatedly before and after stress induction. At the end of the experiment, all subjects were presented with an opportunity to donate a portion of their monetary compensation to a climate protection foundation. We found that stress significantly increased donation frequency, but only in subjects with low pro-environmental orientation. Congruously, their decision to donate was positively associated with cortisol response to the stress test and the emotion regulation strategy mood repair, as well as accompanied by an increase in subjective calmness. In contrast, among the participants who decided to donate, stress significantly reduced the donated amount of money, regardless of pro-environmental orientation. In conclusion, our findings suggest that acute stress might generally activate more self-serving motivations, such as making oneself feel better and securing one's own material interests. Importantly, however, a strong pro-environmental orientation partially prevented these effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stress, depression, quality of life and salivary cortisol levels in community health agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Berenice Scaletzky; Cocco, Rafaela Abreu; Radtke, Vinicius Augusto; Medeiros, João Ricardo Carvalho; Oses, Jean Pierre; Wiener, Carolina David; Jansen, Karen

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with depression and stress with perceived quality of life and the salivary cortisol levels in Community Health Agent (CHA). Materials and Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study of CHAs in Pelotas-RS, Brazil. Data collection, including sociodemographic information and factors related to work and health. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) II was used to assess depressive symptoms, Inventory of Stress Symptoms Lipp (ISSL) was used for the analysis of stress and the WHOQOL-BREF was used to investigate quality of life. Salivary cortisol was quantified via ELISA test. The assessments showed that 71.0% are in a state of stress resistance, 30.5% were in the alert state of stress and 32.8% were in the stress state of exhaustion. Depressive episodes (BDI≥12) were observed in 28.2%. The environmental domain had the lowest score for quality of life. We observed significantly higher salivary cortisol levels in CHAs with less than 1 year of service and with the lowest quality of life scores in the environmental subsection. A high prevalence of stress and depression was observed in this sample of CHAs. In addition, the worst levels of quality of life were identified in the environmental subsection. Cortisol levels corroborate these findings regarding quality of life within the environmental domain and began working less than a year previously.

  13. Safety of ultrasound contrast agents in stress echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Ruvin S; Smyth, Yvonne M; Menon, Venu; Klein, Allan L; Grimm, Richard A; Thomas, James D; Sabik, Ellen Mayer

    2008-11-01

    Definity and Optison are perflutren-based ultrasound contrast agents used in echocardiography. United States Food and Drug Administration warnings regarding serious cardiopulmonary reactions and death after Definity administration highlighted the limited safety data in patients who undergo contrast stress echocardiography. From 1998 and 2007, 2,022 patients underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography and 2,764 underwent exercise stress echocardiography with contrast at the Cleveland Clinic. The echocardiographic database, patient records, and the Social Security Death Index were reviewed for the timing and cause of death, severe adverse events, arrhythmias, and symptoms. Complication rates for contrast dobutamine stress echocardiography and exercise stress echocardiography were compared with those in a control group of 5,012 patients matched for test year and type who did not receive contrast. Ninety-five percent of studies were performed in outpatients. There were no differences in the rates of severe adverse events (0.19% vs 0.17%, p = 0.7), death within 24 hours (0% vs 0.04%, p = 0.1), cardiac arrest (0.04% vs 0.04%, p = 0.96), and sustained ventricular tachycardia (0.2% vs 0.1%, p = 0.32) between patients receiving and not receiving intravenous contrast, respectively. In conclusion, severe adverse reactions to intravenous contrast agents during stress echocardiography are uncommon. Contrast use does not add to the baseline risk for severe adverse events in patients who undergo stress echocardiography.

  14. An agent-based intelligent environmental monitoring system

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasiadis, Ioannis N; Mitkas, Pericles A

    2004-01-01

    Fairly rapid environmental changes call for continuous surveillance and on-line decision making. There are two main areas where IT technologies can be valuable. In this paper we present a multi-agent system for monitoring and assessing air-quality attributes, which uses data coming from a meteorological station. A community of software agents is assigned to monitor and validate measurements coming from several sensors, to assess air-quality, and, finally, to fire alarms to appropriate recipie...

  15. Inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofton, Elizabeth J; Zhang, Yafang; Green, Thomas A

    2015-02-01

    One hallmark of psychiatric conditions is the vast continuum of individual differences in susceptibility vs. resilience resulting from the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The environmental enrichment paradigm is an animal model that is useful for studying a range of psychiatric conditions, including protective phenotypes in addiction and depression models. The major question is how environmental enrichment, a non-drug and non-surgical manipulation, can produce such robust individual differences in such a wide range of behaviors. This paper draws from a variety of published sources to outline a coherent hypothesis of inoculation stress as a factor producing the protective enrichment phenotypes. The basic tenet suggests that chronic mild stress from living in a complex environment and interacting non-aggressively with conspecifics can inoculate enriched rats against subsequent stressors and/or drugs of abuse. This paper reviews the enrichment phenotypes, mulls the fundamental nature of environmental enrichment vs. isolation, discusses the most appropriate control for environmental enrichment, and challenges the idea that cortisol/corticosterone equals stress. The intent of the inoculation stress hypothesis of environmental enrichment is to provide a scaffold with which to build testable hypotheses for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying these protective phenotypes and thus provide new therapeutic targets to treat psychiatric/neurological conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stress in Community Health Agents: a Bioethics Protection Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses Rodrigues de Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Health care professionals suffer from both regular job stress and caregiver stress that arises from the neglect of their work situation. As principles of bioethics protection, vertical protection ratio, health policies should also target health professionals. So, this paper seeks to understand the issue of stress in relation to mental health professionals, specifically the community health agents of the Federal District in Brazil. Methods: This study is an exploratory study that adopts a quantitative approach. Data were obtained by a questionnaire, that mesure social, work and stress factors, in 97 community health agents, a different class of health professional. The SPSS 19.0 program was used to mesure the results. Results: The sociodemographic data of respondentes revealed that the majority were women, 40,2% of the group members fall in the age range 30‒39 years, 51% of respondents were married and 57.7% were of middle socioeconomic status. All Pearson correlations were significant at the 0.01 level (two-tailed. The results show that all stressors are negatively correlated with the mental health factors. These results showed that mental health deteriorates with increased stress. The mental health indicators are strongly and positively associated, indicating that individuals with better mental health show greater personal, social and workplace support. Conclusions: The results indicate the need for management changes in the public health sector related to Bioethics Protection, which states that populations vulnerable to work exploitation should be protected by guaranteeing minimum working conditions.

  17. Environmental stress and assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriano, D.C.; Brisbin, I.L.; Gibbons, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Research progress is reported in sections entitled: Savannah River Plant (SRP) studies provide general models for thermal research; in vivo studies of thermal stabilities of cattail isozymes reveal interspecific differences; thermal regimes in Par Pond have little effect on micronutrient uptake by cattails; continued tree kill in the SRP swamp may have an adverse impact on the swamp's cooling capabilities; Par Pond provides understanding of complexity of lake ecosystems affected by thermal effluents; temperature affects size, species distribution, and emergence date of dragonfly larvae; the midge subcommunity in Par Pond maintains relative integrity across a multi-faceted environmental gradient; temperature does not alter contribution of predators to community stability; habitat affects enzyme activity levels in natural populations of Gambusia affinis; studies of large-mouth bass in Par Pond system reveal lipid cycles; long-term turtle research provides information on survivorship and longevity; data on SRP watersnakes contribute to understanding of sexual dimorphism in animals; terrestrial drift fences and pitfall traps prove to be an effective technique for quantitative sampling of animal populations; and, Steel Creek targeted for environmental assessment

  18. thermal stress and Hsp70 as selective agents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu Sudhan

    starred in an exhaustive list of studies linking its expression to environmental ... genetic stress linked to Hsp70: polyglutamine expansion .... Twenty-five D. melanogaster genes conserved in all twelve Drosophila species (fourth column) possessing conserved ...... like growth factor-1, and vertebral bone mass in men; J. Clin.

  19. Environmental carcinogenic agents and cancer prevention. Risk assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Many agents in our environment have been established as being carcinogenic, and in most cases, the carcinogenic properties of these agents were identified because of high-dose occupational or accidental exposure. Risk characterization, taking into account the dose-response relationship, and exposure assessment are essential for risk assessment and subsequent cancer prevention. Based on scientific risk assessment, risk management should be conducted practically by considering the economic, social, political, and other technical issues and by balancing the risks and benefits. Asbestos and environmental tobacco smoke are typical examples of established carcinogenic agents in the general environment, contributing to low-dose exposure. Further epidemiological studies are required to investigate the carcinogenicity of low-dose exposure to known carcinogenic agents such as arsenic and cadmium through dietary intake, radiation via medical and natural exposure, and air pollution due to diesel exhaust. In contrast, occupational chemical exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane, whose carcinogenicity had not been established, was suggested to cause cholangiocarcinoma among workers involved in offset color proof-printing only after a rare situation of high-dose exposure was unveiled. Continuous monitoring of unusual cancer occurrences in target populations such as workers in occupational and regional settings as well as exposure reduction to suspected carcinogenic agents to levels as low as reasonably achievable is essential for reducing the risk of cancer due to environmental carcinogens. (author)

  20. Plant transcriptomics and responses to environmental stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atta-ur-Rehman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12 Campus, Islamabad 25000, Pakistan; Stress Physiology Lab Department of Botany, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, India; Centre for Environmental Research, Near East University, 33010, Lefkosha, Turkish Republic ...

  1. Markers of environmental stress in forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha

    1999-01-01

    Gradual long-term changes in soil and environmental factors due to human activity, may affect forest trees and lead to loss of forest productivity. In most cases, the symptoms of stress appear too late for their effects to be reversed through management and/or treatment.

  2. The effects of anesthetic agents on oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakan, Selvinaz; Düzgüner, Vesile

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress can be defined as the instability between antioxidant defense of the body and the production of free radical that causes peroxydation on the lipid layer. Free radicals are reactive oxygen species that are produced in the course of normal metabolisms of aerobe organisms and they may cause disorders in cell structure and organelles by interacting macromolecules, like lipid, protein, nucleic acids. Therefore, they may cause cardiovascular, immune system, liver, kidney illnesses and many other illnesses like cancer, aging, cataract, diabetes. It is known that many drugs used for the purpose of anesthetizing may cause lipid peroxidation in organism. For these reasons, determining the Oxidative stress index of anaesthetic stress chosen in the ones that are exposed to long term anaesthetic agents and anaesthesia appliccations, is so substantial.

  3. The divergence between the virus and cellular oxidative stress as separate environmental agents that trigger autoimmunity originates from their different procedural mechanisms of activating the same molecular entity: the transcription factor NF-kappa B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert O. Temajo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To happen, autoimmunity in man requires triggering by environmental factors: the viruses and cellular stress, in genetically primed individuals. The viruses and stress are operatives in this scene as stimuli for the activation of the transcription factor (TF, NF-ΚB. NF-ΚB is unusually activated: the viral activation occurs via serine residues-phosphorylation by IKKβ and IKKε, while the activation by oxidative stress occurs via tyrosine phosphorylation of IΚBα. The phosphorylation of particular amino acid residues of a given protein molecule modulates that protein’s polymorphic conformations, appropriately. For a TF, a given conformation influences its choice of cognate DNA sequence recognition as well as its interactions with neighboring molecules. The TF NF-ΚB performs a battery of regulatory functions. Because it is variously phosphorylated as seen above this implies that NF-ΚB is capable of assuming a multitude of polymorphic conformations that we refer to as “derivative isoforms”. Thus the virus activation of NF-ΚB occurring by phosphorylation at serines S536 and S468 is observed to generate the isoforms with the potential to activate the transcription of viral latency genes, hereby installing a latent infection. But oxidative stress activation of NF-ΚB occurs via phosphorylation of Tyr42 of IΚBα and this yields isoforms that activate the transcription of replication and transcription activator (RTA, the master lytic switch, which thereby abrogates the latency. The steps involved are that the stress-activated NF-ΚB and the viral miRNAs conjoin in a regulatory circuitry identified as feedback and feed-forward network motifs that co-accomplish the switching on of RTA which in turn activates the transcription of the immediate early genes BZLF1 and BRLF1. These two latter genes together mobilize the expression of the set of lytic genes, resulting in a lytic cascade and consequentially set in trend the viral journey to the

  4. Environmental impact assessment of genetically modified biocontrol agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migheli, Q.

    2001-01-01

    This review summarises the theoretical basis of risk analysis, and the political and social implications of introducing new biotechnology products in agricultural environments. The main factors to be considered under the present European regulation in the environmental impact assessment of genetically modified biocontrol agents are briefly discussed. Finally, an alternative risk assessment paradigm is proposed for genetically modified microorganisms, which shall consider the intrinsic properties of each antagonist, rather than the method used for generating it [it

  5. Catch the Best: Novel Screening Strategy to Select Stress Protecting Agents for Crop Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Zachow

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change increases stress levels for crops and affects the economic and environmental aspects of agricultural management systems. The application of stress tolerance-mediating microorganisms is an auspicious strategy for improving crop protection, and as such, we developed a direct selection strategy to obtain cultivable microorganisms from promising bioresources using the bait plants, maize, oilseed rape, sorghum and sugar beet. Alpine mosses, lichens and primrose were selected as bioresources, as each is adapted to adverse environmental conditions. A 10% crop-specific selection was found for bait plant rhizosphere communities using cultivation-independent fingerprints, and their potential role as stress protecting agents (SPA was evaluated following the cultivation of captured bacteria. In addition to assays identifying phytopathogen antagonism and plant growth promotion capacities, our evaluation included those that test the ability to allocate nutrients. Moreover, we developed new assays to measure tolerance in diverse stress conditions. A score scheme was applied to select SPAs with desired properties, and three Pseudomonas species with pronounced antagonistic activity that showed elevated tolerance to desiccation and an improved seed germination rate were subsequently chosen. Screening for environmentally-conditioned and host-adapted microorganisms provides a novel tool for target-oriented exploitation of microbial bioresources for the management of ecofriendly crops facing biotic and abiotic stresses.

  6. The behavior of Kevlar fibers under environmental-stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark Charles

    There are a myriad of mechanisms by which polymers can degrade and fail. It is therefore important to understand the physical mechanics, chemistry, their interactions, and kinetics. This pursuit becomes more than just "academic" because these mechanisms might just change with service conditions (i.e. environment and loading). If one does not understand these processes from the molecular to macroscopic scale it would be exceedingly difficult to gain information from accelerated testing because the mechanisms just might change from one condition to another. The purpose of this study was to probe these processes on scales ranging from molecular to macroscopic in environmental stress conditions. This study reports the results of environmental-stress degradation of Kevlar 49 fibers. The environmental agent of focus was the ubiquitous air pollutant complex NOsb{x}. Other materials and environments were investigated to a lesser extent for purposes of comparison. Mechanical property (i.e., short-term strength, modulus, and creep lifetime) degradation was examined using single fiber, yarn, and epoxy coated yarn (composite) specimens under environmental-stress conditions. Optical and scanning electron microscopes were employed to examine and compare the appearance of fracture features resulting from the various testing conditions. Atomic force microscopy augmented these studies with detailed topographical mappings and measures of the fracture surface frictional and modulus properties. Molecular processes (i.e., chain scission and other mechanical-chemical reactions) were probed by measures of changes in viscosity average molecular weight and the infrared spectra. It was demonstrated that environmental-stress degradation effects do occur in the Kevlar-NOsb{x} gas system. Strength decay in environmentally exposed unloaded fibers was demonstrated and a synergistic response in creep reduced fiber lifetimes by three orders of magnitude at moderate loadings. That is to say, the

  7. Induction of stress responses by polluting agents which dis-regulate cellular homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothersill, Carmel

    2001-01-01

    There is growing concern both in the scientific community and among the general public about the effects of exposure to low levels of radiation and environmental chemicals. The increased incidence of cancer, reproduction disorders and allergies have been associated with ambient environmental exposure to these pollutants. The pollution burden is generally made up of a mixture of agents, occurring at concentrations of the individual compounds which are not considered harmful and which are below the action level. Individual pollutants can act through a variety of primary toxicity mechanisms. However the resulting secondary and tertiary toxicity mechanisms which affect cellular homeostasis might be more common. These resulting stress responses, including oxidative stress, have been associated with effects that include increased level of death during cell division, increased levels of mutation and increased tolerance of mutations in cell populations, increased levels of cytogenetic abnormalities and many other symptoms. These effects are linked to a persistent increase in (oxidative) stress and are particularly evident in the haematopoietic system (possibly due to the high rate self of renewal in that system). Therefore prolonged exposure to mixtures of chemicals and radiation might result in additive and synergistic stress responses which can induce long-term delayed effects, often in progeny or in cells not directly exposed to the agent/s. The existence of a common (oxidative) stress mechanism means that the effects of individual pollutants may not be considered in isolation. Rather the total pollution burden may need to be measured using a response rather than a dose based scoring or ranking system. Improved understanding of toxicity mechanisms and effects underpins improved risk assessment and identification of biomarkers. The immune system plays a pivotal role in maintaining health status, and disruption of immune functions can lead to increased susceptibility to

  8. Hemodynamic effects of a novel pharmacologic stress agent, Higemine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X.L.; Liu, X.J.; Tao, Z.H.; Shi, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Higenamine (dl-demethylcodaurine) (HG), which was isolated from aconitum japonicum. This study was to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of HG in animal study. Methods: We compared the hemodynamic effects of HG (0.5-4μg/min/kg) with Dobutamine (Dob) (5-30μg/min/kg) in 6 dogs: heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), coronary blood flow (CBF), myocardial oxygen consumption (MOC) were measured. Tolerability and safety of HG (1-500μg/mg/min) were evaluated in 8 dogs. Results: Comparison of hemodynamic effects between Dob an HG was presented. SBP: systolic blood pressure; DP: diastolic blood pressure; P<0.01; P<0.05. Diastolic BP slightly decreased, but systolic BP did not change significantly during HG infusion. There was no significant ECG abnormalities and side effects during HG infusion. Conclusion: HG might be a safe and useful pharmacologic stress agent, especially for patients with severe hypertension

  9. Appraisal of alternative skin model for the study of epidermal restoration following exposure to various environmental stress agents: ionising radiation and UV B; Evaluation d'un modele alternatif de peau dans l'etude de l'atteinte epidermique apres exposition a differents agents de stress environnementaux: rayonnements ionisants (RI) et ultra-violets B (UVB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoir, M

    2006-06-15

    Human skin is a major target tissue for ionising radiation (IR) and UV B. We developed a skin explant model and used 2 types of keratinocytes to study survival and oxidative stress induced by these radiations. We examined oxidative damages by measuring R.O.S. produced and cellular anti-oxidant defenses induced. We observed into skin exposed to IR a modulation of genes expression implied in the control of oxidative stress, confirmed by the decrease of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzymatic activities. The imbalance observed between anti- and pro-apoptotic genes expression shows that keratinocytes apoptosis may be partly dependent on radio-induced R.O.S. production. We showed the difference of radiosensitivity between N.H.E.K. and Ha Ca.T., which may be linked to their differential oxidative responses. In addition, during re-epithelialising, we demonstrated that activated N.H.E.K. after IR express keratin 6, release pro-inflammatory cytokines and proliferate, without modification of their differentiation. Treatment of N.H.E.K. with geranyl geranylacetone (G.G.A.) has a beneficial effect on their radio-induced activation by increasing IL-1 release, their migration in scrapped area and their survival. G.G.A. has an anti apoptotic ability (induction of Hsp70- caspase-3 pathway) and migratory properties (P38/RhoA activation) on N.H.E.K., but after IR, only caspase-3 pathway is induced. This work thus contributes to the understanding of cutaneous damages after IR and G.G.A. mechanism of action which accelerates re-epithelialising. (author)

  10. Appraisal of alternative skin model for the study of epidermal restoration following exposure to various environmental stress agents: ionising radiation and UV B; Evaluation d'un modele alternatif de peau dans l'etude de l'atteinte epidermique apres exposition a differents agents de stress environnementaux: rayonnements ionisants (RI) et ultra-violets B (UVB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoir, M

    2006-06-15

    Human skin is a major target tissue for ionising radiation (IR) and UV B. We developed a skin explant model and used 2 types of keratinocytes to study survival and oxidative stress induced by these radiations. We examined oxidative damages by measuring R.O.S. produced and cellular anti-oxidant defenses induced. We observed into skin exposed to IR a modulation of genes expression implied in the control of oxidative stress, confirmed by the decrease of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzymatic activities. The imbalance observed between anti- and pro-apoptotic genes expression shows that keratinocytes apoptosis may be partly dependent on radio-induced R.O.S. production. We showed the difference of radiosensitivity between N.H.E.K. and Ha Ca.T., which may be linked to their differential oxidative responses. In addition, during re-epithelialising, we demonstrated that activated N.H.E.K. after IR express keratin 6, release pro-inflammatory cytokines and proliferate, without modification of their differentiation. Treatment of N.H.E.K. with geranyl geranylacetone (G.G.A.) has a beneficial effect on their radio-induced activation by increasing IL-1 release, their migration in scrapped area and their survival. G.G.A. has an anti apoptotic ability (induction of Hsp70- caspase-3 pathway) and migratory properties (P38/RhoA activation) on N.H.E.K., but after IR, only caspase-3 pathway is induced. This work thus contributes to the understanding of cutaneous damages after IR and G.G.A. mechanism of action which accelerates re-epithelialising. (author)

  11. Environmental heat stress enhances crystallization in urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, H.; Pratiwi, Q. C.; Sjarifah, I.; Atmojo, T. B.; Khotijah

    2018-03-01

    Over the past several decades, agriculture and plantations have been used as the main livelihood of most of the Karanganyar residents. However, these two sources of living are now replaced by industrial areas that employ thousands of people in that district. The development of this industry triggers multiple environmental impacts, including ecosystem and temperature changes. In consequence, there is an increase in air temperature that can cause a variety of diseases, especially in the workplace. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO) data in 2013, one worker dies every 15 second due to a work accident and 160 workers are suffering from the occupational disease. In Indonesia, the incidence of crystallization in urine is actually still unknown, but it is estimated that there are 170,000 cases annually. A high temperature or called heat stress is one among many factors causing this disease to appear. The workers in the textile industry, especially in the Finishing Department Kusumahadi Co. Ltd that exposed heat stress from the finishing machines and inadequate ventilation. This hot working climate causes the human body to adapt in the form of body cooling mechanism or called sweating This adaptation can cause an increase in sweat production and decrease the production of urine. If it is not followed by consuming the recommended amount of water intake, it can result in the precipitation of body salts that, in a long time, will cause crystallization in urine. The research used the analytic observational designs for a cross-sectional study. There were 34 samples collected from 57 finishing workers. The data were analyzed using Spearman correlation test. The results showed that heat stress (p=0,015) and water intake (p=0,034) has a significant correlation with crystallization in urine.

  12. 75 FR 28232 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY..., into the continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of... biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) infestations. HWA, an...

  13. 76 FR 3076 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato AGENCY: Animal and... environmental assessment (EA) relative to the control of air potato (Dioscorea bulbifera). The EA considers the... States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of air potato infestations. We are...

  14. MULTI AGENT-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL LANDSCAPE (MABEL) - AN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SIMULATION MODEL: SOME EARLY ASSESSMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandridis, Konstantinos T.; Pijanowski, Bryan C.

    2002-01-01

    The Multi Agent-Based Environmental Landscape model (MABEL) introduces a Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI) systemic methodology, to simulate land use and transformation changes over time and space. Computational agents represent abstract relations among geographic, environmental, human and socio-economic variables, with respect to land transformation pattern changes. A multi-agent environment is developed providing task-nonspecific problem-solving abilities, flexibility on achieving g...

  15. Designing environmental campaigns by using agent-based simulations: strategies for changing environmental attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Martens, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Agent-based computer simulation was used to create artificial communities in which each individual was constructed according to the principles of the elaboration likelihood model of Petty and Cacioppo [1986. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. In: Berkowitz, L. (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. Academic Press, New York, NY, pp. 123-205]. Campaigning strategies and community characteristics were varied systematically to understand and test their impact on attitudes towards environmental protection. The results show that strong arguments influence a green (environmentally concerned) population with many contacts most effectively, while peripheral cues have the greatest impact on a non-green population with fewer contacts. Overall, deeper information scrutiny increases the impact of strong arguments but is especially important for convincing green populations. Campaigns involving person-to-person communication are superior to mass-media campaigns because they can be adapted to recipients' characteristics.

  16. An Agent Model Integrating an Adaptive Model for Environmental Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, J.; Umair, M.

    2011-01-01

    The environments in which agents are used often may be described by dynamical models, e.g., in the form of a set of differential equations. In this paper, an agent model is proposed that can perform model-based reasoning about the environment, based on a numerical (dynamical system) model of the

  17. Contrast agents provide a faster learning curve in dipyridamole stress echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Jose; Sánchez, Violeta; Moreno, Raúl; Almería, Carlos; Rodrigo, Jose; Serra, Viviana; Azcona, Luis; Aubele, Adalia; Mataix, Luis; Sánchez-Harguindey, Luis

    2002-12-01

    Interobserver variability is an important limitation of the stress echocardiography and depends on the echocardiographer training. Our aim was to evaluate if the use of contrast agents during dipyridamole stress echocardiography would improve the agreement between an experienced and a non-experienced observer in stress echo and therefore if contrast would affect the learning period of dypyridamole stress echo. Two independent observers without knowledge of any patient data interpreted all stress studies. One observer was an experienced one and the other had experience in echocardiography but not in stress echo. Two observers analysed 87 non-selected and consecutive studies. Out of the 87 studies, 46 were performed without contrast administration, whereas i.v. contrast (2.5 g Levovist by two bolus at rest and at peak stress) was administered in 41. In all cases, second harmonic imaging and stress digitalisation pack was used. The agreement between observers showed a kappa index of 0.58 and 0.83 without and with contrast administration, respectively. The use of contrast agents provides a better agreement in the evaluation of stress echo between an experienced and a non-experienced observer in stress echo. Adding routinely contrast agents could probably reduce the number of exams required for the necessary learning curve in stress echocardiography.

  18. Impact of prenatal environmental stress on cortical development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji eIshii

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to various types of environmental stress increases susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Given that even subtle perturbations by prenatal environmental stress in the cerebral cortex impair the cognitive and memory functions, this review focuses on underlying molecular mechanisms of pathological cortical development. We especially highlight recent works that utilized animal exposure models, human specimens or/and induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS cells to demonstrate: 1. molecular mechanisms shared by various types of environmental stressors, 2. the mechanisms by which the affected extracortical tissues indirectly impact the cortical development and function, and 3. interaction between prenatal environmental stress and the genetic predisposition of neuropsychiatric disorders. Finally, we discuss current challenges for achieving a comprehensive understanding of the role of environmentally disturbed molecular expressions in cortical maldevelopment, knowledge of which may eventually facilitate discovery of interventions for prenatal environment-linked neuropsychiatric disorders.

  19. Environmental stresses can alleviate the average deleterious effect of mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leibler Stanislas

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fundamental questions in evolutionary genetics, including the possible advantage of sexual reproduction, depend critically on the effects of deleterious mutations on fitness. Limited existing experimental evidence suggests that, on average, such effects tend to be aggravated under environmental stresses, consistent with the perception that stress diminishes the organism's ability to tolerate deleterious mutations. Here, we ask whether there are also stresses with the opposite influence, under which the organism becomes more tolerant to mutations. Results We developed a technique, based on bioluminescence, which allows accurate automated measurements of bacterial growth rates at very low cell densities. Using this system, we measured growth rates of Escherichia coli mutants under a diverse set of environmental stresses. In contrast to the perception that stress always reduces the organism's ability to tolerate mutations, our measurements identified stresses that do the opposite – that is, despite decreasing wild-type growth, they alleviate, on average, the effect of deleterious mutations. Conclusions Our results show a qualitative difference between various environmental stresses ranging from alleviation to aggravation of the average effect of mutations. We further show how the existence of stresses that are biased towards alleviation of the effects of mutations may imply the existence of average epistatic interactions between mutations. The results thus offer a connection between the two main factors controlling the effects of deleterious mutations: environmental conditions and epistatic interactions.

  20. Construction of a Learning Agent Handling Its Rewards According to Environmental Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Koichi; Numao, Masayuki

    The authors aim at constructing an agent which learns appropriate actions in a Multi-Agent environment with and without social dilemmas. For this aim, the agent must have nonrationality that makes it give up its own profit when it should do that. Since there are many studies on rational learning that brings more and more profit, it is desirable to utilize them for constructing the agent. Therefore, we use a reward-handling manner that makes internal evaluation from the agent's rewards, and then the agent learns actions by a rational learning method with the internal evaluation. If the agent has only a fixed manner, however, it does not act well in the environment with and without dilemmas. Thus, the authors equip the agent with several reward-handling manners and criteria for selecting an effective one for the environmental situation. In the case of humans, what generates the internal evaluation is usually called emotion. Hence, this study also aims at throwing light on emotional activities of humans from a constructive view. In this paper, we divide a Multi-Agent environment into three situations and construct an agent having the reward-handling manners and the criteria. We observe that the agent acts well in all the three Multi-Agent situations composed of homogeneous agents.

  1. Controlled release of environmentally friendly antifouling agents from marine coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stefan Møller

    som antifouling agent er derfor en central del i dette arbejde. Det overordnede mål er at kunne evaluere antifouling effekten af en maling, der ved hjælp af to enzymer omdanner stivelse til hydrogenperoxid. I første kapitel vil der blive givet en introduktion til fouling, det marine miljø, og...

  2. Methods for detection of environmental agents that produce congenital defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, T.H.; Miller, J.R.; Marois, M. (eds.)

    1975-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: current methods for teratogenicity testing in animals and suggestion for improvement; use of zebra fish for screening of teratogens; chemical structure and teratogenic mechanism of action; somatic cell genetics and teratogenesis; studies on mammalian embryos during organogenesis; infectious agents as teratogens; and pharmacogenetics and teratogenesis. (HLW)

  3. Environmental fate of TCDD and Agent Orange and bioavailability to troops in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karch, N.J.; Watkins, D.K.; Ginevan, M.E. [Exponent, Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Young, A.L. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States)

    2004-09-15

    This paper reviews the environmental fate of Agent Orange and the contaminant, 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and discusses how this affects the bioavailability of TCDD for ground troops in Vietnam.

  4. Stress Coping Strategies among Agricultural Extension Agents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Therefore, managing job stress with various coping strategies in an organization such as Oyo ... level of relationship between job stressors and coping strategies. ..... Behavior. 2nd(Ed). Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. pp295-31. ... Lietal, Y. X., Yang, X., &Shen, J. L. (2007). The relationship between teachers'.

  5. A Virtual Agent for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielman, M.L.

    2018-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder with a high impact on quality of life, and despite the existence of treatment, barriers still stop many people from receiving the care they need. An e-mental health system for home use might remove some of these barriers, as it provides a

  6. 77 FR 46373 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY... States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid... beetle from the western United States, into the eastern United States for use as a biological control...

  7. Research on environmental impact of water-based fire extinguishing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai

    2018-02-01

    This paper offers current status of application of water-based fire extinguishing agents, the environmental and research considerations of the need for the study of toxicity research. This paper also offers systematic review of test methods of toxicity and environmental impact of water-based fire extinguishing agents currently available, illustrate the main requirements and relevant test methods, and offer some research findings for future research considerations. The paper also offers limitations of current study.

  8. Book Review: Jessica F Green, Rethinking Private Authority: Agents and Entrepreneurs in Global Environmental Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keremis, Anestis

    2017-01-01

    Book review of "Rethinking Private Authority: Agents and Entrepreneurs in Global Environmental Governance" by Jessica F Green. Princeton,NJ and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2014.215 pp., £16.95 (p/b), ISBN 9780691157597......Book review of "Rethinking Private Authority: Agents and Entrepreneurs in Global Environmental Governance" by Jessica F Green. Princeton,NJ and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2014.215 pp., £16.95 (p/b), ISBN 9780691157597...

  9. Modulation and Expression of Tumor Suppressor Genes by Environmental Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ostrander, Gary Kent

    1996-01-01

    ... in the retinoblastoma gene in retinoblastoma and hepatocarcinomas following induction with known environmental carcinogens. Studies to date suggest the retinoblastoma gene/protein may play a role in oncogenesis in the medaka.

  10. Environmental and perceived stress in Australian dental undergraduates: Preliminary outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Astill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dental students have reported a high prevalence of psychological stress and the causes are associated with the challenging dental environmental and demographic factors. This study aimed to conduct a preliminary investigation on dental students’ stress status, using a sample of first-to-third-year Bachelor of Dental Surgery students in an Australian university. Special interests included causes of dental environmental stress and access to help services. Methods. A sample of 145 students was surveyed with a modified Dental Environmental Survey and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale in 2014. The participants’ demographic information was also collected. Results. The response rate was 95.4%. Second-year (P = 0.042, third-year (P < 0.001 and employed students (P = 0.027 were more likely to report stress resulting from transition to clinical learning. Third-year students were more often stressed about communicating and approaching staff (P = 0.023 as well as different opinions between staff (P < 0.001 and reduced holidays (P < 0.001. Students that were younger than 21 years of age (P = 0.001, that were first years (P < 0.001, and that were not in a relationship (P = 0.010 more often found difficulty of course work stressful. Students who were not in a relationship more often considered learning manual dexterity a source of stress (P = 0.034. Students previously seeking professional help were more likely to be stressed (P = 0.010. Conclusion. Causes of dental environment stress varied among years of study and demographic backgrounds. Professional support to stressed students should be enhanced. Further investigation is indicated.

  11. Environmental assessments of sea dumped chemical warfare agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik

    This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...... residues in connection with the installation of the pipelines. Novel exposure and toxicity assessments are presented and the risk is assessed. The overall conclusion is that there is a negligible acute added CWA risk towards the fish community from the installation of the pipelines....

  12. Assessment of acute phase proteins and oxidative stress status of Nigerians using bleaching agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akibinu, M.O.; Arinola, O.G.; Afolabi, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    The disruption of primary innate immune function of the epidermal layer of the skin accounts for the susceptibility of individuals using bleaching agents to localized or systemic infections. This subverted innate immunity in these people may lead to other pathological conditions. The resultant effects of skin bleaching and phagocytes activation in response to infections have not been studied in Nigerians using bleaching agents. The present study therefore assessed the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, total antioxidant potential (TAP), total plasma peroxides (TPP), oxidative stress index (OSI) and malonaldehyde (MDA) in the users bleaching agents. Thirty (30) people who had used bleaching agents for average of 4.9 + 1.2 years participated in this study. They were recruited from various schools and markets within the city of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Thirty apparently healthy staffs of University College Hospital Ibadan, Ibaadan, Nigeria, who had never used bleaching agents served as controls. All the subjects used for this study had no metabolic abnormality and tested negative to both HIV and hepatitis B infections. The mean value of TAP (p 0.20) when compared with the controls. Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are possible consequences of skin bleaching. The users of skin bleaching agents may need antioxidant therapies to avert the risks of oxidative stress. (author)

  13. Role of environmental stress in the physiological response to chemical toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental physiology is the study of the physiological mechanisms that allow animals to cope with and adapt to changes in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and other natural factors of their physical environment. Nearly all toxicological and pharmacological studies are performed in resting (i.e., non exercising) experimental animals acclimatized to standard environmental conditions that are usually considered ideal to the animal's physiological well-being. These ideal test conditions are clearly not representative of the fluctuations in the natural environment encountered by humans and other animals on a day-to-day basis. It behooves the toxicologist, especially those interested in extrapolating experimental data from laboratory animals to humans, to consider how variations in the natural environment will alter physiological responses to toxicants. Temperature and exercise are the two most well-studied parameters in the fields of environmental physiology and toxicology. In general, high temperatures exacerbate the toxic effects of many environmental toxicants. Moreover, exercising subjects are generally more vulnerable to airborne toxic agents. The prospect of global warming also warrants a better assessment of how higher environmental temperatures may impact on the response of humans and other species to toxic chemicals. Hence, this paper and accompanying papers from the proceedings of a symposium focus on the salient aspects of the interaction between environmental stress and physiological response to toxic agents with particular emphasis on temperature and exercise

  14. Modeling heat stress under different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabaño, M J; Logar, B; Bormann, J; Minet, J; Vanrobays, M-L; Díaz, C; Tychon, B; Gengler, N; Hammami, H

    2016-05-01

    Renewed interest in heat stress effects on livestock productivity derives from climate change, which is expected to increase temperatures and the frequency of extreme weather events. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of temperature and humidity on milk production in highly selected dairy cattle populations across 3 European regions differing in climate and production systems to detect differences and similarities that can be used to optimize heat stress (HS) effect modeling. Milk, fat, and protein test day data from official milk recording for 1999 to 2010 in 4 Holstein populations located in the Walloon Region of Belgium (BEL), Luxembourg (LUX), Slovenia (SLO), and southern Spain (SPA) were merged with temperature and humidity data provided by the state meteorological agencies. After merging, the number of test day records/cows per trait ranged from 686,726/49,655 in SLO to 1,982,047/136,746 in BEL. Values for the daily average and maximum temperature-humidity index (THIavg and THImax) ranges for THIavg/THImax were largest in SLO (22-74/28-84) and shortest in SPA (39-76/46-83). Change point techniques were used to determine comfort thresholds, which differed across traits and climatic regions. Milk yield showed an inverted U-shaped pattern of response across the THI scale with a HS threshold around 73 THImax units. For fat and protein, thresholds were lower than for milk yield and were shifted around 6 THI units toward larger values in SPA compared with the other countries. Fat showed lower HS thresholds than protein traits in all countries. The traditional broken line model was compared with quadratic and cubic fits of the pattern of response in production to increasing heat loads. A cubic polynomial model allowing for individual variation in patterns of response and THIavg as heat load measure showed the best statistical features. Higher/lower producing animals showed less/more persistent production (quantity and quality) across the THI scale. The

  15. The thyroid and environmental stress in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galton, V. A.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of hyperoxia at ambient pressure on thyroid function and thyroid hormone metabolism have been assessed. Thyroidal activity was depressed in mice and rats by exposure to hyperoxia, due at least in part to a decrease in the rate of secretion of pituitary thyrotropin. The effects of hyperoxia on the peripheral deiodination of thyroxine were dependent on the concentration of oxygen employed and/or the duration of exposure. When significant changes were observed a reduction in the rate of deiodination and in the deiodinative clearance of T sub 4 occurred. Hyperoxia also resulted in a marked fall in circulating T sub 4 concentration and a decrease in T sub 4-binding activity in serum. Many of these effects of hyperoxia were prevented by the concomitant administration of large amounts of Vitamin E. These decreases in thyroid function and T sub 4 metabolism were associated with a decrease in the rate of whole body oxygen consumption. It was concluded that the deleterious effects of oxygen in the rat were not due to an oxygen induced hyperthyroid state in the peripheral tissues. Thyroxine was shown to be essential for survival during acute cold stress.

  16. Lutein as protective agent against neonatal oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Buonocore

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals (FR are important for a correct development of neonatal organs and tissues. However, newborn and fetus have profoundly impaired antioxidant system. In these subjects, oxidative stress (OS may be detrimental by activating deleterious cellular processes. Decreasing FR and restoring oxidative imbalance certainly appear to be beneficial in perinatal period. Among the therapeutic antioxidant approaches in newborns, lutein, a compound belonging to the xanthophyll family of carotenoids, is one of the emerging strategies. Humans cannot synthesize lutein, hence the intake primarily depends on diet. In the neonatal period, fresh, non-processed human milk is the main dietary source of lutein, while infant formula is lacking it. Lutein has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Lutein supplementation in human newborns during the first days of life has been demonstrated to decrease plasma biomarkers of OS and increase antioxidant capacities. Numerous experimental study have demonstrated that lutein effectively neutralizes oxidants and modulates inflammatory processes, showing particular protective effects on macula and photoreceptors against phototoxicity and oxidative injury. Only few clinical studies evaluated the effectiveness of lutein in reducing preterm and term infant morbidity, reporting no definitive results. The challenge for the future is to better clarify the timing, the optimal dose and the duration of lutein intervention in perinatal period and to verify its impact on infants’ health. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  17. Environmental stress, displacement and the challenge of rights protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Zetter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available "Examination of migration histories and current politics in Kenya, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Ethiopia and Ghana sheds light on how rights are articulated for groups and individuals displaced in a context of environmental stress and climate change. Both migration and rights are sensitive issues in these case-study countries, and the conjunction of the two is especially sensitive."

  18. Use of biological indicators to evaluate environmental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, C.; Castonguay, J.

    1987-09-01

    This report examines the usefulness of biological analyses for evaluating environmental stress. All forms of stress are addressed; particular attention, however, is paid to the use of biological analyses to evaluate the impact on the environment from radioactive releases of the nuclear industry. First, we will review different biological analyses which are grouped into two approaches: the holistic approach (biotic and diversity indices) and the reductionist approach ('biological indicators' per se). Secondly, we will compare the usefulness of plants and animals as indicators based on the established criteria. This report ends with a compilation of letters received from different organizations which outline the present usage in Canada of biological indicators for evaluating environmental stress

  19. Use of biological indicators for evaluating environmental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, C.; Castonguay, J.

    1988-09-01

    This report examines the usefulness of biological analyses for evaluating environmental stress. All forms of stress are addressed; particular attention, however, is paid to the use of biological analyses to evaluate the impact on the environment from radioactive releases of the nuclear industry. First, we will review different biological analyses which are grouped into two approaches: the holistic approach (biotic and diversity indices) and the reductionist approach ('biological indicators' per se). Secondly, we will compare the usefulness of plants and animals as indicators based on the established criteria. This report ends with a compilation of letters received from different organizations which outline the present use in Canada of biological indicators for evaluating environmental stress

  20. Environmental stress induces trinucleotide repeat mutagenesis in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nimrat; Lin, Yunfu; Santillan, Beatriz A; Yotnda, Patricia; Wilson, John H

    2015-03-24

    The dynamic mutability of microsatellite repeats is implicated in the modification of gene function and disease phenotype. Studies of the enhanced instability of long trinucleotide repeats (TNRs)-the cause of multiple human diseases-have revealed a remarkable complexity of mutagenic mechanisms. Here, we show that cold, heat, hypoxic, and oxidative stresses induce mutagenesis of a long CAG repeat tract in human cells. We show that stress-response factors mediate the stress-induced mutagenesis (SIM) of CAG repeats. We show further that SIM of CAG repeats does not involve mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair, or transcription, processes that are known to promote TNR mutagenesis in other pathways of instability. Instead, we find that these stresses stimulate DNA rereplication, increasing the proportion of cells with >4 C-value (C) DNA content. Knockdown of the replication origin-licensing factor CDT1 eliminates both stress-induced rereplication and CAG repeat mutagenesis. In addition, direct induction of rereplication in the absence of stress also increases the proportion of cells with >4C DNA content and promotes repeat mutagenesis. Thus, environmental stress triggers a unique pathway for TNR mutagenesis that likely is mediated by DNA rereplication. This pathway may impact normal cells as they encounter stresses in their environment or during development or abnormal cells as they evolve metastatic potential.

  1. Environmental heat stress, hyperammonemia and nucleotide metabolism during intermittent exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Rasmussen, Peter; Drust, Barry

    2006-01-01

    ) followed by five 15 s all-out sprints. Control trials were conducted in a 20°C environment while heat stress trials were performed at an ambient temperature of 40°C. Muscle biopsies and venous blood samples were obtained at rest, after 40 min of exercise and following the maximal sprints. Following......Abstract  This study investigated the influence of environmental heat stress on ammonia (NH3) accumulation in relation to nucleotide metabolism and fatigue during intermittent exercise. Eight males performed 40 min of intermittent exercise (15 s at 306±22 W alternating with 15 s of unloaded cycling...... exercise with heat stress, the core and muscle temperatures peaked at 39.5±0.2 and 40.2±0.2°C to be ~ 1°C higher (Pheat stress trial (P

  2. Plant responses to environmental stresses-from gene to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanger, Mohammad Abass; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Ashraf, Muhammad; Alyemeni, Mohammed Nasser; Wijaya, Leonard; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2017-07-01

    Increasing global population, urbanization and industrialization are increasing the rate of conversion of arable land into wasteland. Supplying food to an ever-increasing population is one of the biggest challenges that agriculturalists and plant scientists are currently confronting. Environmental stresses make this situation even graver. Despite the induction of several tolerance mechanisms, sensitive plants often fail to survive under environmental extremes. New technological approaches are imperative. Conventional breeding methods have a limited potential to improve plant genomes against environmental stress. Recently, genetic engineering has contributed enormously to the development of genetically modified varieties of different crops such as cotton, maize, rice, canola and soybean. The identification of stress-responsive genes and their subsequent introgression or overexpression within sensitive crop species are now being widely carried out by plant scientists. Engineering of important tolerance pathways, like antioxidant enzymes, osmolyte accumulation, membrane-localized transporters for efficient compartmentation of deleterious ions and accumulation of essential elements and resistance against pests or pathogens is also an area that has been intensively researched. In this review, the role of biotechnology and its successes, prospects and challenges in developing stress-tolerant crop cultivars are discussed.

  3. Chemopreventive agents attenuate rapid inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication induced by environmental toxicants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babica, Pavel; Čtveráčková, Lucie; Lenčešová, Zuzana; Trosko, J. E.; Upham, B. L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 5 (2016), s. 827-837 ISSN 0163-5581 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12034 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : gap junctional intercellular communication * chemopreventive agents * environmental toxicants Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.447, year: 2016

  4. Environmental agents and erectile dysfunction: a study in a consulting population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Alejandro; Giami, Alain; Multigner, Luc

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated chemical and physical environmental agents as risk factors for erectile dysfunction among a consulting population. We studied 199 men who sought medical help for erectile disorders between 1996 and 1998 in 3 andrology units in the Litoral Sur region of Argentina. Patients were evaluated by monitoring nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity, and were classified as having normal (n = 26), irregular (dissociation, short episode or low amplitude, n = 146), or flat erectile pattern (n = 26). Exposure to environmental agents was assessed by a detailed interview, and 4 groups were constituted: nonexposed, pesticide-exposed, solvent-exposed, and heat-exposed. A multivariate polytomous logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for association between quality of nocturnal erections and exposure groups adjusted for confounding factors. Exposure to environmental agents was a risk factor for a flat erectile pattern (OR 7.1, 95% CI 1.5-33.0 for pesticides; OR 12.2, 95% CI 1.2-124.8 for solvents; and OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.3-9.4 for heat). Associations were much weaker for an irregular erectile pattern (OR 1.8, 95% CI 0.5-6.7 for pesticides; OR 2.1, 95% CI 0.3-17.9 for solvents; and OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.4-4.0 for heat). Our results suggest that environmental agents constitute a risk factor for erectile dysfunction by interfering with erectile ability.

  5. Report for Detection of Biothreat Agents and Environmental Samples using the LLNL Virulence Array for DHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, Crystal [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gardner, Shea [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McLoughlin, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thissen, James [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jackson, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-04-18

    The objective of this project is to provide DHS a comprehensive evaluation of the current genomic technologies including genotyping, Taqman PCR, multiple locus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing in the analysis of biothreat agents from complex environmental samples. This report focuses on the design, testing and results of samples on the Virulence Array.

  6. The Yeast Environmental Stress Response Regulates Mutagenesis Induced by Proteotoxic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Erika; Fox, Catherine A.; Broach, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Conditions of chronic stress are associated with genetic instability in many organisms, but the roles of stress responses in mutagenesis have so far been elucidated only in bacteria. Here, we present data demonstrating that the environmental stress response (ESR) in yeast functions in mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. We show that the drug canavanine causes proteotoxic stress, activates the ESR, and induces mutagenesis at several loci in an ESR-dependent manner. Canavanine-induced mutagenesis also involves translesion DNA polymerases Rev1 and Polζ and non-homologous end joining factor Ku. Furthermore, under conditions of chronic sub-lethal canavanine stress, deletions of Rev1, Polζ, and Ku-encoding genes exhibit genetic interactions with ESR mutants indicative of ESR regulating these mutagenic DNA repair processes. Analyses of mutagenesis induced by several different stresses showed that the ESR specifically modulates mutagenesis induced by proteotoxic stress. Together, these results document the first known example of an involvement of a eukaryotic stress response pathway in mutagenesis and have important implications for mechanisms of evolution, carcinogenesis, and emergence of drug-resistant pathogens and chemotherapy-resistant tumors. PMID:23935537

  7. Myocardial Contrast Agents – Safety Considerations and Clinical Efficacy in Stress Echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Anca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transthoracic echocardiographic examination is known to be a safe, non-invasive and reproducible method, used in every day clinical practice to obtain important information about cardiac structure and function. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of studies have highlighted the considerable technically difficultly in producing diagnostic images due to a poor acoustic window and more than 33% of patients undergoing stress echocardiography have suboptimal echocardiographic images. All these limitations have led to the use of contrast agents to improve the quality of standard ultrasound examination to provide a better delineation of left ventricle endocardial borders or to obtain information that cannot be achieved by using standard echocardiography, such as assessing myocardial microcirculation and therefore perfusion. This paper sought to review the clinical efficacy and safety of ultrasound contrast agents focusing on stress echocardiography.

  8. Geo-inspired model: Agents vectors naturals inspired by the environmental management (AVNG of water tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Eduardo Millán Rojas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Management to care for the environment and the Earth (geo can be source of inspiration for developing models that allow addressing complexity issues; the objective of this research was to develop an additional aspect of the inspired models. The geoinspired model has two features, the first covering aspects related to environmental management and the behavior of natural resources, and the second has a component of spatial location associated with existing objects on the Earth's surface. Method: The approach developed in the research is descriptive and its main objective is the representation or characterization of a case study within a particular context. Results: The result was the design of a model to emulate the natural behavior of the water tributaries of the Amazon foothills, in order to extend the application of the inspired models and allow the use of elements such as geo-referencing and environmental management. The proposed geoinspired model is called “natural vectors agents inspired in environmental management”. Conclusions: The agents vectors naturals inspired by the environmental are polyform elements that can assume the behavior of environmental entities, which makes it possible to achieve progress in other fields of environmental management (use of soil, climate, flora, fauna, and link environmental issues with the structure of the proposed model.

  9. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Fredrick G [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development

  10. 75 FR 28233 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid AGENCY... radiata, into the continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity... of an alternative biological control agent, an encyrtid wasp, (Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis). However...

  11. Low environmental radiation background impairs biological defence of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to chemical radiomimetic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satta, L.; Augusti-Tocco, G.; Ceccarelli, R.; Paggi, P.; Scarsella, G.; Esposito, A.; Fiore, M.; Poggesi, I.; Ricordy, R.; Cundari, E.

    1995-01-01

    Background radiation is likely to constitute one of the factors involved in biological evolution since radiations are able to affect biological processes. Therefore, it is possible to hypothesize that organisms are adapted to environmental background radiation and that this adaptation could increase their ability to respond to the harmful effects of ionizing radiations. In fact, adaptive responses to alkylating agents and to low doses of ionizing radiation have been found in many organisms. In order to test for effects of adaptation, cell susceptibility to treatments with high doses of radiomimetic chemical agents has been studied by growing them in a reduced environmental radiation background. The experiment has been performed by culturing yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7) in parallel in a standard background environment and in the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory, with reduced environmental background radiation. After a conditioning period, yeast cells were exposed to recombinogenic doses of methyl methanesulfonate. The yeast cells grown in the Gran Sasso Laboratory showed a higher frequency of radiomimetic induced recombination as compared to those grown in the standard environment. This suggests that environmental radiation may act as a conditioning agent

  12. Empirical applications of an environmental stress indicator and the environmental efficiency revolution in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Shen Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, the first aim is to apply the structure of material flow analysis (MFA and ecological footprint model to construct an environmental stress indicator. Secondly, an impact, population, affluence and technology (IPAT analysis is used to resolve indicators related to MFA and resource yield productivity. The research indicates following results: (1 The 2007 per capita ecological deficit in Taiwan is 6.3441 square hm.The figures reflect that productivity and life intensity of residents have exceeded the carrying capacity of Taiwan's ecological economic system. (2 Wealth becomes the most important factor in material needs and pollution discharge. (3 Environmental efficiency and ecological efficiency slowed down dramatically, demonstrating that use of resources and total amount of environmental stress stay at a developmental stage. Therefore, if proper measures are not adopted, the current weak sustainability will lead into the vicious circle which departs from sustainable development.

  13. Sex-specific selection under environmental stress in seed beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinossi-Allibert, I; Arnqvist, G; Berger, D

    2017-01-01

    Sexual selection can increase rates of adaptation by imposing strong selection in males, thereby allowing efficient purging of the mutation load on population fitness at a low demographic cost. Indeed, sexual selection tends to be male-biased throughout the animal kingdom, but little empirical work has explored the ecological sensitivity of this sex difference. In this study, we generated theoretical predictions of sex-specific strengths of selection, environmental sensitivities and genotype-by-environment interactions and tested them in seed beetles by manipulating either larval host plant or rearing temperature. Using fourteen isofemale lines, we measured sex-specific reductions in fitness components, genotype-by-environment interactions and the strength of selection (variance in fitness) in the juvenile and adult stage. As predicted, variance in fitness increased with stress, was consistently greater in males than females for adult reproductive success (implying strong sexual selection), but was similar in the sexes in terms of juvenile survival across all levels of stress. Although genetic variance in fitness increased in magnitude under severe stress, heritability decreased and particularly so in males. Moreover, genotype-by-environment interactions for fitness were common but specific to the type of stress, sex and life stage, suggesting that new environments may change the relative alignment and strength of selection in males and females. Our study thus exemplifies how environmental stress can influence the relative forces of natural and sexual selection, as well as concomitant changes in genetic variance in fitness, which are predicted to have consequences for rates of adaptation in sexual populations. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Plant Core Environmental Stress Response Genes Are Systemically Coordinated during Abiotic Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Berendzen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying plant stress responses is an important issue in a world threatened by global warming. Unfortunately, comparative analyses are hampered by varying experimental setups. In contrast, the AtGenExpress abiotic stress experiment displays intercomparability. Importantly, six of the nine stresses (wounding, genotoxic, oxidative, UV-B light, osmotic and salt can be examined for their capacity to generate systemic signals between the shoot and root, which might be essential to regain homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. We classified the systemic responses into two groups: genes that are regulated in the non-treated tissue only are defined as type I responsive and, accordingly, genes that react in both tissues are termed type II responsive. Analysis of type I and II systemic responses suggest distinct functionalities, but also significant overlap between different stresses. Comparison with salicylic acid (SA and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA responsive genes implies that MeJA is involved in the systemic stress response. Certain genes are predominantly responding in only one of the categories, e.g., WRKY genes respond mainly non-systemically. Instead, genes of the plant core environmental stress response (PCESR, e.g., ZAT10, ZAT12, ERD9 or MES9, are part of different response types. Moreover, several PCESR genes switch between the categories in a stress-specific manner.

  15. Stress, “A Proxy Killer” and Role of Adaptogen as Antistress Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Prakash

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a non-specific immune response of the body known toalter the physiological homeostasis of the organism resulting invarious neuronal endocrinal and visceral functions. Derailmentof the immune system contributes for the alteration in thehomeostasis and resulting in stress related disturbances.Stress responses are composed of alterations in behavior,autonomic function and the secretion of multiple hormonesincluding adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH andcortisol/corticosterone, adrenal catecholamine, oxytocin,prolactin and renin. The concept of “Adaptogen” as a group ofmedicinal substances was first adopted by Lazarev.Adaptogens are the substances that push the organism into “astate of non-specific heightened resistance (SNIR” in order tobetter resist stressors and adapt to extraordinary challenges.They normalize the body functions; strengthen systems andfunctions that are compromised by stress and have aprotective effect against a wide variety of environmental andemotional stress. Till date various substances (natural,synthetic and techniques (yoga, exercise have been used tocontrol the stress and stress related disorder. Among thoseadaptogens are the substances on which less research has beencarried out hence in this article we have made an attempt toreview the history, potential and different plausible mode ofaction of adaptogen along with different experimental animalmodel for the evaluation of an adaptogen.

  16. Combined effect of environmental radiation and other agents: Is there a synergism trap?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornhardt, S.; Jung, T.; Burkart, W.

    2002-01-01

    Most assessments of possible deleterious outcomes from environmental and occupational exposures concentrate on single agents and neglect the potential for combined effects, i.e. synergisms or antagonisms. Biomechanistic considerations based on multistep processes such as carcinogenesis indicate the potential for highly detrimental interactions, if two or more consecutive rate limiting steps are specifically effected by different agents. However, low specificity towards molecular structure or DNA-sequence - and therefore exchangeability - of many genotoxic agents indicate little functional specificity and therefore little vulnerability towards synergism at most occupational and environmental exposure situations. The low potential for significant combined effects for those common low exposure situations where non-genotoxic agents with highly non-linear dose effect relationships and apparent thresholds are involved, is also evident. Nevertheless, a quantitative assessment of the contribution of synergistic interactions to the total detriment from natural and man-made toxicants based on experimental data is far away. The existing database on combined effects is rudimentary, mainly descriptive and rarely covers exposure ranges large enough to make direct inferences to present day low dose exposure situations. In view of the multitude of possible interactions between the large number of potentially harmful agents in the human environment, descriptive approaches will have to be supplemented by the use of mechanistic models for critical health endpoints such as cancer. Finally an important question considering the shape of dose effect relationships for ionizing radiation arises from the unresolved question whether real or apparent thresholds may be used for any genotoxic agent separately or only one time for an exposed genome. (author)

  17. Radioactive waste facility as environmental preservation factor; Deposito de rejeitos radioativos como agente de preservacao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.; Xavier, Ana Maria [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this article is to show, in a resumed way, the many aspects involved in the selection, licensing and construction of a repository for the safe disposal of low and intermediate radioactive level wastes in Brazil where from we conclude that a repository is for sure an agent of environmental preservation. (author) 22 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.; e-mail: paulo at cnen.gov.br

  18. The effects of handling and anesthetic agents on the stress response and carbohydrate metabolism in northern elephant seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory D Champagne

    Full Text Available Free-ranging animals often cope with fluctuating environmental conditions such as weather, food availability, predation risk, the requirements of breeding, and the influence of anthropogenic factors. Consequently, researchers are increasingly measuring stress markers, especially glucocorticoids, to understand stress, disturbance, and population health. Studying free-ranging animals, however, comes with numerous difficulties posed by environmental conditions and the particular characteristics of study species. Performing measurements under either physical restraint or chemical sedation may affect the physiological variable under investigation and lead to values that may not reflect the standard functional state of the animal. This study measured the stress response resulting from different handling conditions in northern elephant seals and any ensuing influences on carbohydrate metabolism. Endogenous glucose production (EGP was measured using [6-(3H]glucose and plasma cortisol concentration was measured from blood samples drawn during three-hour measurement intervals. These measurements were conducted in weanlings and yearlings with and without the use of chemical sedatives--under chemical sedation, physical restraint, or unrestrained. We compared these findings with measurements in adult seals sedated in the field. The method of handling had a significant influence on the stress response and carbohydrate metabolism. Physically restrained weanlings and yearlings transported to the lab had increased concentrations of circulating cortisol (F(11, 46 = 25.2, p<0.01 and epinephrine (F(3, 12 = 5.8, p = 0.01. Physical restraint led to increased EGP (t = 3.1, p = 0.04 and elevated plasma glucose levels (t = 8.2, p<0.01. Animals chemically sedated in the field typically did not exhibit a cortisol stress response. The combination of anesthetic agents (Telazol, ketamine, and diazepam used in this study appeared to alleviate a

  19. Impact of Oxidative Stress on Hemorheological Parameters in Patients with Acute Poisonings by Psychopharmacological Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Belova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the impact of oxidative stress intensity on hemorheological parameters in acute poisonings by psychopharmacological agents. Subjects and methods. The blood values of lipid peroxidation (LPO and the antioxidant system (AOS, and hemorheological parameters were determined in 196 patients with acute poisoning by psychopharmacological agents. Results. Mild poisoning was accompanied by a moderate rise in peroxidation processes, by compensated antioxidant activity, and by a decrease in hemorheological parameters. In moderate poisoning, and severe one in particular, there was an increase in the LPO/AOS imbalance attended by increases in the viscosity characteristics of blood and plasma and in the aggregation activity of platelets and red blood cells. Conclusion. As the intensity of oxidative stress increases, there are more severe impairments in blood viscosity and aggregation properties, the leading mechanism of which is damage to blood cells due to higher stiffness of their membranes and to plasma release of large-disperse molecules under the action of an excess of LPO products. Key words: oxidative stress, acute poisonings, hemorheology.

  20. OntoTrader: An Ontological Web Trading Agent Approach for Environmental Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Iribarne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern Web-based Information Systems (WIS are becoming increasingly necessary to provide support for users who are in different places with different types of information, by facilitating their access to the information, decision making, workgroups, and so forth. Design of these systems requires the use of standardized methods and techniques that enable a common vocabulary to be defined to represent the underlying knowledge. Thus, mediation elements such as traders enrich the interoperability of web components in open distributed systems. These traders must operate with other third-party traders and/or agents in the system, which must also use a common vocabulary for communication between them. This paper presents the OntoTrader architecture, an Ontological Web Trading agent based on the OMG ODP trading standard. It also presents the ontology needed by some system agents to communicate with the trading agent and the behavioral framework for the SOLERES OntoTrader agent, an Environmental Management Information System (EMIS. This framework implements a “Query-Searching/Recovering-Response” information retrieval model using a trading service, SPARQL notation, and the JADE platform. The paper also presents reflection, delegation and, federation mediation models and describes formalization, an experimental testing environment in three scenarios, and a tool which allows our proposal to be evaluated and validated.

  1. Oxidative Stress in Fish induced by Environmental Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Kováčik

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollutants represent a risk factor for human and animals in all areas of occurrence. Environmental pollution caused by anthropogenic activities is a major problem in many countries. Numbers of studies deals with cumulation of xenobiotics in tissues but not all respond to the real impact on living organisms. Freshwater fishes are exposed to several anthropogenic contaminants. The most commonly studied are three metals: mercury (Hg, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd. These contaminants could have several impacts to oxidative stress. In the normal healthy cell, ROS and pro-oxidant products are detoxified by antioxidant defences. Redox-active or Redox-inactive metals may cause an increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Mercury has a high affinity for thiol groups, and can non-specifically affect several enzymes, e. g. GSH (glutathione, which can induce GSH depletion and oxidative stress in tissue, also can induce lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The toxicity of Cd to aquatic species depends on speciation, with the free ion, Cd2+ concentration being proportional to bioavailability. Cadmium toxicity worsened of Ca, Na, and Mg ions homeostasis. Lead can be toxic to nervous and skeletal systems; at cellular level can cause apoptosis, also can affect mitochondria, neurotransmitters, and can substitute for Ca.

