WorldWideScience

Sample records for environmental strategies ies

  1. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive......Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial...

  2. IE Bulletin No. 79-01: Environmental qualification of Class IE equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of IE Circular 78-08 was to highlight to all licensees important lessons learned from environmental qualification deficiencies reported by individual licensees. In this regard, licensees were requested to examine installed safety-related electrical equipment and determine that proper documentation existed which provided assurance that this equipment would function under postulated accident conditions. The intent of this Bulletin is to raise the threshold of IE Circular 78-08 to the level of a Bulletin; i.e., action requiring a licensee response. Inspections conducted to date by the NRC of licensees' activities in response to IE Circular 78-08 have identified one component which licensees have found to be unqualified for service within the LOCA environment. Specifically, unqualified stem mounted limit switches (SMLS), other than those identified in previously issued IE Bulletin 78-04, were found to be installed on safety-related valves inside containment at both Duane Arnold and Quad Cities 1 and 2 Nuclear Generating Stations. According to the manufacturer, these switches are designed only for general purpose applications and are not considered suitable devices for service in the LOCA environment. Consequently, switches are being replaced at the above power plants with qualified components

  3. Environmental Project of I.E.S. Antoni Maura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi Salom, Pere

    2010-05-01

    Environmental Project of I.E.S. Antoni Maura Author(s): Pere Crespí i Salom Teacher of Department of Biology and Geology and Environmental Coordinator (2009-2010) from I.E.S. Antoni Maura . Mallorca. Illes Balears. Spain Teachers participating in the project : Myriam Fuentes Milani, Olga Ballester Nebot, Antoni Salom Ruiz, Julio René Loayza Casanova, Puy Aguirre Rémirez, Yolanda Martínez Laserna, Jaume Puppo Lama, Carme Arrom , Dolors Aguiló Segura, Marga Ordinas Boter, Angel Fernàndez Albertí , Immaculada Suau López, Antònia Florit Torrandell, Isabel Mateu Arcos, Román Piña Valls i Pere Crespí Salom. Our institute takes part since 2004 in adapting environmentally the schools in the Balearics which consists of developing activities which aim is that both teachers and students acquire habits so as to apply to their ordinary lives though different participative commissions ( 10-15 teachers): 1st commission: recycling and reusing materials. Enough bins in the classrooms and floors: yellow for plastic, blue for paper, and green for the other. We tend to use recycled materials in different celebrations such as Carnival, Christmas, Saint Jordi and Environmental day. We also organise workshops for the teachers to develop afterwards with the students and nature of environmental exposures. 2nd commission: Scatter information ( MonMaura, Maurifull, Green window and website).Throughout different means we inform the teachers and students about all the school activities and where to consult.( www.iesantonimaura.net, Playful area , environmental project ). 3rd commission: Reusing text books.( there is a students service of borrowing books and giving them back at the end of the school year if the book is in good use.) 4th commission: Improving the school surroundings, the back garden and garden with native plants. Department of Biology and Geology is responsible for caring for an organic garden and in turn improve the center's garden with native plants within the

  4. Lessons learned in the environmental qualification of class IE equipment at Tennessee Valley Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R.N.; Akos, T.

    1985-01-01

    Tennessee Valley Authority has been engaged in an extensive program for the environmental qualification of Class 1E components. This program has been conducted in accordance with the requirements set forth in various industry standards and federal regulations, including IEEE 323-1971, IEEE 323-1974, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) IE Bulletin 7901B, NRC NUREG-0588, and the Code of Federal Regulations 10CFR50.49. Valuable lessons have been learned as a result of this program, particularly in the area of environmental qualification testing. This paper describes some unique experiences in the qualification testing of main steam isolation valve control manifold assemblies, control relays, and motor control centers

  5. Your Graduates and You: Effective Strategies for Graduate Recruitment and Development. IES Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, H.; Hirsh, W.; Barber, L.

    Many employing organizations in the United Kingdom and elsewhere are finding it increasingly important to have an effective strategy for recruiting and developing higher education graduates. Numerous external and internal factors affect employers' graduate recruitment and development strategies. The following main approaches to graduates' entry…

  6. Environmental Economics Research Strategy (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2005 Environmental Economics Research Strategy outlines EPA’s research effort to provide the necessary behavioral science foundation for making decisions and designing environmental policies at the least cost to American businesses and consumers.

  7. Seismic and environmental qualification of class IE equipment manufactured in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerini, P.; Lumbreras, A.; Naredo, F.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plant instrumentation and control design is affected by several factors such as various plant operating conditions, transient response capability, safety requirements and changes in IEEE standards. Recent upgraded IEEE standards that call for Qualification of all Safety related I anc C equipment, namely IEEE 323 (Qualifying Class IE Electric Equipment for nuclear power generating stations) and its daughter Standard IEEE 344 (Recommended Practices for Seismic Qualification of Class IE Equipment for nuclear power generating stations) have been endorsed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission through the issuance of corresponding Regulatory Guides. The author describes the Qualification requirements applicable to the Class IE I and C Components made in Spain for the different vintages of plants, and the programs implemented or plans established by Westinghouse to fulfill those requirements. (author)

  8. Outdoor γ-ray dose rate in Ajigasawa Town and environmental factors affecting it in IES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shunichi; Sakurai, Naoyuki; Koyama, Kenji

    1999-01-01

    We surveyed the outdoor γ-ray dose rate throughout Aomori Prefecture from 1991 to 1995, and found an annual mean dose rate of 46 nGy h -1 . Relatively high dose rates were also observed in several areas (municipalities) of the survey locations. In this study, we examined the detailed distribution of the γ-ray dose rate in one such high dose rate area, Ajigasawa Town. Glass dosimeters were used for the monitoring of cumulative γ-ray dose rate at 10 locations in the town. The dose rate from each radioactive nuclide in the ground at the monitoring locations was measured by using an in situ γ-ray spectrometer with a Ge detector. The results obtained with the glass dosimeters showed that the γ-ray dose rates in Ajigasawa Town varied from 48 to 57 nGy h -1 . Although the dose rates were generally higher than the mean dose in Aomori Prefecture (1992-1995), the rates were lower than other high dose rate areas which had already been measured. The in situ γ-ray spectrometry revealed that these relatively high dose rates were mainly caused by 40 K and Th series radionuclides in the town. The effect of meteorological conditions on the γ-ray dose rate was studied at a monitoring station in IES. The dose rate was continuously recorded by a DBM NaI(Tl) scintillation detector system. The mean dose rate obtained when precipitation was sensed was 27 nGy h -1 and higher than when no precipitation was sensed (23 nGy h -1 ). (author)

  9. Strategy against hazardous environmental events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estefan, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    The major sources of waterways pollution in egypt have been assessed compact strategy is committed to promote sustainable development of our natural resources and to secure the safety of our environmental capital

  10. Strategy BMT Al-Ittihad Using Matrix IE, Matrix SWOT 8K, Matrix SPACE and Matrix TWOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nofrizal Nofrizal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to formulate and select BMT Al-Ittihad Rumbai strategy to face the changing of business environment both from internal environment such as organization resources, finance, member and external business such as competitor, economy, politics and others. This research method used Analysis of EFAS, IFAS, IE Matrix, SWOT-8K Matrix, SPACE Matrix and TWOS Matrix. our hope from this research it can assist BMT Al-Ittihad in formulating and selecting strategies for the sustainability of BMT Al-Ittihad in the future. The sample in this research is using purposive sampling technique that is the manager and leader of BMT Al-IttihadRumbaiPekanbaru. The result of this research shows that the position of BMT Al-Ittihad using IE Matrix, SWOT-8K Matrix and SPACE Matrix is in growth position, stabilization and aggressive. The choice of strategy after using TWOS Matrix is market penetration, market development, vertical integration, horizontal integration, and stabilization (careful.

  11. The Effects of Cognitive Strategies i.e. Note-Making and Underlining on Iranian EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Mahdavi; Sadaf Azimi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using cognitive strategies namely note- making and underlining, on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. In doing so, 60 female fourth year high school EFL learners were selected by means of the NELSON test (050A). They were then divided randomly into three groups, each group consisting of 20 homogeneous students: two experimental groups, and one control group. The experimental groups practiced note making (group A) and underl...

  12. The Effects of Cognitive Strategies i.e. Note-Making and Underlining on Iranian EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mahdavi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using cognitive strategies namely note- making and underlining, on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. In doing so, 60 female fourth year high school EFL learners were selected by means of the NELSON test (050A. They were then divided randomly into three groups, each group consisting of 20 homogeneous students: two experimental groups, and one control group. The experimental groups practiced note making (group A and underlining reading strategies (group B on the same reading materials while the control group received the placebo. Then, all the subjects in the three groups took the same reading comprehension test. The results of a One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and a post-hoc analysis of the Scheffe test showed that the learners who utilized note-making and underlining strategies outperformed the control group (p<.05. Furthermore, the experimental group who received note-making instruction revealed a higher efficiency than underlining group. As a result it can be concluded that note making and underlining have had positive effects on students’ rate of reading comprehensibility.

  13. New environmentalism: A cooperative strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    A new cooperative spirit has invaded the world of environmental regulation, according to the author. He calls it the New Environmentalism. New Environmentalism is more flexible and more attentive to economics than the old command-and-control approach. It carries four basic principles: integration of environmental and economic goals; adoption of sound science practices; vigorous enforcement of existing laws; and fostering of concensus in the early stages of rule making. If these principles are practices by all parties EPA believes the waste problems facing the United States can be more effectively managed

  14. IE Supplement No. 2 to Bulletin No. 79-01B: Environmental qualification of Class 1E equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Enclosed are the generic questions and answers which resulted from NRC/Licensee meetings in NRC Regional Offices during the week of July 14, 1980 regarding environmental qualification of Class 1E equipment in use at power reactor facilities. These answers address specific questions asked during the meetings. Due to the generic nature of some of these questions, the staff is issuing them as a bulletin supplement. Some answers given in Supplement No. 1 to IEB-79-01B are superseded by these answers

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY IN OIL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBU MĂDĂLINA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Like any other industrial activity, the production of hydrocarbons affects the environment both through the performance of actual technological process and through undesired accidents, which may occur. This paper presents environmental protection as an integral part of the sustainable development concept and it outlines the matter of environmental protection in connection with oil rigs and the assessment of ecologic impact. Environmental impact is direct or indirect effect of human activity that produces a change in the direction of development of the quality status of ecosystems. Control the impact requires detailed knowledge of the phenomenon, which involves the stages of identification, estimation, evaluation, etc. This is what is intended by the general concept of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA. The orientation of the economy towards sustainable development requires achieving a growth process conducted in terms of ensuring a social welfare of the population as high ensuring time and preserving the Earth and its natural resources. The purpose of all economic activity, as well as the activities in the oil industry, is getting competitive and efficient economic outcomes in the context of environmental-economic requirements imposed by the accession of Romania to the European Union . It is located at the interface eco-efficiency economic and social efficiency, which takes into account the ecological component in economic decision making because environmental issues are inseparable from the welfare and economic processes in general.

  16. Livelihood strategies, environmental dependency and rural poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to explore the nexus between rural households’ environmental dependency, poverty and livelihood strategies. Households’ income from each livelihood activities formed the basis for categorizing households according to livelihood strategies. The principal component analysis...... of livelihood choice were analyzed using multinomial logit model. The results indicate the existence of marked differences in environmental dependency, rural poverty and asset endowments across the livelihood groups. Household’s total saving, access to credit, production implements, business cost, exposure...

  17. Environmental Management Strategy: Four Forces Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Martin W.; Von Windheim, Jesko

    2015-01-01

    We develop an analytical approach for more systematically analyzing environmental management problems in order to develop strategic plans. This approach can be deployed by agencies, non-profit organizations, corporations, or other organizations and institutions tasked with improving environmental quality. The analysis relies on assessing the underlying natural processes followed by articulation of the relevant societal forces causing environmental change: (1) science and technology, (2) governance, (3) markets and the economy, and (4) public behavior. The four forces analysis is then used to strategize which types of actions might be most effective at influencing environmental quality. Such strategy has been under-used and under-valued in environmental management outside of the corporate sector, and we suggest that this four forces analysis is a useful analytic to begin developing such strategy.

  18. Environmental management strategy: four forces analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Martin W; Von Windheim, Jesko

    2015-01-01

    We develop an analytical approach for more systematically analyzing environmental management problems in order to develop strategic plans. This approach can be deployed by agencies, non-profit organizations, corporations, or other organizations and institutions tasked with improving environmental quality. The analysis relies on assessing the underlying natural processes followed by articulation of the relevant societal forces causing environmental change: (1) science and technology, (2) governance, (3) markets and the economy, and (4) public behavior. The four forces analysis is then used to strategize which types of actions might be most effective at influencing environmental quality. Such strategy has been under-used and under-valued in environmental management outside of the corporate sector, and we suggest that this four forces analysis is a useful analytic to begin developing such strategy.

  19. Teaching Strategies for Strengthening Environmental Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilin del Carmen González Castillo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to apply teaching strategies for strengthening the environmental values in the teachers of School Children's House "Linda Barinas" located in the Carmen parish, municipality Barinas, Barinas state. The nature of the study was inserted into the qualitative paradigm, the kind of research in an action research based on a field study. Key informants were five (05 teachers working in the aforementioned institution. The technique for collecting information through an in-depth interview. The technique and data analysis was performed by means of categorization, triangulation and theorizing. The study led to the conclusion: teachers are unaware of employed teaching strategies, learning strategies in addressing environmental education. In addition, the institution lacks the promotion of educational activities that contribute to improving the environment. Similarly, the absence of a positive attitude towards the environment in which every member of the institution appropriates the existing environmental problems at school. In implementing the action plan training workshops conducted for teachers regarding teaching strategies, environmental values and environmental education, produced a motivation and interest of how to implement that knowledge, when planning, organizing and controlling.

  20. Environmental Strategies in Hotel Business Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela STEFANICA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the environment is a strategic challenge in the era we are living in. In this sense, more and more managers from various areas of activity, the tourism industry included, have become increasingly concerned of promoting better environmental practices. If these practices were based on the 3R’s principle, later on they developed amounting to the implementation of much more complex systems and strategies to support the solving of environmental problems. The paper highlights the main environmental strategies implemented in the hotels of Romania and Italy, presented in a comparative analysis. The study provides an image of the current situation in two regions of Romania and Italy, thus showing the efforts made by managers to ameliorate the impact of the activities carried out on the environment.

  1. Analysis of companies' environmental strategies for a green society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmento, Manuela; Durao, Diamantino; Duarte, Manuela

    2006-01-01

    The present research is based on a survey sent to large, medium and small size companies, located in Portugal and within what are considered the most pollutant industrial sectors. The analyses of the results, processed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 11.0, show that generally companies are concerned with the implementation of clean processes, green products and eco-equipment to have a cleaner environment, i.e. a more sustainable society. Statistically, the results show that the 98 potential polluting companies are moderately contributing for a green society (x m =3.1) regarding the ten environmental strategies under research. It can also be concluded that, globally, environmental strategies are directly linked to the companies' size. (author)

  2. Environmental Risk Assessment Strategy for Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeck J. Scott‐Fordsmand

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA for nanomaterials (NMs is outlined in this paper. Contrary to other recent papers on the subject, the main data requirements, models and advancement within each of the four risk assessment domains are described, i.e., in the: (i materials, (ii release, fate and exposure, (iii hazard and (iv risk characterisation domains. The material, which is obviously the foundation for any risk assessment, should be described according to the legislatively required characterisation data. Characterisation data will also be used at various levels within the ERA, e.g., exposure modelling. The release, fate and exposure data and models cover the input for environmental distribution models in order to identify the potential (PES and relevant exposure scenarios (RES and, subsequently, the possible release routes, both with regard to which compartment(s NMs are distributed in line with the factors determining the fate within environmental compartment. The initial outcome in the risk characterisation will be a generic Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC, but a refined PEC can be obtained by applying specific exposure models for relevant media. The hazard information covers a variety of representative, relevant and reliable organisms and/or functions, relevant for the RES and enabling a hazard characterisation. The initial outcome will be hazard characterisation in test systems allowing estimating a Predicted No-Effect concentration (PNEC, either based on uncertainty factors or on a NM adapted version of the Species Sensitivity Distributions approach. The risk characterisation will either be based on a deterministic risk ratio approach (i.e., PEC/PNEC or an overlay of probability distributions, i.e., exposure and hazard distributions, using the nano relevant models.

  3. Environmental Risk Assessment Strategy for Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Semenzin, Elena; Nowack, Bernd; Hunt, Neil; Hristozov, Danail; Marcomini, Antonio; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez; Landsiedel, Robert; Tran, Lang; Oomen, Agnes G; Bos, Peter M J; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin

    2017-10-19

    An Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) for nanomaterials (NMs) is outlined in this paper. Contrary to other recent papers on the subject, the main data requirements, models and advancement within each of the four risk assessment domains are described, i.e., in the: (i) materials, (ii) release, fate and exposure, (iii) hazard and (iv) risk characterisation domains. The material, which is obviously the foundation for any risk assessment, should be described according to the legislatively required characterisation data. Characterisation data will also be used at various levels within the ERA, e.g., exposure modelling. The release, fate and exposure data and models cover the input for environmental distribution models in order to identify the potential (PES) and relevant exposure scenarios (RES) and, subsequently, the possible release routes, both with regard to which compartment(s) NMs are distributed in line with the factors determining the fate within environmental compartment. The initial outcome in the risk characterisation will be a generic Predicted Environmental Concentration (PEC), but a refined PEC can be obtained by applying specific exposure models for relevant media. The hazard information covers a variety of representative, relevant and reliable organisms and/or functions, relevant for the RES and enabling a hazard characterisation. The initial outcome will be hazard characterisation in test systems allowing estimating a Predicted No-Effect concentration (PNEC), either based on uncertainty factors or on a NM adapted version of the Species Sensitivity Distributions approach. The risk characterisation will either be based on a deterministic risk ratio approach (i.e., PEC/PNEC) or an overlay of probability distributions, i.e., exposure and hazard distributions, using the nano relevant models.

  4. Policy and Strategies for Environmental Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In the environmental remediation of a given site, concerned and interested parties have diverse and often conflicting interests with regard to remediation goals, the time frames involved, reuse of the site, the efforts necessary and cost allocation. An environmental remediation policy is essential for establishing the core values on which remediation is to be based. It incorporates a set of principles to ensure the safe and efficient management of remediation situations. Policy is mainly established by the national government and may become codified in the national legislative system. An environmental remediation strategy sets out the means for satisfying the principles and requirements of the national policy. It is normally established by the relevant remediation implementer or by the government in the case of legacy sites. Thus, the national policy may be elaborated in several different strategies. To ensure the safe, technically optimal and cost effective management of remediation situations, countries are advised to formulate an appropriate policy and strategies. Situations involving remediation include remediation of legacy sites (sites where past activities were not stringently regulated or adequately supervised), remediation after emergencies (nuclear and radiological) and remediation after planned ongoing operation and decommissioning. The environmental policy involves the principles of justification, optimization of protection, protection of future generations and the environment, efficiency in the use of resources, and transparent interaction with stakeholders. A typical policy will also take into account the national legal framework and institutional structure and applicable international conventions while providing for the allocation of responsibilities and resources, in addition to safety and security objectives and public information and participation in the decision making process. The strategy reflects and elaborates the goals and requirements set

  5. Revisiting life strategy concepts in environmental microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Adrian; Di Lonardo, D Paolo; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2017-03-01

    Microorganisms are physiologically diverse, possessing disparate genomic features and mechanisms for adaptation (functional traits), which reflect on their associated life strategies and determine at least to some extent their prevalence and distribution in the environment. Unlike animals and plants, there is an unprecedented diversity and intractable metabolic versatility among bacteria, making classification or grouping these microorganisms based on their functional traits as has been done in animal and plant ecology challenging. Nevertheless, based on representative pure cultures, microbial traits distinguishing different life strategies had been proposed, and had been the focus of previous reviews. In the environment, however, the vast majority of naturally occurring microorganisms have yet to be isolated, restricting the association of life strategies to broad phylogenetic groups and/or physiological characteristics. Here, we reviewed the literature to determine how microbial life strategy concepts (i.e. copio- and oligotrophic strategists, and competitor-stress tolerator-ruderals framework) are applied in complex microbial communities. Because of the scarcity of direct empirical evidence elucidating the associated life strategies in complex communities, we rely heavily on observational studies determining the response of microorganisms to (a)biotic cues (e.g. resource availability) to infer microbial life strategies. Although our focus is on the life strategies of bacteria, parallels were drawn from the fungal community. Our literature search showed inconsistency in the community response of proposed copiotrophic- and oligotrophic-associated microorganisms (phyla level) to changing environmental conditions. This suggests that tracking microorganisms at finer phylogenetic and taxonomic resolution (e.g. family level or lower) may be more effective to capture changes in community response and/or that edaphic factors exert a stronger effect in community response

  6. Factors for formulating strategies for environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    This publication focusses on factors which are important for formulating a strategy for environmental restoration. In parallel to this effort, the IAEA has conducted activities in related areas which have been reported in companion reports dealing with (1) the characterization of radioactively contaminated sites for remediation purposes and (2) available technology for cleanup and remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. Additionally, follow-up activities will focus on two other areas, viz. planning and management options for cleanup of contaminated groundwater, and post-restoration monitoring of decommissioned sites. In a separate initiative the IAEA has developed preliminary guidance on radiological criteria for determining when cleanup action is needed and for deciding on when areas have been cleaned up to a sufficient extent. It is also concerned with radioactive contamination of soils, groundwaters, structures and biota which may have the potential for harm to people. It is intended that it will serve as an important source of information and data on the key factors to be considered in the formulation of an environmental restoration strategy

  7. Environmental strategies in the automobile industry; Umweltstrategien in der Automobilbranche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratzel, S.; Tellermann, R. [Center of Automotive, FHDW, Bergisch Gladbach (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    An actual market analysis on the environment strategies of the automobile industry concludes that the large companies react preferential with marketing measures to the climatic change debate and do not consequently support innovative environmental technology developments. The study show that the companies BMW, Toyota, and Volkswagen have the best environmental stategies, Daimler, Ford, Honda Porsche, Peugeot, Citroen show fragments of an environmental strategey, Chrysler, General Motors, Fiat, Mitsubishi and Nissan/Renault invest in marketing strategies, but not in environmental strategies.

  8. Strategies for environmentally sound economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchin, F.; Lange, G.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that it has been estimated that the burning of fossil fuels and the clearing of forests account for 6-7 billion tons of carbon emissions each year. Combustion also results in significant emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides. While the growth in the use of fuels has slowed considerably in the developed regions of North America, western Europe, and Japan over the past decade, pressure for increased energy use and the clearing of forests can be expected with even moderate economic and population growth in the developing regions of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Researchers at the Institute for Economic Analysis have begun the formulation and analysis of alternative scenarios describing environmentally sound economic development over the next 50 years. These scenarios include activities aimed at improving the standards of living in developing countries while reducing emissions of the aforementioned gases or removing carbon from the atmosphere. Specific alternatives include tropical forestation; the adoption of relatively clean and efficient boilers, especially for the production of electricity in developing countries, as well as greater use of cogeneration systems and hydroelectricity; alternative transportation strategies; and conservation of energy in households of rich and middle-income countries (e.g., efficient lighting fixtures, appliances, and cooling equipment)

  9. Integrated Manufacturing Strategy: A Prerequisite for Environmental Excellence

    OpenAIRE

    W. Rocky Newman; Mark D. Hanna; William E.Youngdahl

    1994-01-01

    This paper is based upon a framework which links the effective integration of manufacturing strategy into overall corporate strategy (Wheelwright and Hayes 1985) and corporate attainment of environmental excellence (Winsemius and Guntram 1992). By exploring the practical implications of this framework, the paper suggests that improvement of environmental performance may depend on adequate integration of manufacturing strategy into overall corporate strategy. Hence, situations may commonly exi...

  10. 76 FR 62434 - HUD Draft Environmental Justice Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Justice Strategy AGENCY: Office of the Sustainable Housing and Communities, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Through this notice, HUD announces the release of its draft Environmental Justice Strategy for review and... federal agency, with the law as its guide, should make environmental justice part of its mission. In this...

  11. Stakeholder demands and corporate environmental coping strategies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Tang, Shui-Yan; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Zhan, Xueyong

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how stakeholder demand and compliance capacity jointly shape corporate environmental coping strategies and subsequently environmental protection practices. A four-dimensional classification of coping strategies-formalism, accommodation, referencing, and self-determination-is conceptualized. Drawing on survey and interview data collected from manufacturing enterprises in China between 2010 and 2012, the paper shows that compared with formalism and accommodation, coping strategies of referencing and self-determination are associated with stronger environmental protection practices. Enterprises adjust their coping strategies by taking into account the constraints defined by both their internal and external environments. The results also demonstrate the potential synergetic effects of state and non-state stakeholders working together in promoting better corporate environmental coping strategies and environmental practices in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 77 FR 18879 - Department of Transportation Final Environmental Justice Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Transportation Final Environmental Justice Strategy AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of Transportation, DOT... strategy, which sets forth DOT's commitment to identifying and addressing disproportionately high and...-income populations. This strategy is published as a final document; however, it is a revision of a...

  13. Strategies for Evaluating Complex Environmental Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, V.

    2011-12-01

    Evidence for the effectiveness of environmental education programs has been difficult to establish for many reasons. Chief among them are the lack of clear program objectives and an inability to conceptualize how environmental education programs work. Both can lead to evaluations that make claims that are difficult to substantiate, such as significant changes in student achievement levels or behavioral changes based on acquisition of knowledge. Many of these challenges can be addressed by establishing the program theory and developing a logic model. However, claims of impact on larger societal outcomes are difficult to attribute solely to program activities. Contribution analysis may offer a promising method for addressing this challenge. Rather than attempt to definitively and causally link a program's activities to desired results, contribution analysis seeks to provide plausible evidence that can reduce uncertainty regarding the 'difference' a program is making to observed outcomes. It sets out to verify the theory of change behind a program and, at the same time, takes into consideration other influencing factors. Contribution analysis is useful in situations where the program is not experimental-there is little or no scope for varying how the program is implemented-and the program has been funded on the basis of a theory of change. In this paper, the author reviews the feasibility of using contribution analysis as a way of evaluating the impact of the GLOBE program, an environmental science and education program. Initially conceptualized by Al Gore in 1995, the program's implementation model is based on worldwide environmental monitoring by students and scientists around the globe. This paper will make a significant and timely contribution to the field of evaluation, and specifically environmental education evaluation by examining the usefulness of this analysis for developing evidence to assess the impact of environmental education programs.

  14. Approaching messy problems: strategies for environmental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. M. Reid; R. R. Ziemer; T. E. Lisle

    1996-01-01

    Environmental problems are never neatly defined. Instead, each is a tangle of interacting processes whose manifestation and interpretation are warped by the vagaries of time, weather, expectation, and economics. Each problem involves livelihoods, values, and numerous specialized disciplines. Nevertheless, federal agencies in the Pacific Northwest have been given the...

  15. Strategies for the environmental management of chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagelaar, J.L.F.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The ways to reduce the discharge of pollutants are diverse. End-of-pipe measures, cleaner production technologies and environmentally oriented product design is the spectrum in which solutions can be found. To implement such measures, and ultimately close industrial cycles, companies have to

  16. Outdoor γ-ray dose rate in Shariki Village and environmental factors affecting outdoor γ-ray dose rate in IES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2000-01-01

    Previously, we surveyed the outdoor γ-ray dose rate throughout Aomori Prefecture from 1992 to 1995, and found an annual mean dose rate of 51 nGy h -1 . Relatively high dose rates were also observed in several areas (municipalities) of the survey locations. In this study, we examined the detailed distribution of the γ-ray dose rate in one such high dose rate area, Shariki Village. Glass dosemeters were used for the monitoring of cumulative γ-ray dose rate at 10 locations in the village. The dose rate from each radioactive nuclide in the ground at the monitoring locations was measured by using an in situ γ-ray spectrometer with a Ge detector. The results obtained with the glass dosemeters showed that the γ-ray dose rates in Shariki Village varied from 49 to 55 nGy h -1 . Although the dose rates were generally higher than the mean dose in Aomori Prefecture (1992-1995), the rates were lower than other high dose rate areas which had already been measured. The in situ γ-ray spectrometry revealed that these relatively high dose rates were mainly caused by 40 K and Th series radionuclides in the village. The effect of meteorological conditions on the γ-ray dose rate was studied at a monitoring station in the IES site. The dose rate was continuously recorded by a DBM NaI(Tl) scintillation detector system. The mean dose rate obtained when precipitation was sensed was 27 nGy h -1 and higher than when no precipitation was sensed (25 nGy h -1 ). (author)

  17. Outdoor γ-ray dose rate in Mutsu city and environmental factors affecting outdoor γ-ray dose rate in IES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2001-01-01

    Previously, we surveyed outdoor γ-ray dose rates throughout Aomori Prefecture from 1992 to 1995, and found a mean annual dose rate of 28 nGy h -1 . Relatively high dose rates were also observed in several areas (municipalities) of the survey locations. In this study, we examined the detailed distribution of the γ-ray dose rate in one such high dose rate area, Mutsu City. Glass dosemeters were used for the monitoring of cumulative γ-ray dose rate at 10 locations in the city. The dose rate from each radioactive nuclide in the ground at the monitoring locations was measured by using an in situ γ-ray spectrometer with a Ge detector. The results obtained with the glass dosemeters showed that the γ-ray dose rates in Mutsu City varied from 17 to 32 nGy h -1 . Although the dose rates were almost the same as the mean dose in Aomori Prefecture (1992-1995), the rates were lower than other high dose rate areas which had already been measured. The in situ γ-ray spectrometry revealed that these relatively high dose rates were mainly caused by 40 K and Th series radionuclides in the local ground. The effect of meteorological conditions on the γ-ray dose rate was studied at a monitoring station in the IES site. The dose rate was continuously recorded by a DBM NaI(Tl) scintillation detector system. The mean dose rate obtained when precipitation was sensed was 26 nGy h -1 and higher than when no precipitation was sensed (24 nGy h -1 ). (author)

  18. Environmentally related taxes in OECD countries: issues and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Economic instruments, including environmentally related taxes, play an increasing role in the environmental policies of developed countries. This publication addresses the use of environmental taxes and their effectiveness in reducing environmental damage. It finds these taxes are a powerful tool for implementing environmental strategy. It also describes obstacles to increased use of such taxes (e.g. concerns about competitiveness and distributional effects) and suggests ways to overcome such barriers. Particular attention is given to issues and options related to taxes on greenhouse gases. 18 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. A strategy for addressing environmental regulations in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, an assessment was made concerning environmental regulatory trends and the electric power industry and an eight point environmental permitting strategy and approach was outlined in 1989 to handle the environmental approvals for new power plants in the 1990s. The main features of the suggested strategy included: (1) development of a comprehensive and coordinated approach to environmental permitting, (2) inclusion of all levels of government and appropriate jurisdictions, (3) disclosure of considerably more information than previously required, (4) maintenance of records to allow traceability of issues, technical data, and environmental licensing positions, (5) development of legal and technical reviews and develop positions on a wider range of environmental issues, (6) encourage the development of both a global as well as a project-specific perspective, (7) review of existing plants and projects against contemporary environmental trends and patterns to assure continued compliance, and (8) prepare to entertain more project or facility reviews, audits, inspections and independent reviews. Since then this strategy and approach has been tested on several power and non-power projects and has proven to be a viable and constructive approach to the problem of environmental regulation. This paper summarizes the main features of this strategy and reviews the results of its application to these various projects and reviews its applicability to non-utility power projects

  20. Aligning economic impact with environmental benefits: a green strategy model

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Q.; Lago, P.; Potenza, S.

    2012-01-01

    To achieve lower energy consumption many green strategies (e.g. virtualize applications and consolidate them on shared server machines, or optimize the usage of the private cloud by opening up to external consumers) have been discussed. In practice, however, the major incentive for a company to go green is reducing costs. While green strategies often focus on technical and environmental issues, they hardly address the economic impact that they may bring. If green strategies do not lead to an ...

  1. Environmental performance evaluation and strategy management using balanced scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Lung; Liu, Chun-Chu

    2010-11-01

    Recently, environmental protection and regulations such as WEEE, ELV, and RoHS are rapidly emerging as an important issue for business to consider. The trend of swinging from end-of-pipe control to product design, green innovation, and even the establishment of image or brand has affected corporations in almost every corner in the world, and enlarged to the all modern global production network. Corporations must take proactive environmental strategies to response the challenges. This study adopts balanced scorecard structure and aim at automobile industries to understand the relationships of internal and external, financial and non-financial, and outcome and driving factors. Further relying on these relationships to draw the "map of environment strategy" to probe and understand the feasibility of environmental performance evaluation and environmental strategy control.

  2. Environmental factors and health information technology management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menachemi, Nir; Shin, Dong Yeong; Ford, Eric W; Yu, Feliciano

    2011-01-01

    : Previous studies have provided theoretical and empirical evidence that environmental forces influence hospital strategy. : Rooted in resource dependence theory and the information uncertainty perspective, this study examined the relationship between environmental market characteristics and hospitals' selection of a health information technology (HIT) management strategy. : A cross-sectional design is used to analyze secondary data from the American Hospital Association Annual Survey, the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society Analytics Database, and the Area Resource File. Univariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses are used. : Overall, 3,221 hospitals were studied, of which 60.9% pursed a single-vendor HIT management strategy, 28.9% pursued a best-of-suite strategy, and 10.2% used a best-of-breed strategy. Multivariate analyses controlling for hospital characteristics found that measures of environmental factors representing munificence, dynamism, and/or complexity were systematically associated with various hospital HIT management strategy use. Specifically, the number of generalist physicians per capita was positively associated with the single-vendor strategy (B = -5.64, p = .10). Hospitals in urban markets were more likely to pursue the best-of-suite strategy (B = 0.622, p < .001). Dynamism, measured as the number of managed care contracts for a given hospital, was negatively associated with the single-vendor strategy (B = 0.004, p = .049). Lastly, complexity, measured as market competition, was positively associated with the best-of-breed strategy (B = 0.623, p = .042). : By and large, environmental factors are associated with hospital HIT management strategies in mostly theoretically supported ways. Hospital leaders and policy makers interested in influencing the adoption of hospital HIT should consider how market conditions influence HIT management decisions as part of programs to promote meaningful use.

  3. European Union's environmental strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, Jean-Paul; Laurent, Eloi; Le Cacheux, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Environmental policy is an art of execution. Hence the fact that European Union member states have recently managed to agree on targets of emissions to fight climate change leaves open the question of how they will meet them. Economics cannot but embrace the scientific consensus on climate change and cannot say much about the efficiency of alternative technologies. Yet, its expertise is valuable to calculate economic effects and fairness of policies and to assess the relevance of incentives structures and effectiveness of institutions put into place to convert scientific consensus into action. This article is concerned with this latter point: does the EU have the right institutions to fight climate change? We claim that such is not the case, and offer to institute a 'European Community of Environment, Energy and Research' to go forward. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE' No. 102

  4. Strategies and perspectives of influential environmental organizations toward tropical deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozanne, L.K.; Smith, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, environmental nongovernment organizations (NGOs) have been active in alerting the public and governments to tropical forest issues. Many feel that these efforts have begun to affect the trade in tropical timber and influence the perceptions of logging in the tropics. However, the influence of environmental organizations is not restricted to tropical timber trade but has the potential to impact the global wood products industry. The wood products industry has an opportunity to address these pressures by understanding the strategies and perceptions of the environmental community on this issue and developing proactive strategies to deal with the situation. This study included a phase 1 prestudy, which reported the results of interview with over 39 environmental NGOs in both the US and Europe to develop an overview of this complex industry. A phase 2 followup fax questionnaire was administered to the most relevant US environmental NGOs in order to classify them on two important criteria: (1) their level of specialization; and (2) their organizational strategy. This paper provides an overview of the complex issues in the environmental debate regarding tropical deforestation and how environmental organizations are attempting to address these issues

  5. Industrial Ecology (IE) Revisited: Beyond Environmental Myopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Inger; Ulhøi, John Parm

    Since the late 1980s, the notion of industrial ecology has attracted increasing attention amoung researchers, most notably in the US and northern Europe. However, this is not yet translated into any significant political or practical awareness in the industrial community. There are several reasons...

  6. Extended Producer Responsibility and corporate performance: Effects of environmental regulation and environmental strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Benhong; Tu, Yu; Elahi, Ehsan; Wei, Guo

    2018-07-15

    While contemporary manufacturing technologies stimulate the industrial revolution and promote the rapidly changing global economy, it has caused enormous environmental negative externalities and managing the industrial waste remains a primary challenge, especially for fast developing countries such as China. Though existing studies explored the influence of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) legislations on environmental externalities, only fewer researches aimed at policy issues. Particularly, the relationship among environmental regulations, environmental strategies and corporate performance in the EPR system has not been deeply investigated. To fill this gap, this research will focus to assess the economic aspect and environmental performance associated with the environmental regulations and strategies. For this purpose, 208 cross-sectional questionnaires were administered with three major high-pollution industries, electrical and electronic, automobile and lead-acid storage battery industries. To accomplish this study objective, we employ a two-step approach: firstly, validity tests for environmental regulation and environmental strategy along with the corporate performance are performed by the factor analysis method, and secondly, the structural equation model is utilized to test the study hypotheses. Results reveal that command and control (CAC) and market-based incentive (MBI) environmental regulations are significantly impacting on the reactive environmental strategy (RES); however, the proactive environmental strategy (PES) only has a significant relationship with MBI regulation. On the other hand, RES only has a significant relationship with the enterprises economics performance, while PES has a statistically significant relationship with both economic and environmental performance of enterprises. Therefore, the central government and its local offices are strongly urged to coordinate the industries by making, implementing and monitoring necessary and

  7. Bridge to a sustainable future: National environmental technology strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    For the past two years the Administration has sought the views of Congress, the states, communities, industry, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and interested citizens on ways to spur the development and use of a new generation of environmental technologies. This document represents the views of thousands of individuals who participated in events around the country to help craft a national environmental technology strategy that will put us on the path to sustainable development.

  8. Environmental impact assessment of the national climate strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilden, M.; Attila, M.; Hiltunen, M.; Karvosenoja, N.; Syri, S.

    2001-01-01

    The national climate strategy aims at fulfilling the obligations to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in accordance with the Kyoto protocol. The environmental impacts of the strategy were analysed by comparing a business as usual scenario with two scenarios based on additional measures. Both scenarios with additional measures are based on more emphasis on energy saving and use of renewable sources of energy, but they differ with respect to energy production. The environmental consequences until 2010 are similar in the scenarios with additional measures, and they are better from an environmental point of view than the business as usual scenario. Many of the measures have significant effects only in the long term, and all have indirect effects, opportunities and uncertain factors. Some measures can create societal conflicts, which further increases the uncertainty in implementing the climate strategy. In order to be able to adapt to and react on deviations from the development that the strategy aims at achieving the monitoring of the strategy should examine the implementation from many different aspects, because profound knowledge of the nature of the effects and key cause and effects relations is essential in revising and updating the strategy. (orig.)

  9. Integrated manure management to reduce environmental impact: II. Environmental impact assessment of strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Groenestein, C.M.; Schroder, J.J.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Sukkel, W.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Manure management contributes to adverse environmental impacts through losses of nitrogen (N), phosphorus, and carbon (C). In this study, we aimed to assess the potential of newly designed strategies for integrated manure management (IS) to reduce environmental impact. An important aspect of the

  10. Environmental restraints and life strategies: a habitat templet matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, E

    1988-02-01

    Four basic environmental restraints on life are deduced from the requirements of life's inherent order laws. Possible life strategies to contend with these restraints are listed. The various combinations of the restraints are subsequently investigated, and appropriate combinations of life strategies are fitted. This model is finally tested against insect case histories in various environments, and is demonstrated to explain some combinations of characteristics of insects in ecosystems not covered by the r-K or r-K-A continua. The role of heterochrony in achieving appropriate life strategies is briefly discussed.

  11. IDRC Corporate Strategy 2010-2015 : Environmental Scan | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC Corporate Strategy 2010-2015 : Environmental Scan. This grant will allow IDRC's Board of Governors to commission a series of eight peer-reviewed papers by leading thinkers with a view to shedding light on how the world is changing and the implications of these changes for IDRC. IDRC managers and governors ...

  12. Strategies of Environmental Policy in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Modiga

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for achieving environmental policy reinforce the principle of subsidiary ( delegation ofresponsibilities of Member States, while European Union outlines only the general objectives to be taken intoaccount and try replacing the traditional vertical approach, command and control type, by promoting analternative model for achieving the EU average. One can say that these strategies are a kind of “aids”, whichcomplement standard tools and acting as incentives for the adoption of measures for environmental protectionthat emphasizes the trend towards an approach based on the principle of volunteering. In the early '70s, wasrecognized the need and legitimacy of a common environment. In time, will develop a progressiveenvironmental Community law, which includes over 200 directives and regulations. They concern mainlywater protection, air quality, protection of flora and fauna, noise, waste disposal. Environmental legislationhas a particular characteristic; it takes into account economic aspects.

  13. Strategies for environmental restoration in an evolving regulatory environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.F.; Geffen, C.A.

    1990-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is faced with the immense challenge of effectively implementing a program to mitigate and manage the environmental impacts created by past and current operations at its facilities. Such a program must be developed and administered in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. These regulations are extremely complex, burdening the environmental restoration process with a number of planning and public interaction requirements that must be met before remediation of a site may begin. Existing regulatory and institutional requirements for environmental restoration dictate that extensive planning, characterization and assessment activities be conducted. An important part of the process is the involvement of regulators and the public in the site characterization and assessment activities and in developing reasonable solutions for cleanup. This paper identifies the regulatory requirements and highlights implementation strategies for key aspects of the environmental restoration process for DOE. Trends in legislation and policy relevant to the DOE environmental restoration process are highlighted, with strategies identified for dealing with the evolution of the regulations while maintaining continuity in the technical activities required for cleaning up the DOE hazardous and mixed waste sites. 10 refs

  14. An Implementing Strategy for Improving Wildland Fire Environmental Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, M. R.; Andrus, D.; Barnett, K.

    2007-12-01

    Wildland fire is any planned or unplanned fire which occurs in wildland ecosystems. Wildland fires affect millions of acres annually in the U.S. An average of 5.4 million acres a year were burned in the U.S. between 1995 and 2004, approximately 142 percent of the average burned area between 1984 and 1994. In 2005 alone, Federal agencies spent nearly $1 billion on fire suppression and state and local agencies contributed millions more. Many Americans prefer to live and vacation in relatively remote surroundings, (i.e., woods and rangelands). These choices offer many benefits, but they also present significant risks. Most of North America is fire-prone and every day developed areas and home sites are extending further into natural wildlands, which increases the chances of catastrophic fire. In addition, an abundance of accumulated biomass in forests and rangelands and persistent drought conditions are contributing to larger, costlier wildland fires. To effectively prevent, manage, suppress, respond to, and recover from wildland fires, fire managers, and other communities which are impacted by wildland fires (e.g., the business community; healthcare providers; federal, state, and local policymakers; the media; the public, etc.) need timely, accurate, and detailed wildland fire weather and climate information to support their decision-making activities. But what are the wildland fire weather and climate data, products, and information, as well as information dissemination technologies, needed to reach out and promote wildland fire environmental literacy in these communities? The Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research (OFCM) conducted a comprehensive review and assessment of weather and climate needs of providers and users in their wildland fire and fuels management activities. The assessment has nine focus areas, one of which is environmental literacy (e.g., education, training, outreach, partnering, and collaboration

  15. Capital Structure, Environmental Dynamism, Innovation Strategy, and Strategic Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Andersen, Torben

    2005-01-01

    Previous research found that capital structure affects performance when it is adapted to the level of environmental dynamism and pursuit of an innovation strategy. The current study reproduces some of these relationships in a more recent dataset but also identifies significant nuances across...... industrial environments. Analyses of a large cross sectional sample and various industry sub-samples suggest that other factors have influenced capital structure effects in recent years including flexibilities in multinational organization and effective strategic risk management capabilities....

  16. Including environmental concerns in management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, M.; Avci, H.I.; Bradley, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    One of the major programs within the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) management program. The program is intended to find a long-term management strategy for the DUF 6 that is currently stored in approximately 46,400 cylinders at Paducah, KY; Portsmouth, OH; and Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The program has four major components: technology assessment, engineering analysis, cost analysis, and the environmental impact statement (EIS). From the beginning of the program, the DOE has incorporated the environmental considerations into the process of strategy selection. Currently, the DOE has no preferred alternative. The results of the environmental impacts assessment from the EIS, as well as the results from the other components of the program, will be factored into the strategy selection process. In addition to the DOE's current management plan, other alternatives continued storage, reuse, or disposal of depleted uranium, will be considered in the EIS. The EIS is expected to be completed and issued in its final form in the fall of 1997

  17. Strategies for sustainable management of renewable resources during environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindkvist, Emilie; Ekeberg, Örjan; Norberg, Jon

    2017-03-15

    As a consequence of global environmental change, management strategies that can deal with unexpected change in resource dynamics are becoming increasingly important. In this paper we undertake a novel approach to studying resource growth problems using a computational form of adaptive management to find optimal strategies for prevalent natural resource management dilemmas. We scrutinize adaptive management, or learning-by-doing, to better understand how to simultaneously manage and learn about a system when its dynamics are unknown. We study important trade-offs in decision-making with respect to choosing optimal actions (harvest efforts) for sustainable management during change. This is operationalized through an artificially intelligent model where we analyze how different trends and fluctuations in growth rates of a renewable resource affect the performance of different management strategies. Our results show that the optimal strategy for managing resources with declining growth is capable of managing resources with fluctuating or increasing growth at a negligible cost, creating in a management strategy that is both efficient and robust towards future unknown changes. To obtain this strategy, adaptive management should strive for: high learning rates to new knowledge, high valuation of future outcomes and modest exploration around what is perceived as the optimal action. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Environmental strategies and their motives and results in Slovenian business practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Čater

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of a survey on 153 Slovenian manufacturing companies show that companies implement environmental strategies primarily as a refl ection of the commitment of their top management, followed by public concern, regulatory forces and expected competitive advantage. They report a relatively high level of implementation of the corporate environmental strategy while, among functional strategies, environmental issues are most commonly included in the production and marketing strategies, followed by purchasing and personnel strategies. Large companies develop and execute environmental strategies to a greater extent than small companies. The results also reveal a positive but very weak relationship between environmental strategies and company performance.

  19. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    and providing it to environmental, natural resource, agricultural, and public-health managers. The USGS is a Federal science agency with a broad range of natural science expertise relevant to environmental health. USGS provides scientific information and tools as a scientific basis for management and policy decision making. USGS specializes in science at the environment-health interface, by characterizing the processes that affect the interaction among the physical environment, the living environment, and people, and the resulting factors that affect ecological and human exposure to disease agents. This report describes a 10-year strategy that encompasses the portfolio of USGS environmental health science. It summarizes national environmental health priorities that USGS is best suited to address, and will serve as a strategic framework for USGS environmental health science goals, actions, and outcomes for the next decade. Implementation of this strategy is intended to aid coordination of USGS environmental health activities and to provide a focal point for disseminating information to stakeholders. The "One Health" paradigm advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2011), and the American Veterinary Medicine Association (AVMA, 2008), among others, is based on a general recognition that the health of humans, animals, and the environment are inextricably linked. Thus, successful efforts to protect that health will require increased interdisciplinary research and increased communication and collaboration among the broader scientific and health community. This strategy is built upon that paradigm. The vision, mission, and five cornerstone goals of the USGS Environmental Health Science Strategy were developed with significant input from a wide range of stakeholders. Vision - The USGS is a premier source of the environmental health science needed to safeguard the health of the environment, fish, wildlife, and people. Mission - The mission of USGS in environmental

  20. Reusing Recycling Material as Teaching Strategy to Strengthen Environmental Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudit Zaida del Carmen Alarcón de Palma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was centered interest implement recycling reuse the material as a teaching strategy to strengthen environmental students “Adolfo Moreno” National Basic School Barinitas parish, municipality Bolivar, Barinas state values. School Year 2014 - 2015. The study was based on the paradigm of qualitative research and research in action type. From this point of view, the study focuses on participatory action this mode, it is limited in so-called field layouts. The study its characteristics was fulfilled in the following phases: diagnosis, planning, implementation, evaluation and systematization. Finally, it can be noted that the implementation of teaching strategies reuse recycle material for strengthening environmental students "Adolfo Moreno" National Basic School values; They will be incorporating parents and guardians as well as various educational actors to implement the activities involved in the proposal which seeks to change attitudes to improve through practical actions management standards and conservation practices to achieve an environmental change in institution through technical, theoretical and practical knowledge to strengthen the benefit of recyclables properly handle procedures.

  1. D IE NEDERLANDSEGELOOFSBEL YDEN IS ASS IM BOL IE SEGE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    M aar aan die ander kant, as dit vir U blyk dat ons onskuldig is, wees ons dan n steun en n toevlug teen die geweld van onse vyande. W ant helaas, genadigste Heer, as mens alleen maar kan beskuldig terwyl aan die beskuldigde elke weg en middel van verdediging ontneem word, wie sal dan regverdig bevind word? W ie.

  2. 200 Areas soil remediation strategy -- Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The remediation and waste management activities in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site (located in Richland, Washington) currently range from remediating groundwater, remediating source units (contaminated soils), decontaminating and decommissioning of buildings and structures, maintaining facilities, managing transuranic, low-level and mixed waste, and operating tank farms that store high-level waste. This strategy focuses on the assessment and remediation of soil that resulted from the discharge of liquids and solids from processing facilities to the ground (e.g., ponds, ditches, cribs, burial grounds) in the 200 Areas and addresses only those waste sites assigned to the Environmental Restoration Program

  3. Developing environmental marketing strategies in the framework of forest sector enterprises social responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    V.T. Polovska

    2012-01-01

    The approaches and methods of social responsibility implementation for developing environmental marketing strategies are examined, environmental marketing objectives for adopting social responsibility in forest sector are determined, principles of socially responsible environmental marketing are formulated.

  4. Supplement No. 79-01A to IE Bulletin No. 79-01: Environmental qualification of Class 1E equipment (Deficiencies in the environmental qualification of ASCO solenoid valves)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, a noncompliance report under 10 CFR Part 21 was received by the NRC from the Henry Pratt Company, manufacturer of butterfly valves which are installed in the primary containment at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Station. These butterfly valves are used for purge and exhaust purposes and are required to operate during accident conditions. The report discusses the use of an unqualified solenoid valve for a safety-related valve function which requires operation under accident conditions. The solenoid valve in question is Catalogue No. HT-8331A45, manufactured by the Automatic Switch Company (ASCO) of Florham Park, New Jersey. This pilot valve is used to pilot control the pneumatic valve actuators which are installed on the containment ventilation butterfly valves at this facility. The deficiency in these solenoid valves identified in the Part 21 Report concerns the parts made of acetal plastic material. The acetal disc holder assembly and bottom plug in the pilot valve assembly are stated by ASCO to have a maximum service limit of 400,000 Rad integrated dosage and 200 degrees F temperature. According to ASCO, exposure of these acetal plastic parts to specified maximum environmental conditions may render the solenoid pilot valve inoperable which would cause the associated butterfly valve to malfunction

  5. Strategic analysis of factors affecting the coupling of environmental management with business strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Bjarnø, Ole-Christian

    1997-01-01

    This paper aims at introducing a framework through which companies can adress and overcome the uncertainty regarding their strategic environmental posture and formulate an appropriate environmental strategy in line with their business context, environmental pressures, internal strenghts and weakn......This paper aims at introducing a framework through which companies can adress and overcome the uncertainty regarding their strategic environmental posture and formulate an appropriate environmental strategy in line with their business context, environmental pressures, internal strenghts...

  6. Recycling as a Teaching Strategy for Environmental Conservation (Project execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Yaneth Bonilla García

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research study will aim to implement recycling as a teaching strategy for Environmental conservation aimed at students of the state Concentrared Sabaneta School of core Rural School No. 001 pedraza Municipality, Barinas State. It will focus on the qualitative paradigm and design will use action-research participant. The techniques of collecting information to be used will be the semi-structured interview and participant observation, taking as informants 3 students 2 teachers of the institution under study, analysis of information developed through qualitative techniques that will break down the data in their respective categories and sub categories with the final purpose responding to the questions raised in the context of study. This process will seek to integrate into a coherent and logical research results with the contributions of the authors outlined the theoretical framework after work crosscheck everything. The validity and reliability will be established through an exhaustive process of triangulation, in order to establish concrete actions to address the weaknesses detected in relation to the need to implement educational strategies supported in recycling to assist in environmental conservation.

  7. Arctic environmental strategy: Progress report, April 1992 - March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Arctic Environmental Strategy is part of Canada's Green Plan and involves providing $100 million over six years to address environmental problems in the Canadian north in the areas of contaminants, waste, water, and environment/economy integration. In 1992/93, over 50 scientific studies on the origins, occurrence, and behavior of contaminants in the Arctic were conducted, and a series of large-volume atmospheric stations were established. Caribou herds, fish, and the health of aboriginal northern peoples are being monitored. Over 100 sites across the north were cleaned in 1992/93, including commercial fishing waste sites, oil/gas exploration staging sites, and diamond drill camps. In addition to ongoing monitoring of water quality and quantity, a number of studies are being conducted to respond to local water concerns. An environmental action program is working through schools and northern communities on issues such as recycling, water pollution avoidance, and resource conservation and management. In response to demand for access to information about the north, the Northern Information Network is being established which will link users of databases and encourage information sharing. 5 figs

  8. Delayed bet-hedging resilience strategies under environmental fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Masaki; Wakaiki, Masashi; Rubin, Harvey; Preciado, Victor M.

    2017-05-01

    Many biological populations, such as bacterial colonies, have developed through evolution a protection mechanism, called bet hedging, to increase their probability of survival under stressful environmental fluctuation. In this context, the concept of preadaptation refers to a common type of bet-hedging protection strategy in which a relatively small number of individuals in a population stochastically switch their phenotypes to a dormant metabolic state in which they increase their probability of survival against potential environmental shocks. Hence, if an environmental shock took place at some point in time, preadapted organisms would be better adapted to survive and proliferate once the shock is over. In many biological populations, the mechanisms of preadaptation and proliferation present delays whose influence in the fitness of the population are not well understood. In this paper, we propose a rigorous mathematical framework to analyze the role of delays in both preadaptation and proliferation mechanisms in the survival of biological populations, with an emphasis on bacterial colonies. Our theoretical framework allows us to analytically quantify the average growth rate of a bet-hedging bacterial colony with stochastically delayed reactions with arbitrary precision. We verify the accuracy of the proposed method by numerical simulations and conclude that the growth rate of a bet-hedging population shows a nontrivial dependency on their preadaptation and proliferation delays. Contrary to the current belief, our results show that faster reactions do not, in general, increase the overall fitness of a biological population.

  9. Prevalence of Physical Activity Policies and Environmental Strategies in Communities and Worksites: The Iowa Community Transformation Grant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillehoj, Catherine J; Daniel-Ulloa, Jason D; Nothwehr, Faryle

    2016-01-01

    This study describes results of community and worksite assessments of physical activity policies and environmental strategies in 26 Iowa counties. Community coalition members completed the Community Health Assessment and Group Evaluation tool. The study explored findings using descriptive statistics and examined rural-urban differences in two of the five assessed sectors: community and worksites. Lower community scores (ie, needing improvement) were found for complete streets, bicycle use, and street calming. Higher scores (ie, identified strengths) were found for land use plans, maintain parks, and sidewalks Americans with Disabilities Act compliant. Worksites scored lower on promote stairwells, encourage non-motorized commuting, and implement activity breaks but higher on subsidize gym membership and provide area for physical activity. No rural-urban differences were found. Results identify opportunities to enhance community and worksite policies and environmental strategies to increase physical activity.

  10. Optimization of environmental management strategies through a dynamic stochastic possibilistic multiobjective program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Gordon

    2013-02-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) management facilities have become a serious environmental issue. In MSW management, not only economic objectives but also environmental objectives should be considered simultaneously. In this study, a dynamic stochastic possibilistic multiobjective programming (DSPMP) model is developed for supporting MSW management and associated GHG emission control. The DSPMP model improves upon the existing waste management optimization methods through incorporation of fuzzy possibilistic programming and chance-constrained programming into a general mixed-integer multiobjective linear programming (MOP) framework where various uncertainties expressed as fuzzy possibility distributions and probability distributions can be effectively reflected. Two conflicting objectives are integrally considered, including minimization of total system cost and minimization of total GHG emissions from waste management facilities. Three planning scenarios are analyzed and compared, representing different preferences of the decision makers for economic development and environmental-impact (i.e. GHG-emission) issues in integrated MSW management. Optimal decision schemes under three scenarios and different p(i) levels (representing the probability that the constraints would be violated) are generated for planning waste flow allocation and facility capacity expansions as well as GHG emission control. The results indicate that economic and environmental tradeoffs can be effectively reflected through the proposed DSPMP model. The generated decision variables can help the decision makers justify and/or adjust their waste management strategies based on their implicit knowledge and preferences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental management: a re-emerging vector control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, S K

    1994-01-01

    Vector control may be accomplished by environmental management (EM), which consists of permanent or long-term modification of the environment, temporary or seasonal manipulation of the environment, and modifying or changing our life styles and practices to reduce human contact with infective vectors. The primary focus of this paper is EM in the control of human malaria, filariasis, arboviruses, Chagas' disease, and schistosomiasis. Modern EM developed as a discipline based primarily in ecologic principles and lessons learned from the adverse environmental impacts of rural development projects. Strategies such as the suppression of vector populations through the provision of safe water supplies, proper sanitation, solid waste management facilities, sewerage and excreta disposal systems, water manipulation in dams and irrigation systems, vector diversion by zooprophylaxis, and vector exclusion by improved housing, are discussed with appropriate examples. Vectors of malaria, filariasis, Chagas' disease, and schistosomiasis have been controlled by drainage or filling aquatic breeding sites, improved housing and sanitation, the use of expanded polystyrene beads, zooprophylaxis, or the provision of household water supplies. Community participation has been effective in the suppression of dengue vectors in Mexico and the Dominican Republic. Alone or combined with other vector control methods, EM has been proven to be a successful approach to vector control in a number of places. The future of EM in vector control looks promising.

  12. A Cross-Cultural Study on Environmental Risk Perception and Educational Strategies: Implications for Environmental Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hongxia; Fortner, Rosanne

    2010-01-01

    This cross-cultural study examined college students' environmental risk perception and their preference in terms of risk communication and educational strategies in China and the United States. The results indicated that the Chinese respondents were more concerned about environmental risk, and they perceived the environmental issues to be more…

  13. Designing environmental campaigns by using agent-based simulations: strategies for changing environmental attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Martens, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Agent-based computer simulation was used to create artificial communities in which each individual was constructed according to the principles of the elaboration likelihood model of Petty and Cacioppo [1986. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. In: Berkowitz, L. (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. Academic Press, New York, NY, pp. 123-205]. Campaigning strategies and community characteristics were varied systematically to understand and test their impact on attitudes towards environmental protection. The results show that strong arguments influence a green (environmentally concerned) population with many contacts most effectively, while peripheral cues have the greatest impact on a non-green population with fewer contacts. Overall, deeper information scrutiny increases the impact of strong arguments but is especially important for convincing green populations. Campaigns involving person-to-person communication are superior to mass-media campaigns because they can be adapted to recipients' characteristics.

  14. The effect of alternative cost and environmental impact minimisation strategies on radioactive waste disposal strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laundy, R.S.; James, A.R.; Groom, M.S.; Dalrymple, G.J.

    1985-06-01

    The study reported here investigates the effects of different cost and environmental impact minimisation strategies for a single waste disposal scenario. Four disposal options are considered. The study examines the environmental impacts from waste storage and transport and the disposal impacts in terms of collective dose, maximum individual dose and individual dose from intrusion. The total cost of disposing of waste takes account of storage, transport and disposal costs to each of the four facilities. Two minimum cost scenarios and seven minimum impact assessments were performed. The results showed clearly that a trade-off has to be made between the environmental impacts from transport and storage of waste. A low objective risk of transport is achieved by directing waste to the engineered trench, assumed to have a central location. This waste is stored until the facility is available in 1995 thus increasing the potential impact from storage. The results also show a trade-off has to be made between minimising the maximum individual dose from disposal and collective dose. The study shows that for relatively little cost large reductions in the impacts can be obtained particularly in short and long-term collective dose and the individual dose from intrusion. (author)

  15. Environmental remediation. Strategies and techniques for cleaning radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W. Eberhard

    2001-01-01

    Actions for a cleaner and safety environment have risen on social and political agendas in recent years. They include efforts to remediate contaminated sites posing a radiological risk to humans and the surrounding environment. Radiological risks can result from a variety of nuclear and non-nuclear activities. They include: nuclear or radiological accidents; nuclear weapons production and testing; poor radioactive waste management and disposal practices; industrial manufacturing involving radioactive materials; conventional mining and milling of ores and other production processes, e.g. oil and gas production, resulting in enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). The IAEA has developed a comprehensive programme directed at the remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. The programme collates and distributes knowledge about contaminated sites; appropriate methods for their characterization; assessment of their potential environmental and radiological impact; and applicable methods for their clean-up, following internationally recommended safety criteria. The overall resources, and which are technologically less advanced, to focus their efforts and chose appropriate strategies for the abatement or removal of exposure to radiation. An important aspect is the intention to 'close the loop' in the nuclear fuel cycle in the interests of sustainable energy development including nuclear power

  16. Corporate environmental strategy and responsiveness to external stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, Geerten

    1997-01-01

    Paper to be presented at the 13th EGOS Colloquium "Organisational Responses to Radical Environmental Changes", Budapest University of Economic Sciences, Budapest, July 3-5, 1997. Sub-theme 6: Responses to the Environmental Challenge in Organisation Studies.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF GREEN MARKETING STRATEGIES TO CONSUMERS ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Yoan Nita

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the influence of eco-labelling, green packaging and branding, environmental advertisement, green premium pricing, and eco-image to consumers’ environmental behaviour. The result found that in overall all has influence consumers’ environmental behaviour. However, when it came to partial test, only eco-labelling, green packaging and branding, and green premium pricing which contributes to the consumers’ environmental behaviour.

  18. 19th Annual conference ampersand exposition: Global strategies for environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The 19th Annual conference and exposition on Global Strategies for Environmental Issues was held June 12-15, 1994 in New Orleans, Louisiana. This volume contains abstracts of the oral presentations. They are organized into the following sections: Environmental Management; Biodiversity/sustainable Development; Gulf Regional Issues; Environmental Ethics/Equity; NEPA Symposium; International Environmental Issues; Global Environmental Effects; and, Risk Assessment. Abstracts of poster sessions are also included

  19. On the implementation of a ‘global’ environmental strategy: The role of absorptive capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkse, J.; Kuss, M.J.; Hoffmann, V.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper sheds light on factors influencing to what extent MNCs are able to implement a global environmental strategy. We apply the concept of absorptive capacity to analyze what role the uptake and integration of external knowledge plays in implementing an environmental strategy and propose to

  20. A Cross-Cultural Study on Environmental Risk Perception and Educational Strategies: Implications for Environmental Education in China

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Hongxia; Fortner, Rosanne

    2010-01-01

    This cross-cultural study examined college students’ environmental risk perception and their preference in terms of risk communication and educational strategies in China and the U.S. The results indicated that the Chinese respondents were more concerned about environmental risk, and they perceived the environmental issues to be more harmful to health, to the environment, and to social economic development of the nation than did the American respondents. Both groups desired transpar...

  1. Optimization of environmental management strategies through a dynamic stochastic possibilistic multiobjective program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: xiaodong.zhang@beg.utexas.edu [Bureau of Economic Geology, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78713 (United States); Huang, Gordon [Institute of Energy, Environment and Sustainable Communities, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan S4S 0A2 (Canada)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► A dynamic stochastic possibilistic multiobjective programming model is developed. ► Greenhouse gas emission control is considered. ► Three planning scenarios are analyzed and compared. ► Optimal decision schemes under three scenarios and different p{sub i} levels are obtained. ► Tradeoffs between economics and environment are reflected. -- Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) management facilities have become a serious environmental issue. In MSW management, not only economic objectives but also environmental objectives should be considered simultaneously. In this study, a dynamic stochastic possibilistic multiobjective programming (DSPMP) model is developed for supporting MSW management and associated GHG emission control. The DSPMP model improves upon the existing waste management optimization methods through incorporation of fuzzy possibilistic programming and chance-constrained programming into a general mixed-integer multiobjective linear programming (MOP) framework where various uncertainties expressed as fuzzy possibility distributions and probability distributions can be effectively reflected. Two conflicting objectives are integrally considered, including minimization of total system cost and minimization of total GHG emissions from waste management facilities. Three planning scenarios are analyzed and compared, representing different preferences of the decision makers for economic development and environmental-impact (i.e. GHG-emission) issues in integrated MSW management. Optimal decision schemes under three scenarios and different p{sub i} levels (representing the probability that the constraints would be violated) are generated for planning waste flow allocation and facility capacity expansions as well as GHG emission control. The results indicate that economic and environmental tradeoffs can be effectively reflected through the proposed DSPMP model. The generated decision variables can help

  2. The effects assessment of firm environmental strategy and customer environmental conscious on green product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Chuang, Li-Min; Chao, Shu-Tsung; Chang, Hsiao-Ping

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine why both parties (industry and consumer market) have mutual interests in protecting the environment but they still are hesitant to act green. The study used two-stage sampling from consumer market to depict ideal green product characteristics and reliable toy companies, and visit these companies for the second sample collection to examine whether the organizational eco-innovation strategy with customer value has a positive effect on green product development. In other words, the customer's benefit is an important factor for new product development strategy for green toys. This research shows that the willingness to buy green toys increases if most people in society buy green toys. This represents that customers are environmentally conscious and care about protecting the environment, or buying green toys is the result of a new economic trend and childhood education. The willingness to buy green toys increases if customers think that green products implies an enhancement on new product development to toy manufacturers. Further, if manufacturers are able to manage the difficulty of cooperation with all parties in the supply chain and difficulties related to production, they are willing to adopt customers' perceived value on green toys for their new product development strategy. It is rare to find academic research discussing the perspectives of both consumers and manufacturers in the same study because the research topic is very broad and many conditions must be considered. This research aims to find the effect of consumer-perceived value and company eco-innovation on green product development.

  3. How to reconcile environmental and economic performance to improve corporate sustainability: corporate environmental strategies in the European paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Marcus

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between environmental and economic performance and the influence of corporate strategies with regard to sustainability and the environment. After formulating a theoretical model, results are reported from an empirical analysis of the European paper manufacturing industry. New data are used to test hypotheses derived from the theoretical model, using environmental performance indices representing different corporate environmental strategy orientations. In particular, an emissions-based index largely reflecting end-of-pipe strategies and an inputs-based index reflecting integrated pollution prevention are distinguished. For the emissions-based index, a predominantly negative relationship between environmental and economic performance is found, whereas for the inputs-based index no significant link is found. This is consistent with the theoretical model, which predicts the possibility of different relationships. The results also show that for firms with pollution prevention-oriented corporate environmental strategies, the relationship between environmental and economic performance is more positive, thus making improvements in corporate sustainability more likely. Based on this last insight, managerial implications of this are discussed with regard to strategy choices, investment decisions and operations management.

  4. Proactive environmental strategy in a supply chain context: the mediating role of investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akin, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Raaij, van E.M.; Wynstra, F.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing body of knowledge on the link between environmental management and supply chain management, but there is contradicting evidence on the impact of a proactive environmental strategy on environmental performance. Therefore, this paper investigates the impact of proactive

  5. Environmental Strategies of Affect Regulation and Their Associations With Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalevi M. Korpela

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental strategies of affect regulation refer to the use of natural and urban socio-physical settings in the service of regulation. We investigated the perceived use and efficacy of environmental strategies for regulation of general affect and sadness, considering them in relation to other affect regulation strategies and to subjective well-being. Participants from Australia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, India, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden (N = 507 evaluated the frequency of use and perceived efficacy of affect regulation strategies using a modified version of the Measure of Affect Regulation Styles (MARS. The internet survey also included the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, emotional well-being items from the RAND 36-Item Health Survey, and a single-item measure of perceived general health. Environmental regulation formed a separate factor of affect regulation in the exploratory structural equation models (ESEM. Although no relations of environmental strategies with emotional well-being were found, both the perceived frequency of use and efficacy of environmental strategies were positively related to perceived health. Moreover, the perceived efficacy of environmental strategies was positively related to life satisfaction in regulating sadness. The results encourage more explicit treatment of environmental strategies in research on affect regulation.

  6. Environmental Strategies of Affect Regulation and Their Associations With Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Kalevi M.; Pasanen, Tytti; Repo, Veera; Hartig, Terry; Staats, Henk; Mason, Michael; Alves, Susana; Fornara, Ferdinando; Marks, Tony; Saini, Sunil; Scopelliti, Massimiliano; Soares, Ana L.; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Ward Thompson, Catharine

    2018-01-01

    Environmental strategies of affect regulation refer to the use of natural and urban socio-physical settings in the service of regulation. We investigated the perceived use and efficacy of environmental strategies for regulation of general affect and sadness, considering them in relation to other affect regulation strategies and to subjective well-being. Participants from Australia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, India, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden (N = 507) evaluated the frequency of use and perceived efficacy of affect regulation strategies using a modified version of the Measure of Affect Regulation Styles (MARS). The internet survey also included the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), emotional well-being items from the RAND 36-Item Health Survey, and a single-item measure of perceived general health. Environmental regulation formed a separate factor of affect regulation in the exploratory structural equation models (ESEM). Although no relations of environmental strategies with emotional well-being were found, both the perceived frequency of use and efficacy of environmental strategies were positively related to perceived health. Moreover, the perceived efficacy of environmental strategies was positively related to life satisfaction in regulating sadness. The results encourage more explicit treatment of environmental strategies in research on affect regulation. PMID:29720955

  7. Strategies regarding the environmental problems in Valea Jiului coal basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babut, G.; Moraru, R.; Matei, I.

    1998-01-01

    The recent progress in environmental management concepts and tools allows to combine economic operation of industry with environmental protection if appropriate measures are used. The paper outlines some key issues facing the mining industry in the greatest romanian coal basin, where coal is industrially exploited for more than 100 years. 3 refs

  8. Improving environmental strategies of the UK oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanega, J.

    1992-01-01

    The paper is a strategic review of the current environmental policies and practices of the UK Oil and Gas Industry. It begins with an analysis of the current environmental impacts of the UK Oil and Gas Industry, including air emissions, effluents to sea and industrial wastes. The importance of environmental issues to UK operators is related to financial conseqeunces of environmental damage to the North Sea, poor public opinion and the spectre of increased government regulations. There is a survey of the best practices of environmental management programmes, including environmental assessment, monitoring auditing and contingency planning and emergency response, with historical lessons from Cadiz to Valdez and the industry's reaction to Exxon Valdez. After critically assessing the weaknesses of environmental management programmes, the author calls for systematic environmental assessment, employing inventory, monitoring, risk assessment and quantified risk assessment. There are recommendations on how to minimise the impact on the environment through the use of existing technology, training, incident response and crisis management, auditing, testing and industry-wide collaboration. (Author)

  9. The relation between proactive environmental strategies and competitive advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnariu, A.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2015-11-01

    There are two distinct orientations of the environmental management that companies may adopt: the model of compliance and the strategic model. The strategic model treats environmental expenses as investments that will lead to competitive advantage for the company. Nevertheless, there are few scientific works that prove the relation between corporate environmental investments and competitive advantage. Thereby, in order to bring clarifications about the profound implications of environmental investments, in the first stage of our research we have proposed the hypothesis that the environmental investments would probably lead to competitive advantage by creating capabilities that are mediators of this relation. In the second stage we have tested this hypothesis, using the research method of survey. A questionnaire was sent to managers in textile Romanian industry, and 109 answers were received. The data was analysed using the linear multiple regression method and the results confirm our hypothesis.

  10. Environmental Planning Strategies for Optimum Solid Waste Landfill Siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiani, Y.; Onn, C.C.; Mohd, M.A.D.; Wan, W.Z.J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of environmental planning tools for optimum solid waste landfill siting taking into account all environmental implications was carried out by applying Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) to enhance the research information obtained from initial analysis using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). The objective of this study is to identify the most eco-friendly landfill site by conducting a LCA analysis upon 5 potential GIS generated sites which incorporated eleven important criteria related to the social, environmental, and economical factors. The LCA analysis utilized the daily distance covered by collection trucks among the 5 selected landfill sites to generate inventory data on total energy usage for each landfill sites. The planning and selection of the potential sites were facilitated after conducting environmental impact analysis upon the inventory data which showed the least environmental impact. (author)

  11. A climatic and environmental protection strategy, the road toward a sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, W.

    1994-01-01

    This editorial essay conveys a clear message: The overuse of our fossil fuel resources especially in the North, and the overpopulation in many parts of the South, result in an unacceptable stress to Earth. This manifests itself in some of the most serious threats to mankind, such as global climatic change, environmental degradation, food shortage, hunger, poverty, and migration. It is the purpose of this editorial essay to make a contribution toward a reduction of some of these threats, notably those from climatic change. Specifically, the paper presents a tractable climatic and environmental protection strategy which is designed to give concrete answers to such seemingly simple questions as: What has to be done? (This depends e.g. on the concentration stabilization objective of the Rio Climate Convention, and the global warming ceiling of the Enquete-Commission of the German Parliament). By whom does it have to be done? (This addresses the secret of a successful protection strategy which involves a fair burden sharing among the world's countries). When does it have to be done? (This discusses the problem of setting tractable, i.e. differentiated and binding emission targets). How can it be done? (This relates to individual countries, states, and municipalities. It is demonstrated for Germany how her commitment of a 25 to 30% CO 2 reduction by 2005 can be achieved). Moreover, the question is addressed: How many people and how much fossil fuel use can our planet stand? The major result is that without self-restraint climate and ecosystem cannot be maintained, because it is incompatible with trends in the wasteful fossil fuel use in the North and strong population growth in the South. Finally, a plea is made to share responsibility on the road toward a sustainable future. 32 refs., 4 tabs

  12. The Green Studio Handbook: Environmental Strategies for Schematic Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison G. Kwok

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In design studio projects we often see schemes with inspired, yet unvalidated, gestural sketches related to wishful green strategies. Yellow and blue magic arrows represent hypotheses about the behavior of daylight and/or air flow in and about buildings. This paper provides an overview of The Green Studio Handbook, recently published as a resource for designers seeking clear guidelines for integrating green design strategies into the conceptual and schematic phases of design. The book contains a discussion of the integration of green strategies and how building form, orientation, and spatial layout are critical to the proper performance of certain green strategies; 40 green design strategies in six broad topic areas, each providing acatalog of information for common strategies that must be implemented at the schematic design phase; and nine case studies that show how various green strategies work together in a finished building. This paper provides excerpts of several design strategies and one case study and suggests a variety of ways that the book may be used.Keywords: green design, case studies, education, schematic design

  13. Exploration for uranium in Meghalaya and the environmental monitoring strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoda, S.Q.

    2004-01-01

    Uranium investigations in Meghalaya started way back in 1962 and as a result of the systematic and sustained efforts, not only uranium deposits were discovered but several thrust areas have been identified as targets for sub-surface exploration. Atomic minerals are one of the main sources of natural environmental radiation which are being explored by Atomic Minerals Directorate (AMD). In view of the growing awareness in the common public, AMD has started generating baseline data on radiation, hydrology and soil chemistry early in the pre-project stage for Environmental Impact Assessment (IEA). Some of the important aspects related to environmental impacts of uranium exploration are presented in this paper. (author)

  14. Corporate environmental responsiveness strategies and competitiveness in the North American oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.