  2. Mutagenic effect of ionizing radiation and chemical and environmental agents in Tradescantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.

    1988-01-01

    The studies covered the following problems: an influence of some environmental agents on the mutagenic effectiveness of ionizing radiation, interaction between ionizing radiation and chemical mutagens in the induction of somatic mutations and also an application of Tradescantia model system for biological monitoring. The studies showed that the pretreatment of Tradescantia plants with sodium fluoride or the modification of the soil composition with dolomite admixture, visibly influences plants radiosensitivity. The analysis of the changes in the dose-response curves suggested that the employed agents were influencing in different ways the repair processes of the DNA. The studies on the interaction between agents proved that the synergistic effect occurs in case of combined action of ionizing radiation with such chemical mutagens as ethyl methansulfonate or 1,2 dibromomethane. It was also discovered that in the range of low doses the effect was proportional to radiation dose and total exposition to chemical mutagen. The field application of Tradescantia method defined the mutagenicity of air pollution in the Cracow area. The highest frequencies of mutations were detected after the Chernobyl accident and after the damage of the filters in the Pharmaceutical Plant. The applied method was evaluated in respect of its usefulness for biological monitoring of environmental pollution. 163 refs. (author)

  3. Environmentally friendly inhibition of pathogenic bacteria and algae propagation due phthalocyanine agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rihova Ambrozova, J.; Bezdekova, E.; Louckova, E.; Nekovarova, J.

    2007-01-01

    From 2004, in the laboratory of The Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague is being solved the project FT-TA/034 'Environmentally friendly inhibition of pathogenic bacteria and algae propagation in the circulatory cooling systems of nuclear power stations and in other similar technological facilities' to determine effects of phthalocyanine agents. The project bearer is VUOS, Inc. in Rybitvi (Research Institute for Organic Synthesis Inc.), where are the new phthalocyanines synthesized. The aimed goal of the research is environmentally friendly liquidation of bacteria and algae by means of photodynamic generated singlet oxygen through impact of solar radiation in the circulation cooling waters of various technical and technological systems. The principle of the problem outlined is the applying of phthalocyanine agents on samples of pure bacterial, anabaenas and algae cultures to estimate the inhibition effect on the organism exposed. In the course of solution, it is assumed that in such way conducted inhibition of bacteria, anabaenas and algae as well of their proliferation would replace routinely used bactericidal and algicidal preparations, which demand permanent dosing into circulating waters or perhaps from time to time an application of shocking doses. The particular algicidal and bactericidal agents represents in this case in situ emerging singlet oxygen, that is harmless to water biocenoses and whose presence in the water is no reason to ban the outflow of waters treated in such a way into water streams. The goal should be also a direct estimation of the effect those agents on cooling waters samples e. g. from the nuclear power plant systems. The purpose of the tests performance is also elimination of filamentous green algae, emerging in the systems cooling towers. The applied preparations are not toxic and do not burden the living environment, they contain no substances interacting with surface materials of structures in the circulatory cooling circuit

  4. Water cooler towers and other man-made aquatic systems as environmental collection systems for agents of concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigmon, Robin; Kingsley, Mark T.

    2018-04-03

    An apparatus and process of using existing process water sources such as cooling towers, fountains, and waterfalls is provided in which the water sources are utilized as monitoring system for the detection of environmental agents which may be present in the environment. The process water is associated with structures and have an inherent filtering or absorbing capability available in the materials and therefore can be used as a rapid screening tool for quality and quantitative assessment of environmental agents.

  5. STUDY ON STUDENTS’ AWARENESS CONCERNING ENVIRONMENTAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDOUS AGENTS OF CANCER RISK AND PREVENTION METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Cebulska-Wasilewska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of our study was to assess the level of awareness and knowledge on environmental and occupational risk of cancer and its prevention among Polish students. We were interested also in their sources of knowledge. Methods. Survey, using the questionnaire, was conducted among 1080 respondents, who are or probably will be in their future work, exposed to harmful agents, due to study profile. Results. Students rated their knowledge on environmental and occupational cancer agents and cancer prevention mostly as limited (over 77%. Participation in “Safety Work and Environment” courses did not differentiate their level of cancer risk awareness. 901 students (84% responded to question about specific substances, which may cause cancer. Almost 2% of students indicated none from 10 given agents as carcinogenic. About 34% of respondents pointed all given agents, 39% pointed on 8–9 of them, 5–7 agents 13.2% of surveyed and 9% of them indicated on 1–4 agents. Students were aware of carcinogenic features of radiation, asbestos, cigarettes smoking (93.2–93.8%, benzene, benzo[?]pirene and pesticides (79,2 –83,6%. Less of them declared carcinogenic features of PAHs (75.4%, heavy metals (73.9%, electromagnetic field (64.8% and infections (60.8%. Only 48% of respondents specified possible lowering of the cancer by risk intervention practices. Medical and engineering profile, as well as attendance in courses covering the issues of health safety at work or environment (SWE significantly decreased percentage of respondents who didn’t specified any procedure (but it was still high: 48–62%. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that most students, only to some extent, are aware of the most well known cancer-causing substances occurrence. Their knowledge is mostly limited and they do not know prevention procedures and ways to lower or eliminate the risk. Therefore the modernization of educational programs and development of more efficient

  6. Resilience of networks to environmental stress: From regular to random networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young-Ho

    2018-04-01

    Despite the huge interest in network resilience to stress, most of the studies have concentrated on internal stress damaging network structure (e.g., node removals). Here we study how networks respond to environmental stress deteriorating their external conditions. We show that, when regular networks gradually disintegrate as environmental stress increases, disordered networks can suddenly collapse at critical stress with hysteresis and vulnerability to perturbations. We demonstrate that this difference results from a trade-off between node resilience and network resilience to environmental stress. The nodes in the disordered networks can suppress their collapses due to the small-world topology of the networks but eventually collapse all together in return. Our findings indicate that some real networks can be highly resilient against environmental stress to a threshold yet extremely vulnerable to the stress above the threshold because of their small-world topology.

  7. Simple gases to replace non-environmentally friendly polymer foaming agents. A thermodynamic investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolier, Jean-Pierre E.; Randzio, Stanislaw L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The PVT-vibrating wire technique and PVT-scanning transitiometry. ► Polymer swelling with measured gas sorption and gas–polymer interaction energies. ► Experimental measurements up to 373 K and 100 MPa. ► Hydrostatic and plasticization effects under high pressure gas and induced T g -shifts. ► Thermodynamic study of the (gas + polymer) systems polystyrene with CO 2 , N 2 , and freons. - Abstract: Foaming constitutes one of the most important industrial activities in polymer engineering to produce efficient thermal insulating materials. In particular, rigid insulating boards are produced worldwide on a large scale using blowing agents which eventually are released in the environment where they adversely impact the natural friendly stratospheric ozone layer. Concomitantly, the chemicals used as blowing agents contribute to the creation of the unfriendly tropospheric ozone layer generating the disastrous green house effect around our planet. The traditional foaming intermediates currently named freons, like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) currently used as blowing agents as well as the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) often considered as alternative blowing agents, must be banned from industrial processes and new (friendly) foaming agents have to be suggested and evaluated in terms of both easy engineering and environmental neutrality. Undoubtedly thermodynamics plays a major role in assessing the effective capability of those chemicals. Some CFCs still accepted and other possible simple gases like carbon dioxide and nitrogen have been considered. The in-depth thermodynamic investigation has been made possible thanks to new experimental developments to determine gas solubility in polymers and associated swelling as well as the thermodynamic properties of (gas + polymer) systems, including the thermophysical properties of polymers under gas sorption. Pertinent data have been generated for such properties over extended T and p ranges.

  8. Environmental blue light prevents stress in the fish Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpato G.L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to test the effects of blue, green or white light on the stress response of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.. Each color was tested on two groups of isolated adult Nile tilapia (8 replicates each: one being subjected to confinement stress, and the other not (control. A different environmental color was imposed on each compartment by covering the light source with cellophane of the respective color (green or blue; no cellophane was used for white light. The intensity of green, white and blue lights was 250, 590 and 250 lux, respectively. Basal plasma cortisol levels were determined for each fish prior to the experimental procedures. The fish were confined by being displaced toward one side of the aquarium using an opaque partition for 1 h both in the morning and the afternoon of the two consecutive days of the test. At the end of this 48-h period, plasma cortisol levels were measured again. Basal cortisol levels (ng/ml were similar for each group (ANOVA, F(2;42 = 0.77, P = 0.47. Thus, plasma cortisol levels were analyzed in terms of variation from their respective basal level. After confinement, plasma cortisol levels were not increased in fish submitted to a blue light environment. Thus, blue light prevents the confinement-induced cortisol response, an effect not necessarily related to light intensity.

  9. Biological and environmental hazards associated with exposure to chemical warfare agents: arsenicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Arsenicals are highly reactive inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic. These chemicals are very toxic and produce both acute and chronic tissue damage. On the basis of these observations, and considering the low cost and simple methods of their bulk syntheses, these agents were thought to be appropriate for chemical warfare. Among these, the best-known agent that was synthesized and weaponized during World War I (WWI) is Lewisite. Exposure to Lewisite causes painful inflammatory and blistering responses in the skin, lung, and eye. These chemicals also manifest systemic tissue injury following their cutaneous exposure. Although largely discontinued after WWI, stockpiles are still known to exist in the former Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, the United States, and Asia. Thus, access by terrorists or accidental exposure could be highly dangerous for humans and the environment. This review summarizes studies that describe the biological, pathophysiological, toxicological, and environmental effects of exposure to arsenicals, with a major focus on cutaneous injury. Studies related to the development of novel molecular pathobiology-based antidotes against these agents are also described. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Biological and environmental hazards associated with exposure to chemical warfare agents: arsenicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Arsenicals are highly reactive inorganic and organic derivatives of arsenic. These chemicals are very toxic and produce both acute and chronic tissue damage. Based on these observations, and considering the low cost and simple methods of their bulk syntheses, these agents were thought to be appropriate for chemical warfare. Among these, the most known agent synthesized and weaponized during World War I (WWI) is Lewisite. Exposure to Lewisite causes painful inflammatory and blistering responses in the skin, lung, and eye. These chemicals also manifest systemic tissue injury following their cutaneous exposure. Although largely discontinued after WWI, their stockpiles are still known to exist in the former Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, the United States, and Asia. Thus, their access by terrorists or accidental exposure could be highly dangerous for humans and the environment. This review summarizes studies which describe the biological, pathophysiological, toxicological, and environmental effects of exposure to arsenicals, with a major focus on cutaneous injury. Studies related to the development of novel molecular pathobiology–based antidotes against these agents are also described. PMID:27636894

  11. Epidemiology and quantitation of environmental risk in humans from radiation and other agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, Amleto

    1985-01-01

    The identification and quantitation of environmental risk in humans is one of the main problems to be solved in order to improve the protection of individuals and of human populations against physical and chemical pollutants. Epidemiology plays a central role in the evaluation of health risk directly in human populations. In this volume are collected 33 lectures presented at the AS! course on ''Epidemiology and quantitation of environmental risk in humans from radiation and other agents: potential and limitations'', sponsored by NATO and Italian Association of Radiobiology and organized by ENEA. The course has been devoted to a number of aspects of environmental risk analysis and evaluation based on epidemiological investigation. Basic epidemiological concepts and methods have been reviewed. Fundamentals of dosimetry and microdosimetry were presented in relation to the contribution of epidemiology in defining the dose effect relationships for radiation carcinogenesis and its relation with age, sex and ethnicity. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis as a multi-stage process were illustrated. One of the main topics was 'cancer epidemiology' and its correlation with: - occupational and non-occupational exposure to radiation - diagnostic and therapeutic irradiation - cancer proneness - hereditary and familiar diseases - abnormal response to carcinogens - environmental pollution in air and water - exposure to radon in mines and in building material - atomic bomb explosion - chemotherapy - dioxin and related compounds

  12. Oxidative stress measured in vivo without an exogenous contrast agent using QUEST MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Bruce A.

    2018-06-01

    Decades of experimental studies have implicated excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the decline of tissue function during normal aging, and as a pathogenic factor in a vast array of fatal or debilitating morbidities. This massive body of work has important clinical implications since many antioxidants are FDA approved, readily cross blood-tissue barriers, and are effective at improving disease outcomes. Yet, the potential benefits of antioxidants have remained largely unrealized in patients because conventional methods cannot determine the dose, timing, and drug combinations to be used in clinical trials to localize and decrease oxidative stress. To address this major problem and improve translational success, new methods are urgently needed that non-invasively measure the same ROS biomarker both in animal models and patients with high spatial resolution. Here, we summarize a transformative solution based on a novel method: QUEnch-assiSTed MRI (QUEST MRI). The QUEST MRI index is a significant antioxidant-induced improvement in pathophysiology, or a reduction in 1/T1 (i.e., R1). The latter form of QUEST MRI provides a unique measure of uncontrolled production of endogenous, paramagnetic reactive oxygen species (ROS). QUEST MRI results to-date have been validated by gold standard oxidative stress assays. QUEST MRI has high translational potential because it does not use an exogenous contrast agent and requires only standard MRI equipment. Summarizing, QUEST MRI is a powerful non-invasive approach with unprecedented potential for (i) bridging antioxidant treatment in animal models and patients, (ii) identifying tissue subregions exhibiting oxidative stress, and (iii) coupling oxidative stress localization with behavioral dysfunction, disease pathology, and genetic vulnerabilities to serve as a marker of susceptibility.

  13. Industrial antifoam agents impair ethanol fermentation and induce stress responses in yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jens Christian; Senne de Oliveira Lino, Felipe; Rasmussen, Thomas Gundelund; Thykær, Jette; Workman, Christopher T; Basso, Thiago Olitta

    2017-11-01

    The Brazilian sugarcane industry constitutes one of the biggest and most efficient ethanol production processes in the world. Brazilian ethanol production utilizes a unique process, which includes cell recycling, acid wash, and non-aseptic conditions. Process characteristics, such as extensive CO 2 generation, poor quality of raw materials, and frequent contaminations, all lead to excessive foam formation during fermentations, which is treated with antifoam agents (AFA). In this study, we have investigated the impact of industrial AFA treatments on the physiology and transcriptome of the industrial ethanol strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAT-1. The investigated AFA included industrially used AFA acquired from Brazilian ethanol plants and commercially available AFA commonly used in the fermentation literature. In batch fermentations, it was shown that industrial AFA compromised growth rates and glucose uptake rates, while commercial AFA had no effect in concentrations relevant for defoaming purposes. Industrial AFA were further tested in laboratory scale simulations of the Brazilian ethanol production process and proved to decrease cell viability compared to the control, and the effects were intensified with increasing AFA concentrations and exposure time. Transcriptome analysis showed that AFA treatments induced additional stress responses in yeast cells compared to the control, shown by an up-regulation of stress-specific genes and a down-regulation of lipid biosynthesis, especially ergosterol. By documenting the detrimental effects associated with chemical AFA, we highlight the importance of developing innocuous systems for foam control in industrial fermentation processes.

  14. Targeting the oxidative stress response system of fungi with safe, redox-potent chemosensitizing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong H. eKim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The cellular antioxidation system is a target in the antifungal action of amphotericin B (AMB and itraconazole (ITZ, in filamentous fungi. The sakAΔ mutant of Aspergillus fumigatus, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK gene deletion mutant in the antioxidation system, was found to be more sensitive to AMB or ITZ than other A. fumigatus strains, a wild type and a mpkCΔ mutant (MAPK gene deletion mutant in polyalcohol sugar utilization system. The sakAΔ mutant showed no growth at 0.5 μg mL-1 of ITZ or reduced growth at 1.0 to 2.0 μg mL-1 of AMB, while the other strains exhibited robust growth. Complete fungal kill (≥ 99.9% by ITZ or AMB was achieved by much lower dosages for the sakAΔ mutant than for the other strains. SakA and MpkC appear to have overlapping roles in marshalling the oxidative stress response under treatment by an organic peroxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH, or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. The SakA signalling pathway was found to be responsible for fungal tolerance to AMB or ITZ toxicity. It appears msnA, an Aspergillus ortholog to Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSN2 (encoding a stress-responsive C2H2-type zinc-finger regulator and sakA and/or mpkC (upstream MAPKs are in the same stress response network under t-BuOOH-, H2O2- or AMB-triggered toxicity. Of note is that ITZ-sensitive yeast pathogens (Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans were also sensitive to t-BuOOH, showing a connection between ITZ toxicity and oxidative stress response. This was shown by enhanced antifungal activity of AMB or ITZ when co-applied with redox-potent natural compounds, 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, thymol or salicylaldehyde, as chemosensitizing agents. Hence, redox compounds, which target the antioxidation system in fungi, possess a potent chemosensitizing capacity to enhance efficacy of conventional drugs inducing oxidative stress. Such chemosensitization can reduce costs and alleviate negative side effects associated with current

  15. A dynamic agent-based analysis for the environmental impacts of conventional and novel book retailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Allenby, Braden; Kim, Junbeum; Kahhat, Ramzy

    2009-04-15

    The dynamics of an e-commerce market and the associated environmental impacts from a bottom-up perspective using an agent-based model is explored. A conceptual meta-theory from psychology is adopted to form the behavioral rules of artificial consumers choosing different methods of buying a book, including conventional bookstores, e-commerce, and a proposed self-pick-up option. Given the energy and emissions savings that result from a shift to e-commerce from bookstore purchase, it appears that reductions in environmental impacts are relatively probable. Additionally, our results suggest that the shift to e-commerce is mainly due to the growth of Internet users, which ties energy and emissions savings to Internet penetration. Moreover, under any scenario, the energy and emissions savings will be provided by the introduction of the proposed self-pick-up option. Our model thus provides insights into market behaviors and related environmental impacts of the growing use of e-commerce systems at the retail level, and provides a basis for the development and implementation of more sustainable policies and practices.

  16. Assessment of Eco-Environmental Stress in the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longyu Shi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eco-environmental stress refers to the pressure borne by the environment in sustaining the pre-existing non-industrialized state and/or in counteracting adverse impacts caused by natural and human factors. The present article introduces the concept, research progress, and method for assessing eco-environmental stress. An eco-environmental stress index (ESI is established to assess the eco-environmental stress of 13 cities in the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone (hereafter referred to as the Economic Zone during the period from 2000 to 2010. The research provides a reference for the strategic planning of industrial development and environmental protection. The results show that the overall eco-environmental stress of the Economic Zone was slight and did not have significant change during the past 10 years. The cities with the most severe eco-environmental stress are distributed in the north and south of the Economic Zone. Most areas of Fujian Province have a low degree of eco-environmental stress, a situation that is being constantly improved. The regions with high atmospheric and water pollutant emissions are concentrated in the northern, middle, and southern coastal regions of the Economic Zone. The pollutant emissions of coastal cities are higher than those of inland cities. In the future, ecological restoration and compensation mechanisms should be established for regions where environmental protection and remediation is urgently needed.

  17. Hydrazine reagents as derivatizing agents in environmental analysis--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M; Büldt, A; Karst, U

    2000-04-01

    Hydrazine reagents are a well-known group of derivatizing agents for the determination of aldehydes and ketones in liquid and gaseous samples. Within this article, the most important hydrazine reagents are critically summarized, and their major applications in different fields, including environmental analysis, food chemistry and industrial analysis are introduced. As 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) is the basic reagent for several international standard procedures, its properties are discussed in detail. Particular focus is directed on the chemistry of the hydrazine reagents, and chemical interferences are considered. Recent methods for the determination of various oxidants using hydrazine reagents are presented as well. Due to limited space, this review does not cover the related field of carbohydrate analysis, although many chemical aspects are similar.

  18. Environmental risk assessment for Neodryinus typhlocybae, biological control agent against Metcalfa pruinosa, for Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Strauss

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential environmental risks of Neodryinus typhlocybae, a parasitic wasp from North America, were evaluated with regard to its safe use as an exotic biocontrol agent for the planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa in Austria. Following an earlier host range study of N. typhlocybae conducted in the laboratory, the present study assessed the potential for establishment and spread as well as negative indirect effects on non-target organisms. The potential release sites in Austria were analysed for matching of the climatic requirements for establishment of N. typhlocybae. The two proposed release locations, Vienna and Graz, have a predominantly similar climate to the parasitoid’s region of origin, though the comparably cooler mean summer temperatures might result in a low emergence rate of the partial second generation. The natural spread potential of N. typhlocybae was reviewed and is considered to be sufficiently good for released individuals to reach nearby sites infested with M. pruinosa. However, a perceptible spreading of N. typhlocybae females only occurs a few years after release and seems to be strongly dependent on the host density. Gelis areator, a hyperparasitoid of N. typhlocybae known to occur in Austria, might have negative effects on the population of the beneficial organism. Advantages and disadvantages of chemical and biological control methods against M. pruinosa were evaluated. It is concluded that N. typhlocybae is very well suited as a biological control agent for M. pruinosa in Austria, as no adverse effects on non-target species are expected but its release offers advantages with regard to sustainable and environmentally friendly pest management.

  19. Woody plants in drylands: plastic responses to environmental stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, L.

    2012-01-01

    Plants in drylands are exposed to a suite of stress factors. The most obvious stress factor is drought stress induced by a strongly negative balance between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. Drylands are increasingly being used for grazing livestock and with increasing human

  20. Environmental stress, resource management and demographic change in Northern Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niboye, E.P.

    1999-12-01

    A multitude of environmental problems abound in Tanzania. The problems range from declining land resources, de-vegetation, urban and air pollution, degradation of the marine environment to the destruction of biological diversity. A thorough analysis of these manifestations of environments decline reveal the presence of linkages to economic, political, cultural and demographic constraints which have been at the crux of Tanzania's efforts towards emancipation. We attested that societies are always dialect and integral parts of the global entity. As such the analysis of any societal problem can not be sufficiently tackled by basing on a 'micro level' societal specific factors. We need to expand our horizon and include 'macro level' elements which impinges on the society under study. Imperatively, influences on any environment, social or biophysical, whether positive or negative, emanates either or both from within the specific society and or from without. In our study we set out to provide an insight into the nature and character of man and environment interaction in Arumeru district, Northern Tanzania. We intended to investigate the extent to which changes in the household production patterns as a result of environmental stress and the consequent resource management strategies influence and are hitherto influenced by population growth. The aspects of demographic changes especially patterns of growth and settlement, agrarian production such as land tenure, food and cash crop interventions, non-farm activities and management of the commons were studies. Further, local adaptation to crisis including environmental stress and emerging markets were explored. he theoretical model adopted in analysing the man-land environment relationship in Arumeru district and the ensuing findings, give legitimacy to the position that issues of population growth or decline cannot be separated from questions of economic and social development, or from the environmental concerns related to

  1. Targeting the Oxidative Stress Response System of Fungi with Redox-Potent Chemosensitizing Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong H.; Chan, Kathleen L.; Faria, Natália C. G.; Martins, M. de L.; Campbell, Bruce C.

    2012-01-01

    The cellular antioxidant system is a target in the antifungal action of amphotericin B (AMB) and itraconazole (ITZ), in filamentous fungi. The sakAΔ mutant of Aspergillus fumigatus, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) gene deletion mutant in the antioxidant system, was found to be more sensitive to AMB or ITZ than other A. fumigatus strains, a wild type and a mpkCΔ mutant (a MAPK gene deletion mutant in the polyalcohol sugar utilization system). Complete fungal kill (≥99.9%) by ITZ or AMB was also achieved by much lower dosages for the sakAΔ mutant than for the other strains. It appears msnA, an Aspergillus ortholog to Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSN2 (encoding a stress-responsive C2H2-type zinc-finger regulator) and sakA and/or mpkC (upstream MAPKs) are in the same stress response network under tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH)-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)- or AMB-triggered toxicity. Of note is that ITZ-sensitive yeast pathogens were also sensitive to t-BuOOH, showing a connection between ITZ sensitivity and antioxidant capacity of fungi. Enhanced antifungal activity of AMB or ITZ was achieved when these drugs were co-applied with redox-potent natural compounds, 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, thymol or salicylaldehyde, as chemosensitizing agents. We concluded that redox-potent compounds, which target the antioxidant system in fungi, possess a chemosensitizing capacity to enhance efficacy of conventional drugs. PMID:22438852

  2. Protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells by treatment with antioxidant agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, X. Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Zhou, Zhaozong; Donahue, Jeremiah J.; Guan, Jun; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of antioxidant agents against space radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells. Methods and Materials: The effects of selected concentrations of N-acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, co-enzyme Q10, α-lipoic acid, L-selenomethionine, and vitamin E succinate on radiation-induced oxidative stress were evaluated in MCF10 human breast epithelial cells exposed to radiation with X-rays, γ-rays, protons, or high mass, high atomic number, and high energy particles using a dichlorofluorescein assay. Results: The results demonstrated that these antioxidants are effective in protecting against radiation-induced oxidative stress and complete or nearly complete protection was achieved by treating the cells with a combination of these agents before and during the radiation exposure. Conclusion: The combination of antioxidants evaluated in this study is likely be a promising countermeasure for protection against space radiation-induced adverse biologic effects

  3. Regulators as agents: Modelling personality and power as evidence is brokered to support decisions on environmental risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, G.J. [Cranfield University, Centre for Environmental Risks and Futures, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Kendall, G. [University of Nottingham, School of Computer Science, Nottingham NG8 1BB (United Kingdom); University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Soane, E. [London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Management, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom); Li, J. [University of Nottingham, School of Computer Science, Nottingham NG8 1BB (United Kingdom); Rocks, S.A.; Jude, S.R. [Cranfield University, Centre for Environmental Risks and Futures, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Pollard, S.J.T., E-mail: s.pollard@cranfield.ac.uk [Cranfield University, Centre for Environmental Risks and Futures, School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-01

    Complex regulatory decisions about risk rely on the brokering of evidence between providers and recipients, and involve personality and power relationships that influence the confidence that recipients may place in the sufficiency of evidence and, therefore, the decision outcome. We explore these relationships in an agent-based model; drawing on concepts from environmental risk science, decision psychology and computer simulation. A two-agent model that accounts for the sufficiency of evidence is applied to decisions about salt intake, animal carcass disposal and radioactive waste. A dynamic version of the model assigned personality traits to agents, to explore their receptivity to evidence. Agents with ‘aggressor’ personality sets were most able to imbue fellow agents with enhanced receptivity (with ‘avoider’ personality sets less so) and clear confidence in the sufficiency of evidence. In a dynamic version of the model, when both recipient and provider were assigned the ‘aggressor’ personality set, this resulted in 10 successful evidence submissions in 71 days, compared with 96 days when both agents were assigned the ‘avoider’ personality set. These insights suggest implications for improving the efficiency and quality of regulatory decision making by understanding the role of personality and power. - Highlights: •The role of personality and power in regulatory decision-making is poorly represented. •We built a rudimentary two-agent model to explore environmental risk decisions. •Our two agent model accounted for decisions about the sufficiency of evidence. •We examined the influence personality and power has on confidence gained. •By giving agents personality we might predict the time taken to reach consensus.

  4. Regulators as agents: Modelling personality and power as evidence is brokered to support decisions on environmental risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, G.J.; Kendall, G.; Soane, E.; Li, J.; Rocks, S.A.; Jude, S.R.; Pollard, S.J.T.

    2014-01-01

    Complex regulatory decisions about risk rely on the brokering of evidence between providers and recipients, and involve personality and power relationships that influence the confidence that recipients may place in the sufficiency of evidence and, therefore, the decision outcome. We explore these relationships in an agent-based model; drawing on concepts from environmental risk science, decision psychology and computer simulation. A two-agent model that accounts for the sufficiency of evidence is applied to decisions about salt intake, animal carcass disposal and radioactive waste. A dynamic version of the model assigned personality traits to agents, to explore their receptivity to evidence. Agents with ‘aggressor’ personality sets were most able to imbue fellow agents with enhanced receptivity (with ‘avoider’ personality sets less so) and clear confidence in the sufficiency of evidence. In a dynamic version of the model, when both recipient and provider were assigned the ‘aggressor’ personality set, this resulted in 10 successful evidence submissions in 71 days, compared with 96 days when both agents were assigned the ‘avoider’ personality set. These insights suggest implications for improving the efficiency and quality of regulatory decision making by understanding the role of personality and power. - Highlights: •The role of personality and power in regulatory decision-making is poorly represented. •We built a rudimentary two-agent model to explore environmental risk decisions. •Our two agent model accounted for decisions about the sufficiency of evidence. •We examined the influence personality and power has on confidence gained. •By giving agents personality we might predict the time taken to reach consensus

  5. Micro-Environmental Stress Induces Src-Dependent Activation of Invadopodia and Cell Migration in Ewing Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. Bailey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic Ewing sarcoma has a very poor prognosis and therefore new investigations into the biologic drivers of metastatic progression are key to finding new therapeutic approaches. The tumor microenvironment is highly dynamic, leading to exposure of different regions of a growing solid tumor to changes in oxygen and nutrient availability. Tumor cells must adapt to such stress in order to survive and propagate. In the current study, we investigate how Ewing sarcoma cells respond to the stress of growth factor deprivation and hypoxia. Our findings reveal that serum deprivation leads to a reversible change in Ewing cell cytoskeletal phenotypes. Using an array of migration and invasion techniques, including gelatin matrix degradation invadopodia assays, we show that exposure of Ewing sarcoma cells to serum deprivation and hypoxia triggers enhanced migration, invadopodia formation, matrix degradation and invasion. Further, these functional changes are accompanied by and dependent on activation of Src kinase. Activation of Src, and the associated invasive cell phenotype, were blocked by exposing hypoxia and serum-deprived cells to the Src inhibitor dasatinib. These results indicate that Ewing sarcoma cells demonstrate significant plasticity in response to rapidly changing micro-environmental stresses that can result from rapid tumor growth and from necrosis-causing therapies. In response to these stresses, Ewing cells transition to a more migratory and invasive state and our data show that Src is an important mediator of this stress response. Our data support exploration of clinically available Src inhibitors as adjuvant agents for metastasis prevention in Ewing sarcoma.

  6. Intelligent Agent Appropriation in the Tracking Phase of an Environmental Scanning Process: A Case Study of a French Trade Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafaye, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The rapid growth of the Internet has modified the boundaries of information acquisition (tracking) in environmental scanning. Despite the numerous advantages of this new medium, information overload is an enormous problem for Internet scanners. In order to help them, intelligent agents (i.e., autonomous, automated software agents…

  7. Modern sample preparation techniques for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of environmental markers of chemical warfare agents use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terzic, O.; de Voogt, P.; Banoub, J.

    2014-01-01

    The chapter introduces problematics of on-site chemical analysis in the investigations of past chemical warfare agents (CWA) events. An overview of primary environmental degradation pathways of CWA leading to formation of chemical markers of their use is given. Conventional and modern sample

  8. Environmental factors influencing gene transfer agent (GTA mediated transduction in the subtropical ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren D McDaniel

    Full Text Available Microbial genomic sequence analyses have indicated widespread horizontal gene transfer (HGT. However, an adequate mechanism accounting for the ubiquity of HGT has been lacking. Recently, high frequencies of interspecific gene transfer have been documented, catalyzed by Gene Transfer Agents (GTAs of marine α-Proteobacteria. It has been proposed that the presence of bacterial genes in highly purified viral metagenomes may be due to GTAs. However, factors influencing GTA-mediated gene transfer in the environment have not yet been determined. Several genomically sequenced strains containing complete GTA sequences similar to Rhodobacter capsulatus (RcGTA, type strain were screened to ascertain if they produced putative GTAs, and at what abundance. Five of nine marine strains screened to date spontaneously produced virus-like particles (VLP's in stationary phase. Three of these strains have demonstrated gene transfer activity, two of which were documented by this lab. These two strains Roseovarius nubinhibens ISM and Nitratireductor 44B9s, were utilized to produce GTAs designated RnGTA and NrGTA and gene transfer activity was verified in culture. Cell-free preparations of purified RnGTA and NrGTA particles from marked donor strains were incubated with natural microbial assemblages to determine the level of GTA-mediated gene transfer. In conjunction, several ambient environmental parameters were measured including lysogeny indicated by prophage induction. GTA production in culture systems indicated that approximately half of the strains produced GTA-like particles and maximal GTA counts ranged from 10-30% of host abundance. Modeling of GTA-mediated gene transfer frequencies in natural samples, along with other measured environmental variables, indicated a strong relationship between GTA mediated gene transfer and the combined factors of salinity, multiplicity of infection (MOI and ambient bacterial abundance. These results indicate that GTA

  9. Salivary cortisol and self-reported stress among persons with environmental annoyance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Frida; Persson, Roger; Karlson, Björn

    2006-01-01

    Increased vulnerability to stress has been suggested as a possible mechanism behind medically unexplained conditions such as sensitivity to electricity and common smells. This study examined whether subjective environmental annoyance among the general population is associated with increased physi...

  10. [The role of environmental factors in managing labour stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rados, Melinda; Mészáros, Judit

    2017-07-01

    Emotional, cognitive and behavioural aspects of birth and labour stress are strongly associated with the underlying physiological processes. To study the factors of physical security and social support, the administration of synthetic oxytocin, and how they relate to perceived stress during childbirth. Women's experienced physical security, social support and oxytocin administration was measured with targeted questions, and their perceived stress with the short and modified version of the Perceived Stress Scale. A strong negative association was found between perceived stress and physical and social security. The group of women experiencing low physical and social security perceived significantly higher stress, while those given synthetic oxytocin perceived higher stress, and lower physical and social security. Since physiological, psychological processes and behaviours are strongly intertwined, the support of natural physiological birth without interventions is recommended, which considers not only short-term but long-term health consequences for mother and child. The contribution of calming physical surroundings, minimal interventions and empowering support of caregivers to safe and satisfying birth is demonstrated in a model. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(29): 1149-1156.

  11. Intracellular proteins produced by mammalian cells in response to environmental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goochee, Charles F.; Passini, Cheryl A.

    1988-01-01

    The nature of the response of mammalian cells to environmental stress is examined by reviewing results of studies where cultured mouse L cells and baby hamster kidney cells were exposed to heat shock and the synthesis of heat-shock proteins and stress-response proteins (including HSP70, HSC70, HSP90, ubiquitin, and GRP70) in stressed and unstressed cells was evaluated using 2D-PAGE. The intracellular roles of the individual stress response proteins are discussed together with the regulation of the stress response system.

  12. Effect of environmental stress on clonal structure of Eucypris virens (Crustacea, Ostracoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Martins M. J. F.; Vandekerkhove J.; Adolfsson S.; Rossetti G.; Namiotko T.; Jokela J.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental stress imposes strong natural selection on clonal populations, promoting evolutionary change in clonal structure. Environmental stress may also lead to reduction in population size, which together with clonal selection may reduce genotypic diversity of the local populations. We examined how clonal structure in wild-collected samples of two parthenogenetic populations of the freshwater ostracod Eucypris virens responded to hypersalinity and starvation, and the combination of the ...

  13. Assessment of Environmental Stresses for Enhanced Microalgal Biofuel Production – An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Dan; He, Qingfang

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal biofuels are currently considered to be the most promising alternative to future renewable energy source. Microalgae have great potential to produce various biofuels, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Cultivation of biofuel-producing microalgae demands favorable environmental conditions, such as suitable light, temperature, nutrients, salinity, and pH. However, these conditions are not always compatible with the conditions beneficial to biofuel production, because biofuel-related compounds (such as lipids and carbohydrates) tend to accumulate under environmental-stress conditions of light, temperature, nutrient, and salt. This paper presents a brief overview of the effects of environmental conditions on production of microalgal biomass and biofuel, with specific emphasis on how to utilize environmental stresses to improve biofuel productivity. The potential avenues of reaping the benefits of enhanced biofuel production by environmental stresses while maintaining high yields of biomass production have been discussed.

  14. Assessment of environmental stresses for enhanced microalgal biofuel production-an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eCheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biofuels are currently considered to be the most promising alternative to future renewable energy source. Microalgae have great potential to produce various biofuels, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Cultivation of biofuel-producing microalgae demands favorable environmental conditions, such as suitable light, temperature, nutrients, salinity, and pH. However, these conditions are not always compatible with the conditions beneficial to biofuel production, because biofuel-related compounds (such as lipids and carbohydrates tend to accumulate under environmental-stress conditions of light, temperature, nutrient, and salt. This paper presents a brief overview of the effects of environmental conditions on production of microalgal biomass and biofuel, with specific emphasis on how to utilize environmental stresses to improve biofuel productivity. The potential avenues of reaping the benefits of enhanced biofuel production by environmental stresses while maintaining high yields of biomass production have been discussed.

  15. Environmental Stress Responses and Biological Interactions Investigated in the Drosophila Model System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, Michael

    on their ability to respond on a behavioral, physiological, morphological and/or evolutionary level according to the environmental cues. At the same time, if populations are small and fragmented, and have limited gene flow, environmental change and environmental stress might interact with intrinsic genetic stress...... such as inbreeding and genetic drift, which can exacerbate the effects of one or more environmental stresses. Furthermore, inbred populations often have low genetic variation that might constrain evolutionary responses to rapidly changing environments. This thesis investigates how, and to what extent, insect model......When organisms are faced with changes in their environment, they are forced to respond, if they are to maintain optimal function. Especially ectotherms must deal with environmental changes in e.g. temperature on a regular basis, and thus their survival and reproductive success depend...

  16. Assessment of Environmental Stresses for Enhanced Microalgal Biofuel Production – An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Dan, E-mail: dxcheng@ualr.edu; He, Qingfang, E-mail: dxcheng@ualr.edu [Department of Applied Science, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2014-07-07

    Microalgal biofuels are currently considered to be the most promising alternative to future renewable energy source. Microalgae have great potential to produce various biofuels, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Cultivation of biofuel-producing microalgae demands favorable environmental conditions, such as suitable light, temperature, nutrients, salinity, and pH. However, these conditions are not always compatible with the conditions beneficial to biofuel production, because biofuel-related compounds (such as lipids and carbohydrates) tend to accumulate under environmental-stress conditions of light, temperature, nutrient, and salt. This paper presents a brief overview of the effects of environmental conditions on production of microalgal biomass and biofuel, with specific emphasis on how to utilize environmental stresses to improve biofuel productivity. The potential avenues of reaping the benefits of enhanced biofuel production by environmental stresses while maintaining high yields of biomass production have been discussed.

  17. Pharmacological Correction of Stress-Induced Gastric Ulceration by Novel Small-Molecule Agents with Antioxidant Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin V. Kudryavtsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine novel small-molecule agents influencing the pathogenesis of gastric lesions induced by stress. To achieve this goal, four novel organic compounds containing structural fragments with known antioxidant activity were synthesized, characterized by physicochemical methods, and evaluated in vivo at water immersion restraint conditions. The levels of lipid peroxidation products and activities of antioxidative system enzymes were measured in gastric mucosa and correlated with the observed gastroprotective activity of the active compounds. Prophylactic single-dose 1 mg/kg treatment with (2-hydroxyphenylthioacetyl derivatives of L-lysine and L-proline efficiently decreases up to 86% stress-induced stomach ulceration in rats. Discovered small-molecule antiulcer agents modulate activities of gastric mucosa tissue superoxide dismutase, catalase, and xanthine oxidase in concerted directions. Gastroprotective effect of (2-hydroxyphenylthioacetyl derivatives of L-lysine and L-proline at least partially depends on the correction of gastric mucosa oxidative balance.

  18. Effects of environmental stress on forest crown condition in Europe. Part IV statistical analysis of relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klap, J.M.; Oude Voshaar, J.H.; Vries, de W.; Erisman, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Site-specific estimates for various environmental stress factors were related with measured crown condition data at a systematic 16 x: 16 km(2) grid over Europe, according to previously stated hypotheses, using a multiple regression approach, including interactions, and lagged effects of stress

  19. Influence of quenching agent on microstructure, properties and thermal stress of SiC{sub p}/2009 composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Tianbing, E-mail: tianbing_1988@sina.com [Beijing Institute of Aeronautic Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Advanced Aluminum Alloys and Application, Beijing 100095 (China); Li, Huiqu; Tang, Pengjun; He, Xiaolei; Li, Peiyong [Beijing Institute of Aeronautic Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Advanced Aluminum Alloys and Application, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2016-08-15

    15% vol. SiC{sub p}/2009 composites prepared by powder metallurgy were quenched in room temperature water and 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution respectively, then aged naturally. The influence of quenching agent on microstructure, properties and thermal stress of SiC{sub p}/2009 composites were investigated by means of scanning/transmission electron microscope, hardness and tensile test. The results showed that the number of precipitated phase in water quenched composites increased, with much finer in size and more homogeneous in distribution compared with 20% PEG quenched one. Meanwhile, the density of dislocation in composites by water quenching was also much higher. Intergranular corrosion did not occur with the two quenching agents. The 20% PEG quenched composites exhibited slight lower hardness and higher electrical conductivity than that of water quenched one. The two quenched composites showed same level in tensile strength, but the yield strength of water-quenched composites was higher (8 MPa, 3%). The usage of 20% PEG reduced thermal stress and minimized warping deformation of the parts, it is a more suitable quenching agent for SiC{sub p}/2009 composites in engineering application fields. - Highlights: •SiC{sub p}/2009 composites quenched by water and 20% PEG solution were investigated. •Aging precipitation behavior of SiC{sub p}/2009 composites is sensitive to quenchant. •Influence of quenching agent on properties of SiC{sub p}/2009 composites are minimal. •Quenching with 20% PEG reduces thermal stress of SiC{sub p}/2009 composites remarkably. •20% PEG is a more suitable quenching agent for SiC{sub p}/2009 composites than water.

  20. Agent-based dynamic knowledge representation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence activation in the stressed gut: Towards characterizing host-pathogen interactions in gut-derived sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, John B; Alverdy, John C; Zaborina, Olga; An, Gary

    2011-09-19

    There is a growing realization that alterations in host-pathogen interactions (HPI) can generate disease phenotypes without pathogen invasion. The gut represents a prime region where such HPI can arise and manifest. Under normal conditions intestinal microbial communities maintain a stable, mutually beneficial ecosystem. However, host stress can lead to changes in environmental conditions that shift the nature of the host-microbe dialogue, resulting in escalation of virulence expression, immune activation and ultimately systemic disease. Effective modulation of these dynamics requires the ability to characterize the complexity of the HPI, and dynamic computational modeling can aid in this task. Agent-based modeling is a computational method that is suited to representing spatially diverse, dynamical systems. We propose that dynamic knowledge representation of gut HPI with agent-based modeling will aid in the investigation of the pathogenesis of gut-derived sepsis. An agent-based model (ABM) of virulence regulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa was developed by translating bacterial and host cell sense-and-response mechanisms into behavioral rules for computational agents and integrated into a virtual environment representing the host-microbe interface in the gut. The resulting gut milieu ABM (GMABM) was used to: 1) investigate a potential clinically relevant laboratory experimental condition not yet developed--i.e. non-lethal transient segmental intestinal ischemia, 2) examine the sufficiency of existing hypotheses to explain experimental data--i.e. lethality in a model of major surgical insult and stress, and 3) produce behavior to potentially guide future experimental design--i.e. suggested sample points for a potential laboratory model of non-lethal transient intestinal ischemia. Furthermore, hypotheses were generated to explain certain discrepancies between the behaviors of the GMABM and biological experiments, and new investigatory avenues proposed to test those

  1. Agent-based dynamic knowledge representation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence activation in the stressed gut: Towards characterizing host-pathogen interactions in gut-derived sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaborina Olga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing realization that alterations in host-pathogen interactions (HPI can generate disease phenotypes without pathogen invasion. The gut represents a prime region where such HPI can arise and manifest. Under normal conditions intestinal microbial communities maintain a stable, mutually beneficial ecosystem. However, host stress can lead to changes in environmental conditions that shift the nature of the host-microbe dialogue, resulting in escalation of virulence expression, immune activation and ultimately systemic disease. Effective modulation of these dynamics requires the ability to characterize the complexity of the HPI, and dynamic computational modeling can aid in this task. Agent-based modeling is a computational method that is suited to representing spatially diverse, dynamical systems. We propose that dynamic knowledge representation of gut HPI with agent-based modeling will aid in the investigation of the pathogenesis of gut-derived sepsis. Methodology/Principal Findings An agent-based model (ABM of virulence regulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa was developed by translating bacterial and host cell sense-and-response mechanisms into behavioral rules for computational agents and integrated into a virtual environment representing the host-microbe interface in the gut. The resulting gut milieu ABM (GMABM was used to: 1 investigate a potential clinically relevant laboratory experimental condition not yet developed - i.e. non-lethal transient segmental intestinal ischemia, 2 examine the sufficiency of existing hypotheses to explain experimental data - i.e. lethality in a model of major surgical insult and stress, and 3 produce behavior to potentially guide future experimental design - i.e. suggested sample points for a potential laboratory model of non-lethal transient intestinal ischemia. Furthermore, hypotheses were generated to explain certain discrepancies between the behaviors of the GMABM and biological

  2. The impact of environmental factors on nursing stress, job satisfaction, and turnover intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebaum, Diane; Fowler, Susan; Fiedler, Nancy; Osinubi, Omowunmi; Robson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between environmental factors of odor, noise, light, and color and perceived stress, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. The physical work environment may positively or negatively influence nurses' stress, and stress may negatively impact their job satisfaction and intention to change jobs. The research questions were answered using a descriptive, correlational design. The sample (n = 116) consisted of medical-surgical nurses working in acute-care settings. A 36-item questionnaire addressed odor, noise, light, color, perceived stress, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. Significant relationships were found between noise and perceived stress, perceived stress and job satisfaction, job satisfaction and turnover intention, and perceived stress and turnover intention. Nurses tend to overlook their physical environment and "do their job." Common environmental stressors in the work environment can be stressful to staff and influence job satisfaction and, ultimately, intention to change jobs. Mitigating or eliminating these environmental factors has the potential to improve staff satisfaction and retention. Stress influences nursing job satisfaction and, ultimately, intention to change jobs.

  3. Plant transcriptomics and responses to environmental stress: an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Centre for Environmental Research, Near East University, 33010, Lefkosha, Turkish Republic of the Northern Cyprus. 4Department of ...... Transcriptomic analysis of sense and antisense strands of .... 2008 Stem cell transcriptome profiling via.

  4. Contribution of early environmental stress to alcoholism vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Joannalee C.; Szumlinski, Karen K.; Kippin, Tod E.

    2009-01-01

    The most problematic aspects of alcohol abuse disorder are excessive alcohol consumption and the inability to refrain from alcohol consumption during attempted abstinence. The root causes that predispose certain individuals to these problems are poorly understood but are believed to be produced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Early environmental trauma alters neurodevelopmental trajectories that can predispose an individual to a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, inc...

  5. Environmental stress, oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism, and mental health following collective stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Holman, E Alison

    2013-04-01

    We examined whether the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs53576 genotype buffers the combined impact of negative social environments (e.g., interpersonal conflict/constraint) and economic stress on post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and impaired daily functioning following collective stress (September 11th terrorist attacks). Saliva was collected by mail and used to genotype 704 respondents. Participants completed Web-based assessments of pre-9/11 mental health, acute stress 9-23 days after 9/11, the quality of social environments 1 year post-9/11, economic stress 18 months post-9/11, and PTS symptoms and impaired functioning 2 and 3 years post-9/11. Interactions between negative social environments and economic stress were examined separately based on OXTR rs53576 genotype (GG vs. any A allele). For individuals with an A allele, a negative social environment significantly increased PTS symptoms without regard to the level of economic stress experienced. However, for respondents with a GG genotype, negative social environments predicted elevated PTS symptoms only for those also experiencing high economic stress. Gender moderated associations between negative social environments, economic stress, and impaired functioning. The functioning of females was most affected by negative social environments regardless of genotype and economic stress, whereas the functioning of males was differentially susceptible to economic stress depending on OXTR genotype and negative social environments. These findings suggest that it is important to consider the combined impact of gender and ongoing stress in different domains as moderators of genetic vulnerability following collective stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Method for accelerated aging under combined environmental stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, K.T.

    1979-01-01

    An accelerated aging method which can be used to simulate aging in combined stress environment situations is described. It is shown how the assumptions of the method can be tested experimentally. Aging data for a chloroprene cable jacketing material in single and combined radiation and temperature environments are analyzed and it is shown that these data offer evidence for the validity of the method

  7. Oxidative stress and chromosomal aberrations in an environmentally exposed population

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Šrám, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 707, 1-2 (2011), s. 34-41 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution * oxidative stress * chromosomal aberrations Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.850, year: 2011

  8. Habitat diversity and adaptation to environmental stress in encysted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    intense study (for example, Morimoto et al 1994; Fiege et al 1996; Feder and ... Current research on the stress response is aimed chiefly at the cellular and .... removed (1600 g, 5 min) and the supernatant applied to a column of Sepharose ...

  9. Environmental Stress and Biobehavioral Antecedents of Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, David S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides an overview of research on the biobehavioral antecedents of coronary heart disease, including stressful occupational settings characterized by high demands and little control over the job, and the Type A pattern, particularly hostility and mode of anger expression (anger-in). Discusses research on physiologic responsiveness (reactivity)…

  10. Environmental Stressors and Their Impact on Health and Disease with Focus on Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzel, Thomas; Daiber, Andreas

    2018-03-20

    Epidemiological, preclinical and interventional clinical studies have demonstrated that environmental stressors are associated with health problems, namely cardiovascular diseases. According to estimations of the World Health Organization (WHO), environmental risk factors account for an appreciable part of global deaths and life years spent with disability. This Forum addresses the impact of the environmental risk factors such as traffic noise exposure, air pollution by particulate matter (PM), mental stress/loneliness, and the life style risk factor (water-pipe) smoking on health and disease with focus on the cardiovascular system. We will critically discuss the use of observatory/modifiable biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in environmental research on the aforementioned risk factors highlighting the need of exposome studies. Another focus will be on the epigenetic regulation via microRNAs in environmental stress upon exposure to noise and toxins/heavy metals as well as mental stress conditions, providing mechanistic insights into the modulation of microRNA signaling by oxidative stress, and vice versa the contribution of microRNAs to oxidative stress conditions. We will also provide an in-depth overview on the mechanistic pathways that lead to health problems (e.g., cardiovascular diseases) in response to environmental psychosocial stress, air pollution exposure in the form of ambient PM and diesel exhaust, traffic noise exposure, and the life style drug (water-pipe) smoking. Almost all stressors share the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and of the sympathetic nervous system with subsequent onset of inflammation and oxidative stress, defining the here proposed therapeutic (antioxidant and exercise) strategies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 735-740.

  11. Environmental stress, oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism, and mental health following collective stress

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas-Thompson, RG; Holman, EA

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs53576 genotype buffers the combined impact of negative social environments (e.g., interpersonal conflict/constraint) and economic stress on post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and impaired daily functioning following collective stress (September 11th terrorist attacks). Saliva was collected by mail and used to genotype 704 respondents. Participants completed Web-based assessments of pre-9/11 mental h...

  12. HeLa Cells Containing a Truncated Form of DNA Polymerase Beta are More Sensitized to Alkylating Agents than to Agents Inducing Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanra, Kalyani; Chakraborty, Anindita; Bhattacharyya, Nandan

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of alkylating and oxidative stress inducing agents on a newly identified variant of DNA polymerase beta (polβ Δ208-304) specific for ovarian cancer. Pol β Δ208-304 has a deletion of exons 11-13 which lie in the catalytic part of enzyme. We compared the effect of these chemicals on HeLa cells and HeLa cells stably transfected with this variant cloned into in pcDNAI/neo vector by MTT, colony forming and apoptosis assays. Polβ Δ208-304 cells exhibited greater sensitivity to an alkylating agent and less sensitivity towards H2O2 and UV when compared with HeLa cells alone. It has been shown that cell death in Pol β Δ208-304 transfected HeLa cells is mediated by the caspase 9 cascade. Exon 11 has nucleotidyl selection activity, while exons 12 and 13 have dNTP selection activity. Hence deletion of this part may affect polymerizing activity although single strand binding and double strand binding activity may remain same. The lack of this part may adversely affect catalytic activity of DNA polymerase beta so that the variant may act as a dominant negative mutant. This would represent clinical significance if translated into a clinical setting because resistance to radiation or chemotherapy during the relapse of the disease could be potentially overcome by this approach.

  13. 75 FR 69396 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... alternatives to, the release of Arundo scale into the continental United States for use as a biological control... a biological control agent to reduce the severity of Arundo donax infestations. A. donax is a highly...

  14. Beneficial effects of environmental enrichment on behavior, stress reactivity and synaptophysin/BDNF expression in hippocampus following early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandi, Εvgenia; Kalamari, Aikaterini; Touloumi, Olga; Lagoudaki, Rosa; Nousiopoulou, Evangelia; Simeonidou, Constantina; Spandou, Evangelia; Tata, Despina A

    2018-06-01

    Exposure to environmental enrichment can beneficially influence the behavior and enhance synaptic plasticity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mediated effects of environmental enrichment on postnatal stress-associated impact with regard to behavior, stress reactivity as well as synaptic plasticity changes in the dorsal hippocampus. Wistar rat pups were submitted to a 3 h maternal separation (MS) protocol during postnatal days 1-21, while another group was left undisturbed. On postnatal day 23, a subgroup from each rearing condition (maternal separation, no-maternal separation) was housed in enriched environmental conditions until postnatal day 65 (6 weeks duration). At approximately three months of age, adult rats underwent behavioral testing to evaluate anxiety (Elevated Plus Maze), locomotion (Open Field Test), spatial learning and memory (Morris Water Maze) as well as non-spatial recognition memory (Novel Object Recognition Test). After completion of behavioral testing, blood samples were taken for evaluation of stress-induced plasma corticosterone using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while immunofluorescence was applied to evaluate hippocampal BDNF and synaptophysin expression in dorsal hippocampus. We found that environmental enrichment protected against the effects of maternal separation as indicated by the lower anxiety levels and the reversal of spatial memory deficits compared to animals housed in standard conditions. These changes were associated with increased BDNF and synaptophysin expression in the hippocampus. Regarding the neuroendocrine response to stress, while exposure to an acute stressor potentiated corticosterone increases in maternally-separated rats, environmental enrichment of these rats prevented this effect. The current study aimed at investigating the compensatory role of enriched environment against the negative outcomes of adverse experiences early in life concurrently on emotional and cognitive

  15. Plant resistance to cold stress: Mechanisms and environmental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Cold acclimation of plants; environmental signals; frost hardening; photoperiod; phytochrome; Scots pine http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci .... radical scavenging potential of the cells (Tao et al 1998; ...... tion in cell–free extracts; FEBS Lett. 410 206– ...

  16. Ultraviolet and environmental stresses involved in the induction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Light is one of the most important environmental factors regulating plant development and genes expression. Ultraviolet takes up 7% of sunlight and it stimulates distinct responses in plant. Both UV-A and low influence of UV-B can induce the accumulation of anthocyanin via induction of the expression of anthocyanin ...

  17. A Virtual Rat for Simulating Environmental and Exertional Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-02

    unsuitable for accurately determin- ing the spatiotemporal temperature distribution in the animal due to heat stress and for performing mechanistic analysis ...possible in the original experiments. Finally, we performed additional simu- lations using the virtual rat to facilitate comparative analysis of the...capability of the virtual rat to account for the circadian rhythmicity in core temperatures during an in- crease in the external temperature from 22

  18. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  19. Environmental enrichment mitigates the impact of ancestral stress on motor skill and corticospinal tract plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, J Keiko; Erickson, Zachary T; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2016-10-06

    An adverse fetal environment in utero has been associated with long-term alterations in brain structure and function, and a higher risk of neurological disorders in later life. A common consequence of early adverse experience is impaired motor system function. A causal relationship for stress-associated impairments and a suitable therapy, however, have not been determined yet. To investigate the impact of ancestral stress on corticospinal tract (CST) morphology and fine motor performance in rats, and to determine if adverse programming by ancestral stress can be mitigated by environmental enrichment therapy in rats. The study examined F3 offspring generated by three lineages; one with prenatal stress only in the F1 generation, one with compounding effects of multigenerational prenatal stress, and a non-stress control lineage. F3 offspring from each lineage were injected with biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the motor cortex for anterograde tracing of the CST. Examination of the CST revealed reduced axonal density in the ancestrally stressed lineages. These anatomical changes were associated with significant impairments in skilled walking, as indicated by reduced foot placement accuracy and disturbed inter-limb coordination. Therapeutic intervention by environmental enrichment reduced the neuromorphological consequences of ancestral stress and restored skilled walking ability. The data suggest a causal relationship between stress-induced abnormal CST function and loss of fine motor performance. Thus, ancestral stress may be a determinant of motor system development and motor skill. Environmental enrichment may represent an effective intervention for the adverse programming by ancestral stress and trauma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Attempts of Pro-Social Communication Agents in Communicating and Shaping Environmental Behaviour via the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, James A

    2009-01-01

    With the increase in focus on environmental advertising during the early 1990s, it is surprising that more research has not focused on advertisings effect on influencing and shaping consumer behaviour change. This is seen as crucial in the next few decreased due to a general agreement on the effect that consumers behaviours have on climate change. Communicating this pro-social behaviour change has in recent years diversified into Internet communications and other communication agents, as well...

  1. Evaluation of the onset of failure under mechanical and thermal stresses on luting agent for metal-ceramic and metal crowns by finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Agnihotri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term clinical failures of cemented prosthesis depend, to a large extent, on the integrity of the luting agent. The causative factors that lead to microfracture and, hence, failure of the luting agents are the stresses acting inside the oral cavity. Therefore, the present study was designed to develop an understanding of the relationship between stresses in the tooth and the failure potential of the luting agent. Two-dimensional finite element stress analysis was performed on the mandibular second premolar. The behavior of zinc-phosphate and glass-ionomer were studied under different crowns (metal-ceramic and metal crown and loading conditions (mechanical force of 450 N acting vertically over the occlusal surface, thermal loads of 60° and 0°C. It was observed from the study that failure threshold of the luting agent was influenced both by the elastic modulus of the luting agent and by the type of the crown.

  2. Injectable biomaterials for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence: their potential and pitfalls as urethral bulking agents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davis, Niall F

    2013-06-01

    Injectable urethral bulking agents composed of synthetic and biological biomaterials are minimally invasive treatment options for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). The development of an ideal urethral bulking agent remains challenging because of clinical concerns over biocompatibility and durability. Herein, the mechanical and biological features of injectable urethral biomaterials are investigated, with particular emphasis on their future potential as primary and secondary treatment options for SUI. A literature search for English language publications using the two online databases was performed. Keywords included "stress urinary incontinence", "urethral bulking agent" and "injectable biomaterial". A total of 98 articles were analysed, of which 45 were suitable for review based on clinical relevance and importance of content. Injectable biomaterials are associated with a lower cure rate and fewer postoperative complications than open surgery for SUI. They are frequently reserved as secondary treatment options for patients unwilling or medically unfit to undergo surgery. Glutaraldehyde cross-linked bovine collagen remains the most commonly injected biomaterial and has a cure rate of up to 53 %. Important clinical features of an injectable biomaterial are durability, biocompatibility and ease of administration, but achieving these requirements is challenging. In carefully selected patients, injectable biomaterials are feasible alternatives to open surgical procedures as primary and secondary treatment options for SUI. In future, higher cure rates may be feasible as researchers investigate alternative biomaterials and more targeted injection techniques for treating SUI.

  3. Interactive effects of environmental stress and inbreeding on reproductive traits in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, A B; Arcese, P; Hochachka, W M; Reid, J M; Keller, L F

    2006-11-01

    1. Conservation biologists are concerned about the interactive effects of environmental stress and inbreeding because such interactions could affect the dynamics and extinction risk of small and isolated populations, but few studies have tested for these interactions in nature. 2. We used data from the long-term population study of song sparrows Melospiza melodia on Mandarte Island to examine the joint effects of inbreeding and environmental stress on four fitness traits that are known to be affected by the inbreeding level of adult birds: hatching success, laying date, male mating success and fledgling survival. 3. We found that inbreeding depression interacted with environmental stress to reduce hatching success in the nests of inbred females during periods of rain. 4. For laying date, we found equivocal support for an interaction between parental inbreeding and environmental stress. In this case, however, inbred females experienced less inbreeding depression in more stressful, cooler years. 5. For two other traits, we found no evidence that the strength of inbreeding depression varied with environmental stress. First, mated males fathered fewer nests per season if inbred or if the ratio of males to females in the population was high, but inbreeding depression did not depend on sex ratio. Second, fledglings survived poorly during rainy periods and if their father was inbred, but the effects of paternal inbreeding and rain did not interact. 6. Thus, even for a single species, interactions between the inbreeding level and environmental stress may not occur in all traits affected by inbreeding depression, and interactions that do occur will not always act synergistically to further decrease fitness.

  4. Cognitive Agents as a Design Metaphor in Environmental-Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccaroni, Luigi; Simon-Cuevas, Alfredo; Rosete-Suárez, Alejandro; Moreno-Espino, Mailyn

    Representing and sharing knowledge has been a central problem in artificial intelligence since its inception. Representations such as semantic networks, frames, concept maps and ontologies, as well as various methodologies for using these systems have been proposed for dealing with such issues. However, problems exist about issues such as communication among heterogeneous agents, incomplete or uncertain knowledge, imprecise formal-izations, and so on. Here, a mapping system between knowledge representations (concept maps and ontologies) is modeled using a methodology for the development of multi agent systems. Ontologies are formalized from non-formal concept maps and can then be used to represent agents knowledge, and to facilitate the communication among persons and software agents. A system is presented, in which a set of agents, implementing three functionalities (retrieval, disambiguation and formalization), collaborates in the process of knowledge management. This multi-agent system is part of a larger knowledge management system based on concept maps, and facilitates the use of generated and managed knowledge by not only people but also other software agents, namely those which require knowledge about domains that have been represented as concept maps, such as the environment domain, object of this book.

  5. Environmental factors and unhealthy lifestyle influence oxidative stress in humans--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Sivasudha, T; Jeyadevi, R; Arul Ananth, D

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen is the most essential molecule for life; since it is a strong oxidizing agent, it can aggravate the damage within the cell by a series of oxidative events including the generation of free radicals. Antioxidative agents are the only defense mechanism to neutralize these free radicals. Free radicals are not only generated internally in our body system but also trough external sources like environmental pollution, toxic metals, cigarette smoke, pesticides, etc., which add damage to our body system. Inhaling these toxic chemicals in the environment has become unavoidable in modern civilization. Antioxidants of plant origin with free radical scavenging properties could have great importance as therapeutic agents in several diseases caused by environmental pollution. This review summarizes the generation of reactive oxygen species and damage to cells by exposure to external factors, unhealthy lifestyle, and role of herbal plants in scavenging these reactive oxygen species.

  6. Cooperative vehicles for robust traffic congestion reduction: An analysis based on algorithmic, environmental and agent behavioral factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajakta Desai

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion continues to be a persistent problem throughout the world. As vehicle-to-vehicle communication develops, there is an opportunity of using cooperation among close proximity vehicles to tackle the congestion problem. The intuition is that if vehicles could cooperate opportunistically when they come close enough to each other, they could, in effect, spread themselves out among alternative routes so that vehicles do not all jam up on the same roads. Our previous work proposed a decentralized multiagent based vehicular congestion management algorithm entitled Congestion Avoidance and Route Allocation using Virtual Agent Negotiation (CARAVAN, wherein the vehicles acting as intelligent agents perform cooperative route allocation using inter-vehicular communication. This paper focuses on evaluating the practical applicability of this approach by testing its robustness and performance (in terms of travel time reduction, across variations in: (a environmental parameters such as road network topology and configuration; (b algorithmic parameters such as vehicle agent preferences and route cost/preference multipliers; and (c agent-related parameters such as equipped/non-equipped vehicles and compliant/non-compliant agents. Overall, the results demonstrate the adaptability and robustness of the decentralized cooperative vehicles approach to providing global travel time reduction using simple local coordination strategies.

  7. Cooperative vehicles for robust traffic congestion reduction: An analysis based on algorithmic, environmental and agent behavioral factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Prajakta; Loke, Seng W; Desai, Aniruddha

    2017-01-01

    Traffic congestion continues to be a persistent problem throughout the world. As vehicle-to-vehicle communication develops, there is an opportunity of using cooperation among close proximity vehicles to tackle the congestion problem. The intuition is that if vehicles could cooperate opportunistically when they come close enough to each other, they could, in effect, spread themselves out among alternative routes so that vehicles do not all jam up on the same roads. Our previous work proposed a decentralized multiagent based vehicular congestion management algorithm entitled Congestion Avoidance and Route Allocation using Virtual Agent Negotiation (CARAVAN), wherein the vehicles acting as intelligent agents perform cooperative route allocation using inter-vehicular communication. This paper focuses on evaluating the practical applicability of this approach by testing its robustness and performance (in terms of travel time reduction), across variations in: (a) environmental parameters such as road network topology and configuration; (b) algorithmic parameters such as vehicle agent preferences and route cost/preference multipliers; and (c) agent-related parameters such as equipped/non-equipped vehicles and compliant/non-compliant agents. Overall, the results demonstrate the adaptability and robustness of the decentralized cooperative vehicles approach to providing global travel time reduction using simple local coordination strategies.

  8. Antitumor agent 25-epi Ritterostatin GN1N induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy mediated cell death in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz Ahmed, Kausar Begam; Kanduluru, Ananda Kumar; Feng, Li; Fuchs, Philip L; Huang, Peng

    2017-05-01

    Metastatic melanoma is the most aggressive of all skin cancers and is associated with poor prognosis owing to lack of effective treatments. 25-epi Ritterostatin GN1N is a novel antitumor agent with yet undefined mechanisms of action. We sought to delineate the antitumor mechanisms of 25-epi Ritterostatin GN1N in melanoma cells to determine the potential of this compound as a treatment for melanoma. Activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress protein glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) has been associated with increased melanoma progression, oncogenic signaling, drug resistance, and suppression of cell death. We found that 25-epi Ritterostatin GN1N induced cell death in melanoma cells at nanomolar concentrations, and this cell death was characterized by inhibition of GRP78 expression, increased expression of the ER stress marker CHOP, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and lipidation of the autophagy marker protein LC3B. Importantly, normal melanocytes exhibited limited sensitivity to 25-epi Ritterostatin GN1N. Subsequent in vivo results demonstrated that 25-epi Ritterostatin GN1N reduced melanoma growth in mouse tumor xenografts and did not affect body weight, suggesting minimal toxicity. In summary, our findings indicate that 25-epi Ritterostatin GN1N causes ER stress and massive autophagy, leading to collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and cell death in melanoma cells, with minimal effects in normal melanocytes. Thus, 25-epi Ritterostatin GN1N is a promising anticancer agent that warrants further investigation.

  9. Stress cracking e ataque químico do PET em diferentes agentes químicos Stress cracking and chemical attack of pet under different chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvânia T. Teófilo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise de resistência ao stress cracking (ESCR do PET foi feita em corpos de prova de tração moldados por injeção, utilizando vários agentes químicos (metanol, etanol, propanol, butanol e soluções de hidróxido de sódio em diferentes concentrações. Foram realizados ensaios dinâmicos e estáticos de tração. Durante os testes os corpos de prova foram mantidos em contato com os agentes e as propriedades mecânicas monitoradas. Os resultados evidenciam que todas as soluções de hidróxidos de sódio testadas são agentes agressivos de ESC por diminuírem as propriedades mecânicas do polímero, ocasionando falha catastrófica. Já os demais fluidos, apesar de não terem efeito significativo nas propriedades do PET, afetam drasticamente sua aparência superficial. Observou-se também a ocorrência de ataque químico nos ensaios com NaOH, resultando em redução nas massas molares.The investigation of stress cracking resistance (ESCR of PET was done in injection-moulded tensile test bars using different fluids as active agents. These were methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol and solutions based on sodium hydroxide. Both dynamic and static tensile experiments were conducted. During the tensile experiments, the samples were kept in contact with the fluids and the mechanical properties were monitored. The results showed that all sodium hydroxide solutions were aggressive stress cracking agents for PET, reducing mechanical properties and causing catastrophic failure. On the other hand, the other fluids did not cause much influence on the mechanical behaviour but changed drastically the surface appearance. Also observed was a chemical attack when NaOH solutions were used, causing a reduction in molar mass of PET molecules.

  10. Evaluation of Quantitative Environmental Stress Screening (ESS) Methods. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    required information on screening strength from the curvefitting parameters. The underlying theory and approach taken are discussed in Appendix A. To...in field 1020 arm St.,Vas AJ Ptr 0.4i Currpnt. c- ugt ~ing DU?/SYS 2.7264 Wll/IY.3 at Factory Stress- NaxiLMw outgoing W?is’ys 0.288 DrW/5?S at Field...182 125 K.W.Fertig and V.X. Murthy, Models for Reliability Growth During Burn-in: Theory and Applicat’ons,Proceedings 1978 Annual Reliability and

  11. Psychosocial stress and minor psychiatric disorders among Agentes Socioeducadores Estrés psicosocial y disturbios psíquicos menores en agentes socio-educadores Estresse psicossocial e distúrbios psíquicos menores em agentes socioeducadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bitencourt Toscani Greco

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to ascertain the association between psychosocial stress and the occurrence of Minor Psychiatric Disorders in agentes socioeducadores. METHOD: a cross-sectional study with 381 agentes socioeducadores from the Centros de Atendimento Socioeducativo in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, in 2011. Brazilian versions of the social demand-control-support at work scale were used, and of the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20. RESULTS: the prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders was 50.1%. The chances of being classified with such a disorder were higher in the high strain work quadrant (OR=2.05; CI95%=1.03-4.09 and active work quadrant (OR=1.99; CI95%=1.09-3.63 when compared to that of low strain, after adjustment for potentially confusing factors. CONCLUSION: there is a positive association between psychosocial stress (high strain and active work and minor psychiatric disorders among agentes socioeducadores. In order to prevent mental illness among these workers, the planning of health promotion actions is necessary.OBJETIVO: verificar la asociación entre estrés psicosocial y la ocurrencia de Disturbios Psíquicos Menores en agente socio-educadores. MÉTODO: Estudio transversal con 381 agentes socio-educadores de los Centros de Servicio Socio-educativo de Rio Grande do Sul, en 2011. Se utilizaron las versiones brasileñas de la escala de Demanda-control-apoyo social en el trabajo y del Self Reporting Questionnaire-20. RESULTADOS: la superioridad de disturbio psíquico menor fue del 50,1%. Las chances de ser clasificado con tal disturbio fueron mayores en el cuadrante de trabajo en alta exigencia (OR=2,05; IC95%=1,03-4,09 y trabajo activo (OR=1,99; IC95%=1,09-3,63 cuando se comparó a lo de baja exigencia, después del ajuste por potenciales factores de confusión. CONCLUSIÓN: hay asociación positiva entre estrés psicosocial (alta exigencia y trabajo activo y disturbios psíquicos menores en agentes socio-educadores. Se hace

  12. Akebia quinata Decaisne aqueous extract acts as a novel anti-fatigue agent in mice exposed to chronic restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Haeng; Jang, Seol; Lee, Si Woo; Park, Sun Dong; Sung, Yoon-Young; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2018-08-10

    Akebia quinata Decaisne extract (AQE; Lardizabalaceae) is used in traditional herbal medicine for stress- and fatigue-related depression, improvement of fatigue, and mental relaxation. To clarify the effects of AQE on stress-induced fatigue, we investigated the neuroprotective pharmacological effects of A. quinata Decaisne in mice exposed to chronic restraint stress. Seven-week old C57BL/6 mice chronically stressed by immobilization for 3 h daily for 15 d and non-stressed control mice underwent daily oral administration of AQE or distilled water. The open field, sucrose preference, and forced swimming behavioral tests were carried out once weekly, and immunohistochemical analyses of NeuN, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein, and BDNF receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) in striatum and hippocampus were performed at the end of the experimental period. Brain levels of serotonin, adrenaline, and noradrenaline as well as serum levels of corticosterone were measured. Behavioral tests showed that treatment with AQE improved all lethargic behaviors examined. AQE significantly attenuated the elevated levels of adrenaline, noradrenaline, and serotonin in the brain and corticosterone, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase levels in the serum. Histopathological analysis showed that AQE reduced liver injury and lateral ventricle size in restraint-stress mice via inhibition of neuronal cell death. Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased phosphorylation of CREB and expression of BDNF and its receptor TrkB in striatum and hippocampus. Chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, and isochlorogenic acid C were identified as the primary components of AQE. All three agents increased expression of BDNF in SH-SY5Y cells and PC12 cells with H 2 O 2 -induced neuronal cell damage. AQE may have a neuroprotective effect and ameliorate the effects of stress and fatigue-associated brain damage through

  13. Metal balance shift induced in small fresh water fish by several environmental stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukawa, Masae; Iso, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Kumiko; Imaseki, Hitoshi; Aoki, Kazuko; Ishikawa, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    Balance of essential elements in organisms might be changed by environmental stresses. Small fresh water fish, Medaka, was burdened with X-ray irradiation (total dose: 17 Gy), keeping in salty water (70% NaCl of sea water) and keeping in metal containing water (10 ppm of Cr and Co). These stresses are not lethal doses. Essential elements in liver, gall bladder, kidney, spleen, heart and brain in the stress-loaded fish were measured by PIXE method and compared with a control fish to determine the effect of the stresses. Various changes of the elemental contents were observed. Effect of X-ray irradiation was the smallest among the stresses. Relatively high content elements such as P, S, Cl and K were hardly affected with the stresses examined in this work. The effect of Cr on the metal balance seems to be larger than the other stresses. As PIXE method can analyze many elements in a small sample simultaneously, change of elemental distribution in small organisms induced by environmental stresses can be determined readily. (author)

  14. Imposed Environmental Stresses Facilitate Cell-Free Nanoparticle Formation by Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela; Contreras, Lydia M; Keitz, Benjamin K

    2017-09-15

    The biological synthesis of metal nanoparticles has been examined in a wide range of organisms, due to increased interest in green synthesis and environmental remediation applications involving heavy metal ion contamination. Deinococcus radiodurans is particularly attractive for environmental remediation involving metal reduction, due to its high levels of resistance to radiation and other environmental stresses. However, few studies have thoroughly examined the relationships between environmental stresses and the resulting effects on nanoparticle biosynthesis. In this work, we demonstrate cell-free nanoparticle production and study the effects of metal stressor concentrations and identity, temperature, pH, and oxygenation on the production of extracellular silver nanoparticles by D. radiodurans R1. We also report the synthesis of bimetallic silver and gold nanoparticles following the addition of a metal stressor (silver or gold), highlighting how production of these particles is enabled through the application of environmental stresses. Additionally, we found that both the morphology and size of monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles were dependent on the environmental stresses imposed on the cells. The nanoparticles produced by D. radiodurans exhibited antimicrobial activity comparable to that of pure silver nanoparticles and displayed catalytic activity comparable to that of pure gold nanoparticles. Overall, we demonstrate that biosynthesized nanoparticle properties can be partially controlled through the tuning of applied environmental stresses, and we provide insight into how their application may affect nanoparticle production in D. radiodurans during bioremediation. IMPORTANCE Biosynthetic production of nanoparticles has recently gained prominence as a solution to rising concerns regarding increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics and a desire for environmentally friendly methods of bioremediation and chemical synthesis. To date, a range of organisms

  15. Environmental Stress Induces Trinucleotide Repeat Mutagenesis in Human Cells by Alt-Nonhomologous End Joining Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nimrat; Lin, Yunfu; Yotnda, Patricia; Wilson, John H

    2016-07-31

    Multiple pathways modulate the dynamic mutability of trinucleotide repeats (TNRs), which are implicated in neurodegenerative disease and evolution. Recently, we reported that environmental stresses induce TNR mutagenesis via stress responses and rereplication, with more than 50% of mutants carrying deletions or insertions-molecular signatures of DNA double-strand break repair. We now show that knockdown of alt-nonhomologous end joining (alt-NHEJ) components-XRCC1, LIG3, and PARP1-suppresses stress-induced TNR mutagenesis, in contrast to the components of homologous recombination and NHEJ, which have no effect. Thus, alt-NHEJ, which contributes to genetic mutability in cancer cells, also plays a novel role in environmental stress-induced TNR mutagenesis. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Effect of environmental stress factors on the uptake and survival of Campylobacter jejuni in Acanthamoeba castellanii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Thanh Xuan; Qvortrup, Klaus; Wolff, Anders

    2012-01-01

    -exposure to heat, starvation, oxidative or osmotic stresses encountered in the environment may affect the subsequent interaction of C. jejuni with free-living protozoa. To test this hypothesis, we examined the impact of environmental stress on expression of virulence-associated genes (ciaB, dnaJ, and htrA) of C......Background: Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial food-borne illness in Europe and North America. The mechanisms allowing survival in the environment and transmission to new hosts are not well understood. Environmental free-living protozoa may facilitate both processes. Pre......, heat treated or osmotically stressed bacteria than with control bacteria. Also, while similar to 1.5 x 10(3) colony forming unit/ml internalized bacteria could typically be recovered 24 h post-gentamicin treatment with control bacteria, no starved, heat treated or osmotically stressed bacteria could...

  17. Environmental Sustainability and Effects on Urban Micro Region using Agent-Based Modeling of Urbanisation in Select Major Indian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aithal, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Urbanisation has gained momentum with globalization in India. Policy decisions to set up commercial, industrial hubs have fuelled large scale migration, added with population upsurge has contributed to the fast growing urban region that needs to be monitored in order to design sustainable urban cities. Unplanned urbanization have resulted in the growth of peri-urban region referred to as urban sprawl, are often devoid of basic amenities and infrastructure leading to large scale environmental problems that are evident. Remote sensing data acquired through space borne sensors at regular interval helps in understanding urban dynamics aided by Geoinformatics which has proved very effective in mapping and monitoring for sustainable urban planning. Cellular automata (CA) is a robust approach for the spatially explicit simulation of land-use land cover dynamics. CA uses rules, states, conditions that are vital factors in modelling urbanisation. This communication effectively introduces simulation assistances of CA with the agent based modelling supported by its fuzzy characteristics and weightages through analytical hierarchal process (AHP). This has been done considering perceived agents such as industries, natural resource etc. Respective agent's role in development of a particular regions into an urban area has been examined with weights and its influence of each of these agents based on its characteristics functions. Validation was performed obtaining a high kappa coefficient indicating the quality and the allocation performance of the model & validity of the model to predict future projections. The prediction using the proposed model was performed for 2030. Further environmental sustainability of each of these cities are explored such as water features, environment, greenhouse gas emissions, effects on human human health etc., Modeling suggests trend of various land use classes transformation with the spurt in urban expansions based on specific regions and

  18. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon. Final Phase 1 environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  19. Chinese Herbal Medicines as Potential Agents for Alleviation of Heat Stress in Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Jahromi, Mohammad Faseleh; Md Saadand, Salwani; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Idrus, Zulkifli; Zhou, Hailong; Diao, Xiao Ping; Liang, Juan Boo

    2017-01-01

    Heat stress negatively affects the productivity of chickens in commercial poultry farms in humid tropics. In this study, the concentrations and types of the antioxidant compounds of eight Chinese herbal medicines, which have previously demonstrated promising effects on suppressing heat stress as a mixture, were investigated using reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography, spectrophotometry, Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, and Gas-Liquid Chromatography. Our results provided the levels of phenolic compounds, total amounts of sugars, and total unsaturated fatty acids in the herbal extracts. Apart from the detection and quantification of the active ingredients of herbs that have the potential to mitigate heat stress in poultry, results of this study also provide useful data for developing an efficient and accurate formulation of the herbs' mixtures in order to induce positive effects against heat stress in in vivo studies.

  20. Chinese Herbal Medicines as Potential Agents for Alleviation of Heat Stress in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Shokryazdan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress negatively affects the productivity of chickens in commercial poultry farms in humid tropics. In this study, the concentrations and types of the antioxidant compounds of eight Chinese herbal medicines, which have previously demonstrated promising effects on suppressing heat stress as a mixture, were investigated using reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography, spectrophotometry, Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, and Gas-Liquid Chromatography. Our results provided the levels of phenolic compounds, total amounts of sugars, and total unsaturated fatty acids in the herbal extracts. Apart from the detection and quantification of the active ingredients of herbs that have the potential to mitigate heat stress in poultry, results of this study also provide useful data for developing an efficient and accurate formulation of the herbs’ mixtures in order to induce positive effects against heat stress in in vivo studies.

  1. Environmental Social Stress, Paranoia and Psychosis Liability: A Virtual Reality Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, Wim; Pot-Kolder, Roos; Counotte, Jacqueline; van Os, Jim; van der Gaag, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The impact of social environments on mental states is difficult to assess, limiting the understanding of which aspects of the social environment contribute to the onset of psychotic symptoms and how individual characteristics moderate this outcome. This study aimed to test sensitivity to environmental social stress as a mechanism of psychosis using Virtual Reality (VR) experiments. Fifty-five patients with recent onset psychotic disorder, 20 patients at ultra high risk for psychosis, 42 siblings of patients with psychosis, and 53 controls walked 5 times in a virtual bar with different levels of environmental social stress. Virtual social stressors were population density, ethnic density and hostility. Paranoia about virtual humans and subjective distress in response to virtual social stress exposures were measured with State Social Paranoia Scale (SSPS) and self-rated momentary subjective distress (SUD), respectively. Pre-existing (subclinical) symptoms were assessed with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), Green Paranoid Thoughts Scale (GPTS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS). Paranoia and subjective distress increased with degree of social stress in the environment. Psychosis liability and pre-existing symptoms, in particular negative affect, positively impacted the level of paranoia and distress in response to social stress. These results provide experimental evidence that heightened sensitivity to environmental social stress may play an important role in the onset and course of psychosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Rab from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: characterization and its regulation upon environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Rong; Liu, Jin; Chen, Chu-Xian; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-10-01

    With the destruction of the ecological environment, shrimp cultivation in China has been seriously affected by outbreaks of infectious diseases. Rab, which belong to small GTPase Ras superfamily, can regulate multiple steps in eukaryotic vesicle trafficking including vesicle budding, vesicle tethering, and membrane fusion. Knowledge of Rab in shrimp is essential to understanding regulation and detoxification mechanisms of environmental stress. In this study, we analyzed the functions of Rab from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Full-length cDNA of Rab was obtained, which was 751 bp long, with open reading frame encoding 206 amino acids. In this study, for the first time, the gene expression of Rab of L. vannamei was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR after exposure to five kinds of environmental stresses (bacteria, pH, Cd, salinity and low temperature). The results demonstrate that Rab is sensitive and involved in bacteria, pH, and Cd stress responses and Rab is more sensitive to bacteria than other stresses. Therefore we infer that Rab may have relationship with the anti-stress mechanism induced by environment stress in shrimp and Rab could be used as critical biomarkers for environmental quality assessment.

  3. Morphological changes in textile fibres exposed to environmental stresses: atomic force microscopic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Montiel, Kimberley; Adya, Ashok K

    2009-10-30

    The ability of the atomic force microscope (AFM) to investigate the nanoscopic morphological changes in the surfaces of fabrics was examined for the first time. This study focussed on two natural (cotton and wool), and a regenerated cellulose (viscose) textile fibres exposed to various environmental stresses for different lengths of times. Analyses of the AFM images allowed us to measure quantitatively the surface texture parameters of the environmentally stressed fabrics as a function of the exposure time. It was also possible to visualise at the nanoscale the finest details of the surfaces of three weathered fabrics and clearly distinguish between the detrimental effects of the imposed environmental conditions. This study confirmed that the AFM could become a very powerful tool in forensic examination of textile fibres to provide significant fibre evidence due to its capability of distinguishing between different environmental exposures or forced damages to fibres.

  4. Metabolomic analysis of the selection response of Drosophila melanogaster to environmental stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmendal, Anders; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Overgaard, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    -regulated in response to selection for some of the stresses in this study. Overall, the results illustrate that selection markedly alters the metabolite profile and that the coupling between different levels of biological organization indeed is present though not very strong for stress selection at this level......We investigated the global metabolite response to artificial selection for tolerance to stressful conditions such as cold, heat, starvation, and desiccation, and for longevity in Drosophila melanogaster. Our findings were compared to data from other levels of biological organization, including gene...... expression, physiological traits, and organismal stress tolerance phenotype. Overall, we found that selection for environmental stress tolerance changes the metabolomic (1)H NMR fingerprint largely in a similar manner independent of the trait selected for, indicating that experimental evolution led...

  5. Impact of the anthelminthic treatment of dogs in environmental contamination of sidewalks by Larva Migrans agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ramires, Lívia Magosso

    2014-01-01

    As geohelmintoses são importantes doenças que acometem seres humanos. Além de serem ocasionadas por parasitos que têm o homem como hospedeiro definitivo, cães e gatos podem ser responsáveis pela contaminação ambiental por agentes com potencial zoonótico. Entres esses agentes, destacam-se Toxocara spp. e Ancylostoma spp., que podem ocasionar as síndromes de Larva migrans visceral/ocular e cutânea, respectivamente. O número crescente de pessoas que criam cães e gatos sem controle parasitário e ...

  6. Brain neurotransmitters and hippocampal proteome in pigs under stress and environmental enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Arroyo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress and wellbeing are psychological conditions that are mediated by the central nervous system. In the brain, stress is mediated mainly by the hypothalamus, which will activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, leading to the secretion of cortisol, the paradigmatic stress hormone. Other brain areas as the amygdala, the hippocampus or the prefrontal cortex (PFC are involved in emotions such as happiness, anxiety and fear. Communication between brain areas is achieved by chemical neurotransmitters (NTs, which are secreted by presynaptic neurons to reach postsynaptic neurons, where they will cause a variation in membrane polarization and other cell signaling actions, leading to physiological responses. Amongst these NTs, catecholamines (noradrenaline and dopamine and serotonin play an important role. On the other hand, the adverse effects of stress may be counteracted by housing the individuals under environmental enrichment conditions. This long-term situation should have an effect, not only on NTs, but also on the brain proteome. Under the hypothesis that different stress situations will lead to changes in NT composition that will be specific for crucial brain areas, we have tested the effects of transport stress, handling stress at the slaughterhouse, and the stress-susceptible genotype (Ryr1 on the amine NT concentration in amygdala, hippocampus, PFC and hypothalamus of pigs. The effects of living under environmentally enriched or control conditions on the NT concentration in several brain regions and on the hippocampus proteome has been also analyzed. In conclusion, genetic factors as well as management conditions related to housing, transport and slaughterhouse alter in different degree the catecholaminergic and the serotoninergic neurotransmission in the brain, and give clues about how different individual types are able to react to external challenges. Likewise, environmental enrichment leads to changes in the proteome

  7. Global gradients of coral exposure to environmental stresses and implications for local management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Maina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The decline of coral reefs globally underscores the need for a spatial assessment of their exposure to multiple environmental stressors to estimate vulnerability and evaluate potential counter-measures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study combined global spatial gradients of coral exposure to radiation stress factors (temperature, UV light and doldrums, stress-reinforcing factors (sedimentation and eutrophication, and stress-reducing factors (temperature variability and tidal amplitude to produce a global map of coral exposure and identify areas where exposure depends on factors that can be locally managed. A systems analytical approach was used to define interactions between radiation stress variables, stress reinforcing variables and stress reducing variables. Fuzzy logic and spatial ordinations were employed to quantify coral exposure to these stressors. Globally, corals are exposed to radiation and reinforcing stress, albeit with high spatial variability within regions. Based on ordination of exposure grades, regions group into two clusters. The first cluster was composed of severely exposed regions with high radiation and low reducing stress scores (South East Asia, Micronesia, Eastern Pacific and the central Indian Ocean or alternatively high reinforcing stress scores (the Middle East and the Western Australia. The second cluster was composed of moderately to highly exposed regions with moderate to high scores in both radiation and reducing factors (Caribbean, Great Barrier Reef (GBR, Central Pacific, Polynesia and the western Indian Ocean where the GBR was strongly associated with reinforcing stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite radiation stress being the most dominant stressor, the exposure of coral reefs could be reduced by locally managing chronic human impacts that act to reinforce radiation stress. Future research and management efforts should focus on incorporating the factors that mitigate the effect of

  8. Exposure of hospital operating room personnel to potentially harmful environmental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sass-Kortsak, A.M.; Purdham, J.T.; Bozek, P.R.; Murphy, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of risk to reproductive health arising from the operating room environment have been inconclusive and lack quantitative exposure information. This study was undertaken to quantify exposure of operating room (OR) personnel to anesthetic agents, x-radiation, methyl methacrylate, and ethylene oxide and to determine how exposure varies with different operating room factors. Exposures of anesthetists and nurses to these agents were determined in selected operating rooms over three consecutive days. Each subject was asked to wear an x-radiation dosimeter for 1 month. Exposure to anesthetic agents was found to be influenced by the age of the OR facility, type of surgical service, number of procedures carried out during the day, type of anesthetic circuitry, and method of anesthesia delivery. Anesthetists were found to have significantly greater exposures than OR nurses. Exposure of OR personnel to ethylene oxide, methyl methacrylate, and x-radiation were well within existing standards. Exposure of anesthetists and nurses to anesthetic agents, at times, was in excess of Ontario exposure guidelines, despite improvements in the control of anesthetic pollution

  9. Environmental toxicity of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) - MicrotoxTM and Spontaneous Locomotor Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Morten Swayne; Sanderson, Hans; Baatrup, Erik

    After the 2nd World War the CWAs were prohibited by law and 11,000 tonnes of toxic agents were dumped in the Bornholm Basin east of Bornholm. The dumped chemical munitions have not reached attention from politicians and scientists until recently. During earlier projects, such as MERCW (2005...

  10. Environmental stress speeds up DNA replication in Pseudomonas putida in chemostat cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieder, Sarah; Jahn, Michael; Koepff, Joachim; Müller, Susann; Takors, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Cellular response to different types of stress is the hallmark of the cell's strategy for survival. How organisms adjust their cell cycle dynamics to compensate for changes in environmental conditions is an important unanswered question in bacterial physiology. A cell using binary fission for reproduction passes through three stages during its cell cycle: a stage from cell birth to initiation of replication, a DNA replication phase and a period of cell division. We present a detailed analysis of durations of cell cycle phases, investigating their dynamics under environmental stress conditions. Applying continuous steady state cultivations (chemostats), the DNA content of a Pseudomonas putida KT2440 population was quantified with flow cytometry at distinct growth rates. Data-driven modeling revealed that under stress conditions, such as oxygen deprivation, solvent exposure and decreased iron availability, DNA replication was accelerated correlated to the severity of the imposed stress (up to 1.9-fold). Cells maintained constant growth rates by balancing the shortened replication phase with extended cell cycle phases before and after replication. Transcriptome data underpin the transcriptional upregulation of crucial genes of the replication machinery. Hence adaption of DNA replication speed appears to be an important strategy to withstand environmental stress. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Resistance to Aspergillus flavus in maize and peanut: Molecular biology, breeding, environmental stress, and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake C. Fountain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The colonization of maize (Zea mays L. and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus results in the contamination of kernels with carcinogenic mycotoxins known as aflatoxins leading to economic losses and potential health threats to humans. The regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis in various Aspergillus spp. has been extensively studied, and has been shown to be related to oxidative stress responses. Given that environmental stresses such as drought and heat stress result in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS within host plant tissues, host-derived ROS may play an important role in cross-kingdom communication between host plants and A. flavus. Recent technological advances in plant breeding have provided the tools necessary to study and apply knowledge derived from metabolomic, proteomic, and transcriptomic studies in the context of productive breeding populations. Here, we review the current understanding of the potential roles of environmental stress, ROS, and aflatoxin in the interaction between A. flavus and its host plants, and the current status in molecular breeding and marker discovery for resistance to A. flavus colonization and aflatoxin contamination in maize and peanut. We will also propose future directions and a working model for continuing research efforts linking environmental stress tolerance and aflatoxin contamination resistance in maize and peanut.

  12. The University of California Institute of Environmental Stress Marathon Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    In 1973, the Institute of Environmental Stress of the University of California-Santa Barbara, under the direction of Steven M. Horvath, began a series of field and laboratory studies of marathon runners during competition. As one of Horvath's graduate students, many of these studies became part of my doctoral dissertation. The rationale for…

  13. Parameters for the Evaluation of the Fate, Transport, and Environmental Impacts of Chemical Agents in Marine Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Anal. Bering/Chukchi, accessed 3 January 2007, http://www.osdpd.noaa.gov/PSB/EPS/SST/data/beringst.c.gif. RE-2 15 Brewer , P. G.; Glover, D. M...Highly Purified Mustard Gas and its Action on Yeast , ” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1947, 69(7), 1808-1809. 135 Redemann, C. E.; Chaikin, S. W.; Fearing, R. B...171 MacNaughton, M. G.; Brewer , J. H., Environmental Chemistry and Fate of Chemical Warfare Agents, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio TX, 1994

  14. Fluxomics of the Eastern Oyster for Environmental Stress Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey P. Tikunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolism of 2-13C/15N-glycine and U-13C-glucose was determined in four tissue blocks (adductor muscle, stomach and digestive gland, mantle, and gills of the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica using proton (1H and carbon-13 (13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. The oysters were treated in aerated seawater with three treatments (5.5 mM U-13C-glucose, 2.7 mM 2-13C/15N-glycine, and 5.5 mM U-13C-glucose plus 2.7 mM 2-13C/15N-glycine and the relative mass balance and 13C fractional enrichments were determined in the four tissue blocks. In all tissues, glycine was metabolized by the glycine cycle forming serine exclusively in the mitochondria by the glycine cleavage system forming 2,3-13C-serine. In muscle, a minor amount of serine-derived pyruvate entered the Krebs cycle as substantiated by detection of a trace of 2,3-13C-aspartate. In all tissues, U-13C-glucose formed glycogen by glycogen synthesis, alanine by glycolysis, and glutamate and aspartate through the Krebs cycle. Alanine was formed exclusively from glucose via alanine transaminase and not glycine via alanine-glyoxylate transaminase. Based on isotopomer analysis, pyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase appeared to be equal points for pyruvate entry into the Krebs cycle. In the 5.5 mM U-13C-glucose plus 2.7 mM 2-13C/15N-glycine emergence treatment used to simulate 12 h of “low tide”, oysters accumulated more 13C-labeled metabolites, including both anaerobic glycolytic and aerobic Krebs cycle intermediates. The aerobic metabolites could be the biochemical result of the gaping behavior of mollusks during emergence. The change in tissue distribution and mass balance of 13C-labeled nutrients (U-13C-glucose and 2-13C/15N-glycine provides the basis for a new quantitative fluxomic method for elucidating sub-lethal environmental effects in marine organisms called whole body mass balance phenotyping (WoMBaP.

  15. Environmental Maternal Effects Mediate the Resistance of Maritime Pine to Biotic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, María; Zas, Rafael; Sampedro, Luis; Solla, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The resistance to abiotic stress is increasingly recognised as being impacted by maternal effects, given that environmental conditions experienced by parent (mother) trees affect stress tolerance in offspring. We hypothesised that abiotic environmental maternal effects may also mediate the resistance of trees to biotic stress. The influence of maternal environment and maternal genotype and the interaction of these two factors on early resistance of Pinus pinaster half-sibs to the Fusarium circinatum pathogen was studied using 10 mother genotypes clonally replicated in two contrasting environments. Necrosis length of infected seedlings was 16% shorter in seedlings grown from favourable maternal environment seeds than in seedlings grown from unfavourable maternal environment seeds. Damage caused by F. circinatum was mediated by maternal environment and maternal genotype, but not by seed mass. Mechanisms unrelated to seed provisioning, perhaps of epigenetic nature, were probably involved in the transgenerational plasticity of P. pinaster, mediating its resistance to biotic stress. Our findings suggest that the transgenerational resistance of pines due to an abiotic stress may interact with the defensive response of pines to a biotic stress. PMID:23922944

  16. Environmental maternal effects mediate the resistance of maritime pine to biotic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vivas

    Full Text Available The resistance to abiotic stress is increasingly recognised as being impacted by maternal effects, given that environmental conditions experienced by parent (mother trees affect stress tolerance in offspring. We hypothesised that abiotic environmental maternal effects may also mediate the resistance of trees to biotic stress. The influence of maternal environment and maternal genotype and the interaction of these two factors on early resistance of Pinus pinaster half-sibs to the Fusarium circinatum pathogen was studied using 10 mother genotypes clonally replicated in two contrasting environments. Necrosis length of infected seedlings was 16% shorter in seedlings grown from favourable maternal environment seeds than in seedlings grown from unfavourable maternal environment seeds. Damage caused by F. circinatum was mediated by maternal environment and maternal genotype, but not by seed mass. Mechanisms unrelated to seed provisioning, perhaps of epigenetic nature, were probably involved in the transgenerational plasticity of P. pinaster, mediating its resistance to biotic stress. Our findings suggest that the transgenerational resistance of pines due to an abiotic stress may interact with the defensive response of pines to a biotic stress.

  17. Interaction of natural complexing agents with soil bound heavy metals -geochemical and environmental technical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.

    1994-01-01

    The sanitation of heavy metal polluted soils requires the application of an adequate technology, which should be consistent in its ecological aims and methodology. Therefore a research programme has been developed at the 'Institute of Ecological Chemistry' of the 'GSF-Research Center', Neuherberg, which has its starting point in the study of influences of natural organic complexing agents on the chemical activity and dynamic of heavy metals in soils. The groundlaying idea is to elevate the concentration of complexing agents in the soil solution by additional application and possible stimulation of their microbial production to such an extent, that heavy metals will be enhanced solubilized, mobilized and removed together with the seepage water. Batch experiments in order to extract heavy metals from typical soil components (bentonite, peat) by amino acids demonstrate, that removal rates up to 95% can be obtained. (orig.) [de

  18. Integration of environmental and spectral data for sunflower stress determination. [Red River Valley, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillesand, T.; Seeley, M.

    1983-01-01

    Stress in sunflowers was assessed in western and northwestern Minnesota. Weekly ground observations (acquired in 1980 and 1981) were analyzed in concert with large scale aerial photography and concurrent LANDSAT data. Using multidate supervised and unsupervised classification procedures, it was found that all crops grown in association with sunflowers in the study area are spectrally separable from one another. Under conditions of extreme drought, severely stressed plants were differentiable from those not severely stressed, but between-crop separation was not possible. Initial regression analyses to estimate sunflower seed yield showed a sensitivity to environmental stress during the flowering and seed development stages. One of the most important biological factors related to sunflower production in the Red River Valley area was found to be the extent and severity of insect infestations.

  19. Genetic and environmental modulation of neurotrophic and anabolic stress response: Counterbalancing forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marcus K; Carpenter, Jennifer; Stone, Michael; Hernandez, Lisa M; Rauh, Mitchell J; Laurent, Heidemarie K; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-11-01

    The serotonin transporter genetic variant 5HTTLPR influences activation and feedback control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and has been shown to influence the effect of stressful life events on behavioral health. We recently reported that 5HTTLPR modulates cortisol response in healthy military men exposed to intense stress. Less is known of its combined effects with environmental factors in this context, or of its effect on neuroprotective stress responses. In this follow-up study, we examined the unique and combined effects of 5HTTLPR and prior trauma exposure on neuroprotective (salivary nerve growth factor [sNGF]), anabolic (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [DHEAS] and testosterone), and catabolic (cortisol) stress responses. Ninety-three healthy, active-duty military men were studied before, during, and 24h after a stressful 12-day survival course. Distinct and interactive effects of 5HTTLPR long allele carriage [L] versus homozygous short allele carriage [SS]) and prior trauma exposure (low versus high) were evaluated, after which a priori group comparisons were performed between hypothesized high resilience (L/low) and low resilience (SS/high) groups. For sNGF, L/low produced the greatest sNGF throughout stress exposure while SS/high demonstrated the smallest; L/high and SS/low bisected these two extremes and were nearly identical to each other (i.e., SS/high counterbalancing (additive) forces. Similar patterns were found for DHEAS. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report counterbalancing genetic and environmental effects on novel biomarkers related to resilience in humans exposed to real-world stress. These findings have profound implications for health, performance and training in high-stress occupational settings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Thermoregulatory responses to environmental toxicants: The interaction of thermal stress and toxicant exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Lisa R.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal stress can have a profound impact on the physiological responses that are elicited following environmental toxicant exposure. The efficacy by which toxicants enter the body is directly influenced by thermoregulatory effector responses that are evoked in response to high ambient temperatures. In mammals, the thermoregulatory response to heat stress consists of an increase in skin blood flow and moistening of the skin surface to dissipate core heat to the environment. These physiological responses may exacerbate chemical toxicity due to increased permeability of the skin, which facilitates the cutaneous absorption of many environmental toxicants. The core temperature responses that are elicited in response to high ambient temperatures, toxicant exposure or both can also have a profound impact on the ability of an organism to survive the insult. In small rodents, the thermoregulatory response to thermal stress and many environmental toxicants (such as organophosphate compounds) is often biphasic in nature, consisting initially of a regulated reduction in core temperature (i.e., hypothermia) followed by fever. Hypothermia is an important thermoregulatory survival strategy that is used by small rodents to diminish the effect of severe environmental insults on tissue homeostasis. The protective effect of hypothermia is realized by its effects on chemical toxicity as molecular and cellular processes, such as lipid peroxidation and the formation of reactive oxygen species, are minimized at reduced core temperatures. The beneficial effects of fever are unknown under these conditions. Perspective is provided on the applicability of data obtained in rodent models to the human condition

  1. Probing Resilience: Daily Environmental Mastery, Self-Esteem, and Stress Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit, Mignon A; Tiberio, Stacey S

    2016-10-01

    The current study explores one way the process of resilience arises by investigating the underlying process of stress appraisal. In particular, the analyses examine how resilience resources function each day to attenuate the extent to which life experiences are perceived as threatening, and how trait-like resilience resources shape the appraisal process. Daily diary and questionnaire data from 96 participants of Successful Aging in Context: The Macroenvironment and Daily Lived Experience (SAIC; MAge = 67 years, SDAge = 4.9 years; range: 58-86 years) were analyzed using multilevel random coefficient modeling to investigate how individuals' daily perceptions of control and self-esteem impacted perceived stress on a given day. Results suggested that both self-esteem and environmental mastery help mitigate the experience of stress; furthermore, dispositional resilience and self-esteem stability predict differences between individuals in the extent to which self-esteem tempers the perception of stress each day. The results inform theoretical and empirical work on the nature of resilience, especially regarding how the process arises in ordinary life. From an application perspective, results imply that augmenting environmental mastery and self-esteem, both of which are malleable, can facilitate resilience by helping elders challenge their perceptions of stress each day. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Tree disease and wood decay as agents of environmental and social change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2018-01-01

    The breakdown or decay of wood is a prominent process in landscape health and disease. The bulk of the energy captured and stored by natural woodlands, orchards, and agroforestry operations is allocated to produce wood. The release of that stored energy and the cycling of the constituent mineral elements into environmental pools and other organisms is through processes...

  3. Environmental risk assessment of phosphonates, used in domestic laundry and cleaning agents in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaworska, J.; Genderen-Takken, H. van; Hanstveit, A.; Plassche, E. van de; Feijtel, T.

    2002-01-01

    In the long-term cooperative project Voluntary Plan of Action (1990) between the Dutch Soap and Detergent Association (NVZ) and the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) environmental risk assessments of several main components of laundry cleaning formulations were

  4. Impact of environmental dynamics on economic evolution: A stylized agent-based policy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nannen, V.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Eiben, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    The general problem of how environmental dynamics affect the behavioral interaction in an evolutionary economy is considered. To this end, a basic model of a dynamic multi-sector economy is developed where the evolution of investment strategies depends on the diversity of these strategies, social

  5. Assessing environmental impacts of Chinese livestock policies : an agent-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, C.

    2013-01-01

    Over the recent decades, environmental management has been promoted in China, and has gradually transferred from urban areas and industrial sectors to rural areas and the agricultural sector. Livestock production is extremely important for China, for increasing rural household income and

  6. Pretest Score for Predicting Microbubble Contrast Agent Use in Stress Echocardiography: A Method to Increase Efficiency in the Echo Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Bernier

    2009-01-01

    contrast. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between individual characteristics and contrast use. An 11-point score was derived from the significant characteristics. Results. Variables associated with microbubble use were age, sex, smoking, presence of multiple risk factors, bodymass index (BMI, referral for dobutamine stress echocardiography, history of coronary artery disease, and abnormal baseline electrocardiogram. All variables except BMI were given a score of 1 if present and 0 if absent; BMI was given a score of 0 to 4 according to its value. An increased score was directly proportional to increased likelihood of contrast use. The score cutoff value to optimize sensitivity and specificity was 5. Conclusions. A pretest score can be computed from information available before imaging. It may facilitate contrast agent use through early identification of patients who are likely to benefit from improved endocardial border definition.

  7. Environmental Enrichment during Gestation Improves Behavior Consequences and Synaptic Plasticity in Hippocampus of Prenatal-Stressed Offspring Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mingbo; Wang, Miao; Ding, Siqing; Li, Changqi; Luo, Xuegang

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal stress can result in various behavior deficits in offspring. Here we tested the effects of environmental enrichment during gestation used as a preventive strategy on the behavior deficits of prenatal-stressed offspring rats as well as the underlying structure basis. We compared the effect size of environmental enrichment during gestation on prenatal-stressed offspring to that of environmental enrichment after weaning. Our results showed that environmental enrichment during gestation partially prevented anxiety and the damage in learning and memory in prenatal-stressed offspring as evaluated by elevated plus-maze test and Morris water maze test. At the same time, environmental enrichment during gestation inhibited the decrease in spine density of CA1 and dentate gyrus neurons and preserved the expression of synaptophysin and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the hippocampus of prenatal-stressed offspring. There was no significant difference in offspring behavior between 7-day environmental enrichment during gestation and 14-day offspring environmental enrichment after weaning. These data suggest that environmental enrichment during gestation effectively prevented the behavior deficits and the abnormal synapse structures in prenatal-stressed offspring, and that it can be used as an efficient preventive strategy against prenatal stresses

  8. Climate variability and environmental stress in the Sudan-Sahel zone of West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; D'haen, Sarah Ann Lise; Maiga, Abdou

    2012-01-01

    Environmental change in the Sudan-Sahel region of West Africa (SSWA) has been much debated since the droughts of the 1970s. In this article we assess climate variability and environmental stress in the region. Households in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria were asked about climatic...... to household perceptions, observed rainfall patterns showed an increasing trend over the past 20 years. However, August rainfall declined, and could therefore potentially explain the contrasting negative household perceptions of rainfall trends. Most households reported degradation of soils, water resources......, vegetation, and fauna, but more so in the 500–900 mm zones. Adaptation measures to counter environmental degradation included use of manure, reforestation, soil and water conservation, and protection of fauna and vegetation. The results raise concerns for future environmental management in the region...

  9. Markovian agents models for wireless sensor networks deployed in environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerotti, Davide; Gribaudo, Marco; Bobbio, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are gaining popularity as distributed monitoring systems in safety critical applications, when the location to be controlled may be dangerous for a human operator or difficult to access. Fire is one of the major thread in urban as well as in open environments, and WSNs are receiving increasing attention as a mean to build effective and timely fire protection systems. The present paper presents a novel analytical technique for the study of the propagation of a fire in a wide open area and the interaction with a WSN deployed to monitor the outbreak of the fire and to send a warning signal to a base station. For the complex scenario under study, an analytical modeling and analysis technique based on Markovian agents (MAs) is discussed. It is shown that, even if the overall state space of the models is huge, nevertheless an analytical solution is feasible, by exploiting the locality of the interactions among MAs, based on a message passing mechanism combined with a perception function. - Highlights: • We present a revised theory of Markovian agent models, detailing the analysis techniques and its complexity • We a target a complex application of a wireless sensor network (WSN) that monitors forest fire. • The model captures the propagation of fire, heat, and the detection by the WSN. • We compute key performance indices such us the fire propagation front, and message travel time. • We perform an extensive set of experiments to study the effectiveness of the WSN in detecting forest fire

  10. Reductive Stress in Inflammation-Associated Diseases and the Pro-Oxidant Effect of Antioxidant Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Pérez-Torres

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Reductive stress (RS is the counterpart oxidative stress (OS, and can occur in response to conditions that shift the redox balance of important biological redox couples, such as the NAD+/NADH, NADP+/NADPH, and GSH/GSSG, to a more reducing state. Overexpression of antioxidant enzymatic systems leads to excess reducing equivalents that can deplete reactive oxidative species, driving the cells to RS. A feedback regulation is established in which chronic RS induces OS, which in turn, stimulates again RS. Excess reducing equivalents may regulate cellular signaling pathways, modify transcriptional activity, induce alterations in the formation of disulfide bonds in proteins, reduce mitochondrial function, decrease cellular metabolism, and thus, contribute to the development of some diseases in which NF-κB, a redox-sensitive transcription factor, participates. Here, we described the diseases in which an inflammatory condition is associated to RS, and where delayed folding, disordered transport, failed oxidation, and aggregation are found. Some of these diseases are aggregation protein cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, muscular dystrophy, pulmonary hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, and metabolic syndrome, among others. Moreover, chronic consumption of antioxidant supplements, such as vitamins and/or flavonoids, may have pro-oxidant effects that may alter the redox cellular equilibrium and contribute to RS, even diminishing life expectancy.

  11. A definition of normovolaemia and consequences for cardiovascular control during orthostatic and environmental stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truijen, Jasper; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2010-01-01

    The Frank-Starling mechanism describes the relationship between stroke volume and preload to the heart, or the volume of blood that is available to the heart--the central blood volume. Understanding the role of the central blood volume for cardiovascular control has been complicated by the fact...... stress including bed rest/microgravity, exercise and training, thermal loading, illness, and trauma/haemorrhage is likely to restrict venous return and Q. Consequently the cardiovascular responses are determined primarily by their effect on the central blood volume. Thus during environmental stress, flow...

  12. Environmental adaptability and stress tolerance of Laribacter hongkongensis: a genome-wide analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Susanna KP

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laribacter hongkongensis is associated with community-acquired gastroenteritis and traveler's diarrhea and it can reside in human, fish, frogs and water. In this study, we performed an in-depth annotation of the genes in its genome related to adaptation to the various environmental niches. Results L. hongkongensis possessed genes for DNA repair and recombination, basal transcription, alternative σ-factors and 109 putative transcription factors, allowing DNA repair and global changes in gene expression in response to different environmental stresses. For acid stress, it possessed a urease gene cassette and two arc gene clusters. For alkaline stress, it possessed six CDSs for transporters of the monovalent cation/proton antiporter-2 and NhaC Na+:H+ antiporter families. For heavy metals acquisition and tolerance, it possessed CDSs for iron and nickel transport and efflux pumps for other metals. For temperature stress, it possessed genes related to chaperones and chaperonins, heat shock proteins and cold shock proteins. For osmotic stress, 25 CDSs were observed, mostly related to regulators for potassium ion, proline and glutamate transport. For oxidative and UV light stress, genes for oxidant-resistant dehydratase, superoxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, exclusion and export of redox-cycling antibiotics, redox balancing, DNA repair, reduction of disulfide bonds, limitation of iron availability and reduction of iron-sulfur clusters are present. For starvation, it possessed phosphorus and, despite being asaccharolytic, carbon starvation-related CDSs. Conclusions The L. hongkongensis genome possessed a high variety of genes for adaptation to acid, alkaline, temperature, osmotic, oxidative, UV light and starvation stresses and acquisition of and tolerance to heavy metals.

  13. Microbiota and environmental stress: how pollution affects microbial communities in Manila clams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, M; Carraro, L; Fariselli, P; Martino, M E; Cavalieri, D; Vitali, F; Boffo, L; Patarnello, T; Bargelloni, L; Cardazzo, B

    2018-01-01

    Given the crucial role of microbiota in host development, health, and environmental interactions, genomic analyses focusing on host-microbiota interactions should certainly be considered in the investigation of the adaptive mechanisms to environmental stress. Recently, several studies suggested that microbiota associated to digestive tract is a key, although still not fully understood, player that must be considered to assess the toxicity of environmental contaminants. Bacteria-dependent metabolism of xenobiotics may indeed modulate the host toxicity. Conversely, environmental variables (including pollution) may alter the microbial community and/or its metabolic activity leading to host physiological alterations that may contribute to their toxicity. Here, 16s rRNA gene amplicon sequencing has been applied to characterize the hepatopancreas microbiota composition of the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum. The animals were collected in the Venice lagoon area, which is subject to different anthropogenic pressures, mainly represented by the industrial activities of Porto Marghera (PM). Seasonal and geographic differences in clam microbiotas were explored and linked to host response to chemical stress identified in a previous study at the transcriptome level, establishing potential interactions among hosts, microbes, and environmental parameters. The obtained results showed the recurrent presence of putatively detoxifying bacterial taxa in PM clams during winter and over-representation of several metabolic pathways involved in xenobiotic degradation, which suggested the potential for host-microbial synergistic detoxifying actions. Strong interaction between seasonal and chemically-induced responses was also observed, which partially obscured such potentially synergistic actions. Seasonal variables and exposure to toxicants were therefore shown to interact and substantially affect clam microbiota, which appeared to mirror host response to environmental variation. It

  14. Dealing with extreme environmental degradation: stress and marginalization of Sahel dwellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haaften, E H; Van de Vijver, F J

    1999-07-01

    Psychological aspects of environmental degradation are hardly investigated. In the present study these aspects were examined among Sahel dwellers, who live in environments with different states of degradation. The degradation was assessed in terms of vegetation cover, erosion, and loss of organic matter. Subjects came from three cultural groups: Dogon (agriculturalists, n = 225), Mossi (agriculturalists, n = 914), and Fulani (pastoralists, n = 844). Questionnaires addressing marginalization, locus of control, and coping were administered. Environmental degradation was associated with higher levels of stress, marginalization, passive coping (avoidance), a more external locus of control, and lower levels of active coping (problem solving and support seeking). Compared to agriculturalists, pastoralists showed a stronger variation in all psychological variables across all regions, from the least to the most environmentally degraded. Women showed higher scores of stress, (external) locus of control, problem solving, and support seeking than men. The interaction of gender and region was significant for several variables. It was concluded that environmental degradation has various psychological correlates: people are likely to display an active approach to environmental degradation as long as the level of degradation is not beyond their control.

  15. Efficient heterogeneous and environmentally friendly degradation of nerve agents on a tungsten-based POM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizrahi, Dana M., E-mail: danami@iibr.gov.il [Department of Organic Chemistry, Israel Institute for Biological Research, P.O. Box 19, Ness Ziona 74100 (Israel); Saphier, Sigal; Columbus, Ishay [Department of Organic Chemistry, Israel Institute for Biological Research, P.O. Box 19, Ness Ziona 74100 (Israel)

    2010-07-15

    Common (chemical warfare agent) CWA decontaminants exhibit harsh and corrosive characteristics, and are harmful to the environment. In the course of our quest for active sorbents as efficient decontaminants, Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM) (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} was tested for oxidative degradation of CWAs. Although oxidation did not take place, sarin (GB) and VX were smoothly decontaminated to non-toxic products within 1 and 10 days, respectively. Degradation was carried out directly on the powder, eliminating the need for solvents. Mustard gas (HD), whose degradation is highly dependent on oxidation, was not decontaminated by this POM. Solid state MAS NMR ({sup 31}P and {sup 13}C) was utilized both for POM characterization and for decontamination studies monitoring.

  16. Efficient heterogeneous and environmentally friendly degradation of nerve agents on a tungsten-based POM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizrahi, Dana M.; Saphier, Sigal; Columbus, Ishay

    2010-01-01

    Common (chemical warfare agent) CWA decontaminants exhibit harsh and corrosive characteristics, and are harmful to the environment. In the course of our quest for active sorbents as efficient decontaminants, Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM) (NH 4 ) 3 PW 12 O 40 was tested for oxidative degradation of CWAs. Although oxidation did not take place, sarin (GB) and VX were smoothly decontaminated to non-toxic products within 1 and 10 days, respectively. Degradation was carried out directly on the powder, eliminating the need for solvents. Mustard gas (HD), whose degradation is highly dependent on oxidation, was not decontaminated by this POM. Solid state MAS NMR ( 31 P and 13 C) was utilized both for POM characterization and for decontamination studies monitoring.

  17. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter shows how careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Presents 3 systems that utilize critical periods to study low-level effects: 1) cell kinetics as an indicator of nervous-system maldevelopment; 2) oocyte depletion; and 3) homeotic shifts in the skeleton. Discusses application of the sensitive systems to the testing of chemicals and the role of sensitive stages in estimating risk. Suggests that tests such as the 3 discussed in this paper, which are developed with strict attention to specific critical periods, can provide rapid and sensitive means for revealing whether an agent is capable of causing developmental interference. Concludes that epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the endpoints being studied

  18. The responsibility of the agents responsible for environmental damage caused by oil spilling in Brazil; A responsabilidade dos agentes causadores de dano ambiental por derramamento de oleo no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This essay talks about the responsibility of the agents that cause damage to the environment, both civil liability, as well as criminal and administrative responsibility. It analyzes the most important brazilian juridical rules, emphasizing the National Environmental Politics Law, the Brazilian Federal Republic Constitution and the Environmental Crimes Law. Specially, due to the amount and importance of the oil and gas activities in Brazil, it talks about the environmental responsibility, in the above mentioned fields, related to damage resulting from the Oil and Gas Industry's activities. It focuses the rules that rule this subject in the brazilian juridical system, emphasizing the cases of environmental damage resulting from oil spills in Brazil and the probable juridical consequences to the agents responsible for this damage. (author)

  19. Environmental stress, TRH and lactation effects on plasma growth hormone of cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.D.; DeDios, O.; Lippincott, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    Plasma growth hormone (GH) levels of cattle are influenced by numerous environmental and metabolic factors. Acute heat stress increases GH threefold with maximum value at 30 minutes post-exposure. TRH infusion also shows a threefold increase as early as 2 minutes post-infusion but with a continual elevation for approximately 20 minutes. Longer-term environmental heat stress exposure, as occurs in tropics and the summer season, lowers plasma GH of cattle. GH levels in high-producing, lactating cows are greater than in low producers. In summary, plasma increases in levels of GH immediately reflect the stressor effects on cattle, presumably through involvement of TRH release. Long-term heat stressors, such as seasonal or tropic acclimatization, lowers GH of lactating cattle. (author)

  20. A definition of normovolaemia and consequences for cardiovascular control during orthostatic and environmental stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truijen, Jasper; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2010-01-01

    that a given central blood volume may be associated with markedly different central vascular pressures. The central blood volume varies with posture and, consequently, stroke volume and cardiac output (Q) are affected, but with the increased central blood volume during head-down tilt, stroke volume and Q do...... not increase further indicating that in the supine resting position the heart operates on the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve which, therefore, may be taken as a functional definition of normovolaemia. Since the capacity of the vascular system surpasses the blood volume, orthostatic and environmental...... stress including bed rest/microgravity, exercise and training, thermal loading, illness, and trauma/haemorrhage is likely to restrict venous return and Q. Consequently the cardiovascular responses are determined primarily by their effect on the central blood volume. Thus during environmental stress, flow...

  1. Effect of nutrition and environmental factors on the endoparasitic fungus Esteya vermicola, a biocontrol agent against pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jianjie; Zhang, Yongan; Wang, Chunyan; Wang, Yuzhu; Hou, Jingang; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Yunbo; Gu, Lijuan; Sung, Changkeun

    2013-09-01

    The nematophagous fungus Esteya vermicola has tremendous potential for biological control. This species exhibits strong infectious activity against pinewood nematodes, whereas the study on the effect of nutrition and environmental factors is still of paucity. Carbon (C), nitrogen (N), pH value, temperature, and water activity have great impact on the fungal growth, sporulation, and germination. In nutrition study, the greatest number of conidia (2.36 × 10(9) per colony) was obtained at the C:N ratio of 100:1 with a carbon concentration 32 g l(-1). In addition, the germination rate and radial growth of E. vermicola were used to evaluate the effects of environmental conditions and they were optimized as following: pH 5.5, 26 °C and water activity of 0.98. Our results also confirmed that variation of environmental factors has a detrimental influence on the efficacy of active conidia and growth of fungus. Moreover, under above optimal condition, the biocontrol efficacy was significantly improved in regard to the increase of adhesive and mortality rate, which highlight the study on the application of E. vermicola as pine wilt disease biocontrol agent.

  2. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pueblo Depot Activity, Colorado. Final, Phase 1: Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, J.W.; Blasing, T.J.; Ensminger, J.T.; Johnson, R.O.; Schexnayder, S.M.; Shor, J.T.; Staub, W.P.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1995-04-01

    Under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the US Army proposes to dispose of lethal chemical agents and munitions stored at eight existing Army installations in the continental United States. In 1988, the US Army issued the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP. The FPEIS and the subsequent Record of Decision (ROD) identified an on-site disposal process as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. That is, the FPEIS determined the environmentally preferred alternative to be on-site disposal in high-temperature incinerators, while the ROD selected this alternative for implementation as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. In this Phase I report, the overall CSDP decision regarding disposal of the PUDA Stockpile is subjected to further analyses, and its validity at PUDA is reviewed with newer, more detailed data than those providing the basis for the conclusions in the FPEIS. The findings of this Phase I report will be factored into the scope of a site-specific environmental impact statement to be prepared for the destruction of the PUDA stockpile. The focus of this Phase I report is on those data identified as having the potential to alter the Army`s previous decision regarding disposal of the PUDA stockpile; however, several other factors beyond the scope of this Phase I report must also be acknowledged to have the potential to change or modify the Army`s decisions regarding PUDA.

  3. Energy and Environmental Drivers of Stress and Conflict in Multi scale Models of Human Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-31

    resolved by the recognition that cities are first and foremost self- organizing social networks embedded in space and enabled by urban infrastructure and...AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 15. SUBJECT TERMS b. ABSTRACT 2. REPORT TYPE 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 5d...Report: Energy and Environmental Drivers of Stress and Conflict in Multi-scale Models of Human Social Behavior The views, opinions and/or findings

  4. Behavior of stressed and unstressed 304L specimens in tuff repository environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhas, M.C.; McCright, R.D.; Garrison, R.E.

    1984-11-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of an investigation of the behavior of candidate barrier material for high-level nuclear waste storage, Type 304L stainless steel, in tuff repository environmental conditions. Tuff is a densely welded, devitrified, igneous rock common to the proposed repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results discussed include: irradiation corrosion tests, U-bend irradiation corrosion tests, slow strain rate tests, and bent beam stress corrosion tests. Results indicate that Type 304L stainless steel shows excellent resistance to general, localized, and stress corrosion under the environmental and microstructural conditions tested so far. The environmental test conditions are 50 to 100 0 C J-13 well water (non-saline, near neutral pH, and oxic in nature) and saturated steam at 100 0 C. Microstructural conditions include solution annealed and long furnace heat treatments to provoke a sensitized structure. However, this particular type of stainless steel may be susceptible to long-term, low-temperature sensitization because of the combination of expected time at elevated temperature and residual stress in the container after emplacement in the repository. Other grades of austenitic stainless steels are reported to be more resistant to low-temperature sensitization. Future work will therefore include more extensive testing of these grades. 15 references, 5 figures, 7 tables

  5. Remote in vivo stress assessment of aquatic animals with microencapsulated biomarkers for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkov, Anton; Shchapova, Ekaterina; Bedulina, Daria; Baduev, Boris; Borvinskaya, Ekaterina; Meglinski, Igor; Timofeyev, Maxim

    2016-11-01

    Remote in vivo scanning of physiological parameters is a major trend in the development of new tools for the fields of medicine and animal physiology. For this purpose, a variety of implantable optical micro- and nanosensors have been designed for potential medical applications. At the same time, the important area of environmental sciences has been neglected in the development of techniques for remote physiological measurements. In the field of environmental monitoring and related research, there is a constant demand for new effective and quick techniques for the stress assessment of aquatic animals, and the development of proper methods for remote physiological measurements in vivo may significantly increase the precision and throughput of analyses in this field. In the present study, we apply pH-sensitive microencapsulated biomarkers to remotely monitor the pH of haemolymph in vivo in endemic amphipods from Lake Baikal, and we compare the suitability of this technique for stress assessment with that of common biochemical methods. For the first time, we demonstrate the possibility of remotely detecting a change in a physiological parameter in an aquatic organism under ecologically relevant stressful conditions and show the applicability of techniques using microencapsulated biomarkers for remote physiological measurements in environmental monitoring.