    1996-12-31

    An exploratory study was conducted in the Canadian oil and gas industries to build a perspective on the environmental responsive strategies employed by the industry. Based on this study and a detailed review of the literature, hypotheses were formulated regarding organizational determinants of environmental responsiveness strategies and the impact of these strategies on firm performance. The hypotheses were tested through a questionnaire-based comparative survey of multiple informants in the Canadian and U.S. oil and gas industries. Results revealed that environmental responsiveness was influenced by management interpretation of environmental issues as threats or opportunities. Other significant factors noted were company size and resources, and collaborative problem-solving relationships with stockholders seen as spokespersons for the natural environment. Managerial interpretations of environmental issues appeared to be affected by leadership styles, organization design factors such as managerial discretion in decisions on the business/ natural environment interface, and the use of environmental performance indicators in employee control systems. refs., figs.

  15. Corporate environmental responsiveness strategies and competitiveness in the North American oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.

    1996-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted in the Canadian oil and gas industries to build a perspective on the environmental responsive strategies employed by the industry. Based on this study and a detailed review of the literature, hypotheses were formulated regarding organizational determinants of environmental responsiveness strategies and the impact of these strategies on firm performance. The hypotheses were tested through a questionnaire-based comparative survey of multiple informants in the Canadian and U.S. oil and gas industries. Results revealed that environmental responsiveness was influenced by management interpretation of environmental issues as threats or opportunities. Other significant factors noted were company size and resources, and collaborative problem-solving relationships with stockholders seen as spokespersons for the natural environment. Managerial interpretations of environmental issues appeared to be affected by leadership styles, organization design factors such as managerial discretion in decisions on the business/ natural environment interface, and the use of environmental performance indicators in employee control systems. refs., figs

  16. Environmental management strategies: The 21st century perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crognale, G.

    1999-07-01

    This book provides a look at how to integrate EH and S issues throughout your organization. Specialists in the field have contributed their first-hand accounts and actual case studies to give a balanced overview of how environmental management issues affect everyone in an organization. Moving away from a regulations-driven viewpoint, a proactive view is taken that integrates environmental issues into the fabric of the organization at every level. Issues covered in the book include federal regulations from OSHA, EC, and EPA; meeting ISO 14001; assessing the value of EH and S as a management tool; progressive environmental stewardship and effective communications; risk management; EH and S software and other resources; and future trends in environmental management.

  17. Devising a Strategy to Implement an Environmental Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    impacts, legal and other requirements and Environment Management ... ISO 14001, Tourism Sector, environmental System, energy audits, PDCA. Cycle ..... Table 1 show that electricity contributed to seventy percent of the total hotel.

  18. The Relation between Sustainable Innovation Strategy and Financial Performance Mediated By Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariyati Hariyati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the relationship of sustainable innovation strategy and financial performance through the mediation environmental performance. The hypothesis in this study is sustainable innovation strategy affect the financial performance which is mediated by environmental performance. This study is quantitative research in the explanatory level. The population of this study is all the manufacturer companies in East Java. The data is collected through questionnaire. The unit of analysis is a business unit. The respondent of this study is the manager of a business unit manufacturing company in East Java. The results showed that the environmental performance mediates partially the relation between sustainable innovation strategy and financial performance.

  19. Revisiting life strategy concepts in environmental microbial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, A.; Di Lonardo, P.; Bodelier, P.L.E.

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms are physiologically diverse, possessing disparate genomic features and mechanisms for adaptation (functional traits), which reflect on their associated life strategies and determine at least to some extent their prevalence and distribution in the environment. Unlike animals and

  20. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known

  1. Ship Inspection Strategies: Effects on Maritime Safety and Environmental Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Heij (Christiaan); G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); S. Knapp (Sabine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGlobal trade depends for a large part on maritime transport, and safe ships are needed not only to protect precious cargo but also to prevent environmental damage. Flag state and port state authorities spend much effort in ship safety inspections to ensure a minimum safety level and to

  2. Ship inspection strategies: effects on maritime safety and environmental protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heij, C.; Bijwaard, G.E.; Knapp, S.

    2011-01-01

    Global trade largely depends on maritime transport, and appropriate ships are needed to protect cargo but to minimize environmental damage and to this end, flag and port state authorities expend considerable effort in ship safety inspections. This paper investigates the safety gains of current

  3. Reproduction in crabs: strategies, invasiveness and environmental influences thereon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis provides insights into the interconnectedness of crab reproductive biology, the selective forces leading to their development, the possible links to invasiveness and the influences of environmental factors thereon. The empirical data collected and presented in this thesis can be used

  4. Aligning economic impact with environmental benefits: a green strategy model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Q.; Lago, P.; Potenza, S.

    2012-01-01

    To achieve lower energy consumption many green strategies (e.g. virtualize applications and consolidate them on shared server machines, or optimize the usage of the private cloud by opening up to external consumers) have been discussed. In practice, however, the major incentive for a company to go

  5. Quantifying costs and benefits of integrated environmental strategies of air quality management and greenhouse gas reduction in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Yeora; Park, Jeongim

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies the costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) of reducing air pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a minimal cost in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMPA) for the year 2014 and compares with current air quality management plans and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation plans. The results estimated health benefits from prevention of premature mortality under the IES scenario as 14 trillion Korean won (won) and associated cost as -3.6 trillion won, yielding total benefit, difference of benefits and costs, of 18 trillion won. With the inclusion of benefits from GHG reductions, the total benefits result in 147 trillion won. The difference of human health benefits and costs of air quality management plan and GHG reduction strategies result in 14 trillion won and 8 trillion won, respectively. The research shows that benefits of integrating air quality management and GHG reduction measures are greater than those obtained by air quality management and GHG reduction measures individually. - Highlights: → The costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) are quantified.→ Benefit under IES is 14 trillion Korean won and cost is -3.6 trillion won.→ Benefit of air quality management is 14 trillion won and cost is -0.3 trillion won.→ Benefit under GHG reduction is 1.5 trillion won and cost is -6.4 trillion won.→ Benefits of IES are greater than those obtained by each measure individually.

  6. Quantifying costs and benefits of integrated environmental strategies of air quality management and greenhouse gas reduction in the Seoul Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Yeora, E-mail: yrchae@kei.re.kr [Korea Environment Institute, 290 Jinheungno, Eunpyeong-Gu, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeongim [Department of Environmental Health Science, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Chungnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    This study quantifies the costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) of reducing air pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at a minimal cost in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMPA) for the year 2014 and compares with current air quality management plans and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation plans. The results estimated health benefits from prevention of premature mortality under the IES scenario as 14 trillion Korean won (won) and associated cost as -3.6 trillion won, yielding total benefit, difference of benefits and costs, of 18 trillion won. With the inclusion of benefits from GHG reductions, the total benefits result in 147 trillion won. The difference of human health benefits and costs of air quality management plan and GHG reduction strategies result in 14 trillion won and 8 trillion won, respectively. The research shows that benefits of integrating air quality management and GHG reduction measures are greater than those obtained by air quality management and GHG reduction measures individually. - Highlights: > The costs and benefits of Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) are quantified.> Benefit under IES is 14 trillion Korean won and cost is -3.6 trillion won.> Benefit of air quality management is 14 trillion won and cost is -0.3 trillion won.> Benefit under GHG reduction is 1.5 trillion won and cost is -6.4 trillion won.> Benefits of IES are greater than those obtained by each measure individually.

  7. Strategies for baseline/environmental impact studies in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odu, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in order to assess the environmental impact of site activities and ecosystem change brought about by stress, basic baseline data are necessary to characterize the normal environment so that environmental quality control programs can be developed with a firm ecological base. The program and methodology adopted in our field surveys to assess the character, magnitude and extent of pollutant effects on soil, vegetation and water, as a basis for economic assessment of pollutant effects on agriculture, forestry and the aquatic system and for preparing environmental impact statements, are presented. These techniques were modified and adopted in the environmental impact study of the Isampou Manifold Oil Spill, a study which circumstances made necessary seven years after the oil spill. Reliance on the extent of pollution soon after the incidence was based on the determination of total hydrocarbons at creek bottoms as well as on the determinations of nickel/vanadium ratios. Hydrocarbon contents of creek banks and creek bottoms were within biogenic levels at the time of field sampling. Ni/V ratios were high in heavy impact areas and decreased in areas of medium and very light impact areas. Use of the Ni/V ratio as evidence of past oil pollution agreed closely with a sketch of the extent of crude oil pollution drawn by the Shell Petroleum Development Company seven years earlier. There were nor abnormal vegetation features. The presence of 10-15 years old Musanga cecropioides at the edge of the manifold slot and creeks indicated that vegetation above water level was not affected by the oil spillage. The physico-chemical properties of the waters, plankton composition and density of the species found, as well as the presence of endroproct bryozoan in the benthos showed that the aquatic system had by the time of sample collection, completely recovered from the oil spillage

  8. A strategy for global environmental education at the university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.T.; Hayes, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's environment is a dynamic system that is affected both by natural phenomena and by human activity. The changes occurring in the global environment are bound to have serious consequences for all its inhabitants. Therefore, the world is rapidly becoming interdependent. Multidisciplinary scientific efforts must be directed toward understanding these global environmental changes. These efforts will require sufficient funds to attract scientists into global environmental research and to disseminate new knowledge to future scholars and to the general public alike. The federal government has a definite role to play in this effort and should allocate sufficient funds to initiate and sustain these programs. Unfortunately, such funds are not currently budgeted. The academic department, as the basic structural and functional unit of the American university system, is most appropriate to ensure environmental educational goals. The authors propose the establishment of a novel Department of Global Environment at every university. That department must be multidisciplinary in nature and must accumulate a critical mass of scholars from all relevant traditional disciplines in the arts and sciences to generate knowledge, to educate students, and to provide advisory services to policy makers. The study product of this department should receive a broad-based education and should emerge as an informed individual who possesses sufficient skills to achieve sustainable communities. That student should also be equipped to assume leadership and to formulate policy about global environmental issues. The investment in education may well be the only way to secure a future for humanity and for the natural world as we now know it

  9. On the development, environmental effects and human dimension of weed management strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    On the development, environmental effects and human dimension of weed management strategies. On farm weed management is influenced by many factors. These factors comprise the development and availability of weed management tools, the environmental impact of these tools and the attitude and

  10. Environmental assessment of different strategies for production of stabilized yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Monclus, Vincent; Pénicaud, Caroline; Perret, Bruno; Fonseca, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Yeast are widely used for producing fermented (bread, beer...) and health benefit (probiotics) products. The production of stable and active yeast involves fermentation, concentration, protection, drying (stabilization) and storage. During the stabilization and storage steps, the cells face numerous stress which may deteriorate functional properties and cause cell death. Different strategies can be used to preserve cell survival, such as changing growth medium for fermentation or adapting pro...

  11. Gasification under EPACT2005. US Emerging Energy and Environmental Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, W.G.

    2005-11-01

    To celebrate its 50th anniversary, ECN gathered a group of 30 high-level energy experts to discuss climate change mitigation strategies and their implications for energy technology development. This summary reports the main findings of the international scientific symposium. It also gives an account of the principal lessons learned, and formulates recommendations for energy innovation policy-making in the European Union. In this presentation attention is paid to gasification under the USA Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT2005)

  12. Drivers and barriers for implementation of environmental strategies in manufacturing companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bey, Niki; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; McAloone, Tim C.

    2013-01-01

    In order for environmental strategies to come into effect in industry practice, they need to be implemented and applied in daily business routines. Based on a dedicated comprehensive international survey in product developing and manufacturing companies, this paper identifies major current drivers...... for implementing product life cycle oriented environmental strategies but also barriers and obstacles that need to be addressed. On this basis it provides a number of recommendations for manufacturing companies as well as policy makers to consider for a successful implementation of strategic environmental goals...... in manufacturing industry....

  13. Environmental benefit analysis of strategies for potable water savings in residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoski, Ana Kelly; Rupp, Ricardo Forgiarini; Ghisi, Enedir

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the environmental benefit of using rainwater, greywater, water-efficient appliances and their combinations in low-income houses. The study was conducted surveying twenty households located in southern Brazil, which resulted in water end-uses estimation. Then, embodied energy, potential for potable water savings and sewage reduction when using the different strategies were estimated. The environmental benefit analysis of these strategies was performed using an indicator that includes embodied energy, potable water savings, reduction of sewage and energy consumption in the water utility, and sewage production during the life cycle of the system. The results indicated that the strategy with the greatest environmental benefit is the use of water-efficient appliances, which resulted in substantial water savings and reduction of sewage, causing low environmental impact due to lower embodied energy over the life cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploration of Barriers in Achieving Proactive Environmental Strategies in a Natural Rubber Industry : A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifa Arum Kusumastuti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the evolving of environmental issues over time, the development of environmental management approaches in industries began to shift to the prevention of pollution to reduce environmental impact. However, in practice, many obstacles encountered during the environmental management change to be more proactive. This study aims to explore the barriers of achieving the proactive environmental strategy in a rubber processing industry. Used a case study approach in a natural rubber processing factory, the data was collected through interviews with experts and sources as well as observation in the field. This study shows main barriers that faced by the company consist of financial issue, human resources, communities’ pressure, technological change and communication with environmental experts. The results of this study suggest conducting cooperation with research institutions or environmental experts especially for skills that cannot be controlled by the manager or employees in the company. 

  15. Evaluating environmental and economic consequences of alternative pest management strategies: results of modeling workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard L.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.L.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.; McNamee, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) needs a comprehensive method to evaluate the human health and environmental effects of alternative agricultural pest management strategies. This project explored the utility of Adaptive Environmental Assessment (AEA) techniques for meeting this need. The project objectives were to produce models for environmental impact analysis, improve communications, identify research needs and data requirements, and demonstrate a process for resolving conflicts. The project was structured around the construction (in an initial 2 1/2-day workshop) and examination (in a second 2 1/2-day workshop) of a simulation model of a corn agroecosystem.

  16. Active-to-Passive Environmental Cleanup Transition Strategies - 13220

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaughan, Thomas F.; Aylward, Robert S.; Denham, Miles E.; Looney, Brian B.; Whitaker, Wade C.; Mills, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River Site uses a graded approach to environmental cleanup. The selection of groundwater and vadose zone remediation technologies for a specific contamination area is based on the size, contaminant type, contaminant concentration, and configuration of the plume. These attributes are the result of the nature and mass of the source of contamination and the subsurface characteristics in the area of the plume. Many large plumes consist of several zones that are most efficiently addressed with separate complementary corrective action/remedial technologies. The highest concentrations of contaminants are found in the source zone. The most robust, high mass removal technologies are often best suited for remediation of the source zone. In the primary plume zone, active remedies, such as pump-and-treat, may be necessary to remove contaminants and exert hydraulic control of the plume. In the dilute fringe zone, contaminants are generally lower in concentration and can often be treated with passive techniques. A key determination in achieving an acceptable and cost-effective end state for a given waste unit is when to transition from an active treatment system to a more passive or natural approach (e.g., monitored natural attenuation or enhanced attenuation). This paper will discuss the considerations for such a transition as well as provide examples of successful transitions at the Savannah River Site. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of severe accident environmental conditions taking accident management strategy into account for equipment survivability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Na, Man Gyun; Kim, Soong Pyung

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology utilizing accident management strategy in order to determine accident environmental conditions in equipment survivability assessments. In case that there is well-established accident management strategy for specific nuclear power plant, an application of this tool can provide a technical rationale on equipment survivability assessment so that plant-specific and time-dependent accident environmental conditions could be practically and realistically defined in accordance with the equipment and instrumentation required for accident management strategy or action appropriately taken. For this work, three different tools are introduced; Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) outcomes, major accident management strategy actions, and Accident Environmental Stages (AESs). In order to quantitatively investigate an applicability of accident management strategy to equipment survivability, the accident simulation for a most likely scenario in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNPs) is performed with MAAP4 code. The Accident Management Guidance (AMG) actions such as the Reactor Control System (RCS) depressurization, water injection into the RCS, the containment pressure and temperature control, and hydrogen concentration control in containment are applied. The effects of these AMG actions on the accident environmental conditions are investigated by comparing with those from previous normal accident simulation, especially focused on equipment survivability assessment. As a result, the AMG-involved case shows the higher accident consequences along the accident environmental stages

  18. Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrary, C.

    1992-03-01

    This report considers local pollution issues, i.e. emissions which have an impact on the quality of water, air and soil with local and regional (e.g. acid deposition) significance. The following technology clusters: traffic control, modal transfer and fleet management are also examined and recommendations are made for a Community Research and Technology Development strategy

  19. Dispatching strategies for coordinating environmental awareness and risk perception in wind power integrated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jingliang; Zhou, Dequn; Zhou, Peng; Qian, Shuqu; Zhang, Mingming

    2016-01-01

    Wind power plays a significant role in economic and environmental operation of electric power system. Meanwhile, the variability and uncertainty characteristics of wind power generation bring technical and economical challenges for power system operation. In order to harmonize the relationship between environmental protection and risk management in power dispatching, this paper presents a stochastic dynamic economic emission dispatch model combining risk perception with environmental awareness of decision-makers by following the principle of chance-constrained programming. In this power dispatching model, the description of wind power uncertainty is derived from the probability statistic character of wind speed. Constraints-handling techniques as a heuristic strategy are embedded into non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II. In addition, more information is digested from the Pareto optimum solution set by cluster analysis and fuzzy set theory. The simulation results eventually demonstrate that the increase of the share of wind power output will bring higher risk, though it is beneficial for economic cost and environmental protection. Since different risk perception and environmental awareness can possibly lead to diverse non-dominated solutions, decision-makers may choose an appropriate dispatching strategy according to their specific risk perception and environmental awareness. - Highlights: • A dispatch model combining environmental awareness and risk perception is proposed. • The uncertain characteristic of available wind power is determined. • Constraints-handling techniques are embedded into genetic algorithm. • An appropriate decision-making method is designed. • Dispatching strategies can be coordinated by the proposed model and method.

  20. Doing Good Again? A Multilevel Institutional Perspective on Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Philanthropic Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Qiao; Huang, Song-Qin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate philanthropy. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2008 to 2013, this paper examines the role of corporate environmental responsibility in corporate philanthropy and the moderating influence of the institutional environment using multilevel analysis. The results show that corporate eco-friendly events are positively associated with corporate philanthropic strategy to a significant degree. Provincial-level government intervention positively moderate the positive relationship between eco-friendly events and corporate philanthropy and government corruption is negatively moderate the relationship. All these results are robust according to robustness checks. These findings provide a new perspective on corporate philanthropic strategy as a means to obtain critical resources from the government in order to compensate for the loss made on environmental responsibility. Moreover, the institutional environment is proved here to play an important role in corporate philanthropic strategy. PMID:29064451

  1. Doing Good Again? A Multilevel Institutional Perspective on Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Philanthropic Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Qiao; Huang, Song-Qin; Tsai, Sang-Bing

    2017-10-24

    This study investigates the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate philanthropy. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2008 to 2013, this paper examines the role of corporate environmental responsibility in corporate philanthropy and the moderating influence of the institutional environment using multilevel analysis. The results show that corporate eco-friendly events are positively associated with corporate philanthropic strategy to a significant degree. Provincial-level government intervention positively moderate the positive relationship between eco-friendly events and corporate philanthropy and government corruption is negatively moderate the relationship. All these results are robust according to robustness checks. These findings provide a new perspective on corporate philanthropic strategy as a means to obtain critical resources from the government in order to compensate for the loss made on environmental responsibility. Moreover, the institutional environment is proved here to play an important role in corporate philanthropic strategy.

  2. Doing Good Again? A Multilevel Institutional Perspective on Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Philanthropic Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate philanthropy. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2008 to 2013, this paper examines the role of corporate environmental responsibility in corporate philanthropy and the moderating influence of the institutional environment using multilevel analysis. The results show that corporate eco-friendly events are positively associated with corporate philanthropic strategy to a significant degree. Provincial-level government intervention positively moderate the positive relationship between eco-friendly events and corporate philanthropy and government corruption is negatively moderate the relationship. All these results are robust according to robustness checks. These findings provide a new perspective on corporate philanthropic strategy as a means to obtain critical resources from the government in order to compensate for the loss made on environmental responsibility. Moreover, the institutional environment is proved here to play an important role in corporate philanthropic strategy.

  3. Doing Good Again? A Multilevel Institutional Perspective on Corporate Environmental Responsibility and Philanthropic Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wei; Wei, Qiao; Huang, Song-Qin; Tsai, Sang-Bing

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between corporate environmental responsibility and corporate philanthropy. Using a sample of Chinese listed firms from 2008 to 2013, this paper examines the role of corporate environmental responsibility in corporate philanthropy and the moderating influence of the institutional environment using multilevel analysis. The results show that corporate eco-friendly events are positively associated with corporate philanthropic strategy to a significant degr...

  4. Science, sulphur and sustainability. Environmental strategies of mining in the russian Kola peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmi, O.H.

    2008-07-01

    This dissertation analyses the problem of co-aligning corporate strategy and public policy for effective environmental governance. A case study of the mining industry in the Russian Kola Peninsula shows how institutional arrangements (including public policies) affect the environmental performance of industrial organizations. The analysis emphasizes the motivations that drive people's decisions and how they are affected by culture and formal institutions both inside and outside the domain of public policy. It bridges management and governance studies with an added focus on engineering approaches to sustainability. In substantial terms, the dissertation has a strong focus on 'complex utilization', which has been a common environmental and natural resource strategy in Russia since the 1930s. In an important respect, complex utilization both antedates and closely resembles industrial ecology that has been developed in the West. This suggests that a lack of technical knowledge was not the principal cause of the well-known environmental problems that existed in the Soviet Union. On the contrary, the potential benefits of complex utilization were not realized because Soviet political and economic institutions provided weak incentives for pollution control and efficient resource use. The central theoretical effort of this dissertation is to show how effective environmental governance is contingent upon emergent strategy and policy processes. Both corporate environmental strategy and public environmental policy depend on power relations and network building among a variety of actors in the society. The case study yields three different emergent processes: political embedding of scientific concepts, cultural contextualization of indicators, and legitimacy in stakeholder salience. The dissertation also delivers policy recommendations pertaining to the future development of the Barents Euro-Arctic region. This future depends both on the level of political

  5. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of biomass-based energy strategy: Using an impact matrix framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldu, Yemane W., E-mail: ywweldem@ucalgary.ca [Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta 2500, University Drive NW, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Assefa, Getachew [Faculty of Environmental Design, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta 2500, University Drive NW, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Athena Chair in Life Cycle Assessment in Design (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    A roadmap for a more sustainable energy strategy is complex, as its development interacts critically with the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. This paper applied an impact matrix method to evaluate the environmental sustainability and to identify the desirable policy objectives of biomass-based energy strategy for the case of Alberta. A matrix with the sustainability domains on one axis and areas of environmental impact on the other was presented to evaluate the nexus effect of policy objectives and bioenergy production. As per to our analysis, economic diversification, technological innovation, and resource conservation came up as the desirable policy objectives of sustainable development for Alberta because they demonstrated environmental benefits in all environmental impact categories, namely climate change, human health, and ecosystem. On the other hand, human health and ecosystem impacts were identified as trade-offs when the policy objectives for sustainability were energy security, job creation, and climate change. Thus, bioenergy can mitigate climate change but may impact human health and ecosystem which then in turn can become issues of concern. Energy strategies may result in shifting of risks from one environmental impact category to another, and from one sustainable domain to another if the technical and policy-related issues are not identified.

  6. Evaluating the environmental sustainability of biomass-based energy strategy: Using an impact matrix framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldu, Yemane W.; Assefa, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    A roadmap for a more sustainable energy strategy is complex, as its development interacts critically with the economic, social, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. This paper applied an impact matrix method to evaluate the environmental sustainability and to identify the desirable policy objectives of biomass-based energy strategy for the case of Alberta. A matrix with the sustainability domains on one axis and areas of environmental impact on the other was presented to evaluate the nexus effect of policy objectives and bioenergy production. As per to our analysis, economic diversification, technological innovation, and resource conservation came up as the desirable policy objectives of sustainable development for Alberta because they demonstrated environmental benefits in all environmental impact categories, namely climate change, human health, and ecosystem. On the other hand, human health and ecosystem impacts were identified as trade-offs when the policy objectives for sustainability were energy security, job creation, and climate change. Thus, bioenergy can mitigate climate change but may impact human health and ecosystem which then in turn can become issues of concern. Energy strategies may result in shifting of risks from one environmental impact category to another, and from one sustainable domain to another if the technical and policy-related issues are not identified.

  7. The Yo-Yo IE2 test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Bradley, Paul S; Christensen, Jesper F

    2015-01-01

    To examine the physical capacity and physiological response to the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 test (IE2) for untrained individuals and trained male soccer players, and to investigate the determinants of intense intermittent exercise performance.......To examine the physical capacity and physiological response to the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 test (IE2) for untrained individuals and trained male soccer players, and to investigate the determinants of intense intermittent exercise performance....

  8. Modelling the carbon cycle of grassland in the Netherlands under various management strategies and environmental conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol-van Dasselaar, van den A.; Lantinga, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    A simulation model of the grassland carbon cycle (CCGRASS) was developed to evaluate the long-term effects of different management strategies and various environmental conditions on carbon sequestration in a loam soil under permanent grassland in the Netherlands. The model predicted that the rate of

  9. Strategies for School Environmental Management in Nigerian Secondary Schools: A Case of Calabar, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obong, Linus Beba; Okey, Stella-Maris; Aniah, E. J.; Okaba, Lydia A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper on strategies for school environmental management in Nigerian secondary schools was carried out in Calabar, Nigeria. To guide the study three research questions were formulated. This was achieved through administration of structured questionnaires in three randomly sampled schools. Findings show regular grass clearing, sweeping of the…

  10. Personal and Environmental Influences on Students' Beliefs about Effective Study Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Haladyna, Thomas M.

    1990-01-01

    A model of personal and environmental influences on students' valuing of two deep-processing strategies for studying expository texts is described. Questionnaire data from 281 high school science students indicated that students' task orientation and perceptions about teacher expectations were central to students' attitudes. (TJH)

  11. Using biological effects tools to define Good Environmental Status under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyons, B.P.; Thain, J.E.; Hylland, K.; Davis, I.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    The use of biological effects tools offer enormous potential to meet the challenges outlined by the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) whereby Member States are required to develop a robust set of tools for defining 11 qualitative descriptors of Good Environmental Status

  12. Does an Environmental Marketing Strategy Influence Marketing and Financial Performance? A Study of Indonesian Exporting Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardison Lumban Batu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Broadly speaking, the implementation of green practice leads to higher performance in exporting firms. To test this concept empirically, this study proposes environmental marketing strategy as an antecedent of product differentiation and cost leadership as a means to promote marketing and financial performance. Design/Methodology/Approach – This study was conducted on 388 respondents serving as operational, production, and marketing managers of Indonesian exporting firms and used structural equation modelling (SEM with AMOS 18 as an analysis technique. Findings and implications – The findings revealed that environmental marketing strategy significantly influences product differentiation and cost leadership. More specifically, product differentiation simultaneously influences marketing and financial performance. However, cost leadership influences financial performance but not marketing performance. This study implies the importance of environmental orientation in setting a firm strategy and promoting the performance of international firms. Limitations – The measurement items proposed in this study were adopted from studies conducted in developed countries; they have not been proven appropriate for direct application in developing countries such as Indonesia. Originality – This study is original in that it explores the importance of environmental studies in setting a firm strategy and promoting the performance of international business.

  13. Corporate Initiatives and Strategies to Meet the Environmental Challenges – Contributions Towards a Green Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ogrean

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to emphasize, based on an interdisciplinary and multi-level approach, on the actual and potential contributions of businesses towards a green economic development - through the positive integration of the environmental challenges within their initiatives and strategies. The main objectives that the paper will target in order to accomplish this mission are: (1. to outline the general framework of the green economic development; (2. to identify the specific environmental challenges businesses could and have to address in order to support the green economic development; (3. to analyze particular initiatives and strategies which have been successfully developed by companies aiming at internalizing the environmental imperative - and to argue in favor of a new business model, able to end, through the green economic development, a virtuous circle of co-evolution between businesses and the environment.

  14. Fairness concerns and risk aversion on recycle pricing strategies: Implications for environmentally friendly supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jianhong; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Binbin; Li, Lin

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the pricing strategy in the closed-loop supply chain with Nash bargaining when considering fairness concerns and risk aversion. Mainly, the authors argue that behavioral factors (i.e., fairness concern and risk aversion) should be introduced into pricing process. They consider three different pricing models: the first is that both manufacturer and retailer have fairness concern; the second is both manufacturer and retailer have risk aversion and the final is manufacturer ha...

  15. Is Strategic Proactivity a Driver of an Environmental Strategy? Effects of Innovation and Internationalization Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Suarez-Perales

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses strategic proactivity as a driving factor in the implementation of an advanced environmental strategy in a firm. Strategic proactivity is defined as a firm’s tendency to initiate voluntary changes instead of reacting to events in the environment and according to previous literature, can be interpreted as a combination of internal factors that characterise a firm’s business strategy as that of a prospector firm. In this study, we measured this through innovation, with two variables related to the firm’s entire production cycle: R&D expenditure and patents. However, we also considered two more strategic proactivity indicators: innovation proactivity and internationalisation proactivity. These two proactivity variables take into account the innovative and international actions of the firms, going beyond the actions usually taken by firms in the same sector. Using panel data methodology, we obtained results that show that firms who invest in R&D and patent their innovations achieve more advanced positions in their environmental strategies. Empirical evidence also shows that firms with a greater innovation effort throughout the production cycle (product, process, organisation and marketing than their competitors also attain more advanced positions (proactivity in environmental matters. In other words, innovation proactivity is a driver of environmental strategy. In relation to internationalization, the results also showed that firms that operate in a larger geographical area than their competitors adapt to the most demanding environmental legislation, placing them in a position of environmental leadership in their respective sectors. The inclusion of internationalization as an indicator of strategic proactivity, the measurement of proactivity variables and the correction of firms’ specific unobserved aspects are some of this paper’s contributions.

  16. Environmental management strategy for sustainable development in the Naranjo River Basin in Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoandris García Hidalgo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available he objective of this paper is to develop an Environmental Mana gement Strategy that is intended to reduce the environmental impacts in the Naranjo river draina ge basin. In order to reach this objective, a diagnosis was done, that consisted in the literature review on the topic as well as the realization of participatory workshops involving different techniques, tools and methods, such as brainstorming, SWOT matrix, DPSIR framework and experts’ approach, for identifying the main envir onmental problems that affect the basin. A geographic information system (GIS was designed for managing natural resources in the basin. Results show that the main environmental problems are: soil degradation , ,deforestation (loss or lack of hidroregulatory fringes on river and reservoir beds, Deterioration of sanitary-hygienic conditions in human settlements, groundwater and air pollution were maily caused by the inadequate land-use planning, which, along with the population’s lack of environmental education, not only contributes to maintaining the environmental impact, but also to increasing it, and can lead to irreversible damages. As part of the strategy, a series of agreed actions was planned to diminish the environmental problems in t he basin, where the social actors take part actively in managing those problems, and favor the decision ma king process which focus on sustainable development

  17. Zinc deficiency in children with environmental enteropathy—development of new strategies: report from an expert workshop1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Graeme P; Mortimer, Elissa K; Gopalsamy, Geetha L; Alpers, David H; Binder, Henry J; Manary, Mark J; Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan S; Brown, Ian L; Brewer, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Zinc deficiency is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The WHO/UNICEF strategy for zinc supplementation as adjunctive therapy for diarrhea is poorly implemented. A conference of experts in zinc nutrition and gastrointestinal disorders was convened to consider approaches that might complement the current recommendation and what research was needed to develop these approaches. Several key points were identified. The design of novel zinc interventions would be facilitated by a better understanding of how disturbed gut function, such as environmental (or tropical) enteropathy, affects zinc absorption, losses, and homeostasis. Because only 10% of zinc stores are able to be rapidly turned over, and appear to be rapidly depleted by acute intestinal illness, they are probably best maintained by complementary regular supplementation in a primary prevention strategy rather than secondary prevention triggered by acute diarrhea. The assessment of zinc status is challenging and complex without simple, validated measures to facilitate field testing of novel interventions. Zinc bioavailability may be a crucial factor in the success of primary prevention strategies, and a range of options, all still inadequately explored, might be valuable in improving zinc nutrition. Some therapeutic actions of zinc on diarrhea seem attributable to pharmacologic effects, whereas others are related to the reversal of deficiency (ie, nutritional). The distinction between these 2 mechanisms cannot be clarified given the insensitivity of serum zinc to identify subclinical deficiency states. Why zinc seems to be less effective than expected at all ages, and ineffective for secondary prevention of diarrhea in children zinc and whether to provide a complementary public health primary prevention zinc strategy. This requires careful consideration of the zinc product to be used as well as strategies for its delivery. PMID:25240082

  18. Feasibility and acceptability of environmental management strategies among artisan miners in Taita Taveta County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Apollo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal mining employs many people across the globe. In Kenya, it provides vocational jobs which represent the livelihood of poor communities. In spite of the economic value that could be attached to the artisanal mining activities in Taita Taveta County, these activities have resulted in environmental degradation; thus, calling for necessary interventions. It is for this reason that this study intends to examine effective strategies that could be adopted to reduce environmental degradation in the county as a result of artisan mining. The key objective therefore is to test the feasibility and acceptability of community participation, partnerships, modern technology and quarry management strategies on the reduction of environmental degradation by artisan miners in Taita Taveta County. A descriptive case study research design was adopted, and the target population for the study was 451 registered artisan miners and 13 environmental bodies operating in the area. A simple random sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 218 artisan miners and 13 environmental body heads. Questionnaires were the main tool for data collection from which a response rate of 95% was achieved. The study deduced that community participation, partnerships, modern technology adoption and quarry management strategies, are key influences on the reduction of environmental degradation in the artisanal mining sector if adopted, going based on the high level of agreement and the reasoning exhibited among the artisan miners in the findings. The following policies may be inferred from the study: to set a framework to enable the community to participate in environmental conservation, to enhance partnerships between NGOs, CBOs, the Government and Universities within artisan mining areas, to introduce Government subsidies for modern technology for affordability and to introduce a framework for quarry management.

  19. P.J. Ie Roux·

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ses groepe van 45 volwasse Karakoelooie is met 40 mg MAP sponse vir 15 dae behandel. Vyf van die groepe het 400 IE DMS twee dae voor sponsonttrekking ontvang. AI die ooie is gepaar 12 uur na aanvang van oestrus en weer 9 tot 10 uur later. ofkunsmatig. Of deur middel van natuurlike paring. Een van die groepe is ...

  20. Quality management status of national radiation environmental monitoring network and strategy for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Renjie; Zhang Rongsuo; Ni Shiying; Shen Gang

    2009-01-01

    During the period of 10th five-year plan, MEP has constructed a national radiation environmental monitoring network. In the running of the network, quality management on monitoring data is of vital importance. So all the members of the radiation environmental monitoring network are required to ensure the quality of monitoring method, equipment, reagent,quality of personnel, data processing and information management and so on. Thus the monitoring result would be typical and accuracy in science. The article introduced in detail the quality management status of the National Radiation Environmental Monitoring Network and put forward the strategy for development from the institutionalized and large-scale point of view of radioactive environmental monitoring work. (authors)

  1. Dietary Strategies to Reduce Environmental Impact: A Critical Review of the Evidence Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, Bradley G; Hendrie, Gilly A; Noakes, Manny

    2017-11-01

    The food system is a major source of environmental impact, and dietary change has been recommended as an important and necessary strategy to reduce this impact. However, assessing the environmental performance of diets is complex due to the many types of foods eaten and the diversity of agricultural production systems and local environmental settings. To assess the state of science and identify knowledge gaps, an integrative review of the broad topic of environment and diet was undertaken, with particular focus on the completeness of coverage of environmental concerns and the metrics used. Compared with the 14 discrete environmental areas of concern identified in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, the located journal literature mainly addressed greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and, to a lesser extent, land and water use. Some relevant concerns were rarely addressed or not addressed at all. In the case of GHG emissions, changes in land use and soil carbon stocks were seldom considered. This represents a disconnect between the science informing strategic climate action in the agricultural sector and the science informing public health nutrition. In the case of land and water use, few studies used metrics that are appropriate in a life-cycle context. Some metrics produce inherently biased results, which misinform about environmental impact. The limited evidence generally points to recommended diets having lower environmental impacts than typical diets, although not in every case. This is largely explained by the overconsumption of food energy associated with average diets, which is also a major driver of obesity. A shared-knowledge framework is identified as being needed to guide future research on this topic. Until the evidence base becomes more complete, commentators on sustainable diets should not be quick to assume that a dietary strategy to reduce overall environmental impact can be readily defined or recommended. © 2017 American Society for

  2. Emergency strategy optimization for the environmental control system in manned spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoxiang; Pang, Liping; Liu, Meng; Fang, Yufeng; Zhang, Helin

    2018-02-01

    It is very important for a manned environmental control system (ECS) to be able to reconfigure its operation strategy in emergency conditions. In this article, a multi-objective optimization is established to design the optimal emergency strategy for an ECS in an insufficient power supply condition. The maximum ECS lifetime and the minimum power consumption are chosen as the optimization objectives. Some adjustable key variables are chosen as the optimization variables, which finally represent the reconfigured emergency strategy. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II is adopted to solve this multi-objective optimization problem. Optimization processes are conducted at four different carbon dioxide partial pressure control levels. The study results show that the Pareto-optimal frontiers obtained from this multi-objective optimization can represent the relationship between the lifetime and the power consumption of the ECS. Hence, the preferred emergency operation strategy can be recommended for situations when there is suddenly insufficient power.