  6. Oxidative Stress and Ageing: The Influence of Environmental Pollution, Sunlight and Diet on Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khimara Naidoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin ageing is a complex process that is determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which leads to a progressive loss of structure and function. There is extensive evidence indicating that oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the process of human skin ageing. Mitochondria are the major source of cellular oxidative stress and are widely implicated in cutaneous ageing. Extrinsic skin ageing is driven to a large extent by environmental factors and external stressors such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR, pollution and lifestyle factors which have been shown to stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species and generate oxidative stress. The oxidative damage from these exogenous sources can impair skin structure and function, leading to the phenotypic features of extrinsic skin ageing. The following review highlights the current evidence surrounding the role of mitochondria and oxidative stress in the ageing process and the influence of environmental factors such as ultraviolet radiation, pollution and diet on skin ageing.

  7. Responses to social and environmental stress are attenuated by strong male bonds in wild macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christopher; Majolo, Bonaventura; Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In humans and obligatory social animals, individuals with weak social ties experience negative health and fitness consequences. The social buffering hypothesis conceptualizes one possible mediating mechanism: During stressful situations the presence of close social partners buffers against the adverse effects of increased physiological stress levels. We tested this hypothesis using data on social (rate of aggression received) and environmental (low temperatures) stressors in wild male Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in Morocco. These males form strong, enduring, and equitable affiliative relationships similar to human friendships. We tested the effect of the strength of a male’s top three social bonds on his fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels as a function of the stressors’ intensity. The attenuating effect of stronger social bonds on physiological stress increased both with increasing rates of aggression received and with decreasing minimum daily temperature. Ruling out thermoregulatory and immediate effects of social interactions on fGCM levels, our results indicate that male Barbary macaques employ a tend-and-befriend coping strategy in the face of increased environmental as well as social day-to-day stressors. This evidence of a stress-ameliorating effect of social bonding among males under natural conditions and beyond the mother–offspring, kin or pair bond broadens the generality of the social buffering hypothesis. PMID:25489097

  8. Soft antimicrobial agents: synthesis and activity of labile environmentally friendly long chain quaternary ammonium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Másson, Már; Kristinsson, Karl G; Hjálmarsdóttir, Martha A; Hilmarsson, Hilmar; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2003-09-11

    A series of soft quaternary ammonium antimicrobial agents, which are analogues to currently used quaternary ammonium preservatives such as cetyl pyridinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride, were synthesized. These soft analogues consist of long alkyl chain connected to a polar headgroup via chemically labile spacer group. They are characterized by facile nonenzymatic and enzymatic degradation to form their original nontoxic building blocks. However, their chemical stability has to be adequate in order for them to have antimicrobial effects. Stability studies and antibacterial and antiviral activity measurements revealed relationship between activity, lipophilicity, and stability. Their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was as low as 1 microg/mL, and their viral reduction was in some cases greater than 6.7 log. The structure-activity studies demonstrate that the bioactive compounds (i.e., MIC for Gram-positive bacteria of <10 microg/mL) have an alkyl chain length between 12 and 18 carbon atoms, with a polar headgroup preferably of a small quaternary ammonium group, and their acquired inactivation half-life must be greater than 3 h at 60 degrees C.

  9. Enzymatic Activity and Susceptibility to Antifungal Agents of Brazilian Environmental Isolates of Hortaea werneckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formoso, Andrea; Heidrich, Daiane; Felix, Ciro Ramón; Tenório, Anne Carolyne; Leite, Belize R; Pagani, Danielle M; Ortiz-Monsalve, Santiago; Ramírez-Castrillón, Mauricio; Landell, Melissa Fontes; Scroferneker, Maria L; Valente, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Four strains of Hortaea werneckii were isolated from different substrates in Brazil (a salt marsh macrophyte, a bromeliad and a marine zoanthid) and had their identification confirmed by sequencing of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain or ITS region. Most of the strains were able to express amylase, lipase, esterase, pectinase and/or cellulase, enzymes that recognize components of plant cells as substrates, but did not express albuminase, keratinase, phospholipase and DNAse, whose substrates are animal-related. Urease production was positive for all isolates, while caseinase, gelatinase and laccase production were variable among the strains. All the strains grew in media containing up to 30% NaCl. We propose that the primary substrate associated with H. werneckii is plant-related, in special in saline environments, where the fungus may live as a saprophyte and decomposer. Infection of animal-associated substrates would be secondary, with the fungus acting as an opportunistic animal pathogen. All strains were resistant to fluconazole and presented high MIC for amphotericin B, while they were susceptible to all the other antifungal agents tested.

  10. Multidirectional Translation of Environmental Health Science in Community Settings: The Case of Oxidative Stress Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Natalie R; Tetteh, Myra M; Schulz, Amy J; Ramirez, Erminia; Wilkins, Donele; de Majo, Ricardo; Mentz, Graciela; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Translation of environmental health science in vulnerable communities is particularly important to promote public health and reduce health inequities. We describe a structured, multidirectional process used to develop a suite of health promotion tools (e.g., fact sheets, video, maps) documenting patterning of local air pollution sources and availability of antioxidant-rich foods in Detroit, Michigan as factors that jointly affect oxidative stress (OS). OS underlies many pathological processes associated with air pollution, including asthma, metabolic syndrome, cancer, diabetes, and obesity. This translational effort involved a 2-year dialogue among representatives from community-based and environmental organizations, health service providers, and academic researchers. This dialogue led to development of tools, as well as new opportunities to inform related policies and research. Through this example, we highlight how collaborative partnerships can enhance multidirectional dialogue to inform translation of environmental health science by promoting consideration of multilevel risk factors, local priorities and context, and diverse audiences.

  11. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, L.B.

    1982-01-01

    Our development of the homeotic-shift method as a sensitive and quantitative prescreen for teratogenesis has illustrated the advantages of using sensitive subpopulations. We have surveyed the teratology literature, particularly with regard to radiation, and find that the frequent lack of definition of subpopulations has led to a loss in sensitivity in the measurement of risk. An example is provided by the microcephaly data for Hiroshima. When we focused on the data for exposures during weeks 6 to 11 of pregnancy, the plot showed a steep dose-response curve (albeit with wide error bars due to the smallness of the samples). By contrast, the plot for exposure at any time during pregnancy (with different mixes of stages at each dose point) indicates a much shallower curve, of different shape at the lower end. Extrapolation to low doses could presumably be different from the two tabulations. This epidemiological study was a very large one, and the sample size and dose range are not likely to be duplicated for other agents. It is thus improbable that one will be able to deduce, from human data alone, critical periods for other endpoints. If one cannot do so - and therefore has to work with an array of exposed stages - the low-dose extrapolation will always be an underestimate as far as the real sensitive subpopulation is concerned. For experimental studies, careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure

  12. Environmental Enrichment Blunts Ethanol Consumption after Restraint Stress in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Marianno

    Full Text Available Elevated alcohol intake after abstinence is a key feature of the addiction process. Some studies have shown that environmental enrichment (EE affects ethanol intake and other reinforcing effects. However, different EE protocols may vary in their ability to influence alcohol consumption and stress-induced intake. The present study evaluated whether short (3 h or continuous (24 h EE protocols affect ethanol consumption after periods of withdrawal. Mice were challenged with stressful stimuli (24 h isolation and restraint stress to evaluate the effects of stress on drinking. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a two-bottle choice drinking-in-the-dark paradigm for 15 days (20% ethanol and water, 2 h/day, acquisition phase. Control mice were housed under standard conditions (SC. In the first experiment, one group of mice was housed under EE conditions 24 h/day (EE24h. In the second experiment, the exposure to EE was reduced to 3 h/day (EE3h. After the acquisition phase, the animals were deprived of ethanol for 6 days, followed by 2 h ethanol access once a week. Animals were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM during ethanol withdrawal. During the last 2 weeks, the mice were exposed to 24 h ethanol access. A 1-h restraint stress test was performed immediately before the last ethanol exposure. EE24h but not EE3h increased anxiety-like behavior during withdrawal compared to controls. Neither EE24h nor EE3h affected ethanol consumption during the 2 h weekly exposure periods. However, EE24h and EE3h mice that were exposed to acute restraint stress consumed less ethanol than controls during a 24 h ethanol access. These results showed that EE reduces alcohol intake after an acute restraint stress.

  13. Induction of Shiga Toxin-Encoding Prophage by Abiotic Environmental Stress in Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Mercer, Ryan G; McMullen, Lynn M; Gänzle, Michael G

    2017-10-01

    The prophage-encoded Shiga toxin is a major virulence factor in Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Toxin production and phage production are linked and occur after induction of the RecA-dependent SOS response. However, food-related stress and Stx-prophage induction have not been studied at the single-cell level. This study investigated the effects of abiotic environmental stress on stx expression by single-cell quantification of gene expression in STEC O104:H4 Δ stx2 :: gfp :: amp r In addition, the effect of stress on production of phage particles was determined. The lethality of stressors, including heat, HCl, lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and high hydrostatic pressure, was selected to reduce cell counts by 1 to 2 log CFU/ml. The integrity of the bacterial membrane after exposure to stress was measured by propidium iodide (PI). The fluorescent signals of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PI were quantified by flow cytometry. The mechanism of prophage induction by stress was evaluated by relative gene expression of recA and cell morphology. Acid (pH stress were additionally assessed. H 2 O 2 and mitomycin C induced expression of the prophage and activated a SOS response. In contrast, HCl and lactic acid induced the Stx-prophage but not the SOS response. The lifestyle of STEC exposes the organism to intestinal and extraintestinal environments that impose oxidative and acid stress. A more thorough understanding of the influence of food processing-related stressors on Stx-prophage expression thus facilitates control of STEC in food systems by minimizing prophage induction during food production and storage. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Immunodeficiency syndromes: Disorder of lymphocytopoiesis caused by environmental agents: Volume 1, comprehensive progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosse, C.

    1988-01-01

    The studies we have performed have provided a substantial database that supports these beliefs. Our work sponsored by DOE has defined experimental tumor systems in which we have known that there is interaction between the bone marrow and certain neoplasms. We have documents that these interactions are important in host responses against tumors, and that certain tumors profoundly alter the production of several types of cells in the lymphopoiesis in an experimental model of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) that develops as a consequence of bone marrow transplantation between H-2 identical mouse strains that differ in monorhistocompatibility antigens (minor HA). Parallel with the experimental systems that investigated interactions between the bone marrow and tumors, we have maintained an active program concerned with fundamental studies of lymphocyte production and differentation in the bone marrow, thymus, and periphery. The elucidation of the mechanisms that regulate the differentiation program of T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells remains a requisite for understanding at what level carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic environmental factors exert their influence on the lymphomyeloid complex. We have made notable progress with studies concerning the regulation of B lymphocyte production, the maintenance of T cell precursors in the bone marrow and thymus and the cell traffic between these organs, and especially in unravelling the lineage relationship, turnover, and functional heterogeneity of NK cells. 173 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs

  15. Webinar Presentation: Assessing the Combined Effects of Environmental and Social Stress: A Review of the Evidence and Implications for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Assessing the Combined Effects of Environmental and Social Stress: A Review of the Evidence and Implications for Research, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2016 Webinar Series: Exposome held on May 11, 2016.

  16. Degradation kinetics of a potent antifouling agent, butenolide, under various environmental conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lianguo

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Here, we investigated the degradation kinetics of butenolide, a promising antifouling compound, under various environmental conditions. The active ingredient of the commercial antifoulant SeaNine 211, 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT), was used as positive control. The results showed that the degradation rate increased with increasing temperature. Half-lives of butenolide at 4. °C, 25. °C and 40. °C were. >64. d, 30.5. d and 3.9. d, respectively. Similar half-lives were recorded for DCOIT: >64. d at 4. °C, 27.9. d at 25. °C and 4.5. d at 40. °C. Exposure to sunlight accelerated the degradation of both butenolide and DCOIT. The photolysis half-lives of butenolide and DCOIT were 5.7. d and 6.8. d, respectively, compared with 9.7. d and 14.4. d for the dark control. Biodegradation led to the fastest rate of butenolide removal from natural seawater, with a half-life of 0.5. d, while no obvious degradation was observed for DCOIT after incubation for 4. d. The biodegradative ability of natural seawater for butenolide was attributed mainly to marine bacteria. During the degradation of butenolide and DCOIT, a gradual decrease in antifouling activity was observed, as indicated by the increased settlement percentage of cypris larvae from barnacle Balanus amphitrite. Besides, increased cell growth of marine diatom Skeletonema costatum demonstrated that the toxicity of seawater decreased gradually without generation of more toxic by-products. Overall, rapid degradation of butenolide in natural seawater supported its claim as a promising candidate for commercial antifouling industry.

  17. Expression and Enzyme Activity of Catalase in Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Is Responsive to Environmental Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanhui; Bai, Qi; Zheng, Xusong; Lu, Zhongxian

    2017-08-01

    Catalase (CAT) is an important antioxidant enzyme that protects organisms against oxidative stresses by eliminating hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we cloned and characterized a full-length cDNA of CAT from Chilo suppressalis (CsCAT) and examined the influence of environmental stresses on CsCAT expression and enzyme activity. The cDNA contains a 1659-bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 553 amino acids most closely related (90.14%) to Papilio polytes catalases. The CsCAT was expressed in all developmental stages with the highest expression in the fat body, and the CsCAT enzyme activity closely mirrored its observed mRNA expression patterns. The CsCAT mRNA was up-regulated when the larvae were exposed to high temperature (≥30 °C), insecticides (abamectin and chlorantraniliprole), chemicals (H2O2, CHP, CdCl2, and CuSO4), and a dead-end trap plant (vetiver grass), and the CsCAT enzyme activity again mirrored the observed CsCAT expression patterns. These results suggest that up-regulation of CsCAT may enhance the defense response of C. suppressalis by weakening the effects of environmental stresses, and provide insight into the role of CsCAT during development of C. suppressalis. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Environmental conditions can modulate the links among oxidative stress, age, and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Valeria; Stier, Antoine; Boner, Winnie; Griffiths, Kate; Heidinger, Britt; Monaghan, Pat

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the links between environmental conditions and longevity remains a major focus in biological research. We examined within-individual changes between early- and mid-adulthood in the circulating levels of four oxidative stress markers linked to ageing, using zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata): a DNA damage product (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine; 8-OHdG), protein carbonyls (PC), non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (OXY), and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD). We further examined whether such within-individual changes differed among birds living under control (ad lib food) or more challenging environmental conditions (unpredictable food availability), having previously found that the latter increased corticosterone levels when food was absent but improved survival over a three year period. Our key findings were: (i) 8-OHdG and PC increased with age in both environments, with a higher increase in 8-OHdG in the challenging environment; (ii) SOD increased with age in the controls but not in the challenged birds, while the opposite was true for OXY; (iii) control birds with high levels of 8-OHdG died at a younger age, but this was not the case in challenged birds. Our data clearly show that while exposure to the potentially damaging effects of oxidative stress increases with age, environmental conditions can modulate the pace of this age-related change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute environmental toxicity and persistence of DEM, a chemical agent simulant: Diethyl malonate. [Diethyl malonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Li, Shu-mei W.; Van Voris, P.; Wentsel, R.S.

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of the following chemical simulant studies is to assess the potential acute environmental effects and persistence of diethyl malonate (DEM). Deposition velocities for DEM to soil surfaces ranged from 0.04 to 0.2 cm/sec. For foliar surfaces, deposition velocities ranged from 0.0002 cm/sec at low air concentrations to 0.05 cm/sec for high dose levels. The residence times or half-lives of DEM deposited to soils was 2 h for the fast component and 5 to 16 h for the residual material. DEM deposited to foliar surfaces also exhibited biphasic depuration. The half-life of the short residence time component ranged from 1 to 3 h, while the longer time component had half-times of 16 to 242 h. Volatilization and other depuration mechanisms reduce surface contaminant levels in both soils and foliage to less than 1% of initial dose within 96 h. DEM is not phytotoxic at foliar mass loading levels of less than 10 {mu}m/cm{sup 2}. However, severe damage is evident at mass loading levels in excess of 17 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}. Tall fescue and sagebrush were more affected than was short-needle pine, however, mass loading levels were markedly different. Regrowth of tall fescue indicated that the effects of DEM are residual, and growth rates are affected only at higher mass loadings through the second harvest. Results from in vitro testing of DEM indicated concentrations below 500 {mu}g/g dry soil generally did not negatively impact soil microbial activity. Short-term effects of DEM were more profound on soil dehydrogenase activity than on soil phosphatase activity. No enzyme inhibition or enhancement was observed after 28 days in incubation. Results of the earthworm bioassay indicate survival to be 86 and 66% at soil doses of 107 and 204 {mu}g DEM/cm{sup 2}, respectively. At higher dose level, activity or mobility was judged to be affected in over 50% of the individuals. 21 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. [Environmental uncertainty and arousal/stress as the direct determinants of animal behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, S V

    2010-01-01

    A model of direct behavioural mechanisms is suggested. The suggestion is founded on the following prerequisites: the law of optimum arousal by Yerkes-Dodson; the data on animals' purposeful striving towards the optimum; and the data on effect of stimuli uncertainty (unpredictability and/or uncontrollability) on susceptibility to the stimuli. The key postulate of the model is animals' ability to affect the environment uncertainty with their behaviour and, hence, to change their susceptibility to various stimuli and optimize their stress/arousal level. This function of behaviour had never been discussed and seems to be rather important for proximal behavioural mechanisms and for forming direct motives of behaviour. Optimization of arousal level may be viewed as "universal benefit" at the level of direct behavioural mechanisms (similar to "joint genetic fitness" at the level of evolutional mechanisms). Within the model framework it is possible to take up some sophisticated aspects of ethology such as social relations forming, "begging for punishment", "zoo stereotypy", and so on. Among verifiable predictions that can be derived from its analysis, the following ones are worthwhile: (1) the stronger of two similar social relations cannot be more stressful than the weaker one; (2) the intensity of marking activity never increases as arousal/stress level decreases; (3) stress/arousal level of an animal having been experienced "zoo stereotypy" for a long time can never be higher than that of a conspecific individual showing the behaviour for the first time; (4) the rate of "begging for punishment" behaviour of an individual should positively correlate with environmental uncertainty; (5) arousal/stress level of an individual looking for novelty can never be higher than arousal/stress level of the same individual when avoiding novelty; (6) the striving of a specimen for displaying the behaviour promoting an increase in uncertainty can be suppressed by raising the

  1. Role of Wall Shear Stress in Cryptosporidium parvum Oocyst Attachment to Environmental Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xia; Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Jellison, Kristen L

    2017-12-15

    This study investigated Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst deposition onto biofilms as a function of shear stress under laminar or turbulent flow. Annular rotating bioreactors were used to grow stabilized stream biofilms at shear stresses ranging from 0.038 to 0.46 Pa. These steady-state biofilms were then used to assess the impact of hydrodynamic conditions on C. parvum oocyst attachment. C. parvum deposition onto biofilms followed a pseudo-second-order model under both laminar (after a lag phase) and turbulent flows. The total number of oocysts attached to the biofilm at steady state decreased as the hydrodynamic wall shear stress increased. The oocyst deposition rate constant increased with shear stress but decreased at high shear, suggesting that increasing wall shear stress results in faster attachment of Cryptosporidium due to higher mass transport until the shear forces exceed a critical limit that prevents oocyst attachment. These data show that oocyst attachment in the short and long term are impacted differently by shear: higher shear (to a certain limit) may be associated with faster initial oocyst attachment, but lower shear is associated with greater numbers of oocysts attached at equilibrium. IMPORTANCE This research provides experimental evidence to demonstrate that shear stress plays a critical role in protozoan-pathogen transport and deposition in environmental waters. The data presented in this work expand scientific understanding of Cryptosporidium attachment and fate, which will further influence the development of timely and accurate sampling strategies, as well as advanced water treatment technologies, to target protozoan pathogens in surface waters that serve as municipal drinking water sources. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Relative Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Brucella abortus Reveals Metabolic Adaptation to Multiple Environmental Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zai, Xiaodong; Yang, Qiaoling; Yin, Ying; Li, Ruihua; Qian, Mengying; Zhao, Taoran; Li, Yaohui; Zhang, Jun; Fu, Ling; Xu, Junjie; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    balance under stress. In conclusion, our results provide a better understanding of the global metabolic adaptations of B. abortus associated with distinct environmental stresses. The identification of proteins necessary for stress resistance is crucial toward elucidating the infectious process in order to control brucellosis, and may facilitate the discovery of novel therapeutic targets and effective vaccines.

  3. Relative Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Brucella abortus Reveals Metabolic Adaptation to Multiple Environmental Stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zai

    2017-11-01

    homeostasis and metabolic balance under stress. In conclusion, our results provide a better understanding of the global metabolic adaptations of B. abortus associated with distinct environmental stresses. The identification of proteins necessary for stress resistance is crucial toward elucidating the infectious process in order to control brucellosis, and may facilitate the discovery of novel therapeutic targets and effective vaccines.

  4. Early Transcriptome Response of Lactococcus lactis to Environmental Stresses Reveals Differentially Expressed Small Regulatory RNAs and tRNAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Sjoerd B.; de Jong, Anne; Kok, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria can deploy various mechanisms to combat environmental stresses. Many genes have previously been identified in Lactococcus lactis that are involved in sensing the stressors and those that are involved in regulating and mounting a defense against the stressful conditions. However, the

  5. APPLICATION OF MODULATED CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE AND MODULATED CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE IMAGING IN STUDYING ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll (Chl a fluorescence is a widely used tool to monitor the photosynthetic process in plants subjected to environmental stresses.this review reports the theoretical bases of Chl fluorescence, and the significance of the most important Chl fluorescence parameters. it also reportshow these parameters can be utilised to estimate changes in photosystem ii (PSII photochemistry, linear electron flux and energy dissipationmechanisms. the relation between actual PSII photochemistry and CO2 assimilation is discussed, as is the role of photochemical andnon-photochemical quenching in inducing changes in PSII activity. the application of Chl fluorescence imaging to study heterogeneity on leaflamina is also considered. this review summarises only some of the results obtained by this methodology to study the effects of differentenvironmental stresses, namely water and nutrients availability, pollutants, temperature and salinity.

  6. Leaf movement, photosynthesis and resource use efficiency responses to multiple environmental stress in Glycine max (soybean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.M.G.

    1993-01-01

    Increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, may cause a significant increase in temperature, with implications for general wind patterns and precipitation. Reductions in stratospheric ozone will result in increased levels of UV-B reaching earth's surface. During their lifetime plants must deal with a variety of co-occurring environmental stresses. Accordingly, studies into plant responses to multiple environmental factors is important to our understanding of limits to their growth, productivity, and distribution. Heliotropic leaf movements are a generalized plant response to environmental stresses, and the pattern of these movements can be altered by resource availability (e.g., water, and nitrogen). Previous greenhouse and field studies have demonstrated damaging effects of UV-B radiation in crop species, including soybean. Documented in this paper are Leaf movement and gas exchange responses of four soybean cultivars with different sensitivity to UV-B radiation to enhanced levels of UV-B, and modifications of these responses caused by water stress and nitrogen fertilization. UV-B radiation had no effect on the patterns of leaf orientation in soybean; however, a ranking of the cultivars based on midday leaf angles was the same as the ranking of these cultivars based on their sensitivity to UV-B radiation. Water and nitrogen altered the leaf movement patterns of soybeans. Gas exchange parameters in all four cultivars responded in a similar fashion to changes in leaf water potential. Reductions in water availability resulted in lower discrimination. Nitrogen fertilization in cv Forrest, also resulted in lower discrimination, especially under low water regimes, indicating a higher water use efficiency for fertilized plants. UV-B radiation resulted in lower discrimination in the UV-B sensitive CNS cultivar, indicating a stronger stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under increased UV-B levels

  7. Acoustic Studies of the Effects of Environmental Stresses on Marine Mammals in Large Ocean Basins

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    Sidorovskaia, N.; Ma, B.; Ackleh, A. S.; Tiemann, C.; Ioup, G. E.; Ioup, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of environmental stresses on deep-diving marine mammal populations have not been studied systematically. Long-term regional passive acoustic monitoring of phonating marine mammals opens opportunities for such studies. This paper presents a unique multi-year study conducted by the Littoral Acoustic Demonstration Center (LADC) in the Northern Gulf of Mexico to understand short-term and long-term effects of anthropogenic stresses on resident populations of endangered sperm and elusive beaked whales. Both species spend many hours each day in deep dives which last about one hour each, so any visual observations for population estimates and behavioral responses are very limited. However, much more cost-efficient acoustic recordings of the phonations during dives on bottom-mounted hydrophones are not skewed by weather conditions or daylight requirements. Broadband passive acoustic data were collected by LADC in 2007 and 2010 at three ranges, 15, 40, and 80 km away from the 2010 Deep Water Horizon oil spill site. Pre-spill and post-spill data processing and comparison allow observing responses of both species to local short-term environmental condition changes and long-term responses to the spill. The short-term effects are studied by correlating daily activity cycles with anthropogenic noise curve daily and weekly cycles at different sites. The strong correlation between the decrease in overall daily activity and the increase in anthropogenic noise level associated with seismic exploration signals can be seen. After streaming raw acoustic data through detection algorithms and detailed assessment of false detection rates, the temporal densities of acoustic phonations are passed into statistical algorithms for resident population estimations. The statistically significant results have shown different regional abundance trends, associated with long-term responses to environmental stresses, for these two species.

  8. Reliability of plant root comet assay in comparison with human leukocyte comet assay for assessment environmental genotoxic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Gabriela Barreto Dos; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa Fonseca; Moraes, Isabella de Campos; César, Pedro Henrique Souza; Marcussi, Silvana; Davide, Lisete Chamma

    2017-08-01

    Comet assay is an efficient test to detect genotoxic compounds based on observation of DNA damage. The aim of this work was to compare the results obtained from the comet assay in two different type of cells extracted from the root tips from Lactuca sativa L. and human blood. For this, Spent Pot Liner (SPL), and its components (aluminum and fluoride) were applied as toxic agents. SPL is a solid waste generated in industry from the aluminum mining and processing with known toxicity. Three concentrations of all tested solutions were applied and the damages observed were compared to negative and positive controls. It was observed an increase in the frequency of DNA damage for human leukocytes and plant cells, in all treatments. On human leukocytes, SPL induced the highest percentage of damage, with an average of 87.68%. For root tips cells of L. sativa the highest percentage of damage was detected for aluminum (93.89%). Considering the arbitrary units (AU), the average of nuclei with high levels of DNA fragmentation was significant for both cells type evaluated. The tested cells demonstrated equal effectiveness for detection of the genotoxicity induced by the SPL and its chemical components, aluminum and fluoride. Further, using a unique method, the comet assay, we proved that cells from root tips of Lactuca sativa represent a reliable model to detect DNA damage induced by genotoxic pollutants is in agreement of those observed in human leukocytes as model. So far, plant cells may be suggested as important system to assess the toxicological risk of environmental agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Color-pattern evolution in response to environmental stress in butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuki eHiyama

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that butterfly wing color patterns have ecological and behavioral functions that evolved through natural selection. However, particular wing color patterns may physiologically be produced in response to environmental stress without significant function. These patterns would represent an extreme expression of phenotypic plasticity and can eventually be fixed genetically in a population. Here, three such cases in butterflies are concisely reviewed and their possible mechanisms of genetic assimilation are discussed. First, certain modified color pattern of Vanessa indica induced by temperature treatments resembles the natural color patterns of its closely related species of the genus Vanessa (sensu stricto. Second, a different type of color-pattern modification can be induced in Vanessa cardui as a result of a general stress response, which is very similar to the natural color pattern of its sister species Vanessa kershawi. Third, a field observation was reported, together with experimental support, to show that the color-pattern diversity of a regional population of Zizeeria maha increased at the northern range margin of this species in response to temperature stress. In these three cases, modified color patterns are unlikely to have significant functions, and these cases suggest that phenotypic plasticity plays an important role in butterfly wing color-pattern evolution. A neutral or non-functional trait can be assimilated genetically if it is linked, like a parasitic trait, with another functional trait. In addition, it is possible that environmental stress causes epigenetic modifications of genes related to color patterns and that their transgenerational inheritance facilitates the process of genetic assimilation of a neutral or non-functional trait.

  10. Oxidative stress enzyme and histopathological lesions in Colossoma macropomum (pisces, ariidae) for environmental impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ticianne de Sousa de Oliveira Mota; Sousa, Debora Batista Pinheiro; Dantas, Janaina Gomes; Castro, Jonatas da Silva; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    This study used oxidative stress enzyme (Glutathione S-Transferase and Catalase), histopathological lesions (Branchial lesions) and biometric data in the freshwater fish tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, to assess environmental impacts in an Environmental Protection Area at São Luis, Brazil. Fish were sampled from two locations (A1 = contaminated area and A2 = reference site) within the protected area on four occasions. The activity of catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in C. macropomum was compared with biometric data and histopathological lesions. Results have shown that biometric data decreased significantly in fish (p<0.05) at the contaminated site. The activity of CAT was higher in fish specifically caught in A1. A significant difference was observed in the GST activity in the liver of C. macropomum when comparing fish from the contaminated site and those from the reference site (p<0.05).

  11. EFFECTS OF VARIOUS SOIL ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES ON THE OCCURRENCE, DISTRIBUTION AND EFFECTIVENESS OF VA MYCORRHIZAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. KHAN

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The vesicular - arbuscular (VA mycorrhizal fungi are geographically ubiquitous soil inhabitants and form universal symbiotic relationship with plants from every phylum. These fungi link host plants with host soils and their biota in the mycorrhizosphere and play an important role in plant health, productivity and soil structure. Although VA mycorrhizal fungi do not show any host specificity, there is increasing evidence that various climatic and edaphic environmental factors such as land use and management practices, physical, chemical and biological properties of host soils and host plant characteristics influence their occurrence, taxonomic distribution and effectiveness. The interaction of these factors with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM is poorly understood except in a few cases. It is now very clear that VA mycorrhizal associations are ecologically significant factors that require more attention than previously accorded. This paper discusses the occurrence, distribution and significance of VAM in environmentally stressed soil conditions that limit plant growth such as drought, waterlogging and salinity.

  12. Direct and indirect effects of child abuse and environmental stress: A lifecourse perspective on adversity and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Cindy; Mason, W Alex; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Prince, Dana; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Russo, M Jean

    2018-01-01

    There is a great deal of evidence about the mental health implications of physical child abuse and environmental stressors, or hardships that people experience at the household and neighborhood level (e.g., neighborhood violence; economic hardship, substance abuse, or conflict among family members). Yet, studies often focus on either abuse or environmental stress, not both, or examine abuse and environmental stressors as a combined set of experiences. Less is known, therefore, about how child abuse and environmental stress might work as either distinct or interrelated risks to diminish mental health over time. In this longitudinal study, we used path analyses to examine the cumulative effects of physical child abuse and environmental stressors on adult depressive symptoms among a sample of children followed into adulthood (N = 356). The goal was to assess whether chronic physical child abuse remains an independent predictor of adult outcomes once we accounted for the cumulative effects of household and neighborhood stressors across the lifecourse. Cumulative measures of physical child abuse and environmental stress each independently predicted a higher likelihood of adult depressive symptoms (ß = .122, p < .01 and ß = .283, p < .001, respectively). After accounting for adolescent depressive symptoms, only cumulative environmental stressors independently predicted depressive symptoms (ß = .202, p < .001). Tests of the indirect effect of cumulative environmental stress on the relationship between cumulative physical abuse and adult depressive symptoms were marginally statistically significant. Results add to literature that examines child abuse, adversity, and lifecourse perspectives on health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Blood Glukose Response of Giant Gouramy (Osphronemus gaouramy, Lac. to the Stress of Environmental Temperature Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hastuti

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate blood glucose performance of giant gouramy (Osphronemus gouramy, Lac. to environmental changes. Fish with body weight of about 52,15 g was used in the experiment. A hundred and twenty fish were subjected to stress by moving them to another aquarium containing cooler water for 5 minute before put them back to the origin aquarium. The stress treatments were Δ 0°C (A, Δ-3°C (B, Δ-6°C(C, and Δ-9°C(D. Blood glucose was measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours post stress, each for 5 fish. During stress treatment, the survival offish were recorded. To study the role of insulin activation on reducing the stress effects, thirty fish were injected with insulin 2 IU/100 g body weight before subjected them to stressar. Blood glucose level of fish subjected to temperature stress of Δ-9°C was the greatest. The blood glucose response to temperature changes was linear, Y = 4,4543 X + 35,553 with R2 = 0,09976. The survival rate of fish was 100% for all treatments. Injected of insulin 2 IU/100 g body weight was able to reduce hyperglycemia that caused by stress. Key words: Blood glucose, giant gouramy, Osphronemus gouramy, stress   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui performa glukosa darah ikan gurami (Osphronemus gouramy, Lac. dalam merespon perubahan suhu lingkungan. Ikan berbobot rata-rata 52,15 g sebanyak 120 ekor diberi stres dengan cara diangkat dan dipindahkan ke suatu wadah yang bersuhu lebih dingin selama 5 menit dan dikembalikan lagi ke wadah mula-mula. Perlakuan stres perubahan suhu dingin tersebut adalah A (Δ 0°C, B (Δ- 3°C, C (Δ-6°C dan D (Δ-9°C. Glukosa darah diukur dari 5 ekor ikan pada jam ke 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 dan 5 jam pascastres. Kelangsungan hidup dihitung pada saat perlakuan stres. Untuk melihat peran aktivasi insulin dalam menekan efek stres, ikan sebanyak 30 ekor diinjeksi insulin 2 iu/100 g bobot badan sebelum diberi stres. Kadar glukosa darah ikan gurame

  14. From transcriptome to biological function: environmental stress in an ectothermic vertebrate, the coral reef fish Pomacentrus moluccensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Alister C

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our understanding of the importance of transcriptional regulation for biological function is continuously improving. We still know, however, comparatively little about how environmentally induced stress affects gene expression in vertebrates, and the consistency of transcriptional stress responses to different types of environmental stress. In this study, we used a multi-stressor approach to identify components of a common stress response as well as components unique to different types of environmental stress. We exposed individuals of the coral reef fish Pomacentrus moluccensis to hypoxic, hyposmotic, cold and heat shock and measured the responses of approximately 16,000 genes in liver. We also compared winter and summer responses to heat shock to examine the capacity for such responses to vary with acclimation to different ambient temperatures. Results We identified a series of gene functions that were involved in all stress responses examined here, suggesting some common effects of stress on biological function. These common responses were achieved by the regulation of largely independent sets of genes; the responses of individual genes varied greatly across different stress types. In response to heat exposure over five days, a total of 324 gene loci were differentially expressed. Many heat-responsive genes had functions associated with protein turnover, metabolism, and the response to oxidative stress. We were also able to identify groups of co-regulated genes, the genes within which shared similar functions. Conclusion This is the first environmental genomic study to measure gene regulation in response to different environmental stressors in a natural population of a warm-adapted ectothermic vertebrate. We have shown that different types of environmental stress induce expression changes in genes with similar gene functions, but that the responses of individual genes vary between stress types. The functions of heat

  15. Climate variability and environmental stress in the Sudan-Sahel zone of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Ole; D'haen, Sarah; Maiga, Abdou; Moussa, Ibrahim Bouzou; Barbier, Bruno; Diouf, Awa; Diallo, Drissa; Da, Evariste Dapola; Dabi, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Environmental change in the Sudan-Sahel region of West Africa (SSWA) has been much debated since the droughts of the 1970s. In this article we assess climate variability and environmental stress in the region. Households in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria were asked about climatic changes and their perceptions were compared across north-south and west-east rainfall gradients. More than 80% of all households found that rainfall had decreased, especially in the wettest areas. Increases in wind speeds and temperature were perceived by an overall 60-80% of households. Contrary to household perceptions, observed rainfall patterns showed an increasing trend over the past 20 years. However, August rainfall declined, and could therefore potentially explain the contrasting negative household perceptions of rainfall trends. Most households reported degradation of soils, water resources, vegetation, and fauna, but more so in the 500-900 mm zones. Adaptation measures to counter environmental degradation included use of manure, reforestation, soil and water conservation, and protection of fauna and vegetation. The results raise concerns for future environmental management in the region, especially in the 500-900 mm zones and the western part of SSWA.

  16. Alkylating Agent-Induced NRF2 Blocks Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Apoptosis via Control of Glutathione Pools and Protein Thiol Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Masamsetti, V Pragathi; Loranc, Eva; Tonapi, Sonal S; Gorthi, Aparna; Bernard, Xavier; Gonçalves, Rosângela Mayer; Moreira, José C F; Chen, Yidong; Bishop, Alexander J R

    2016-12-01

    Alkylating agents are a commonly used cytotoxic class of anticancer drugs. Understanding the mechanisms whereby cells respond to these drugs is key to identify means to improve therapy while reducing toxicity. By integrating genome-wide gene expression profiling, protein analysis, and functional cell validation, we herein demonstrated a direct relationship between NRF2 and Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress pathways in response to alkylating agents, which is coordinated by the availability of glutathione (GSH) pools. GSH is essential for both drug detoxification and protein thiol homeostasis within the ER, thus inhibiting ER stress induction and promoting survival, an effect independent of its antioxidant role. NRF2 accumulation induced by alkylating agents resulted in increased GSH synthesis via GCLC/GCLM enzyme, and interfering with this NRF2 response by either NRF2 knockdown or GCLC/GCLM inhibition with buthionine sulfoximine caused accumulation of damaged proteins within the ER, leading to PERK-dependent apoptosis. Conversely, upregulation of NRF2, through KEAP1 depletion or NRF2-myc overexpression, or increasing GSH levels with N-acetylcysteine or glutathione-ethyl-ester, decreased ER stress and abrogated alkylating agents-induced cell death. Based on these results, we identified a subset of lung and head-and-neck carcinomas with mutations in either KEAP1 or NRF2/NFE2L2 genes that correlate with NRF2 target overexpression and poor survival. In KEAP1-mutant cancer cells, NRF2 knockdown and GSH depletion increased cell sensitivity via ER stress induction in a mechanism specific to alkylating drugs. Overall, we show that the NRF2-GSH influence on ER homeostasis implicates defects in NRF2-GSH or ER stress machineries as affecting alkylating therapy toxicity. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(12); 3000-14. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Alkylating agent induced NRF2 blocks endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis via control of glutathione pools and protein thiol homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Masamsetti, V. Pragathi; Loranc, Eva; Tonapi, Sonal S.; Gorthi, Aparna; Bernard, Xavier; Gonçalves, Rosângela Mayer; Moreira, José C. F.; Chen, Yidong; Bishop, Alexander J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Alkylating agents are a commonly used cytotoxic class of anticancer drugs. Understanding the mechanisms whereby cells respond to these drugs is key to identify means to improve therapy while reducing toxicity. By integrating genome-wide gene expression profiling, protein analysis and functional cell validation, we herein demonstrated a direct relationship between NRF2 and Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress pathways in response to alkylating agents, which is coordinated by the availability of glutathione (GSH) pools. GSH is essential for both drug detoxification and protein thiol homeostasis within the ER, thus inhibiting ER stress induction and promoting survival; an effect independent of its antioxidant role. NRF2 accumulation induced by alkylating agents resulted in increased GSH synthesis via GCLC/GCLM enzyme, and interfering with this NRF2 response by either NRF2 knockdown or GCLC/GCLM inhibition with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) caused accumulation of damaged proteins within the ER, leading to PERK-dependent apoptosis. Conversely, upregulation of NRF2, through KEAP1 depletion or NRF2-myc overexpression, or increasing GSH levels with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or glutathione-ethyl-ester (GSH-E), decreased ER stress and abrogated alkylating agents-induced cell death. Based on these results, we identified a subset of lung and head-and-neck carcinomas with mutations in either KEAP1 or NRF2/NFE2L2 genes that correlate with NRF2 targets overexpression and poor survival. In KEAP1 mutant cancer cells, NRF2 knockdown and GSH depletion increased cell sensitivity via ER stress induction in a mechanism specific to alkylating drugs. Overall, we show that the NRF2-GSH influence on ER homeostasis implicates defects in NRF2-GSH or ER stress machineries as affecting alkylating therapy toxicity. PMID:27638861

  18. Face, Content, and Construct Validations of Endoscopic Needle Injection Simulator for Transurethral Bulking Agent in Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, Bilal; Soltani, Tandis; Do, Rebecca; Perez, Claudia; Choi, Hanul; Ghoniem, Gamal

    2018-05-02

    Endoscopic injection of urethral bulking agents is an office procedure that is used to treat stress urinary incontinence secondary to internal sphincteric deficiency. Validation studies important part of simulator evaluation and is considered important step to establish the effectiveness of simulation-based training. The endoscopic needle injection (ENI) simulator has not been formally validated, although it has been used widely at University of California, Irvine. We aimed to assess the face, content, and construct validity of the UC, Irvine ENI simulator. Dissected female porcine bladders were mounted in a modified Hysteroscopy Diagnostic Trainer. Using routine endoscopic equipment for this procedure with video monitoring, 6 urologists (experts group) and 6 urology trainee (novice group) completed urethral bulking agents injections on a total of 12 bladders using ENI simulator. Face and content validities were assessed by using structured quantitative survey which rating the realism. Construct validity was assessed by comparing the performance, time of the procedure, and the occlusive (anatomical and functional) evaluations between the experts and novices. Trainees also completed a postprocedure feedback survey. Effective injections were evaluated by measuring the retrograde urethral opening pressure, visual cystoscopic coaptation, and postprocedure gross anatomic examination. All 12 participants felt the simulator was a good training tool and should be used as essential part of urology training (face validity). ENI simulator showed good face and content validity with average score varies between the experts and the novices was 3.9/5 and 3.8/5, respectively. Content validity evaluation showed that most aspects of the simulator were adequately realistic (mean Likert scores 3.9-3.8/5). However, the bladder does not bleed, and sometimes thin. Experts significantly outperformed novices (p ENI simulator shows face, content and construct validities, although few

  19. Inhibition coefficient and molecular diversity of multi stress tolerant Trichoderma as potential biocontrol agent against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirpara, Darshna G; Gajera, H P; Hirapara, Jaydeep G; Golakiya, B A

    2017-11-01

    Trichoderma is one of the most exploited biocontrol agent for the management of plant diseases. Twenty strains of Trichoderma (six of T. harzianum, four of T. viride, three of T. virens, three of T. koningii, each one of T. hamatum, T. reesei, T. parceramosum and Trichoderma spp.) subjected to in vitro antagonism up to 12days after inoculation against Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. causing stem rot in groundnut. A new concept was developed to determine inhibition coefficient representing pathogen biology and biocontrol related biophysical variables. Results explained differential inhibition coefficient of test pathogen by Trichoderma antagonists. The inhibition coefficient of test pathogen was examined highest (91.13%) by T. virens NBAII Tvs12 followed by T. virens MTCC 794 (89.33%) and T. koningii MTCC 796 (62.39%). Microscopic study confirmed biocontrol mechanism as mycoparasitism for Tvs12 and antibiosis for T. koningii MTCC 796. The sclerotial biogenesis of test pathogen was elevated during weak antagonism and diminished in interactions with strong antagonists. The inhibition coefficient of S. rolfsii was significantly negatively correlated with sclerotia formation and lipid peroxidation during the antagonism. Trichoderma strains were screened for fungicides (carbendazim and tebuconazole, thiram and mancozeb) and abiotic stress (drought and salt) tolerance. Results indicated that T. koningii MTCC 796 efficiently grew better than the other strains with maximum radial growth under adverse conditions. The genetic variability among the Trichoderma was determined using 34 gene specific markers which amplified 146 alleles. The SSR similarities explained substantial diversity (15 to 87%) across Trichoderma strains and pathogen S. rolfsii. Principal coordinates analysis (PCA) were comparable to the cluster analysis and first three most informative PC components explained 64.45% of the total variation. In PCA, potent antagonists appear to be distinct from other strains. Five

  20. Environmental fate and behaviour of the biocontrol agent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CPA-8 after preharvest application to stone fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, Laura; Teixidó, Neus; Usall, Josep; Balsells-Llauradó, Marta; Gotor-Vila, Amparo; Torres, Rosario

    2018-02-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain CPA-8 has been described as an effective biocontrol agent to control brown rot in stone fruit for both preharvest and postharvest applications. However, no information about the environmental fate and behaviour of this strain under field conditions is available. The dispersion of the CPA-8 application was evaluated using water-sensitive papers, and complete coverage was observed on the leaves of treated trees, while treatment. On non-treated trees, CPA-8 was detected on leaves until 180 days after treatment, and on weeds, the CPA-8 population was dependent on the distance from the treated trees. A high persistence of CPA-8 was detected on inert materials, such as clothes and gloves worn by handlers and plastic harvesting boxes. More than 99% of the samples with a CPA-8 phenotype were confirmed as CPA-8 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This work demonstrated a good distribution, persistence and adaptation of the CPA-8 strain to field and postharvest conditions. Monitoring of dispersion and persistence is an excellent tool to determine the time of application and provides valuable information for registering issues. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Environmental Effects on Zirconium Hydroxide Nanoparticles and Chemical Warfare Agent Decomposition: Implications of Atmospheric Water and Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balow, Robert B; Lundin, Jeffrey G; Daniels, Grant C; Gordon, Wesley O; McEntee, Monica; Peterson, Gregory W; Wynne, James H; Pehrsson, Pehr E

    2017-11-15

    Zirconium hydroxide (Zr(OH) 4 ) has excellent sorption properties and wide-ranging reactivity toward numerous types of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals. Under pristine laboratory conditions, the effectiveness of Zr(OH) 4 has been attributed to a combination of diverse surface hydroxyl species and defects; however, atmospheric components (e.g., CO 2 , H 2 O, etc.) and trace contaminants can form adsorbates with potentially detrimental impact to the chemical reactivity of Zr(OH) 4 . Here, we report the hydrolysis of a CWA simulant, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) on Zr(OH) 4 determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and in situ attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy under ambient conditions. DMMP dosing on Zr(OH) 4 formed methyl methylphosphonate and methoxy degradation products on free bridging and terminal hydroxyl sites of Zr(OH) 4 under all evaluated environmental conditions. CO 2 dosing on Zr(OH) 4 formed adsorbed (bi)carbonates and interfacial carbonate complexes with relative stability dependent on CO 2 and H 2 O partial pressures. High concentrations of CO 2 reduced DMMP decomposition kinetics by occupying Zr(OH) 4 active sites with carbonaceous adsorbates. Elevated humidity promoted hydrolysis of adsorbed DMMP on Zr(OH) 4 to produce methanol and regenerated free hydroxyl species. Hydrolysis of DMMP by Zr(OH) 4 occurred under all conditions evaluated, demonstrating promise for chemical decontamination under diverse, real-world conditions.

  2. Alleviation of Oxidative Stress by Using Olive Pomace in Crossbred (Brown Swiss X Baladi) Calves Under Hot Environmental Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.B.; Khalil, F.K.; El - Masry, K.A.; Teama, F.E.; Emara, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Ten female crossbred (Brown Swiss X Baladi) calves , 8 – 10 months old with average live body weight of 112 kg at the be ginning of experimental period were used to investigate the effect of olive pomace (OP) supplementation which contains phenolic compounds on oxidant and antioxidant agents and some blood constituents, and its relation with growth performance in heat stressed calves. The animals were maintained under hot summer environmental conditions, where, ambient temperature and relative humidity average d 37.48°C ± 0.32 and 64.58 % ± 0.77 , (equivalent to THI 91) during day, and 28.38 °C ± 0.22 and 78.23 % ± 0.69 , (equivalent to THI 80) during night, respectively. The animals were divided into two equal groups (5 calves each). The first group control (received 0 % OP of the concentrate mixture, while the second group) treated received 15 % OP of the concentrate mixture, for two months. Body weight o f calves was recorded twice at the beginning and at the end of experimental period, and daily gain was calculated for each animal. Blood samples were taken from each animal at the end of experimental period to determine antioxidant and oxidant indices, some blood constituents and T 3 concentration. Our results showed that supplementation of OP significantly increased antioxidant status including catalase enzyme activity, total antioxidant capacity, uric acid as a non-enzymatic antioxidant and copper as a specific antioxidant protecting macromolecules. More over, OP significantly reduced serum malondialdehyde as a lipid peroxidation marker, iron concentration which act as a pro-oxidant, lipids profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL – cholesterol), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL – cholesterol), triglycerides and phospholipids. Also, OP caused a significant decrease in serum creatinine and urea- N concentrations as well as AST activity. However, OP significantly elevated T3 level, and improved feed efficiency and daily

  3. Desiccation: An environmental and food industry stress that bacteria commonly face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbelin, Julia; Santos, Tiago; Hébraud, Michel

    2018-02-01

    Water is essential for all living organisms, for animals as well as for plants and micro-organisms. For these latter, the presence of water or a humid environment with a high air relative humidity (RH) is necessary for their survival and growth. Thus, variations in the availability of water or in the air relative humidity constitute widespread environmental stresses which challenge microorganisms, and especially bacteria. Indeed, in their direct environment, bacteria are often faced with conditions that remove cell-bound water through air-drying of the atmosphere. Bacterial cells are subject to daily or seasonal environmental variations, sometimes going through periods of severe desiccation. This is also the case in the food industry, where air dehumidification treatments are applied after the daily cleaning-disinfection procedures. In plants producing low-water activity products, it is also usual to significantly reduce or eliminate water usage. Periodic desiccation exposure affects bacteria viability and so they require strategies to persist. Negative effects of desiccation are wide ranging and include direct cellular damage but also changes in the biochemical and biophysical properties of cells for which planktonic cells are more exposed than cells in biofilm. Understanding the mechanisms of desiccation adaptation and tolerance has a biological and biotechnological interest. This review gives an overview of the factors influencing desiccation tolerance and the biological mechanisms involved in this stress response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Suppression of a methionine synthase by calmodulin under environmental stress in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Oh, Junsang; Yoon, Deok-Hyo; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2017-10-01

    Methionine synthase (MetE, EC 2.1.1.14) catalyses the final step in the methionine biosynthetic pathway. Methionine biosynthesis plays a major role in protein biogenesis and is the source of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM), the universal donor of methyl groups. In this study, we demonstrated that BbMetE acts as a typical MetE enzyme in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. In addition, we found that BbMetE binds to calmodulin (CaM) in vitro and in vivo. The functional role of CaM binding to BbMetE was to negatively regulate BbMetE activity in B. bassiana. Our proton-nuclear magnetic resonance data revealed that CaM inhibitor W-7 increases methionine content in B. bassiana, suggesting that CaM negatively regulates the BbMetE activity. Environmental stress stimuli such as salt, H 2 O 2 and heat suppressed BbMetE activity in B. bassiana. W-7 reversed this effect, suggesting that the inhibitory mechanism is mediated through stimulation of CaM activity. Therefore, this work suggests that BbMetE plays an important role in methionine biosynthesis, which is mediated by environmental stress stimuli via the CaM signalling pathway. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Does Environmental Enrichment Reduce Stress? An Integrated Measure of Corticosterone from Feathers Provides a Novel Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, Graham D.; Frey, Matthew D.; Reichert, James F.; Szelest, Izabela; Kelly, Debbie M.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    Enrichment is widely used as tool for managing fearfulness, undesirable behaviors, and stress in captive animals, and for studying exploration and personality. Inconsistencies in previous studies of physiological and behavioral responses to enrichment led us to hypothesize that enrichment and its removal are stressful environmental changes to which the hormone corticosterone and fearfulness, activity, and exploration behaviors ought to be sensitive. We conducted two experiments with a captive population of wild-caught Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) to assess responses to short- (10-d) and long-term (3-mo) enrichment, their removal, and the influence of novelty, within the same animal. Variation in an integrated measure of corticosterone from feathers, combined with video recordings of behaviors, suggests that how individuals perceive enrichment and its removal depends on the duration of exposure. Short- and long-term enrichment elicited different physiological responses, with the former acting as a stressor and birds exhibiting acclimation to the latter. Non-novel enrichment evoked the strongest corticosterone responses of all the treatments, suggesting that the second exposure to the same objects acted as a physiological cue, and that acclimation was overridden by negative past experience. Birds showed weak behavioral responses that were not related to corticosterone. By demonstrating that an integrated measure of glucocorticoid physiology varies significantly with changes to enrichment in the absence of agonistic interactions, our study sheds light on potential mechanisms driving physiological and behavioral responses to environmental change. PMID:21412426

  6. A definition of normovolaemia and consequences for cardiovascular control during orthostatic and environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truijen, Jasper; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2010-05-01

    The Frank-Starling mechanism describes the relationship between stroke volume and preload to the heart, or the volume of blood that is available to the heart--the central blood volume. Understanding the role of the central blood volume for cardiovascular control has been complicated by the fact that a given central blood volume may be associated with markedly different central vascular pressures. The central blood volume varies with posture and, consequently, stroke volume and cardiac output (Q) are affected, but with the increased central blood volume during head-down tilt, stroke volume and Q do not increase further indicating that in the supine resting position the heart operates on the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve which, therefore, may be taken as a functional definition of normovolaemia. Since the capacity of the vascular system surpasses the blood volume, orthostatic and environmental stress including bed rest/microgravity, exercise and training, thermal loading, illness, and trauma/haemorrhage is likely to restrict venous return and Q. Consequently the cardiovascular responses are determined primarily by their effect on the central blood volume. Thus during environmental stress, flow redistribution becomes dependent on sympathetic activation affecting not only skin and splanchnic blood flow, but also flow to skeletal muscles and the brain. This review addresses the hypothesis that deviations from normovolaemia significantly influence these cardiovascular responses.

  7. Using Markov Models of Fault Growth Physics and Environmental Stresses to Optimize Control Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bole, Brian; Goebel, Kai; Vachtsevanos, George

    2012-01-01

    A generalized Markov chain representation of fault dynamics is presented for the case that available modeling of fault growth physics and future environmental stresses can be represented by two independent stochastic process models. A contrived but representatively challenging example will be presented and analyzed, in which uncertainty in the modeling of fault growth physics is represented by a uniformly distributed dice throwing process, and a discrete random walk is used to represent uncertain modeling of future exogenous loading demands to be placed on the system. A finite horizon dynamic programming algorithm is used to solve for an optimal control policy over a finite time window for the case that stochastic models representing physics of failure and future environmental stresses are known, and the states of both stochastic processes are observable by implemented control routines. The fundamental limitations of optimization performed in the presence of uncertain modeling information are examined by comparing the outcomes obtained from simulations of an optimizing control policy with the outcomes that would be achievable if all modeling uncertainties were removed from the system.

  8. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be life-saving. But chronic stress can cause both physical and mental harm. There are at least three different types of stress: Routine stress related to the pressures of work, family, and other daily responsibilities Stress brought about ...

  9. Selenocysteine modulates resistance to environmental stress and confers anti-aging effects in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Sung; Kim, So-Hyeon; Park, Sang-Kyu

    2017-08-01

    The free radical theory of aging suggests that cellular oxidative damage caused by free radicals is a leading cause of aging. In the present study, we examined the effects of a well-known anti-oxidant amino acid derivative, selenocysteine, in response to environmental stress and aging using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system. The response to oxidative stress induced by H2O2 or ultraviolet irradiation was compared between the untreated control and selenocysteine-treated groups. The effect of selenocysteine on lifespan and fertility was then determined. To examine the effect of selenocysteine on muscle aging, we monitored the change in motility with aging in both the untreated control and selenocysteine-treated groups. Dietary supplementation with selenocysteine significantly increased resistance to oxidative stress. Survival after ultraviolet irradiation was also increased by supplementation with selenocysteine. Treatment with selenocysteine confers a longevity phenotype without an accompanying reduction in fertility, which is frequently observed in lifespan-extending interventions as a trade-off in C. elegans. In addition, the age-related decline in motility was significantly delayed by supplementation of selenocysteine. These findings suggest that dietary supplementation of selenocysteine can modulate response to stressors and lead to lifespan extension, thus supporting the free radical theory of aging.

  10. Role of Free Radicals, Oxidative Stress and Xenobiotics in Carcinogenesis by Environmental Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyajyoti Saha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Carcinogenesis by many small molecular weight chemicals involves either a direct action of the chemical on cellular DNA or metabolism of the parent chemical to an active or ultimate form, which can than react with cellular DNA to produce a permanent chemical change in a DNA structure. A free radical is an atom or molecule that has one or more unpaired electron(s. These are highly reactive species capable of wide spread, indiscriminate oxidation and per oxidation of proteins, lipids and DNA which can lead to significant cellular damage and even tissue and/or organ failure. . Oxidative stress is a leading cause to damage cells by oxidation. The rate at which oxidative damage is induced (input and the rate at which it is efficiently repaired and removed (output. Xenobiotics are a compound that is foreign to the body. Xenobiotics can produce a variety of biological effects, including pharmacologic responses, toxicity, genes, immunologic reactions and cancer. Oxidative stress is a leading cause to damage cells by oxidation. The rate at which oxidative damage is induced (input and the rate at which it is efficiently repaired and removed (output. This communication highlights the role of carcinogens as environmental pollutants with the possible mechanism of free radicals, oxidative stress and xenobiotics.

  11. Living to the range limit: consumer isotopic variation increases with environmental stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J. Reddin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Theoretically, each species’ ecological niche is phylogenetically-determined and expressed spatially as the species’ range. However, environmental stress gradients may directly or indirectly decrease individual performance, such that the precise process delimiting a species range may not be revealed simply by studying abundance patterns. In the intertidal habitat the vertical ranges of marine species may be constrained by their abilities to tolerate thermal and desiccation stress, which may act directly or indirectly, the latter by limiting the availability of preferred trophic resources. Therefore, we expected individuals at greater shore heights to show greater variation in diet alongside lower indices of physiological condition. Methods: We sampled the grazing gastropod Echinolittorina peruviana from the desert coastline of northern Chile at three shore heights, across eighteen regionally-representative shores. Stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N were extracted from E. peruviana and its putative food resources to estimate Bayesian ellipse area, carbon and nitrogen ranges and diet. Individual physiological condition was tracked by muscle % C and % N. Results: There was an increase in isotopic variation at high shore levels, where E. peruviana’s preferred resource, tide-deposited particulate organic matter (POM, appeared to decrease in dietary contribution, and was expected to be less abundant. Both muscle % C and % N of individuals decreased with height on the shore. Discussion: Individuals at higher stress levels appear to be less discriminating in diet, likely because of abiotic forcing, which decreases both consumer mobility and the availability of a preferred resource. Abiotic stress might be expected to increase trophic variation in other selective dietary generalist species. Where this coincides with a lower physiological condition may be a direct factor in setting their range limit.

  12. Functional evolution of leptin of Ochotona curzoniae in adaptive thermogenesis driven by cold environmental stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental stress can accelerate the directional selection and evolutionary rate of specific stress-response proteins to bring about new or altered functions, enhancing an organism's fitness to challenging environments. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae, an endemic and keystone species on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, is a high hypoxia and low temperature tolerant mammal with high resting metabolic rate and non-shivering thermogenesis to cope in this harsh plateau environment. Leptin is a key hormone related to how these animals regulate energy homeostasis. Previous molecular evolutionary analysis helped to generate the hypothesis that adaptive evolution of plateau pika leptin may be driven by cold stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test the hypothesis, recombinant pika leptin was first purified. The thermogenic characteristics of C57BL/6J mice injected with pika leptin under warm (23±1°C and cold (5±1°C acclimation is investigated. Expression levels of genes regulating adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue and the hypothalamus are compared between pika leptin and human leptin treatment, suggesting that pika leptin has adaptively and functionally evolved. Our results show that pika leptin regulates energy homeostasis via reduced food intake and increased energy expenditure under both warm and cold conditions. Compared with human leptin, pika leptin demonstrates a superior induced capacity for adaptive thermogenesis, which is reflected in a more enhanced β-oxidation, mitochondrial biogenesis and heat production. Moreover, leptin treatment combined with cold stimulation has a significant synergistic effect on adaptive thermogenesis, more so than is observed with a single cold exposure or single leptin treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support the hypothesis that cold stress has driven the functional evolution of plateau pika leptin as an ecological adaptation to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  13. Effects of inter-varietal diversity, biotic stresses and environmental productivity on grain yield of spring barley variety mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiær, Lars Pødenphant; Skovgaard, Ib M.; Østergård, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    than their component varieties when accounting also for the general response to environmental productivity. Hence, most mixtures adapted slightly better to environmental productivity and were less sensitive to environmental stress than their component varieties. We conclude that the efficacy of variety...... mixtures may be enhanced by mixing relatively high-yielding varieties differing in responsiveness to environmental productivity.......Varietal seed mixtures tend to increase and stabilize crop yields, yet their application is sparse. Large-scale cultivation of variety mixtures may require a better understanding of how inter-varietal interactions and their interaction with the environment may influence the grain yield of variety...

  14. Cross-species multiple environmental stress responses: An integrated approach to identify candidate genes for multiple stress tolerance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and related model species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adugna Abdi Woldesemayat

    Full Text Available Crop response to the changing climate and unpredictable effects of global warming with adverse conditions such as drought stress has brought concerns about food security to the fore; crop yield loss is a major cause of concern in this regard. Identification of genes with multiple responses across environmental stresses is the genetic foundation that leads to crop adaptation to environmental perturbations.In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach to assess candidate genes for multiple stress responses across-species. The approach combines ontology based semantic data integration with expression profiling, comparative genomics, phylogenomics, functional gene enrichment and gene enrichment network analysis to identify genes associated with plant stress phenotypes. Five different ontologies, viz., Gene Ontology (GO, Trait Ontology (TO, Plant Ontology (PO, Growth Ontology (GRO and Environment Ontology (EO were used to semantically integrate drought related information.Target genes linked to Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs controlling yield and stress tolerance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and closely related species were identified. Based on the enriched GO terms of the biological processes, 1116 sorghum genes with potential responses to 5 different stresses, such as drought (18%, salt (32%, cold (20%, heat (8% and oxidative stress (25% were identified to be over-expressed. Out of 169 sorghum drought responsive QTLs associated genes that were identified based on expression datasets, 56% were shown to have multiple stress responses. On the other hand, out of 168 additional genes that have been evaluated for orthologous pairs, 90% were conserved across species for drought tolerance. Over 50% of identified maize and rice genes were responsive to drought and salt stresses and were co-located within multifunctional QTLs. Among the total identified multi-stress responsive genes, 272 targets were shown to be co-localized within QTLs

  15. Environmental Factors’ Effect on Stress Reduction of Employees: A Case Study on Farhangian University Staff in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Payedar Ardakani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues the contemporary societies encounter is the job stress. There are various factors affecting it, but not enough researches have been done on the role that environmental factors play. This paper presents an experimental study with 100 participants on the influence of environmental factors on employees’ stress level. This method uses information derived from field observations and answers to questionnaires distributed to employees and officials who are in the top management of the central organization of Farhangian University, Tehran branch. The results demonstrate that color, window, lighting and brightness, landscape, communications and interactions, flexibility, thermal convenience, noise convenience, cleanness, physical activity, privacy and accessibility play an important role in the stress of employees, suggesting that the architectures and designers should consider the aforementioned factors so they can create dynamic and pleasant office environments devoid of any stress.

  16. Micro-environmental mechanical stress controls tumor spheroid size and morphology by suppressing proliferation and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Cheng

    Full Text Available Compressive mechanical stress produced during growth in a confining matrix limits the size of tumor spheroids, but little is known about the dynamics of stress accumulation, how the stress affects cancer cell phenotype, or the molecular pathways involved.We co-embedded single cancer cells with fluorescent micro-beads in agarose gels and, using confocal microscopy, recorded the 3D distribution of micro-beads surrounding growing spheroids. The change in micro-bead density was then converted to strain in the gel, from which we estimated the spatial distribution of compressive stress around the spheroids. We found a strong correlation between the peri-spheroid solid stress distribution and spheroid shape, a result of the suppression of cell proliferation and induction of apoptotic cell death in regions of high mechanical stress. By compressing spheroids consisting of cancer cells overexpressing anti-apoptotic genes, we demonstrate that mechanical stress-induced apoptosis occurs via the mitochondrial pathway.Our results provide detailed, quantitative insight into the role of micro-environmental mechanical stress in tumor spheroid growth dynamics, and suggest how tumors grow in confined locations where the level of solid stress becomes high. An important implication is that apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, induced by compressive stress, may be involved in tumor dormancy, in which tumor growth is held in check by a balance of apoptosis and proliferation.

  17. The impact of environmental stressors and types of work contract on occupational stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Ana Paula; Ferreira, Maria Cristina

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of seven environmental stressors (role conflict, work overload, interpersonal difficulties, work-family conflict, work instability, lack of autonomy and pressure of responsibility) and the nature of the employment contract (permanent or atypical) on three psychological reactions to occupational stress (job satisfaction, positive emotions, and negative emotions at work). 305 Brazilian workers from both sexes participated in this research, distributed between permanent and atypical workers. The results showed that the role conflict and the work overload had a negative impact on job satisfaction. The role conflict had a negative impact on the positive emotions at work, while the pressure of responsibility interfered positively in it. The work overload interfered positively in the negative emotions at work, while the pressure of responsibility interfered negatively in it. The type of contract did not affect significantly any one of the dependent variables. The implications of the results for future research are discussed.

  18. Early remote laser detection of vegetation damage caused by certain environmental stress factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Emmett W.; Mcmurtrey, James E., III

    1989-01-01

    The fluorescence spectra of plants excited with a pulsed nitrogen laser beam emitting at 337 nm were found to be related to plant type, as well as with changes in the physiology of the plant as the result of various kinds of environmental stress. The plant types which were studied included herbaceous dicots, monocots, hardwoods, and conifers. These plant types could be identified on the basis of differences in either the number of fluorescent bands, or the relative intensity of the bands. The dicots and monocots had fluorescent maxima at 440, 685, and 740 nm. The monocots could be distinguished from the dicots by virtue of having a much higher 440 nm/685 nm ratio. Hardwoods and conifers had an additional fluorescence band at 525 nm, but healthy conifers did not have a band at 685 nm.

  19. Perturbation of cellular signaling cascades modulated by ionizing radiation and environmental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugolini, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular signaling plays a central role in the regulation of several cell functions, which can be perturbed by different external stimuli, including environmental stress and ionizing radiation. The dysregulation of intra- and extracellular mechanisms may alter the correct behaviour of cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the activation of strongly interlaced intracellular signaling pathways, following the exposure to low- and medium-doses of X-rays, with a focus on the mechanisms involved in the inflammatory- and apoptotic-related responses. In particular, the temporal dynamics of the ERK1/2 and PKB/AKT pathways and their possible dose dependences were investigated. The presented results indicate a clear dose dependence of such pathways only at early time points, suggesting a fast response of the system to X-rays and the need for further studies at shorter times after exposures.

  20. Untangling the Influences of Voluntary Running, Environmental Complexity, Social Housing and Stress on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Catherine-Alexandra; Bonenfant, David; Le Nguyen, Adalie; Aumont, Anne; Fernandes, Karl J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) exerts powerful effects on brain physiology, and is widely used as an experimental and therapeutic tool. Typical EE paradigms are multifactorial, incorporating elements of physical exercise, environmental complexity, social interactions and stress, however the specific contributions of these variables have not been separable using conventional housing paradigms. Here, we evaluated the impacts of these individual variables on adult hippocampal neurogenesis by using a novel “Alternating EE” paradigm. For 4 weeks, adult male CD1 mice were alternated daily between two enriched environments; by comparing groups that differed in one of their two environments, the individual and combinatorial effects of EE variables could be resolved. The Alternating EE paradigm revealed that (1) voluntary running for 3 days/week was sufficient to increase both mitotic and post-mitotic stages of hippocampal neurogenesis, confirming the central importance of exercise; (2) a complex environment (comprised of both social interactions and rotated inanimate objects) had no effect on neurogenesis itself, but enhanced depolarization-induced c-Fos expression (attributable to social interactions) and buffered stress-induced plasma corticosterone levels (attributable to inanimate objects); and (3) neither social isolation, group housing, nor chronically increased levels of plasma corticosterone had a prolonged impact on neurogenesis. Mouse strain, handling and type of running apparatus were tested and excluded as potential confounding factors. These findings provide valuable insights into the relative effects of key EE variables on adult neurogenesis, and this “Alternating EE” paradigm represents a useful tool for exploring the contributions of individual EE variables to mechanisms of neural plasticity. PMID:24465980

  1. Organismal climatology: analyzing environmental variability at scales relevant to physiological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmuth, Brian; Broitman, Bernardo R; Yamane, Lauren; Gilman, Sarah E; Mach, Katharine; Mislan, K A S; Denny, Mark W

    2010-03-15

    Predicting when, where and with what magnitude climate change is likely to affect the fitness, abundance and distribution of organisms and the functioning of ecosystems has emerged as a high priority for scientists and resource managers. However, even in cases where we have detailed knowledge of current species' range boundaries, we often do not understand what, if any, aspects of weather and climate act to set these limits. This shortcoming significantly curtails our capacity to predict potential future range shifts in response to climate change, especially since the factors that set range boundaries under those novel conditions may be different from those that set limits today. We quantitatively examine a nine-year time series of temperature records relevant to the body temperatures of intertidal mussels as measured using biomimetic sensors. Specifically, we explore how a 'climatology' of body temperatures, as opposed to long-term records of habitat-level parameters such as air and water temperatures, can be used to extrapolate meaningful spatial and temporal patterns of physiological stress. Using different metrics that correspond to various aspects of physiological stress (seasonal means, cumulative temperature and the return time of extremes) we show that these potential environmental stressors do not always occur in synchrony with one another. Our analysis also shows that patterns of animal temperature are not well correlated with simple, commonly used metrics such as air temperature. Detailed physiological studies can provide guidance to predicting the effects of global climate change on natural ecosystems but only if we concomitantly record, archive and model environmental signals at appropriate scales.

  2. Evaluation of Data Retention and Imprint Characteristics of FRAMs Under Environmental Stresses for NASA Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Asbok K.; Teverovsky, Alexander; Dowdy, Terry W.; Hamilton, Brett

    2002-01-01

    A major reliability issue for all advanced nonvolatile memory (NVM) technology devices including FRAMs is the data retention characteristics over extended period of time, under environmental stresses and exposure to total ionizing dose (TID) radiation effects. For this testing, 256 Kb FRAMs in 28-pin plastic DIPS, rated for industrial grade temperature range of -40 C to +85 C, were procured. These are two-transistor, two-capacitor (2T-2C) design FRAMs. In addition to data retention characteristics, the parts were also evaluated for imprint failures, which are defined as the failure of cells to change from a "preferred" state, where it has been for a significant period of time to an opposite state (e.g., from 1 to 0, or 0 to 1). These 256 K FRAMs were subjected to scanning acoustic microscopy (C-SAM); 1,000 temperature cycles from -65 C to +150 C; high temperature aging at 150 C, 175 C, and 200 C for 1,000 hours; highly accelerated stress test (HAST) for 500 hours; 1,000 hours of operational life test at 125 C; and total ionizing dose radiation testing. As a preconditioning, 10 K read/write cycles were performed on all devices. Interim electrical measurements were performed throughout this characterization, including special imprint testing and final electrical testing. Some failures were observed during high temperature aging test at 200 C, during HAST testing, and during 1,000 hours of operational life at 125 C. The parts passed 10 Krad exposure, but began showing power supply current increases during the dose increment from 10 Krad to 30 Krad, and at 40 Krad severe data retention and parametric failures were observed. Failures from various environmental group testing are currently being analyzed.

  3. Environmentally persistent free radicals amplify ultrafine particle mediated cellular oxidative stress and cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishna Shrilatha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combustion generated particulate matter is deposited in the respiratory tract and pose a hazard to the lungs through their potential to cause oxidative stress and inflammation. We have previously shown that combustion of fuels and chlorinated hydrocarbons produce semiquinone-type radicals that are stabilized on particle surfaces (i.e. environmentally persistent free radicals; EPFRs. Because the composition and properties of actual combustion-generated particles are complex, heterogeneous in origin, and vary from day-to-day, we have chosen to use surrogate particle systems. In particular, we have chosen to use the radical of 2-monochlorophenol (MCP230 as the EPFR because we have previously shown that it forms a EPFR on Cu(IIO surfaces and catalyzes formation of PCDD/F. To understand the physicochemical properties responsible for the adverse pulmonary effects of combustion by-products, we have exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B to MCP230 or the CuO/silica substrate. Our general hypothesis was that the EPFR-containing particle would have greater toxicity than the substrate species. Results Exposure of BEAS-2B cells to our combustion generated particle systems significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and decreased cellular antioxidants resulting in cell death. Resveratrol treatment reversed the decline in cellular glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels for both types of combustion-generated particle systems. Conclusion The enhanced cytotoxicity upon exposure to MCP230 correlated with its ability to generate more cellular oxidative stress and concurrently reduce the antioxidant defenses of the epithelial cells (i.e. reduced GSH, SOD activity, and GPx. The EPFRs in MCP230 also seem to be of greater biological concern due to their ability to induce lipid peroxidation. These results are consistent with the oxidizing nature of the CuO/silica ultrafine

  4. Untangling the influences of voluntary running, environmental complexity, social housing and stress on adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine-Alexandra Grégoire

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment (EE exerts powerful effects on brain physiology, and is widely used as an experimental and therapeutic tool. Typical EE paradigms are multifactorial, incorporating elements of physical exercise, environmental complexity, social interactions and stress, however the specific contributions of these variables have not been separable using conventional housing paradigms. Here, we evaluated the impacts of these individual variables on adult hippocampal neurogenesis by using a novel "Alternating EE" paradigm. For 4 weeks, adult male CD1 mice were alternated daily between two enriched environments; by comparing groups that differed in one of their two environments, the individual and combinatorial effects of EE variables could be resolved. The Alternating EE paradigm revealed that (1 voluntary running for 3 days/week was sufficient to increase both mitotic and post-mitotic stages of hippocampal neurogenesis, confirming the central importance of exercise; (2 a complex environment (comprised of both social interactions and rotated inanimate objects had no effect on neurogenesis itself, but enhanced depolarization-induced c-Fos expression (attributable to social interactions and buffered stress-induced plasma corticosterone levels (attributable to inanimate objects; and (3 neither social isolation, group housing, nor chronically increased levels of plasma corticosterone had a prolonged impact on neurogenesis. Mouse strain, handling and type of running apparatus were tested and excluded as potential confounding factors. These findings provide valuable insights into the relative effects of key EE variables on adult neurogenesis, and this "Alternating EE" paradigm represents a useful tool for exploring the contributions of individual EE variables to mechanisms of neural plasticity.

  5. Environmental stress-corrosion cracking of fiberglass: Lessons learned from failures in the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T.J.; Kytoemaa, H.K.; Smith, T.R.

    2007-01-01

    Fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) composite materials are often used to construct tanks, piping, scrubbers, beams, grating, and other components for use in corrosive environments. While FRP typically offers superior and cost effective corrosion resistance relative to other construction materials, the glass fibers traditionally used to provide the structural strength of the FRP can be susceptible to attack by the corrosive environment. The structural integrity of traditional FRP components in corrosive environments is usually dependent on the integrity of a corrosion-resistant barrier, such as a resin-rich layer containing corrosion resistant glass fibers. Without adequate protection, FRP components can fail under loads well below their design by an environmental stress-corrosion cracking (ESCC) mechanism when simultaneously exposed to mechanical stress and a corrosive chemical environment. Failure of these components can result in significant releases of hazardous substances into plants and the environment. In this paper, we present two case studies where fiberglass components failed due to ESCC at small chemical manufacturing facilities. As is often typical, the small chemical manufacturing facilities relied largely on FRP component suppliers to determine materials appropriate for the specific process environment and to repair damaged in-service components. We discuss the lessons learned from these incidents and precautions companies should take when interfacing with suppliers and other parties during the specification, design, construction, and repair of FRP components in order to prevent similar failures and chemical releases from occurring in the future

  6. A method for diagnosis of plant environmental stresses by gene expression profiling using a cDNA macroarray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaoki, Masanori; Matsuyama, Takashi; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Aono, Mitsuko; Kubo, Akihiro; Saji, Hikaru

    2004-01-01

    Plants in the field are subjected to numerous environmental stresses. Lengthy continuation of such environmental stresses or a rapid increase in their intensity is harmful to vegetation. Assessments of the phytotoxicity of various stresses have been performed in many countries, although they have largely been based on estimates of leaf injury. We developed a novel method of detecting plant stresses that is more sensitive and specific than those previously available. This method is based on the detection of mRNA expression changes in 205 ozone-responsive Arabidopsis expressed sequence tags (ESTs) by cDNA macroarray analysis. By using this method, we illustrated shifts in gene expression in response to stressors such as drought, salinity, UV-B, low temperature, high temperature, and acid rain, as distinct from those in response to ozone. We also made a mini-scale macroarray with 12 ESTs for diagnosis of the above environmental stresses in plants. These results illustrate the potential of our cDNA macroarray for diagnosis of various stresses in plants

  7. Quantification of nanoparticle release from polymer nanocomposite coatings due to environmental stressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Seok; Davis, Rick; Uddin, Nasir; Nyden, Marc; Rabb, Savelas A

    2016-01-01

    Certain engineered nanoparticles (ENP) reduce the flammability of components used in soft furnishings (mattresses and upholstered furniture). However, because of the ENP's small size and ability to interact with biological molecules, these fire retardant ENPs may pose a health and environmental risks, if they are released sometime during the life cycle of the soft furnishing. Quantifying the released amount of these ENPs under normal end-use circumstances provides a basis for assessing their potential health and environmental impact. In this article, we report on efforts to identify suitable methodologies for quantifying the release of carbon nanofibers, carbon nanotubes, and sodium montmorillonites from coatings applied to the surfaces of barrier fabric and polyurethane foam. The ENPs released in simulated chewing and mechanical stressing experiments were collected in aqueous solution and quantified using Ultraviolet-Visible and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The microstructures of the released ENPs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The reported methodology and results provide important milestones to estimate the impact and toxicity of the ENP release during the life cycle of the nanocomposites. To our knowledge, this is the first study of ENP release from the soft furnishing coating, something that can be important application area for fire safety.

  8. Macrobenthic community structure in a Brazilian chocked lagoon system under environmental stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lima Torres Mendes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Saquarema-Jaconé lagoonal system (SJLS comprises a sequence of five interconnected shallow brackish lagoons with access to the sea by a single permanent tidal channel. It is a eutrophic system, receiving constant input of organic load from its urbanized catchments. The relationship between several environmental variables and the spatial-temporal distribution of the benthic macrofauna was assessed during four seasonal samplings (dry and wet periods of 2007-2009. Sediment replicates were sampled at seven sites for biological identification and analyzes of organic matter, carbonates, phytopigments, grain size and heavy metals. Salinity, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were measured in situ. SJLS was characterized by sandy bottoms with very reducing conditions. Redox potential significantly discriminated between the dry and wet periods and anoxic conditions were observed in the latter. No significant seasonal differences were observed in the macrofauna. A total of 37 taxa were identified, of which Capitella sp, oligochaetes and Laeonereis culveri (Webster, 1880 were the dominant, representing the early stage of community recovery following dystrophic crises. The faunistic pattern seems to be determined by complex combinations of silt+clay with salinity, organic matter and redox potential. On the other hand, the low concentrations of heavy metals found did not seem to influence the structure and distribution of the biota. SJLS is undergoing persistent environmental stress, dominated by first-order opportunistic species linked to organically enriched sediments.

  9. Estresse no trabalho em agentes dos centros de atendimento socioeducativo do Rio Grande do Sul Estrés en el trabajo en agentes en los centros de atención socioeducativa de Rio Grande do Sul Job stress in agents at the socio-educational service centers in the state of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bitencourt Toscani Greco

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudo que teve por objetivo verificar a associação entre estresse no trabalho, características sociodemográficas, laborais, hábitos e condições de saúde dos agentes socioeducadores do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Trata-se de um estudo transversal com 381 agentes dos Centros de Atendimento Socioeducativo do Rio Grande do Sul. Utilizou-se a versão brasileira da Job Stress Scale, para avaliação do estresse no trabalho. Foram classificados, em situação de alta exigência no trabalho, 19,2% dos agentes. Mostraram-se associados ao estresse no trabalho: necessidade de acompanhamento psicológico, falta de tempo para lazer, turno diurno de trabalho, insatisfação com o local de trabalho, necessidade de afastamento do trabalho, por problemas de saúde, e escala de trabalho insuficiente. Há necessidade de buscar melhores condições de trabalho e a efetivação de um Serviço de Saúde do Trabalhador atuante, no sentido de minimizar os efeitos das demandas psicológicas no trabalho do agente socioeducador.El estudo tenía el objetivo de verificar la asociación entre estrés en el trabajo, rasgos sociodemográficos, laborales, hábitos y condiciones de salud de los agentes socioeducadores de Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Es un estudio transversal con 381 agentes de Centros de Atención Socioeducativa de Rio Grande do Sul. Se utilizó la versión brasileña de Job Stress Scale para evaluación de estrés en el trabajo. El 19, 2% de los agentes se clasificó en situación de alta exigencia laboral. Se mostraron asociadas al estrés en el trabajo: necesidad de acompañamiento psicológico, falta de tiempo para el ocio, tiempo diurno de trabajo, insatisfacción con el lugar de trabajo, necesidad de alejamiento del trabajo por problemas de salud y escala de trabajo insuficiente. Existe la necesidad de buscar mejores condiciones de trabajo y la efectuación de un Servicio de Salud del Trabajador actuante, para minimizar los efectos de las demandas

  10. Effects of environmental stress during pregnancy on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, D.E.; Rhees, R.W.; Williams, S.R.; Kurth, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Prenatal stress applied during a presumed critical period (third trimester) for sexual differentiation of the brain has been shown to alter development and influence sexual behavior. This experiment was designed to study the effects of environmental stress (restraint/illumination/heat) on maternal and fetal plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers. These hormones were studied since corticosterone has been shown to alter brain differentiation and progesterone has anti-androgen properties and since the secretion of both from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by ACTH. Plasma corticosterone and progesterone titers of both stressed and control gravid rats and their fetuses were measured on gestational days 18 and 20 by radioimmunoassay. Prenatal stress significantly reduced fetal body weight and fetal adrenal weight. Maternal pituitary weight was significantly increased. Prenatal stress caused a significant elevation in maternal corticosterone and progesterone titers and in fetal corticosterone titers. There was no difference between prenatal stressed and control fetal plasma progesterone levels. These data demonstrate that environmental stress significantly increases adrenal activity beyond that brought about naturally by pregnancy, and therefore may modify sequential hormonal events during fetal development

  11. Woodland recovery following drought-induced tree mortality across an environmental stress gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Miranda D; Cobb, Neil S; Clifford, Michael J; Barger, Nichole N

    2015-10-01

    Recent droughts and increasing temperatures have resulted in extensive tree mortality across the globe. Understanding the environmental controls on tree regeneration following these drought events will allow for better predictions of how these ecosystems may shift under a warmer, drier climate. Within the widely distributed piñon-juniper woodlands of the southwestern USA, a multiyear drought in 2002-2004 resulted in extensive adult piñon mortality and shifted adult woodland composition to a juniper-dominated, more savannah-type ecosystem. Here, we used pre- (1998-2001) and 10-year post- (2014) drought stand structure data of individually mapped trees at 42 sites to assess the effects of this drought on tree regeneration across a gradient of environmental stress. We found declines in piñon juvenile densities since the multiyear drought due to limited new recruitment and high (>50%) juvenile mortality. This is in contrast to juniper juvenile densities, which increased over this time period. Across the landscape, piñon recruitment was positively associated with live adult piñon densities and soil available water capacity, likely due to their respective effects on seed and water availability. Juvenile piñon survival was strongly facilitated by certain types of nurse trees and shrubs. These nurse plants also moderated the effects of environmental stress on piñon survival: Survival of interspace piñon juveniles was positively associated with soil available water capacity, whereas survival of nursed piñon juveniles was negatively associated with perennial grass cover. Thus, nurse plants had a greater facilitative effect on survival at sites with higher soil available water capacity and perennial grass cover. Notably, mean annual climatic water deficit and elevation were not associated with piñon recruitment or survival across the landscape. Our findings reveal a clear shift in successional trajectories toward a more juniper-dominated woodland and highlight the

  12. Micro-evolutionary responses and adaptive costs of Caenorhabditis elegans populations exposed to environmental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutilleul, M.

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary evolution of organisms is largely dependent on anthropogenic disturbances. In particular, pollution amplifies the intensity or the quantity of selection pressures on populations. However, these changes may have negative effects on the life, growth and reproduction of individuals, the demographics of the population, and its phenotypic and genetic characteristics over generations. Thus, micro-evolutionary changes are likely to occur in response to selection pressures. These phenomenon lead to collateral damages: adaptive costs. For example, a reduction of genetic diversity in a population entails a decrease in its potential to adapt to other stressors. Populations can be more susceptible to many environmental changes, especially with the increase of human activities. Hence in an ecological risk assessment, studying the mechanisms of action and immediate adverse effects of pollutants on organisms is no longer sufficient. It is also necessary to expand our knowledge on the evolution of populations in polluted environment. In this context, our study aims to determine the micro-evolutionary response of Caenorhabditis elegans populations exposed to environmental stressors, and to measure their costs of adaptation. Populations were experimentally exposed for 22 generations to a high concentration of uranium, sodium chloride or an alternation of both these pollutants. The analysis of phenotypic and genetic changes, observed through measures of life history traits, was accomplished using several quantitative genetics techniques. In particular, we confirmed the genetic differentiation between populations with an increase of resistance in populations exposed to different pollutions. The speed of evolutionary responses depended on the conditions of exposure and their effects on the expression of the genetic structure of traits (e.g. G matrix). Micro-evolutionary changes were linked to costs of adaptation, such as reduced fertility in stressful novel

  13. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  14. Urethral bulking agents versus other surgical procedures for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Bogani, Giorgio; Meschia, Michele; Sorice, Paola; Braga, Andrea; Salvatore, Stefano; Ghezzi, Fabio; Serati, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Bulking agents provide an alternative option in the management of women with stress urinary incontinence and they seem to have an important role in the management flow chart of SUI. However, evidence on this issue is scanty. The most important aspect is to understand whether bulking agents are comparable with the other first-line anti-incontinence surgical procedure (MUS, Burch colposuspension and pubovaginal slings). Hence, the primary aim of the current review was to assess the objective and subjective outcomes of bulking agents in comparison with the other surgical procedures for the treatment of SUI. PubMed and Medline were systematically searched and we included studies evaluating the use of bulking agents in comparison with other surgical approaches for either primary or recurrent treatment of female SUI. Three studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Two of these studies were RCTs evaluating the use of bulking agents versus other surgical procedures for the treatment of primary female SUI; the remnant article was a retrospective cohort study that compared the effectiveness and safety of repeat midurethral sling with urethral bulking after failed midurethral sling. The combined results of all analyses showed that the objective recurrence rate of peri- or trans-urethral injections is significantly higher in comparison with the other surgical procedures. Similar findings were observed when considering separately the treatment for primary or recurrent SUI. Furthermore, lower subjective recurrence rate was observed among patients undergoing other surgical treatment in comparison with those undergoing bulking agents; however, this trend was not statistically significant. Moreover, patients undergoing injection of bulking agents experienced a lower rate of voiding dysfunctions in comparison to the control group. According to current evidence, bulking agents should not be proposed as first-line treatment in those women seeking permanent cure for both

  15. A survey of cellular reactions to environmental stress and disease in Caribbean scleractinian corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Esther C.

    1984-03-01

    Despite growing concern about the demise of coral reefs in many areas of the world, few studies have investigated the possibility that bacteria- or virus-caused diseases may be important agents in the disappearance of living coral tissue from reefs, and that their occurrence and transmission may be influenced by natural or man-made changes in water quality, particularly increased sedimentation and turbidity. One forereef site off St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands, and three shallow-water reef sites off Puerto Rico were examined for variations in coral composition, local environmental conditions, and the presence of possible diseases in the stony corals. Visual observations were supplemented with standard histopathological examination under the light microscope of tissues from 257 specimens (representing 9 genera and 13 species), along with additional samples obtained from the Netherlands Antilles, the Grenadines, the Florida Keys and the Smithsonian Coral Reef Microcosm. This procedure proved to be necessary to accurately determine the condition of the colony, to detect the presence of microorganisms, and to correlate tissue health and microparasite infestations with apparent symptoms. These lesions varied with the species and the site. For example, off Guayanilla Bay, three species showed increased or decreased mucosecretory cell development, and another exhibited an unusual microparasite, which may be related to the chronic sedimentation at this site. Although colonies of several species showed signs of “white band disease” at five locations, bacterial colonies composed of Gram-negative rods were present only in acroporid tissues from the relatively pristine St. Croix site and the Netherlands Antilles. The distribution and possible mode of occurrence of these and other diseases and microparasite infestations suggest that acute changes in microhabitat conditions or injuries to individual colonies may be as important to the development of some of these lesions as

  16. Primary and secondary oxidative stress in Bacillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, Maarten; Abee, Tjakko

    Coping with oxidative stress originating from oxidizing compounds or reactive oxygen species (ROS), associated with the exposure to agents that cause environmental stresses, is one of the prerequisites for an aerobic lifestyle of Bacillus spp. such as B. subtilis, B. cereus and B. anthracis. This

  17. Primary and secondary oxidative stress in Bacillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.M.; Abee, T.

    2011-01-01

    Coping with oxidative stress originating from oxidizing compounds or reactive oxygen species (ROS), associated with the exposure to agents that cause environmental stresses, is one of the prerequisites for an aerobic lifestyle of Bacillus spp. such as B. subtilis, B. cereus and B. anthracis. This

  18. A study of effects of hyperthermia on large, short-haired male dogs : a simulated air transport environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    When dogs are shipped by air transport, they can encounter environmental temperatures as high as 130.0 F during the summer months. Heat- induced hyperthermia can be a major problem in dogs. : To assess some aspects of the heat stress problem, 20 dogs...

  19. Ecological modulation of environmental stress: interactions between ultraviolet radiation, epibiotic snail embryos, plants and herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Martin

    2008-05-01

    1. The distribution of egg masses of the freshwater snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Planorbarius corneus on the undersides of water lily leaves (e.g. Nuphar lutea) is related to the prevalence of the leaf-mining beetle Galerucella nymphaeae. 2. When given the choice, Planorbarius significantly avoids leaves that were infested by the mining beetle. Conversely, Lymnaea did not discriminate against mined leaves. 3. Intact Nuphar leaves block over 95% of incident ultraviolet radiation. Yet, ultraviolet transmission reaches almost 100% under beetle mining scars. These are several times wider than snail embryos. 4. When exposed to natural sunlight, Lymnaea embryos proved to be resistant to ambient ultraviolet, while Planorbarius embryos were rapidly killed. Thus, one selective advantage of Planorbarius discrimination against mined leaves when depositing its eggs could be the avoidance of ultraviolet radiation passing through mining scars. 5. Other mining-related modifications of the leaves, reduced area, decreased longevity, altered aufwuchs (i.e. biofilm and epibionts) are discussed but seem less relevant for the oviposition preference of Planorbarius. 6. The discriminatory behaviour of this snail species was triggered by water-borne cues emitted by the damaged leaf, not by the eggs or larvae of the beetle. 7. This study illustrates how environmental stress on a given species, ultraviolet radiation in this case, can be ecologically buffered (shading by Nuphar) or enhanced (reduction of Nuphar shading through beetle mining) by associated species. It highlights how the impact of a given stress depends on the identity of the target species as well as on the identity and role of other species in the community.

  20. Validation of Environmental Stress Index by Measuring Infrared Radiation as a Substitute for Solar Radiation in Indoor Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Habibi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The exposure of individuals to heat at different jobs warrants the use of heat stress evaluation indices. Objectives The aim of this study was to validate environmental stress index using an infrared radiation (IR measurement instrument as a substitute for pyranometer in indoor workplaces. Methods This study was conducted on 2303 indoor workstations in different industries in Isfahan, Iran, during July, August, and September in 2012. The intensity of the Infrared Radiation (IR (w/m2 was measured at five-centimeter distances in six different directions, above, opposite, right, left, behind and below the globe thermometer. Then, the dry globe temperature (Ta, wet globe temperature (Tnw, globe temperature (Tg and relative humidity (RH were also simultaneously measured. The data were analyzed using correlation and regression by the SPSS18 software. Results The study results indicate that a high correlation (r = 0.96 exists between the environmental stress index (ESI and the values of wet bulb globe temperature (P < 0.01. According to the following equation, WBGT = 1.086 × ESI - 1.846, the environmental stress index is able to explain 91% (R2 = 0.91 of the WBGT index variations (P < 0.01. Conclusions Based on the results, to study heat stress in indoor workplaces when the WBGT measurement instrument is not available and also in short-term exposures (shorter than 30 minutes when measuring the wet bulb globe temperature shows a considerable error, it is possible to calculate the environmental stress index and accordingly to the WBGT index, by measuring the parameters of dry bulb temperature (Ta, relative humidity (RH, and infrared radiation intensity that can be easily measured in a short time.

  1. Behavioural stress responses predict environmental perception in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, Sandie; Cerqueira, Marco; Castanheira, Maria-Filipa; Overli, Oyvind; Oliveira, Rui F; Martins, Catarina I M

    2014-01-01

    Individual variation in the response to environmental challenges depends partly on innate reaction norms, partly on experience-based cognitive/emotional evaluations that individuals make of the situation. The goal of this study was to investigate whether pre-existing differences in behaviour predict the outcome of such assessment of environmental cues, using a conditioned place preference/avoidance (CPP/CPA) paradigm. A comparative vertebrate model (European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax) was used, and ninety juvenile individuals were initially screened for behavioural reactivity using a net restraining test. Thereafter each individual was tested in a choice tank using net chasing as aversive stimulus or exposure to familiar conspecifics as appetitive stimulus in the preferred or non preferred side respectively (called hereafter stimulation side). Locomotor behaviour (i.e. time spent, distance travelled and swimming speed in each tank side) of each individual was recorded and analysed with video software. The results showed that fish which were previously exposed to appetitive stimulus increased significantly the time spent on the stimulation side, while aversive stimulus led to a strong decrease in time spent on the stimulation side. Moreover, this study showed clearly that proactive fish were characterised by a stronger preference for the social stimulus and when placed in a putative aversive environment showed a lower physiological stress responses than reactive fish. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time in sea bass, that the CPP/CPA paradigm can be used to assess the valence (positive vs. negative) that fish attribute to different stimuli and that individual behavioural traits is predictive of how stimuli are perceived and thus of the magnitude of preference or avoidance behaviour.

  2. Methylphenidate and environmental enrichment ameliorate the deleterious effects of prenatal stress on attention functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubedat, Salman; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Cymerblit-Sabba, Adi; Ritter, Ami; Nachmani, Maayan; Avital, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Either pre- or post-natal environmental factors seem to play a key role in brain and behavioral development and to exert long-term effects. Increasing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal stress (PS) leads to motor and learning deficits and elevated anxiety, while enriched environment (EE) shows protective effects. The dopaminergic system is also sensitive to environmental life circumstances and affects attention functioning, which serves as the preliminary gate to cognitive processes. However, the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) on the dopaminergic system and attentional functioning, in the context of these life experiences, remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effects of EE or PS on distinct types of attention, along with possible effects of MPH exposure. We found that PS impaired selective attention as well as partial sustained attention, while EE had beneficial effects. Both EE and MPH ameliorated the deleterious effects of PS on attention functioning. Considering the possible psychostimulant effect of MPH, we examined both anxiety-like behavior as well as motor learning. We found that PS had a clear anxiogenic effect, whereas EE had an anxiolytic effect. Nevertheless, the treatment with both MPH and/or EE recovered the deleterious effects of PS. In the motor-learning task, the PS group showed superior performance while MPH led to impaired motor learning. Performance decrements were prevented in both the PS + MPH and EE + MPH groups. This study provides evidence that peripubertal exposure to EE (by providing enhanced sensory, motor, and social opportunities) or MPH treatments might be an optional therapeutic intervention in preventing the PS long-term adverse consequences.

  3. Interacting Environmental Stress Factors Affects Targeted Metabolomic Profiles in Stored Natural Wheat and That Inoculated with F. graminearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Garcia-Cela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in environmental stress impact on secondary metabolite (SM production profiles. Few studies have examined targeted SM production patterns in relation to interacting environmental conditions in stored cereals. The objectives were to examine the effect of water activity (aw; 0.95–0.90 x temperature (10–25 °C on SM production on naturally contaminated stored wheat and that inoculated with Fusarium graminearum. Samples were analysed using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS on (a total number of known SMs, (b their concentrations and (c changes under environmental stress. 24 Fusarium metabolites were quantified. Interestingly, statistical differences (ChisSq., p < 0.001 were observed in the number of SMs produced under different sets of interacting environmental conditions. The dominant metabolites in natural stored grain were deoxynivalenol (DON and nivalenol (NIV followed by a range of enniatins (A, A1, B, B1, apicidin and DON-3-glucoside at 10 °C. Increasing temperature promoted the biosynthesis of other SMs such as aurofusarin, moniliformin, zearalenone (ZEN and their derivatives. Natural wheat + F. graminearum inoculation resulted in a significant increase in the number of metabolites produced (ChisSq., p < 0.001. For ZEN and its derivatives, more was produced under cooler storage conditions. Fusarin C was enhanced in contrast to that for the enniatin group. The relative ratios of certain groups of targeted SM changed with environmental stress. Both temperature and aw affected the amounts of metabolites present, especially of DON and ZEN. This study suggests that the dominant SMs produced in stored temperate cereals are the mycotoxins for which legislation exists. However, there are changes in the ratios of key metabolites which could influence the relative contamination with individual compounds. Thus, in the future, under more extreme environmental stresses, different dominant SMs may be formed which could

  4. Occupational stress in professionals of public security: a study with military agents of the Republican National Guard / Stress ocupacional em profissionais de segurança pública: um estudo com militares da Guarda Nacional Republicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. P. Afonso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes occupational stress in 95 Portuguese military agents of the Republican National Guard. We applied an evaluation protocol with measures of global stress, burnout, proactive coping, organizational commitment, satisfaction with life, and professional satisfaction/accomplishment. The fidelity and validity results of the instruments were very acceptable. The results of burnout pointed out a remarkable level of emotional exhaustion (12% followed by cynicism (10% and low professional effectiveness (8% (but we have not found any participant with burnout values in the three dimensions simultaneously, and different variables were observed in the prediction of those three areas. The discriminant analysis among subgroups allowed us to verify two main aspects: (a lower levels of organizational commitment and more use of proactive coping in younger and/or inexperienced military agents and (b higher desire to leave the job/profession and cynicism in older and/or more experienced professionals. At the end, the authors discuss the importance of future research to analyze the effects of a higher tendency to use cynicism as their age increase and the consequences of a lower organizational commitment in terms of professional efficacy of the younger agents.

  5. Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taking care of an aging parent. With mental stress, the body pumps out hormones to no avail. Neither fighting ... with type 1 diabetes. This difference makes sense. Stress blocks the body from releasing insulin in people with type 2 ...

  6. Both near ultraviolet radiation and the oxidizing agent hydrogen peroxide induce a 32-kDa stress protein in normal human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyse, S.M.; Tyrrell, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    We have analyzed the pattern of protein synthesis in solar near ultraviolet (334 nm, 365 nm) and near visible (405 nm) irradiated normal human skin fibroblasts. Two hours after irradiation we find that one major stress protein of approximately 32 kDa is induced in irradiated cells. This protein is not induced by ultraviolet radiation at wavelengths shorter than 334 nm and is not inducible by heat shock treatment of these cells. Although sodium arsenite, diamide, and menadione all induced a 32-kDa protein, they also induced the major heat shock proteins. In contrast, the oxidizing agent, hydrogen peroxide, induced the low molecular weight stress protein without causing induction of the major heat shock proteins. A comparison of the 32-kDa proteins induced by sodium arsenite, H 2 O 2 , and solar near ultraviolet radiation using chemical peptide mapping shows that they are closely related. These results imply that the pathways for induction of the heat shock response and the 32-kDa protein are not identical and suggest that, at least in the case of radiation and treatment with H 2 O 2 , the 32-kDa protein might be induced in response to cellular oxidative stress. This conclusion is supported by the observation that depletion of endogenous cellular glutathione prior to solar near ultraviolet irradiation lowers the fluence threshold for induction of the 32-kDa stress protein

  7. Evaluation of a curcumin analog as an anti-cancer agent inducing ER stress-mediated apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhiguo; Wang, Yi; Sun, Yusheng; Ren, Luqing; Huang, Yi; Cai, Yuepiao; Weng, Qiaoyou; Shen, Xueqian; Li, Xiaokun; Liang, Guang

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances have highlighted the importance of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in cell death processes. Pharmacological interventions that effectively enhance tumor cell death through activating ER stress have attracted a great deal of attention for anti-cancer therapy. A bio-evaluation on 113 curcumin analogs against four cancer cell lines was performed through MTT assay. Furthermore, real time cell assay and flow cytometer were used to evaluate the apoptotic induction of (1E,4E)-1,5-bis(5-bromo-2-ethoxyphenyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one (B82). Western blot, RT-qPCR, and siRNA were then utilized to confirm whether B82-induced apoptosis is mediated through activating ER stress pathway. Finally, the in vivo anti-tumor effect of B82 was evaluated. B82 exhibited strong anti-tumor activity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H460 cells. Treatment with B82 significantly induced apoptosis in H460 cells in vitro and inhibited H460 tumor growth in vivo. Further studies demonstrated that the B82-induced apoptosis is mediated by activating ER stress both in vitro and in vivo. A new monocarbonyl analog of curcumin, B82, exhibited anti-tumor effects on H460 cells via an ER stress-mediated mechanism. B82 could be further explored as a potential anticancer agent for the treatment of NSCLC

  8. Detecting drawdowns masked by environmental stresses with water-level models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C.A.; Halford, K.J.; Fenelon, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Detecting and quantifying small drawdown at observation wells distant from the pumping well greatly expands the characterized aquifer volume. However, this detection is often obscured by water level fluctuations such as barometric and tidal effects. A reliable analytical approach for distinguishing drawdown from nonpumping water-level fluctuations is presented and tested here. Drawdown is distinguished by analytically simulating all pumping and nonpumping water-level stresses simultaneously during the period of record. Pumping signals are generated with Theis models, where the pumping schedule is translated into water-level change with the Theis solution. This approach closely matched drawdowns simulated with a complex three-dimensional, hypothetical model and reasonably estimated drawdowns from an aquifer test conducted in a complex hydrogeologic system. Pumping-induced changes generated with a numerical model and analytical Theis model agreed (RMS as low as 0.007 m) in cases where pumping signals traveled more than 1 km across confining units and fault structures. Maximum drawdowns of about 0.05 m were analytically estimated from field investigations where environmental fluctuations approached 0.2 m during the analysis period.

  9. Fitness and virulence of a bacterial endoparasite in an environmentally stressed crustacean host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Anja; De Meester, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Host-parasite interactions are shaped by the co-evolutionary arms race of parasite virulence, transmission success as well as host resistance and recovery. The virulence and fitness of parasites may depend on host condition, which is mediated, for instance, by host energy constraints. Here, we investigated to what extent stress imposed by predation threat and environmental pollutants influences host-parasite interactions. We challenged the crustacean host Daphnia magna with the sterilizing bacterial endoparasite Pasteuria ramosa and simultaneously exposed the host to fish kairomones, the pesticide carbaryl or both stressors. While parasite virulence, measured as impact on host mortality and sterilization, increased markedly after short-term pesticide exposure, it was not influenced by predation threat. Parasite fitness, measured in terms of produced transmission stages, decreased both in fish and pesticide treatments. This effect was much stronger under predation threat than carbaryl exposure, and was attributable to reduced somatic growth of the host, presumably resulting in fewer resources for parasite development. While the indirect impact of both stressors on spore loads provides evidence for host condition-dependent parasite fitness, the finding of increased virulence only under carbaryl exposure indicates a stronger physiological impact of the neurotoxic chemical compared with the effect of a non-toxic fish kairomone.

  10. A Non-canonical Melanin Biosynthesis Pathway Protects Aspergillus terreus Conidia from Environmental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Elena; Gressler, Markus; Viediernikova, Iuliia; Hillmann, Falk; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Nietzsche, Sandor; Hertweck, Christian; Brock, Matthias

    2016-05-19

    Melanins are ubiquitous pigments found in all kingdoms of life. Most organisms use them for protection from environmental stress, although some fungi employ melanins as virulence determinants. The human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and related Ascomycetes produce dihydroxynaphthalene- (DHN) melanin in their spores, the conidia, and use it to inhibit phagolysosome acidification. However, biosynthetic origin of melanin in a related fungus, Aspergillus terreus, has remained a mystery because A. terreus lacks genes for synthesis of DHN-melanin. Here we identify genes coding for an unusual NRPS-like enzyme (MelA) and a tyrosinase (TyrP) that A. terreus expressed under conidiation conditions. We demonstrate that MelA produces aspulvinone E, which is activated for polymerization by TyrP. Functional studies reveal that this new pigment, Asp-melanin, confers resistance against UV light and hampers phagocytosis by soil amoeba. Unexpectedly, Asp-melanin does not inhibit acidification of phagolysosomes, thus likely contributing specifically to survival of A. terreus conidia in acidic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental and chemotherapeutic agents induce breakage at genes involved in leukemia-causing gene rearrangements in human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thys, Ryan G., E-mail: rthys@wakehealth.edu [Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1016 (United States); Lehman, Christine E., E-mail: clehman@wakehealth.edu [Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1016 (United States); Pierce, Levi C.T., E-mail: Levipierce@gmail.com [Human Longevity, Inc., San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Wang, Yuh-Hwa, E-mail: yw4b@virginia.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Charlottesville, VA 22908-0733 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Environmental/chemotherapeutic agents cause DNA breakage in MLL and CBFB in HSPCs. • Diethylnitrosamine-induced DNA breakage at MLL and CBFB shown for the first time. • Chemical-induced DNA breakage occurs at topoisomerase II cleavage sites. • Chemical-induced DNA breaks display a pattern similar to those in leukemia patients. • Long-term exposures suggested to generate DNA breakage at leukemia-related genes. - Abstract: Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) give rise to all of the cells that make up the hematopoietic system in the human body, making their stability and resilience especially important. Damage to these cells can severely impact cell development and has the potential to cause diseases, such as leukemia. Leukemia-causing chromosomal rearrangements have largely been studied in the context of radiation exposure and are formed by a multi-step process, including an initial DNA breakage and fusion of the free DNA ends. However, the mechanism for DNA breakage in patients without previous radiation exposure is unclear. Here, we investigate the role of non-cytotoxic levels of environmental factors, benzene, and diethylnitrosamine (DEN), and chemotherapeutic agents, etoposide, and doxorubicin, in generating DNA breakage at the patient breakpoint hotspots of the MLL and CBFB genes in human HSPCs. These conditions represent exposure to chemicals encountered daily or residual doses from chemotherapeutic drugs. Exposure of HSPCs to non-cytotoxic levels of environmental chemicals or chemotherapeutic agents causes DNA breakage at preferential sites in the human genome, including the leukemia-related genes MLL and CBFB. Though benzene, etoposide, and doxorubicin have previously been linked to leukemia formation, this is the first study to demonstrate a role for DEN in the generation of DNA breakage at leukemia-specific sites. These chemical-induced DNA breakpoints coincide with sites of predicted topoisomerase II cleavage. The

  12. Environmental and chemotherapeutic agents induce breakage at genes involved in leukemia-causing gene rearrangements in human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thys, Ryan G.; Lehman, Christine E.; Pierce, Levi C.T.; Wang, Yuh-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental/chemotherapeutic agents cause DNA breakage in MLL and CBFB in HSPCs. • Diethylnitrosamine-induced DNA breakage at MLL and CBFB shown for the first time. • Chemical-induced DNA breakage occurs at topoisomerase II cleavage sites. • Chemical-induced DNA breaks display a pattern similar to those in leukemia patients. • Long-term exposures suggested to generate DNA breakage at leukemia-related genes. - Abstract: Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) give rise to all of the cells that make up the hematopoietic system in the human body, making their stability and resilience especially important. Damage to these cells can severely impact cell development and has the potential to cause diseases, such as leukemia. Leukemia-causing chromosomal rearrangements have largely been studied in the context of radiation exposure and are formed by a multi-step process, including an initial DNA breakage and fusion of the free DNA ends. However, the mechanism for DNA breakage in patients without previous radiation exposure is unclear. Here, we investigate the role of non-cytotoxic levels of environmental factors, benzene, and diethylnitrosamine (DEN), and chemotherapeutic agents, etoposide, and doxorubicin, in generating DNA breakage at the patient breakpoint hotspots of the MLL and CBFB genes in human HSPCs. These conditions represent exposure to chemicals encountered daily or residual doses from chemotherapeutic drugs. Exposure of HSPCs to non-cytotoxic levels of environmental chemicals or chemotherapeutic agents causes DNA breakage at preferential sites in the human genome, including the leukemia-related genes MLL and CBFB. Though benzene, etoposide, and doxorubicin have previously been linked to leukemia formation, this is the first study to demonstrate a role for DEN in the generation of DNA breakage at leukemia-specific sites. These chemical-induced DNA breakpoints coincide with sites of predicted topoisomerase II cleavage. The

  13. Radish (Raphanus sativus L) - a model for studying plant responses to air pollutants and other environmental stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostkarick, R.; Manning, W.J. (Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Sudwest, Filderstadt (Germany). Fachgruppe fuer Oekologie)

    1993-01-01

    The use of [ital Raphanus sativus L.] as a model crop for studies on plant response to environmental stresses is reviewed with emphasis on the effects of different atmospheric pollutants (O[sub 3], SO[sub 2], NO[sub 2], acidic precipitation) and their combinations. Responses to temperature, light supply, water stress, and atmospheric CO[sub 2] are also studied and discussed. In addition, the references reviewed are evaluated in terms of their experimental protocols on growth conditions and recommendations for optimal ranges of environmental and cultural variables, i.e. light, temperature, nutrient supply are given. Its distinct pattern of biomass partitioning, the small dimensions along with short and easy culture make radish an excellent experimental plant. The fleshy below-ground storage organ, formed by the hypocotyl and upper radicle, acts as the major sink during vegetative development. Abundant assimilate supply due to elevated levels of CO[sub 2] along with high irradiation frequently promote hypocotyl growth more than shoot growth, whereas under conditions of stress shoot growth is maintained at the expense of the hypocotyl. This makes the hypocotyl:shoot ratio of radish a very sensitive and suitable indicator for various environmental stresses. Potential weaknesses and short-comings of radish in its role as a model crop, particularly the high variability of injury and growth responses, are discussed along with possible solutions. Future research needs are derived from the summarized results presented and from some disparities among findings within the literature reviewed.

  14. One stimulus-Two responses: Host and parasite life-history variation in response to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleichsner, Alyssa M; Cleveland, Jessica A; Minchella, Dennis J

    2016-11-01

    Climate change stressors will place different selective pressures on both parasites and their hosts, forcing individuals to modify their life-history strategies and altering the distribution and prevalence of disease. Few studies have investigated whether parasites are able to respond to host stress and respond by varying their reproductive schedules. Additionally, multiple environmental stressors can limit the ability of a host to respond adaptively to parasite infection. This study compared both host and parasite life-history parameters in unstressed and drought-stressed environments using the human parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, in its freshwater snail intermediate host. Snail hosts infected with the parasite demonstrated a significant reproductive burst during the prepatent period (fecundity compensation), but that response was absent in a drought-stressed environment. This is the first report of the elimination of host fecundity compensation to parasitism when exposed to additional environmental stress. More surprisingly, we found that infections in drought-stressed snails had significantly higher parasite reproductive outputs than infections in unstressed snails. The finding suggests that climate change may alter the infection dynamics of this human parasite. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Short-term environmental enrichment is sufficient to counter stress-induced anxiety and associated structural and molecular plasticity in basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokan, Archana; Hegde, Akshaya; Mitra, Rupshi

    2016-07-01

    Moderate levels of anxiety enable individual animals to cope with stressors through avoidance, and could be an adaptive trait. However, repeated stress exacerbates anxiety to pathologically high levels. Dendritic remodeling in the basolateral amygdala is proposed to mediate potentiation of anxiety after stress. Similarly, modulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor is thought to be important for the behavioral effects of stress. In the present study, we investigate if relatively short periods of environmental enrichment in adulthood can confer resilience against stress-induced anxiety and concomitant changes in neuronal arborisation and brain derived neurotrophic factor within basolateral amygdala. Two weeks of environmental enrichment countermanded the propensity of increased anxiety following chronic immobilization stress. Environmental enrichment concurrently reduced dendritic branching and spine density of projection neurons of the basolateral amygdala. Moreover, stress increased abundance of BDNF mRNA in the basolateral amygdala in agreement with the dendritic hypertrophy post-stress and role of BDNF in promoting dendritic arborisation. In contrast, environmental enrichment prevented stress-induced rise in the BDNF mRNA abundance. Gain in body weights and adrenal weights remained unaffected by exposure to environmental enrichment. These observations suggest that a short period of environmental enrichment can provide resilience against maladaptive effects of stress on hormonal, neuronal and molecular mediators of anxiogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Influence of Test-Based Accountability Policies on Early Elementary Teachers: School Climate, Environmental Stress, and Teacher Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Elina; Segool, Natasha; Pendergast, Laura; von der Embse, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the potential influence of test-based accountability policies on school environment and teacher stress among early elementary teachers. Structural equation modeling of data from 541 kindergarten through second grade teachers across three states found that use of student performance on high-stakes tests to evaluate teachers…

  17. Investigation of cause of cracking of high-strength 30HGSNA grade steel subjected to stresses and corrosive agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitko, E.

    1995-01-01

    It has been found out that 30HGSNA steel undergo cracking under action of stresses in aqueous solutions containing oxygen, while it show high resistance in deoxidated solutions. The purpose of such phenomena is the existence of sulfur inclusions in steel which are a centers of denting corrosion. That points acting as a stresses concentrators where pH factor decreases including hydrogen formation and its absorption in the metal. That mechanism is the main purpose of brittle steel cracking observed in oxygen rich solutions. (author)

  18. Haemophilus parasuis CpxRA two-component system confers bacterial tolerance to environmental stresses and macrolide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qi; Feng, Fenfen; Wang, Huan; Xu, Xiaojuan; Chen, Huanchun; Cai, Xuwang; Wang, Xiangru

    2018-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis is an opportunistic pathogen localized in the upper respiratory tracts of pigs, its infection begins from bacterial survival under complex conditions, like hyperosmosis, oxidative stress, phagocytosis, and sometimes antibiotics as well. The two-component signal transduction (TCST) system serves as a common stimulus-response mechanism that allows microbes to sense and respond to diverse environmental conditions via a series of phosphorylation reactions. In this study, we investigated the role of TCST system CpxRA in H. parasuis in response to different environmental stimuli by constructing the ΔcpxA and ΔcpxR single deletion mutants as well as the ΔcpxRA double deletion mutant from H. parasuis serotype 4 isolate JS0135. We demonstrated that H. parasuis TCST system CpxRA confers bacterial tolerance to stresses and bactericidal antibiotics. The CpxR was found to play essential roles in mediating oxidative stress, osmotic stresses and alkaline pH stress tolerance, as well as macrolide resistance (i.e. erythromycin), but the CpxA deletion did not decrease bacterial resistance to abovementioned stresses. Moreover, we found via RT-qPCR approach that HAPS_RS00160 and HAPS_RS09425, both encoding multidrug efflux pumps, were significantly decreased in erythromycin challenged ΔcpxR and ΔcpxRA mutants compared with wild-type strain JS0135. These findings characterize the role of the TCST system CpxRA in H. parasuis conferring stress response tolerance and bactericidal resistance, which will deepen our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism in H. parasuis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Adolescent environmental enrichment prevents behavioral and physiological sequelae of adolescent chronic stress in female (but not male) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brittany L; Morano, Rachel L; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Myers, Brent; Solomon, Matia B; Herman, James P

    2017-11-22

    The late adolescent period is characterized by marked neurodevelopmental and endocrine fluctuations in the transition to early adulthood. Adolescents are highly responsive to the external environment, which enhances their ability to adapt and recover from challenges when given nurturing influences, but also makes them vulnerable to aberrant development when exposed to prolonged adverse situations. Female rats are particularly sensitive to the effects of chronic stress in adolescence, which manifests as passive coping strategies and blunted hypothalamo-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) stress responses in adulthood. We sought to intervene by exposing adolescent rats to environmental enrichment (EE) immediately prior to and during chronic stress, hypothesizing that EE would minimize or prevent the long-term effects of stress that emerge in adult females. To test this, we exposed male and female rats to EE on postnatal days (PND) 33-60 and implemented chronic variable stress (CVS) on PND 40-60. CVS consisted of twice-daily unpredictable stressors. Experimental groups included: CVS/unenriched, unstressed/EE, CVS/EE and unstressed/unenriched (n = 10 of each sex/group). In adulthood, we measured behavior in the open field test and forced swim test (FST) and collected blood samples following the FST. We found that environmental enrichment given during the adolescent period prevented the chronic stress-induced transition to passive coping in the FST and reversed decreases in peak adrenocortical responsiveness observed in adult females. Adolescent enrichment had little to no effect on males or unstressed females tested in adulthood, indicating that beneficial effects are specific to females that were exposed to chronic stress.

  20. A therapy system for post-traumatic stress disorder using a virtual agent and virtual storytelling to reconstruct traumatic memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielman, M.L.; Neerincx, M.A.; Bidarra, R.; Kybartas, B.; Brinkman, W.P.

    2017-01-01

    Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is well treatable, many people do not get the desired treatment due to barriers to care (such as stigma and cost). This paper presents a system that bridges this gap by enabling patients to follow therapy at home. A therapist is only involved remotely,

  1. Selection of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Analysis of Gene Expression in Stipa grandis during Environmental Stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli Wan

    Full Text Available Stipa grandis P. Smirn. is a dominant plant species in the typical steppe of the Xilingole Plateau of Inner Mongolia. Selection of suitable reference genes for the quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is important for gene expression analysis and research into the molecular mechanisms underlying the stress responses of S. grandis. In the present study, 15 candidate reference genes (EF1 beta, ACT, GAPDH, SamDC, CUL4, CAP, SNF2, SKIP1, SKIP5, SKIP11, UBC2, UBC15, UBC17, UCH, and HERC2 were evaluated for their stability as potential reference genes for qRT-PCR under different stresses. Four algorithms were used: GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The results showed that the most stable reference genes were different under different stress conditions: EF1beta and UBC15 during drought and salt stresses; ACT and GAPDH under heat stress; SKIP5 and UBC17 under cold stress; UBC15 and HERC2 under high pH stress; UBC2 and UBC15 under wounding stress; EF1beta and UBC17 under jasmonic acid treatment; UBC15 and CUL4 under abscisic acid treatment; and HERC2 and UBC17 under salicylic acid treatment. EF1beta and HERC2 were the most suitable genes for the global analysis of all samples. Furthermore, six target genes, SgPOD, SgPAL, SgLEA, SgLOX, SgHSP90 and SgPR1, were selected to validate the most and least stable reference genes under different treatments. Our results provide guidelines for reference gene selection for more accurate qRT-PCR quantification and will promote studies of gene expression in S. grandis subjected to environmental stress.

  2. Multi-Agent Systems, Ontologies and Negotiation for Dynamic Service Composition in Multi-Organizational Environmental Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bădică, C.; Ilie, S.; Kamermans, M.; Pavlin, G.; Penders, A.; Scafeş, M.; Essaaidi, M.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses an efficient solution to contemporary situation assessment problems found in environmental management applications. The targeted problems are inherently complex and require processing of large quantities of heterogeneous information by using rich domain knowledge dispersed

  3. Computational biology approaches to plant metabolism and photosynthesis: applications for corals in times of climate change and environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbe, M James C

    2010-08-01

    Knowledge of factors that are important in reef resilience helps us to understand how reef ecosystems react following major anthropogenic and environmental disturbances. The symbiotic relationship between the photosynthetic zooxanthellae algal cells and corals is that the zooxanthellae provide the coral with carbon, while the coral provides protection and access to enough light for the zooxanthellae to photosynthesise. This article reviews some recent advances in computational biology relevant to photosynthetic organisms, including Beyesian approaches to kinetics, computational methods for flux balances in metabolic processes, and determination of clades of zooxanthallae. Application of these systems will be important in the conservation of coral reefs in times of climate change and environmental stress.

  4. 'Four Seasons' in an animal rescue centre; classical music reduces environmental stress in kennelled dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, A; Scottish Spca; Dowell, F J; Evans, N P

    2015-05-01

    On admission to rescue and rehoming centres dogs are faced with a variety of short- and long-term stressors including novelty, spatial/social restriction and increased noise levels. Animate and inanimate environmental enrichment techniques have been employed within the kennel environment in an attempt to minimise stress experienced by dogs. Previous studies have shown the potential physiological and psychological benefits of auditory stimulation, particularly classical music, within the kennel environment. This study determined the physiological/psychological changes that occur when kennelled dogs are exposed to long-term (7 days) auditory stimulation in the form of classical music through assessment of effects on heart rate variability (HRV), salivary cortisol and behaviour. The study utilised a cross over design in which two groups were exposed to two consecutive 7 day treatments; silence (control) and classical music (test). Group A was studied under silent conditions followed by 7 days of test conditions during which a fixed classical music playlist was played from 10:00-16:30 h. Group B received treatment in the reverse order. Results showed that auditory stimulation induced changes in HRV and behavioural data indicative of reduced stress levels in dogs in both groups (salivary cortisol data did not show any consistent patterns of change throughout the study). Specifically, there was a significant increase in HRV parameters such as μRR, STDRR, RMSSD, pNN50, RRTI, SD1 and SD2 and a significant decrease in μHR and LF/HF from the first day of silence (S1) to the first day of music (M1). Similarly, examination of behavioural data showed that dogs in both groups spent significantly more time sitting/lying and silent and less time standing and barking during auditory stimulation. General Regression Analysis (GRA) of the change in HRV parameters from S1 to M1 revealed that male dogs responded better to auditory stimulation relative to female. Interestingly, HRV and

  5. The influence of environmental variables and irradiation on iodine stress corrosion crack initiation and growth in Zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunde, L.; Videm, K.

    1980-01-01

    Variables in the SCC testing technique and the effect of the fast neutron dose appear to explain most of the controversy about the effect of irradiation damage on the SCC behaviour of Zircaloy. On the basis of extensive laboratory testing functions expressing the time for stress corrosion crack (SCC) initiation and the rate of crack propagation at different stresses and temperatures have been worked out. The environmental variables in the SCC test can have a much larger influence on the life-time for autoclaved material than for pickled and sandblasted metal. For irradiated (oxidized) material a ten times increase in the iodine concentration reduced the failure stress from 500 to 250 MPa. By comparing our results with published data it is concluded that the failure stress (after 1-3 hours) is very dependent upon the neutron dose. Neutron damage will raise the stress threshold for doses up to 10 20 n/cm 2 and thereafter the failure stress is gradually decreased to low values with increasing neutron doses up to 5.10 21 n/cm 2 . (author)

  6. A Rice Immunophilin Gene, OsFKBP16-3, Confers Tolerance to Environmental Stress in Arabidopsis and Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheul Ahn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The putative thylakoid lumen immunophilin, FKBP16-3, has not yet been characterized, although this protein is known to be regulated by thioredoxin and possesses a well-conserved CxxxC motif in photosynthetic organisms. Here, we characterized rice OsFKBP16-3 and examined the role of this gene in the regulation of abiotic stress in plants. FKBP16-3s are well conserved in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms, including the presence of a unique disulfide-forming CxxxC motif in their N-terminal regions. OsFKBP16-3 was mainly expressed in rice leaf tissues and was upregulated by various abiotic stresses, including salt, drought, high light, hydrogen peroxide, heat and methyl viologen. The chloroplast localization of OsFKBP16-3-GFP was confirmed through the transient expression of OsFKBP16-3 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis and transgenic rice plants that constitutively expressed OsFKBP16-3 exhibited increased tolerance to salinity, drought and oxidative stresses, but showed no change in growth or phenotype, compared with vector control plants, when grown under non-stressed conditions. This is the first report to demonstrate the potential role of FKBP16-3 in the environmental stress response, which may be regulated by a redox relay process in the thylakoid lumen, suggesting that artificial regulation of FKBP16-3 expression is a candidate for stress-tolerant crop breeding.