  3. Local intelligent electronic device (IED) rendering templates over limited bandwidth communication link to manage remote IED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradetich, Ryan; Dearien, Jason A; Grussling, Barry Jakob; Remaley, Gavin

    2013-11-05

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for remote device management. According to various embodiments, a local intelligent electronic device (IED) may be in communication with a remote IED via a limited bandwidth communication link, such as a serial link. The limited bandwidth communication link may not support traditional remote management interfaces. According to one embodiment, a local IED may present an operator with a management interface for a remote IED by rendering locally stored templates. The local IED may render the locally stored templates using sparse data obtained from the remote IED. According to various embodiments, the management interface may be a web client interface and/or an HTML interface. The bandwidth required to present a remote management interface may be significantly reduced by rendering locally stored templates rather than requesting an entire management interface from the remote IED. According to various embodiments, an IED may comprise an encryption transceiver.

  4. College and University Environmental Programs as a Policy Problem (Part 2): Strategies for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Susan G.; Rutherford, Murray B.; Auer, Matthew R.; Cherney, David N.; Wallace, Richard L.; Mattson, David J.; Clark, Douglas A.; Foote, Lee; Krogman, Naomi; Wilshusen, Peter; Steelman, Toddi

    2011-05-01

    Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity—defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved.

  5. College and university environmental programs as a policy problem (Part 2): Strategies for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S.G.; Rutherford, M.B.; Auer, M.R.; Cherney, D.N.; Wallace, R.L.; Mattson, D.J.; Clark, D.A.; Foote, L.; Krogman, N.; Wilshusen, P.; Steelman, T.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity-defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. Environmental education strategies for decentralized schools in the Colombian educative system: the Medellin experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunia S. Rentería

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental education is a condition to enable an attitudinal and aptitudinal generation of change, a condition that facilitates the balance between man and his surroundings. Environmental education needs the support of almost every discipline. In order to solve environmental problems, one must count on the active participation of a wide set of people and institutions. This article examines environmental education in Colombia focusing on the case of training programs, making emphasis on a case study that took place in Medellín, capital of the department of Antioquia. Results show there is a lack of clear conceptualization about the reasons and ultimate purposes concerning why environmental education is finally accomplished. That situation has conducted to the formulation of objectives and strategies that are too general to be properly fulfilled, and the implementation of detailed, and isolated actions.Lack of coordination between institutions and groups has resulted in duplicity of functions and efforts, which in turn result in a far from rational use of scarce resources. The conclusion is that environmental education in Colombia is still inefficient and must advance to higher levels, taking into account these three main perspectives: environmental, educative and pedagogic.

  7. Global environmental policy strategies. ''Environment and development'' in north-south relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckmeier, K.

    1994-01-01

    Global environmental policy has hardly made headway after the United Nations World Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio in June 1992, despite there being no shortage of programmes, institutions, and actors. Obviously, formal structures for political action based on the system of institutions of the United Nations do not suffice. Global environmental policy strategies must reach further, overcoming system-immanent obstacles to sustainable development. This necessitates analyzing the causes of environmental destruction and making a critical evaluation of the relations between the societies of the North and South that received their imprint from development policies. Only after such a preliminary elucidation by interdisciplinary approaches in the light of political and ecological economy and human ecology does an empirical analysis of politically controlled processes in environmental and development policy make sense. The analysis points to strategies for this international political field that rely on non-governmental actors and social movements, and question the traditional European model of an environmental policy determined by government institutions. (orig./UA) [de

  8. Role of environmental variability in the evolution of life history strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, A; Caswell, H

    1979-09-01

    We reexamine the role of environmental variability in the evolution of life history strategies. We show that normally distributed deviations in the quality of the environment should lead to normally distributed deviations in the logarithm of year-to-year survival probabilities, which leads to interesting consequences for the evolution of annual and perennial strategies and reproductive effort. We also examine the effects of using differing criteria to determine the outcome of selection. Some predictions of previous theory are reversed, allowing distinctions between r and K theory and a theory based on variability. However, these distinctions require information about both the environment and the selection process not required by current theory.

  9. THE ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY OF MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISE - MANAGING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE HEADQUARTER AND SUBSIDIARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselei Haag

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review that searches to understand how the environmental strategy must be diffused throughout the structure of the multinational enterprise (MNE, within the scope of the studies on enterprises’ internationalization. Literature has contributed to the understanding of the relationships between headquarters and subsidiaries of MNEs, identifying contingencies where the headquarters should grant greater autonomy to certain subsidiaries. After analyzing the literature, we propose a research agenda seeking to expand the field of knowledge on the adoption of sustainability strategies in subsidiaries.

  10. Strategic plan and strategy of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This report provides information about the use of an integrated strategic plan, strategy, and life-cycle baseline in the long range planning and risk process employed by the environmental restoration program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Long-range planning is essential because the ER Program encompasses hundreds of sites; will last several decades; and requires complex technology, management, and policy. Long-range planning allows a focused, cost-effective approach to identify and meet Program objectives. This is accomplished through a strategic plan, a strategy, and a life-cycle baseline. This long-range methodology is illustrated below

  11. The design, results and future development of the National Energy Strategy Environmental Analysis Model (NESEAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.E.; Boyd, G.A.; Breed, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    The National Energy Strategy Environmental Model (NESEAM) has been developed to project emissions for the National Energy Strategy (NES). Two scenarios were evaluated for the NES, a Current Policy Base Case and a NES Action Case. The results from the NES Actions Case project much lower emissions than the Current Policy Base Case. Future enhancements to NESEAM will focus on fuel cycle analysis, including future technologies and additional pollutants to model. NESEAM's flexibility will allow it to model other future legislative issues. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Environmental Sustainability Analysis and Nutritional Strategies of Animal Production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong

    2017-02-08

    Animal production in China has achieved considerable progress and contributes to 46% of the total agriculture output value of the country. However, this fast expansion of animal production has led to environmental pollution. In this article, we review the status of soil, water, and air pollution associated with animal production in China and analyze the main sources of the pollutants. The government has promulgated regulations and standards, and effective models and technologies have been developed to control pollution during the last 10 years. Because nutrition and feed strategies represent the most effective method of controlling environmental pollution at the source, this review focuses on nutritional technologies, including accurate feed formulation, rational use of additives, and proper processing of feeds. The advances of modern biotechnology and big data systems also provide more modern approaches to decreasing wastage release. These nutritional strategies are expected to promote sustainable development of animal production.

  13. Identifying potential environmental impacts of waste handling strategies in textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacout, Dalia M M; Hassouna, M S

    2016-08-01

    Waste management is a successful instrument to minimize generated waste and improve environmental conditions. In spite of the large share of developing countries in the textile industry, limited information is available concerning the waste management strategies implemented for textiles on those countries and their environmental impacts. In the current study, two waste management approaches for hazardous solid waste treatment of acrylic fibers (landfill and incineration) were investigated. The main research questions were: What are the different impacts of each waste management strategy? Which waste management strategy is more ecofriendly? Life cycle assessment was employed in order to model the environmental impacts of each waste streaming approach separately then compare them together. Results revealed that incineration was the more ecofriendly approach. Highest impacts of both approaches were on ecotoxicity and carcinogenic potentials due to release of metals from pigment wastes. Landfill had an impact of 46.8 % on human health as compared to 28 % by incineration. Incineration impact on ecosystem quality was higher than landfill impact (68.4 and 51.3 %, respectively). As for resources category, incineration had a higher impact than landfill (3.5 and 2.0 %, respectively). Those impacts could be mitigated if state-of-the-art landfill or incinerator were used and could be reduced by applying waste to energy approaches for both management systems In conclusion, shifting waste treatment from landfill to incineration would decrease the overall environmental impacts and allow energy recovery. The potential of waste to energy approach by incineration with heat recovery could be considered in further studies. Future research is needed in order to assess the implementation of waste management systems and the preferable waste management strategies in the textile industry on developing countries.

  14. The Role of Alternative Testing Strategies in Environmental Risk Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Hjorth, Rune; Holden, Patricia; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Colman, Ben; Grieger, Khara; Hendren, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Within toxicology there is a pressure to find new test systems and organisms to replace, reduce and refine animal testing. In nanoecotoxicology the need for alternative testing strategies (ATS) is further emphasized as the validity of tests and risk assessment practices developed for dissolved chemicals are challenged. Nonetheless, standardized whole organism animal testing is still considered the gold standard for environmental risk assessment. Advancing risk analysis of engineered nanomater...

  15. A national environmental monitoring system to support the Moroccan sustainable development strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourhir, A.; Rachidi, T.

    2010-12-01

    Morocco is a mountainous country, subject to both marine and Saharan influences. The increase in population has led to an increase of the gross domestic product (GDP), which accentuated by inadequate resource management, has been accompanied by the degradation of the environment. The annual cost of environmental damage has been estimated at nearly eight percent of Morocco’s GDP. Morocco is a country that has scarce natural resources, especially arable land and water. In recent years, intensive agricultural production, large-scale irrigation schemes, industrialization, and urbanization have been creating serious problems. The country has faced severe air, water and soil pollution, environmental health problems, deforestation and soil erosion. The country is very vulnerable to impacts of global climate change. Morocco’s approach to sustainable development (SD) is mainly environmental. The two main documents for Morocco’s SD strategy are the National Strategy for the Protection of the Environment and Sustainable Development (SNPEDD), 1995, and the National Plan of Action for the Environment (PANE), 1998. SNPEDD’s main objective is the integration and strengthening of environmental concerns in economic development activities. The activities for the formulation and implementation of the strategy include: a) studies on the state of the Moroccan environment; b) formulation of the PANE; c) preparation of a sensitization program on environmental issues and the implementation of a database and information system on the environment; (d) preparation of regional and local environmental monographies. The aim of the current work is to create an information system as an approach to complex sustainability analyses at the national level using GIS technologies. This information system includes the following: 1.Development of a database of SD indicators and historical data. Morocco has been involved in the working framework of the Mediterranean Commission for Sustainable

  16. Soil environmental quality in greenhouse vegetable production systems in eastern China: Current status and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyou; Zhang, Yanxia; Huang, Biao; Teng, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has become an important source of public vegetable consumption and farmers' income in China. However, various pollutants can be accumulated in GVP soils due to the high cropping index, large agricultural input, and closed environment. Ecological toxicity caused by excessive pollutants' accumulation can then lead to serious health risks. This paper was aimed to systematically review the current status of soil environmental quality, analyze their impact factors, and consequently to propose integrated management strategies for GVP systems. Results indicated a decrease in soil pH, soil salinization, and nutrients imbalance in GVP soils. Fungicides, remaining nutrients, antibiotics, heavy metals, and phthalate esters were main pollutants accumulating in GVP soils comparing to surrounding open field soils. Degradation of soil ecological function, accumulation of major pollutants in vegetables, deterioration of neighboring water bodies, and potential human health risks has occurred due to the changes of soil properties and accumulation of pollutants such as heavy metals and fungicides in soils. Four dominant factors were identified leading to the above-mentioned issues including heavy application of agricultural inputs, outmoded planting styles with poor environmental protection awareness, old-fashion regulations, unreasonable standards, and ineffective supervisory management. To guarantee a sustainable GVP development, several strategies were suggested to protect and improve soil environmental quality. Implementation of various strategies not only requires the concerted efforts among different stakeholders, but also the whole lifecycle assessment throughout the GVP processes as well as effective enforcement of policies, laws, and regulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oil sands and organizational cultures: strategy and stakeholder dynamics in an environmental public consultation process (Alberta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouse, M.J.

    2000-07-01

    The demand for corporate responsiveness to environmental and social concerns, more specifically the requirement for public participation/consultation with stakeholders is, according to industry insiders, one of the most pressing changes for the oil industry. For this study, data on a public consultation process involving Syncrude Canada Limited, Alberta Environmental Protection, and the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board was collected through a combination of public hearing transcripts, participant observation, interview methodologies and reports. >From the perspective of organizational strategy, stakeholder relations, institutional theory and organizational cultures, the author investigated the public consultation process. Strategic action was the central theme to emerge through the findings. Positioning strategies influenced by stakeholder status from the organization's viewpoint and stakeholder relationships informed by the network of stakeholder relationships are included in stakeholder dynamics. The management of organizational culture and the creation of an institutional field to generate and maintain values across the relational field of focal organizations, and reduce costs and conflicts, are included in strategic outcomes. The elaboration and extension of components of stakeholder and institutional theories are part of further results, as well as an integrated understanding of the dynamic interconnectedness of organizational cultures, strategies and stakeholders in an environmental public consultation process.

  18. Deliberated opinion of the Environmental Authority on the national strategy for biomass mobilisation (SNMB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthod, Christian; Clement, Marc; Duval, Francois; Ledenvic, Philippe; Letourneux, Francois; Muller, Serge; Orizet, Francois-Regis; Perrin, Therese; Ullmann, Gabriel; Vindimian, Eric

    2017-01-01

    This document first presents the context of the French project of national strategy for biomass mobilisation (SNMB) as an application of the law related to energy transition for a green growth, and also as an item within the complex set of strategic documents such as the national strategy for low carbon, the national programme for forest and wood, the multi-year programming of energy, regional climate-air-energy schemes. It presents the SNMB project, its scope (with some recommendations made by the Environmental Authority), the usage challenges, the present situation of biomass with respect to the SNMB objectives for different biomass sources (forest, agriculture, breeding, by-products and wastes). It briefly discusses procedures related to the SNMB and to its environmental assessment. The second section addresses the analysis of the environmental assessment. It formulates some methodological recommendations, discusses the articulation with other programmes, and the initial analysis of the environment and of its perspectives of evolution, comments the justification of choices made regarding substitution solutions. It comments the analysis of likely effects of the SNMB implementation, and measures to avoid, mitigate or compensate these impacts. It briefly discusses the assessment of Natura 2000 effects, and choices made by the SNMB regarding indicators and modalities of environmental follow-up

  19. An Integrated Environmental Assessment of Green and Gray Infrastructure Strategies for Robust Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal-Campos, Arturo; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David; Moore, Andrew

    2015-07-21

    The robustness of a range of watershed-scale "green" and "gray" drainage strategies in the future is explored through comprehensive modeling of a fully integrated urban wastewater system case. Four socio-economic future scenarios, defined by parameters affecting the environmental performance of the system, are proposed to account for the uncertain variability of conditions in the year 2050. A regret-based approach is applied to assess the relative performance of strategies in multiple impact categories (environmental, economic, and social) as well as to evaluate their robustness across future scenarios. The concept of regret proves useful in identifying performance trade-offs and recognizing states of the world most critical to decisions. The study highlights the robustness of green strategies (particularly rain gardens, resulting in half the regret of most options) over end-of-pipe gray alternatives (surface water separation or sewer and storage rehabilitation), which may be costly (on average, 25% of the total regret of these options) and tend to focus on sewer flooding and CSO alleviation while compromising on downstream system performance (this accounts for around 50% of their total regret). Trade-offs and scenario regrets observed in the analysis suggest that the combination of green and gray strategies may still offer further potential for robustness.

  20. DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGY FOR THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT COMPLEX, HANFORD NUCLEAR RESERVATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, A.M.; Heineman, R.; Norton, S.; Miller, M.; Oates, L.

    2003-01-01

    Maintaining compliance with environmental regulatory requirements is a significant priority in successful completion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Nuclear Material Stabilization (NMS) Project. To ensure regulatory compliance throughout the deactivation and decommissioning of the PFP complex, an environmental regulatory strategy was developed. The overall goal of this strategy is to comply with all applicable environmental laws and regulations and/or compliance agreements during PFP stabilization, deactivation, and eventual dismantlement. Significant environmental drivers for the PFP Nuclear Material Stabilization Project include the Tri-Party Agreement; the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA); the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA); the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA); the Clean Air Act (CAA), and the Clean Water Act (CWA). Recent TPA negotiation s with Ecology and EPA have resulted in milestones that support the use of CERCLA as the primary statutory framework for decommissioning PFP. Milestones have been negotiated to support the preparation of Engineering Evaluations/Cost Analyses for decommissioning major PFP buildings. Specifically, CERCLA EE/CA(s) are anticipated for the following scopes of work: Settling Tank 241-Z-361, the 232-Z Incinerator, , the process facilities (eg, 234-5Z, 242, 236) and the process facility support buildings. These CERCLA EE/CA(s) are for the purpose of analyzing the appropriateness of the slab-on-grade endpoint Additionally, agreement was reached on performing an evaluation of actions necessary to address below-grade structures or other structures remaining after completion of the decommissioning of PFP. Remaining CERCLA actions will be integrated with other Central Plateau activities at the Hanford site

  1. Common pathways toward informing policy and environmental strategies to promote health: a study of CDC's Prevention Research Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Elizabeth M; Stringer, Kate J; Spadaro, Antonia J; Ballman, Marie R; Grunbaum, Jo Anne

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the roles academic researchers can play to inform policy and environmental strategies that promote health and prevent disease. Prevention Research Centers (PRCs) engage in academic-community partnerships to conduct applied public health research. Interviews were used to collect data on the roles played by 32 PRCs to inform policy and environmental strategies that were implemented between September 2009 and September 2010. Descriptive statistics were calculated in SAS 9.2. A difference in roles played was observed depending on whether strategies were policy or environmental. Of the policy initiatives, the most common roles were education, research, and partnership. In contrast, the most prevalent roles the PRCs played in environmental approaches were research and providing health promotion resources. Academic research centers play various roles to help inform policy and environmental strategies. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  2. Evaluation of the environmental impact of apple pest control strategies using pesticide risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Agnello, Arthur M; Martini, Fabrizio; Kovach, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    Various pesticide risk indicators have been developed for estimating pesticide impact on human health and the environment. The present work applied a pesticide risk indicator to estimate change in pesticide risk in apple production between 2001 and 2009. The "Environmental Impact Quotient" was used, which evaluates potential impacts of pesticide active ingredients on farm workers, consumers, and nontarget organisms. A modified Environmental Impact Quotient was also tested, which accounts for all ingredients in the formulation presenting a health or environmental hazard, as identified in the Security Data Sheet. Irrespective of the rating system applied, an overall average improvement in environmental impact of apple protection strategies was indicated ranging from 23 to 24%. Hazard reduction was more significant when estimated per treatment, and was higher for acaricides and insecticides than for fungicides. Improvement appeared to be a consequence of using more selective and more effective active ingredients, applying alternative pest control techniques, compulsory periodic sprayer calibration, and wider use of dwarfing orchards. The modified Environmental Impact Quotient does not overcome all limitations regarding accuracy of pesticide risk indicators, but its ease of use in relying on official, easily accessible data, and the consistency of its results, makes it a good candidate for monitoring the success of reduced risk policies. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  3. Communications strategies concerning ethical and environmental questions relative to radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropars, R.

    1996-01-01

    Today, in France, there is a radioactive waste public opinion and communications problem. Although 82 per cent of the population is favourable to the continuation of the French nuclear programme. 73 per cent considers that the truth is not being told about radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is the second ranking argument against nuclear power, after Chernobyl. Since 1991 there has been an official debate, and a national strategy has been set out. At present operational solutions are in existence for 90 per cent of the medium or short-lived waste. What communications strategy should be used? Technical solutions, not philosophical ones, are needed for technical problems, and the companies involved need to show that they can manage them from a technical point of view. However, the ethical component must be seen to be integrated into technical and management choices, as well as into means of communications. A communications policy must first show that ethical considerations are not absent from technical and legal choices, and secondly that they are included in the definition of the communications strategy itself; the paper discusses several possibilities. Companies must stick to their areas of competence, i.e. the technical and scientific fields, that are the only ones within which waste problems can be solved. However, showing that both technical and administrative choices made or envisaged, as well industrial and communications strategies, have an ethical inspiration constitutes a sensible way to go. (author)

  4. Organizational and environmental correlates of the adoption of a focus strategy in U.S. hospices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apenteng, Bettye A; Nayar, Preethy; Yu, Fang; Adams, John; Opoku, Samuel T

    2015-01-01

    The hospice industry has experienced rapid growth in the last decade and has become a prominent component of the U.S. health care delivery system. In recent decades, the number of hospices serving nursing facility residents has increased. However, there is paucity of research on the organizational and environmental determinants of this strategic behavior. The aim of this study was to empirically identify the factors associated with the adoption of a nursing facility focus strategy in U.S. hospices. A nursing facility focus strategy was defined in this study as a strategic choice to target the provision of hospice services to skilled nursing facility or nursing home residents. This study employed a longitudinal study design with lagged independent variables in answering its research questions. Data for the study's dependent variables are obtained for the years 2005-2008, whereas data for the independent variables are obtained for the years 2004-2007, representing a 1-year lag. Mixed effects regression models were used in the multivariate regression analyses. Using a resource dependence framework, the findings from this study indicate that organizational size, community wealth, competition, and ownership type are important predictors of the adoption of a nursing facility focus strategy. Hospices may be adopting a nursing facility focus strategy in response to increasing competition. The decision to focus the provision of care to nursing facility residents may be driven by the need to secure stability in referrals. Further empirical exploration of the performance implications of adopting a nursing facility focus strategy is warranted.

  5. Effects of environmental factors on corporate strategy and performance of manufacturing industries in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmad Hidayat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine and obtain empirical evidence of the effects of external and internal environmental factors on the strategy and performance of manufacturing companies. Design/methodology/approach: This study used primary data obtained by distributing questionnaires to 150 respondents of manufacturing companies in Indonesia spreading over six major cities in Java such as Jakarta, Banten, Bandung, Yogyakarta, Semarang and Surabaya. Samples were taken by using the systematic random sampling technique. The technique was used since those major cities had different numbers of manufacturing companies. Subsequently, the feasibility of the model was tested. Several indices of model feasibility would be used to test the model developed in this structural equation model. In case of a sub-optimal model, a model modification was to be performed by adding or removing paths so that the chi-square values would decrease by the values of the index. Findings and Originality/value: Results showed that internal and external environmental factors, through the operating environments and the remote environments of manufacturing industries, jointly affected the companies’ understanding of the condition of the industrial environments to establish strategic goals in order to achieve optimal performance of manufacturing industry. Practical implications: The internal and external environmental factors through the operating and remote environments had effects on the strategy of manufacturing companies in Indonesia. However, both internal and external environments did not affect the performance of manufacturing companies in Indonesia. There was a tendency that manufacturing companies were to observe the occurring macro-economic conditions. Manufacturing industries were faced with the pressures from competition, customers and suppliers that affected companies’ revenue. Performance of manufacturing industries was more influenced by macro

  6. Human Coronaviruses: Insights into Environmental Resistance and Its Influence on the Development of New Antiseptic Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Chloé; Varbanov, Mihayl; Duval, Raphaël E.

    2012-01-01

    The Coronaviridae family, an enveloped RNA virus family, and, more particularly, human coronaviruses (HCoV), were historically known to be responsible for a large portion of common colds and other upper respiratory tract infections. HCoV are now known to be involved in more serious respiratory diseases, i.e. bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia, especially in young children and neonates, elderly people and immunosuppressed patients. They have also been involved in nosocomial viral infections. In 2002–2003, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), due to a newly discovered coronavirus, the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV); led to a new awareness of the medical importance of the Coronaviridae family. This pathogen, responsible for an emerging disease in humans, with high risk of fatal outcome; underline the pressing need for new approaches to the management of the infection, and primarily to its prevention. Another interesting feature of coronaviruses is their potential environmental resistance, despite the accepted fragility of enveloped viruses. Indeed, several studies have described the ability of HCoVs (i.e. HCoV 229E, HCoV OC43 (also known as betacoronavirus 1), NL63, HKU1 or SARS-CoV) to survive in different environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and humidity), on different supports found in hospital settings such as aluminum, sterile sponges or latex surgical gloves or in biological fluids. Finally, taking into account the persisting lack of specific antiviral treatments (there is, in fact, no specific treatment available to fight coronaviruses infections), the Coronaviridae specificities (i.e. pathogenicity, potential environmental resistance) make them a challenging model for the development of efficient means of prevention, as an adapted antisepsis-disinfection, to prevent the environmental spread of such infective agents. This review will summarize current knowledge on the capacity of human coronaviruses to survive in the

  7. A geomorphological strategy for conducting environmental impact assessments in karst areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veni, George

    1999-12-01

    In their efforts to protect regional groundwater supplies, governmental agencies are increasingly requiring studies of karst areas and their features. In areas where tracer tests or geophysics are not required, funded, or otherwise feasible, geomorphological methods remain as the primary tool for assessing karst. This study proposes a geomorphologically-based environmental impact assessment strategy for karst areas. While it is supported with results from a study of the karstic Edwards Aquifer recharge zone on the Camp Bullis Military Training Installation, TX, USA, it is based on the study of several karst areas and is generalized to accommodate and be fine-tuned for regional variations. Biological and other resource issues can also be assessed with this strategy. The assessment identifies environmentally sensitive features and areas, as is often required to meet regulatory directives. In karst areas with relatively small features, excavation is a key tool for accurate assessment. Although the results of this study will help to better manage karst areas, proper management must be done on a regional scale. The highly permeable nature of karst precludes adequate management solely on a feature-by-feature basis. Studies on the relationship of water quality to impervious cover show adverse environmental impacts significantly increase when impervious cover exceeds 15% of a surface watershed. The Camp Bullis study finds similar impacts in its groundwater drainage basin, supporting the argument of 15% impervious cover as a regionally effective means of also protecting karst aquifers when coupled with protection of critical areas identified by field surveys.

  8. Environmental management practices in the Lebanese pharmaceutical industries: implementation strategies and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, May A; Makarem, N; Ramadan, W; Nakkash, R

    2015-03-01

    This research attempts to provide an understanding of the Lebanese pharmaceutical industries' environmental management strategies, priorities, and perceptions as well as drivers, barriers, and incentives regarding the implementation of the voluntary ISO 14001 Environmental Management System. Accordingly, a semistructured in-depth interview was conducted with the pharmaceutical industries. The findings revealed a significant lack of knowledge about the standard among the industries. The main perceived drivers for adopting the ISO 14001 are improving the companies' image and overcoming international trade. The main perceived barriers for acquiring the standard are the lack of government support and the fact that ISO 14001 is not being legally required or enforced by the government. Moreover, results revealed that adopting the ISO 14001 standard is not perceived as a priority for the Lebanese pharmaceutical industries. Although the cost of certification was not considered as a barrier for the implementation of ISO 14001, the majority of the pharmaceutical industries are neither interested nor willing to adopt the Standard if they are not exposed to any regulatory pressure or external demand. They are more concerned with quality and safety issues with the most adopted international standard among the industries being the ISO 9001 quality management system. This study highlights the aspect that financial barriers are not always the hurdles for implementing environmental management strategies in developing countries and underscores the need for regulatory frameworks and enforcement.

  9. Engaging All Americans: Innovative Strategies for Reaching the Public with Climate and Environmental Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, S.

    2014-12-01

    From extensive drought and heat waves to floods, tornadoes and Superstorm Sandy, extreme weather and climate events provide teachable moments to help communities prepare for and respond to related environmental, economic and health impacts. The National Environmental Education Foundation (www.neefusa.org) works with the American Meteorological Society, the media and other trusted messengers to provide weather, climate and environmental information to the public in accessible and widely used formats, whether via TV, radio or social media. NEEF will provide an overview of innovative partnerships and projects that are engaging Americans in understanding and using climate and environmental information to make the best choices in their daily lives and improve the health of their communities, including: Assessing knowledge, attitudes and behaviors: NEEF will share results from its national survey research and targeted focus groups on current attitudes and practices relating to our nation's environment. Simplifying and amplifying key messages: NEEF provides a national network of more than 350 meteorologists, radio broadcasters and journalists with the science-based information and resources they need to present climate and environmental topics to their viewers on-air, online and in community outreach. Engaging television viewers in citizen science: Eyes on Central PA, a pilot project of NEEF, Project Noah and WTAJ-TV, harnesses Project Noah's citizen science platform to collect and display photos of wildlife from WTAJ-TV viewers. NEEF and WTAJ provide regular blogs and on-air stories that highlight viewers' photos and link them to local weather conditions and climate trends. Expanding the conversation: NEEF's multimedia strategy in the Mid-Atlantic U.S. is reaching Spanish-speaking audiences with climate and environmental information through regular radio and television broadcasts. We are also exploring ways to reach other non-traditional audiences, including faith

  10. Strategies for compensating for higher costs of geothermal electricity with environmental benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, H.; Niitsuma, Hiroaki

    1999-01-01

    After very high growth in the 1980s, geothermal electricity production has slowed in the mid- and late-1990s. While Japanese, Indonesian and Philippine geothermal growth has remained high as a consequence of supportive government policies, geothermal electricity production has been flat or reduced in much of Europe and North America. Low prices for coal and natural gas, combined with deregulation, means that in much of the world electricity from new fuel-burning electricity plants can be provided at half the cost of new geothermal electricity. Cost-cutting must be pursued, but is unlikely to close the price gap by itself. Geothermal production is widely perceived as being environmentally clean, but this is not unambiguously true, and requires reinjection to be fully realized. Strategies for monetizing the environmental advantages of geothermal, including the carbon tax, are discussed. (author)

  11. Environmental quality of Italian marine water by means of marine strategy framework directive (MSFD descriptor 9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Maggi

    Full Text Available ISPRA, on behalf of the Italian Ministry of Environment, carried out the initial assessment of environmental quality status of the 3 Italian subregions (Mediterranean Sea Region on Descriptor 9. The approach adopted to define the GES started to verify that contaminants in fish and other seafood for human consumption did not exceed levels established by Community legislation (Reg. 1881/2006 and further updates. As the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD requires to use health tools to assess the environment, Italy decided to adopt a statistical range of acceptance of thresholds identified by national (D.Lgs. 152/2006 concerning water quality required for mussel farms and international legislation (Reg. 1881/2006 and further updates, which allowed to use the health results and to employ them for the assessment of environmental quality. Italy proposed that Good Environmental Status (GES is achieved when concentrations are lower than statistical range of acceptance, estimated on samples of fish and fishery products coming from only national waters. GIS-based approach a to perform different integration levels for station, cell's grid and years, was used; the elaborations allowed to judge the environmental quality good.

  12. Strategies for reducing the environmental impacts of room air conditioners in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grignon-Masse, Laurent; Riviere, Philippe; Adnot, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    In Europe, buildings tend to be equipped with individual air conditioners, which constitute a fast growing electrical end-use. In this context, this study aims to assess the environmental impacts of European individual air conditioners and to analyse policy strategies to reduce these impacts. After analysing the European context concerning individual air conditioners, the environmental impacts of European air conditioners are assessed using a Life Cycle Analysis approach. The following step consists in studying, both technically and economically, different improvement options aiming at reducing the environmental impacts of these appliances. These results, obtained at the product level, are then generalised at the European level and different policy measures are defined and analysed. The main conclusion is that the implementation of a Minimum Energy Performance Standard based on Least Life Cycle Costs could save up to 49 TWh and 20 MtCO 2-eq in 2020 and be economically beneficial to the European end-user. - Research highlights: → A methodology based on Life Cycle Analysis is applied to European air conditioners. → Environmental impacts are mainly due to energy consumption. → There is a high potential for energy savings at very low costs for end users.

  13. Status and practicality of detritiation and tritium production strategies for environmental remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulbright, H.H.; Schwirian-Spann, A.L.; Brunt, V. van [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (US); Jerome, K.M.; Looney, B.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (US)

    1996-02-26

    Operation of nuclear facilities throughout the world generates wastewater, groundwater and surface water contaminated with tritium. Because of a commitment to minimize radiation exposures to ''levels as low as reasonably achievable'', the US Department of Energy supports development of tritium isotope separation technologies. Also, DOE periodically documents the status and potential viability of alternative tritium treatment technologies and management strategies. The specific objectives of the current effort are to evaluate practical engineering issues, technology acceptability issues, and costs for realistic tritium treatment scenarios. A unique feature of the assessment is that the portfolio of options was expanded to include various management strategies rather than only evaluating detritiation technologies. The ultimate purpose of this effort is to assist Environmental Restoration and its support organizations in allocating future investments.

  14. Status and practicality of detritiation and tritium production strategies for environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulbright, H.H.; Schwirian-Spann, A.L.; Brunt, V. van; Jerome, K.M.; Looney, B.B.

    1996-01-01

    Operation of nuclear facilities throughout the world generates wastewater, groundwater and surface water contaminated with tritium. Because of a commitment to minimize radiation exposures to ''levels as low as reasonably achievable'', the US Department of Energy supports development of tritium isotope separation technologies. Also, DOE periodically documents the status and potential viability of alternative tritium treatment technologies and management strategies. The specific objectives of the current effort are to evaluate practical engineering issues, technology acceptability issues, and costs for realistic tritium treatment scenarios. A unique feature of the assessment is that the portfolio of options was expanded to include various management strategies rather than only evaluating detritiation technologies. The ultimate purpose of this effort is to assist Environmental Restoration and its support organizations in allocating future investments

  15. A strategy for an advanced nuclear-electric sector - proliferation-proof, environmentally-sound, economical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    A strategy is proposed for deployment of an advanced nuclear-electric power sector that is ultimately fueled only by recycled uranium. The sector is optimized on a system basis to meet several objectives in the context of international safeguards against diversion of plutonium and proliferation of nuclear weapons. These objectives include: generation of electric power efficiently and economically; performance with utmost predictable safety; minimization of environmental impacts through conservation of natural resources, consumption of actinides and long-lived fission products, and responsible disposal of unavoidable waste; and consumption of spent fuel from currently used reactors. (author)

  16. Emissions and Fuel Consumption Modeling for Evaluating Environmental Effectiveness of ITS Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-yuan Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Road transportation is a major fuel consumer and greenhouse gas emitter. Recently, the intelligent transportation systems (ITSs technologies, which can improve traffic flow and safety, have been developed to reduce the fuel consumption and vehicle emissions. Emission and fuel consumption estimation models play a key role in the evaluation of ITS technologies. Based on the influence analysis of driving parameters on vehicle emissions, this paper establishes a set of mesoscopic vehicle emission and fuel consumption models using the real-world vehicle operation and emission data. The results demonstrate that these models are more appropriate to evaluate the environmental effectiveness of ITS strategies with enough estimation accuracy.

  17. Mobilizing First-Line Managers as Organizational Strategy Makers: The Case of Environmentally Sustainable Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Gjøsæter, Åge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to investigate how first-line managers are mobilized as organizational strategy makers. The research case is a campaign launched by a Norwegian shipping company servicing the petroleum industry. The strategic idea on which the campaign was based was to operate the company`s fleet of offshore service vessels in an environmentally sustainable way, to be realized by carrying out fuel-saving operations on board the vessels. A strategic idea is supposed to set out a vie...

  18. A typology for campus-based alcohol prevention: moving toward environmental management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William; Langford, Linda M

    2002-03-01

    This article outlines a typology of programs and policies for preventing and treating campus-based alcohol-related problems, reviews recent case studies showing the promise of campus-based environmental management strategies and reports findings from a national survey of U.S. colleges and universities about available resources for pursuing environmentally focused prevention. The typology is grounded in a social ecological framework, which recognizes that health-related behaviors are affected through multiple levels of influence: intrapersonal (individual) factors, interpersonal (group) processes, institutional factors, community factors and public policy. The survey on prevention resources and activities was mailed to senior administrators responsible for their school's institutional response to substance use problems. The study sample was an equal probability sample of 365 2- and 4-year U.S. campuses. The response rate was 76.9%. Recent case studies suggest the value of environmentally focused alcohol prevention approaches on campus, but more rigorous research is needed to establish their effectiveness. The administrators' survey showed that most U.S. colleges have not yet installed the basic infrastructure required for developing, implementing and evaluating environmental management strategies. The typology of campus-based prevention options can be used to categorize current efforts and to inform strategic planning of multilevel interventions. Additional colleges and universities should establish a permanent campus task force that reports directly to the president, participate actively in a campus-community coalition that seeks to change the availability of alcohol in the local community and join a state-level association that speaks out on state and federal policy issues.

  19. European environmental research infrastructures are going for common 30 years strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmi, Ari; Konjin, Jacco; Pursula, Antti

    2014-05-01

    Environmental Research infrastructures are facilities, resources, systems and related services that are used by research communities to conduct top-level research. Environmental research is addressing processes at very different time scales, and supporting research infrastructures must be designed as long-term facilities in order to meet the requirements of continuous environmental observation, measurement and analysis. This longevity makes the environmental research infrastructures ideal structures to support the long-term development in environmental sciences. ENVRI project is a collaborative action of the major European (ESFRI) Environmental Research Infrastructures working towards increased co-operation and interoperability between the infrastructures. One of the key products of the ENVRI project is to combine the long-term plans of the individual infrastructures towards a common strategy, describing the vision and planned actions. The envisaged vision for environmental research infrastructures toward 2030 is to support the holistic understanding of our planet and it's behavior. The development of a 'Standard Model of the Planet' is a common ambition, a challenge to define an environmental standard model; a framework of all interactions within the Earth System, from solid earth to near space. Indeed scientists feel challenged to contribute to a 'Standard Model of the Planet' with data, models, algorithms and discoveries. Understanding the Earth System as an interlinked system requires a systems approach. The Environmental Sciences are rapidly moving to become a one system-level science. Mainly since modern science, engineering and society are increasingly facing complex problems that can only be understood in the context of the full overall system. The strategy of the supporting collaborating research infrastructures is based on developing three key factors for the Environmental Sciences: the technological, the cultural and the human capital. The technological

  20. Management strategies for coral reefs and people under global environmental change: 25 years of scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Adrien; Pendleton, Linwood H

    2018-03-01

    Coral reef ecosystems and the people who depend on them are increasingly exposed to the adverse effects of global environmental change (GEC), including increases in sea-surface temperature and ocean acidification. Managers and decision-makers need a better understanding of the options available for action in the face of these changes. We refine a typology of actions developed by Gattuso et al. (2015) that could serve in prioritizing strategies to deal with the impacts of GEC on reefs and people. Using the typology we refined, we investigate the scientific effort devoted to four types of management strategies: mitigate, protect, repair, adapt that we tie to the components of the chain of impact they affect: ecological vulnerability or social vulnerability. A systematic literature review is used to investigate quantitatively how scientific effort over the past 25 years is responding to the challenge posed by GEC on coral reefs and to identify gaps in research. A growing literature has focused on these impacts and on management strategies to sustain coral reef social-ecological systems. We identify 767 peer reviewed articles published between 1990 and 2016 that address coral reef management in the context of GEC. The rate of publication of such studies has increased over the years, following the general trend in climate research. The literature focuses on protect strategies the most, followed by mitigate and adapt strategies, and finally repair strategies. Developed countries, particularly Australia and the United States, are over-represented as authors and locations of case studies across all types of management strategies. Authors affiliated in developed countries play a major role in investigating case studies across the globe. The majority of articles focus on only one of the four categories of actions. A gap analysis reveals three directions for future research: (1) more research is needed in South-East Asia and other developing countries where the impacts of

  1. Development of the Environmental Strategies Instrument to Measure Adolescent Alcohol Prevention-Related Outcomes in Community Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Goldbach, Jeremy; Yeung, Albert; Rey, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Recently, evidence-based community policy approaches to preventing substance use and alcohol abuse, called environmental strategies, have gained in popularity. The environmental survey instrument (ESI) was developed to evaluate perceptions around drinking and related problems. Specifically, the authors were interested in assessing community…

  2. Environmental, planning, and communication strategies and experience for windfarm developments in Yorkshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, K.; Wade-Smith, R.; Fawcett, F.