  7. Effects Of Environmental And Operational Stresses On RF MEMS Switch Technologies For Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jah, Muzar; Simon, Eric; Sharma, Ashok

    2003-01-01

    Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) have been heralded for their ability to provide tremendous advantages in electronic systems through increased electrical performance, reduced power consumption, and higher levels of device integration with a reduction of board real estate. RF MEMS switch technology offers advantages such as low insertion loss (0.1- 0.5 dB), wide bandwidth (1 GHz-100 GHz), and compatibility with many different process technologies (quartz, high resistivity Si, GaAs) which can replace the use of traditional electronic switches, such as GaAs FETS and PIN Diodes, in microwave systems for low signal power (x technologies, the unknown reliability, due to the lack of information concerning failure modes and mechanisms inherent to MEMS devices, create an obstacle to insertion of MEMS technology into high reliability applications. All MEMS devices are sensitive to moisture and contaminants, issues easily resolved by hermetic or near-hermetic packaging. Two well-known failure modes of RF MEMS switches are charging in the dielectric layer of capacitive membrane switches and contact interface stiction of metal-metal switches. Determining the integrity of MEMS devices when subjected to the shock, vibration, temperature extremes, and radiation of the space environment is necessary to facilitate integration into space systems. This paper will explore the effects of different environmental stresses, operational life cycling, temperature, mechanical shock, and vibration on the first commercially available RF MEMS switches to identify relevant failure modes and mechanisms inherent to these device and packaging schemes for space applications. This paper will also describe RF MEMS Switch technology under development at NASA GSFC.

  8. Music therapy as a stress reducing agent and anxiety in adolescents. Development of a musicoterapeutical process within the educational center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mora

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Music therapy is a very powerful therapeutic intervention technique that connects very quickly with the emotional content of the individual. In Spain, the facts of education and emotional development have been relegated to a second position in detriment of performance and academic achievement. Under this situation many adolescents in our society suffer daily problems of anxiety and stress, associated or not to other possible pathologies. The following study aims to shed little specks of light about the effects of music therapy on individual development of adolescents from a public school. We treat these students in their entire whole, including cognitive, emotional, social, musical and intrapersonal aspects within each session. It is intended primarily to reduce levels of anxiety and stress that many of them are subjected to daily, victims of their own risk or social exclusion, added or not to different pathologies diagnosed.

  9. Alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay of circadian clock genes under environmental stress conditions in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Ju; Park, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Baldwin, Ian T; Park, Chung-Mo

    2014-05-19

    The circadian clock enables living organisms to anticipate recurring daily and seasonal fluctuations in their growth habitats and synchronize their biology to the environmental cycle. The plant circadian clock consists of multiple transcription-translation feedback loops that are entrained by environmental signals, such as light and temperature. In recent years, alternative splicing emerges as an important molecular mechanism that modulates the clock function in plants. Several clock genes are known to undergo alternative splicing in response to changes in environmental conditions, suggesting that the clock function is intimately associated with environmental responses via the alternative splicing of the clock genes. However, the alternative splicing events of the clock genes have not been studied at the molecular level. We systematically examined whether major clock genes undergo alternative splicing under various environmental conditions in Arabidopsis. We also investigated the fates of the RNA splice variants of the clock genes. It was found that the clock genes, including EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) and ZEITLUPE (ZTL) that have not been studied in terms of alternative splicing, undergo extensive alternative splicing through diverse modes of splicing events, such as intron retention, exon skipping, and selection of alternative 5' splice site. Their alternative splicing patterns were differentially influenced by changes in photoperiod, temperature extremes, and salt stress. Notably, the RNA splice variants of TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) and ELF3 were degraded through the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway, whereas those of other clock genes were insensitive to NMD. Taken together, our observations demonstrate that the major clock genes examined undergo extensive alternative splicing under various environmental conditions, suggesting that alternative splicing is a molecular scheme that underlies the linkage between the clock and environmental stress

  10. Alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated decay of circadian clock genes under environmental stress conditions in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The circadian clock enables living organisms to anticipate recurring daily and seasonal fluctuations in their growth habitats and synchronize their biology to the environmental cycle. The plant circadian clock consists of multiple transcription-translation feedback loops that are entrained by environmental signals, such as light and temperature. In recent years, alternative splicing emerges as an important molecular mechanism that modulates the clock function in plants. Several clock genes are known to undergo alternative splicing in response to changes in environmental conditions, suggesting that the clock function is intimately associated with environmental responses via the alternative splicing of the clock genes. However, the alternative splicing events of the clock genes have not been studied at the molecular level. Results We systematically examined whether major clock genes undergo alternative splicing under various environmental conditions in Arabidopsis. We also investigated the fates of the RNA splice variants of the clock genes. It was found that the clock genes, including EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) and ZEITLUPE (ZTL) that have not been studied in terms of alternative splicing, undergo extensive alternative splicing through diverse modes of splicing events, such as intron retention, exon skipping, and selection of alternative 5′ splice site. Their alternative splicing patterns were differentially influenced by changes in photoperiod, temperature extremes, and salt stress. Notably, the RNA splice variants of TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) and ELF3 were degraded through the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway, whereas those of other clock genes were insensitive to NMD. Conclusion Taken together, our observations demonstrate that the major clock genes examined undergo extensive alternative splicing under various environmental conditions, suggesting that alternative splicing is a molecular scheme that underlies the linkage between the clock

  11. Chronic environmental stress enhances tolerance to seasonal gradual warming in marine mussels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionan Marigómez

    Full Text Available In global climate change scenarios, seawater warming acts in concert with multiple stress sources, which may enhance the susceptibility of marine biota to thermal stress. Here, the responsiveness to seasonal gradual warming was investigated in temperate mussels from a chronically stressed population in comparison with a healthy one. Stressed and healthy mussels were subjected to gradual temperature elevation for 8 days (1°C per day; fall: 16-24°C, winter: 12-20°C, summer: 20-28°C and kept at elevated temperature for 3 weeks. Healthy mussels experienced thermal stress and entered the time-limited survival period in the fall, became acclimated in winter and exhibited sublethal damage in summer. In stressed mussels, thermal stress and subsequent health deterioration were elicited in the fall but no transition into the critical period of time-limited survival was observed. Stressed mussels did not become acclimated to 20°C in winter, when they experienced low-to-moderate thermal stress, and did not experience sublethal damage at 28°C in summer, showing instead signs of metabolic rate depression. Overall, although the thermal threshold was lowered in chronically stressed mussels, they exhibited enhanced tolerance to seasonal gradual warming, especially in summer. These results challenge current assumptions on the susceptibility of marine biota to the interactive effects of seawater warming and pollution.

  12. Environmental Stress Responses and Experimental Handling Artifacts of a Model Organism, the Copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Nilsson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Handling animals during experiments potentially affects the differential expression of genes chosen as biomarkers of sub-lethal stress. RNA sequencing was used to examine whole-transcriptome responses caused by laboratory handling of the calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa. Salinity shock (S = 35 to S = 5 was used as positive stress control; individuals not exposed to handling or other stressors served as negative stress control. All copepods were grown from eggs to adults without being handled or exposed to any stressors prior the experiment. Survival of nauplii and adults was estimated for up to 10 min of exposure to handling stress and salinity shock. Only adults exhibited decreased survival (44 ± 7% with 10 min of exposure in response to handling stress and were selected for definitive experiments for RNA sequencing. After 10 min of experimental exposures to handling stress or salinity shock, adults were incubated for 15 min or 24 h at normal culture conditions. A small number of significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs were observed 15 min after exposure to handling stress (2 DEGs or salinity shock (7 DEGs. However, 24 h after exposure, handling stress resulted in 276 DEGs and salinity shock resulted in 573 DEGs, of which 174 DEGs were overlapping between the treatments. Among the DEGs observed 24 h after exposure to handling stress or salinity shock, some commonly-used stress biomarkers appeared at low levels. This suggests that a stress-response was induced at the transcriptional level for these genes between 15 min and 24 h following exposure. Since handling stress clearly affects transcriptional patterns, it is important to consider handling when designing experiments, by either including additional controls or avoiding focus on impacted genes. Not considering handling in gene expression studies can lead to inaccurate conclusions. The present study provides a baseline for studying handling stress in future studies using this

  13. Environmental Growing Conditions in Five Production Systems Induce Stress Response and Affect Chemical Composition of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niether, Wiebke; Smit, Inga; Armengot, Laura; Schneider, Monika; Gerold, Gerhard; Pawelzik, Elke

    2017-11-29

    Cocoa beans are produced all across the humid tropics under different environmental conditions provided by the region but also by the season and the type of production system. Agroforestry systems compared to monocultures buffer climate extremes and therefore provide a less stressful environment for the understory cocoa, especially under seasonally varying conditions. We measured the element concentration as well as abiotic stress indicators (polyamines and total phenolic content) in beans derived from five different production systems comparing monocultures and agroforestry systems and from two harvesting seasons. Concentrations of N, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Na, and Zn were higher in beans produced in agroforestry systems with high stem density and leaf area index. In the dry season, the N, Fe, and Cu concentration of the beans increased. The total phenolic content increased with proceeding of the dry season while other abiotic stress indicators like spermine decreased, implying an effect of the water availability on the chemical composition of the beans. Agroforestry systems did not buffer the variability of stress indicators over the seasons compared to monocultures. The effect of environmental growing conditions on bean chemical composition was not strong but can contribute to variations in cocoa bean quality.

  14. Fluctuating asymmetry and developmental instability in Protoreaster nodosus (Chocolate Chip Sea Star as a biomarker for environmental stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. V. Trono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA, pertains to small and random departures from perfect symmetry of an organism's bilateral traits and has been used as a measurement of developmental instability and as a potential indicator of stress in populations. It measures the variations from symmetry of a symmetrical structure whose sides are said to be genetically identical, with similar history of gene activity and experiencing the same environment. Symmetries are potentially the basis for studies on FA. Hence, this study assessed the potential of FA as a reliable developmental instability and environmental stress indicator in five-fold dihedral symmetrical Protoreaster nodosus (Chocolate chip sea fish from three (3 different sites (Linamon, Lanao del Norte; Initao, Misamis Oriental and Jasaan, Misamis Oriental. FA for each population from every site was measured for comparison. In this study, anatomical landmarks were subjected to Procrustes superimposition and Principal Component Analysis (PCA using "Symmetry and Asymmetry in Geometric Data" (SAGE program. Results showed highly significant FA and significant DA for population from Jasaan and Linamon where habitat disturbance due to anthropogenic activities were prevalent. Thus, experienced more stress compared to the other populations, suggesting that significant variation in size or left-right side of each individual could be a product of genotype-environment interaction. Moreover, insignificant FA and high DA was obtained from Initao (protected seascape area which indicated that variation among individual genotypes and asymmetry in phenotypes is mostly induced by genetics under less stressful environment. Significant FA and increase FA present inability of species to buffer stress in its developmental pathways and have implications on species fitness. Hypothesis assumes that fluctuating asymmetry has costs, reflects the quality of individuals and the level of genetic and environmental stress experienced by

  15. Effect of applied environmental stress on growth, photosynthesis, carbon allocation, and hydrocarbon production in Euphorbia lathyris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.E.; Calvin, M.

    1988-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity was reduced by salinity stress, but is was found to be less sensitive than growth. Salinity stress also caused changes in the concentrations of specific cations. Moderate water stress had little effect on growth, but large changes in hydrocarbon production were still observed. Carbon allocation experiments with radiolabeled carbon indicated that carbon for latex production was supplied by nearby leaves, with some translocation down the stem also occurring

  16. Biomarkers and Environmental Stress: Relevance of Cellular Responses in Determining Adverse Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomarkers are measurable changes in a biological system indicative of an interaction with a chemical, physical, or biological agent. Such changes can be molecular, biochemical, physiological, or histological and can be reflective of either xenobiotic exposures or effects. Molecu...

  17. Physiological Signals and Their Fractal Response to Stress Conditions, Environmental Changes and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scafetta, N; Moon, R. E; West, B. J

    2006-01-01

    .... Some of these studies have been intended to develop more reliable methodologies for understanding how biological systems respond to peculiar altered conditions induced by internal stress, environment...

  18. Rethinking environmental stress from the perspective of an integrated environmental footprint: Application in the Beijing industry sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingru; Huang, Kai; Ridoutt, Bradley G; Yu, Yajuan; Wei, Jing

    2018-05-13

    Individual footprint indicators are limited in that they usually only address one specific environmental aspect. For this reason, assessments involving multiple footprint indicators are preferred. However, the interpretation of a profile of footprint indicators can be difficult as the relative importance of the different footprint results is not readily discerned by decision-makers. In this study, a time series (1997-2012) of carbon, water and land footprints was calculated for industry sectors in the Beijing region using input-output analysis. An integrated environmental footprint (IEF) was subsequently developed using normalization and entropy weighting. The results show that steep increases in environmental footprint have accompanied Beijing's rapid economic development. In 2012, the Primary Industry had the largest IEF (8.32); however, the Secondary Industry had the greatest increase over the study period, from 0.19 to 6.37. For the Primary Industry, the greatest contribution to the IEF came from the land footprint. For the Secondary and Tertiary Industries, the water footprint was most important. Using the IEF, industry sectors with low resource utilization efficiency and high greenhouse gas emissions intensity can be identified. As such, the IEF can help to inform about industry sectors which should be given priority for modernization as well as the particular footprints that require priority attention in each sector. The IEF can also be helpful in identifying industry sectors that could be encouraged to expand within the Beijing region as they are especially efficient in terms of value adding relative to IEF. Other industries, over time, may be better located in other regions that do not face the same environmental pressures as Beijing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Raspberry Extract as Both a Stabilizer and a Reducing Agent in Environmentally Friendly Process of Receiving Colloidal Silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Pulit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An ecofriendly method of nanosilver obtaining has been studied. The process involves the chemical reduction method carried out in aqueous environment. Silver nitrate (V was applied as a silver ions source. Raspberry extract was used as a natural source of both reducing and stabilizing agents. The total amount of phenolic compounds was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Obtained nanoparticles were analyzed by the dynamic light scattering technique so as to determine the particles size and suspension stability which was characterized by an electrokinetic potential. The results confirmed that the size of some nanoparticles was under 100 nm.

  20. The Role of MicroRNAs in Environmental Risk Factors, Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, and Mental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Verónica; Cui, Julia Yue; Daimiel, Lidia; Espinosa-Díez, Cristina; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos; Kavanagh, Terrance J; Lamas, Santiago

    2018-03-20

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression and define part of the epigenetic signature. Their influence on every realm of biomedicine is established and progressively increasing. The impact of environment on human health is enormous. Among environmental risk factors impinging on quality of life are those of chemical nature (toxic chemicals, heavy metals, pollutants, and pesticides) as well as those related to everyday life such as exposure to noise or mental and psychosocial stress. Recent Advances: This review elaborates on the relationship between miRNAs and these environmental risk factors. The most relevant facts underlying the role of miRNAs in the response to these environmental stressors, including redox regulatory changes and oxidative stress, are highlighted and discussed. In the cases wherein miRNA mutations are relevant for this response, the pertinent literature is also reviewed. We conclude that, even though in some cases important advances have been made regarding close correlations between specific miRNAs and biological responses to environmental risk factors, a need for prospective large-cohort studies is likely necessary to establish causative roles. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 773-796.

  1. The spectral response of Buxus sempervirens to different types of environmental stress - A laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Steven M.; Addink, Elisabeth A.; Hoogenboom, Priscilla; Nijland, Wiebe

    2012-11-01

    The European Mediterranean regions are expected to encounter drier summer conditions and warmer temperatures for the winter of +2 °C and of +5 °C for the summer in the next six decennia. As a result the natural vegetation will face harsher conditions due to lower water availability, longer summer droughts and higher temperatures resulting in plant stress conditions. To monitor vegetation conditions like stress and leaf area index dynamics in our study area in Mediterranean France we use earth observation techniques like imaging spectroscopy. To assist image analysis interpretation we carried out a laboratory experiment to investigate the spectral and visible response of Buxus sempervirens, a common Mediterranean species, to five different types of stress: drought, drought-and-heat, light deprivation, total saturation and chlorine poisoning. For 52 days plants were subjected to stress. We collected data on the visible and spectral signs, and calculated thirteen vegetation indices. The plant's response time to different stress types varied from 10 to 32 days. Spectroscopic techniques revealed plant stress up to 15 days earlier than visual inspection. Visible signs of stress of the plants included curling and shrinking of the leaves, de-colouring of the leaves, leaves becoming breakable, opening up of the plant's canopy and sagging of the branches. Spectral signs of stress occurred first in the water absorption bands at 1450 and 1940 nm, followed by reduced absorption in the visible wavelengths, and next by reduced reflectance in near infrared. Light deprivation did not result in any stress signs, while drought, drought and heat and chlorine poisoning resulted in significant stress. The spectral response did not show differences for different stress types. Analysis of the vegetation indices identified the Carter-2 (R695/R760), the Red-Green Index (R690/R550) and the Vogelman-2 (R734 - R747)/(R715 + R726) as the best performing ones to identify stress. The lab

  2. The combined effect of clothianidin and environmental stress on the behavioral and reproductive function in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tetsushi; Yanai, Shogo; Omotehara, Takuya; Hashimoto, Rie; Umemura, Yuria; Kubota, Naoto; Minami, Kiichi; Nagahara, Daichi; Matsuo, Eiko; Aihara, Yoshiko; Shinohara, Ryota; Furuyashiki, Tomoyuki; Mantani, Youhei; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2015-10-01

    Neonicotinoids, some of the most widely used pesticides in the world, act as agonists to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of insects, resulting in death from abnormal excitability. Neonicotinoids unexpectedly became a major topic as a compelling cause of honeybee colony collapse disorder, which is damaging crop production that requires pollination worldwide. Mammal nAChRs appear to have a certain affinity for neonicotinoids with lower levels than those of insects; there is thus rising concern about unpredictable adverse effects of neonicotinoids on vertebrates. We hypothesized that the effects of neonicotinoids would be enhanced under a chronic stressed condition, which is known to alter the expression of targets of neonicotinoids, i.e., neuronal nAChRs. We performed immunohistochemical and behavioral analyses in male mice actively administered a neonicotinoid, clothianidin (CTD; 0, 10, 50 and 250 mg/kg/day), for 4 weeks under an unpredictable chronic stress procedure. Vacuolated seminiferous epithelia and a decrease in the immunoreactivity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 were observed in the testes of the CTD+stress mice. In an open field test, although the locomotor activities were not affected, the anxiety-like behaviors of the mice were elevated by both CTD and stress. The present study demonstrates that the behavioral and reproductive effects of CTD become more serious in combination with environmental stress, which may reflect our actual situation of multiple exposure.

  3. Virtual Special Issue Preface: Forest Response to Environmental Stress: Impacts and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven McNulty; Enzai Du; Elena Paoletti

    2017-01-01

    The current distribution of forest typeswas largely established at the beginning of the Holocene epoch (approximately 12,000 BCE), but forests are constantly in flux. Many regional scale stresses (e.g., drought, heat, fire, and insect) and even a few multi-regional or global stresses (e.g., 8200 BCE cooling, or the medievalwarming period) have occurred over the past 12...

  4. Monitoring environmental stress in forest trees using biochemical and physiological markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Minocha; S.C. Minocha; S. Long

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the usefulness of polyamines, particularly putrescine, and amino acids such as arginine, as foliar indicators of abiotic stress in visually asymptomatic trees. An evaluation of apparently healthy trees is essential in developing risk assessment and stress remediation strategies for forest trees prior to the onset of obvious decline....

  5. Environmental enrichment and gut inflammation modify stress-induced c-Fos expression in the mouse corticolimbic system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Reichmann

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment (EE has a beneficial effect on rodent behaviour, neuronal plasticity and brain function. Although it may also improve stress coping, it is not known whether EE influences the brain response to an external (psychological stressor such as water avoidance stress (WAS or an internal (systemic stressor such as gastrointestinal inflammation. This study hence explored whether EE modifies WAS-induced activation of the mouse corticolimbic system and whether this stress response is altered by gastritis or colitis. Male C67BL/6N mice were housed under standard or enriched environment for 9 weeks, after which they were subjected to a 1-week treatment with oral iodoacetamide to induce gastritis or oral dextran sulfate sodium to induce colitis. Following exposure to WAS the expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was measured by immunocytochemistry. EE aggravated experimentally induced colitis, but not gastritis, as shown by an increase in the disease activity score and the colonic myeloperoxidase content. In the brain, EE enhanced the WAS-induced activation of the dentate gyrus and unmasked an inhibitory effect of gastritis and colitis on WAS-evoked c-Fos expression within this part of the hippocampus. Conversely, EE inhibited the WAS-evoked activation of the central amygdala and prevented the inhibitory effect of gastritis and colitis on WAS-evoked c-Fos expression in this region. EE, in addition, blunted the WAS-induced activation of the infralimbic cortex and attenuated the inhibitory effect of gastritis and colitis on WAS-evoked c-Fos expression in this area. These data reveal that EE has a region-specific effect on stress-induced c-Fos expression in the corticolimbic system, which is likely to improve stress resilience. The response of the prefrontal cortex - amygdala - hippocampus circuitry to psychological stress is also modified by the systemic stress of gut inflammation, and this interaction between external

  6. Extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha and Rosmarinus officinalis Attenuate Ischemic Myocardial Damage by Decreasing Oxidative Stress and Regulating the Production of Cardiac Vasoactive Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Enrique Cuevas-Durán

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have supported a role for oxidative stress in the development of ischemic damage and endothelial dysfunction. Crataegus oxyacantha (Co and Rosmarinus officinalis (Ro extracts are polyphenolic-rich compounds that have proven to be efficient in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. We studied the effect of extracts from Co and Ro on the myocardial damage associated with the oxidative status and to the production of different vasoactive agents. Rats were assigned to the following groups: (a sham; (b vehicle-treated myocardial infarction (MI (MI-V; (c Ro extract-treated myocardial infarction (MI-Ro; (d Co extract-treated myocardial infarction (MI-Co; or (e Ro+Co-treated myocardial infarction (MI-Ro+Co. Ro and Co treatments increased total antioxidant capacity, the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD-Cu2+/Zn2+, SOD-Mn2+, and catalase, with the subsequent decline of malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine levels. The extracts diminished vasoconstrictor peptide levels (angiotensin II and endothelin-1, increased vasodilators agents (angiotensin 1–7 and bradikinin and improved nitric oxide metabolism. Polyphenol treatment restored the left intraventricular pressure and cardiac mechanical work. We conclude that Ro and Co treatment attenuate morphological and functional ischemic-related changes by both an oxidant load reduction and improvement of the balance between vasoconstrictors and vasodilators.

  7. Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb.......Kapitlet handler om stress som følelse, og det trækker primært på de få kvalitative undersøgelser, der er lavet af stressforløb....

  8. Stress !!!

    OpenAIRE

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten. Opvallend is dat mannelijke studenten uit Twente zich veel minder druk lijken te maken over hun studie. Onder vrouwen ligt de stress juist erg hoog ten opzichte van het landelijk gemiddelde.

  9. Economic and Environmental Considerations During Low Fresh Gas Flow Volatile Agent Administration After Change to a Nonreactive Carbon Dioxide Absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard H; Dexter, Franklin; Maguire, David P; Agarwalla, Niraj K; Gratch, David M

    2016-04-01

    Reducing fresh gas flow (FGF) during general anesthesia reduces costs by decreasing the consumption of volatile anesthetics and attenuates their contribution to greenhouse gas pollution of the environment. The sevoflurane FGF recommendations in the Food and Drug Administration package insert relate to concern over potential toxicity from accumulation in the breathing circuit of compound A, a by-product of the reaction of the volatile agent with legacy carbon dioxide absorbents containing strong alkali such as sodium or potassium hydroxide. Newer, nonreactive absorbents do not produce compound A, making such restrictions moot. We evaluated 4 hypotheses for sevoflurane comparing intervals before and after converting from a legacy absorbent (soda lime) to a nonreactive absorbent (Litholyme): (1) intraoperative FGF would be reduced; (2) sevoflurane consumption per minute of volatile agent administration would be reduced; (3) cost savings due to reduced sevoflurane consumption would (modestly) exceed the incremental cost of the premium absorbent; and (4) residual wastage in discarded sevoflurane bottles would be trash after filling vaporizers. The time from reaching a PICO2 = 3 mm Hg for 3 minutes until agent exhaustion (PICO2 = 5 mm Hg for 5 minutes) was evaluated. A total of N = 20,235 cases were analyzed (80.2% sevoflurane, 15.1% desflurane, and 4.7% isoflurane). Intraoperative FGF was reduced for cases in which sevoflurane was administered by 435 mL/min (95% confidence interval [CI], 391 to 479 mL/min; P administration decreased by 0.039 mL/min (95% CI, 0.029 to 0.049 mL/min; P 50%) canisters. We showed that an anesthesia department can transition to a premium, nonreactive carbon dioxide absorbent in a manner that is at least cost neutral by reducing FGF below the lower flow limits recommended in the sevoflurane package insert. This was achieved, in part, by electronically monitoring PICO2, automatically notifying the anesthesia technicians when to change the

  10. Life cycle assessment based environmental impact estimation model for pre-stressed concrete beam bridge in the early design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyong Ju; Yun, Won Gun; Cho, Namho; Ha, Jikwang

    2017-01-01

    The late rise in global concern for environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution is accentuating the need for environmental assessments in the construction industry. Promptly evaluating the environmental loads of the various design alternatives during the early stages of a construction project and adopting the most environmentally sustainable candidate is therefore of large importance. Yet, research on the early evaluation of a construction project's environmental load in order to aid the decision making process is hitherto lacking. In light of this dilemma, this study proposes a model for estimating the environmental load by employing only the most basic information accessible during the early design phases of a project for the pre-stressed concrete (PSC) beam bridge, the most common bridge structure. Firstly, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted on the data from 99 bridges by integrating the bills of quantities (BOQ) with a life cycle inventory (LCI) database. The processed data was then utilized to construct a case based reasoning (CBR) model for estimating the environmental load. The accuracy of the estimation model was then validated using five test cases; the model's mean absolute error rates (MAER) for the total environmental load was calculated as 7.09%. Such test results were shown to be superior compared to those obtained from a multiple-regression based model and a slab area base-unit analysis model. Henceforth application of this model during the early stages of a project is expected to highly complement environmentally friendly designs and construction by facilitating the swift evaluation of the environmental load from multiple standpoints. - Highlights: • This study is to develop the model of assessing the environmental impacts on LCA. • Bills of quantity from completed designs of PSC Beam were linked with the LCI DB. • Previous cases were used to estimate the environmental load of new case by CBR model. • CBR

  11. Life cycle assessment based environmental impact estimation model for pre-stressed concrete beam bridge in the early design phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyong Ju, E-mail: kjkim@cau.ac.kr; Yun, Won Gun, E-mail: ogun78@naver.com; Cho, Namho, E-mail: nhc51@cau.ac.kr; Ha, Jikwang, E-mail: wlrhkd29@gmail.com

    2017-05-15

    The late rise in global concern for environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution is accentuating the need for environmental assessments in the construction industry. Promptly evaluating the environmental loads of the various design alternatives during the early stages of a construction project and adopting the most environmentally sustainable candidate is therefore of large importance. Yet, research on the early evaluation of a construction project's environmental load in order to aid the decision making process is hitherto lacking. In light of this dilemma, this study proposes a model for estimating the environmental load by employing only the most basic information accessible during the early design phases of a project for the pre-stressed concrete (PSC) beam bridge, the most common bridge structure. Firstly, a life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted on the data from 99 bridges by integrating the bills of quantities (BOQ) with a life cycle inventory (LCI) database. The processed data was then utilized to construct a case based reasoning (CBR) model for estimating the environmental load. The accuracy of the estimation model was then validated using five test cases; the model's mean absolute error rates (MAER) for the total environmental load was calculated as 7.09%. Such test results were shown to be superior compared to those obtained from a multiple-regression based model and a slab area base-unit analysis model. Henceforth application of this model during the early stages of a project is expected to highly complement environmentally friendly designs and construction by facilitating the swift evaluation of the environmental load from multiple standpoints. - Highlights: • This study is to develop the model of assessing the environmental impacts on LCA. • Bills of quantity from completed designs of PSC Beam were linked with the LCI DB. • Previous cases were used to estimate the environmental load of new case by CBR model. • CBR

  12. Characteristics and environmental fate of the anionic surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulphate (SLES) used as the main component in foaming agents for mechanized tunnelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra Caracciolo, Anna; Cardoni, Martina; Pescatore, Tanita; Patrolecco, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    The anionic surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulphate (SLES) is the main component of most commercial products used for soil conditioning in the excavation industry, in particular as lubricants for mechanized tunnelling. Its use during the excavation processes can result in either the subsequent possible re-use of the huge amount of soil debris as by-products (e.g. land covering) or its discharge as waste. Currently, there are neither SLES soil threshold limits in European legislation, nor comprehensive studies on the environmental risk for soil ecosystems in these exposure scenarios. In this context, the present paper reviews the available data on the intrinsic characteristics of persistence and the ecotoxicological effects of the anionic surfactant SLES. Although SLES is generally reported to be biodegradable in standard tests, with degradation rates between 7 h and 30 days, depending on the initial conditions, data on its biodegradation in environmental studies are quite scarce. Consequently, assessing SLES biodegradation rates in field conditions is crucial for evaluating if in residual concentrations (typically in the range 40–500 mg/kg in excavated soils) it can or not be a potential hazard for terrestrial and water organisms. Laboratory ecotoxicological tests pointed out detrimental effects of SLES for aquatic organisms, while data on the terrestrial species are rather poor so far and further studies at the expected environmental concentrations are necessary. Finally, the review reports the main analytical methods available for detecting anionic surfactants in solid matrices and the future research needed to improve knowledge on the possible environmental risks posed by the use of SLES in foaming agents for mechanized tunnelling. - Highlights: • Tons of excavated soil containing SLES are reused posing an environmental risk. • SLES can have detrimental effects on aquatic organisms exposed in lab test. • There is a need to improve knowledge on SLES

  13. An anthocyanin-rich strawberry extract protects against oxidative stress damage and improves mitochondrial functionality in human dermal fibroblasts exposed to an oxidizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, José M; Mazzoni, Luca; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Gonzàlez-Paramàs, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Quiles, Josè L; Bompadre, Stefano; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2014-08-01

    This study investigates the protective effect of the Sveva strawberry polyphenol-rich extract on human dermal fibroblasts against AAPH-induced oxidative stress. The HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis was used for evaluating the phenolic composition of the fruits. Sveva strawberry presented a high anthocyanin content (639.79 mg per kg fresh fruit), representing ∼86.08% of the total phenolic content, with Pg-3-glc as the most abundant representative (611.18 mg per kg fresh fruit). Only one ellagitannin (agrimoniin) was identified, while two quercetins, three kaempherol derivates, and three ellagic acid derivatives were detected and quantified. Strawberry pre-treatment (0.5 mg ml(-1)) markedly increased human dermal fibroblast viability, with a significant reduction of apoptotic and dead cells, and suppressed AAPH-induced ROS generation, after only 30 minutes of incubation with the oxidizing agent, and lipid peroxidation, against a range of AAPH concentrations tested. Notably, the strawberry extract also improved the mitochondrial functionality: the basal respiratory performance after treatment was ∼1.59-fold higher compared to control cells, while pre-treatment with strawberry extract before oxidative damage increased ∼2.70-fold compared to stressed cells. Our results confirm that the strawberry possesses antioxidant properties, and may be useful for the prevention of free radical-induced skin damage.

  14. On the role of salicylic acid in plant responses to environmental stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, José A.; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Barba Espin, Gregorio

    2017-01-01

    (NPR1), which is one of the few known redox-regulated proteins in plants. Different synthetic chemicals are able to mimic the ability of SA to activate resistance to various stresses, both biotic and abiotic, in plants with agronomic interest. Among these chemicals, 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA......Salicylic acid (SA) is a plant hormone more commonly known by its role in human medicine than in the field of plant physiology. However, in the last two decades, SA has been described as an important signalling molecule in plants regulating growth, development and response to a wide number...... of biotic and abiotic stresses. Indeed, actually, it is well known that SA is a key signalling molecule involved in systemic acquired resistance (SAR), and recent works reported a role for SA in the response to salt or drought stresses. The precise mode of the stress hormone SA action is unclear, although...

  15. Environmental and Intrinsic Correlates of Stress in Free-Ranging Wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Barbara; Fattebert, Julien; Palme, Rupert; Ciucci, Paolo; Betschart, Bruno; Smith, Douglas W; Diehl, Peter-Allan

    2015-01-01

    When confronted with a stressor, animals react with several physiological and behavioral responses. Although sustained or repeated stress can result in severe deleterious physiological effects, the causes of stress in free-ranging animals are yet poorly documented. In our study, we aimed at identifying the main factors affecting stress levels in free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus). We used fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) as an index of stress, after validating the method for its application in wolves. We analyzed a total of 450 fecal samples from eleven wolf packs belonging to three protected populations, in Italy (Abruzzo), France (Mercantour), and the United States (Yellowstone). We collected samples during two consecutive winters in each study area. We found no relationship between FCM concentrations and age, sex or social status of individuals. At the group level, our results suggest that breeding pair permanency and the loss of pack members through processes different from dispersal may importantly impact stress levels in wolves. We measured higher FCM levels in comparatively small packs living in sympatry with a population of free-ranging dogs. Lastly, our results indicate that FCM concentrations are associated with endoparasitic infections of individuals. In social mammals sharing strong bonds among group members, the death of one or several members of the group most likely induces important stress in the remainder of the social unit. The potential impact of social and territorial stability on stress levels should be further investigated in free-ranging populations, especially in highly social and in territorial species. As persistent or repeated stressors may facilitate or induce pathologies and physiological alterations that can affect survival and fitness, we advocate considering the potential impact of anthropogenic causes of stress in management and conservation programs regarding wolves and other wildlife.

  16. Environmental stress responses and experimental handling artifacts of a model organism, the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Birgitte; Jepsen, Per Meyer; Bucklin, Ann

    2018-01-01

    for these genes between 15 min and 24 h following exposure. Since handling stress clearly affects transcriptional patterns, it is important to consider handling when designing experiments, by either including additional controls or avoiding focus on impacted genes. Not considering handling in gene expression...... studies can lead to inaccurate conclusions. The present study provides a baseline for studying handling stress in future studies using this model organism and others....

  17. Environmental and Intrinsic Correlates of Stress in Free-Ranging Wolves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Molnar

    Full Text Available When confronted with a stressor, animals react with several physiological and behavioral responses. Although sustained or repeated stress can result in severe deleterious physiological effects, the causes of stress in free-ranging animals are yet poorly documented. In our study, we aimed at identifying the main factors affecting stress levels in free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus.We used fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM as an index of stress, after validating the method for its application in wolves. We analyzed a total of 450 fecal samples from eleven wolf packs belonging to three protected populations, in Italy (Abruzzo, France (Mercantour, and the United States (Yellowstone. We collected samples during two consecutive winters in each study area. We found no relationship between FCM concentrations and age, sex or social status of individuals. At the group level, our results suggest that breeding pair permanency and the loss of pack members through processes different from dispersal may importantly impact stress levels in wolves. We measured higher FCM levels in comparatively small packs living in sympatry with a population of free-ranging dogs. Lastly, our results indicate that FCM concentrations are associated with endoparasitic infections of individuals.In social mammals sharing strong bonds among group members, the death of one or several members of the group most likely induces important stress in the remainder of the social unit. The potential impact of social and territorial stability on stress levels should be further investigated in free-ranging populations, especially in highly social and in territorial species. As persistent or repeated stressors may facilitate or induce pathologies and physiological alterations that can affect survival and fitness, we advocate considering the potential impact of anthropogenic causes of stress in management and conservation programs regarding wolves and other wildlife.

  18. Ammonia stress under high environmental ammonia induces Hsp70 and Hsp90 in the mud eel, Monopterus cuchia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangzo, Hnunlalliani; Banerjee, Bodhisattwa; Saha, Shrabani; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2017-02-01

    The obligatory air-breathing mud eel (Monopterus cuchia) is frequently being challenged with high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure in its natural habitats. The present study investigated the possible induction of heat shock protein 70 and 90 (hsp70, hsc70, hsp90α and hsp90β) genes and more expression of Hsp70 and Hsp90 proteins under ammonia stress in different tissues of the mud eel after exposure to HEA (50 mM NH 4 Cl) for 14 days. HEA resulted in significant accumulation of toxic ammonia in different body tissues and plasma, which was accompanied with the stimulation of oxidative stress in the mud eel as evidenced by more accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) during exposure to HEA. Further, hyper-ammonia stress led to significant increase in the levels of mRNA transcripts for inducible hsp70 and hsp90α genes and also their translated proteins in different tissues probably as a consequence of induction of hsp70 and hsp90α genes in the mud eel. However, hyper-ammonia stress was neither associated with any significant alterations in the levels of mRNA transcripts for constitutive hsc70 and hsp90β genes nor their translated proteins in any of the tissues studied. More abundance of Hsp70 and Hsp90α proteins might be one of the strategies adopted by the mud eel to defend itself from the ammonia-induced cellular damages under ammonia stress. Further, this is the first report of ammonia-induced induction of hsp70 and hsp90α genes under hyper-ammonia stress in any freshwater air-breathing teleost.

  19. Base damage within single-strand DNA underlies in vivo hypermutability induced by a ubiquitous environmental agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Chan

    Full Text Available Chromosomal DNA must be in single-strand form for important transactions such as replication, transcription, and recombination to occur. The single-strand DNA (ssDNA is more prone to damage than double-strand DNA (dsDNA, due to greater exposure of chemically reactive moieties in the nitrogenous bases. Thus, there can be agents that damage regions of ssDNA in vivo while being inert toward dsDNA. To assess the potential hazard posed by such agents, we devised an ssDNA-specific mutagenesis reporter system in budding yeast. The reporter strains bear the cdc13-1 temperature-sensitive mutation, such that shifting to 37°C results in telomere uncapping and ensuing 5' to 3' enzymatic resection. This exposes the reporter region, containing three closely-spaced reporter genes, as a long 3' ssDNA overhang. We validated the ability of the system to detect mutagenic damage within ssDNA by expressing a modified human single-strand specific cytosine deaminase, APOBEC3G. APOBEC3G induced a high density of substitutions at cytosines in the ssDNA overhang strand, resulting in frequent, simultaneous inactivation of two reporter genes. We then examined the mutagenicity of sulfites, a class of reactive sulfur oxides to which humans are exposed frequently via respiration and food intake. Sulfites, at a concentration similar to that found in some foods, induced a high density of mutations, almost always as substitutions at cytosines in the ssDNA overhang strand, resulting in simultaneous inactivation of at least two reporter genes. Furthermore, sulfites formed a long-lived adducted 2'-deoxyuracil intermediate in DNA that was resistant to excision by uracil-DNA N-glycosylase. This intermediate was bypassed by error-prone translesion DNA synthesis, frequently involving Pol ζ, during repair synthesis. Our results suggest that sulfite-induced lesions in DNA can be particularly deleterious, since cells might not possess the means to repair or bypass such lesions

  20. The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling gene AtCHR12 mediates temporary growth arrest in Arabidopsis thaliana upon perceiving environmental stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlynarova, L.; Nap, J.P.H.; Bisseling, T.

    2007-01-01

    One of the earliest responses of plants to environmental stress is establishing a temporary growth arrest that allows adaptation to adverse conditions. The response to abiotic stress requires the modulation of gene expression, which may be mediated by the alteration of chromatin structures. This

  1. The Need for an Ecological Approach to Parental Stress in Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Combined Role of Individual and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derguy, C.; M'Bailara, K.; Michel, G.; Roux, S.; Bouvard, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify parental stress predictors in ASD by considering individual and environmental factors in an ecological approach. Participants were 115 parents of children with ASD aged from 3 to 10 years. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the best predictors of parental stress among child-related, parent-related…

  2. Neuroprotective effects of the polyphenolic antioxidant agent, Curcumin, against homocysteine-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataie, Amin; Sabetkasaei, Masoumeh; Haghparast, Abbas; Moghaddam, Akbar Hajizadeh; Kazeminejad, Behrang

    2010-10-01

    Aging is the major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases. In this study, the possible antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of the polyphenolic antioxidant compound, Curcumin against homocysteine (Hcy) neurotoxicity was investigated. Curcumin (5 and 50mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally once daily for a period of 10 days beginning 5 days prior to Hcy (0.2 micromol/microl) intrahippocampal injection in rats. Biochemical and behavioral studies, including passive avoidance learning and locomotor activity tests were studied 24h after the last Curcumin or its vehicle injection. We detected Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Super oxide anion (SOA) in rats' hippocampi. Results indicated that Hcy could induce lipid peroxidation and increase MDA and SOA levels in rats' hippocampi. Additionally, Hcy impaired memory retention in passive avoidance learning test. However, Curcumin treatment decreased MDA and SOA levels significantly as well as improved learning and memory in rats. Histopathological analysis also indicated that Hcy could decrease hippocampus cell count and Curcumin inhibited this toxic effect. These results suggest that Hcy may induce lipid peroxidation in rats' hippocampi and polyphenol treatment (Curcumin) improved learning and memory deficits by protecting the nervous system against Hcy toxicity. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Nigrostriatal Dopamine System and Methamphetamine: Roles for Excitotoxicity and Environmental, Metabolic and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    K. (1995) Methamphetamine -induced hyperthermia and dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice: pharmacological profile of protective and nonprotective agents...glutamate receptors is protective against methamphetamine neurotoxicity . JNeurosci 22, 2135-2141. Beer R., Franz G., Srinivasan A., Hayes R. L., Pike B. R...1992) The neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine on 5-hydroxytryptamine and dopamine in brain: evidence for the protective effect of chlormethiazole

  4. Selected Abiotic and Biotic Environmental Stress Factors Affecting Two Economically Important Sugarcane Stalk Boring Pests in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in the United States is attacked by a number of different arthropod pests. The most serious among those pests are two stalk boring moths in the Family Crambidae: the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F., and the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar. The two species are affected by abiotic and biotic environmental stress factors. Water deficit and excessive soil nitrogen alter physical and physiochemical aspects of the sugarcane plant that make the crop increasingly vulnerable to E. loftini. Weed growth can be competitive with sugarcane but it also supports enhanced abundances and diversity of natural enemies that can suppress infestations of D. saccharalis. In an instance where the stalk borer is considered a stress factor, proximity of vulnerable crops to sugarcane can influence levels of E. loftini infestation of sugarcane. The adverse effects of each stress factor, in terms of stalk borer attack, can be reduced by adopting appropriate cultural practices, such as adequate irrigation, judicious use of nitrogen fertilizer, using noncompetitive weed growth, and not planting vulnerable crops near sugarcane fields. Understanding the relationships between stress factors and crop pests can provide valuable insights for plant breeders and tools for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies.

  5. Role of OsWAK124, a rice wall-associated kinase, in response to environmental heavy metal stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, X.; Hou, X.

    2017-01-01

    Members of the Arabidopsis cell wall-associated kinase (WAK) family play important roles in both development and stress responses. There are about one hundred and twenty five OsWAKs annotated in the rice genome but their functions in rice growth and development are largely unknown. In this paper, we reported a functional role of the OsWAK124 (Os12g0266200) in rice heavy metal responses. Confocal GFP experiments located OsWAK124 in the cell wall and analyses of OsWAK124 promoter GUS transgenic lines suggested that OsWAK124 promoter is primarily active at the meristematic tissues under normal growth condition. Under stress conditions, however, OsWAK124 promoter activity is induced in non-meristematic tissues, such as leaf, stem and root, and the activity in the meristematic tissues is further enhanced. Various transgenic rice lines carrying either RNA interference (RNAi) or overexpression constructs were generated. Transgenic lines were tested for their responses to various stress conditions including salicylic acid, NaCl, AlCl/sub 3/, CuSO/sub 4/ and CdSO/sub 4/. Our analyses showed that rice seedlings overexpressing OsWAK124 are more resistant to the three tested heavy metals (Al, Cu, and Cd), which suggested that OsWAK124, like some Arabidopsis WAK members, plays a role in environmental heavy metal stress responses. (author)

  6. Metabolomics Reveals Cryptic Interactive Effects of Species Interactions and Environmental Stress on Nitrogen and Sulfur Metabolism in Seagrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Castorani, Max C. N.; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication of estuaries and coastal seas is accelerating, increasing light stress on subtidal marine plants and changing their interactions with other species. To date, we have limited understanding of how such variations in environmental and biological stress modify the impact of interactions...... among foundational species and eventually affect ecosystem health. Here, we used metabolomics to assess the impact of light reductions on interactions between the seagrass Zostera marina, an important habitat-forming marine plant, and the abundant and commercially important blue mussel Mytilus edulis....... Plant performance varied with light availability but was unaffected by the presence of mussels. Metabolomic analysis, on the other hand, revealed an interaction between light availability and presence of M. edulis on seagrass metabolism. Under high light, mussels stimulated seagrass nitrogen and energy...

  7. Comparative Analysis of Stress Induced Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans following Exposure to Environmental and Lab Reconstituted Complex Metal Mixture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Kumar

    Full Text Available Metals are essential for many physiological processes and are ubiquitously present in the environment. However, high metal concentrations can be harmful to organisms and lead to physiological stress and diseases. The accumulation of transition metals in the environment due to either natural processes or anthropogenic activities such as mining results in the contamination of water and soil environments. The present study used Caenorhabditis elegans to evaluate gene expression as an indicator of physiological response, following exposure to water collected from three different locations downstream of a Swedish mining site and a lab reconstituted metal mixture. Our results indicated that the reconstituted metal mixture exerted a direct stress response in C. elegans whereas the environmental waters elicited either a diminished or abrogated response. This suggests that it is not sufficient to use the biological effects observed from laboratory mixtures to extrapolate the effects observed in complex aquatic environments and apply this to risk assessment and intervention.

  8. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic and environmental tobacco smoke, nutrient intake, and oxidative stress in Japanese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takuya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Suzuki, Kei; Mizoi, Miho; Adachi, Shu-Ichi; Tao, Hiroaki; Nakazato, Tetsuya; Li, Yun-Shan; Kawai, Kazuaki; Kasai, Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    The association between oxidative stress and exposure to environmental chemicals was assessed in a group of Japanese preschool children. The concentrations of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), inorganic arsenic (iAs) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and cotinine in spot urine samples, collected from 134 children (3-6 yrs) from a kindergarten in Kanagawa, Japan, were measured as biomarkers of oxidative stress or exposure to environmental chemicals. For 76 subjects of the 134, intakes of anti-oxidant nutrients (vitamins A, C, and E, manganese, copper, zinc and selenium (Se)) were estimated from a food consumption survey carried out 2-4 weeks after urine sampling and by urine analysis (Se). The median (min-max) creatinine-corrected concentrations of urinary biomarkers were 4.45 (1.98-12.3), 0.127 (0.04-2.41), 4.78 (1.18-12.7), and 0.62 (iAs+MMA, and cotinine, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was carried out using 8-OHdG concentration as a dependent variable and urinary biomarkers of exposure and Se intake, intakes of vitamins and biological attributes of the subjects as independent variables. To explain 8-OHdG concentrations, intake of vitamin A and age were significant variables with negative coefficients, while 1-OHP concentration had a positive coefficient. These results indicated that oxidative stress of children is affected by chemical exposure at environmental levels, by nutrient intake and by physiological factors in a complex manner. On the other hand, unstable statistical results due to sub-grouping of subject, based on the availability of food consumption data, were found: the present results should further be validated by future studies with suitable research design. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanical and environmental effects on stress corrosion cracking of low carbon pipeline steel in a soil solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras, A.; Hernández, S.L.; Orozco-Cruz, R.; Galvan-Martínez, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mechanical and environmental effects on SCC of X52 steel were investigated. ► Slow strain rate tests (SSRT) were performed in a soil solution (NS4). ► Different levels of polarization potentials were applied to mitigating SCC. ► SSRT results indicate that X52 pipeline steel was susceptible to SCC. ► SCC susceptibility increase as the yielding and ultimate tensile stress increase. -- Abstract: Mechanical and environmental effects on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of X52 pipeline steel were investigated using slow strain rate tests (SSRT) performed in a glass autoclave containing a soil solution at strain rate of 1 × 10 −6 in./s at room temperature. Polarization potentials of −100, −200 and −400 mV referred to open circuit potential (OCP) was applied in order to establish the effectiveness of cathodic protection in mitigating SCC of X52 pipeline steel. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations were done in order to analyze the SCC process. SSRT results indicate that X52 pipeline steel was susceptible to SCC. Susceptibility to SCC increase as the yielding stress (YS) and ultimate tensile stress (UTS) increase. The EIS results showed that the highest corrosion of the steel sample was obtained when the highest cathodic over potential was applied. SEM observations of these specimens showed a brittle type of fracture with transgranular appearance. The failure and SCC of X52 steel in soil solution was explained by hydrogen mechanism.

  10. Expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response in colonies of the ascidian Botryllus schlosseri exposed to various environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasselli, Stefano; Ballin, Francesca; Franchi, Nicola; Fabbri, Elena; Ballarin, Loriano

    2017-03-01

    Environmental stress conditions are ultimately related to the induction of oxidative stress in organisms, as a consequence of an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This could be exploited to study sub-lethal effects induced by the environment in the organisms. In the present work, we evaluate the possibility to use the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri as a bioindicator, to assess the environmental quality in the Lagoon of Venice. Three colony batches were immersed, for 22 days, at two sites (1 and 2) with different grades of hydrodynamics and anthropogenic impact and physico-chemical features of seawater; a control batch was kept in a large tank with continuous seawater flow at the Marine Station of the Department of Biology, University of Padova, in Chioggia (site 3). Seawater at site 2 had higher pH and temperature than site 1. Colonies were then retrieved, their mRNA was extracted and the level of transcription of genes involved in oxidative stress response (glutathione synthase, γ-glutamyl-cysteine ligase, modulatory subunit, two isoforms of glutathione peroxidases and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase) was evaluated. In colonies from sites 1 and 2, most genes showed significantly increased transcriptional levels with respect to control values. Spectrophotometric analyses of colony homogenates revealed that the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase was higher in colonies from site 2 as compared to site 1, allowing us to speculate that colonies in site 2 were under higher stress level than those in site 1. Overall, we can conclude that B. schlosseri seems a good indicator of the ecological status of the Lagoon environment, within a range of pH and temperature in which colonies are used to live.

  11. The Oxidative Stress Agent Hypochlorite Stimulates c-di-GMP Synthesis and Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Strempel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to survive under a variety of often harmful environmental conditions due to a multitude of intrinsic and adaptive resistance mechanisms, including biofilm formation as one important survival strategy. Here, we investigated the adaptation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 to hypochlorite (HClO, a phagocyte-derived host defense compound and frequently used disinfectant. In static biofilm assays, we observed a significant enhancement in initial cell attachment in the presence of sublethal HClO concentrations. Subsequent LC-MS analyses revealed a strong increase in cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP levels suggesting a key role of this second messenger in HClO-induced biofilm development. Using DNA microarrays, we identified a 26-fold upregulation of ORF PA3177 coding for a putative diguanylate cyclase (DGC, which catalyzes the synthesis of the second messenger c-di-GMP – an important regulator of bacterial motility, sessility and persistence. This DGC PA3177 was further characterized in more detail demonstrating its impact on P. aeruginosa motility and biofilm formation. In addition, cell culture assays attested a role for PA3177 in the response of P. aeruginosa to human phagocytes. Using a subset of different mutants, we were able to show that both Pel and Psl exopolysaccharides are effectors in the PA3177-dependent c-di-GMP network.

  12. Stress !!!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Twee op de vijf UT-studenten hebben last van ernstige studiestress, zo erg zelfs dat het ze in hun privéleven belemmert. Die cijfers komen overeen met het landelijk beeld van stress onder studenten. Samen met 14 andere universiteits- en hogeschoolbladen enquêteerde UT Nieuws bijna 5500 studenten.

  13. The Chernobyl accident as an example of how environmental burden may lead to persistent mental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legewie, H.; Boehm, A.; Boehnke, K.; Faas, A.; Gross, B.; Jaeggi, E.

    1990-01-01

    It was the aim of this qualitative analysis to give an account, as detailed and complete as possible, of time-dependent mental reactions to ecological afflictions through the Chernobyl accident as well as to describe reaction and compensation patterns typical for such challenges and to develop preliminary theories to explain the phenomena observed. These efforts make a contribution to basic research in that they pave the way to innovative methods and fields of knowledge that may be of equal relevance to environmental psychology, clinical psychology, social psychology and socioscientific technology. They make a contribution to field research in that the findings revealed elucidate generally held views about the toll of technocracy and environmental destruction. The results appear to be just as relevant to health and environmental counselling, environmental education and environment-oriented editorial work as they are to political decisions concerning future technologies. (orig.) [de

  14. Environmental stress responses and experimental handling artifacts of a model organism, the copepod Acartia tonsa (Dana)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Birgitte; Jepsen, Per Meyer; Bucklin, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Handling animals during experiments potentially affects the differential expression of genes chosen as biomarkers of sub-lethal stress. RNA sequencing was used to examine whole-transcriptome responses caused by laboratory handling of the calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa. Salinity shock (S=35 to S=...... studies can lead to inaccurate conclusions. The present study provides a baseline for studying handling stress in future studies using this model organism and others....... for these genes between 15 min and 24 h following exposure. Since handling stress clearly affects transcriptional patterns, it is important to consider handling when designing experiments, by either including additional controls or avoiding focus on impacted genes. Not considering handling in gene expression...

  15. Herbal supplement extends life span under some environmental conditions and boosts stress resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Villeponteau

    Full Text Available Genetic studies indicate that aging is modulated by a great number of genetic pathways. We have used Drosophila longevity and stress assays to test a multipath intervention strategy. To carry out this strategy, we supplemented the flies with herbal extracts (SC100 that are predicted to modulate the expression of many genes involved in aging and stress resistance, such as mTOR, NOS, NF-KappaB, and VEGF. When flies were housed in large cages with SC100 added, daily mortality rates of both male and female flies were greatly diminished in mid to late life. Surprisingly, SC100 also stabilized midlife mortality rate increases so as to extend the maximum life span substantially beyond the limits previously reported for D. melanogaster. Under these conditions, SC100 also promoted robust resistance to partial starvation stress and to heat stress. Fertility was the same initially in both treated and control flies, but it became significantly higher in treated flies at older ages as the fertility of control flies declined. Mean and maximum life spans of flies in vials at the same test site were also extended by SC100, but the life spans were short in absolute terms. In contrast, at an independent test site where stress was minimized, the flies exhibited much longer mean life spans, but the survival curves became highly rectangular and the effects of SC100 on both mean and maximum life spans declined greatly or were abolished. The data indicate that SC100 is a novel herbal mix with striking effects on enhancing Drosophila stress resistance and life span in some environments, while minimizing mid to late life mortality rates. They also show that the environment and other factors can have transformative effects on both the length and distribution of survivorship, and on the ability of SC100 to extend the life span.

  16. Combat exposure severity as a moderator of genetic and environmental liability to post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, E J; Mitchell, K S; Koenen, K C; Miller, M W

    2014-05-01

    Twin studies of veterans and adults suggest that approximately 30-46% of the variance in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is attributable to genetic factors. The remaining variance is attributable to the non-shared environment, which, by definition, includes combat exposure. This study used a gene by measured environment twin design to determine whether the effects of genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the etiology of PTSD are dependent on the level of combat exposure. The sample was drawn from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry (VETR) and included 620 male-male twin pairs who served in the US Military in South East Asia during the Vietnam War era. Analyses were based on data from a clinical diagnostic interview of lifetime PTSD symptoms and a self-report measure of combat exposure. Biometric modeling revealed that the effects of genetic and non-shared environment factors on PTSD varied as a function of level of combat exposure such that the association between these factors and PTSD was stronger at higher levels of combat exposure. Combat exposure may act as a catalyst that augments the impact of hereditary and environmental contributions to PTSD. Individuals with the greatest exposure to combat trauma were at increased risk for PTSD as a function of both genetic and environmental factors. Additional work is needed to determine the biological and environmental mechanisms driving these associations.

  17. Chloroplast NADPH-Dependent Thioredoxin Reductase from Chlorella vulgaris Alleviates Environmental Stresses in Yeast Together with 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Takeshi; Ishibashi, Akiko; Kirino, Ai; Sato, Jun-ichi; Kawasaki, Shinji; Niimura, Youichi; Honjoh, Ken-ichi; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2012-01-01

    Chloroplast NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTRC) catalyzes the reduction of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (2-Cys Prx) and, thus, probably functions as an antioxidant system. The functions of the enzyme in oxidative and salt stresses have been reported previously. We have previously identified and characterized NTRC in Chlorella vulgaris. In the present study, we isolated a full-length cDNA clone encoding 2-Cys Prx from C. vulgaris and investigated the involvement of Chlorella NTRC/2-Cys Prx system in several environmental stress tolerances by using yeast as a eukaryotic model. Deduced Chlorella 2-Cys Prx was homologous to those of chloroplast 2-Cys Prxs from plants, and two conserved cysteine residues were found in the deduced sequence. Enzyme assay showed that recombinant mature C. vulgaris NTRC (mCvNTRC) transferred electrons from NADPH to recombinant mature C. vulgaris 2-Cys Prx (mCvPrx), and mCvPrx decomposed hydrogen peroxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, and peroxynitrite by cooperating with mCvNTRC. Based on the results, the mCvNTRC/mCvPrx antioxidant system was identified in Chlorella. The antioxidant system genes were expressed in yeast separately or coordinately. Stress tolerances of yeast against freezing, heat, and menadione-induced oxidative stresses were significantly improved by expression of mCvNTRC, and the elevated tolerances were more significant when both mCvNTRC and mCvPrx were co-expressed. Our results reveal a novel feature of NTRC: it functions as an antioxidant system with 2-Cys Prx in freezing and heat stress tolerances. PMID:23029353

  18. Measurement of the effects and safety of Higenamine, a Chinese herbal medicine on cardiovascular system: Could it represent a new pharmacological myocardial stress agent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Tao, Z.H.; Shi, R.F.; Zhang, X.; Liu, Y.Z.; He, Z.-X.; Chen, B.; Liu, X.J.

    2003-01-01

    Higenamine (HG) is a derivative of the medicinal herb, aconite root, that has been in use for several decades as a traditional medicine in the treatment of heart disease. The aim of this study was to investigate Higenamine as an alternative pharmacological agent to dobutamine (DB) for use in cardiac stress studies. Six dogs were infused intravenously with Higenamine in escalating doses of 1, 2 and 4 μg per kg of body weight per minute, each dose being given for a duration of 5 minutes and compared with dobutamine doses of 5, 10, and 20 μg/kg/min. Heart rate, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), cardiac output, or aortic blood flow, myocardial oxygen consumption and coronary blood flow were measured with the physiological and electromagnetic flow devices at the beginning of the test and by the end of each dose-infusion. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured with radionuclide ventriculography. ECG was monitored during the study. Another 8 dogs were administered Higenamine in escalating doses ranging from 1μg/kg/min and up to 500 μg/kg/min in order to observe the tolerability and safety of Higenamine. Heart rate, blood pressure and ECG were monitored during the test. Intravenous administration of Higenamine resulted in significant inotropic and chronotropic effects on the heart. Heart rate, myocardial oxygen consumption, cardiac output, coronary blood flow and LVEF all increased in a dose-dependent manner in both Higenamine and dobutamine tests. Higenamine did not cause significant change in systolic blood pressure, but a slight decrease in diastolic blood pressure was noted. Heart rate increased rapidly to the peak value, and then maintained a plateau level. No significant ECG abnormalities were demonstrated except for few occasional premature ventricular beats. None of the dogs died during the study. Hemodynamic studies demonstrated that Higenamine could be used as a pharmacologic cardiac stress agent with remarkable tolerability and safety

  19. Efficacy and safety of a novel pharmacological stress test agent-higenamine in radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging: phase Ⅱ clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Yanrong; Li Fang; Wang Qian; Li Dianfu; Long Mingqing; Liu Yimin; Li Bilu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of higenamine (HG), a pharmaco logical stress agent, for the detection of myocardial ischemia using SPECT. Methods: This study was an open,multi-center, randomized and positively controlled trial with crossover references. It consisted of 120 patients clinically confirmed or suspected of myocardial ischemia. Each patient underwent a resting MPI and two separate stress MPI in a randomized crossover manner with intravenous administration of HG or adenosine (Ad) on different days. The severity and extent of myocardial ischemia were diagnosed on stress MPI. The degree of vascular stenosis in terms of percentage narrowing was measured by CAG (>50% was defined as coronary disease), thus defined as gold standard. The diagnostic efficacy of HG and Ad was compared. Vital signs, routine blood and urine tests,blood biochemical items and side effects were documented for evaluation of procedure safety. Two-sample t test, χ 2 or Fisher's exact test, and Kappa test were used. Results: A total of 109 patients completed the trim and CAG. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of HG MPI were 56.1% (32/57), 78.8% (41/52), 67.0%(73/109), 74.4% (32/43) and 62.1% (41/66), respectively, which were not significantly different from those of Ad MPI (52.6% (30/57), 82.7% (43/52), 67.0% (73/109), 76.9% (30/39) and 61.4%(43/70) ; χ 2 =0-0.2476, all P>0.05). The sensitivity of HG vs Ad MPI in the diagnosis of single-, double-and triple-vessel ischemia was 29.6% (8/27) vs 22.2% (6/27), 64.7% (11/17) vs 64.7% (11/17) and 100% (13/13) vs 100% (13/13), respectively. The concordance between HG and Ad for the detection of LAD, LCX and RCA ischemia was 95.41% (104/109), 97.25% (106/109) and 97.25% (106/109) (Kappa=0.8905, 0.8420 and 0.8874). HG did not induce significant systolic blood pressure change during or after administration. Both HG and Ad could induce temporary decrease

  20. Metabolic and functional phenotypic profiling of Drosophila melanogaster reveals reduced sex differentiation under stressful environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orsted, Michael; Malmendal, Anders; Munoz, Joaquin

    2018-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and how this impacts the magnitude of sexual dimorphism. Experimental stressors that we exposed flies to during development were heat stress, poor nutrition, high acidity, high levels of ammonia and ethanol. Emerged male and female flies from the different...

  1. Marine environmental pollution stress detection through direct viable counts of bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Kenkre, V.D.; Verlecar, X.N.

    usefulfordeterminingmetabolicallyactivebacterialcells [7,8]. It is a proven method to understand the hetero- trophicpotentialofmicrobialassemblagesinthemarine environment[9].Itiseasytoperformandyieldshighly reproducibleresults.DVChasbeenthemostemployed techniquetoassessbacterialmetabolicactivitystate... stress on microbial communities. From the extensive fieldandlaboratoryanalyses,wereportonthereliability of DVC for sensing risks in the marine environment causedbyindustrialactivities. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Sampling locations...

  2. Relationship between the energy status of Daphnia magna and its sensitivity to environmental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, Roel; Baillieul, Marc; Blust, Ronny

    2005-01-01

    This work tested the hypothesis that animals with a high energy status are more successful in dealing with stress than animals with a low energy status. Daphnids (Daphnia magna) were reared for 2 weeks in four different concentrations of food. Survival was not affected by food supply, and growth and reproduction increased with increasing food ration. This increase correlated well with the energy status, as was measured by scope for growth on day 15. After 2 weeks, the daphnids in the four different food ration groups were exposed for another 2 weeks to a range of increased salinities or cadmium concentrations, while remaining in their respective food concentrations. In the salinity groups, survival, growth, or reproduction were not influenced at low salinities. Exposure to higher salinity significantly decreased survival and reproduction, but this decrease was more pronounced in the highest food concentrations. In the cadmium exposed daphnids, cadmium content increased with increasing exposure concentrations, but accumulation was independent of food rations. Cadmium exposure significantly decreased survival, growth, and reproduction and this decrease again was more pronounced with increasing food concentration. Thus, the high energy status of the daphnids from the high food concentrations at the start of the exposure did not provide an increased capacity to cope with additional stress. Instead, the sensitivity of the daphnids to stress increased with increasing food ration. This increased sensitivity is likely to be the result of a change in life history from emphasizing survival at low food supply to stressing reproduction at high food supply

  3. Stress ocupacional em profissionais de segurança pública: um estudo com militares da Guarda Nacional Republicana Occupational stress in professionals of public security: a study with military agents of the Republican National Guard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. P. Afonso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa o "stress" ocupacional em 95 militares da Guarda Nacional Republicana Portuguesa. Para tal, utilizámos um protocolo de avaliação com medidas do "stress" global, "burnout", "coping" proactivo, comprometimento organizacional, satisfação com a vida e satisfação/realização profissional. Os indicadores de fidelidade e validade dos instrumentos foram muito aceitáveis. Os resultados de "burnout" por dimensão apontaram níveis apreciáveis de exaustão emocional (12%, seguidos do cinismo (10% e da baixa eficácia profissional (8% (mas nenhum participante registou valores de "burnout" nas três dimensões, em simultâneo, observando-se também variáveis distintas na predição destas três áreas. A análise discriminante entre subgrupos da amostra permitiu verificar dois aspectos principais: (a menores níveis de comprometimento organizacional e maior utilização de "coping" proactivo nos militares mais novos e/ou inexperientes e (b maior desejo de abandonar o emprego/trabalho bem como maior cinismo parecem identificar os profissionais mais velhos e/ou mais experientes. No final, os autores discutem a importância de a investigação futura analisar os efeitos da maior tendência para o cinismo com o aumento da idade dos participantes e os efeitos do menor comprometimento organizacional por parte dos mais novos em termos da sua eficácia profissional.This work analyzes occupational stress in 95 Portuguese military agents of the Republican National Guard. We applied an evaluation protocol with measures of global stress, burnout, proactive coping, organizational commitment, satisfaction with life, and professional satisfaction/accomplishment. The fidelity and validity results of the instruments were very acceptable. The results of burnout pointed out a remarkable level of emotional exhaustion (12% followed by cynicism (10% and low professional effectiveness (8% (but we have not found any participant with burnout values

  4. The relationships between environmental and physiological heat stress indices in Muslim women under the controlled thermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Habibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between environmental and physiological heat stress indices based on heart rate (HR, oral temperature for the estimation of heat strain, in veiled women in hot-dry condition in the climate chamber. Materials and Methods: The experimental study was carried out on 36 healthy Muslim women in hot-dry climatic conditions (wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT = 22-32°C in low workload for 2 h. The HR, oral temperature and WBGT index were measured. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation tests. Results: The results of the Pearson test indicated that physiological strain index was a high correlation (r = 0.975 with WBGT index (P < 0.05. Also, there was a good correlation among WBGT and HR (r = 0.779 and oral temperature (r = 0.981. Conclusion: The findings of this study illustrated that there is a good correlation between environmental and physiological heat stress indices in veiled women with Islamic clothing at the low workload over the action limit (WBGT = 31°C. So that it can be concluded that the WBGT 22-32°C is a good indicator of the heat strain in veiled women with Islamic clothing.

  5. Laying Stress on Energy-Saving and Environmental Protection of Thermal Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The most attraetive spot of the 11th Five-Year Plan is to change China's present mode of cconomic growth and take a road of circulative cconomy based on effective utilization of resources and environmental protection. Electric power as a basic industry,energy conservation and environmental protection will become one of its working cmphases in a period of time to come. In this connection, the journalist (Zhao Ran) from China Electric Power has exclusively interviewed Tang Yunlin, the former president of the China Electric Power Planning and Engineering Institute. He thought that the most important thing for power industry to save energy and protect environment is to bring about the energy conservation and environmental protection in thermal power plants rather than first devclop hydropower, nuclear power and renewable energy. His viewpoints and suggestions have been recognized by many insiders.

  6. Plant responses to environmental stress: regulation and functions of the Arabidopsis TCH genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, J.; Sistrunk, M. L.; Polisensky, D. H.; Xu, W.; Purugganan, M. M.; Antosiewicz, D. M.; Campbell, P.; Johnson, K. A.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Expression of the Arabidopsis TCH genes is markedly upregulated in response to a variety of environmental stimuli including the seemingly innocuous stimulus of touch. Understanding the mechanism(s) and factors that control TCH gene regulation will shed light on the signaling pathways that enable plants to respond to environmental conditions. The TCH proteins include calmodulin, calmodulin-related proteins and a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase. Expression analyses and localization of protein accumulation indicates that the potential sites of TCH protein function include expanding cells and tissues under mechanical strain. We hypothesize that at least a subset of the TCH proteins may collaborate in cell wall biogenesis.

  7. Climate-related environmental stress in intertidal grazers: scaling-up biochemical responses to assemblage-level processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maggi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Organisms are facing increasing levels of environmental stress under climate change that may severely affect the functioning of biological systems at different levels of organization. Growing evidence suggests that reduction in body size is a universal response of organisms to global warming. However, a clear understanding of whether extreme climate events will impose selection directly on phenotypic plastic responses and how these responses affect ecological interactions has remained elusive. Methods We experimentally investigated the effects of extreme desiccation events on antioxidant defense mechanisms of a rocky intertidal gastropod (Patella ulyssiponensis, and evaluated how these effects scaled-up at the population and assemblage levels. Results With increasing levels of desiccation stress, limpets showed significant lower levels of total glutathione, tended to grow less and had reduced per capita interaction strength on their resources. Discussion Results suggested that phenotypic plasticity (i.e., reduction in adults’ body size allowed buffering biochemical responses to stress to scale-up at the assemblage level. Unveiling the linkages among different levels of biological organization is key to develop indicators that can anticipate large-scale ecological impacts of climate change.

  8. Treating Stress-Related Pain with the Flotation Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique: Are There Differences between Women and Men?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Å Bood

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore, for the first time, sex differences among patients diagnosed with stress-related pain before and after flotation restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST treatment, delivered 12 times during seven weeks. The present study included 88 patients (69 women, 19 men from three different studies (post hoc analysis. They had been diagnosed by a physician as having chronic stress-related muscle tension pain. The analyses indicated that the flotation-REST treatment had beneficial effects on stress, anxiety, depression, sleep quality and pain and that there were few sex differences. Women were more depressed than men before treatment, but after treatment there was no difference between sexes. However, there was a sex difference in the ability to endure experimentally induced pain, suggesting that men exhibited greater endurance both before and after the flotation-REST treatment. The results also showed, for the first time, that both sexes improved their ability to endure experimentally induced pain (higher scores for upper pain threshold following the successful flotation-REST pain treatment.

  9. Effects of stress or infection on rat behavior show robust reversals due to environmental disturbance [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Abdulai-Saiku

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The behavior of animals is intricately linked to the environment; a relationship that is often studied in laboratory conditions by using environmental perturbations to study biological mechanisms underlying the behavioral change.  Methods: This study pertains to two such well-studied and well-replicated perturbations, i.e., stress-induced anxiogenesis and Toxoplasma gondii -induced loss of innate fear. Here, we demonstrate that behavioral outcomes of these experimental manipulations are contingent upon the ambient quality of the wider environment where animal facilities are situated. Results: During late 2014 and early 2015, a building construction project started adjacent to our animal facility. During this phase, we observed that maternal separation stress caused anxiolysis, rather than historically observed anxiogenesis, in laboratory rats. We also found that Toxoplasma gondii infection caused an increase, rather than historically observed decrease, in innate aversion to predator odors in rats. Conclusion: These observations suggest that effects of stress and Toxoplasma gondii are dependent on variables in the environment that often go unreported in the published literature.

  10. Plasticity in reproduction and growth among 52 range-wide populations of a Mediterranean conifer: adaptive responses to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Del-Blanco, L; Bonser, S P; Valladares, F; Chambel, M R; Climent, J

    2013-09-01

    A plastic response towards enhanced reproduction is expected in stressful environments, but it is assumed to trade off against vegetative growth and efficiency in the use of available resources deployed in reproduction [reproductive efficiency (RE)]. Evidence supporting this expectation is scarce for plants, particularly for long-lived species. Forest trees such as Mediterranean pines provide ideal models to study the adaptive value of allocation to reproduction vs. vegetative growth given their among-population differentiation for adaptive traits and their remarkable capacity to cope with dry and low-fertility environments. We studied 52 range-wide Pinus halepensis populations planted into two environmentally contrasting sites during their initial reproductive stage. We investigated the effect of site, population and their interaction on vegetative growth, threshold size for female reproduction, reproductive-vegetative size relationships and RE. We quantified correlations among traits and environmental variables to identify allocation trade-offs and ecotypic trends. Genetic variation for plasticity was high for vegetative growth, whereas it was nonsignificant for reproduction. Size-corrected reproduction was enhanced in the more stressful site supporting the expectation for adverse conditions to elicit plastic responses in reproductive allometry. However, RE was unrelated with early reproductive investment. Our results followed theoretical predictions and support that phenotypic plasticity for reproduction is adaptive under stressful environments. Considering expectations of increased drought in the Mediterranean, we hypothesize that phenotypic plasticity together with natural selection on reproductive traits will play a relevant role in the future adaptation of forest tree species. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Involvement of stress-activated protein kinase in the cellular response to 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine and other DNA-damaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, A; Datta, R; Yuan, Z M; Kharbanda, S; Kufe, D

    1995-12-01

    The cellular response to 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) includes activation of Jun/AP-1, induction of c-jun transcription, and programmed cell death. The stress-activated protein (SAP) kinases stimulate the transactivation function of c-jun by amino terminal phosphorylation. The present work demonstrates that ara-C activates p54 SAP kinase. The finding that SAP kinase is also activated by alkylating agents (mitomycin C and cisplatinum) and the topoisomerase I inhibitor 9-amino-camptothecin supports DNA damage as an initial signal in this cascade. The results demonstrate that ara-C also induces binding of SAP kinase to the SH2/SH3-containing adapter protein Grb2. SAP kinase binds to the SH3 domains of Grb2, while interaction of the p85 alpha-subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex. The results also demonstrate that ara-C treatment is associated with inhibition of lipid and serine kinase activities of PI 3-kinase. The potential significance of the ara-C-induced interaction between SAP kinase and PI 3-kinase is further supported by the demonstration that Wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI 3-kinase, stimulates SAP kinase activity. The finding that Wortmannin treatment is also associated with internucleosomal DNA fragmentation may support a potential link between PI 3-kinase and regulation of both SAP kinase and programmed cell death.

  12. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  13. Environmental tests of a digital safety channel: An investigation of stress-related vulnerabilities of computer-based safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Wilson, T.L.; Wood, R.; Tanaka, T.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents the results of environmental stress tests performed on an experimental digital safety channel (EDSC) assembled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the Qualification of Advanced Instrumentation and Controls Systems Research program, which was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program is expected to provide recommendations for environmental qualification of digital safety systems. The purpose of the study was to investigate potential vulnerabilities of distributed computer systems used in safety applications when subjected to environmental stressors. The EDSC assembled for the tests employs technologies and digital subsystems representative of those proposed for use in advanced light-water reactors or as retrofits in existing plants. Subsystems include computers, electrical and optical serial communication links, fiber-optic network links, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, and multiplexers. The EDSC was subjected to selected stressors that are a potential risk to digital equipment in a mild environment. The selected stressors were electromagnetic and radiofrequency interferences (EMI-RFI), temperature, humidity, and smoke exposure. The stressors were applied at levels of intensity considerably higher than the safety channel is likely to experience in a normal nuclear power plant environment. Ranges of stress were selected at a sufficiently high level to induce errors so that failure modes that are characteristic of the technologies employed could be identified. On the basis of the incidence of functional errors observed during testing, EMI-RFI, smoke exposure, and high temperature coupled with high relative humidity, in that order, were found to have the greatest impact of the stressors investigated. The most prevalent stressor-induced upsets, as well as the most severe, were found to occur during the EMI-RFI tests

  14. Environmental enrichment affects adrenocortical stress responses in the endangered black-footed ferret

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poessel, S.A.; Biggins, D.E.; Santymire, R.M.; Livieri, T.M.; Crooks, K.R.; Angeloni, L.

    2011-01-01

    Potential stressors of wildlife living in captivity, such as artificial living conditions and frequent human contact, may lead to a higher occurrence of disease and reduced reproductive function. One successful method used by wildlife managers to improve general well-being is the provision of environmental enrichment, which is the practice of providing animals under managed care with environmental stimuli. The black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) is a highly-endangered carnivore species that was rescued from extinction by removal of the last remaining individuals from the wild to begin an ex situ breeding program. Our goal was to examine the effect of environmental enrichment on adrenocortical activity in ferrets by monitoring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM). Results demonstrated that enrichment lowered FGM in juvenile male ferrets, while increasing it in adult females; enrichment had no effect on FGM in juvenile females and adult males. These results correspond with our findings that juvenile males interacted more with the enrichment items than did adult females. However, we did not detect an impact of FGM on the incidence of disease or on the ability of ferrets to become reproductive during the following breeding season. We conclude that an environmental enrichment program could benefit captive juvenile male ferrets by reducing adrenocortical activity. ?? 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  15. Modeling complex effects of multiple environmental stresses on carbon dynamics of Mid-Atlantic temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yude Pan; Richard Birdsey; John Hom; Kevin McCullough

    2007-01-01

    We used our GIS variant of the PnET-CN model to investigate changes of forest carbon stocks and fluxes in Mid-Atlantic temperate forests over the last century (1900-2000). Forests in this region are affected by multiple environmental changes including climate, atmospheric CO2 concentration, N deposition and tropospheric ozone, and extensive land disturbances. Our...

  16. Questioning the environmental stress hypothesis for gall diversity of restinga vegetation on dunes

    OpenAIRE

    Arriola, Ígor A.; F. MeloJr., JoãoCarlos; S. Isaias, RosyMary

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe Atlantic Coast Restinga is a mosaic of plant communities with a distinct floristic and phytophysiognomy, exposed to luminous, thermal, and saline stresses. Plants of the restinga must have special features commonly associated to xeric environments, and are expected to host a high diversity of galling herbivores. We studied gall morphotypes, and recorded the diversity of galls on plants growing in sand dunes in a remnant area of restinga (Acaraí State Park) in São Francisco do Sul,...

  17. The Adverse Effects of Environmental Noise Exposure on Oxidative Stress and Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Schmidt, Frank; Schmidt, Erwin; Steven, Sebastian; Kröller-Schön, Swenja; Daiber, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that traffic noise exposure is linked to cardiovascular diseases such as arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Noise is a nonspecific stressor that activates the autonomous nervous system and endocrine signaling. According to the noise reaction model introduced by Babisch and colleagues, chronic low levels of noise can cause so-called nonauditory effects, such as disturbances of activity, sleep, and communication, which can trigger a number of emotional responses, including annoyance and subsequent stress. Chronic stress in turn is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, comprising increased blood pressure and dyslipidemia, increased blood viscosity and blood glucose, and activation of blood clotting factors, in animal models and humans. Persistent chronic noise exposure increases the risk of cardiometabolic diseases, including arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, and stroke. Recently, we demonstrated that aircraft noise exposure during nighttime can induce endothelial dysfunction in healthy subjects and is even more pronounced in coronary artery disease patients. Importantly, impaired endothelial function was ameliorated by acute oral treatment with the antioxidant vitamin C, suggesting that excessive production of reactive oxygen species contributes to this phenomenon. More recently, we introduced a novel animal model of aircraft noise exposure characterizing the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to noise-dependent adverse oxidative stress-related effects on the vasculature. With the present review, we want to provide an overview of epidemiological, translational clinical, and preclinical noise research addressing the nonauditory, adverse effects of noise exposure with focus on oxidative stress. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 873–908. PMID:29350061

  18. Reliability-oriented environmental thermal stress analysis of fuses in power electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, A. S.; Iannuzzo, F.; Holmgaard, T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the thermo-mechanical stress experienced by axial lead fuses used in power electronics. Based on some experience, the approach used in this paper is pure thermal cycling, and the found failure mechanisms have been investigated through X-ray imaging. A two-step analysis, i...... element has been confirmed thanks to the analysis performed. Finally, the fatigue analysis is presented obtained by FEM-based fatigue tool....

  19. Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself.

  20. Meta-analysis of studies using suppression subtractive hybridization and microarrays to investigate the effects of environmental stress on gene transcription in oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kelli; Taylor, Daisy A; Thompson, Emma L; Melwani, Aroon R; Nair, Sham V; Raftos, David A

    2015-01-01

    Many microarray and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) studies have analyzed the effects of environmental stress on gene transcription in marine species. However, there have been no unifying analyses of these data to identify common stress response pathways. To address this shortfall, we conducted a meta-analysis of 14 studies that investigated the effects of different environmental stressors on gene expression in oysters. The stressors tested included chemical contamination, hypoxia and infection, as well as extremes of temperature, pH and turbidity. We found that the expression of over 400 genes in a range of oyster species changed significantly after exposure to environmental stress. A repeating pattern was evident in these transcriptional responses, regardless of the type of stress applied. Many of the genes that responded to environmental stress encoded proteins involved in translation and protein processing (including molecular chaperones), the mitochondrial electron transport chain, anti-oxidant activity and the cytoskeleton. In light of these findings, we put forward a consensus model of sub-cellular stress responses in oysters.

  1. Environmental Sustainability of Agriculture Stressed by Changing Extremes of Drought and Excess Moisture: A Conceptual Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Wheaton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the climate changes, the effects of agriculture on the environment may change. In the future, an increasing frequency of climate extremes, such as droughts, heat waves, and excess moisture, is expected. Past research on the interaction between environment and resources has focused on climate change effects on various sectors, including agricultural production (especially crop production, but research on the effects of climate change using agri-environmental indicators (AEI of environmental sustainability of agriculture is limited. The aim of this paper was to begin to address this knowledge gap by exploring the effects of future drought and excess moisture on environmental sustainability of agriculture. Methods included the use of a conceptual framework, literature reviews, and an examination of the climate sensitivities of the AEI models. The AEIs assessed were those for the themes of soil and water quality, and farmland management as developed by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Additional indicators included one for desertification and another for water supply and demand. The study area was the agricultural region of the Canadian Prairie Provinces. We found that the performance of several indicators would likely decrease in a warming climate with more extremes. These indicators with declining performances included risks for soil erosion, soil salinization, desertification, water quality and quantity, and soil contamination. Preliminary trends of other indicators such as farmland management were not clear. AEIs are important tools for measuring climate impacts on the environmental sustainability of agriculture. They also indicate the success of adaptation measures and suggest areas of operational and policy development. Therefore, continued reporting and enhancement of these indicators is recommended.

  2. Environmental stress, ageing and glial cell senescence: a novel mechanistic link to Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinta, S J; Lieu, C A; Demaria, M; Laberge, R-M; Campisi, J; Andersen, J K

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to environmental toxins is associated with a variety of age-related diseases including cancer and neurodegeneration. For example, in Parkinson's disease (PD), chronic environmental exposure to certain toxins has been linked to the age-related development of neuropathology. Neuronal damage is believed to involve the induction of neuroinflammatory events as a consequence of glial cell activation. Cellular senescence is a potent anti-cancer mechanism that occurs in a number of proliferative cell types and causes the arrest of proliferation of cells at risk of malignant transformation following exposure to potentially oncogenic stimuli. With age, senescent cells accumulate and express a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP; that is the robust secretion of many inflammatory cytokines, growth factors and proteases). Whereas cell senescence in peripheral tissues has been causally linked to a number of age-related pathologies, little is known about the induction of cellular senescence and the SASP in the brain. On the basis of recently reported findings, we propose that environmental stressors associated with PD may act in part by eliciting senescence and the SASP within non neuronal glial cells in the ageing brain, thus contributing to the characteristic decline in neuronal integrity that occurs in this disorder. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  3. Environmental stress, ageing and glial cell senescence: a novel mechanistic link to Parkinson’s disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinta, Shankar J; Lieu, Christopher A; DeMaria, Marco; Laberge, Remi-Martin; Campisi, Judith; Andersen, Julie K

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to environmental toxins is associated with a variety of age-related diseases including cancer and neurodegeneration. For example, in Parkinson’s disease (PD), chronic environmental exposure to certain toxins has been linked to the age-related development of neuropathology. Neuronal damage is believed to involve the induction of neuroinflammatory events as a consequence of glial cell activation. Cellular senescence is a potent anti-cancer mechanism that occurs in a number of proliferative cell types and causes the arrest of proliferation of cells at risk of malignant transformation following exposure to potentially oncogenic stimuli. With age, senescent cells accumulate and express a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP; i.e. the robust secretion of many inflammatory cytokines, growth factors and proteases). Whereas cell senescence in peripheral tissues has been causally linked to a number of age-related pathologies, little is known about the induction of cellular senescence and the SASP in the brain. Based on recently reported findings, we propose that environmental stressors associated with PD may act in part by eliciting senescence and the SASP within non-neuronal glial cells in the ageing brain, thus contributing to the characteristic decline in neuronal integrity that occurs in this disorder. PMID:23600398

  4. Expression profile of mce4 operon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis following environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathor, Nisha; Garima, Kushal; Sharma, Naresh Kumar; Narang, Anshika; Varma-Basil, Mandira; Bose, Mridula

    2016-09-01

    The mce4 operon is one of the four mce operons with eight genes (yrbE4A, yrbE4B, mce4A, mce4B, mce4C, mce4D, mce4E and mce4F) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It expresses in the later phase of infection and imports cholesterol for long term survival of the bacilli. To cause latent infection, M. tuberculosis undergoes metabolic reprogramming of its genes to survive in the hostile environment like low availability of oxygen and nutrition depletion inside the host. To analyze real time expression profile of mce4 operon under various stress conditions. M. tuberculosis H37Rv was exposed to surface stress (0.1% SDS for 30min and 90min in late log and stationary phase of culture), hypoxia (5, 10, 15 and 20days) and grown in the presence of either glycerol or cholesterol as sole source of carbon. The expression profile of genes of mce4 operon was analyzed by real time PCR. Surface stress induced expression of mce4C and yrbE4B in late log phase on 30min and 90min exposure respectively. The SDS exposure for 30min induced mce4C, mce4D and mce4F in stationary phase. All eight genes were induced significantly on 10th and 15th days of hypoxia and in the presence of cholesterol. Hypoxia and cholesterol are potent factors for the expression of mce4 operon of M. tuberculosis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The psoriasis sufferers report emotional stress for multiple environmental effects on their quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesar, S.M.; Bajaj, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    The people suffering from psoriasis were recruited for the study. The interaction of the people with affected persons in routine life and the effects of, environment and diet in take developed stress and psychological depression in psoriatic patients. The nature of work and the atmosphere of working place, play an important role in metabolic and emotional variations. It has been observed that the inter action between the mind and skin is obvious in psoriasis sufferers for which they report their complains like anxiety, depression, avoiding nature, and non cooperative in taking drugs. (author)

  6. Report for Development of a Census Array and Evaluation of the Array to Detect Biothreat Agents and Environmental Samples for DHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, C; Jackson, P

    2011-04-14

    The objective of this project is to provide DHS a comprehensive evaluation of the current genomic technologies including genotyping, Taqman PCR, multiple locus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing in the analysis of biothreat agents from complex environmental samples. This report focuses on the design, testing and results of samples on the Census Array. We designed a Census/Detection Array to detect all sequenced viruses (including phage), bacteria (eubacteria), and plasmids. Family-specific probes were selected for all sequenced viral and bacterial complete genomes, segments, and plasmids. Probes were designed to tolerate some sequence variation to enable detection of divergent species with homology to sequenced organisms, and to be unique relative to the human genome. A combination of 'detection' probes with high levels of conservation within a family plus 'census' probes targeting strain/isolate specific regions enabled detection and taxonomic classification from the level of family down to the strain. The array has wider coverage of bacterial and viral targets based on more recent sequence data and more probes per target than other microbial detection/discovery arrays in the literature. We tested the array with purified bacterial and viral DNA/RNA samples, artificial mixes of known bacterial/viral samples, spiked DNA against complex background including BW aerosol samples and soil samples, and environmental samples to evaluate the array's sensitivity and forensic capability. The data were analyzed using our novel maximum likelihood software. For most of the organisms tested, we have achieved at least species level discrimination.

  7. Immature oxidative stress management as a unifying principle in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis: insights from an agent-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moses; Christley, Scott; Alverdy, John C; Liu, Donald; An, Gary

    2012-02-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a complex disease involving prematurity, enteral feeding, and bacterial effects. We propose that the underlying initial condition in its pathogenesis is reduced ability of the neonatal gut epithelial cells (NGECs) to clear oxidative stress (OS), and that when such a NGEC population is exposed to enteral feeding, the increased metabolic OS tips the population toward apoptosis, inflammation, bacterial activation, and eventual necrosis. The multi-factorial complexity of NEC requires characterization with computational modeling, and herein, we used an agent-based model (ABM) to instantiate and examine our unifying hypothesis of the pathogenesis of NEC. An ABM of the neonatal gut was created with NGEC computational agents incorporating rules for pathways for OS, p53, tight junctions, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, nitric oxide, and nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-κB). The modeled bacteria activated TLR-4 on contact with NGECs. Simulations included parameter sweeps of OS response, response to feeding, addition of bacteria, and alterations in gut mucus production. The ABM reproduced baseline cellular respiration and clearance of OS. Reduction in OS clearance consistent with clinical NEC led to senescence, apoptosis, or inflammation, with disruption of tight junctions, but rarely to NGEC necrosis. An additional "hit" of bacteria activating TLR-4 potentiated a shift to NGEC necrosis across the entire population. The mucus layer was modeled to limit bacterial-NGEC interactions and reduce this effect, but concomitant apoptosis in the goblet cell population reduced the efficacy of the mucus layer and limited its protective effect in simulated experiments. This finding suggests a means by which increased apoptosis at the cellular population level can lead to a transition to the necrosis outcome. Our ABM incorporates known components of NEC and demonstrates that impaired OS management can lead to apoptosis and inflammation of NGECs, rendering the

  8. Secondary metabolism and antioxidants are involved in environmental adaptation and stress tolerance in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Myung-Min; Trick, Harold N; Rajashekar, C B

    2009-01-30

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants grown in a protective environment, similar to in vitro conditions, were acclimated in a growth chamber and subjected to water stress to examine the activation of genes involved in secondary metabolism and biosynthesis of antioxidants. The expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), gamma-tocopherol methyl transferase (gamma-TMT) and l-galactose dehydrogenase (l-GalDH) genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid, respectively, were determined during plant adaptation. These genes were activated in tender plants, grown under protective conditions, when exposed to normal growing conditions in a growth chamber. A large increase in transcript level for PAL, a key gene in the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to the biosynthesis of a wide array of phenolics and flavonoids, was observed within 1h of exposure of tender plants to normal growing conditions. Plant growth, especially the roots, was retarded in tender plants when exposed to normal growing conditions. Furthermore, exposure of both protected and unprotected plants to water stress resulted in the activation of PAL. PAL inhibition by 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid (AIP) rendered these plants more sensitive to chilling and heat shock treatments. These results suggest that activation of secondary metabolism as well as the antioxidative metabolism is an integral part of plant adaptation to normal growing conditions in lettuce plants.

  9. Antenatal environmental stress and maturation of the breathing control, experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayetanot, F; Larnicol, N; Peyronnet, J

    2009-08-31

    The nervous respiratory system undergoes postnatal maturation and yet still must be functional at birth. Any antenatal suboptimal environment could upset either its building prenatally and/or its maturation after birth. Here, we would like to briefly summarize some of the major stresses leading to clinical postnatal respiratory dysfunction that can occur during pregnancy, we then relate them to experimental models that have been developed in order to better understand the underlying mechanisms implicated in the respiratory dysfunctions observed in neonatal care units. Four sections are aimed to review our current knowledge based on experimental data. The first will deal with the metabolic factors such as oxygen and glucose, the second with consumption of psychotropic substances (nicotine, cocaine, alcohol, morphine, cannabis and caffeine), the third with psychoactive molecules commonly consumed by pregnant women within a therapeutic context and/or delivered to premature neonates in critical care units (benzodiazepine, caffeine). In the fourth section, we take into account care protocols involving extended maternal-infant separation due to isolation in incubators. The effects of this stress potentially adds to those previously described.

  10. Environmental Degradation of Materials: Surface Chemistry Related to Stress Corrosion Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Parallel experiments have been performed in order to develop a comprehensive model for stress cracking (SCC) in structural materials. The central objective is to determine the relationship between the activity and selectivity of the microstructure of structural materials to their dissolution kinetics and experimentally measured SCC kinetics. Zinc was chosen as a prototype metal system. The SCC behavior of two oriented single-crystal disks of zinc in a chromic oxide/sodium sulfate solution (Palmerton solution) were determined. It was found that: (1) the dissolution rate is strongly (hkil)-dependent and proportional to the exposure time in the aggressive environment; and (2) a specific slip system is selectively active to dissolution under applied stress and this slip line controls crack initiation and propagation. As a precursor to potential microgrvity experiments, electrophoretic mobility measurements of zinc particles were obtained in solutions of sodium sulfate (0.0033 M) with concentrations of dissolved oxygen from 2 to 8 ppm. The equilibrium distribution of exposed oriented planes as well as their correlation will determine the particle mobility.

  11. Metabolomic analysis of the selection response of Drosophila melanogaster to environmental stress: are there links to gene expression and phenotypic traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmendal, Anders; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Overgaard, Johannes; Holmstrup, Martin; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the global metabolite response to artificial selection for tolerance to stressful conditions such as cold, heat, starvation, and desiccation, and for longevity in Drosophila melanogaster. Our findings were compared to data from other levels of biological organization, including gene expression, physiological traits, and organismal stress tolerance phenotype. Overall, we found that selection for environmental stress tolerance changes the metabolomic 1H NMR fingerprint largely in a similar manner independent of the trait selected for, indicating that experimental evolution led to a general stress selection response at the metabolomic level. Integrative analyses across data sets showed little similarity when general correlations between selection effects at the level of the metabolome and gene expression were compared. This is likely due to the fact that the changes caused by these selection regimes were rather mild and/or that the dominating determinants for gene expression and metabolite levels were different. However, expression of a number of genes was correlated with the metabolite data. Many of the identified genes were general stress response genes that are down-regulated in response to selection for some of the stresses in this study. Overall, the results illustrate that selection markedly alters the metabolite profile and that the coupling between different levels of biological organization indeed is present though not very strong for stress selection at this level. The results highlight the extreme complexity of environmental stress adaptation and the difficulty of extrapolating and interpreting responses across levels of biological organization.

  12. Effect of environmental enrichment exposure on neuronal morphology of streptozotocin-induced diabetic and stressed rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Pamidi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental enrichment (EE exposure is known to influence the structural changes in the neuronal network of hippocampus. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of EE exposure on the streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic and stressed rat hippocampus. Methods: Male albino rats of Wistar strain (4-5 weeks old were grouped into normal control (NC, vehicle control (VC, diabetes (DI, diabetes + stress (DI + S, diabetes + EE (DI + E, and diabetes + stress + EE (DI + S + E groups (n = 8 in each group. Rats were exposed to stress and EE after inducing diabetes with STZ (40 mg/kg. Rats were sacrificed on Day 30 and brain sections were processed for cresyl violet staining to quantify the number of surviving neurons in the CA1, CA3, and dentate hilus (DH regions of hippocampus. Results: A significant (p < 0.001 decrease in the number of survived neurons was noticed in DI (CA1, 34.06 ± 3.2; CA3, 36.1 ± 3.62; DH, 9.83 ± 2.02 as well as DI + S (CA1, 14.03 ± 3.12; CA3, 20.27 ± 4.09; DH, 6.4 ± 1.21 group rats compared to NC rats (CA1, 53.64 ± 2.96; CA3, 62.1 ± 3.34; DH, 21.11 ± 1.03. A significant (p < 0.001 increase in the number of survived neurons was observed in DI + E (CA1, 42.3 ± 3.66; CA3, 46.73 ± 4.74; DH, 17.03 ± 2.19 and DI + S + E (CA1, 29.69 ± 4.47; CA3, 36.73 ± 3.89; DH, 12.23 ± 2.36 group rats compared to DI and DI + S groups, respectively. Conclusions: EE exposure significantly reduced the amount of neuronal damage caused by complications of diabetes and stress to the neurons of hippocampus.

  13. Genome-Wide Identification of the PHD-Finger Family Genes and Their Responses to Environmental Stresses in Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingzhe; Yang, Junkai; Cui, Na; Zhu, Yanming

    2017-01-01

    The PHD-finger family has been demonstrated to be involved in regulating plant growth and development. However, little information is given for its role in environmental stress responses. Here, we identified a total of 59 PHD family genes in the rice genome. These OsPHDs genes were located on eleven chromosomes and synteny analysis only revealed nine duplicated pairs within the rice PHD family. Phylogenetic analysis of all OsPHDs and PHDs from other species revealed that they could be grouped into two major clusters. Furthermore, OsPHDs were clustered into eight groups and members from different groups displayed a great divergence in terms of gene structure, functional domains and conserved motifs. We also found that with the exception of OsPHD6, all OsPHDs were expressed in at least one of the ten tested tissues and OsPHDs from certain groups were expressed in specific tissues. Moreover, our results also uncovered differential responses of OsPHDs expression to environmental stresses, including ABA (abscisic acid), water deficit, cold and high Cd. By using quantitative real-time PCR, we further confirmed the differential expression of OsPHDs under these stresses. OsPHD1/7/8/13/33 were differentially expressed under water deficit and Cd stresses, while OsPHD5/17 showed altered expression under water deficit and cold stresses. Moreover, OsPHD3/44/28 displayed differential expression under ABA and Cd stresses. In conclusion, our results provide valuable information on the rice PHD family in plant responses to environmental stress, which will be helpful for further characterizing their biological roles in responding to environmental stresses.

  14. Environmental stresses of field growth allow cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient Nicotiana attenuata plants to compensate for their structural deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harleen; Shaker, Kamel; Heinzel, Nicolas; Ralph, John; Gális, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T

    2012-08-01

    The organized lignocellulosic assemblies of cell walls provide the structural integrity required for the large statures of terrestrial plants. Silencing two CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) genes in Nicotiana attenuata produced plants (ir-CAD) with thin, red-pigmented stems, low CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity, low lignin contents, and rubbery, structurally unstable stems when grown in the glasshouse (GH). However, when planted into their native desert habitat, ir-CAD plants produced robust stems that survived wind storms as well as the wild-type plants. Despite efficient silencing of NaCAD transcripts and enzymatic activity, field-grown ir-CAD plants had delayed and restricted spread of red stem pigmentation, a color change reflecting blocked lignification by CAD silencing, and attained wild-type-comparable total lignin contents. The rubbery GH phenotype was largely restored when field-grown ir-CAD plants were protected from wind, herbivore attack, and ultraviolet B exposure and grown in restricted rooting volumes; conversely, it was lost when ir-CAD plants were experimentally exposed to wind, ultraviolet B, and grown in large pots in growth chambers. Transcript and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight analysis revealed that these environmental stresses enhanced the accumulation of various phenylpropanoids in stems of field-grown plants; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that the lignin of field-grown ir-CAD plants had GH-grown comparable levels of sinapaldehyde and syringaldehyde cross-linked into their lignins. Additionally, field-grown ir-CAD plants had short, thick stems with normal xylem element traits, which collectively enabled field-grown ir-CAD plants to compensate for the structural deficiencies associated with CAD silencing. Environmental stresses play an essential role in regulating lignin biosynthesis in lignin-deficient plants.

  15. Elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis–Results from a Population-Based 6-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Matthias; Jekauc, Darko; Worth, Annette; Woll, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to contribute to the elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis framework by testing eight hypotheses addressing the direct impact of gross motor coordination problems in elementary-school on selected physical, behavioral and psychosocial outcomes in adolescence. Results are based on a longitudinal sample of 940 participants who were (i) recruited as part of a population-based representative survey on health, physical fitness and physical activity in childhood and adolescence, (ii) assessed twice within 6 years, between the ages of 6 and 10 years old as well as between the ages of 12 and 16 years old (Response Rate: 55.9%) and (iii) classified as having gross motor coordination problems (N = 115) or having no gross motor coordination problems (N = 825) at baseline. Motor tests from the Körperkoordinationstest, measures of weight and height, a validated physical activity questionnaire as well as the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were conducted. Data were analyzed by use of binary logistic regressions. Results indicated that elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems show a higher risk of persistent gross motor coordination problems (OR = 7.99, p gross motor coordination problems. However, elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems did not show a significantly higher risk of peer problems (OR = 1.35, p = 0.164) or diminished prosocial behavior (OR = 1.90, p = 0.168) in adolescence, respectively in comparison to elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. This study is the first to provide population-based longitudinal data ranging from childhood to adolescence in the context of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis which can be considered a substantial methodological progress. In summary, gross motor coordination problems represent a serious issue for a healthy transition from childhood to adolescence which substantiates respective early movement

  16. Microbiological Diversity Demonstrates the Potential which Collaboratively Metabolize Nitrogen Oxides ( NOx) under Smog Environmental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. Z.; Zhao, X. H.; Chen, X. P.

    2018-03-01

    Recently, smoggy weather has become a daily in large part of China because of rapidly economic growth and accelerative urbanization. Stressed on the smoggy situation and economic growth, the green and environment-friendly technology is necessary to reduce or eliminate the smog and promote the sustainable development of economy. Previous studies had confirmed that nitrogen oxides ( NOx ) is one of crucial factors which forms smog. Microorganisms have the advantages of quickly growth and reproduction and metabolic diversity which can collaboratively Metabolize various NOx. This study will design a kind of bacteria & algae cultivation system which can metabolize collaboratively nitrogen oxides in air and intervene in the local nitrogen cycle. Furthermore, the nitrogen oxides can be transformed into nitrogen gas or assembled in protein in microorganism cell by regulating the microorganism types and quantities and metabolic pathways in the system. Finally, the smog will be alleviated or eliminated because of reduction of nitrogen oxides emission. This study will produce the green developmental methodology.

  17. Selective environmental stress from sulphur emitted by continental flood basalt eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anja; Skeffington, Richard; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Self, Stephen; Forster, Piers; Rap, Alexandru; Ridgwell, Andy; Fowler, David; Wilson, Marjorie; Mann, Graham; Wignall, Paul; Carslaw, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Several biotic crises during the past 300 million years have been linked to episodes of continental flood basalt volcanism, and in particular to the release of massive quantities of magmatic sulphur gas species. Flood basalt provinces were typically formed by numerous individual eruptions, each lasting years to decades. However, the environmental impact of these eruptions may have been limited by the occurrence of quiescent periods that lasted hundreds to thousands of years. Here we use a global aerosol model to quantify the sulphur-induced environmental effects of individual, decade-long flood basalt eruptions representative of the Columbia River Basalt Group, 16.5-14.5 million years ago, and the Deccan Traps, 65 million years ago. For a decade-long eruption of Deccan scale, we calculate a decadal-mean reduction in global surface temperature of 4.5 K, which would recover within 50 years after an eruption ceased unless climate feedbacks were very different in deep-time climates. Acid mists and fogs could have caused immediate damage to vegetation in some regions, but acid-sensitive land and marine ecosystems were well-buffered against volcanic sulphur deposition effects even during century-long eruptions. We conclude that magmatic sulphur from flood basalt eruptions would have caused a biotic crisis only if eruption frequencies and lava discharge rates had been high and sustained for several centuries at a time.

  18. Benthic macrofaunal dynamics and environmental stress across a salt wedge Mediterranean estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebra, Alfonso; Alcaraz, Carles; Caiola, Nuno; Muñoz-Camarillo, Gloria; Ibáñez, Carles

    2016-06-01

    The spatial distribution of benthic macroinvertebrate community in relation to environmental factors was studied along the Ebro Estuary (NE Iberian Peninsula), a salt wedge Mediterranean estuary. Both ordination methods and generalized additive models were performed to identify the different benthic assemblages and their relationship to abiotic factors. Our results showed a strong relationship between macrofaunal assemblages and the predominant environmental gradients (e.g. salinity); thus revealing spatial differences in their structure and composition. Two different stretches were identified, namely the upper (UE) and the lower Ebro Estuary (LE). UE showed riverine characteristics and hence was colonized by a freshwater community; whereas LE was influenced by marine intrusion and sustained a complex marine-origin community. However, within each stretch, water and sediment characteristics played an important role in explaining species composition differences among sampling stations. Moreover, outcomes suggested a total species replacement pattern, instead of the nestedness pattern usually associated with well-mixed temperate estuaries. The sharp species turnover together with the estuarine stratification point out that the Ebro Estuary is working, in terms of ecological boundaries, under an ecotone model. Finally, despite obvious differences with well mixed estuaries (i.e. lack of tidal influence, stratification and species turnover), the Ebro Estuary shares important ecological attributes with well-mixed temperate estuaries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Environmental enrichment reduces chronic psychosocial stress-induced anxiety and ethanol-related behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine

    2017-07-03

    Previous research from our laboratory has shown that exposure to chronic psychosocial stress increased voluntary ethanol consumption and preference as well as acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice. This study was done to determine whether an enriched environment could have "curative" effects on chronic psychosocial stress-induced ethanol intake and CPP. For this purpose, experimental mice "intruders" were exposed to the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) housing for 19 consecutive days in the presence of an aggressive "resident" mouse. At the end of that period, mice were tested for their anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze (EPM) test then housed in a standard or enriched environment (SE or EE respectively). Anxiety and ethanol-related behaviors were investigated using the open field (OF) test, a standard two-bottle choice drinking paradigm, and the CPP procedure. As expected, CSC exposure increased anxiety-like behavior and reduced weight gain as compared to single housed colony (SHC) controls. In addition, CSC exposure increased voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol-CPP. Interestingly, we found that EE significantly and consistently reduced anxiety and ethanol consumption and preference. However, neither tastants' (saccharin and quinine) intake nor blood ethanol metabolism were affected by EE. Finally, and most importantly, EE reduced the acquisition of CPP induced by 1.5g/kg ethanol. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that EE can reduce voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned reward and seems to be one of the strategies to reduce the behavioral deficits and the risk of anxiety-induced alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental prenatal stress eliminates brain and maternal behavioral sex differences and alters hormone levels in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cerro, M C R; Ortega, E; Gómez, F; Segovia, S; Pérez-Laso, C

    2015-07-01

    Environmental prenatal stress (EPS) has effects on fetuses that are long-lasting, altering their hormone levels, brain morphology and behavior when they reach maturity. In previous research, we demonstrated that EPS affects the expression of induced maternal behavior (MB), the neuroendocrine system, and morphology of the sexually dimorphic accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) involved in reproductive behavior patterns. The bed nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (BAOT) is another vomeronasal (VN) structure that plays an inhibitory role in rats in the expression of induced maternal behavior in female and male virgins. In the present study, we have ascertained whether the behavioral, neuroendocrine, and neuromorphological alterations of the AOB found after EPS also appear in the BAOT. After applying EPS to pregnant rats during the late gestational period, in their female offspring at maturity we tested induced maternal behavior, BAOT morphology and plasma levels of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (Cpd B). EPS: a) affected the induction of MB, showed a male-like pattern of care for pups, b) elevated plasma levels of Cpd B and reduced E2 in comparison with the controls, and c) significantly increased the number of BAOT neurons compared to the control females and comparable to the control male group. These findings provide further evidence that stress applied to pregnant rats produces long-lasting behavioral, endocrine and neuroanatomical alterations in the female offspring that are evident when they become mature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental heat stress enhances mental fatigue during sustained attention task performing: evidence from an ASL perfusion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shaowen; Li, Min; Li, Guoying; Liu, Kai; Li, Bo; Jiang, Qingjun; Li, Li; Yang, Zhen; Sun, Gang

    2015-03-01

    This study was to investigate the potential enhancing effect of heat stress on mental fatigue progression during sustained attention task using arterial spin labeling (ASL) imaging. Twenty participants underwent two thermal exposures in an environmental chamber: normothermic (NT) condition (25°C, 1h) and hyperthermic (HT) condition (50°C, 1h). After thermal exposure, they performed a twenty-minute psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) in the scanner. Behavioral analysis revealed progressively increasing subjective fatigue ratings and reaction time as PVT progressed. Moreover, heat stress caused worse performance. Perfusion imaging analyses showed significant resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations after heat exposure. Specifically, increased CBF mainly gathered in thalamic-brainstem area while decreased CBF predominantly located in fronto-parietal areas, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and medial frontal cortex. More importantly, diverse CBF distributions and trend of changes between both conditions were observed as the fatigue level progressed during subsequent PVT task. Specifically, higher CBF and enhanced rising trend were presented in superior parietal lobe, precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, while lower CBF or inhibited rising trend was found in dorsolateral frontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, inferior parietal lobe and thalamic-brainstem areas. Furthermore, the decrease of post-heat resting-state CBF in fronto-parietal cortex was correlated with subsequent slower reaction time, suggesting prior disturbed resting-state CBF might be indicator of performance potential and fatigue level in following task. These findings may provide proof for such a view: heat stress has a potential fatigue-enhancing effect when individual is performing highly cognition-demanding attention task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a Framework for Understanding the Association between Motor Skills and Internalizing Problems: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Oreste Mancini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor motor skills have been shown to be associated with a range of psychosocial issues, including internalizing problems (anxiety and depression. While well-documented empirically, our understanding of why this relationship occurs remains theoretically underdeveloped. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis by Cairney, Rigoli, and Piek (2013 provides a promising framework that seeks to explain the association between motor skills and internalizing problems, specifically in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD. The framework posits that poor motor skills predispose the development of internalizing problems via interactions with intermediary environmental stressors. At the time the model was proposed, limited direct evidence was available to support or refute the framework. Several studies and developments related to the framework have since been published. This mini-review seeks to provide an up-to-date overview of recent developments related to the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis. We briefly discuss the past research that led to its development, before moving to studies that have investigated the framework since it was proposed. While originally developed within the context of DCD in childhood, recent developments have found support for the model in community samples. Through the reviewed literature, this article provides support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a promising theoretical framework that explains the psychosocial correlates across the broader spectrum of motor ability. This evidence promotes the external validity of the framework for use across the broader spectrum of motor ability. However, given its recent conceptualisation, ongoing evaluation of the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis is recommended.

  3. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a Framework for Understanding the Association Between Motor Skills and Internalizing Problems: A Mini-Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Vincent O.; Rigoli, Daniela; Cairney, John; Roberts, Lynne D.; Piek, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills have been shown to be associated with a range of psychosocial issues, including internalizing problems (anxiety and depression). While well-documented empirically, our understanding of why this relationship occurs remains theoretically underdeveloped. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis by Cairney et al. (2013) provides a promising framework that seeks to explain the association between motor skills and internalizing problems, specifically in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The framework posits that poor motor skills predispose the development of internalizing problems via interactions with intermediary environmental stressors. At the time the model was proposed, limited direct evidence was available to support or refute the framework. Several studies and developments related to the framework have since been published. This mini-review seeks to provide an up-to-date overview of recent developments related to the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis. We briefly discuss the past research that led to its development, before moving to studies that have investigated the framework since it was proposed. While originally developed within the context of DCD in childhood, recent developments have found support for the model in community samples. Through the reviewed literature, this article provides support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a promising theoretical framework that explains the psychosocial correlates across the broader spectrum of motor ability. However, given its recent conceptualization, ongoing evaluation of the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis is recommended. PMID:26941690

  4. Assessing adaptability and reactive scope: Introducing a new measure and illustrating its use through a case study of environmental stress in forest-living baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLarnon, A M; Sommer, V; Goffe, A S; Higham, J P; Lodge, E; Tkaczynski, P; Ross, C

    2015-05-01

    In order to maintain regulatory processes, animals are expected to be adapted to the range of environmental stressors usually encountered in their environmental niche. The available capacity of their stress responses is termed their reactive scope, which is utilised to a greater or lesser extent to deal with different stressors. Typically, non-invasive hormone assessment is used to measure the physiological stress responses of wild animals, but, for methodological reasons, such measurements are not directly comparable across studies, limiting interpretation. To overcome this constraint, we propose a new measure of the relative strength of stress responses, 'demonstrated reactive scope', and illustrate its use in a study of ecological correlates (climate, food availability) of faecal glucocorticoid (fGC) levels in two forest-living troops of baboons. Results suggest the wild-feeding troop experiences both thermoregulatory and nutritional stress, while the crop-raiding troop experiences only thermoregulatory stress. This difference, together with the crop-raiding troop's lower overall physiological stress levels and lower demonstrated fGC reactive scope, may reflect nutritional stress-buffering in this troop. The relatively high demonstrated fGC reactive scope levels of both troops compared with other baboons and primate species, may reflect their extreme habitat, on the edge of the geographic range for baboons. Demonstrated reactive scope provides a means of gauging the relative strengths of stress responses of individuals, populations, or species under different conditions, enhancing the interpretive capacity of non-invasive studies of stress hormone levels in wild populations, e.g. in terms of animals' adaptive flexibility, the magnitude of their response to anthropogenic change, or the severity of impact of environmental conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Southwest: a region under stress. [Analysis of environmental, resource-revenues, and water-resources issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.; Kneese, A.V.

    1978-05-01

    The southwestern states of New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, and Arizona share some of the nation's richest natural resources and the poorest people. One goal in the development of the area's resources will be to provide a means of raising the economic level of these people. Three major regional issues (environmental preservation, resource revenues, and water resources) must be faced in terms of the conflicting claims of the states involved. A summary of these issues illustrates the emotional and political strains that have developed. Justification for optimism is seen in the adaptability of new water users, the institutional evolution toward more flexibility in the water rights market, and the growing sophistication and assertiveness of interested parties determined to see that all positions are heard. 14 references.

  6. Peroxisomal monodehydroascorbate reductase. Genomic clone characterization and functional analysis under environmental stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterrier, Marina; Corpas, Francisco J; Barroso, Juan B; Sandalio, Luisa M; del Río, Luis A

    2005-08-01

    In plant cells, ascorbate is a major antioxidant that is involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) is the enzymatic component of this cycle involved in the regeneration of reduced ascorbate. The identification of the intron-exon organization and the promoter region of the pea (Pisum sativum) MDAR 1 gene was achieved in pea leaves using the method of walking polymerase chain reaction on genomic DNA. The nuclear gene of MDAR 1 comprises nine exons and eight introns, giving a total length of 3,770 bp. The sequence of 544 bp upstream of the initiation codon, which contains the promoter and 5' untranslated region, and 190 bp downstream of the stop codon were also determined. The presence of different regulatory motifs in the promoter region of the gene might indicate distinct responses to various conditions. The expression analysis in different plant organs by northern blots showed that fruits had the highest level of MDAR. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of pea leaves transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens having the binary vectors pGD, which contain the autofluorescent proteins enhanced green fluorescent protein and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein with the full-length cDNA for MDAR 1 and catalase, indicated that the MDAR 1 encoded the peroxisomal isoform. The functional analysis of MDAR by activity and protein expression was studied in pea plants grown under eight stress conditions, including continuous light, high light intensity, continuous dark, mechanical wounding, low and high temperature, cadmium, and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. This functional analysis is representative of all the MDAR isoforms present in the different cell compartments. Results obtained showed a significant induction by high light intensity and cadmium. On the other hand, expression studies, performed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated differential expression patterns of

  7. Early stress responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song You; Salbu, Brit; Heier, Lene Sørlie; Teien, Hans-Christian; Lind, Ole-Christian; Oughton, Deborah; Petersen, Karina; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Skipperud, Lindis; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2012-01-01

    Uranium (U) is a naturally occurring heavy metal widely used in many military and civil applications. Uranium contamination and the associated potential adverse effects of U on the aquatic environment have been debated during recent years. In order to understand the effect and mode of action (MoA) of U in vivo, juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were exposed to 0.25 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L waterborne depleted uranyl acetate, respectively, in a static system for 48 h. The U concentrations in the gill and liver were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the resulting biological effects were determined by a combination of analysis of gene expression and micronuclei formation. The hepatic transcriptional level of 12 biomarker genes from four stress–response categories, including oxidative stress (γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (GCS), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)), DNA damage and repair (P53, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (P21), growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene gamma (Gadd45G), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Rad51), apoptosis (Bcl2-associated X protein (BAX), Bcl-x, Caspase 6A,) and protein degradation (Ubiquitin) were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-rtPCR). The results clearly showed accumulation of U in the gill and liver with increasing concentrations of U in the exposure water. The effects of U on differential hepatic gene expression also occurred in a concentration-dependent manner, although deviations from ideal concentration–response relationships were observed at the highest U concentration (1.0 mg/L). All the genes tested were found to be up-regulated by U while no significant micronuclei formation was identified. The results suggest that U may cause oxidative stress in fish liver at concentrations greater than 0.25 mg/L, giving rise to clear induction of several toxicologically relevant biomarker genes, although no significant

  8. The Cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (CYRF-01 Responds to Environmental Stresses with Increased Vesiculation Detected at Single-Cell Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Zarantonello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Secretion of membrane-limited vesicles, collectively termed extracellular vesicles (EVs, is an important biological process of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. This process has been observed in bacteria, but remains to be better characterized at high resolution in cyanobacteria. In the present work, we address the release of EVs by Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (CYRF-01, a filamentous bloom-forming cyanobacterium, exposed to environmental stressors. First, non-axenic cultures of C. raciborskii (CYRF-01 were exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVA + UVB over a 6 h period, which is known to induce structural damage to this species. Second, C. raciborskii was co-cultured in interaction with another cyanobacterium species, Microcystis aeruginosa (MIRF-01, over a 24 h period. After the incubation times, cell density and viability were analyzed, and samples were processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Our ultrastructural analyses revealed that C. raciborskii constitutively releases EVs from the outer membrane during its normal growth and amplifies such ability in response to environmental stressors. Both situations induced significant formation of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs by C. raciborskii compared to control cells. Quantitative TEM revealed an increase of 48% (UV and 60% (interaction in the OMV numbers compared to control groups. Considering all groups, the OMVs ranged in size from 20 to 300 nm in diameter, with most OMVs showing diameters between 20 and 140 nm. Additionally, we detected that OMV formation is accompanied by phosphatidylserine exposure, a molecular event also observed in EV-secreting eukaryotic cells. Altogether, we identified for the first time that C. raciborskii has the competence to secrete OMVs and that under different stress situations the genesis of these vesicles is increased. The amplified ability of cyanobacteria to release OMVs may be associated with adaptive responses to changes in environmental

  9. Development of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of chemical warfare agent and their degradation products in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawała, Jakub; Czupryński, Krzysztof; Popiel, Stanisław; Dziedzic, Daniel; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-08-24

    After World War II approximately 50,000 tons of chemical weapons were dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Soviet Union under the provisions of the Potsdam Conference on Disarmament. These dumped chemical warfare agents still possess a major threat to the marine environment and to human life. Therefore, continue monitoring of these munitions is essential. In this work, we present the application of new solid phase microextraction fibers in analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products. It can be concluded that the best fiber for analysis of sulfur mustard and its degradation products is butyl acrylate (BA), whereas for analysis of organoarsenic compounds and chloroacetophenone, the best fiber is a co-polymer of methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate (MA/MMA). In order to achieve the lowest LOD and LOQ the samples should be divided into two subsamples. One of them should be analyzed using a BA fiber, and the second one using a MA/MMA fiber. When the fast analysis is required, the microextraction should be performed by use of a butyl acrylate fiber because the extraction efficiency of organoarsenic compounds for this fiber is acceptable. Next, we have elaborated of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of CWA degradation products in environmental samples using laboratory obtained fibers The analytical method for analysis of organosulfur and organoarsenic compounds was optimized and validated. The LOD's for all target chemicals were between 0.03 and 0.65 ppb. Then, the analytical method developed by us, was used for the analysis of sediment and pore water samples from the Baltic Sea. During these studies, 80 samples were analyzed. It was found that 25 sediments and 5 pore water samples contained CWA degradation products such as 1,4-dithiane, 1,4-oxathiane or triphenylarsine, the latter being a component of arsine oil. The obtained data is evidence that the CWAs present in the Baltic Sea have leaked into the general marine environment. Copyright

  10. Friend or foe? Reactive oxygen species production, scavenging and signaling in plant response to environmental stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnocka, Weronika; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2018-01-10

    In the natural environment, plants are exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stress conditions that trigger rapid changes in the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The production and scavenging of ROS is compartmentalized, which means that, depending on stimuli type, they can be generated and eliminated in different cellular compartments such as the apoplast, plasma membrane, chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum. Although the accumulation of ROS is generally harmful to cells, ROS play an important role in signaling pathways that regulate acclimatory and defense responses in plants, such as systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR). However, high accumulations of ROS can also trigger redox homeostasis disturbance which can lead to cell death, and in consequence, to a limitation in biomass and yield production. Different ROS have various half-lifetimes and degrees of reactivity toward molecular components such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Thus, they play different roles in intra- and extra-cellular signaling. Despite their possible damaging effect, ROS should mainly be considered as signaling molecules that regulate local and systemic acclimatory and defense responses. Over the past two decades it has been proven that ROS together with non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), hormones, Ca 2+ waves, and electrical signals are the main players in SAA and SAR, two physiological processes essential for plant survival and productivity in unfavorable conditions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Access to environmental reward mediates the relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol problems and craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuff, Samuel F; Luciano, Matthew T; Soltis, Kathryn E; Joyner, Keanan J; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan; Murphy, James G

    2018-04-01

    Symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) show significant comorbidity with alcohol use, but little is known about the mechanisms that might account for this comorbidity. Deficits in reward functioning have long been implicated in alcohol misuse and more recently in PTS reactions, but no study has examined whether reward deprivation may serve as a transdiagnostic risk factor for comorbid PTS-alcohol misuse. The current cross-sectional study sought to test the behavioral economic hypothesis that reward deprivation would be related to both PTS symptoms and alcohol problems, and would mediate the relation between PTS symptoms and alcohol problems in college students. We recruited a diverse sample of urban college students (N = 203, M age = 21.5 years, SD = 5.5; 79.5% female; 56.8% White, 28.1% Black, .9% Asian, 9.8% Multiracial) who endorsed both alcohol use and PTS symptoms. Reward deprivation (lack of access to, and ability to, experience reward) was related to alcohol problems, and a lack of access to reward was related to PTS symptoms. Furthermore, reward access mediated the relation between PTS symptoms and alcohol problems and craving, after controlling for alcohol use, age, gender, and race. These data provide preliminary support for behavioral economic models of alcohol comorbidity and suggest that treatments for combined PTS and alcohol misuse should attempt to reduce barriers to accessing natural rewards. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Explicit control of adaptive automation under different levels of environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Jürgen; Kao, Chung-Shan; Wastell, David; Nickel, Peter

    2011-08-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of three different forms of explicit control of adaptive automation under low- and high-stress conditions, operationalised by different levels of noise. In total, 60 participants were assigned to one of three types of automation design (free, prompted and forced choice). They were trained for 4 h on a highly automated simulation of a process control environment, called AutoCAMS. This was followed by a 4-h testing session under noise exposure and quiet conditions. Measures of performance, psychophysiology and subjective reactions were taken. The results showed that all three modes of explicit control of adaptive automation modes were able to attenuate the negative effects of noise. This was partly due to the fact that operators opted for higher levels of automation under noise. It also emerged that forced choice showed marginal advantages over the two other automation modes. Statement of Relevance: This work is relevant to the design of adaptive automation since it emphasises the need to consider the impact of work-related stressors during task completion. During the presence of stressors, different forms of operator support through automation may be required than under more favourable working conditions.

  13. Transcriptional Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to Oxidative Stress Mimicking Environmental Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Patricia M.; He, Qiang; Xavier, Antonio V.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pereira, Ines A.C.; Louro, Ricardo O.

    2008-03-12

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria are anaerobes readily found in oxic-anoxic interfaces. Multiple defence pathways against oxidative conditions were identified in these organisms and proposed to be differentially expressed under different concentrations of oxygen, contributing to their ability to survive oxic conditions. In this study, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough cells were exposed to the highest concentration of oxygen that sulphate-reducing bacteria are likely to encounter in natural habitats, and the global transcriptomic response was determined. 307 genes were responsive, with cellular roles in energy metabolism, protein fate, cell envelope and regulatory functions, including multiple genes encoding heat shock proteins, peptidases and proteins with heat shock promoters. Of the oxygen reducing mechanisms of D. vulgaris only the periplasmic hydrogen-dependent mechanism is up-regulated, involving the [NiFeSe]hydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase(s) and the Hmc membrane complex. The oxidative defence response concentrates on damage repair by metal-free enzymes. These data, together with the down regulation of the Fur operon, which restricts the availability of iron, and the lack of response of the PerR operon, suggest that a major effect of this oxygen stress is the inactivation and/or degradation of multiple metalloproteins present in D. vulgaris as a consequence of oxidative damage to their metal clusters.