    1991-01-01

    Two windfarms are planned for development in Yorkshire: at Chelker, comprising 4 WEG MS3 wind turbines of total capacity 1.3MW, by Yorkshire Water; and Ovenden Moor, comprising 23 Vestas WD34 wind turbines of total capacity 9MW, by Yorkshire Windpower, a joint venture between Yorkshire Water and Yorkshire Electricity. In order for these windfarms to be successfully realised, it was necessary to develop strategies to manage the planning applications, produce the Environmental Statements and communicate to local, regional and national organisations, groups and individuals what these windfarms will really achieve. The paper will describe how these strategies were developed and will show how the communication framework was established with all of the consultees. The paper will illustrate examples of how this essential dialogue assisted in the formation of important areas of the Environmental Statements and how the windfarms will be positively viewed and received by the communities. Details of the established planning procedures and those still requiring development and implementation will be discussed in the paper. The progress, timescales and current position of the Chelker and Ovenden Moor windfarms will be summarised. (author)

  3. A bi-level environmental impact assessment framework for comparing construction and demolition waste management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, Ardavan

    2018-04-27

    Several pioneering life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have been conducted in the past to assess the environmental impact of specific methods for managing mineral construction and demolition waste (MCDW), such as recycling the waste for use in concrete. Those studies focus on comparing the use of recycled MCDW and that of virgin components to produce materials or systems that serve specified functions. Often, the approaches adopted by the studies do not account for the potential environmental consequence of avoiding the existing or alternative waste management practices. The present work focuses on how product systems need to be defined in recycling LCA studies and what processes need to be within the system boundaries. A bi-level LCA framework is presented for modelling alternative waste management approaches in which the impacts are measured and compared at two scales of strategy and decision-making. Different functional units are defined for each level, all of which correspond to the same flow of MCDW in a cascade of product systems. For the sole purpose of demonstrating how the framework is implemented an illustrative example is presented, based on real data and a number of simplifying assumptions, which compares the impacts of a number of potential MCDW management strategies in New York City. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Strategies for reducing the environmental impact of gaseous detector operation at the CERN LHC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capeans, M.; Guida, R.; Mandelli, B., E-mail: beatrice.mandelli@cern.ch

    2017-02-11

    A wide range of gas mixtures is used for the operation of different gaseous detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. Nowadays some of these gases, as C{sub 2}H{sub 2}F{sub 4}, CF{sub 4} and SF{sub 6}, are indicated as greenhouse gases (GHG) and dominate the overall GHG emission from particle detectors at the LHC experiments. The release of GHG is an important subject for the design of future particle detectors as well as for the operation of the current experiments. Different strategies have been adopted at CERN for reducing the GHG emissions. The standard approach is the recirculation of the gas mixture with complex gas systems where system stability and the possible accumulation of impurities need to be attentively evaluated for the good operation and safety of the detectors. A second approach is based on the recuperation of the gas mixture exiting the detectors and the separation of its gas components for re-use. At long-term, the use of less invasive gases is being investigated, especially for the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) systems. Operation of RPC with environmentally friendly gas mixtures is demonstrated for streamer mode while avalanche mode operation needs more complex gas mixtures. - Highlights: • Greenhouse gases (GHG) emission in the LHC experiments and detectors. • Strategies to reduce the GHG emissions: gas recirculation and recuperation systems. • GHG emission: achievements from LHC Run1 to Run2. • Resistive Plate Chambers operation with new environmentally friendly gases.

  5. Status and developmental strategy of nuclear agricultural sciences in researches of eco-environmental sciences in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Luo; Wang Xunqing

    2001-01-01

    The concept, research scopes, research progress and achievement of nuclear agricultural sciences in past several decades in China, as well as the relationship between nuclear agriculture research and eco-environmental sciences were described. The disciplinary frontier, major research fields and priority developmental fields of nuclear agriculture in eco-environmental sciences was displayed. Suggestions were made to improve and strengthen nuclear agriculture research. Those provided basic source materials and consideration for application developmental strategy of nuclear agriculture in eco-environmental sciences

  6. Environmental potential of the use of CO_2 from alcoholic fermentation processes. The CO_2-AFP strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Moreno, Carlos; García-Yuste, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    A novel Carbon Dioxide Utilization (CDU) approach from a relatively minor CO_2 emission source, i.e., alcoholic fermentation processes (AFP), is presented. The CO_2 produced as a by-product from the AFP is estimated by examining the EtOH consumed per year reported by the World Health Organization in 2014. It is proposed that the extremely pure CO_2 from the AFP is captured in NaOH solutions to produce one of the Top 10 commodities in the chemical industry, Na_2CO_3, as a good example of an atomic economy process. The novel CDU strategy could yield over 30.6 Mt of Na_2CO_3 in oversaturated aqueous solution on using ca. 12.7 Mt of captured CO_2 and this process would consume less energy than the synthetic methodology (Solvay ammonia soda process) and would not produce low-value by-products. The quantity of Na_2CO_3 obtained by this strategy could represent ca. 50% of the world Na_2CO_3 production in one year. In terms of the green economy, the viability of the strategy is discussed according to the recommendations of the CO_2Chem network, and an estimation of the CO_2negative emission achieved suggests a capture of around 280.0 Mt of CO_2 from now to 2020 or ca. 1.9 Gt from now to 2050. Finally, the results obtained for this new CDU proposal are discussed by considering different scenarios; the CO_2 production in a typical winemaking corporation, the CO_2 released in the most relevant wine-producing countries, and the use of CO_2 from AFP as an alternative for the top Na_2CO_3-producing countries. - Highlights: • A new CDU strategy to mitigate the CO_2 in the atmosphere is assessed. • An environmental action towards negligible emission sources such as AFP. • The waste CO_2 from AFP could be converted into Na_2CO_3. • Capture 12.7 Mt yr"–"1 of CO_2 to generate ca. 1.9 Gt of CO_2negative emissions by 2050.

  7. Evaluating the Environmental Dimension of Material Efficiency Strategies Relating to the Circular Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Walker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Material efficiency is a key element of new thinking to address the challenges of reducing impacts on the environment and of resource scarcity, whilst at the same time meeting service and functionality demands on materials. Directly related to material efficiency is the concept of the Circular Economy, which is based on the principle of optimising the utility embodied in materials and products through the life-cycle. Although materials such as steel, on account of high recycling rates at end-of-life, are amongst the most ‘circular’ of manufactured materials, significant opportunities for greater material efficiency exist, which are yet to be widely implemented. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is commonly used to assess the environmental benefits of recovering and recycling materials through the manufacturing supply chain and at end-of-life. Using an example taken from renewable energy generation, this paper explores the correlation between product circularity and the environmental case for strategies designed to improve material efficiency. An LCA-based methodology for accounting for the recovery and reuse of materials from the supply chain and at end-of-life is used as the basis for calculating the carbon footprint benefits of five material efficiency scenarios. The results are compared with a number of proposed material circularity indicators. Two conclusions from this exercise are that (i LCA methodologies based around end-of-life approaches are well placed for quantifying the environmental benefits of material efficiency and circular economy strategies and (ii when applying indicators relating to the circularity of materials these should also be supported by LCA-based studies.

  8. Peran Environmental Factors dan Komitmen Sumberdaya dalam Menetapkan Strategi Berorientasi Produk Inovatif untuk Meningkatkan Kinerja Pemasaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Sudarti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study aims to examine the effect of environmental factors and commitment in determination of product innovation-oriented strategy to improve marketing performance. Subjects were owners of gold jewelry craft SMEs in Jepara Margoyoso village. Research data, which is the primary data, collected through a questionnaire instrument. 50 SME owners craft gold jewelry as a sample drawn by the census method. With path analysis and using SPSS 14 software, this research instrument has been validated with the results so significant that it can be to test eight hypotheses that are developed based on theory. Based on hypothesis testing, seven hypotheses are estimated proved significant, alpha 5%. Only the commitment of resources does not affect the performance of marketing. Product innovation has the greatest direct impact on marketing performance. Environmental factors have a negative impact on product innovation.Keyword: Environmental factors, the commitment of resources, product innovation, performanceAbstrakPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh Faktor Lingkungan dan komitmen dalam penetapan strategi berorientasi produk inovasi untuk meningkatkan kinerja Pemasaran. Subyek penelitian adalah pemilik kerajinan perhiasan emas UKM di desa Jepara Margoyoso. Data penelitian, yang merupakan data primer, yang dikumpulkan melalui instrumen kuesioner. 50 pemilik UKM kerajinan perhiasan emas sebagai sampel yang ditarik dengan metode sensus. Dengan analisis jalur dan menggunakan SPSS 14 perangkat lunak, instrumen penelitian ini telah divalidasi dengan hasil signifikan sehingga dapat untuk menguji hipotesis yang dikembangkan berdasarkan teori. Berdasarkan uji hipotesis, tujuh hipotesis terbukti signifikan, alpha 5%. Hanya komitmen sumber daya tidak mempengaruhi kinerja pemasaran. Inovasi produk memiliki pengaruh langsung terbesar pada kinerja pemasaran. Faktor lingkungan memiliki inovasi yang negatif terhadap produk. Kata kunci: Faktor lingkungan

  9. School Board as a Pedagogical Strategy for Sustainability in Environmental Education. (Project execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayr Del Valle Rivas Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was designed as a purpose to establish the school garden as a pedagogical strategy of sustainability in environmental education with the students of the National Basic School "Sebastián Araujo Briceño" of the Pedraza Municipality Barinas State; The nature of research is qualitative, the method is Research Action. For the purposes of the present study, three (03 teachers and three (03 students who belong to the institution will participate as informers and enjoy recognized responsibility and commitment at the "Sebastián Araujo Briceño" National Basic School. The technique used is the semistructured interview, And the instrument the interview guide. The analysis of the information will be done through the codification, categorization, triangulation and structuring of theories. After implementing the activities with the school garden, it is hoped to conclude that children contribute to the care of the environment and maintain in harmony the ecological balance that should reign in any space where human beings live and coexist. In this way the educational institution will present an environmental aspect in accordance with the ecological principles of environmental education immersed in the National Basic Curriculum.

  10. Stakeholder Interaction in Participatory Land Restoration in Iceland: Environmental Officers' Challenges and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Brita; Hallgren, Lars; Aradóttir, Ása L.

    2015-08-01

    Participatory approaches involve stakeholder interaction but environmental agency employees engaged in participatory undertakings often lack training for interaction tasks. This study explored how district officers at the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland (SCSI) experienced and dealt with stakeholder interaction in participatory land restoration. We made semi-structured interviews with all district officers with at least 1-year experience; seven in total. A thematic content analysis revealed five challenges facing the officers in their interaction activities and seven strategies that they used to deal with these challenges. The core challenge was to establish and maintain contacts with farmers and other stakeholders as it enabled the SCSI to support and influence their land restoration practices. Other challenges were to: accomplish SCSI's objectives; represent the SCSI and the government; have adequate skills, knowledge, and background; and deal with one's own emotions. Four of the strategies seemed to promote collaboration: create win-win scenarios; "go local"; direct and positive communication; and motivation and knowledge sharing. The other strategies: supportive district officer team; self-reliance and personal background; and self-control supported the officers in their interaction tasks. Factors undermining their collaboration efforts included insufficient time and other resources, an unsupportive organizational culture and a legal duty to assess the condition of vegetation cover on farmland. Increased resource allocation to the SCSI's local operations, more attention to emotional issues, and efforts to develop a more flexible and learning organizational culture that supports collaboration could counteract these factors.

  11. Interactive effects of environmental change and management strategies on regional forest carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiburg, Tara W; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Thornton, Peter E; Law, Beverly E

    2013-11-19

    Climate mitigation activities in forests need to be quantified in terms of the long-term effects on forest carbon stocks, accumulation, and emissions. The impacts of future environmental change and bioenergy harvests on regional forest carbon storage have not been quantified. We conducted a comprehensive modeling study and life-cycle assessment of the impacts of projected changes in climate, CO2 concentration, and N deposition, and region-wide forest management policies on regional forest carbon fluxes. By 2100, if current management strategies continue, then the warming and CO2 fertilization effect in the given projections result in a 32-68% increase in net carbon uptake, overshadowing increased carbon emissions from projected increases in fire activity and other forest disturbance factors. To test the response to new harvesting strategies, repeated thinnings were applied in areas susceptible to fire to reduce mortality, and two clear-cut rotations were applied in productive forests to provide biomass for wood products and bioenergy. The management strategies examined here lead to long-term increased carbon emissions over current harvesting practices, although semiarid regions contribute little to the increase. The harvest rates were unsustainable. This comprehensive approach could serve as a foundation for regional place-based assessments of management effects on future carbon sequestration by forests in other locations.

  12. Stakeholder Interaction in Participatory Land Restoration in Iceland: Environmental Officers' Challenges and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Brita; Hallgren, Lars; Aradóttir, Ása L

    2015-08-01

    Participatory approaches involve stakeholder interaction but environmental agency employees engaged in participatory undertakings often lack training for interaction tasks. This study explored how district officers at the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland (SCSI) experienced and dealt with stakeholder interaction in participatory land restoration. We made semi-structured interviews with all district officers with at least 1-year experience; seven in total. A thematic content analysis revealed five challenges facing the officers in their interaction activities and seven strategies that they used to deal with these challenges. The core challenge was to establish and maintain contacts with farmers and other stakeholders as it enabled the SCSI to support and influence their land restoration practices. Other challenges were to: accomplish SCSI's objectives; represent the SCSI and the government; have adequate skills, knowledge, and background; and deal with one's own emotions. Four of the strategies seemed to promote collaboration: create win-win scenarios; "go local"; direct and positive communication; and motivation and knowledge sharing. The other strategies: supportive district officer team; self-reliance and personal background; and self-control supported the officers in their interaction tasks. Factors undermining their collaboration efforts included insufficient time and other resources, an unsupportive organizational culture and a legal duty to assess the condition of vegetation cover on farmland. Increased resource allocation to the SCSI's local operations, more attention to emotional issues, and efforts to develop a more flexible and learning organizational culture that supports collaboration could counteract these factors.

  13. EFFECTIVE ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE STRATEGY FOR THE CLEANUP OF K BASINS AT HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMBALAM, T.

    2004-01-01

    , sludge, debris and water. At present, almost all of the spent fuel has been removed from the basins and other activities to remove sludge, debris and water are scheduled to be completed in 2007. Developing environmental documentation and obtaining regulatory approvals for a project which was initiated outside CERCLA and came under CERCLA during execution, was a significant priority to the successful completion of the SNF retrieval, transfer, drying, transport and storage of fuel, within the purview of strong conduct-of-operations culture associated with nuclear facilities. Environmental requirements promulgated in the state regulations by Washington Department of Public Health for radiation were recognized as ''applicable or relevant and appropriate.'' Effective implementation of the environmental compliance strategy in a project that transitioned to CERCLA became a significant challenge involving multiple contractors. This paper provides an overview of the development and implementation of an environmental permitting and surveillance strategy that enabled us to achieve full compliance in a challenging environment, with milestones and cost constraints, while meeting the high safety standards. The details of the strategy as to how continuous rapport with the regulators, facility operators and surveillance groups helped to avoid impacts on the clean-up schedule are discussed. Highlighted are the role of engineered controls, surveillance protocols and triggers for monitoring and reporting, and active administrative controls that were established for the control of emissions, water loss and transport of waste shipments, during the different phases of the project

  14. Becoming Part of an Eco-Community: Social and Environmental Activism or Livelihood Strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Escribano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying grassroots initiatives which aim to respond to environmental and social crisis is of renewed importance nowadays, in the aftermath of the 2008-9 financial crisis in southern Europe. This paper studies people’s motivations for becoming part of an eco-community in Catalonia, Spain, through interviews with 29 informants. The research is part of a larger study, based on ethnographic data collected between 2013 and 2015 in 27 eco-communities. The paper shows the extent to which people who joined an eco-community were driven by ideological reasons, adopting a livelihood strategy, or by a combination of both factors in the years following the crisis. We argue that the social and economic crisis has had an impact on the factors motivating people to join these communities, with an increase in the number of people driven by materialistic motives, relative to those who joined for ideological reasons.

  15. Risk Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment, Environmental Strategies, Nordic Workshop, Vedbæk 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poll, Christian

    At a Nordic workshop on Product-oriented Environmental Strategies the roles of risk and hazard assessment and life cycle assessment of products in the future regulation of chemicals were discussed by participants representing administration, academia and industry from the Nordic countries....... This report compiles the papers and presentations given at the workshop. The papers present and discuss the different assessment tools and procedures - for individual chemicals through hazard and risk assessments and for products, materials and services through life-cycle assessment. The report also contains......, consultants and private enterprises to consider these well-established tools as individually necessary for the future regulation of the chemical pressure on the environment and to accept them as complementary to each other. Together with other process- or chain oriented tools like Substance or Material Flow...

  16. Determination of optimal environmental policy for reclamation of land unearthed in lignite mines - Strategy and tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Pollalis, Yannis A.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, optimal environmental policy for reclamation of land unearthed in lignite mines is defined as a strategic target. The tactics concerning the achievement of this target, includes estimation of optimal time lag between each lignite site (which is a segment of the whole lignite field) complete exploitation and its reclamation. Subsidizing of reclamation has been determined as a function of this time lag and relevant implementation is presented for parameter values valid for the Greek economy. We proved that the methodology we have developed gives reasonable quantitative results within the norms imposed by legislation. Moreover, the interconnection between strategy and tactics becomes evident, since the former causes the latter by deduction and the latter revises the former by induction in the time course of land reclamation.

  17. Conflict over Mining in Rural China: A Comprehensive Survey of Intentions and Strategies for Environmental Activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ho

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mining causes severe adverse effects such as pollution and forced resettlement. Accordingly, it has prompted conflicts that are also evident in China. Our study assesses whether and how rural residents’ engage in environmental activism (EA against mining. This is achieved by constructing a model of EA strategies, coupled to variables that examine respondents’ intentions. The model uses data from a survey (n = 352 covering 37 villages spread over 5 provinces and 1 provincial-level municipality. The model is based on a refinement of the theory of planned behavior (TPB. Various findings are reported: (1 a majority of respondents (77% believes that pollution in the mining areas is serious; (2 there is pessimism about the effects of EA with 41% believing it does not improve the environment, and less than one-fifth feeling the government supports EA, contradictorily; (3 well over half has engaged in one or more forms of EA, while (4 dominant EA strategies consist of complaining to local government or village authorities (both over 40%, or open protest (opted for by over 17%; (5 economic dependency and gender affect the intention for EA, as those employed in mining and women are less inclined to participate. Whereas studies pointed to “inclined abstainers” or the “silent majority”, this study ascertains that—with regard to mining—rural residents are not silent. We posit that a threshold of environmental endurance might have been reached. In this context, policymakers need to tackle the adverse effects of mining, as it is likely to generate more violent confrontations that ultimately pose risks to political credibility and social stability.

  18. Strategies and Socioeconomic and Environmental Sustainability: Study of the Producer Segment of Meat Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristiane Gruba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the emerging needs of society and the environment for the economic sectors act with sustainability, agrifood cooperatives of meat industry (CASC face management and strategy challenges to achieve better performance. Approaching different links of the production chain, some studies were conducted in a CASC, including this article, in order to verify if there were strategic economic, social or environmental sustainable actions from COOPERALIANÇA’s meat producers, its consequent organizational results and influence from the environment. The methodology was characterized by case study and the interviews with business leaders of the link chain producer were semi-structured. A content analysis was done. Among the most important results, influences from other links in the supply chain were found in strategic pro-sustainability action, which are not voluntarily made by producers and are influenced by interorganizational macroenvironment. Social activities were stimulated by public policies. It was also found a lack of long-term sustainability programs and strategic actions but cooperation and accountability occurred between the links, mostly because of interests of win-win that increased commitment and facilitated their interorganizational functions. However it was not found information in the interest of reconciliation between organizational outcomes and socioeconomic and environmental sustainability. With these results it was found adherence to the organizational ecology approach.

  19. Effect of monitoring strategies and reference data of the German Environmental Specimen Banking Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, M.; Bartel, M.; Klein, R.; Nentwich, K.; Quack, M.; Teubner, D.; Wagner, G.

    2005-01-01

    The constitution of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) has started in 1985, subsequent to a successful pilot study concerning the feasibility. Since that time, a multitude of technological and methodical standards have been developed, which allow for a high quality of the storage-samples and of the specimen characterization. While the storage-samples are kept for retrospective analysis, by now, already comprehensive data on the material-developing in the environment are available due to a real time monitoring of selected environmental chemicals over a period of up to twenty years. Thus, spatial and temporal trends can be described. Since the state of knowledge on critical tissue concentrations in the sublethal range is extremely low at present, it is however not possible to accomplish a direct assessment of relevancy of the substance concentrations. Hence, within the scope of the German ESB Program, the following strategies on assessment of relevancy are observed: use of biomarkers, histopathological examinations, biometric specimen characterization, use of ecological indicator groups, and development of a reference system with analytical and biometric data. Thus, for example endocrine effects in male breams in the river Saar, which correlate directly to operational discharges from municipal sewage plants, could be detected. By histopathological examinations, fibrotic and necrotic tissue adaptations on the gonads had been ascertained cumulatively, which unambiguously imply a restricted fertility of the male breams. In the river Rhine, an improved growth along the timeline could be described on the basis of biometric characterization of breams, which is regarded as rate for the reaction to all structural and material changes in the water body. Presently, with the development of a reference system based on the data collected in the scope of the Environmental Specimen Bank, a basis for the assessment of monitoring results with accumulation indicators is

  20. Techniques and management strategies for environmental restoration and their ecological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, J.; Vazquez, C.; Meckbach, R.; Wilkins, B.; Rafferty, B.; Holm, E.; Badie, M.; Burton, O.

    2000-01-01

    The intervention is one of the targeted situations of concern for radiological protection. One of the aspects of the intervention deals with the environmental restoration. In fact, the emergency measures taken immediately or shortly after an accident, in order to avoid unnecessary increases of radiological risks, shoul not be prolonged for long periods because of their elevated cost for society. Hence restoration of the contaminated areas could be needed and therefore researches are required for theevelopmet of obust d optimised restoration strategies. The experimental work carried out after the Chernobyl accident provided large amount of information about the environmental behaviour of radionuclides and their exposure pathways to man. Additionally, some advance on the setting up of intervention methodologies was produced, concluding that the postaccident environmental restoration is possible and desirable. However, for restoration purpose, some limitations remained concerning the capacity to predict the transfer and fluxes of radionuclides (strongly dependent on the local specificity and no directly exchangeable from one place to another) and the correct assessment of the performance of the applicable countermeasures. In the first case, a possible approach to solve the problem would be the identification and further use of some local characteristics (of the scenario of contamination), to predict, using adequate radioecological models, the behaviour of the radionuclides (and their radiological consequences) for places and times different than those experimental sites where information exists. Concerning the second problem, one must identify the features of the scenario having influence on the performance of the countermeasures and to consider those factors (not only radiological) related to their applicability, cost and secondary effects, including the management and disporadiological impact and the countermeasures performance , are unavoidable to face the

  1. Approach and Strategy for Performing Ecological Risk Assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1992-01-01

    This technical memorandum provides guidance for planning and performing ecological risk assessments (ERAs) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.2.3.04.07.02 (Activity Data Sheet 8304) and meets an Environmental Restoration Program milestone for FY 95. The strategy discussed in this report is consistent with the overall strategy for site management and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) compliance developed for the ORR and relevant U.S. Environmental Protection Agency documents and guidance. The general approach and strategy presented herein was developed for the ORR, but it could be applicable to other complex CERCLA sites that possess significant ecological resources.

  2. An Economic and Environmental Assessment Model for Selecting the Optimal Implementation Strategy of Fuel Cell Systems—A Focus on Building Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeho Kim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Considerable effort is being made to reduce the primary energy consumption in buildings. As part of this effort, fuel cell systems are attracting attention as a new/renewable energy systems for several reasons: (i distributed generation system; (ii combined heat and power system; and (iii availability of various sources of hydrogen in the future. Therefore, this study aimed to develop an economic and environmental assessment model for selecting the optimal implementation strategy of the fuel cell system, focusing on building energy policy. This study selected two types of buildings (i.e., residential buildings and non-residential buildings as the target buildings and considered two types of building energy policies (i.e., the standard of energy cost calculation and the standard of a government subsidy. This study established the optimal implementation strategy of the fuel cell system in terms of the life cycle cost and life cycle CO2 emissions. For the residential building, it is recommended that the subsidy level and the system marginal price level be increased. For the non-residential building, it is recommended that gas energy cost be decreased and the system marginal price level be increased. The developed model could be applied to any other country or any other type of building according to building energy policy.

  3. The essential role of guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) IE1 and IE2 homologs in viral replication and IE1-mediated ND10 targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornig, Julia; Choi, K. Yeon; McGregor, Alistair, E-mail: mcgregor@medicine.tamhsc.edu

    2017-04-15

    Guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) immediate early proteins, IE1 and IE2, demonstrated structural and functional homologies with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). GPCMV IE1 and IE2 co-localized in the nucleus with each other, the viral polymerase and guinea pig ND10 components (gpPML, gpDaxx, gpSp100, gpATRX). IE1 showed direct interaction with ND10 components by immunoprecipitation unlike IE2. Additionally, IE1 protein disrupted ND10 bodies. IE1 mutagenesis mapped the nuclear localization signal to the C-terminus and identified the core domain for gpPML interaction. Individual knockout of GPCMV GP122 or GP123 (IE2 and IE1 unique exons respectively) was lethal to the virus. However, an IE1 mutant (codons 234–474 deleted), was viable with attenuated viral growth kinetics and increased susceptibility to type I interferon (IFN-I). In HCMV, the IE proteins are important T cell target antigens. Consequently, characterization of the homologs in GPCMV provides a basis for their evaluation in candidate vaccines against congenital infection.

  4. The essential role of guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) IE1 and IE2 homologs in viral replication and IE1-mediated ND10 targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornig, Julia; Choi, K. Yeon; McGregor, Alistair

    2017-01-01

    Guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) immediate early proteins, IE1 and IE2, demonstrated structural and functional homologies with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). GPCMV IE1 and IE2 co-localized in the nucleus with each other, the viral polymerase and guinea pig ND10 components (gpPML, gpDaxx, gpSp100, gpATRX). IE1 showed direct interaction with ND10 components by immunoprecipitation unlike IE2. Additionally, IE1 protein disrupted ND10 bodies. IE1 mutagenesis mapped the nuclear localization signal to the C-terminus and identified the core domain for gpPML interaction. Individual knockout of GPCMV GP122 or GP123 (IE2 and IE1 unique exons respectively) was lethal to the virus. However, an IE1 mutant (codons 234–474 deleted), was viable with attenuated viral growth kinetics and increased susceptibility to type I interferon (IFN-I). In HCMV, the IE proteins are important T cell target antigens. Consequently, characterization of the homologs in GPCMV provides a basis for their evaluation in candidate vaccines against congenital infection. PMID:28189970

  5. Innovative products and services with environmental benefits: design of search strategies for external knowledge and absorptive capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Mothe, Caroline; NGuyen-Thi, Uyen; Triguero-Cano, Angela

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Although the antecedents of environmental innovation and open innovation strategies have been well studied separately, the relationship between a firm's openness and environmental technological innovation still remains an interesting topic to research, especially in terms of the various modes of openness on the one hand and the product–process distinction on the other. This study relies on data from the French Community Innovation Survey to differentiate the associatio...

  6. The Crop Evaluation Research for Environmental Strategies (CERES) Remote Sensing 2008 Project Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Joseph C.; Glaser, John A.; Copenhaver, Kenneth L.; May, George

    2009-01-01

    resistance development. The two agencies have entered into an agreement which could potentially lead to the development of next generation NASA sensors that will more specifically address the requirements of the USEPA's resistance development strategy and offer opportunities to study the ever changing ecosystem complexities. The USEPA/NASA/ITD team has developed a broad research project entitled CERES (Crop Evaluation Research for Environmental Strategies). CERES is a research effort leading to decision support system tools that are designed to integrate multi-resolution NASA remote sensing data products and USEPA geo -spatial models to monitor the potential for insect pest resistance development from the regional to the landscape and then to the field level.

  7. Simulating the Impact of Economic and Environmental Strategies on Future Urban Growth Scenarios in Ningbo, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastal cities in China are challenged by multiple growth paths and strategies related to demands in the housing market, economic growth and eco-system protection. This paper examines the effects of conflicting strategies between economic growth and environmental protection on future urban scenarios in Ningbo, China, through logistic-regression-based cellular automata (termed LogCA modeling. The LogCA model is calibrated based on the observed urban patterns in 1990 and 2015, and applied to simulate four future scenarios in 2040, including (a the Norm-scenario, a baseline scenario that maintains the 1990–2015 growth rate; (b the GDP-scenario, a GDP-oriented growth scenario emphasizing the development in city centers and along economic corridors; (c the Slow-scenario, a slow-growth scenario considering the potential downward trend of the housing market in China; and (d the Eco-scenario, a slow-growth scenario emphasizing natural conservation and ecosystem protections. The CA parameters of the Norm- and Slow-scenarios are the same as the calibrated parameters, while the parameters of proximities to economic corridors and natural scenery sites were increased by a factor of 3 for the GDP- and Eco-scenarios, respectively. The Norm- and GDP-scenarios predicted 1950 km2 of new growth for the next 25 years, the Slow-scenario predicted 650 km2, and the Eco-scenario predicted less growth than the Slow-scenario. The locations where the newly built-up area will emerge are significantly different under the four scenarios and the Slow- and Eco-scenarios are preferable to achieve long-term sustainability. The scenarios are not only helpful for exploring sustainable urban development options in China, but also serve as a reference for adjusting the urban planning and land policies.

  8. Global quantification of contrasting leaf life span strategies for deciduous and evergreen species in response to environmental conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommen Kloeke, A.E.E.; Douma, J.C.; Ordonez Barragan, J.C.; Reick, P.B.; van Bodegom, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Species with deciduous and evergreen leaf habits typically differ in leaf life span (LLS). Yet quantification of the response of LLS, within each habit, to key environmental conditions is surprisingly lacking. The aim of this study is to quantify LLS strategies of the two leaf habits under

  9. Environmental contingency in life history strategies: the influence of mortality and socioeconomic status on reproductive timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Delton, Andrew W; Robertson, Theresa E; Tybur, Joshua M

    2011-02-01

    Why do some people have children early, whereas others delay reproduction? By considering the trade-offs between using one's resources for reproduction versus other tasks, the evolutionary framework of life history theory predicts that reproductive timing should be influenced by mortality and resource scarcity. A series of experiments examined how mortality cues influenced the desire to have children sooner rather than later. The effects of mortality depended critically on whether people grew up in a relatively resource-scarce or resource-plentiful environment. For individuals growing up relatively poor, mortality cues produced a desire to reproduce sooner--to want children now, even at the cost of furthering one's education or career. Conversely, for individuals growing up relatively wealthy, mortality cues produced a desire to delay reproduction--to further one's education or career before starting a family. Overall, mortality cues appear to shift individuals into different life history strategies as a function of childhood socioeconomic status, suggesting important implications for how environmental factors can influence fertility and family size. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Reviewing the quality of strategic environmental assessment reports for English spatial plan core strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of a research project from early 2008, involving the author of this paper, as well as 18 post-graduate University of Liverpool students, in which the quality of European Directive based strategic environmental assessment (SEA) reports of English spatial plan core strategies (conducted within the context of the spatial planning sustainability appraisal-SA-regime) was reviewed. The project aimed at establishing the extensiveness of emerging spatial plan related SEA practice, as well as highlighting shortcomings and problems. Overall, it was found that whilst some aspects of assessment were done well, others were not of a satisfactory quality. Shortcomings were connected particularly with the practice of listing potentially relevant baseline documents and data without distinguishing sufficiently between those that are important in terms of significant impacts and those that are not. Problems were also found to exist with the evaluation of options and impacts, the consideration of substantive aspects, such as health, as well as regarding the formulation of final recommendations and monitoring.

  11. Can Environmental Education Increase Student-Athletes' Environmental Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullenbach, Lauren E.; Green, Gary T.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental education was incorporated within a mentoring program (i.e. treatment group) for student-athletes at the University of Georgia. These student-athletes' environmental attitudes, behavioral intent, knowledge, self-efficacy, self-regulatory learning, motivation, and learning strategies were assessed before and after their environmental…

  12. Ranking current and prospective NO2 pollution mitigation strategies: An environmental and economic modelling investigation in Oxford Street, London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanjean, A P R; Gallagher, J; Monks, P S; Leigh, R J

    2017-06-01

    Air pollution continues to be a problem in the urban environment. A range of different pollutant mitigation strategies that promote dispersion and deposition exist, but there is little evidence with respect to their comparative performance from both an environmental and economic perspective. This paper focuses on examining different NO 2 mitigation strategies such as trees, buildings facades coated with photocatalytic paint and solid barriers in Oxford Street in London. The case study findings will support ranking the environmental and economic impacts of these different strategies to improve personal exposure conditions on the footpath and on the road in a real urban street canyon. CFD simulations of airflow and NO 2 dispersion in Oxford Street in London were undertaken using the OpenFOAM software platform with the k-ε model, taking into account local prevailing wind conditions. Trees are shown to be the most cost-effective strategy, with a small reduction in NO 2 concentrations of up to 0.7% on the road. However, solid barriers with and without the application of photocatalytic paint and an innovative material (20 times more expensive than trees) can improve air quality on the footpaths more substantially, up to 7.4%, yet this has a significant detrimental impact on NO 2 concentrations (≤23.8%) on the road. Photocatalytic paint on building surfaces presented a minimal environmental reductions (1.2%) and economic (>100 times more expensive than trees) mitigation strategy. The findings recognised the differences between footpath and road concentrations occurred and that a focused examination of three pollution hotspots can provide more cost effective pollution mitigation. This study considers how a number of pollutant mitigation measures can be applied in a single street canyon and demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of these strategies from economic and environmental perspectives. Further research is required to extrapolate the findings presented here to

  13. Environmental, Disaster and Crisis Management Strategies: Interdisciplinarity and Synergy in Postgraduate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekkas, Efthymis; Andreadakis, Emmanouil; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Antoniou, Varvara; Kapourani, Eleni; Papaspyropoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-04-01

    Environmental issues, disasters and crises have been showing an increasing complexity and interconnections in every level and aspect, thus requiring a holistic approach from simple problem solving to emergency management. Recent challenges include geographical and affected population escalation, complex or cascading disasters and interconnection of regional conflicts to transboundary social, political and environmental impact. One of the issues concerning the traditional management is competition or even antagonism between organizations, services and disciplines, from science to operations. In this context, a postgraduate program answering to these issues was designed in Greece, applying multidisciplinarity, crossdisciplinarity and interdisiplinarity, from teaching staff and tutors, to students, objects and fields of knowledge and research. The program offers a curriculum of lessons and disciplines integrating science, humanities, legislation, institutions and operations. Geosciences carry an inherent interdisciplinarity culture and a long tradition in the research of environment and disasters, along with their familiarity with the complexity of such issues. That is why the program "Environmental, Disaster and Crisis Management Strategies" was organized by the Department of Geology and Geoenvironment of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, but involves social scientists, emergency operators, medical scientists etc. The program aims at the diffusion of basic principles and tools of all related disciplines and develops a common ground and a communication language with the least barriers, and the building of trust and understanding between all parties involved. The curriculum is designed so that professionals of all disciplines and industries are able to attend without interrupting their other activities, while pursuing their personal scientific and professional educational goals and interests through selection of lessons and thesis subject. As a result

  14. U.S. Geological Survey environmental health science strategy: Providing environmental health science for a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2013-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, quality of life, and economic prosperity lead to environmental change. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will compound the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, synthetic chemicals and substances, natural earth materials, toxins, and other biogenic compounds.

  15. Identification of farmer characteristics and farm strategies explaining changes in environmental management and environmental and economic performance of dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    In 1998, the Mineral Accounting System (MINAS) was introduced in The Netherlands. MINAS penalises farms with a levy if the farm nutrient surpluses exceed a certain threshold. The threshold is strict, meaning that most farmers need to change their environmental management and performance to avoid

  16. Environmental impact assessment of different end-of-life LCD management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Alessia; Rocchetti, Laura; Beolchini, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    The strong growth of the electrical and electronic equipment production combined with its short lifespan are causing the production of a significant amount of waste to treat. In particular, the present paper focuses on end-of-life liquid crystal displays (LCDs) for their significant content of valuable materials, like plastic, glass and metals that could be recovered after dismantling. In the recent literature, traditional LCD recycling processes are combined with innovative treatments, which allow to recover critical raw materials, such as indium. In this context, we have evaluated the environmental impact of four different strategies of end-of-life LCD management: the disposal in landfilling sites, the incineration, the traditional recycling treatment and an innovative process also addressed to the recovery of indium. The traditional recycling treatment resulted to be the best scenario for the environment. Indeed, a life cycle assessment study gave following environmental burdens (if negative they are credits): 18, 81, -68, -60kg CO 2 -equiv. and 0.08, 0.01, -0.25, -0.18mol H + -equiv., for the four scenarios in the categories of global warming and acidification, respectively. The limit of the variability of LCD composition was overcome including additional literature data in the study. In order to improve the innovative process sustainability, a system of water recirculation was optimized with a consequent impact decrease of 35% in the global warming category. Nevertheless, this action should be combined with an increase of indium concentration in the panel because the low metal content represents the bottleneck of the overall approach. In this regard, a sensitivity analysis showed that an increase of at least five times in indium concentration in the waste is needed to observe an advantage of the innovative vs the traditional recycling process, when the impact category of climate change is considered. As a whole, the life cycle assessment was confirmed as a key

  17. Environmental remediation through sequestration of airfall-derived metals contamination by selective revegetation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahagian, D.; Peters, S.; Yasko, G.

    2006-12-01

    Industrial activities in the 20th century left a legacy of contaminated air, water, and soils. The relative environmental enlightenment of the 21st century has already led to reductions in pollution sources, and has improved air and surface water quality in many areas. However, the residence time of contaminants in soils can be lengthy, presenting a challenge to 21st century restoration of impacted ecosystems and communities. The present study is centered on the Borough of Palmerton, PA, and a broad region of adjacent communities that were affected by two zinc smelters that operated continuously for more than 80 years, emitting thousands of tons of heavy metals including zinc, cadmium, lead and arsenic. While the air quality has vastly improved since the closure of the zinc smelters, the community remains adversely affected by the ecological damage caused by the pollution. The north face of the Kittatiny ridge was completely denuded of vegetation from the high metals concentrations. The region suffers further due to the ongoing perception of contaminated soils and water, leaving the town and surrounding areas economically depressed. In this study, we are examining the impact of revegetation strategies, particularly those using warm season grasses to determine which species survive and indeed thrive in the metals-contaminated soils. Because of the large areal extent and locally steep slopes in the broad area of concern, removal of metals from the entire region is impractical. It is considered more effective to sequester the metals in the soil so that they do not leach into the rivers, or enter the food web. Vegetation that absorbs and transports the metals throughout its tissues would mobilize these pollutants into the food web as well as make the metals available to reach the river via leaves and other vegetative structures. In this study, we are monitoring the uptake of metals by test grasses and other plants that are colonizing the contaminated area, as well as

  18. The premises is the premise: understanding off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets to improve environmental alcohol prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinman, Matthew; Burkhart, Q; Ebener, Patricia; Fan, Cha-Chi; Imm, Pamela; Osilla, Karen Chan; Paddock, Susan M; Wright, Annie

    2011-06-01

    Environmental strategies to prevent the misuse of alcohol among youth--e.g., use of public policies to restrict minors' access to alcohol--have been shown to reduce underage drinking. However, implementation of policy changes often requires public and private partnerships. One way to support these partnerships is to better understand the target of many of the environmental strategies, which is the alcohol sales outlet. Knowing more about how off-premises outlets (e.g., liquor and convenience stores) and on-premises outlets (e.g., bars and restaurants) are alike and different could help community-based organizations better tailor, plan, and implement their environmental strategies and strengthen partnerships between the public and commercial sectors. We conducted a survey of managerial or supervisory staff and/or owners of 336 off- and on-premises alcohol outlets in six counties in South Carolina, comparing these two outlet types on their preferences regarding certain alcohol sales practices, beliefs toward underage drinking, alcohol sales practices, and outcomes. Multilevel logistic regression showed that while off- and on-premises outlets did have many similarities, off-premises outlets appear to engage in more practices designed to prevent sales of alcohol to minors than on-premises outlets. The relationship between certain Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) practices and outcomes varied by outlet type. This study furthers the understanding of the differences between off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets and offers options for increasing and tailoring environmental prevention efforts to specific settings.

  19. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorokhova, Elena; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  20. Crop and irrigation management strategies for saline-sodic soils and waters aimed at environmentally sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, M; Oster, J D

    2004-05-05

    Irrigation has long played a key role in feeding the expanding world population and is expected to play a still greater role in the future. As supplies of good-quality irrigation water are expected to decrease in several regions due to increased municipal-industrial-agricultural competition, available freshwater supplies need to be used more efficiently. In addition, reliance on the use and reuse of saline and/or sodic drainage waters, generated by irrigated agriculture, seems inevitable for irrigation. The same applies to salt-affected soils, which occupy more than 20% of the irrigated lands, and warrant attention for efficient, inexpensive and environmentally acceptable management. Technologically and from a management perspective, a couple of strategies have shown the potential to improve crop production under irrigated agriculture while minimizing the adverse environmental impacts. The first strategy, vegetative bioremediation--a plant-assisted reclamation approach--relies on growing appropriate plant species that can tolerate ambient soil salinity and sodicity levels during reclamation of salt-affected soils. A variety of plant species of agricultural significance have been found to be effective in sustainable reclamation of calcareous and moderately sodic and saline-sodic soils. The second strategy fosters dedicating soils to crop production systems where saline and/or sodic waters predominate and their disposal options are limited. Production systems based on salt-tolerant plant species using drainage waters may be sustainable with the potential of transforming such waters from an environmental burden into an economic asset. Such a strategy would encourage the disposal of drainage waters within the irrigated regions where they are generated rather than exporting these waters to other regions via discharge into main irrigation canals, local streams, or rivers. Being economically and environmentally sustainable, these strategies could be the key to future

  1. Environmental problems associated with floods due to abundant rains in the Veguita People's Council: Proposal for a mitigation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alianna Corona-Rodríguez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to elaborate a strategy of prevention-mitigation-preparation in the floods caused by the overflow of the River Buey due to the occurrence of intensive rains in the municipality Yara (Granma province. The methodologies used were based on the historical-trend analysis of the main elements of the study area, systematic and participatory scientific observation, statistical analysis, and the evaluation of risk, vulnerability and hazard studies. These elements served as a basis for designing a strategy based on forestry, land use and environmental education guidelines, mainly aimed at the conservation of non-structural means affected by floods.

  2. Life cycle thinking and assessment tools on environmentally-benign electronics: Convergent optimization of materials use, end-of-life strategy and environmental policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoying

    The purpose of this study is to integrate the quantitative environmental performance assessment tools and the theory of multi-objective optimization within the boundary of electronic product systems to support the selection among design alternatives in terms of environmental impact, technical criteria, and economic feasibility. To meet with the requirements that result from emerging environmental legislation targeting electronics products, the research addresses an important analytical methodological approach to facilitate environmentally conscious design and end-of-life management with a life cycle viewpoint. A synthesis of diverse assessment tools is applied on a set of case studies: lead-free solder materials selection, cellular phone design, and desktop display technology assessment. In the first part of this work, an in-depth industrial survey of the status and concerns of the U.S. electronics industry on the elimination of lead (Pb) in solders is described. The results show that the trade-offs among environmental consequences, technology challenges, business risks, legislative compliance and stakeholders' preferences must be explicitly, simultaneously, and systematically addressed in the decision-making process used to guide multi-faceted planning of environmental solutions. In the second part of this work, the convergent optimization of the technical cycle, economic cycle and environmental cycle is addressed in a coherent and systematic way using the application of environmentally conscious design of cellular phones. The technical understanding of product structure, components analysis, and materials flow facilitates the development of "Design for Disassembly" guidelines. A bottom-up disassembly analysis on a "bill of materials" based structure at a micro-operational level is utilized to select optimal end-of-life strategies on the basis of economic feasibility. A macro-operational level life cycle model is used to investigate the environmental consequences

  3. Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.J.; Michaelis, L.A.

    1992-03-01

    This report considers global pollution issues, i.e. emissions which are of significance to global warming and stratospheric ozone depletion, and the following technology clusters: alternative fuels, engine technology and vehicle design

  4. A conservation strategy in San Andres Island: school projects and values in environmental education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero M, German; Mahecha G, Ana Maria

    2006-01-01

    With the scope of showing and preserving an island endangered species, the Swanka turtle, a campaign and an environmental education program were conducted. The campaign consisted in showing the species to the community, its characteristics and its threats, through mass media and visits to different local schools. The environmental education program was carried out through a Scholar Environmental Project, which consisted on the conformation of an environmental group, where cognitive, attitudinal and participative aspects were worked together. Using a constrictive methodology the children developed some knowledge about the species and Its habitats. The scope was that they modified attitudes and behaviors towards situations that contribute to environmental damage; the reinforcement of values was the central point during all the activities. The knowledge gained by the pupils and the observed changes on their attitudes and participation show the positive results that arise when the action of environmental education focuses on the people and not the resources that are to be preserved

  5. Guidelines for Remediation Strategies to Reduce the Radiological Consequences of Environmental Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S; Howard, B J [eds.

    2012-11-15

    There are many areas around the world contaminated with radioactive substances which may require remediation. The source of contamination with radionuclides varies; the most important sources include nuclear testing, radiation accidents and inadequate waste disposal practices. Contamination at such sites may present a risk to humans and the environment. Therefore, issues related to remediation of such sites are potentially of concern for both the general public and a wide variety of stakeholders. In response to the needs of its Member States, the IAEA has published many books covering different aspects of remediation of contaminated environments. These books range from safety fundamentals and safety requirements to technical publications describing remedial technologies. Almost all of the publications on environmental remediation are related to uranium mining areas and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. IAEA radiation safety standards on remediation of contaminated environments are largely based on these two types of remediation. The exception is a publication that was a joint undertaking by the IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) related to accidents entitled Guidelines for Agricultural Countermeasures Following an Accidental Release of Radionuclides, Technical Reports Series No. 363 (1994) (TRS 363). This publication has constituted a major source of information over many years for staff of authorities providing environmental remediation planning after accidents. TRS 363 focused mainly on agricultural management options following an accidental release of radionuclides; remedial actions for other environments and other practices were not considered. Since the publication of TRS 363, there has been a considerable increase in relevant information. Given the importance of Chernobyl and other accidents, there have been a considerable number of IAEA activities devoted to the remediation of radiation accidents since 1994. Many

  6. Guidelines for Remediation Strategies to Reduce the Radiological Consequences of Environmental Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Howard, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    There are many areas around the world contaminated with radioactive substances which may require remediation. The source of contamination with radionuclides varies; the most important sources include nuclear testing, radiation accidents and inadequate waste disposal practices. Contamination at such sites may present a risk to humans and the environment. Therefore, issues related to remediation of such sites are potentially of concern for both the general public and a wide variety of stakeholders. In response to the needs of its Member States, the IAEA has published many books covering different aspects of remediation of contaminated environments. These books range from safety fundamentals and safety requirements to technical publications describing remedial technologies. Almost all of the publications on environmental remediation are related to uranium mining areas and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. IAEA radiation safety standards on remediation of contaminated environments are largely based on these two types of remediation. The exception is a publication that was a joint undertaking by the IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) related to accidents entitled Guidelines for Agricultural Countermeasures Following an Accidental Release of Radionuclides, Technical Reports Series No. 363 (1994) (TRS 363). This publication has constituted a major source of information over many years for staff of authorities providing environmental remediation planning after accidents. TRS 363 focused mainly on agricultural management options following an accidental release of radionuclides; remedial actions for other environments and other practices were not considered. Since the publication of TRS 363, there has been a considerable increase in relevant information. Given the importance of Chernobyl and other accidents, there have been a considerable number of IAEA activities devoted to the remediation of radiation accidents since 1994. Many

  7. An assessment for technical, economic, and environmental challenges facing renewable energy strategy in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Aziz Mohi El Din, Ehab Mohamed Farouk

    2011-01-01

    Securing energy demand for next generations is one of the most challenges aspects facing any sustained development plans, due to the growing electric energy demand and Egypt as a country of limited fossil fuel resources has to diversify its energy portfolio by utilization of its renewable energy resources, mainly wind due to its economic potential and solar as proved by Egypt's wind and solar atlases. In the year 2009/2010, the total installed capacity in Egypt was 24726 MW with electricity generation 139,000 GWh, of which 89 % was delivered by thermal plants and about 10% from Hydro power with total installed 2800 MW and electricity generated is about 12863 GWh and 1% from Wind energy with total installed 550 MW and electricity generated 1542 GWh. In the solar energy field, the first solar thermal power plant of 140 MW with a solar share of 20 MW using parabolic trough technology was started the initial work since the 1 st of July with estimated total energy generated of 852GWh/year. Recently, Egypt has adopted an ambitious plan to cover 20% of the generated electricity by renewable energy by 2020, including a 12% contribution from wind energy, translating more than 7200 MW grid-connected wind farms. Such plan gives a room enough to the private investment to play the major role in realizing this goal. The plan includes also a 100 MW Solar thermal energy CSP with parabolic trough technology in Kom Ombo city, and also two PV plants in Hurgada and Kom Ombo with a total installed capacity 20 MW each. Due to the high investment cost of solar energy technologies, still limited in spread all over the world on the other hand wind energy has an economic potential and becomes a commercial technology but the future potential for solar energy due to the limited land for wind energy. Current study will evaluate the Egyptian strategy for renewable energy up to 2020 and find how much the planned projects from the Egyptian government will fulfill its target, the economic study

  8. Manufacturing strategies of Turkish firms: an empirical study on business environmental factors and competitive priorities

    OpenAIRE

    Ataseven, Çiğdem

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. There have been several studies that aim at exploring the relationships between business environment and strategy choices of firms in the literature. Cross country comparisons are provided when available to understand the differences between the manufacturing practices of the firms operating in different countries. This study analyzes the relationships between business environment, business strategy and manufacturing strategy by using t...

  9. Animal movement in the absence of predation: environmental drivers of movement strategies in a partial migration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Gibbs, James P.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Frair, Jacqueline L.; Cabrera, Fredy; Rousseau, Louis-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Animal movement strategies including migration, dispersal, nomadism, and residency are shaped by broad-scale spatial-temporal structuring of the environment, including factors such as the degrees of spatial variation, seasonality and inter-annual predictability. Animal movement strategies, in turn, interact with the characteristics of individuals and the local distribution of resources to determine local patterns of resource selection with complex and poorly understood implications for animal fitness. Here we present a multi-scale investigation of animal movement strategies and resource selection. We consider the degree to which spatial variation, seasonality, and inter-annual predictability in resources drive migration patterns among different taxa and how movement strategies in turn shape local resource selection patterns. We focus on adult Galapagos giant tortoises Chelonoidis spp. as a model system since they display many movement strategies and evolved in the absence of predators of adults. Specifically, our analysis is based on 63 individuals among four taxa tracked on three islands over six years and almost 106 tortoise re-locations. Tortoises displayed a continuum of movement strategies from migration to sedentarism that were linked to the spatio-temporal scale and predictability of resource distributions. Movement strategies shaped patterns of resource selection. Specifically, migratory individuals displayed stronger selection toward areas where resources were more predictable among years than did non-migratory individuals, which indicates a selective advantage for migrants in seasonally structured, more predictable environments. Our analytical framework combines large-scale predictions for movement strategies, based on environmental structuring, with finer-scale analysis of space-use. Integrating different organizational levels of analysis provides a deeper understanding of the eco-evolutionary dynamics at play in the emergence and maintenance of

  10. Corporate environmental competence: the effects of networking, organisational learning and preventive strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forman, Marianne; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    The paper develops the concept of "corporate environmental competence", and illustrates the concept with the help of a case study on the development of environmental activities in a Danish slaughterhouse enterprise. The goal is to achieve a deeper insight into which mechanisms and relationships i...

  11. Environmental impacts of flood control measures in climate change adaptation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    it on the surface without harming assets. When evaluating different adaptation approaches, a cost assessment is typically carried out, while environmental impacts usually are not considered. To close this gap, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) based method is developed, which allows to quantify environmental impacts...... only contribute up to 4% of the environmental impacts for the CMP and less than 1% for the SSA. Our method helps explain how the handling of everyday events and extreme rain events affect the environmental sustainability of climate change adaptation and it enables cities to consider the environmental......Because of climatic changes, large investments are needed to keep flood risk at an acceptable level in urban areas. Increasing dimensions of underground sewer systems and retention basins are increasingly supplemented with multi-functional approaches, aimed at managing water locally and/or route...

  12. Current policies, strategies and aspects of environmental impact assessment in a transboundary context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has already shown its value for implementing and strengthening sustainable development, as it combines the precautionary principles with the principle of preventing environmental damage and also arranges for public participation. EIA is already used as an effective instrument for improving the quality of the environment at the national level and it is understood that the EIA Convention will lead to environmentally sound and sustainable development by providing information on the interrelationship between economic activities and their environmental consequences in particular in a transboundary context. The Convention obliges Parties to assess the environmental impacts at an early stage of planning and includes measures and procedures to prevent, control or reduce any significant adverse effect on the environment, particularly any transboundary effect, which is likely to be caused by a proposed activity or any major change to an existing activity

  13. Protected areas and territorial exclusion of traditional communities: analyzing the social impacts of environmental compensation strategies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felisa C. Anaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The creation of the protected areas (PAs of restricted use dominates conservation policies throughout the world and reflects the western idea of separation between pristine nature and human-modified habitats. However, this conservation strategy has caused the proliferation of environmental conflicts involving territorial rights of traditional peoples and local communities throughout the world. Our study aims to analyze the impacts of the creation of a system of PAs of restricted use on the livelihoods and well-being of traditional communities in the north of Minas Gerais State, in Brazil. We analyzed the conflicts emerging in the study region from the perspective of the environmental justice paradigm. We used the extended-case method, conducting fieldwork to observe and register the movements of social resistance of traditional communities, and interviews with key stakeholders. Between 1970-1990, the Jaíba irrigation project was implemented in the north of Minas Gerais and, to compensate for the huge environmental impact of the project, several PAs of restricted use were created, disregarding the traditional peoples that inhabited the region. As a consequence, these populations were expelled from their territories without compensation or resettlement, causing severe restrictions to their traditional livelihoods and well-being, including access to natural resources such as water, fisheries and timber, and nontimber products, jeopardizing their food security, cultural identity, and social integrity. They initiated the "Movement of the People Cornered by Parks," lately evolving to "Vazanteiros in Movement," incorporating elements of the environmental arena to politically dispute alternative conservation projects. Sustainable development policies that incorporate the "economy of repair," expressed as environmental compensation strategies, are intrinsically contradictory and inappropriate from the perspective of environmental justice. Inclusive

  14. Environmental and economic impacts of feeding strategies in Costa Rican dairy farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Iñamagua-Uyaguari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze feeding practices in Costa Rica’s dairy farms and their influence on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG. Methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, and income over feed cost (IOFC were evaluated. This study was carried out at 104 dairy farms, which were distributed within a range of altitude from 1000 to 2400 meters above sea level. Using cluster analysis based on type of feed, grazing period, areas of forage and pastures; four feeding strategies were identified, which included different proportions of feed categories in daily rations. Emissions expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent per kilo of fat and protein corrected milk (CO2eq/FPCM were higher for forage feeding strategies and lower for farms found in higher altitudes. Concentrate feed accounted for the higher cost in all feeding strategies, and represented more than 50% in the intensive concentrate based production system, whereas the costs of fertilizers were higher in pasture based feeding strategies. Income from milk sales was higher for the concentrate based feeding strategy. However, IOFC was the same for all feeding strategies in spite of the large differences in daily milk production. Feeding strategies influenced GHG emissions and feeding costs. Feeding strategies associated with lower GHG emissions within the farm were more dependent from external inputs.

  15. Determining proper strategies for health, safety, security and environmental (HSSE) management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaeimdar, Mojgan; Nasiri, Parvin; Taghdisi, Mohammadhoseyn; Abbaspour, Majid; Arjmandi, Reza; Kalatipor, Omid

    2013-01-01

    Today, managing an organization is concerned with many problems. Adopting proper strategies can promote an organization's survival. This study aimed at developing an appropriate HSSE Strategy for regional operation associated companies of Iran National Gas Company (INGS) using SWOT analysis. The analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of HSSE was carried out and according to the results suitable strategies were recommended. In this regard, senior and junior managers, supervisors, and experts active in regional operation associated companies of Iran National Gas Company participated in SWOT analysis from HSSE angle. Then, they selected the most applicable SWOT factors pertaining to the organization. In the next step, these factors were weighted and scored. Based on the results four categories of strategies were developed including SO, WO, ST, and WT. Further examination showed that SO Strategies were the most applicable for the organization.

  16. The Role of Alternative Testing Strategies in Environmental Risk Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Rune; Holden, Patricia; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2017-01-01

    ) workshop in Washington, D.C. and serves as the point of depature for this paper. Here we present the main outcomes by describing and defining the use of ATS for ENMs as well as discussing its future role in environmental risk science. We conclude that diversity in testing should be encouraged to avoid...... chemicals are challenged. Nonetheless, standardized whole organism animal testing is still considered the gold standard for environmental risk assessment. Advancing risk analysis of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) through ATS was discussed in September 2014 at an international Society for Risk Analysis (SRA...... be utilized to skip uncertain environmental extrapolations and give rise to more accurate risk analysis....

  17. Policy integration in the shaping of organic food as strategy in the Danish food sector: what happened to the environmental concern as driving force?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    The paper discusses the mechanisms in the shaping of organic food as strategy in the Danish food sector based on an analysis of the development since the 1980’ies as a contribution to the discussion of strategies for sustainable transition. The background of the paper is the major achievements...

  18. Preliminary Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: Safeguarding Ecological Security for a New Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-Ju; Yang, Zhifeng

    2012-02-01

    The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level.

  19. Strategies for communicating quality expectations for environmental service contracts : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This study explores the communication of quality expectations between the Office of Environment Services (OES) and environmental consulting firms contributing to the Plan Development Process of the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT). The ove...

  20. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS as a methodical approach to the development of design strategies for environmentally sustainable buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring

    . The research methodology applied in the project combines a literature study of descriptions of methodical approaches and built examples with a sensitivity analysis and a qualitative interview with two designers from a best practice example of a practice that has achieved environmentally sustainable...... architecture, such as: ecological, green, bio-climatic, sustainable, passive, low-energy and environmental architecture. This PhD project sets out to gain a better understanding of environmentally sustainable architecture and the methodical approaches applied in the development of this type of architecture...... an increase in scientific and political awareness, which has lead to an escalation in the number of research publications in the field, as well as, legislative demands for the energy consumption of buildings. The publications in the field refer to many different approaches to environmentally sustainable...

  1. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: Classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Vicki, E-mail: v.stone@napier.ac.uk [School of Life Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT (United Kingdom); Nowack, Bernd [Materials, Products and the Environment Group, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Lerchenfeldstrasse 5 CH - 9014 St. Gallen (Switzerland); Baun, Anders [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, NanoDTU, Building 113, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Brink, Nico van den [Alterra, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Kammer, Frank von der [Department of Environmental Geosciences, Vienna University, Althanstrasse 14, Wien 1090 (Austria); Dusinska, Maria [Health Effects Laboratory, Centre for Ecological Economics, Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Instituttveien, 18, 2027 Kjeller (Norway); Handy, Richard [University of Plymouth, Davy Building, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Hankin, Steven [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Research Avenue North, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AP (United Kingdom); Hasselloev, Martin [Department of Chemistry, Environmental Nanoparticle Research Group, Goeteborg University, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Joner, Erik [Bioforsk Soil and Environment, Fredrik A Dahls vei 20, N-1432 Aas (Norway); Fernandes, Teresa F. [School of Life Sciences, Edinburgh Napier University, 10 Colinton Road, Edinburgh EH10 5DT (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key questions: 1.What properties should be characterised for nanomaterials used in environmental and ecotoxicology studies? 2.What reference materials should be developed for use in environmental and ecotoxicological studies? 3.Is it possible to group different nanomaterials into categories for consideration in environmental studies? Such questions have been, at least partially, addressed by other projects/workshops especially in relation to human health effects. Such projects provide a useful basis on which this workshop was based, but in this particular case these questions were reformulated in order to focus specifically on environmental studies. The workshop participants, through a series of discussion and reflection sessions, generated the conclusions listed below. The physicochemical characterisation information identified as important for environmental studies included measures of aggregation/agglomeration/dispersability, size, dissolution (solubility), surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry/composition, with the assumption that chemical composition would already be known. There is a need to have test materials for ecotoxicology, and several substances are potentially useful, including TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, polystyrene beads labelled with fluorescent dyes, and silver nanoparticles. Some of these test materials could then be developed into certified reference materials over time. No clear consensus was reached regarding the classification of nanomaterials into categories to aid environmental studies, except that a chemistry-based classification system was a reasonable starting point, with some modifications. It was suggested, that additional work may be

  2. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: Classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Vicki; Nowack, Bernd; Baun, Anders; Brink, Nico van den; Kammer, Frank von der; Dusinska, Maria; Handy, Richard; Hankin, Steven; Hasselloev, Martin; Joner, Erik; Fernandes, Teresa F.

    2010-01-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key questions: 1.What properties should be characterised for nanomaterials used in environmental and ecotoxicology studies? 2.What reference materials should be developed for use in environmental and ecotoxicological studies? 3.Is it possible to group different nanomaterials into categories for consideration in environmental studies? Such questions have been, at least partially, addressed by other projects/workshops especially in relation to human health effects. Such projects provide a useful basis on which this workshop was based, but in this particular case these questions were reformulated in order to focus specifically on environmental studies. The workshop participants, through a series of discussion and reflection sessions, generated the conclusions listed below. The physicochemical characterisation information identified as important for environmental studies included measures of aggregation/agglomeration/dispersability, size, dissolution (solubility), surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry/composition, with the assumption that chemical composition would already be known. There is a need to have test materials for ecotoxicology, and several substances are potentially useful, including TiO 2 nanoparticles, polystyrene beads labelled with fluorescent dyes, and silver nanoparticles. Some of these test materials could then be developed into certified reference materials over time. No clear consensus was reached regarding the classification of nanomaterials into categories to aid environmental studies, except that a chemistry-based classification system was a reasonable starting point, with some modifications. It was suggested, that additional work may be required

  3. Riflessioni sull’evoluzione del prostorečie russo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Benigni

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Some Remarks On the Development of Russian Prostorečie The paper provides a brief outline of Russian prostorečie (urban popular language, which is the supraregional language variety spoken by uneducated or half educated urban population, that doesn’t know the norms of standard language. Phonetic, morphosyntactic and lexical peculiarities of this language variety are illustrated by means of a real sample of Russian prostorečie: a letter written by an 80-year-old woman. The article also focuses attention on the development of a new prostorečie, which, with respect to old prostorečie, is characterized exclusively on lexical plane, and is the source by which slang and professional elements penetrate into the standard language.

  4. Impact of Optimization Strategy and Adoption Rate on V2X Technology on Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-12-31

    This research evaluated the effects of automated vehicle control strategies on system level emissions, travel time and wait time through a series of traffic lights. The study was conducted using traffic simulation and a realistic vehicle mix. Two con...

  5. Technology Strategy for 'Environmental Technology for the Future'; Technology Target Areas; TTA1 - environmental technology for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The OG21 Technology Target Area 1 (TTA 1) group has produced a strategy for 'Environmental Technology for the Future'. A key aim of this work is to ensure that the operators on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) remain in a leading position with respect to environmental performance, while contributing to optimised resource recovery and value creation. This strategy focuses on environmental technology, which includes hardware, methods, software and knowledge. The TTA 1 group has agreed on a common vision: 'Norwegian oil and gas activities shall be leading in environmental performance, and Norway shall have the world leading knowledge and technology cluster within environmental technologies to support the zero harmful impact goals of the oil and gas industry.' Priorities have been made with emphasis on gaps that are considered most important to close and that will benefit from public research and development funding either for initialisation (primarily via the Petromaks and Climit programs) or acceleration (via Petromaks / Climit and particularly Demo 2000 where demonstration or piloting is required). The priorities aim to avoid technology gaps that are expected to be closed adequately through existing projects / programs or which are covered in other TTA strategies. The priority areas as identified are: Environmental impact and risk identification / quantification for new areas: Make quality assured environmental baseline data available on the web. Develop competence necessary to quantify and monitor the risks and risk reductions to the marine environment in new area ecosystems; Carbon capture and storage: Quantify environmental risks and waste management issues associated with bi-products from carbon capture processes and storage solutions. Develop and demonstrate effective carbon storage risk management, monitoring and mitigation technologies. Develop more cost and energy efficient power-from-shore solutions to reduce / eliminate CO{sub 2

  6. Meeting the requirements for a DOE environmental restoration project. The Fernald strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanoss, R.L.; Risenhoover, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Restoration (ER) of five Operable Units (OU) at Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) includes compliance with the requirements of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and DOE Orders. Each regulatory driver has differing procedural requirements for documenting calculations, decisions, and actions involved in site cleanup. Integration of documentation and avoidance of duplication can save time and money. Such savings are being achieved by OU specific application of supporting studies, revised procedures, and guidance documents. Each OU is seeking appropriate opportunities to produce single documents that simultaneously fulfill the important requirements of the other regulations and DOE orders. These opportunities are evaluated at all phases of decision making, remedial design, and remedial action. Three essential processes precede environmental restoration/remedial action at a DOE site/project: 1. Completion of decision-making documents required by governing or applicable statutes. 2. Completion of important scientific and engineering analyses of remedial alternatives, and design and implementation of the remedial solution established in the CERCLA Record of Decision (ROD). 3. Preparation of DOE-mandated documentation to record engineering evaluations and cost estimates required for budgeting, decision making, and project management. Methodology and requirements for each process have developed from long, successful practice, but independently of each other. FERMCO, as new DOE contractor at Fernald and first Environmental Restoration Management Contractor (ERMC), is committed to a process of Continuous Performance Improvement (CPI). A major reevaluation of documentation and processes for support of environmental decision-making and design of cleanup activities to remediate the five OUs at the FEMP is being undertaken

  7. Human Life History Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kristine J; Lukaszewski, Aaron W; Grant, DeMond M; Sng, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Human life history (LH) strategies are theoretically regulated by developmental exposure to environmental cues that ancestrally predicted LH-relevant world states (e.g., risk of morbidity-mortality). Recent modeling work has raised the question of whether the association of childhood family factors with adult LH variation arises via (i) direct sampling of external environmental cues during development and/or (ii) calibration of LH strategies to internal somatic condition (i.e., health), which itself reflects exposure to variably favorable environments. The present research tested between these possibilities through three online surveys involving a total of over 26,000 participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing components of self-reported environmental harshness (i.e., socioeconomic status, family neglect, and neighborhood crime), health status, and various LH-related psychological and behavioral phenotypes (e.g., mating strategies, paranoia, and anxiety), modeled as a unidimensional latent variable. Structural equation models suggested that exposure to harsh ecologies had direct effects on latent LH strategy as well as indirect effects on latent LH strategy mediated via health status. These findings suggest that human LH strategies may be calibrated to both external and internal cues and that such calibrational effects manifest in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenotypes.

  8. Human Life History Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine J. Chua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human life history (LH strategies are theoretically regulated by developmental exposure to environmental cues that ancestrally predicted LH-relevant world states (e.g., risk of morbidity–mortality. Recent modeling work has raised the question of whether the association of childhood family factors with adult LH variation arises via (i direct sampling of external environmental cues during development and/or (ii calibration of LH strategies to internal somatic condition (i.e., health, which itself reflects exposure to variably favorable environments. The present research tested between these possibilities through three online surveys involving a total of over 26,000 participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing components of self-reported environmental harshness (i.e., socioeconomic status, family neglect, and neighborhood crime, health status, and various LH-related psychological and behavioral phenotypes (e.g., mating strategies, paranoia, and anxiety, modeled as a unidimensional latent variable. Structural equation models suggested that exposure to harsh ecologies had direct effects on latent LH strategy as well as indirect effects on latent LH strategy mediated via health status. These findings suggest that human LH strategies may be calibrated to both external and internal cues and that such calibrational effects manifest in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenotypes.

  9. Role of management strategies and environmental factors in determining the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds from urban greenspaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuan; Ge, Ying; Gu, Baojing; Min, Yong; Tani, Akira; Chang, Jie

    2014-06-03

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from urban greenspace have recently become a global concern. To identify key factors affecting the dynamics of urban BVOC emissions, we built an estimation model and utilized the city of Hangzhou in southeastern China as an example. A series of single-factor scenarios were first developed, and then nine multifactor scenarios using a combination of different single-factor scenarios were built to quantify the effects of environmental changes and urban management strategies on urban BVOC emissions. Results of our model simulations showed that (1) annual total BVOC emissions from the metropolitan area of Hangzhou were 4.7×10(8) g of C in 2010 and were predicted to be 1.2-3.2 Gg of C (1 Gg=10(9) g) in our various scenarios in 2050, (2) urban management played a more important role in determining future urban BVOC emissions than environmental changes, and (3) a high ecosystem service value (e.g., lowest BVOC/leaf mass ratio) could be achieved through positive coping in confronting environmental changes and adopting proactive urban management strategies on a local scale, that is, to moderately increase tree density while restricting excessive greenspace expansion and optimizing the species composition of existing and newly planted trees.

  10. A multi-site approach towards integrating environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    and delivering products/services of a high quality standard. Cur- rent South ... ment of an effective Environmental Management Strategy/System. (EMS), i.e. ISO .... clearly indicated other uses of water such as houses/restaurants/ gardens.

  11. Alert Workplace From Healthcare Workers' Perspective: Behavioral and Environmental Strategies to Improve Vigilance and Alertness in Healthcare Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagah Zadeh, Rana; Shepley, Mardelle; Sadatsafavi, Hessam; Owora, Arthur Hamie; Krieger, Ana C

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to identify the behavioral and environmental strategies that healthcare workers view as helpful for managing sleepiness, improving alertness, and therefore optimizing workplace safety. Reduced alertness is a common issue in healthcare work environments and is associated with impaired cognitive performance and decision-making ability as well as increased errors and injuries. We surveyed 136 healthcare professionals at a primary care clinic, an acute care hospital, and a mental health clinic. Nonstructured, semistructured, and structured questionnaires were used to elicit relevant information which was analyzed using qualitative content analysis and logistic regression models, respectively. In order by frequency of endorsement: dietary intervention; physical mobility; cognitive, sensory, or social stimulation; personal lifestyle strategies; and rest/nap opportunities were reported as behavioral strategies used to address workplace alertness. Compared to other environmental features, daylight and thermal comfort were perceived to be more important to addressing workplace alertness ( p based guidelines is needed to address sleepiness and alertness to improve workplace safety in healthcare facilities.

  12. La Inversion Extranjera Directa (IED, teorias y practicas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Garza, U.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En éste articulo, analizaremos algunas de las principales teorías relacionadas con la IED. Se destacarán principalmente los aportes teóricos en cuanto a posibles efectos positivos y negativos de la llegada de IED a economías receptoras. Al mismo tiempo, se tratará de resaltar y justificar la importancia de la llegada de nuevas inversiones a países en desarrollo como México, destacando los principales factores que propician la llegada de IED en países en desarrollo.

  13. Tourism and Environmental Policy Strategies: Promoting Local Destination in Riau Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihati; Dailiati, Surya; Hernimawati; Yandra, Alexsander

    2018-05-01

    This study is based on the principal issues concerning the policy implementation of Pekanbaru tourism promotion which has not been optimally being able to develop the tourism potential in Riau Province. It was estimated to be caused the Pekanbaru City Government strategy c.q Pekanbaru City Tourism Office has not been able to develop the tourism potential in Pekanbaru City. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative, which aims to formulate strategies that can be applied to tourism promotion policy implementation of Pekanbaru City can support the development of the tourism potential of Riau Province. The collected data were analyzed with an interactive model of Miles and Huberman. The research result indicated that strategy can be applied so that the Pekanbaru City tourism promotion policy implementation be able to support the development of tourism potential of Riau Province create based on reality that tourism development policy of Pekanbaru City which has failed and benchmarking or comparison both with Batam City and Padang City, then the strategy which can be applied is strategy for making the Pekanbaru City as a MICE (Meeting, Incentive, Conference, Exhibition) City.

  14. The avoidance strategy of environmental constraints by an aquatic plant Potamogeton alpinus in running waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robionek, Alicja; Banaś, Krzysztof; Chmara, Rafał; Szmeja, Józef

    2015-08-01

    Aquatic plants anchored in streams are under pressure from various constraints linked to the water flow and display strategies to prevent their damage or destruction. We assume that the responses of aquatic plants to fast-water flow are a manifestation of a trade-off consisting in either maximizing the resistance to damage (tolerance strategy) in minimizing the hydrodynamic forces (avoidance strategy), or both. Our main hypothesis was that Potamogeton alpinus demonstrate the avoidance strategy. We analyzed architecture traits of the modules of this clonal plant from slow- and fast-flowing streams. In fast-flowing waters, the avoidance strategy of P. alpinus is reflected by the following: (1) the presence of floating leaves that stabilize the vertical position of the stem and protect the inflorescence against immersion; (2) elongation of submerged leaves (weakens the pressure of water); and (3) shoot diameter reduction and increase in shoot density (weakens the pressure of water, increases shoot elasticity), and by contrast in slow-water flow include the following: (4) the absence of floating leaves in high intensity of light (avoiding unnecessary outlays on a redundant organ); (5) the presence of floating leaves in low intensity of light (avoidance of stress caused by an insufficient assimilation area of submerged leaves).