  14. Blood Volume: Importance and Adaptations to Exercise Training, Environmental Stresses and Trauma/Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N.; Convertino, Victor A.; Eichner, E. Randy; Schnieder, Suzanne M.; Young, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the influence of several perturbations (physical exercise, heat stress, terrestrial altitude, microgravity, and trauma/sickness) on adaptations of blood volume (BV), erythrocyte volume (EV), and plasma volume (PV). Exercise training can induced BV expansion; PV expansion usually occurs immediately, but EV expansion takes weeks. EV and PV expansion contribute to aerobic power improvements associated with exercise training. Repeated heat exposure induces PV expansion but does not alter EV. PV expansion does not improve thermoregulation, but EV expansion improves thermoregulation during exercise in the heat. Dehydration decreases PV (and increases plasma tonicity) which elevates heat strain and reduces exercise performance. High altitude exposure causes rapid (hours) plasma loss. During initial weeks at altitude, EV is unaffected, but a gradual expansion occurs with extended acclimatization. BV adjustments contribute, but are not key, to altitude acclimatization. Microgravity decreases PV and EV which contribute to orthostatic intolerance and decreased exercise capacity in astronauts. PV decreases may result from lower set points for total body water and central venous pressure, which EV decrease bay result form increased erythrocyte destruction. Trauma, renal disease, and chronic diseases cause anemia from hemorrhage and immune activation, which suppressions erythropoiesis. The re-establishment of EV is associated with healing, improved life quality, and exercise capabilities for these injured/sick persons.

  15. Environmental stress affects DNA methylation of a CpG rich promoter region of serotonin transporter gene in a nurse cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka S Alasaari

    Full Text Available Shift-working nurses are exposed to a stressful work environment, which puts them at an increased risk for burnout and depression. We explored the effect of environmental stress on serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4 promoter methylation among nurses from high and low work stress environments.Using bisulfite sequencing, we investigated the methylation status of five CpG residues of a CpG-rich region in the promoter of SLC6A4 by comparing female shift working nurses from a high work stress environment (n = 24 to low work stress environment (n = 25. We also analyzed the association of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism at 5' end of SLC6A4. Work stress was assessed by the Karasek's Model and possible signs of burnout or depression were measured by the Maslach Burnout Index General Survey and Beck Depression Index. Methylation levels were assessed by bisulfite sequencing of DNA extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes. Restriction enzyme treatment followed by standard PCR was used to identify 5-HTTLPR genotypes.We found that nurses in the high stress environment had significantly lower promoter methylation levels at all five CpG residues compared to nurses in the low stress environment (p<0.01. There was no significant interaction of 5-HTTLPR genotype and work stress with methylation (p = 0.58. In unadjusted (bivariate analysis, burnout was not significantly associated to methylation levels. However, when mutually adjusted for both, burnout and work stress were significant contributors (p = 0.038 and p<0.0001 respectively to methylation levels.Our findings show that environmental stress is concurrent with decreased methylation of the SLC6A4 promoter. This may lead to increased transcriptional activity of the gene, increased reuptake of serotonin from synaptic clefts, and termination of the activity of serotonin. This could present a possible coping mechanism for environmental stress in humans that could eventually increase risk for disturbed functional

  16. Cumulative environmental risk in substance abusing women: early intervention, parenting stress, child abuse potential and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Prasanna; Schuler, Maureen E; Black, Maureen M; Kettinger, Laurie; Harrington, Donna

    2003-09-01

    To assess the relationship between cumulative environmental risks and early intervention, parenting attitudes, potential for child abuse and child development in substance abusing mothers. We studied 161 substance-abusing women, from a randomized longitudinal study of a home based early intervention, who had custody of their children through 18 months. The intervention group received weekly home visits in the first 6 months and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were assessed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Children's mental and motor development (Bayley MDI and PDI) and language development (REEL) were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Ten maternal risk factors were assessed: maternal depression, domestic violence, nondomestic violence, family size, incarceration, no significant other in home, negative life events, psychiatric problems, homelessness, and severity of drug use. Level of risk was recoded into four categories (2 or less, 3, 4, and 5 or more), which had adequate cell sizes for repeated measures analysis. Repeated measures analyses were run to examine how level of risk and group (intervention or control) were related to parenting stress, child abuse potential, and children's mental, motor and language development over time. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were higher for women with five risks or more compared with women who had four or fewer risks; children's mental, motor, and language development were not related to level of risk. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on the PDI at 6 and 18 months (107.4 vs. 103.6 and 101.1 vs. 97.2) and had marginally better scores on the MDI at 6 and 12 months (107.7 vs. 104.2 and 103.6 vs. 100.1), compared to the control group. Compared to drug-abusing women with fewer than five risks, women with five or more risks found parenting more stressful and indicated greater inclination towards abusive and neglectful behavior

  17. Demographic Mechanisms of Reef Coral Species Winnowing from Communities under Increased Environmental Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Riegl

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Winnowing of poorly-adapted species from local communities causes shifts/declines in species richness, making ecosystems increasingly ecologically depauperate. Low diversity can be associated with marginality of environments, which is increasing as climate change impacts ecosystems globally. This paper demonstrates the demographic mechanisms (size-specific mortality, growth, fertility; and metapopulation connectivity associated with population-level changes due to thermal stress extremes for five zooxanthellate reef-coral species. Effects vary among species, leading to predictable changes in population size and, consequently, community structure. The Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG is an ecologically marginal reef environment with a subset of Indo-Pacific species, plus endemics. Local heating correlates with changes in coral population dynamics and community structure. Recent population dynamics of PAG corals were quantified in two phases (medium disturbed MD 1998–2010 and 2013–2017, severely disturbed SD 1996/8, 2010/11/12 with two stable states of declining coral frequency and cover. The strongest changes in life-dynamics, as expressed by transition matrices solved for MD and SD periods were in Acropora downingi and Porites harrisoni, which showed significant partial and whole-colony mortality (termed “shrinkers”. But in Dipsastrea pallida, Platygyra daedalea, Cyphastraea microphthalma the changes to life dynamics were more subtle, with only partial tissue mortality (termed “persisters”. Metapopulation models suggested recovery predominantly in species experiencing partial rather than whole-colony mortality. Increased frequency of disturbance caused progressive reduction in coral size, cover, and population fecundity. Also, the greater the frequency of disturbance, the more larval connectivity is required to maintain the metapopulation. An oceanographic model revealed important local larval retention and connectivity primarily between

  18. ER signaling is activated to protect human HaCaT keratinocytes from ER stress induced by environmental doses of UVB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mera, Kentaro; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Tada, Ko-ichi; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro; Kanekura, Takuro

    2010-01-01

    Proteins are folded properly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Various stress such as hypoxia, ischemia and starvation interfere with the ER function, causing ER stress, which is defined by the accumulation of unfolded protein (UP) in the ER. ER stress is prevented by the UP response (UPR) and ER-associated degradation (ERAD). These signaling pathways are activated by three major ER molecules, ATF6, IRE-1 and PERK. Using HaCaT cells, we investigated ER signaling in human keratinocytes irradiated by environmental doses of ultraviolet B (UVB). The expression of Ero1-Lα, an upstream signaling molecule of ER stress, decreased at 1-4 h after 10 mJ/cm 2 irradiation, indicating that the environmental dose of UVB-induced ER stress in HaCaT cells, without growth retardation. Furthermore, expression of intact ATF6 was decreased and it was translocated to the nuclei. The expression of XBP-1, a downstream molecule of IRE-1, which is an ER chaperone whose expression is regulated by XBP-1, and UP ubiquitination were induced by 10 mJ/cm 2 UVB at 4 h. PERK, which regulates apoptosis, was not phosphorylated. Our results demonstrate that UVB irradiation generates UP in HaCaT cells and that the UPR and ERAD systems are activated to protect cells from UVB-induced ER stress. This is the first report to show ER signaling in UVB-irradiated keratinocytes.

  19. Impact of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in women on oxidative stress in the antral follicle and assisted reproduction outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein Nasr; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Nejat, Saharnaz; Rahimi-Foroshani, Abbas

    2013-08-01

    Cigarette smoke contains many oxidants and may alter the human reproduction by inducing oxidative stress (OS) in both active and passive smokers. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on oxidative stress in the follicular fluid and the assisted reproduction outcomes. An observational prospective study was carried out on 236 infertile women, who underwent assisted reproduction cycles. The ETS exposure was assessed using self-reported ETS exposure and the cotinine level in follicular fluid. To evaluate the OS in follicular fluid (FF) malon-di-aldehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. The number of retrieved oocytes, rate of metaphase II stage oocytes, fertilization rate, good cleavage rate, and no-fragmented embryo rate were considered as the assisted reproduction outcomes. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index, duration, and etiology of infertility; P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. The MDA and TAC levels in FF were not related to the self-report number of the weekly ETS exposure and cotinine levels in FF. Also, the number of retrieved oocytes, MII stage oocytes, fertilization rate, good cleavage rate, and no-fragmented embryo rate were not related to the cotinine level and weekly ETS exposure. However, in women whose cotinine levels in FF were lower and equal/above 3.5 ng/ml, the number of retrieved oocytes was higher (12.63 ± .71 vs. 9.28 ± 1.11, P = 0.01). The relationship between the MDA level and cleavage rate (Beta = -18.5, confidence interval-34.9 and-2.1, P assisted reproduction success by influencing the number of available oocytes. Although, the OS in a follicular environment affect the ability of oocytes to reach the specific cleavage stages at appropriate time intervals, it does not mediate poor-assisted reproduction outcomes due to ETS exposure.

  20. Impact of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in women on oxidative stress in the antral follicle and assisted reproduction outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ramezanzadeh, Fatemeh; Esfahani, Mohammad Hosein Nasr; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali Akbar; Nejat, Saharnaz; Rahimi-Foroshani, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoke contains many oxidants and may alter the human reproduction by inducing oxidative stress (OS) in both active and passive smokers. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure on oxidative stress in the follicular fluid and the assisted reproduction outcomes. Materials and Methods: An observational prospective study was carried out on 236 infertile women, who underwent assisted reproduction cycles. The ETS exposure was assessed using self-reported ETS exposure and the cotinine level in follicular fluid. To evaluate the OS in follicular fluid (FF) malon-di-aldehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. The number of retrieved oocytes, rate of metaphase II stage oocytes, fertilization rate, good cleavage rate, and no-fragmented embryo rate were considered as the assisted reproduction outcomes. The results were adjusted for age, body mass index, duration, and etiology of infertility; P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The MDA and TAC levels in FF were not related to the self-report number of the weekly ETS exposure and cotinine levels in FF. Also, the number of retrieved oocytes, MII stage oocytes, fertilization rate, good cleavage rate, and no-fragmented embryo rate were not related to the cotinine level and weekly ETS exposure. However, in women whose cotinine levels in FF were lower and equal/above 3.5 ng/ml, the number of retrieved oocytes was higher (12.63 ± .71 vs. 9.28 ± 1.11, P = 0.01). The relationship between the MDA level and cleavage rate (Beta = −18.5, confidence interval-34.9 and-2.1, P reproduction success by influencing the number of available oocytes. Although, the OS in a follicular environment affect the ability of oocytes to reach the specific cleavage stages at appropriate time intervals, it does not mediate poor-assisted reproduction outcomes due to ETS exposure. PMID:24379845

  1. The Toxicological Mechanisms of Environmental Soot (Black Carbon and Carbon Black: Focus on Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituraj Niranjan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The environmental soot and carbon blacks (CBs cause many diseases in humans, but their underlying mechanisms of toxicity are still poorly understood. Both are formed after the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons but differ in their constituents and percent carbon contents. For the first time, “Sir Percival Pott” described soot as a carcinogen, which was subsequently confirmed by many others. The existing data suggest three main types of diseases due to soot and CB exposures: cancer, respiratory diseases, and cardiovascular dysfunctions. Experimental models revealed the involvement of oxidative stress, DNA methylation, formation of DNA adducts, and Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation as the key mechanisms of soot- and CB-induced cancers. Metals including Si, Fe, Mn, Ti, and Co in soot also contribute in the reactive oxygen species (ROS-mediated DNA damage. Mechanistically, ROS-induced DNA damage is further enhanced by eosinophils and neutrophils via halide (Cl− and Br− dependent DNA adducts formation. The activation of pulmonary dendritic cells, T helper type 2 cells, and mast cells is crucial mediators in the pathology of soot- or CB-induced respiratory disease. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs were also found to modulate T cells functions in respiratory diseases. Particularly, telomerase reverse transcriptase was found to play the critical role in soot- and CB-induced cardiovascular dysfunctions. In this review, we propose integrated mechanisms of soot- and CB-induced toxicity emphasizing the role of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress. We also suggest use of antioxidants and PUFAs as protective strategies against soot- and CB-induced disorders.

  2. Elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis – Results from a population-based 6-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wagner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to contribute to the elaboration of the Environmental Stress Hypothesis framework by testing eight hypotheses addressing the direct impact of gross motor coordination problems in elementary-school on selected physical, behavioral and psychosocial outcomes in adolescence. Results are based on a longitudinal sample of 940 participants who were (i recruited as part of a population-based representative survey on health, physical fitness and physical activity in childhood and adolescence, (ii assessed twice within 6 years, between the ages of 6 and 10 years old as well as between the ages of 12 and 16 years old (Response Rate: 55.9% and (iii classified as having gross motor coordination problems (N = 115 or having no gross motor coordination problems (N = 825 at baseline.Motor tests from the Körperkoordinationstest, measures of weight and height, a validated physical activity questionnaire as well as the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were conducted. Data were analyzed by use of binary logistic regressions. Results indicated that elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems show a higher risk of persistent gross motor coordination problems (OR = 7.99, p < .001, avoiding organized physical activities (OR = 1.53, p < .05, an elevated body mass (OR = 1.78, p < .05, bonding with sedentary peers (OR = 1.84, p < .01 as well as emotional (OR = 1.73, p < .05 and conduct (OR = 1.79, p < .05 problems in adolescence in comparison to elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. However, elementary-school children with gross motor coordination problems did not show a significantly higher risk of peer problems (OR = 1.35, p = .164 or diminished prosocial behavior (OR = 1.90, p = .168 in adolescence, respectively in comparison to elementary-school children without gross motor coordination problems. This study is the first to provide population-based longitudinal data ranging from

  3. Hepato-Nephrocitic System: A Novel Model of Biomarkers for Analysis of the Ecology of Stress in Environmental Biomonitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Camargo Abdalla

    Full Text Available Bombus presents a serious global decline of populations and even loss of species. This phenomenon is complex and multifactorial: environmental degradation due to increasing cultivation and grazing areas, indiscriminate use of agrochemicals, and a plethora of xenobiotics daily discharged in the environment. We proposed that bees have an integrated cell system, which ensures protection against chemical stressors up to a certain limit. Therefore, this hypothesis was tested, exposing workers of Bombus morio to cadmium, a harmful trace metal nowadays widespread in our society. The workers were kept in BOD (26°C, RH 70%, in the dark, fed ad libitum, and divided into a control group (n = 20 and an experimental group (n = 20. For the first group, we offered 2 mL of distilled water; for the experimental groups, 2 mL of cadmium at 1 ppb. In relation to the control group, exposed bees showed that their fat body and hemocytes responded in synchronization with pericardial cells in a topographical and temporal cascade of events, where the fat body is the first barrier against xenobiotics, followed by pericardial cells. The immune cells participate throughout the process. To this system, we proposed the name of hepato-nephrocitic system (HNS, which may explain many phenomena that remain unclear in similar research with Apis mellifera and other species of bees, as shown in this paper. The bee's HNS is a system of highly responsive cells to toxicants, considered a novel parameter for the study of the ecology of stress applied in environmental management.

  4. Neuromuscular Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Timothy P.; Kern, Marialice

    1994-01-01

    Discusses exercise-induced stress that results from motor unit recruitment, the impact of recruitment on selected systemic support systems, and some of the environmental overlays that affect the degree of physiological stress. Adaptations to sustained changes in physical activity and muscle and myotendinous injury induced by stress are examined.…

  5. The Agent of Change: The Agent of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, C. R., Jr.

    This speech examines the role of change agents in third world societies and indicates that the change agent must, to some extent, manipulate the social situation, even if his view of society is a more optimistic one than he finds in reality. If he considers strains and stresses to be the lubricants of change, then his focus on conflict as a…

  6. A-to-I RNA editing in the rat brain is age-dependent, region-specific and sensitive to environmental stress across generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidan, Hiba; Ramaswami, Gokul; Golumbic, Yaela N; Sher, Noa; Malik, Assaf; Barak, Michal; Galiani, Dalia; Dekel, Nava; Li, Jin B; Gaisler-Salomon, Inna

    2018-01-08

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is an epigenetic modification catalyzed by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs), and is especially prevalent in the brain. We used the highly accurate microfluidics-based multiplex PCR sequencing (mmPCR-seq) technique to assess the effects of development and environmental stress on A-to-I editing at 146 pre-selected, conserved sites in the rat prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Furthermore, we asked whether changes in editing can be observed in offspring of stress-exposed rats. In parallel, we assessed changes in ADARs expression levels. In agreement with previous studies, we found editing to be generally higher in adult compared to neonatal rat brain. At birth, editing was generally lower in prefrontal cortex than in amygdala. Stress affected editing at the serotonin receptor 2c (Htr2c), and editing at this site was significantly altered in offspring of rats exposed to prereproductive stress across two generations. Stress-induced changes in Htr2c editing measured with mmPCR-seq were comparable to changes measured with Sanger and Illumina sequencing. Developmental and stress-induced changes in Adar and Adarb1 mRNA expression were observed but did not correlate with editing changes. Our findings indicate that mmPCR-seq can accurately detect A-to-I RNA editing in rat brain samples, and confirm previous accounts of a developmental increase in RNA editing rates. Our findings also point to stress in adolescence as an environmental factor that alters RNA editing patterns several generations forward, joining a growing body of literature describing the transgenerational effects of stress.

  7. Theoretical prediction of energy release rate for interface crack initiation by thermal stress in environmental barrier coatings for ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, E; Umeno, Y

    2017-01-01

    As weight reduction of turbines for aircraft engines is demanded to improve fuel consumption and curb emission of carbon dioxide, silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites (SiC/SiC) are drawing enormous attention as high-pressure turbine materials. For preventing degradation of SiC/SiC, environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for ceramics are deposited on the composites. The purpose of this study is to establish theoretical guidelines for structural design which ensures the mechanical reliability of EBC. We conducted finite element method (FEM) analysis to calculate energy release rates (ERRs) for interface crack initiation due to thermal stress in EBC consisting of Si-based bond coat, Mullite and Ytterbium (Yb)-silicate layers on a SiC/SiC substrate. In the FEM analysis, the thickness of one EBC layer was changed from 25 μm to 200 μm while the thicknesses of the other layers were fixed at 25 μm, 50 μm and 100 μm. We compared ERRs obtained by the FEM analysis and a simple theory for interface crack in a single-layered structure where ERR is estimated as nominal strain energy in the coating layers multiplied by a constant factor (independent of layer thicknesses). We found that, unlike the case of single-layered structures, the multiplication factor is no longer a constant but is determined by the combination of consisting coating layer thicknesses. (paper)

  8. Theoretical prediction of energy release rate for interface crack initiation by thermal stress in environmental barrier coatings for ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, E.; Umeno, Y.

    2017-05-01

    As weight reduction of turbines for aircraft engines is demanded to improve fuel consumption and curb emission of carbon dioxide, silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites (SiC/SiC) are drawing enormous attention as high-pressure turbine materials. For preventing degradation of SiC/SiC, environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for ceramics are deposited on the composites. The purpose of this study is to establish theoretical guidelines for structural design which ensures the mechanical reliability of EBC. We conducted finite element method (FEM) analysis to calculate energy release rates (ERRs) for interface crack initiation due to thermal stress in EBC consisting of Si-based bond coat, Mullite and Ytterbium (Yb)-silicate layers on a SiC/SiC substrate. In the FEM analysis, the thickness of one EBC layer was changed from 25 μm to 200 μm while the thicknesses of the other layers were fixed at 25 μm, 50 μm and 100 μm. We compared ERRs obtained by the FEM analysis and a simple theory for interface crack in a single-layered structure where ERR is estimated as nominal strain energy in the coating layers multiplied by a constant factor (independent of layer thicknesses). We found that, unlike the case of single-layered structures, the multiplication factor is no longer a constant but is determined by the combination of consisting coating layer thicknesses.

  9. In vitro assessment of environmental stress of persistent organic pollutants on the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Kuntong; Ding, Liang; Zhang, Lingli; Zhang, Mei; Yi, Meisheng; Wu, Yuping

    2015-12-25

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are detected ubiquitously and are linked to range of adverse health effects. The Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin inhabited the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), China, where high concentrations of POPs have been reported. This study evaluated the threats posed by POPs in the environment to the dolphin using an in vitro system. We selected BNF(β-naphthoflavone) and four POPs (DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes), CHLs(chlorides), HCHs(hexachlorocyclohexanes) and HCB(hexachlorobenzene)) which had been accumulated in the dolphin with high concentrations to treat the cultured skin fibroblast cells (ScSF cells) of the dolphin, and investigated the expression patterns of the ecological stress biomarkers CYP1A1, AHR and HSP70 in the cell line. The results showed that CYP1A1 was up-regulated after being exposed to different concentrations of BNF, DDTs and HCHs. CHLs, HCHs and HCB promoted AHR expression. HSP70 expression was increased by high concentrations of BNF and DDTs. Moreover, comet assay experiments revealed that DDTs produced higher degree of DNA damage to ScSF cells than other POPs, implying that the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin in the PRE has been threatened by POPs accumulated in the body, especially by DDTs. Our results provided important information to assess the risk of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin raised by environmental POPs in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental stress in German forests; assessment of critical deposition levels and their exceedances and meteorological stress for crown condition monitoring sites in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klap, J.M.; Reinds, G.J.; Bleeker, A.; Vries, de W.

    2000-01-01

    Site-specific estimations of meteorological stress and atmospheric deposition were made for the systematic 8 x 8 km2 forest condition monitoring network in Germany for the years 1987-1995. Winter cold and late frost were important temperature stress variables and relative transpiration was a good

  11. Manipulating environmental stresses and stress tolerance of microalgae for enhanced production of lipids and value-added products-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bailing; Wan, Chun; Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer; Chang, Jo-Shu; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2017-11-01

    Microalgae have promising potential to produce lipids and a variety of high-value chemicals. Suitable stress conditions such as nitrogen starvation and high salinity could stimulate synthesis and accumulation of lipids and high-value products by microalgae, therefore, various stress-modification strategies were developed to manipulate and optimize cultivation processes to enhance bioproduction efficiency. On the other hand, advancements in omics-based technologies have boosted the research to globally understand microalgal gene regulation under stress conditions, which enable further improvement of production efficiency via genetic engineering. Moreover, integration of multi-omics data, synthetic biology design, and genetic engineering manipulations exhibits a tremendous potential in the betterment of microalgal biorefinery. This review discusses the process manipulation strategies and omics studies on understanding the regulation of metabolite biosynthesis under various stressful conditions, and proposes genetic engineering of microalgae to improve bioproduction via manipulating stress tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genome-wide association analysis accounting for environmental factors through propensity-score matching: application to stressful live events in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Robert A; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Ng, Mandy Y; Butler, Amy W; Craddock, Nick; Korszun, Ania; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gill, Michael; Rice, John P; Maier, Wolfgang; Zobel, Astrid; Mors, Ole; Placentino, Anna; Rietschel, Marcella; Aitchison, Katherine J; Tozzi, Federica; Muglia, Pierandrea; Breen, Gerome; Farmer, Anne E; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M; Uher, Rudolf

    2013-09-01

    Stressful life events are an established trigger for depression and may contribute to the heterogeneity within genome-wide association analyses. With depression cases showing an excess of exposure to stressful events compared to controls, there is difficulty in distinguishing between "true" cases and a "normal" response to a stressful environment. This potential contamination of cases, and that from genetically at risk controls that have not yet experienced environmental triggers for onset, may reduce the power of studies to detect causal variants. In the RADIANT sample of 3,690 European individuals, we used propensity score matching to pair cases and controls on exposure to stressful life events. In 805 case-control pairs matched on stressful life event, we tested the influence of 457,670 common genetic variants on the propensity to depression under comparable level of adversity with a sign test. While this analysis produced no significant findings after genome-wide correction for multiple testing, we outline a novel methodology and perspective for providing environmental context in genetic studies. We recommend contextualizing depression by incorporating environmental exposure into genome-wide analyses as a complementary approach to testing gene-environment interactions. Possible explanations for negative findings include a lack of statistical power due to small sample size and conditional effects, resulting from the low rate of adequate matching. Our findings underscore the importance of collecting information on environmental risk factors in studies of depression and other complex phenotypes, so that sufficient sample sizes are available to investigate their effect in genome-wide association analysis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Integrating indicators in a national accounting matrix including environmental accounts (NAMEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Haan, M.; Keuning, S.J.; Bosch, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Five environmental indicators are conceptually and numerically integrated into a National Accounting Matrix including Environmental Accounts (NAMEA) for 1989. As a consequence, these estimates are directly comparable with outcomes of major macro-economic aggregates in the conventional accounts. In the NAMEA, emissions of all kinds of polluting agents are recorded by industry and by consumption purpose. Subsequently, these agents are grouped into five environmental themes: greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication and waste accumulation. The contributions of agents to certain themes are expressed in theme-related environmental stress equivalents. Per theme, these stress equivalents are confronted with policy norms set by the Netherlands government for the year 2000. This results in a statistical framework at a meso-level from which integrated economic and environmental indicators are derived. The NAMEA may also serve as a data base and analytical device for modelling interactions between the national economy and changes in the environment. 13 tabs., 2 app., 32 refs

  14. Small heat shock proteins mediate cell-autonomous and -nonautonomous protection in a Drosophila model for environmental-stress-induced degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Fumiko; Koonce, Noelle L; Guo, Linda; Fatima, Shahroz; Qiu, Catherine; Moon, Mackenzie T; Zheng, Yunzhen; Ordway, Richard W

    2016-09-01

    Cell and tissue degeneration, and the development of degenerative diseases, are influenced by genetic and environmental factors that affect protein misfolding and proteotoxicity. To better understand the role of the environment in degeneration, we developed a genetic model for heat shock (HS)-stress-induced degeneration in Drosophila This model exhibits a unique combination of features that enhance genetic analysis of degeneration and protection mechanisms involving environmental stress. These include cell-type-specific failure of proteostasis and degeneration in response to global stress, cell-nonautonomous interactions within a simple and accessible network of susceptible cell types, and precise temporal control over the induction of degeneration. In wild-type flies, HS stress causes selective loss of the flight ability and degeneration of three susceptible cell types comprising the flight motor: muscle, motor neurons and associated glia. Other motor behaviors persist and, accordingly, the corresponding cell types controlling leg motor function are resistant to degeneration. Flight motor degeneration was preceded by a failure of muscle proteostasis characterized by diffuse ubiquitinated protein aggregates. Moreover, muscle-specific overexpression of a small heat shock protein (HSP), HSP23, promoted proteostasis and protected muscle from HS stress. Notably, neurons and glia were protected as well, indicating that a small HSP can mediate cell-nonautonomous protection. Cell-autonomous protection of muscle was characterized by a distinct distribution of ubiquitinated proteins, including perinuclear localization and clearance of protein aggregates associated with the perinuclear microtubule network. This network was severely disrupted in wild-type preparations prior to degeneration, suggesting that it serves an important role in muscle proteostasis and protection. Finally, studies of resistant leg muscles revealed that they sustain proteostasis and the microtubule

  15. [Alkylating agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourquier, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    With the approval of mechlorethamine by the FDA in 1949 for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, alkylating agents are the oldest class of anticancer agents. Even though their clinical use is far beyond the use of new targeted therapies, they still occupy a major place in specific indications and sometimes represent the unique option for the treatment of refractory diseases. Here, we are reviewing the major classes of alkylating agents and their mechanism of action, with a particular emphasis for the new generations of alkylating agents. As for most of the chemotherapeutic agents used in the clinic, these compounds are derived from natural sources. With a complex but original mechanism of action, they represent new interesting alternatives for the clinicians, especially for tumors that are resistant to conventional DNA damaging agents. We also briefly describe the different strategies that have been or are currently developed to potentiate the use of classical alkylating agents, especially the inhibition of pathways that are involved in the repair of DNA lesions induced by these agents. In this line, the development of PARP inhibitors is a striking example of the recent regain of interest towards the "old" alkylating agents.

  16. Transcriptional regulation of receptor-like protein genes by environmental stresses and hormones and their overexpression activities in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinbin; Liu, Zhijun; Zhang, Zhao; Lv, Yanting; Yang, Nan; Zhang, Guohua; Wu, Menyao; Lv, Shuo; Pan, Lixia; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Wang, Guodong

    2016-05-01

    Receptor-like proteins (RLPs) have been implicated in multiple biological processes, including plant development and immunity to microbial infection. Fifty-seven AtRLP genes have been identified in Arabidopsis, whereas only a few have been functionally characterized. This is due to the lack of suitable physiological screening conditions and the high degree of functional redundancy among AtRLP genes. To overcome the functional redundancy and further understand the role of AtRLP genes, we studied the evolution of AtRLP genes and compiled a comprehensive profile of the transcriptional regulation of AtRLP genes upon exposure to a range of environmental stresses and different hormones. These results indicate that the majority of AtRLP genes are differentially expressed under various conditions that were tested, an observation that will help to select certain AtRLP genes involved in a specific biological process for further experimental studies to eventually dissect their function. A large number of AtRLP genes were found to respond to more than one treatment, suggesting that one single AtRLP gene may be involved in multiple physiological processes. In addition, we performed a genome-wide cloning of the AtRLP genes, and generated and characterized transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the individual AtRLP genes, presenting new insight into the roles of AtRLP genes, as exemplified by AtRLP3, AtRLP11 and AtRLP28 Our study provides an overview of biological processes in which AtRLP genes may be involved, and presents valuable resources for future investigations into the function of these genes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. SENSITIVITY TO ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS OF PRATA,JAPIRA AND VITÓRIA BANANA CULTIVARS PROVEN BY CHLOROPHYLL a FLUORESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRISCILA NOBRES DOS SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the physiological responses to environmental stress during pre- and post-harvest of the following banana cultivars: Prata (AAB, Japira (AAAB and Vitoria (AAAB. Analyses were carried out on young plants at vegetative stage (daughter-plant and adult plants at reproductive stage (motherplant. The experimental design was completely randomized. In the in vivo pre-harvest analysis were used seven replications, in a factorial scheme (3x2x2, three cultivars and two stages (vegetative and reproductive and two collection periods (March and June. For the analysis of post-harvest quality were used five replications in a factorial design (3x2x5, corresponding to three cultivars, two development stages and five periods of post-harvest analysis, carried out every two days from stage 4 of fruit ripening. The chlorophyll a fluorescence emission kinetics showed low photochemical performance of the three cultivars in June, a period characterized by lower temperatures and water deficit. Prata was the cultivar with the lowest tolerance to abiotic physiological behavior changes, which also reflected in fruit quality, because there was a change in physical and physicochemical parameters. Japira and Vitoria cultivars showed similar physiological responses in the pre- and post-harvest periods, according to their phylogenetic proximity. The total performance index, i.e., the conservation of energy absorbed by PSII up to the reduction of the final PSI acceptors (PItotal and the di-malonic aldehyde (MDA content were significantly higher in Japira and Vitoria cultivars compared to Prata cultivar in the reproductive phase. There was no significant change in the potential quantum efficiency of PSII (FV / FM = jP0 among the three cultivars. It was concluded that Japira and Vitoria cultivars showed greater plasticity to tolerate or even adapt to abiotic variations keeping higher fruit yield. PItotal is the most sensitive parameter during

  18. Environmental stress cracking performance of polyether and PDMS-based polyurethanes in an in vitro oxidation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Genevieve; Padsalgikar, Ajay; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Jenney, Chris; Iacob, Ciprian; Runt, James

    2017-08-01

    Environmental stress cracking (ESC) was replicated in vitro on Optim™ (OPT) insulation, a polydimethylsiloxane-based polyurethane utilized clinically in cardiac leads, using a Zhao-type oxidation model. OPT performance was compared to that of two industry standard polyether urethanes: Pellethane ® 80A (P80A), and Pellethane ® 55D (P55D). Clinically relevant specimen configurations and strain states were utilized: low-voltage cardiac lead segments were held in a U-shape by placing them inside of vials. To study whether aging conditions impacted ESC formation, half of the samples were subjected to a pretreatment in human plasma for 7 days at 37°C; all samples were then aged in oxidative solutions containing 0.9% NaCl, 20% H 2 O 2 , and either 0 or 0.1M CoCl 2 , with or without glass wool for 72 days at 37°C. Visual and SEM inspection revealed significant surface cracking consistent with ESC on all P80A and P55D samples. Sixteen of twenty P80A and 10/20 P55D samples also exhibited breaches. Seven of 20 OPT samples exhibited shallow surface cracking consistent with ESC. ATR-FTIR confirmed surface changes consistent with oxidation for all materials. The number average molecular weight decreased an average of 31% for OPT, 86% for P80A, and 56% for P55D samples. OPT outperformed P80A and P55D in this Zhao-type in vitro ESC model. An aging solution of 0.9% NaCl, 20% H 2 O 2 , and 0.1M CoCl 2 , with glass wool provided the best combination of ESC replication and ease of use. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1544-1558, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The relationship between motor skills and psychosocial factors in young children: A test of the elaborated environmental stress hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Vincent O; Rigoli, Daniela; Roberts, Lynne D; Heritage, Brody; Piek, Jan P

    2017-09-08

    The elaborated environmental stress hypothesis (EESH) provides a framework that describes how motor skills may indirectly cause internalizing problems through various mediating psychosocial factors. While there is evidence to support this framework, little is known about how the proposed relationships may vary across different stages of development. This study aimed to investigate whether peer problems and perceived self-competence mediated the relationship between motor skills and internalizing problems in pre-primary children, and at 18-month follow up. A community sample of 197 pre-primary school children (M = 5.40 years, SD = 0.30 years; 102 males, 95 females) participated at Time 1, with 107 completing the Time 2 follow-up. Standardized instruments were used to measure motor skills and verbal IQ. Perceived self-competence was measured using a self-report measure. Participant peer problems and internalizing problems were measured using teacher report. Age, gender, and verbal IQ were included as covariates. Mediation analysis using PROCESS showed that the relationship between motor skills and internalizing problems was mediated by peer problems at Time 1. At Time 2, the relationship was mediated by peer problems and perceived physical competence. The current results indicate the EESH may function differently across different periods of development. The transition from pre-primary to Grade 1 represents a time of important cognitive and psychosocial development, which has implications for how the relationship between motor skills and internalizing problems can be understood. These findings highlight potential age-appropriate targets for psychomotor interventions aiming to improve the emotional well-being of young children. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Use of an integrated biomarker-based strategy to evaluate physiological stress responses induced by environmental concentrations of caffeine in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capolupo, Marco; Valbonesi, Paola; Kiwan, Alisar; Buratti, Sara; Franzellitti, Silvia; Fabbri, Elena

    2016-09-01

    The occurrence of caffeine (CF), a biologically active drug, has widely been documented in coastal waters, and whether its environmental concentrations do represent a threat for marine organisms is unclear. The present study aimed at assessing sub-lethal effects induced by a 7-day exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of CF (5, 50 and 500ng/L) in the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. CF in water and mussel tissues, and a battery of biomarkers, including lysosomal parameters of general stress, oxidative stress responses and endpoints of neurological and genetic damages, were evaluated and tested for significance vs controls (pemerging contaminants in marine invertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fanconi anemia proteins and endogenous stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang Qishen [Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Andreassen, Paul R., E-mail: Paul.Andreassen@cchmc.org [Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-07-31

    Each of the thirteen identified Fanconi anemia (FA) genes is required for resistance to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents, such as mitomycin C, cisplatin, and melphalan. While these agents are excellent tools for understanding the function of FA proteins in DNA repair, it is uncertain whether a defect in the removal of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) is the basis for the pathophysiology of FA. For example, DNA interstrand crosslinking agents induce other types of DNA damage, in addition to ICLs. Further, other DNA-damaging agents, such as ionizing or ultraviolet radiation, activate the FA pathway, leading to monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI. Also, FA patients display congenital abnormalities, hematologic deficiencies, and a predisposition to cancer in the absence of an environmental source of ICLs that is external to cells. Here we consider potential sources of endogenous DNA damage, or endogenous stresses, to which FA proteins may respond. These include ICLs formed by products of lipid peroxidation, and other forms of oxidative DNA damage. FA proteins may also potentially respond to telomere shortening or replication stress. Defining these endogenous sources of DNA damage or stresses is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of deficiencies for FA proteins. We propose that FA proteins are centrally involved in the response to replication stress, including replication stress arising from oxidative DNA damage.

  2. Fanconi anemia proteins and endogenous stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Qishen; Andreassen, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    Each of the thirteen identified Fanconi anemia (FA) genes is required for resistance to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents, such as mitomycin C, cisplatin, and melphalan. While these agents are excellent tools for understanding the function of FA proteins in DNA repair, it is uncertain whether a defect in the removal of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) is the basis for the pathophysiology of FA. For example, DNA interstrand crosslinking agents induce other types of DNA damage, in addition to ICLs. Further, other DNA-damaging agents, such as ionizing or ultraviolet radiation, activate the FA pathway, leading to monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI. Also, FA patients display congenital abnormalities, hematologic deficiencies, and a predisposition to cancer in the absence of an environmental source of ICLs that is external to cells. Here we consider potential sources of endogenous DNA damage, or endogenous stresses, to which FA proteins may respond. These include ICLs formed by products of lipid peroxidation, and other forms of oxidative DNA damage. FA proteins may also potentially respond to telomere shortening or replication stress. Defining these endogenous sources of DNA damage or stresses is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of deficiencies for FA proteins. We propose that FA proteins are centrally involved in the response to replication stress, including replication stress arising from oxidative DNA damage.

  3. 2008 Environmental Performance Index (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2008 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) centers on two broad environmental protection objectives: (1) reducing environmental stresses on human health, and (2)...

  4. Na-Al silicates in washing agents. Synthesis and analysis of labelled sodium aluminium silicate for an investigation of the environmental behaviour of SASIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graffmann, G; Roland, W A; Schmid, R D; Smolka, H G [Henkel K.G.a.A., Duesseldorf (Germany, F.R.); Schneider, J; Vogg, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Lab. fuer Isotopentechnik

    1979-04-01

    The evaluation of the human and environmental safety of the phosphate substitute SASIL made it necessary to develop methods for the preparation and analysis of labeled SASIL. Indium and Chromium-51 proved to be useful labeling elements. Labeled SASIL in environmental-, laboratory- and technical samples was detected by neutron activation analysis, ..gamma..-scintillation counting and X-ray fluorescence. Using these methods, important questions concerning the environmental behaviour of SASIL could be answered.

  5. System-Level Heat Transfer Analysis, Thermal- Mechanical Cyclic Stress Analysis, and Environmental Fatigue Modeling of a Two-Loop Pressurized Water Reactor. A Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Soppet, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, Ken [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-03

    This report provides an update on an assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor components under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in April 2015 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE's Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In this report, updates are discussed related to a system level preliminary finite element model of a two-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR). Based on this model, system-level heat transfer analysis and subsequent thermal-mechanical stress analysis were performed for typical design-basis thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles. The in-air fatigue lives of components, such as the hot and cold legs, were estimated on the basis of stress analysis results, ASME in-air fatigue life estimation criteria, and fatigue design curves. Furthermore, environmental correction factors and associated PWR environment fatigue lives for the hot and cold legs were estimated by using estimated stress and strain histories and the approach described in NUREG-6909. The discussed models and results are very preliminary. Further advancement of the discussed model is required for more accurate life prediction of reactor components. This report only presents the work related to finite element modelling activities. However, in between multiple tensile and fatigue tests were conducted. The related experimental results will be presented in the year-end report.

  6. Fluoro-Phenyl-Styrene-Sulfonamide, a Novel Inhibitor of σB Activity, Prevents the Activation of σB by Environmental and Energy Stresses in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringus, Daina L.; Gaballa, Ahmed; Helmann, John D.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sigma B (σB) is an alternative sigma factor that regulates the general stress response in Bacillus subtilis and in many other Gram-positive organisms. σB activity in B. subtilis is tightly regulated via at least three distinct pathways within a complex signal transduction cascade in response to a variety of stresses, including environmental stress, energy stress, and growth at high or low temperatures. We probed the ability of fluoro-phenyl-styrene-sulfonamide (FPSS), a small-molecule inhibitor of σB activity in Listeria monocytogenes, to inhibit σB activity in B. subtilis through perturbation of signal transduction cascades under various stress conditions. FPSS inhibited the activation of σB in response to multiple categories of stress known to induce σB activity in B. subtilis. Specifically, FPSS prevented the induction of σB activity in response to energy stress, including entry into stationary phase, phosphate limitation, and azide stress. FPSS also inhibited chill induction of σB activity in a ΔrsbV strain, suggesting that FPSS does not exclusively target the RsbU and RsbP phosphatases or the anti–anti-sigma factor RsbV, all of which contribute to posttranslational regulation of σB activity. Genetic and biochemical experiments, including artificial induction of σB, analysis of the phosphorylation state of the anti–anti-sigma factor RsbV, and in vitro transcription assays, indicate that while FPSS does not bind directly to σB to inhibit activity, it appears to prevent the release of B. subtilis σB from its anti-sigma factor RsbW. PMID:23524614

  7. Chemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CR) see Riot Control Agents Digitalis Distilled mustard (HD) see Sulfur mustard E Ethylene glycol F Fentanyls and other opioids H Hydrazine Hydrofluoric acid (hydrogen fluoride) Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide (AC) Hydrogen ...

  8. A comparison of DNA extraction procedures for the detection of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, in clinical and environmental specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durnez, Lies; Stragier, Pieter; Roebben, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, the third most common mycobacterial disease in humans after tuberculosis and leprosy. Although the disease is associated with aquatic ecosystems, cultivation of the bacillus from the environment is difficult to achieve. Therefore...

  9. Sensitization of melanoma cells to alkylating agent-induced DNA damage and cell death via orchestrating oxidative stress and IKK? inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Tse, Anfernee Kai-Wing; Chen, Ying-Jie; Fu, Xiu-Qiong; Su, Tao; Li, Ting; Guo, Hui; Zhu, Pei-Li; Kwan, Hiu-Yee; Cheng, Brian Chi-Yan; Cao, Hui-Hui; Lee, Sally Kin-Wah; Fong, Wang-Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Nitrosourea represents one of the most active classes of chemotherapeutic alkylating agents for metastatic melanoma. Treatment with nitrosoureas caused severe systemic side effects which hamper its clinical use. Here, we provide pharmacological evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction and IKKβ inhibition cooperatively enhance nitrosourea-induced cytotoxicity in melanoma cells. We identified SC-514 as a ROS-inducing IKKβ inhibitor which enhanced the function of nitrosoureas. Eleva...

  10. Assessing the effects of exposure to environmental stress on some functional properties of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amund, O D; Ouoba, L I I; Sutherland, J P; Ghoddusi, H B

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of exposing a strain of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis to acid, bile and osmotic stresses on antagonistic properties, biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility/resistance profile. Exposure to each stress factor appeared to have no significant effect on the antagonism against Escherichia coli NCTC 12900 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4. No suppression in biofilm formation due to exposure to stress was observed. Bile and osmotic stresses resulted in significantly higher biofilm formation. Expression of an exopolysaccharide synthesis gene, gtf 01207, was significantly higher when the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain was exposed to osmotic stress. Susceptibility of the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain to chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin and vancomycin, and resistance to tetracycline remained unchanged when exposed to each stress. The expression of a tetracycline resistance gene, tet(W), was significantly higher when exposed to each stress. These results may suggest that the potential for the B. animalis ssp. lactis strain to provide probiotic benefit, after exposure to the stressful conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, remains intact.

  11. The effects of RecO deficiency in Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 on resistance to multiple environmental stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengru; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Juan; Du, Guocheng

    2014-12-01

    Multiple stresses could cause damage to DNA and other macromolecules. RecO, belonging to the family of DNA repair proteins, plays an important part in homologous recombination and replication repair. In order to explore the role of RecO in overcoming multiple stresses, a mutant of recO deletion is constructed in Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris NZ9000. Compared with the mutant strain, the original strain L. lactis NZ9000 shows better performance in growth under multiple stresses. The survival rates of the original strain under acid, osmotic and chill stresses are 13.49-, 2.78- and 60.89-fold higher. In our deeper research on fermentation capability under osmotic stress, lactate dehydrogenase activity after 8 h fermentation, maximum lactate acid production, lactate yield and maximum lactate productivity of L. lactis NZ9000 are 1.63-, 1.28-, 1.28- and 1.5-fold higher, respectively. Results indicate that RecO has positively improved the survival of L. lactis NZ9000, protected its key enzymes and enhanced its fermentation efficiencies. Our research confirms the role of RecO in enhancing tolerances to multiple stresses of L. lactis NZ9000, and puts forward the suggestion that RecO could be used in other industrial microorganisms as a new anti-stress component to improve their resistance to various stresses. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. MicroRNA mir-34 provides robustness to environmental stress response via the DAF-16 network in C. elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isik, Meltem; Blackwell, T. Keith; Berezikov, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Diverse stresses and aging alter expression levels of microRNAs, suggesting a role for these posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression in stress modulation and longevity. Earlier studies demonstrated a central role for the miR-34 family in promoting cell cycle arrest and cell death following

  13. Effect of poly-α, γ, L-glutamic acid as a capping agent on morphology and oxidative stress-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, Magdalena; Kovačević, Branimir; Petković, Jana; Filipič, Metka; Uskoković, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Highly stable dispersions of nanosized silver particles were synthesized using a straightforward, cost-effective, and ecofriendly method. Nontoxic glucose was utilized as a reducing agent and poly-α, γ, L-glutamic acid (PGA), a naturally occurring anionic polymer, was used as a capping agent to protect the silver nanoparticles from agglomeration and render them biocompatible. Use of ammonia during synthesis was avoided. Our study clearly demonstrates how the concentration of the capping agent plays a major role in determining the dimensions, morphology, and stability, as well as toxicity of a silver colloidal solution. Hence, proper optimization is necessary to develop silver colloids of narrow size distribution. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta potential measurement. MTT assay results indicated good biocompatibility of the PGA-capped silver nanoparticles. Formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species was measured spectrophotometrically using 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate as a fluorescent probe, and it was shown that the PGA-capped silver nanoparticles did not induce intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:22131829

  14. Life cycle assessment of energy products: environmental impact assessment of biofuels; Ecobilan d'agents energetiques. Evaluation ecologique de biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zah, R.; Boeni, H.; Gauch, M.; Hischier, R.; Lehmann, M.; Waeger, P.

    2007-05-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the results of a study that evaluated the environmental impact of the entire production chain of fuels made from biomass and used in Switzerland. Firstly, the study supplies an analysis of the possible environmental impacts of biofuels that can be used as a basis for political decisions. Secondly, an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of various biofuels is presented. In addition, the impacts of fuel use are compared with other uses for bioenergy such as the generation of electricity and heat. The methods used in the LCA are discussed, including the Swiss method of ecological scarcity (Environmental Impact Points, UBP 06), and the European Eco-indicator 99 method. The results of the study are discussed, including the finding that not all biofuels can reduce environmental impacts as compared to fossil fuels. The role to be played by biofuels produced in an environmentally-friendly way together with other forms of renewable energy in our future energy supply is discussed.

  15. Plastic responses to four environmental stresses and cross-resistance in a laboratory population of Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubliy, Oleg A; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Kellermann, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    such as reduction of metabolic rate and accumulation of energy reserves might be involved. 6. The lack of cross-resistance induced by acclimation ⁄ hardening treatments suggests that in an environment with multiple stresses, evolution of shared protective systems associated with plastic responses may be constrained.......1. Acclimation or hardening to one stress in arthropods can lead to a plastic response, which confers increased resistance to other stresses. Such cross-resistance may indicate shared physiological resistance mechanisms and a possibility of joint evolution for resistance traits. 2. In this study...

  16. Effects of flotation-restricted environmental stimulation technique on stress-related muscle pain: what makes the difference in therapy--attention-placebo or the relaxation response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bood, Sven A; Sundequist, Ulf; Kjellgren, Anette; Nordstrom, Gun; Norlander, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the potential effects of attention-placebo on flotation tank therapy. Flotation-restricted environmental stimulation technique is a method whereby an individual lies in a floating tank and all stimuli are reduced to a minimum. Thirty-two patients were diagnosed as having stress-related muscular pain. In addition, 16 of the participants had received the diagnosis of burnout depression. The patients were treated with flotation-restricted environmental stimulation technique for six weeks. One-half of the patients were also given special attention for 12 weeks (high attention), while the remainder received attention for only six weeks (normal attention). The participants exhibited lowered blood pressure, reduced pain, anxiety, depression, stress and negative affectivity, as well as increased optimism, energy and positive affectivity. The results were largely unaffected by the degree of attention-placebo or diagnosis. It was concluded that flotation therapy is an effective, noninvasive method for treating stress-related pain, and that the method is not more affected by placebo than by other methods currently used in pain treatment. The treatment of both burnout depression and pain related to muscle tension constitutes a major challenge for the patient as well as the care provider, an area in which great gains can be made if the treatment is effective. Flotation therapy may constitute an integral part of such treatment.

  17. AP2/EREBP transcription factors are part of gene regulatory networks and integrate metabolic, hormonal and environmental signals in stress acclimation and retrograde signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Karl-Josef; Vogel, Marc Oliver; Viehhauser, Andrea

    2010-09-01

    To optimize acclimation responses to environmental growth conditions, plants integrate and weigh a diversity of input signals. Signal integration within the signalling networks occurs at different sites including the level of transcription factor activation. Accumulating evidence assigns a major and diversified role in environmental signal integration to the family of APETALA 2/ethylene response element binding protein (AP2/EREBP) transcription factors. Presently, the Plant Transcription Factor Database 3.0 assigns 147 gene loci to this family in Arabidopsis thaliana, 200 in Populus trichocarpa and 163 in Oryza sativa subsp. japonica as compared to 13 to 14 in unicellular algae ( http://plntfdb.bio.uni-potsdam.de/v3.0/ ). AP2/EREBP transcription factors have been implicated in hormone, sugar and redox signalling in context of abiotic stresses such as cold and drought. This review exemplarily addresses present-day knowledge of selected AP2/EREBP with focus on a function in stress signal integration and retrograde signalling and defines AP2/EREBP-linked gene networks from transcriptional profiling-based graphical Gaussian models. The latter approach suggests highly interlinked functions of AP2/EREBPs in retrograde and stress signalling.

  18. Effect of poly-α, γ, L-glutamic acid as a capping agent on morphology and oxidative stress-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Magdalena Stevanović1, Branimir Kovačević2, Jana Petković3, Metka Filipič3, Dragan Uskoković11Institute of Technical Sciences of Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 2Institute of General and Physical Chemistry, Belgrade, Serbia; 3Department of Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, National Institute of Biology, Ljubljana, SloveniaAbstract: Highly stable dispersions of nanosized silver particles were synthesized using a straightforward, cost-effective, and ecofriendly method. Nontoxic glucose was utilized as a reducing agent and poly- α, γ, L-glutamic acid (PGA, a naturally occurring anionic polymer, was used as a capping agent to protect the silver nanoparticles from agglomeration and render them biocompatible. Use of ammonia during synthesis was avoided. Our study clearly demonstrates how the concentration of the capping agent plays a major role in determining the dimensions, morphology, and stability, as well as toxicity of a silver colloidal solution. Hence, proper optimization is necessary to develop silver colloids of narrow size distribution. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta potential measurement. MTT assay results indicated good biocompatibility of the PGA-capped silver nanoparticles. Formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species was measured spectrophotometrically using 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate as a fluorescent probe, and it was shown that the PGA-capped silver nanoparticles did not induce intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, poly-α, γ, L-glutamic, green synthesis, morphology, cytotoxicity

  19. Altered Connexin 43 and Connexin 45 protein expression in the heart as a function of social and environmental stress in the prairie vole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Angela J; Moffitt, Julia A; Henry, Matthew K; Firkins, Rachel; Senkler, Jonathan; McNeal, Neal; Wardwell, Joshua; Scotti, Melissa-Ann L; Dotson, Ashley; Schultz, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to social and environmental stressors may influence behavior as well as autonomic and cardiovascular regulation, potentially leading to depressive disorders and cardiac dysfunction including elevated sympathetic drive, reduced parasympathetic function, and ventricular arrhythmias. The cellular mechanisms that underlie these interactions are not well understood. One mechanism may involve alterations in the expression of Connexin43 (Cx43) and Connexin45 (Cx45), gap junction proteins in the heart that play an important role in ensuring efficient cell-to-cell coupling and the maintenance of cardiac rhythmicity. The present study investigated the hypothesis that long-term social isolation, combined with mild environmental stressors, would produce both depressive behaviors and altered Cx43 and Cx45 expression in the left ventricle of prairie voles - a socially monogamous rodent model. Adult, female prairie voles were exposed to either social isolation (n = 22) or control (paired, n = 23) conditions (4 weeks), alone or in combination with chronic mild stress (CMS) (1 week). Social isolation, versus paired control conditions, produced significantly (p Social isolation (alone) reduced (p social and environmental stress in the prairie vole.

  20. Identification of Toyocamycin, an agent cytotoxic for multiple myeloma cells, as a potent inhibitor of ER stress-induced XBP1 mRNA splicing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ri, M; Tashiro, E; Oikawa, D; Shinjo, S; Tokuda, M; Yokouchi, Y; Narita, T; Masaki, A; Ito, A; Ding, J; Kusumoto, S; Ishida, T; Komatsu, H; Shiotsu, Y; Ueda, R; Iwawaki, T; Imoto, M; Iida, S

    2012-01-01

    The IRE1α-XBP1 pathway, a key component of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, is considered to be a critical regulator for survival of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Therefore, the availability of small-molecule inhibitors targeting this pathway would offer a new chemotherapeutic strategy for MM. Here, we screened small-molecule inhibitors of ER stress-induced XBP1 activation, and identified toyocamycin from a culture broth of an Actinomycete strain. Toyocamycin was shown to suppress thapsigargin-, tunicamycin- and 2-deoxyglucose-induced XBP1 mRNA splicing in HeLa cells without affecting activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) activation. Furthermore, although toyocamycin was unable to inhibit IRE1α phosphorylation, it prevented IRE1α-induced XBP1 mRNA cleavage in vitro. Thus, toyocamycin is an inhibitor of IRE1α-induced XBP1 mRNA cleavage. Toyocamycin inhibited not only ER stress-induced but also constitutive activation of XBP1 expression in MM lines as well as primary samples from patients. It showed synergistic effects with bortezomib, and induced apoptosis of MM cells including bortezomib-resistant cells at nanomolar levels in a dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited growth of xenografts in an in vivo model of human MM. Taken together, our results suggest toyocamycin as a lead compound for developing anti-MM therapy and XBP1 as an appropriate molecular target for anti-MM therapy

  1. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussen, Victoria A.; Mench, Joy A.

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long

  2. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica, as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Cussen

    Full Text Available Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica. We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can

  3. The Relationship between Personality Dimensions and Resiliency to Environmental Stress in Orange-Winged Amazon Parrots (Amazona amazonica), as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussen, Victoria A; Mench, Joy A

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are popular companion animals, but are frequently relinquished because of behavioral problems, including abnormal repetitive behaviors like feather damaging behavior and stereotypy. In addition to contributing to pet relinquishment, these behaviors are important as potential indicators of diminished psychological well-being. While abnormal behaviors are common in captive animals, their presence and/or severity varies between animals of the same species that are experiencing the same environmental conditions. Personality differences could contribute to this observed individual variation, as they are known risk factors for stress sensitivity and affective disorders in humans. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between personality and the development and severity of abnormal behaviors in captive-bred orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica). We monitored between-individual behavioral differences in enrichment-reared parrots of known personality types before, during, and after enrichment deprivation. We predicted that parrots with higher scores for neurotic-like personality traits would be more susceptible to enrichment deprivation and develop more abnormal behaviors. Our results partially supported this hypothesis, but also showed that distinct personality dimensions were related to different forms of abnormal behavior. While neuroticism-like traits were linked to feather damaging behavior, extraversion-like traits were negatively related to stereotypic behavior. More extraverted birds showed resiliency to environmental stress, developing fewer stereotypies during enrichment deprivation and showing lower levels of these behaviors following re-enrichment. Our data, together with the results of the few studies conducted on other species, suggest that, as in humans, certain personality types render individual animals more susceptible or resilient to environmental stress. Further, this susceptibility/resiliency can have a long

  4. Fluctuating asymmetry rather than oxidative stress in Bufo raddei can be an accurate indicator of environmental pollution induced by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Zhang, Wenya; Ai, Shiwei; Ren, Liang; Zhang, Yingmei

    2017-06-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as risk markers for environmental stress are widely used to predict changes in the health and fitness of many animals exposed to pollutants. However, from the perspective of protecting declining amphibians, it remains to be verified which one would be a reliable indicator for amphibians exposed to long-term heavy metal pollution under natural conditions. In this study, the OS and FA of Bufo raddei exposed to natural heavy metal pollution were analyzed to determine which marker is more accurate for indicating heavy metal-induced stress. Three years of data were collected during the breeding season of B. raddei from Baiyin (BY), which has been mainly contaminated with Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd compounds for a long period, and from Liujiaxia (LJX), which is a relatively unpolluted area. Unexpectedly, although significant accumulation of the four heavy metals was found in the kidney and liver of B. raddei from BY, the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and malondialdehyde in these two organs were found to be irregular, with low repeatability in both BY and LJX. However, significant differences in the levels of FA were observed in B. raddei populations from these two areas over the past 3 years (P < 0.01). The degrees of FA in B. raddei populations from BY and LJX were assessed as degree 4 and 1, respectively. In short, this study suggested that FA was a more reliable and effective indicator than OS to monitor and predict long-term environmental stress on anuran amphibians.

  5. Effects of Relocation and Individual and Environmental Factors on the Long-Term Stress Levels in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes: Monitoring Hair Cortisol and Behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Yamanashi

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors associated with the long-term stress levels of captive animals is important from the view of animal welfare. In this study, we investigated the effects of relocation in addition to individual and environmental factors related to social management on long-term stress level in group-living captive chimpanzees by examining behaviors and hair cortisol (HC. Specifically, we conducted two studies. The first compared changes in HC levels before and after the relocation of 8 chimpanzees (Study 1 and the second examined the relationship between individual and environmental factors and individual HC levels in 58 chimpanzees living in Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS, Kyoto University (Study 2. We hypothesized that relocation, social situation, sex, and early rearing conditions, would affect the HC levels of captive chimpanzees. We cut arm hair from chimpanzees and extracted and assayed cortisol with an enzyme immunoassay. Aggressive behaviors were recorded ad libitum by keepers using a daily behavior monitoring sheet developed for this study. The results of Study 1 indicate that HC levels increased during the first year after relocation to the new environment and then decreased during the second year. We observed individual differences in reactions to relocation and hypothesized that social factors may mediate these changes. In Study 2, we found that the standardized rate of receiving aggression, rearing history, sex, and group formation had a significant influence on mean HC levels. Relocation status was not a significant factor, but mean HC level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Mean HC levels were higher in males than in females, and the association between aggressive interactions and HC levels differed by sex. These results suggest that, although relocation can affect long-term stress level, individuals' experiences of aggression and sex may be more important contributors to long-term stress than

  6. The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells for macular degeneration as a drug screening platform: identification of curcumin as a protective agent for retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ching eChang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is one retinal aging process that may lead to irreversible vision loss in the elderly. Its pathogenesis remains unclear, but oxidative stress inducing retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells damage is perhaps responsible for the aging sequence of retina and may play an important role in macular degeneration. In this study, we have reprogrammed T cells from patients with dry type AMD into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs via integration-free episomal vectors and differentiated them into RPE cells that were used as an expandable platform for investigating pathogenesis of the AMD and in-vitro drug screening. These patient-derived RPEs with the AMD-associated background (AMD-RPEs exhibited reduced antioxidant ability, compared with normal RPE cells. Among several screened candidate drugs, curcumin caused most significant reduction of ROS in AMD-RPEs. Pre-treatment of curcumin protected these AMD-RPEs from H2O2-induced cell death and also increased the cytoprotective effect against the oxidative stress of H2O2 through the reduction of ROS levels. In addition, curcumin with its versatile activities modulated the expression of many oxidative stress-regulating genes such as PDGF, VEGF, IGFBP-2, HO1, SOD2 and GPX1. Our findings indicated that the RPE cells derived from AMD patients have decreased antioxidative defense, making RPE cells more susceptible to oxidative damage and thereby leading to AMD formation. Curcumin represented an ideal drug that can effectively restore the neuronal functions in AMD patient-derived RPE cells, rendering this drug an effective option for macular degeneration therapy and an agent against aging-associated oxidative stress.

  7. The combination of reducing agents/iron as environmentally friendlier alternatives for Co-based driers in the drying of alkyd paints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micciche, F.; Oostveen, E.A.; Haveren, van J.; Linde, van der R.

    2005-01-01

    In answer to the increased demand for Co-free driers for alkyd based paints, a biomimetic approach has been used to find suitable and environmentally friendly alternatives for Co-based driers for alkyd paints. This approach was chosen due to the resemblance between the mechanisms by which alkyd

  8. Measuring environmental stress in East Greenland polar bears, 1892-1927 and 1988-2009: what does hair cortisol tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Rigét, F F; Sonne, C; Letcher, R J; Muir, D C G; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S; Eulaers, I; Jaspers, V L B; Eens, M; Covaci, A; Dietz, R

    2012-09-15

    Hair sampled from 96 East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus) over the periods 1892-1927 and 1988-2009 was analyzed for cortisol as a proxy to investigate temporal patterns of environmental stress. Cortisol concentration was independent of sex and age, and was found at significantly higher (ppolar bear hair appears to be a relatively poor indicator of the animal's general POP load in adipose tissue. However, further investigations are warranted to explore the reasons for the temporal decrease found in the bears' hair cortisol levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensitization of melanoma cells to alkylating agent-induced DNA damage and cell death via orchestrating oxidative stress and IKKβ inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Anfernee Kai-Wing; Chen, Ying-Jie; Fu, Xiu-Qiong; Su, Tao; Li, Ting; Guo, Hui; Zhu, Pei-Li; Kwan, Hiu-Yee; Cheng, Brian Chi-Yan; Cao, Hui-Hui; Lee, Sally Kin-Wah; Fong, Wang-Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2017-04-01

    Nitrosourea represents one of the most active classes of chemotherapeutic alkylating agents for metast