  15. An Implementing Strategy for Promoting Environmental Literacy as an OFCM Crosscutting Priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, M. R.

    2005-12-01

    The National Environmental Education Advisory Council of the Environmental Protection Agency defines environmental education as "the interdisciplinary process of developing a citizenry that is knowledgeable about the total environment in its natural and built aspects and has the capacity and commitment to insure environmental quality by engaging in inquiry, problem solving, decision making and action." This definition calls for providing citizens (whether child or adult) with a basic understanding of the concepts within science in order to manage their lives. Literacy defined in this manner is the foundation of national security, economic growth, health, and prosperity. Promoting science literacy, therefore, is absolutely critical to every citizen. It is not just about ensuring that people become scientists or have a career that is engaged in the sciences. Promoting environmental literacy means providing people with a means of confronting the science as it confronts them in their personal and/or professional lives. The Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research (OFCM) is an interdepartmental office established in response to Public Law 87-843 with the mission to ensure the effective use of federal meteorological resources by leading the systematic coordination of operational weather and climate requirements, services, products, and supporting research among the federal agencies. Through interdepartmental collaboration, the OFCM and the agencies within its coordinating infrastructure have a direct environmental literacy impact on the public, private, and academic sectors. For example, governmental departments and agencies within the OFCM infrastructure have provided a number of education, outreach, and training opportunities to end users, helping them understand and apply weather and climate information in their endeavors. Thus promoting environmental literacy is not new to the OFCM. What is new, however, is that for the

  16. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IE

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... where needed and connect with each other, and neuron survival. DNMT1 gene mutations that cause HSAN IE affect the enzyme's methylation function, resulting in abnormalities in the maintenance of the ...

  17. Coal conversion and aquatic environments: overview of impacts and strategies for monitoring. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 1112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, R. D.; Sanders, F. S.; Barnthouse, L. W.

    1977-01-01

    Impact assessment and environmental monitoring are difficult but crucial steps needed to ensure the environmentally safe development of coal conversion technologies. This paper summarizes strategies for impact assessment and monitoring developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for DOE's program to build demonstration facilities. Impacts on aquatic environments depend heavily on the abiotic and biotic characteristics of the site and details of facility design. Key issues include availability of water, use of ''zero-discharge'' designs, and methods of handling solid wastes. In monitoring programs emphasis is placed on (1) thorough use of existing data, (2) use of a synoptic reconnaissance survey, criteria for choosing parameters to be measured, and the search for ecologically meaningful, cost-effective methods.

  18. Strategies of the 'gree­n' member states in EU environmental pol­icy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liefferink, D.; Andersen, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    and strategies of the ‘green’ member states after the accession of Sweden, Finland and Austria are analysed. It is concluded, among other things, that differences in strategies of articulating environmentally progressive positions in the EU may seriously thwart effective alliance-building between the ‘leaders......’. Denmark is identified as the most activist ‘green’ member state. In Sweden and Austria, pragmatism now prevails. The Netherlands and Finland have the most constructive approach. Germany has largely abandoned its activism of the 1980s in favour of more defensive tendencies. Because of its political...... and economic impact, the role of Germany is crucial among the ‘green’ member states....

  19. Human-technology interaction for standoff IED detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Evan; Zou, Yiyang; Zachrich, Liping; Fulton, Jack

    2011-03-01

    IEDs kill our soldiers and innocent people every day. Lessons learned from Iraq and Afghanistan clearly indicated that IEDs cannot be detected/defeated by technology alone; human-technology interaction must be engaged. In most cases, eye is the best detector, brain is the best computer, and technologies are tools, they must be used by human being properly then can achieve full functionality. In this paper, a UV Raman/fluorescence, CCD and LWIR 3 sensor fusion system for standoff IED detection and a handheld fusion system for close range IED detection are developed and demonstrated. We must train solders using their eyes or CCD/LWIR cameras to do wide area search while on the move to find small suspected area first then use the spectrometer because the laser spot is too small, to scan a one-mile long and 2-meter wide road needs 185 days although our fusion system can detect the IED in 30m with 1s interrogating time. Even if the small suspected area (e.g., 0.5mx0.5m) is found, human eyes still cannot detect the IED, soldiers must use or interact with the technology - laser based spectrometer to scan the area then they are able to detect and identify the IED in 10 minutes not 185 days. Therefore, the human-technology interaction approach will be the best solution for IED detection.

  20. Environmental destruction as a counterinsurgency strategy in the Kurdistan region of Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etten, van J.; Vos, de H.; Jongerden, J.P.; Klaasse, A.; Hoeve, van E.

    2008-01-01

    We examine environmental aspects of the conflict between the Turkish state and the insurgent Kurdistan Workers Party (Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan or PKK). Since the early 1990s, several civil society groups have claimed that the Turkish army burned forests and destroyed other livelihood resources in

  1. INTERIM REPORT, DEVELOP A SAMPLING STRATEGY: PREPARE TO IMPLEMENT A COHORT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    OverviewThe goal of the National Children's Study (NCS) is to collect information on environmental andsocial factors in the lives of children, starting before birth and continuing until age 21, to informresearchers about their effects on the health and dev...

  2. NASA's Agency-Wide Strategy for Environmental Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroggins, Sharon; Duda, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA's risk analysis communication programs associated with changing environmental policies. The topics include: 1) NASA Program Transition; 2) Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC); and 3) Regulatory Tracking and Communication Process.

  3. Interactive effects of environmental change and management strategies on regional forest carbon emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudiburg, Tara W.; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Thornton, Peter E.; Law, Beverly E.

    2013-01-01

    Climate mitigation activities in forests need to be quantified in terms of the long-term effects on forest carbon stocks, accumulation, and emissions. The impacts of future environmental change and bioenergy harvests on regional forest carbon storage have not been quantified. We conducted a

  4. Potential role of phosphate buffering capacity of soils in fertilizer management strategies fitted to environmental goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, P.A.I.; Morel, C.; Fotyma, M.; Destain, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Sorption behavior and buffering of phosphorus (P) are important, both from an agricultural and an environmental point of view. The objectives of this study were to investigate: (1) the kinetics of the transfer of P from soil to soil solution and assessing P buffering capacity of soils (PBC), as a

  5. International Strategy for Action in the Field of Environmental Education and Training for the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    This document is the result of discussion, additions, amendments, and approval of a working document submitted for this purpose to the Unesco-UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) International Congress on Environmental Education and Training (Moscow, USSR, August 1987). Part 1 seeks to highlight certain needs and priorities in respect to…

  6. Strategies to reduce the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting plant: A scenario analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, B.; Kroeze, C.; Hordijk, L.; Costa, C.; Pulles, M.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores a model (MIKADO) to analyse scenarios for the reduction of the environmental impact of an aluminium die casting plant. Our model calculates the potential to reduce emissions, and the costs associated with implementation of reduction options. In an earlier paper [Neto, B., Kroeze,

  7. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions

  8. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  9. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  10. Environmental dynamic, business strategy, and financial performance: An empirical study of Indonesian property and real estate industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Wahyudi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Firm’s strategic orientation involves synchronizing environmental dynamics, corporate strategy and capital structure in order to achieve firm performance targets. The co-alignment model used successfully in the hospitality industry might be used in a wider context as a framework in explain- ing these relationships simultaneously. Using the data of public firms in Indonesia during the pe- riod of 1996-2010, we found that co-alignment model can be implemented in property and real estate industry as well as in hospitality industry.

  11. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Adaptation Strategies to Environmental Degradation and Climate Change Effects: A Farm Level Study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nasir Uddin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Offering a case study of coastal Bangladesh, this study examines the adaptation of agriculturalists to degrading environmental conditions likely to be caused or exacerbated under global climate change. It examines four central components: (1 the rate of self-reported adoption of adaptive mechanisms (coping strategies as a result of changes in climate; (2 ranking the potential coping strategies based on their perceived importance to agricultural enterprises; (3 identification the socio-economic factors associated with adoption of coping strategies, and (4 ranking potential constraints to adoption of coping strategies based on farmers’ reporting on the degree to which they face these constraints. As a preliminary matter, this paper also reports on the perceptions of farmers in the study about their experiences with climatic change. The research area is comprised of three villages in the coastal region (Sathkhira district, a geographic region which climate change literature has highlighted as prone to accelerated degradation. One-hundred (100 farmers participated in the project’s survey, from which the data was used to calculate weighted indexes for rankings and to perform logistic regression. The rankings, model results, and descriptive statistics, are reported here. Results showed that a majority of the farmers self-identified as having engaged in adaptive behavior. Out of 14 adaptation strategies, irrigation ranked first among farm adaptive measures, while crop insurance has ranked as least utilized. The logit model explained that out of eight factors surveyed, age, education, family size, farm size, family income, and involvement in cooperatives were significantly related to self-reported adaptation. Despite different support and technological interventions being available, lack of available water, shortage of cultivable land, and unpredictable weather ranked highest as the respondent group’s constraints to coping with environmental

  12. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of…

  13. Zinc deficiency in children with environmental enteropathy - development of new strategies: Report from an expert workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc deficiency is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The WHO/UNICEF strategy for zinc supplementation as adjunctive therapy for diarrhea is poorly implemented. A conference of experts in zinc nutrition and gastrointestinal disorders was convened to consider approaches that might co...

  14. Epigenomic strategies at the interface of genetic and environmental risk factors for autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSalle, Janine M

    2013-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been increasing in prevalence over the last two decades, primarily because of increased awareness and diagnosis. However, autism is clearly a complex human genetic disorder that involves interactions between genes and environment. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, act at the interface of genetic and environmental risk and protective factors. Advancements in genome-wide sequencing has broadened the view of the human methylome and revealed the organization of the human genome into large-scale methylation domains that footprint over neurologically important genes involved in embryonic development. Future integrative epigenomic analyses of genetic risk factors with environmental exposures and methylome analyses are expected to be important for understanding the complex etiology of ASD.

  15. Implementation strategy to reduce environmental impact of energy related activities in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1992 UNEP-Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UNEP-CCEE), Denmark and Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE), Zimbabwe, prepared a country report for Zimbabwe on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Abatement Costing. Abatement technologies for both supply and demand side were identified in order to reduce GHG emission. The present study addresses environmental impacts of the entire energy cycle focusing on coal use in industry and power generation. Zimbabwe has proven coal reserves of more than 700 million tonnes, and the potential of geological coal resources is estimated beyond 30 billion tonnes. The conventional applications of coal include electricity generation, steam traction in railway transport, industrial boilers, tobacco curing and coking. As coal is the major source of energy for Zimbabwe, the present study aims at identification of environmental impacts of the entire coal cycle from mining to end-users of electrical energy. (EG)

  16. Environmental assessment of alternative municipal solid waste management strategies. A Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Ibáñez-Forés, V; Gallardo, A; Colomer-Mendoza, F J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste generated in the town of Castellón de la Plana (Spain). This town currently produces 207 ton of waste per day and the waste management system employed today involves the collection of paper/cardboard, glass and light packaging from materials banks and of rest waste at street-side containers. The proposed alternative scenarios were based on a combination of the following elements: selective collection targets to be accomplished by the year 2015 as specified in the Spanish National Waste Plan (assuming they are reached to an extent of 50% and 100%), different collection models implemented nationally, and diverse treatments of both the separated biodegradable fraction and the rest waste to be disposed of on landfills. This resulted in 24 scenarios, whose environmental behaviour was studied by applying the life cycle assessment methodology. In accordance with the ISO 14040-44 (2006) standard, an inventory model was developed for the following stages of the waste management life cycle: pre-collection (bags and containers), collection, transport, pre-treatment (waste separation) and treatment/disposal (recycling, composting, biogasification+composting, landfill with/without energy recovery). Environmental indicators were obtained for different impact categories, which made it possible to identify the key variables in the waste management system and the scenario that offers the best environmental behaviour. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was used to test some of the assumptions made in the initial life cycle inventory model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Condition-Based Maintenance Strategy for Production Systems Generating Environmental Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tlili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider production systems which generate damage to environment as they get older and degrade. The system is submitted to inspections to assess the generated environmental damage. The inspections can be periodic or nonperiodic. In case an inspection reveals that the environmental degradation level has exceeded the critical level U, the system is considered in an advanced deterioration state and will have generated significant environmental damage. A corrective maintenance action is then performed to renew the system and clean the environment and a penalty has to be paid. In order to prevent such an undesirable situation, a lower threshold level L is considered to trigger a preventive maintenance action to bring back the system to a state as good as new at a lower cost and without paying the penalty. Two inspection policies are considered (periodic and nonperiodic. For each one of them, a mathematical model and a numerical procedure are developed to determine simultaneously the preventive maintenance (PM threshold L∗ and the inspection sequence which minimize the average long-run cost per time unit. Numerical calculations are performed to illustrate the proposed maintenance policies and highlight their main characteristics with respect to relevant input parameters.

  18. Policy framework for formulating environmental management strategy for sustainable development of tanneries in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Kapilkumar N; Harada, Koichi; Wei, Chang Nian; Minamoto, Keiko; Ueda, Atsushi

    2011-03-01

    The leather industry is one of the main examples of industries which play an important role in the Indian economy in terms of exports and employment opportunities, while being blamed for environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to find the advances or improvements in the Japanese leather industry which are not found in typical leather industries in developing countries. We examined the Japanese leather industry in this context because Japan is a developed country in which tanning processes have been a traditional business from ancient times, and also the leather industry has played an important role in the process of economic development of Japan. The study was based both on information collected from various areas related to the leather industry or leather industry stakeholders, and also on a review of published information. Information was collected through site visits, interviews, questionnaires, and detailed discussions with these stakeholders, as well as from their websites. The framework of a typical leather industry is discussed in three sections: pollution prevention, pollution control, and pollution mitigation related to sources, processes, and impact possibilities, respectively. Eleven basic differences were noted between the Japanese and Indian leather industries. The availability of melting centers is the main important feature of the Japanese leather sector. Guidelines are suggested which focus on some changes that are expected to lead to both environmental and economic benefits, with better pollution management, which should lead to continuous improvement of the environmental performance of the industry, and, finally, sustainable development.

  19. Environmental assessment and investment strategies of provincial industrial sector in China — Analysis based on DEA model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Juan, E-mail: wangjuan_tju@163.com [College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao, Tao [College of Management and Economics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Xiaohu [College of Civil Aviation, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210016 (China)

    2016-09-15

    As an energy-intensive industry, the industrial sector consumes 70% of energy consumption and causes serious environmental pollution in China. Also, the government emphasized the promotion of R&D investment in the industrial sector in China's National Plan on Climate Change (2014–2020). It is meaningful and contributes to assessing energy and environmental performance, as well as R&D and industrial pollution control (IPC) investment strategies of China's industrial sector. A non-radial DEA model, as with natural and managerial disposability, was adopted to evaluate this from provincial and regional perspectives during the 2008–2012 period. Energy and environmental performance was evaluated by unified efficiency under natural disposability (UEN), unified efficiency under managerial disposability (UEM), and unified efficiency under natural and managerial disposability (UENM). The empirical results indicated that Shandong and Hainan were efficient under natural and managerial disposability, while other provinces had the potential to improve their energy and environmental performance. The number of provinces that was fit for investments of R&D and IPC increased from 2008 to 2010, then decreased in 2011 and 2012. In spite of this, many provincial industrial sectors should make efforts to reduce pollution by investment on technology. Tianjin, Heilongjiang, Jiangxi and Henan were especially the best investment objects because investments of R&D and IPC turned to be effective for them during the whole study period. Moreover, western China had the highest average UENM, followed by eastern China and central China. Eastern China and central China were rewarding to expand investments. Coal consumption was the main factor to negatively affect unified efficiency whereas the increase in economic development level was primarily responsible for the improvement of unified efficiency. According to the results, differentiated suggestions to further improve energy and

  20. Environmental assessment and investment strategies of provincial industrial sector in China — Analysis based on DEA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Juan; Zhao, Tao; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2016-01-01

    As an energy-intensive industry, the industrial sector consumes 70% of energy consumption and causes serious environmental pollution in China. Also, the government emphasized the promotion of R&D investment in the industrial sector in China's National Plan on Climate Change (2014–2020). It is meaningful and contributes to assessing energy and environmental performance, as well as R&D and industrial pollution control (IPC) investment strategies of China's industrial sector. A non-radial DEA model, as with natural and managerial disposability, was adopted to evaluate this from provincial and regional perspectives during the 2008–2012 period. Energy and environmental performance was evaluated by unified efficiency under natural disposability (UEN), unified efficiency under managerial disposability (UEM), and unified efficiency under natural and managerial disposability (UENM). The empirical results indicated that Shandong and Hainan were efficient under natural and managerial disposability, while other provinces had the potential to improve their energy and environmental performance. The number of provinces that was fit for investments of R&D and IPC increased from 2008 to 2010, then decreased in 2011 and 2012. In spite of this, many provincial industrial sectors should make efforts to reduce pollution by investment on technology. Tianjin, Heilongjiang, Jiangxi and Henan were especially the best investment objects because investments of R&D and IPC turned to be effective for them during the whole study period. Moreover, western China had the highest average UENM, followed by eastern China and central China. Eastern China and central China were rewarding to expand investments. Coal consumption was the main factor to negatively affect unified efficiency whereas the increase in economic development level was primarily responsible for the improvement of unified efficiency. According to the results, differentiated suggestions to further improve energy and environmental

  1. Manager's and educator's responses to the environmental challenge: the research strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    an EU research project has been carried out. The basic research strategy applied was a qualitative survey based on available secondary information and collection of primary information from companies and educational institutions. The latter information included various published material as well as semi....... The background for selecting this research strategy, how it was carried out as well as a few concentrated examples will be presented in this paper.......-structured interviews in a limited number of companies and educational institutions. By combining information from published material and interviews it was possible to formulate this part of the survey as a number of case studies. At a later stage quantitative based surveys were carried out as a supplement...

  2. Integrating Educational, Environmental, and Behavioral Economic Strategies May Improve the Effectiveness of Obesity Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Gittelsohn; Katherine Lee

    2013-01-01

    Interventions that change the food environment, provide nutrition education, and employ behavioral economics strategies can potentially contribute to healthier diets and reduce the risk of chronic disease, but no attempt has been made to integrate these into the same conceptual framework. We present case studies of three multilevel, integrated interventions implemented by Johns Hopkins University between 2004–2011. We develop a conceptual model based on these case studies. Interventions and p...

  3. Generation of Strategies for Environmental Deception in Two-Player Normal-Form Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-18

    found in the literature is pre- sented by Kohlberg and Mertens [23]. A stable equilibrium by their definition is an equi- librium in an extensive-form...the equilibrium in this state provides them with an increased payoff. While interesting, Kohlberg and Mertens’ defi- 13 nition of equilibrium...stability used by Kohlberg and Mertens. Arsham’s work focuses on determining the amount by which a mixed-strategy Nash equilibrium’s payoff values can

  4. Nutrition-Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Jennifer; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B.; Khan, Laura Kettel; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Evenson, Kelly R.; Schreiner, Michelle; Byker, Carmen; Owens, Clint; McGuirt, Jared; Barnidge, Ellen; Dean, Wesley; Johnson, Donna; Kolodinsky, Jane; Piltch, Emily; Pinard, Courtney; Quinn, Emilee; Whetstone, Lauren; Ammerman, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Residents of rural communities in the United States are at higher risk for obesity than their urban and suburban counterparts. Policy and environmental-change strategies supporting healthier dietary intake can prevent obesity and promote health equity. Evidence in support of these strategies is based largely on urban and suburban studies; little is known about use of these strategies in rural communities. The purpose of this review was to synthesize available evidence on the adaptation, implementation, and effectiveness of policy and environmental obesity-prevention strategies in rural settings. Methods The review was guided by a list of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States, commonly known as the “COCOMO” strategies. We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Public Affairs Information Service, and Cochrane databases for articles published from 2002 through 2013 that reported findings from research on nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in rural communities in the United States and Canada. Two researchers independently abstracted data from each article, and resolved discrepancies by consensus. Results Of the 663 articles retrieved, 33 met inclusion criteria. The interventions most commonly focused on increasing access to more nutritious foods and beverages or decreasing access to less nutritious options. Rural adaptations included accommodating distance to food sources, tailoring to local food cultures, and building community partnerships. Conclusions Findings from this literature review provide guidance on adapting and implementing policy and environmental strategies in rural communities. PMID:25927605

  5. Nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies to prevent obesity in rural communities: a systematic review of the literature, 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calancie, Larissa; Leeman, Jennifer; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Khan, Laura Kettel; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Evenson, Kelly R; Schreiner, Michelle; Byker, Carmen; Owens, Clint; McGuirt, Jared; Barnidge, Ellen; Dean, Wesley; Johnson, Donna; Kolodinsky, Jane; Piltch, Emily; Pinard, Courtney; Quinn, Emilee; Whetstone, Lauren; Ammerman, Alice

    2015-04-30

    Residents of rural communities in the United States are at higher risk for obesity than their urban and suburban counterparts. Policy and environmental-change strategies supporting healthier dietary intake can prevent obesity and promote health equity. Evidence in support of these strategies is based largely on urban and suburban studies; little is known about use of these strategies in rural communities. The purpose of this review was to synthesize available evidence on the adaptation, implementation, and effectiveness of policy and environmental obesity-prevention strategies in rural settings. The review was guided by a list of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Recommended Community Strategies and Measurements to Prevent Obesity in the United States, commonly known as the "COCOMO" strategies. We searched PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Public Affairs Information Service, and Cochrane databases for articles published from 2002 through 2013 that reported findings from research on nutrition-related policy and environmental strategies in rural communities in the United States and Canada. Two researchers independently abstracted data from each article, and resolved discrepancies by consensus. Of the 663 articles retrieved, 33 met inclusion criteria. The interventions most commonly focused on increasing access to more nutritious foods and beverages or decreasing access to less nutritious options. Rural adaptations included accommodating distance to food sources, tailoring to local food cultures, and building community partnerships. Findings from this literature review provide guidance on adapting and implementing policy and environmental strategies in rural communities.

  6. Bet-hedging as a complex interaction among developmental instability, environmental heterogeneity, dispersal, and life-history strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Samuel M

    2014-02-01

    One potential evolutionary response to environmental heterogeneity is the production of randomly variable offspring through developmental instability, a type of bet-hedging. I used an individual-based, genetically explicit model to examine the evolution of developmental instability. The model considered both temporal and spatial heterogeneity alone and in combination, the effect of migration pattern (stepping stone vs. island), and life-history strategy. I confirmed that temporal heterogeneity alone requires a threshold amount of variation to select for a substantial amount of developmental instability. For spatial heterogeneity only, the response to selection on developmental instability depended on the life-history strategy and the form and pattern of dispersal with the greatest response for island migration when selection occurred before dispersal. Both spatial and temporal variation alone select for similar amounts of instability, but in combination resulted in substantially more instability than either alone. Local adaptation traded off against bet-hedging, but not in a simple linear fashion. I found higher-order interactions between life-history patterns, dispersal rates, dispersal patterns, and environmental heterogeneity that are not explainable by simple intuition. We need additional modeling efforts to understand these interactions and empirical tests that explicitly account for all of these factors.

  7. JRC-IE's research of safety of Gen IV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsige-Tamirat, H.; Ranguelova, V.; Feutterer, M.; Ammirabile, L.; Carlsson, J.; D'Agata, E.; Laurie, M.; Magallon, D.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute for Energy (IE), one of the seven scientific Institutes of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission, has the mission to provide scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of community policies related to energy. To accomplish its mission, IE performs research in the areas of renewable energies, safety and sustainability of nuclear energy for current and future reactor systems, energy technic/economic assessment, and security of energy supply. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a cooperative international endeavour organized to carry out R and D needed to establish the feasibility and performance capabilities of the next generation nuclear energy systems and support the progress towards their realization. The EU, represented by EURATOM and with the JRC as implementing agent, is working together with other GIF partners to perform pre-competitive R and D on key technologies to be implemented in future nuclear systems. IE is engaged in experimental research, simulation and modeling, scientific, feasibility and engineering studies on innovative nuclear reactor systems needed to support the EURATOM contribution to GEN IV initiative, in particular in assessment of innovative fuels and materials, development of new reactor core concepts and safety solutions and knowledge management and preservation. IE's research activities on Generation IV reactor systems are focused on the assessment of the potential of such systems to meet long term EU energy needs with respect to economical advantages, enhanced safety, sustainability, and proliferation resistance. IE participates in international collaborations and has bilateral research cooperation both with European and non-European partners. This paper gives an overview of IE's current research activities on the Gen IV reactor systems related to safety. (authors)

  8. Environmental potential of the use of CO{sub 2} from alcoholic fermentation processes. The CO{sub 2}-AFP strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Moreno, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.amoreno@uclm.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Orgánica y Bioquímica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Paseo de los Estudiantes, 02071 Albacete (Spain); García-Yuste, Santiago, E-mail: santiago.gyuste@uclm.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Orgánica y Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologías Químicas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    A novel Carbon Dioxide Utilization (CDU) approach from a relatively minor CO{sub 2} emission source, i.e., alcoholic fermentation processes (AFP), is presented. The CO{sub 2} produced as a by-product from the AFP is estimated by examining the EtOH consumed per year reported by the World Health Organization in 2014. It is proposed that the extremely pure CO{sub 2} from the AFP is captured in NaOH solutions to produce one of the Top 10 commodities in the chemical industry, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, as a good example of an atomic economy process. The novel CDU strategy could yield over 30.6 Mt of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in oversaturated aqueous solution on using ca. 12.7 Mt of captured CO{sub 2} and this process would consume less energy than the synthetic methodology (Solvay ammonia soda process) and would not produce low-value by-products. The quantity of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} obtained by this strategy could represent ca. 50% of the world Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} production in one year. In terms of the green economy, the viability of the strategy is discussed according to the recommendations of the CO{sub 2}Chem network, and an estimation of the CO{sub 2}negative emission achieved suggests a capture of around 280.0 Mt of CO{sub 2} from now to 2020 or ca. 1.9 Gt from now to 2050. Finally, the results obtained for this new CDU proposal are discussed by considering different scenarios; the CO{sub 2} production in a typical winemaking corporation, the CO{sub 2} released in the most relevant wine-producing countries, and the use of CO{sub 2} from AFP as an alternative for the top Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-producing countries. - Highlights: • A new CDU strategy to mitigate the CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is assessed. • An environmental action towards negligible emission sources such as AFP. • The waste CO{sub 2} from AFP could be converted into Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. • Capture 12.7 Mt yr{sup –1} of CO{sub 2} to generate ca. 1.9 Gt of CO{sub 2}negative emissions by 2050.

  9. Soil Protection in the EU According to the Directive on Industrial Emissions (IED and Croatian Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pilaš

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Soil protection against pollution in EU is mostly covered in a new Directive on industrial emissions (IED, adopted on November 24, 2010 as a follow up of the IPPC Directive. For all industrial facilities that fall under IED, the Directive obliges the establishment of a complex system of management of contaminated soil at the national level, in order to facilitate the implementation of the principle of “polluter pays” furthermore to reduce the risk of contamination of soil and groundwater. Material and Methods: This paper presents an overview of soil management system that should be established in each EU country to fulfil IED requirements. It consists of a meta-analysis of IED requirements and current state and drawbacks of soil protection in Croatia including present state of legislation, responsibility of authorities, soil surveys and remediation activities. Results and Conclusions: IED set the obligation on the industrial operator before the start of production to prepare a report on the initial state of soil as a necessary requirement for obtaining environmental permit. It set obligations for monitoring of soil and groundwater status in the location of industrial facility for a period of ten (soil and five years (groundwater. After the cessation of production, and in the case of exceeding critical limits of pollution, the operator is obliged to perform remediation or restitution of land in the state as it was at the beginning of production. Management of contaminated soil according to IED requirements obliges the Croatian government to establish a complex multi-level system. At first it requires better definition of responsibilities between two ministries; Ministry of Environmental and Nature protection and Ministry of Agriculture. IED requires enactment of adequate legal basis (i.e. Soil protection act and the establishment of operational instruments for the implementation of soil protection, such as a register

  10. Environmental impact of coal mine methane emissions and responding strategies in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Y.P.; Wang, L.; Zhang, X.L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2011-01-15

    The impact on global climate change from coal mine methane emissions in China has been drawing attention as coal production has powered its economic development. Data on coal mine methane emissions from the State Administration of Coal Mine Safety of China has been analyzed. It is estimated that the methane emission from coal mining in China reached 20 billions of cubic meters in 2008, most of which comes from state-owned coal mines with high-gas content. China releases six times as much of methane from coal mines as compared to the United States. However, Chinese methane emission from coal production accounts for only a very small proportion on the environmental impact when compared to emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption. The Chinese government has shown environmental awareness and resolution on the mitigation and utilization of coal mine methane emissions. Measures have been taken to implement the programs of mitigation and utilization of coal mine methane, and at the same time, to ensure mining safety. Nearly 7.2 billions of cubic meters of methane were drained from the coal mines, and 32% of it was utilized in 2008. The slow advancement of technologies for the drainage and utilization of low-concentration methane from ventilation air hinders the progress of mitigation of atmospheric methane and the utilization of coal mine methane emissions.

  11. Environmentally sound energy efficient strategies: A case study of the power section in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, J; Painuly, J P; Bhattacharya, K

    1997-02-01

    Coal is a major source of energy in India, providing more than 60% of the commercial energy requirements. Coal is also most polluting fuel in terms of GHG emissions. Considering India`s energy resources, coal may continue to provide a large part of energy requirements in the future too. Coal is mainly used for generating electricity. Therefore, efficient measures for generation, transmission and end use of electricity can help in reducing the environmental pollution, leading to environmentally sound development. The report highlights some such important measures; reduction in auxiliary consumption (i e. the electricity consumed by generating units in the process of generation), reduction in transmission and distribution losses, and application of demand side management (DSM) options for high tension (HT) industries. The study was conducted in two phases. Maharashtra State Electricity Board (MSEB), the largest utility in Maharashtra was chosen for the detailed study in the first phase. For the study of auxiliary consumption, two typical plants of the MSEB were selected. The transmission losses were studied for the MSEB system based on a snap-shot picture of the system. For the DSM part, energy saving potential in HT industries in Maharashtra was explored based on a survey of HT industries. In the second phase of the study, two more plants outside Maharashtra were also studied to get better insight into diverse causes for the different levels of auxiliary consumption and estimate potential savings. All India potential for savings through reduction in auxiliary consumption was also estimated in this phase. (EG) 10 refs.

  12. Multi-objective optimization of solid waste flows: environmentally sustainable strategies for municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minciardi, Riccardo; Paolucci, Massimo; Robba, Michela; Sacile, Roberto

    2008-11-01

    An approach to sustainable municipal solid waste (MSW) management is presented, with the aim of supporting the decision on the optimal flows of solid waste sent to landfill, recycling and different types of treatment plants, whose sizes are also decision variables. This problem is modeled with a non-linear, multi-objective formulation. Specifically, four objectives to be minimized have been taken into account, which are related to economic costs, unrecycled waste, sanitary landfill disposal and environmental impact (incinerator emissions). An interactive reference point procedure has been developed to support decision making; these methods are considered appropriate for multi-objective decision problems in environmental applications. In addition, interactive methods are generally preferred by decision makers as they can be directly involved in the various steps of the decision process. Some results deriving from the application of the proposed procedure are presented. The application of the procedure is exemplified by considering the interaction with two different decision makers who are assumed to be in charge of planning the MSW system in the municipality of Genova (Italy).

  13. Response strategies for oil producers in the face of environmental taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, I.O.; Brennand, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    The impact of environmental taxes on the oil export revenues of developing countries, particularly OPEC, is considered; the possibility of amelioration through production management is investigated. A model of oil market dynamics is considered and applied to for different tax secenarios. These are a base case scenario where no environmental tax is imposed; an unmanaged market where a $100/t of carbon tax is imposed in all OECD regions and the resulting fall in oil demand is absorbed by OPEC, thereby keeping oil prices at base case levels; a partially managed market where the same tax is imposed, but only OPEC responds by reducing oil production even further to maintain base case revenue; a totally managed market where the same tax is imposed but both OPEC and non-OPEC agree to manage and control the market. The conclusions reached is that as long as OPEC is not able to target a revenue-maximizing path, a totally managed market is likely to prove beneficial to all developing country producers with a much more manageable, higher than base case price in a partially managed market. If, however, OPEC were able to implement a revenue-maximizing course, there would be no need for total management, since non-OPEC revenue would be concomitantly maximized. (2 tables, 4 figures). (UK)

  14. Environmental Education as a social mobilization strategy to face water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Andrezza de Souza; Kligerman, Débora Cynamon; Cohen, Simone Cynamon; Assumpção, Rafaela Facchetti

    2016-03-01

    Article 225 of the Brazilian Constitution establishes that all citizens have the right to an ecologically balanced environment, as a common good that is essential for a healthy life, and that the government and society have the duty to protect and preserve the environment for present and future generations. This article outlines a methodology for promoting social mobilization to address water scarcity developed under the National Environmental Education and Social Mobilization for Sanitation Program (PEAMSS, acronym in Portuguese). The main aim of this article is to show the importance of education as a driving force for empowerment for water resources management. It outlines the main concepts of emancipatory environmental education and then goes on to describe the elaboration of a PEAMMS action plan. It concludes that the universalization of the right to safe and clean drinking water and access to sanitation is only possible through democratic and participatory water resources management. Actions are necessary to evaluate the reach of the PEAMSS and define the way ahead for the program.

  15. Integrated application of river water quality modelling and cost-benefit analysis to optimize the environmental economical value based on various aquatic waste load reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Yu; Fan, Chihhao

    2017-04-01

    improvements in BOD, SS and NH3-N were estimated as 36.2%, 27.7% and 29.2%, respectively. The net present value (i.e., economical-based environmental impact) becomes positive in the sixtieth year following the original government planning. We designed two scenarios for further comparison: (i) treatment efficiency improvement of pollution control facilities, and (ii) biogas-based power generation using livestock manure. If government budget is not a limiting factor, improving the efficiency of sewage treatment plants can make the occurrence of balance between payments and revenues (i.e., net present value in this study) three years earlier. For the biogas-based power generation scenario, if all pig farms with livestock number >2000 install the on-site power generation equipment, BOD will further improve by 9% and the time span of payback period will be shortened by 1 year. If all the manure waste from pig-farms is collected for subsequent electricity generation, the BOD river pollution index is estimated to improve to lightly-polluted category for more than half the length of Erhjen Creek. In short, water quality modelling technique not only can assess the contributions of related projects, but establish a practical pollution reduction strategy using cost-benefit analysis, which allows decision-maker to find a suitable pollution reduction plan to exhibit most benefits in river water quality.

  16. Identification and HLA-tetramer-validation of human CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses against HCMV proteins IE1 and IE2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braendstrup, Peter; Mortensen, Bo Kok; Justesen, Sune; Osterby, Thomas; Rasmussen, Michael; Hansen, Andreas Martin; Christiansen, Claus Bohn; Hansen, Morten Bagge; Nielsen, Morten; Vindeløv, Lars; Buus, Søren; Stryhn, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important human pathogen. It is a leading cause of congenital infection and a leading infectious threat to recipients of solid organ transplants as well as of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants. Moreover, it has recently been suggested that HCMV may promote tumor development. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses are important for long-term control of the virus, and adoptive transfer of HCMV-specific T cells has led to protection from reactivation and HCMV disease. Identification of HCMV-specific T cell epitopes has primarily focused on CD8+ T cell responses against the pp65 phosphoprotein. In this study, we have focused on CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses against the immediate early 1 and 2 proteins (IE1 and IE2). Using overlapping peptides spanning the entire IE1 and IE2 sequences, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 16 healthy, HLA-typed, donors were screened by ex vivo IFN-γ ELISpot and in vitro intracellular cytokine secretion assays. The specificities of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were identified and validated by HLA class II and I tetramers, respectively. Eighty-one CD4+ and 44 CD8+ T cell responses were identified representing at least seven different CD4 epitopes and 14 CD8 epitopes restricted by seven and 11 different HLA class II and I molecules, respectively, in total covering 91 and 98% of the Caucasian population, respectively. Presented in the context of several different HLA class II molecules, two epitope areas in IE1 and IE2 were recognized in about half of the analyzed donors. These data may be used to design a versatile anti-HCMV vaccine and/or immunotherapy strategy.

  17. Identification and HLA-tetramer-validation of human CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses against HCMV proteins IE1 and IE2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Braendstrup

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is an important human pathogen. It is a leading cause of congenital infection and a leading infectious threat to recipients of solid organ transplants as well as of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants. Moreover, it has recently been suggested that HCMV may promote tumor development. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses are important for long-term control of the virus, and adoptive transfer of HCMV-specific T cells has led to protection from reactivation and HCMV disease. Identification of HCMV-specific T cell epitopes has primarily focused on CD8+ T cell responses against the pp65 phosphoprotein. In this study, we have focused on CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses against the immediate early 1 and 2 proteins (IE1 and IE2. Using overlapping peptides spanning the entire IE1 and IE2 sequences, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 16 healthy, HLA-typed, donors were screened by ex vivo IFN-γ ELISpot and in vitro intracellular cytokine secretion assays. The specificities of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were identified and validated by HLA class II and I tetramers, respectively. Eighty-one CD4+ and 44 CD8+ T cell responses were identified representing at least seven different CD4 epitopes and 14 CD8 epitopes restricted by seven and 11 different HLA class II and I molecules, respectively, in total covering 91 and 98% of the Caucasian population, respectively. Presented in the context of several different HLA class II molecules, two epitope areas in IE1 and IE2 were recognized in about half of the analyzed donors. These data may be used to design a versatile anti-HCMV vaccine and/or immunotherapy strategy.

  18. Coping Strategies to Deal with Environmental Variability and Extreme Climatic Events in the Peruvian Anchovy Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilú Bouchon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Peruvian anchovy fishery is the largest worldwide in terms of catches. The fishery started during the mid 1950s, and since then it has been highly dependent on natural stock fluctuations, due to the sensitivity of anchovy stocks to ocean-climate variability. The main driver of anchovy stock variability is the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO, and three extreme ENSO warm events were recorded in 1972–1973, 1983–1984 and 1997–1998. This study investigates the evolution of coping strategies developed by the anchovy fisheries to deal with climate variability and extreme ENSO events. Results showed eight coping strategies to reduce impacts on the fishery. These included: decentralized installation of anchovy processing factories; simultaneous ownership of fishing fleet and processing factories; use of low-cost unloading facilities; opportunistic utilization of invading fish populations; low cost intensive monitoring; rapid flexible management; reduction of fishmeal price uncertainty through controlled production based on market demand; and decoupling of fishmeal prices from those of other protein-rich feed substitutes like soybean. This research shows that there are concrete lessons to be learned from successful adaptations to cope with climate change-related extreme climatic events that impact the supply of natural resources. The lessons can contribute to improved policies for coping with climate change in the commercial fishery sector.

  19. Strategy for assessing the technical, environmental, and engineering feasibility of subseabed disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Boyer, D.G.; Herrmann, H.; Kelly, J.; Talbert, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents the strategy and management techniques used in the development of the US Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) for possible disposal of both high-level waste and spent fuel. These have been developed through joint efforts of the Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Waste Isolation, the Sandia Technical Program Manager, the Technical Program Coordinators, the Advisory Group, and the Principal Investigators. Three subsections of this paper address the various components which make up the SDP strategy and management techniques. The first section will summarize the US DOE high-level waste and spent fuel disposal program and the position that the SDP occupies within that program. The second section, the Subseabed Program Plan, addresses the technical and administrative tools which are employed to facilitate the day-to-day operation of the SDP. The third section addresses the current studies and future plans for addressing the legal, political, and international uncertainties that must be resolved prior to the time the SDP reaches the final engineering phases

  20. Environmental prediction, risk assessment and extreme events: adaptation strategies for the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Peter J.; Jian, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The uncertainty associated with predicting extreme weather events has serious implications for the developing world, owing to the greater societal vulnerability to such events. Continual exposure to unanticipated extreme events is a contributing factor for the descent into perpetual and structural rural poverty. We provide two examples of how probabilistic environmental prediction of extreme weather events can support dynamic adaptation. In the current climate era, we describe how short-term flood forecasts have been developed and implemented in Bangladesh. Forecasts of impending floods with horizons of 10 days are used to change agricultural practices and planning, store food and household items and evacuate those in peril. For the first time in Bangladesh, floods were anticipated in 2007 and 2008, with broad actions taking place in advance of the floods, grossing agricultural and household savings measured in units of annual income. We argue that probabilistic environmental forecasts disseminated to an informed user community can reduce poverty caused by exposure to unanticipated extreme events. Second, it is also realized that not all decisions in the future can be made at the village level and that grand plans for water resource management require extensive planning and funding. Based on imperfect models and scenarios of economic and population growth, we further suggest that flood frequency and intensity will increase in the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Yangtze catchments as greenhouse-gas concentrations increase. However, irrespective of the climate-change scenario chosen, the availability of fresh water in the latter half of the twenty-first century seems to be dominated by population increases that far outweigh climate-change effects. Paradoxically, fresh water availability may become more critical if there is no climate change. PMID:22042897

  1. The ability of environmental healthcare design strategies To impact event related anxiety in paediatric patients: A comprehensive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton-Westwood, Deborah; Pearson, Alan; Robertson-Malt, Suzanne

    Background Children's' hospitals are by definition hospitals specialized in all aspects of children's care, but are they and if so, how is that achieved? Are healthcare facilities more than a 'space' in which to ask medical questions, seek answers and obtain treatment? Some suggest that the very design of a space can positively or negatively impact healing, hence the term referred to by those in the architectural community as 'healing spaces'. To date empirical studies to provide evidence to this effect, although growing in number, are still few. What is known is that hospitals, doctor's offices and dental offices alike unintentionally create an atmosphere, particularly for children, that add to an already heightened level of anxiety and fear. Designing a children's hospital, unlike a generalist facility, presents a unique and significant challenge. Those involved in designing such hospitals are faced with the opportunity and responsibility to care for and respond to the needs of children across the age spectrum; infants to toddlers, school aged children to adolescents. As healthcare professionals and architects, it is our responsibility to create healthcare facilities that are of purposeful design; anticipating and alleviating children's anxiety and fear wherever possible.Objectives The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the effects of environmental design strategies in healthcare institutions such as hospitals and dental offices on event-related anxiety in the paediatric population.Inclusion Criteria This comprehensive systematic review involved children from the age of 1 to 18 years of age admitted to a healthcare facility with the primary outcomes of interest being four key design strategies: positive distraction; elimination of environmental stressors; access to social support and choice (control); and connection to nature.Search Strategy Using the Joanna Briggs defined three step search strategy, both published and unpublished studies were

  2. Environmental impacts of the deep-water oil and gas industry: a review to guide management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. Cordes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The industrialization of the deep sea is expanding worldwide. Expanding oil and gas exploration activities in the absence of sufficient baseline data in these ecosystems has made environmental management challenging. Here, we review the types of activities that are associated with global offshore oil and gas development in water depths over 200 m, the typical impacts of these activities, some of the more extreme impacts of accidental oil and gas releases, and the current state of management in the major regions of offshore industrial activity including 18 exclusive economic zones. Direct impacts of infrastructure installation, including sediment resuspension and burial by seafloor anchors and pipelines, are typically restricted to a radius of approximately 100 m on from the installation on the seafloor. Discharges of water-based and low-toxicity oil-based drilling muds and produced water can extend over 2 km, while the ecological impacts at the population and community levels on the seafloor are most commonly on the order of 200-300 m from their source. These impacts may persist in the deep sea for many years and likely longer for its more fragile ecosystems, such as cold-water corals. This synthesis of information provides the basis for a series of recommendations for the management of offshore oil and gas development. An effective management strategy, aimed at minimizing risk of significant environmental harm, will typically encompass regulations of the activity itself (e.g. discharge practices, materials used, combined with spatial (e.g. avoidance rules and marine protected areas and temporal measures (e.g. restricted activities during peak reproductive periods. Spatial management measures that encompass representatives of all of the regional deep-sea community types is important in this context. Implementation of these management strategies should consider minimum buffer zones to displace industrial activity beyond the range of typical

  3. An environmental cost-benefit analysis of alternative green roofing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M.; William, R. K.; Goodwell, A. E.; Le, P. V.; Kumar, P.; Stillwell, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Green roofs and cool roofs are alternative roofing strategies that mitigate urban heat island effects and improve building energy performance. Green roofs consist of soil and vegetation layers that provide runoff reduction, thermal insulation, and potential natural habitat, but can require regular maintenance. Cool roofs involve a reflective layer that reflects more sunlight than traditional roofing materials, but require additional insulation during winter months. This study evaluates several roofing strategies in terms of energy performance, urban heat island mitigation, water consumption, and economic cost. We use MLCan, a multi-layer canopy model, to simulate irrigated and non-irrigated green roof cases with shallow and deep soil depths during the spring and early summer of 2012, a drought period in central Illinois. Due to the dry conditions studied, periodic irrigation is implemented in the model to evaluate its effect on evapotranspiration. We simulate traditional and cool roof scenarios by altering surface albedo and omitting vegetation and soil layers. We find that both green roofs and cool roofs significantly reduce surface temperature compared to the traditional roof simulation. Cool roof temperatures always remain below air temperature and, similar to traditional roofs, require low maintenance. Green roofs remain close to air temperature and also provide thermal insulation, runoff reduction, and carbon uptake, but might require irrigation during dry periods. Due to the longer lifetime of a green roof compared to cool and traditional roofs, we find that green roofs realize the highest long term cost savings under simulated conditions. However, using longer-life traditional roof materials (which have a higher upfront cost) can help decrease this price differential, making cool roofs the most affordable option due to the higher maintenance costs associated with green roofs

  4. Inductive energy store (IES) technology for multi-terrawatt generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sincerny, P.S.; Ashby, S.R.; Childers, F.K.; Deeney, C.; Kortbawi, D.; Goyer, J.R.; Riordan, J.C.; Roth, I.S.; Stallings, C.; Schlitt, L.

    1993-01-01

    An IES pulsed power machine has been built at Physics International Company that serves as a prototype demonstration of IES technology that is scaleable to very large TW generators. The prototype module utilizes inductive store opening switch technology for the final stage of pulse compression and is capable of driving both electron beam Bremsstrahlung loads or imploding plasma loads. Each module consists of a fast discharge Marx driving a water dielectric transfer capacitor which is command triggered to drive the inductive store section of the machine. The inductive store is discharged into the load using a plasma erosion opening switch. Data demonstrating 22% efficient operation into an electron beam diode load are presented. The system issues addressing the combining of these modules into a very large pulsed power machine are discussed

  5. Automation of IED Threat Emplacement for Training Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    pendant le processus d’analyse des exigences ont été prototypés. Importance : En modélisant les scénarios d’attaque par IED possibles en fonction des... bridges – The ontology engine would provide “roads” as the feature layer/class, “3m” and the narrowed width and “buildings” and “ bridges ” as the feature

  6. Wireless Sensor Networks for Detection of IED Emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Abstract We are investigating the use of wireless nonimaging -sensor...networks for the difficult problem of detection of suspicious behavior related to IED emplacement. Hardware for surveillance by nonimaging -sensor networks...with people crossing a live sensor network. We conclude that nonimaging -sensor networks can detect a variety of suspicious behavior, but

  7. SUPERNOVA 2003ie WAS LIKELY A FAINT TYPE IIP EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcavi, Iair; Gal-Yam, Avishay [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Sergeev, Sergey G., E-mail: iair.arcavi@weizmann.ac.il [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny, Crimea 98409 (Ukraine)

    2013-04-15

    We present new photometric observations of supernova (SN) 2003ie starting one month before discovery, obtained serendipitously while observing its host galaxy. With only a weak upper limit derived on the mass of its progenitor (<25 M{sub Sun }) from previous pre-explosion studies, this event could be a potential exception to the ''red supergiant (RSG) problem'' (the lack of high-mass RSGs exploding as Type IIP SNe). However, this is true only if SN2003ie was a Type IIP event, something which has never been determined. Using recently derived core-collapse SN light-curve templates, as well as by comparison to other known SNe, we find that SN2003ie was indeed a likely Type IIP event. However, with a plateau magnitude of {approx} - 15.5 mag, it is found to be a member of the faint Type IIP class. Previous members of this class have been shown to arise from relatively low-mass progenitors (<12 M{sub Sun }). It therefore seems unlikely that this SN had a massive RSG progenitor. The use of core-collapse SN light-curve templates is shown to be helpful in classifying SNe with sparse coverage. These templates are likely to become more robust as large homogeneous samples of core-collapse events are collected.

  8. Physical Activity–Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cynthia K.; Sumrall, Jasmin C.; Patterson, Megan S.; Walsh, Shana M.; Clendennen, Stephanie C.; Hooker, Steven P.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Goins, Karin V.; Heinrich, Katie M.; O’Hara Tompkins, Nancy; Eyler, Amy A.; Jones, Sydney; Tabak, Rachel; Valko, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health disparities exist between rural and urban residents; in particular, rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases and obesity. Evidence supports the effectiveness of policy and environmental strategies to prevent obesity and promote health equity. In 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended 24 policy and environmental strategies for use by local communities: the Common Community Measures for Obesity Prevention (COCOMO); 12 strategies focus on physical activity. This review was conducted to synthesize evidence on the implementation, relevance, and effectiveness of physical activity–related policy and environmental strategies for obesity prevention in rural communities. Methods A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINHAL, and PAIS databases for articles published from 2002 through May 2013 that reported findings from physical activity–related policy or environmental interventions conducted in the United States or Canada. Each article was extracted independently by 2 researchers. Results Of 2,002 articles, 30 articles representing 26 distinct studies met inclusion criteria. Schools were the most common setting (n = 18 studies). COCOMO strategies were applied in rural communities in 22 studies; the 2 most common COCOMO strategies were “enhance infrastructure supporting walking” (n = 11) and “increase opportunities for extracurricular physical activity” (n = 9). Most studies (n = 21) applied at least one of 8 non-COCOMO strategies; the most common was increasing physical activity opportunities at school outside of physical education (n = 8). Only 14 studies measured or reported physical activity outcomes (10 studies solely used self-report); 10 reported positive changes. Conclusion Seven of the 12 COCOMO physical activity–related strategies were successfully implemented in 2 or more studies, suggesting that these 7 strategies are relevant in rural communities and the

  9. Physical Activity-Related Policy and Environmental Strategies to Prevent Obesity in Rural Communities: A Systematic Review of the Literature, 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Perry, Cynthia K; Sumrall, Jasmin C; Patterson, Megan S; Walsh, Shana M; Clendennen, Stephanie C; Hooker, Steven P; Evenson, Kelly R; Goins, Karin V; Heinrich, Katie M; O'Hara Tompkins, Nancy; Eyler, Amy A; Jones, Sydney; Tabak, Rachel; Valko, Cheryl

    2016-01-07

    Health disparities exist between rural and urban residents; in particular, rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases and obesity. Evidence supports the effectiveness of policy and environmental strategies to prevent obesity and promote health equity. In 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended 24 policy and environmental strategies for use by local communities: the Common Community Measures for Obesity Prevention (COCOMO); 12 strategies focus on physical activity. This review was conducted to synthesize evidence on the implementation, relevance, and effectiveness of physical activity-related policy and environmental strategies for obesity prevention in rural communities. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINHAL, and PAIS databases for articles published from 2002 through May 2013 that reported findings from physical activity-related policy or environmental interventions conducted in the United States or Canada. Each article was extracted independently by 2 researchers. Of 2,002 articles, 30 articles representing 26 distinct studies met inclusion criteria. Schools were the most common setting (n = 18 studies). COCOMO strategies were applied in rural communities in 22 studies; the 2 most common COCOMO strategies were "enhance infrastructure supporting walking" (n = 11) and "increase opportunities for extracurricular physical activity" (n = 9). Most studies (n = 21) applied at least one of 8 non-COCOMO strategies; the most common was increasing physical activity opportunities at school outside of physical education (n = 8). Only 14 studies measured or reported physical activity outcomes (10 studies solely used self-report); 10 reported positive changes. Seven of the 12 COCOMO physical activity-related strategies were successfully implemented in 2 or more studies, suggesting that these 7 strategies are relevant in rural communities and the other 5 might be less applicable in rural communities

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL-BALANCED SCORECARD DAN ETIKA BISNIS ISLÂM (Suatu Sintesis Manajemen Strategi dalam Persaingan Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Haryanto Rudy Haryanto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Business activity is an integral part of economic discourse. Islamic economy system starts from ethical awareness. For its viability, a company runs an old fashioned-management, it is a material-prosperity attainmnet oriented. However, it results a social contradiction. In Islamic ethic, a business must combine material and moral indicators emphesizing profit and expediency harmonies. Islamic business must be on the basis of natural and human resources that is moved by a motivation of dynamic devotion. Thus, it is  significant to have a management strategy that are religious, morality, and humanity oriented. Furthermore, the paradigm change that company goal maintaining the financial aspect change into social and environmental aspects is certain.   Key Words: Manajemen srategis, etika, perusahaan, lingkungan, dan Balanced Scorecard

  11. Environmental issues and management strategies for waste electronic and electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Timothy G

    2011-06-01

    Issues surrounding the impact and management of discarded or waste electronic and electrical equipment (WEEE) have received increasing attention in recent years. This attention stems from the growing quantity and diversity of electronic and electrical equipment (EEE) used by modern society, the increasingly rapid turnover of EEE with the accompanying burden on the waste stream, and the occurrence of toxic chemicals in many EEE components that can pose a risk to human and environmental health if improperly managed. In addition, public awareness of the WEEE or "e-waste" dilemma has grown in light of popular press features on events such as the transition to digital television and the exportation of WEEE from the United States and other developed countries to Africa, China, and India, where WEEE has often not been managed in a safe manner (e.g., processed with proper safety precautions, disposed of in a sanitary landfill, combusted with proper air quality procedures). This paper critically reviews current published information on the subject of WEEE. The definition, magnitude, and characteristics of this waste stream are summarized, including a detailed review of the chemicals of concern associated with different components and how this has changed and continues to evolve over time. Current and evolving management practices are described (e.g., reuse, recycling, incineration, landfilling). This review discusses the role of regulation and policies developed by governments, institutions, and product manufacturers and how these initiatives are shaping current and future management practices.

  12. A Blueprint for Florida's Clean Energy Future - Case Study of a Regional Government's Environmental Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lowman

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available On 13 July 2007, Governor Charlie Crist of Florida signed executive orders to establish greenhouse gas emission targets that required an 80 percent reduction below 1990 levels by the year 2050. Florida is a very high-risk state with regard to climate change. Its 1,350-mile-long coastline, location in "Hurricane Alley," reliance on coral reefs and other vulnerable natural resources for its economy, and the predictions that state population could double in the next 30 years all contribute to this designation of "high-risk. As a consequence of the potential economic and ecological impacts of climate change to Florida, a series of Action Teams were created to plan for adaptation to impending environmental changes. As the 26th largest emitter of carbon dioxide on a global scale, Florida needs to act aggressively to create a clean energy footprint as part of its statewide initiatives but with global impacts. This case study examines the process and expected outcomes undertaken by a regional government that anticipates the need for stringent adaptation.

  13. Survival strategy of tick-borne encephalitis virus: cellular basis and environmental determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuda, M; Randolph, S E

    1999-12-01

    Although TBE virus can be transmitted in the laboratory by a wide variety of ixodid tick species to a wide variety of vertebrate host species, nevertheless in nature endemic cycles of TBE virus depend principally on just two tick species, Ixodes ricinus in the western and I. persulcatus in the eastern Palaearctic. A complete transmission cycle, from tick to tick via vertebrates, occurs most efficiently between co-feeding ticks in the absence of a systemic viraemia. This non-systemic route depends on TBE virus replication within particular immunocompetent cells in the skin, and only certain vertebrate species, notably Apodemus mice, are susceptible to this. Amongst the potential tick vectors in Europe, only I. ricinus has the correct host relationships and appropriate natural life cycle to support such non-systemic transmission cycles. Within the wide European distribution of this tick-host relationship, only in certain places do larval and nymphal ticks feed together on the same hosts with sufficient coincidence to ensure TBE virus survival. The environmental factors that determine this seasonal coincidence are being identified with the help of remotely-sensed meteorological satellite imagery to create predictive risk maps of TBE foci.

  14. From Admin to Strategy: The Changing Face of the HR Function. IES Report 332.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamkin, Penny; And Others

    Evidence from academic research and management experts in the United Kingdom and elsewhere confirms that the recent focus in work organizations on cost reductions through downsizing has changed the roles and structures of many human resources (HR) units. HR units have had to prove their contribution to the organization's bottom line, raise their…

  15. The IE Middle Voice: A Study in Syntactic Strategy and Syntactic Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Elizabeth

    The active/passive system of English grew out of a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) system where the fundamental distinction was between active and middle voices. The middle voice included within its functions the relationship that now would be known as passive. The PIE voice system is preserved in ancient Greek and Sanskrit, and in the former, the…

  16. Predictors of public support for nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change strategies in Los Angeles County, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Brenda; Kuo, Tony

    2017-01-13

    Since 2010, federal and local agencies have invested broadly in a variety of nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change (PSE) initiatives in Los Angeles County (LAC). To date, little is known about whether the public supports such efforts. We address this gap in the literature by examining predictors of support for a variety of PSEs. Voters residing in LAC (n=1007) were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional telephone survey commissioned by the LAC Department of Public Health. The survey asked questions about attitudes towards the obesity epidemic, nutrition knowledge and behaviours, public opinions about changing business practices/government policies related to nutrition, and sociodemographics. A factor analysis informed outcome variable selection (ie, type of PSEs). Multivariable regression analyses were performed to examine predictors of public support. Predictors in the regression models included (primary regressor) community economic hardship; (control variables) political affiliation, sex, age, race and income; and (independent variables) perceptions about obesity, perceived health and weight status, frequency reading nutrition labels, ease of finding healthy and unhealthy foods, and food consumption behaviours (ie, fruit and vegetables, non-diet soda, fast-food and sit-down restaurant meals). 3 types of PSE outcome variables were identified: promotional/incentivising, limiting/restrictive and business practices. Community economic hardship was not found to be a significant predictor of public support for any of the 3 PSE types. However, Republican party affiliation, being female and perceiving obesity as a serious health problem were. These findings have implications for public health practice and community planning in local health jurisdictions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Optimized Management of Groundwater Resources in Kish Island: A Sensitivity Analysis of Optimal Strategies in Response to Environmental Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Mahmoodzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater in coastal areas is an essential source of freshwater that warrants protection from seawater intrusion as a priority based on an optimal management plan. Proper optimal management strategies can be developed using a variety of decision-making models. The present study aims to investigate the impacts of environmental changes on groundwater resources. For this purpose, a combined simulation-optimization model is employed that incorporates the SUTRA numerical model and the evolutionaty method of ant colony optimization. The fresh groundwater lens in Kish Island is used as a case study and different scenarios are considered for the likely enviromental changes. Results indicate that while variations in recharge rate form an important factor in the fresh groundwater lens, land-surface inundation due to rises in seawater level, especially in low-lying lands, is the major factor affecting the lens. Furthermore, impacts of environmental changes when effected into the Kish Island aquifer optimization management plan have led to a reduction of more than 20% in the allowable water extraction, indicating the high sensitivity of groundwater resources management plans in small islands to such variations.

  18. Understanding and Designing the Strategies for the Microbe-Mediated Remediation of Environmental Contaminants Using Omics Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer A. Malla

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrialization and population explosion has resulted in the generation and dumping of various contaminants into the environment. These harmful compounds deteriorate the human health as well as the surrounding environments. Current research aims to harness and enhance the natural ability of different microbes to metabolize these toxic compounds. Microbial-mediated bioremediation offers great potential to reinstate the contaminated environments in an ecologically acceptable approach. However, the lack of the knowledge regarding the factors controlling and regulating the growth, metabolism, and dynamics of diverse microbial communities in the contaminated environments often limits its execution. In recent years the importance of advanced tools such as genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and fluxomics has increased to design the strategies to treat these contaminants in ecofriendly manner. Previously researchers has largely focused on the environmental remediation using single omics-approach, however the present review specifically addresses the integrative role of the multi-omics approaches in microbial-mediated bioremediation. Additionally, we discussed how the multi-omics approaches help to comprehend and explore the structural and functional aspects of the microbial consortia in response to the different environmental pollutants and presented some success stories by using these approaches.

  19. Waste management strategy for cost effective and environmentally friendly NPP decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Per Lidar; Arne Larsson [Studsvik Nuclear AB (ndcon partner), Nykoping (Sweden); Niklas Bergh; Gunnar Hedin [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB (ndcon partner), Vasteraas (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    -necks in the process causes increased space requirements and will have negative impact on the project schedule, which increases not only the cost but also the dose exposure to personnel. For these reasons it is critical to create a process that transfers material into conditioned waste ready for disposal as quickly as possible. To a certain extent the decommissioning program should be led by the waste management process. With the objective to reduce time for handling of dismantled material at site and to efficiently and environmental-friendly use waste management methods (clearance for re-use followed by clearance for recycling), the costs for the plant decommissioning could be reduced as well as time needed for performing the decommissioning project. Also, risks for delays would be reduced with a well-defined handling scheme which limits surprises. Delays are a major cost driver for decommissioning projects. (authors)

  20. Waste management strategy for cost effective and environmentally friendly NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Per Lidar; Arne Larsson; Niklas Bergh; Gunnar Hedin

    2013-01-01

    -necks in the process causes increased space requirements and will have negative impact on the project schedule, which increases not only the cost but also the dose exposure to personnel. For these reasons it is critical to create a process that transfers material into conditioned waste ready for disposal as quickly as possible. To a certain extent the decommissioning program should be led by the waste management process. With the objective to reduce time for handling of dismantled material at site and to efficiently and environmental-friendly use waste management methods (clearance for re-use followed by clearance for recycling), the costs for the plant decommissioning could be reduced as well as time needed for performing the decommissioning project. Also, risks for delays would be reduced with a well-defined handling scheme which limits surprises. Delays are a major cost driver for decommissioning projects. (authors)

  1. Overview of eutrophication indicators to assess environmental status within the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, João G.; Andersen, Jesper H.; Borja, Angel; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Camp, Jordi; Cardoso da Silva, Margarida; Garcés, Esther; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Humborg, Christoph; Ignatiades, Lydia; Lancelot, Christiane; Menesguen, Alain; Tett, Paul; Hoepffner, Nicolas; Claussen, Ulrich

    2011-06-01

    In 2009, following approval of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC), the European Commission (EC) created task groups to develop guidance for eleven quality descriptors that form the basis for evaluating ecosystem function. The objective was to provide European countries with practical guidelines for implementing the MSFD, and to produce a Commission Decision that encapsulated key points of the work in a legal framework. This paper presents a review of work carried out by the eutrophication task group, and reports our main findings to the scientific community. On the basis of an operational, management-oriented definition, we discuss the main methodologies that could be used for coastal and marine eutrophication assessment. Emphasis is placed on integrated approaches that account for physico-chemical and biological components, and combine both pelagic and benthic symptoms of eutrophication, in keeping with the holistic nature of the MSFD. We highlight general features that any marine eutrophication model should possess, rather than making specific recommendations. European seas range from highly eutrophic systems such as the Baltic to nutrient-poor environments such as the Aegean Sea. From a physical perspective, marine waters range from high energy environments of the north east Atlantic to the permanent vertical stratification of the Black Sea. This review aimed to encapsulate that variability, recognizing that meaningful guidance should be flexible enough to accommodate the widely differing characteristics of European seas, and that this information is potentially relevant in marine ecosystems worldwide. Given the spatial extent of the MSFD, innovative approaches are required to allow meaningful monitoring and assessment. Consequently, substantial logistic and financial challenges will drive research in areas such as remote sensing of harmful algal blooms, in situ sensor development, and mathematical models. Our review takes into

  2. Planning for Increased Bioenergy use - Strategies for Minimising Environmental Impacts and Analysing the Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Anna

    2006-08-01

    There are several goals aimed at increasing the use of renewable energy in the Swedish energy system. Bioenergy is one important renewable energy source and there is a potential to increase its use in the future. This thesis aimed to develop and analyse strategies and tools that could be used when planning for conversion to bioenergy-based heating systems and the building of new residential areas with bioenergy-based heating. The goal was to enable the increase of bioenergy and simultaneously minimise the negative health effects caused by emissions associated with the combustion of bioenergy. The thesis consists of two papers. Paper I concerned existing residential areas and conversion from electric heating and individual heating systems, such as firewood and oil boilers, to more modern and low-emitting pellet techniques and small-scale district heating. Paper II concerned new residential areas and how to integrate bioenergy-based heating systems that cause impacts on local air quality into the physical planning process through using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and a meteorological dispersion model, ALARM. The results from Paper I indicated that it was possible to convert areas currently using electric heating to pellet techniques and small-scale district heating without degrading local air quality. Furthermore, it was possible to decrease high emissions caused by firewood boilers by replacing them with pellet boilers. The results from Paper II highlighted that GIS and ALARM were advantageous for analysing local air quality characteristics when planning for new residential areas and before a residential area is built: thus, avoiding negative impacts caused by bioenergy-based combustion. In conclusion, the work procedures developed in this thesis can be used to counteract negative impacts on local air quality with increasing use of bioenergy in the heating system. Analysis of potentially negative aspects before conversion to bioenergy-based heating

  3. The effectiveness of environmental strategies on noise reduction in a pediatric intensive care unit: creation of single-patient bedrooms and reducing noise sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, Emine; Aydın, Perihan; Dursun, Oguz

    2015-07-01

    Noise is a substantial problem for both patients and healthcare workers in hospitals. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of environmental strategies (creating single-patient rooms and reducing noise sources) in noise reduction in a pediatric intensive care unit. Noise measurement in the unit was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, measurements aimed at determining the unit's present level of noise were performed over 4 weeks in December 2013. During the month following the first measurement phase, the intensive care unit (ICU) was moved to a new location and noise-reducing strategies were implemented. The second phase, in May 2014, measured noise levels in the newly constructed environment. The noise levels before and after environmental changes were statistically significant at 72.6 dB-A and 56 dB-A, respectively (p noise-reducing strategies can be effective in controlling environmental noise in the ICU. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Development of integrated scenarios to attain the environmental aims of the national sustainability strategy; Entwicklung von integrierten Szenarien zur Erreichung der umweltbezogenen Ziele der Nationalen Nachhaltigkeitsstrategie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Alexander; Rammig, Hanna [ScMI AG Paderborn (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    The national sustainability strategy (NHS) shall significantly shape the direction of the sustainable development in Germany. It is aim of the project ''Development of integrated scenarios to attain the environmental aims of the national sustainability strategy'' to develop different options, of how to possibly approach the environmental aims of the national sustainability strategy. In a first step external scenarios were developed, which describe the national sustainability strategy. In a first step external scenarios were developed, which describe the external context for the embodiment of sustainability. In a second step, option scenarios which show alternatives for different actor groups were built for the three areas ''Leisure time, living and alimentation''. In a third step the combination of the different external scenarios and internal options has been conducted, how do the different solution areas fit to the external scenarios.

  5. Irradiation effects test series test IE-1 test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quapp, W.J.; Allison, C.M.; Farrar, L.C.; Mehner, A.S.

    1977-03-01

    The report describes the results of the first programmatic test in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Irradiation Effects Test Series. This test (IE-1) used four 0.97m long PWR-type fuel rods fabricated from previously irradiated Saxton fuel. The objectives of this test were to evaluate the effect of fuel pellet density on pellet-cladding interaction during a power ramp and to evaluate the influence of the irradiated state of the fuel and cladding on rod behavior during film boiling operation. Data are presented on the behavior of irradiated fuel rods during steady-state operation, a power ramp, and film boiling operation. The effects of as-fabricated gap size, as-fabricated fuel density, rod power, and power ramp rate on pellet-cladding interaction are discussed. Test data are compared with FRAP-T2 computer model predictions, and comments on the consequences of sustained film boiling operation on irradiated fuel rod behavior are provided

  6. Analysis of socio-environmental benefits from the implementation of cleaner production strategies in the agricultural sector of the middle reaches of the river chinchiná, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Florez Yepes, Gloria Yaneth; Calderon Cuartas, Paola Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the socio-environmental benefits generated by the implementation of cleaner production strategies in the agriculture and livestock sectors, in the middle part of the Chinchina river basin, Colombia. The methodology involves recording of field data on the basis of interviews and semi-structured dialogue; processing and analysis of data on the basis of matrix adaptation and network diagramming; and assessment of socio-environmental benefits, with determina...

  7. Irradiation Effects Test Series: Test IE-3. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, L.C.; Allison, C.M.; Croucher, D.W.; Ploger, S.A.

    1977-10-01

    The objectives of the test reported were to: (a) determine the behavior of irradiated fuel rods subjected to a rapid power increase during which the possibility of a pellet-cladding mechanical interaction failure is enhanced and (b) determine the behavior of these fuel rods during film boiling following this rapid power increase. Test IE-3 used four 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods fabricated from previously irradiated fuel. The fuel rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, followed by a power ramp to 69 kW/m at a coolant mass flux of 4920 kg/s-m 2 . After a flow reduction to 2120 kg/s-m 2 , film boiling occurred on the fuel rods. One rod failed approximately 45 seconds after the reactor was shut down as a result of cladding embrittlement due to extensive cladding oxidation. Data are presented on the behavior of these irradiated fuel rods during steady-state operation, the power ramp, and film boiling operation. The effects of a power ramp and power ramp rates on pellet-cladding interaction are discussed. Test data are compared with FRAP-T3 computer model calculations and data from a previous Irradiation Effects test in which four irradiated fuel rods of a similar design were tested. Test IE-3 results indicate that the irradiated state of the fuel rods did not significantly affect fuel rod behavior during normal, abnormal (power ramp of 20 kW/m per minute), and accident (film boiling) conditions

  8. Peasant reproduction and local knowledge in contexts of social and environmental fragility. Family and community strategies in the mountain range of Tentzo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez Corona

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of research conducted in the city of San Antonio Juarez, Tzicatlacoyan township, in the state of Puebla, Mexico. The objective was to determine the reproductive strategies of domestic groups peasants, facing adverse environmental conditions that severely restrict the development of agriculture. From qualitative and quantitative techniques, it was found the presence of different reproduction strategies, at the neighborhood level, based on local knowledge, the gender division of labor and domestic level organization and community group.

  9. PECULIARITIES OF CONSTRUCTION OF INSTITUTIONS OF SECONDARY EDUCATION IN MOSCOW IN THE 1920IES AND 1930IES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byzova Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Actions aimed at the generality of elementary education in the course of the period days of the industrialization and cultural revolution in the USSR is under discussion in the proposed paper. On the basis of the archived documents, organization of construction of school buildings in Moscow in the 20ies and 30ies of the 20th century is analyzed. It is noteworthy that industrialization in the periods of the first, second and third five-year plans reshaped the country and Moscow as its capital. Former suburbs turned into large industrial areas that had giant factories and housing built around them to accommodate workers. Thus, the population of Moscow grew in numbers. The need for competent staff facilitated construction of new schools. Peculiarities of school construction in Moscow within the first five-year plan are considered in article on the basis of a school building in Likhobory in 1932. The school building design, work progress, assembly and interior, deadlines and problems of construction are specified. It is noteworthy that, despite any difficulties, 19 new school buildings were completed in Moscow in the years of the first five-year plan. Classes were organized according to the principle of two shifts to implement the general education programme in 1932.

  10. Assessing District-Heating Sustainability. Case Studies of CO{sub 2} Mitigation Strategies and Environmental Cost Accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Elsa

    2012-11-01

    District heating (DH) may play an important role in achieving the EU goal of a secure, competitive and sustainable energy supply. Integrated energy solutions based on technologies, such as biomass gasification for transport fuel, electricity and heat production and heat-driven absorption cooling, create new optimisation possibilities through the linkage between heat, power, cooling and transport fuel markets which may reduce the global warming contribution of the energy sector. With increasing focus on climate change impacts of greenhouse gas emissions, the environmental effects of other air pollutants should not be neglected. To achieve both a competitive and a sustainable energy supply, it is necessary to integrate environmental considerations into economic policies. Through accounting for external costs of air pollution in energy system modelling and analysis, sustainability aspects may be integrated into DH assessments. The aim of this thesis is to develop, apply and evaluate methodologies for assessing conventional and new technology solutions in a DH system; the assessments are made from a DH perspective with respect to two factors - cost-effectiveness and environmental impacts - which are either assessed separately or integrated through external cost accounting. Various CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies are evaluated with regard to the robustness of the DH system in meeting future developments of energy market prices and policies. The studies are performed using a systems approach by using the simulating DH supply model MARTES as applied to the DH system Sweden. This thesis concludes that the integration of biomass gasification technology and absorption cooling technology in DH systems has the potential for cost-effective CO{sub 2} emission reduction, in line with other EU goals to increase the share of renewable sources in energy use and to increase energy efficiency. Accounting for external costs of not only climate change but also other environmental

  11. Improved detection of multiple environmental antibiotics through an optimized sample extraction strategy in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xinzhu; Bayen, Stéphane; Kelly, Barry C; Li, Xu; Zhou, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    A solid-phase extraction/liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/multi-stage mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was optimized in this study for sensitive and simultaneous detection of multiple antibiotics in urban surface waters and soils. Among the seven classes of tested antibiotics, extraction efficiencies of macrolides, lincosamide, chloramphenicol, and polyether antibiotics were significantly improved under optimized sample extraction pH. Instead of only using acidic extraction in many existing studies, the results indicated that antibiotics with low pK a values (antibiotics with high pK a values (>7) were extracted more efficiently under neutral conditions. The effects of pH were more obvious on polar compounds than those on non-polar compounds. Optimization of extraction pH resulted in significantly improved sample recovery and better detection limits. Compared with reported values in the literature, the average reduction of minimal detection limits obtained in this study was 87.6% in surface waters (0.06-2.28 ng/L) and 67.1% in soils (0.01-18.16 ng/g dry wt). This method was subsequently applied to detect antibiotics in environmental samples in a heavily populated urban city, and macrolides, sulfonamides, and lincomycin were frequently detected. Antibiotics with highest detected concentrations were sulfamethazine (82.5 ng/L) in surface waters and erythromycin (6.6 ng/g dry wt) in soils. The optimized sample extraction strategy can be used to improve the detection of a variety of antibiotics in environmental surface waters and soils.

  12. Integrating pro-environmental behavior with transportation network modeling: User and system level strategies, implementation, and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, H. M. Abdul

    Personal transport is a leading contributor to fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse (GHG) emissions in the U.S. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports that light-duty vehicles (LDV) are responsible for 61% of all transportation related energy consumption in 2012, which is equivalent to 8.4 million barrels of oil (fossil fuel) per day. The carbon content in fossil fuels is the primary source of GHG emissions that links to the challenge associated with climate change. Evidently, it is high time to develop actionable and innovative strategies to reduce fuel consumption and GHG emissions from the road transportation networks. This dissertation integrates the broader goal of minimizing energy and emissions into the transportation planning process using novel systems modeling approaches. This research aims to find, investigate, and evaluate strategies that minimize carbon-based fuel consumption and emissions for a transportation network. We propose user and system level strategies that can influence travel decisions and can reinforce pro-environmental attitudes of road users. Further, we develop strategies that system operators can implement to optimize traffic operations with emissions minimization goal. To complete the framework we develop an integrated traffic-emissions (EPA-MOVES) simulation framework that can assess the effectiveness of the strategies with computational efficiency and reasonable accuracy. The dissertation begins with exploring the trade-off between emissions and travel time in context of daily travel decisions and its heterogeneous nature. Data are collected from a web-based survey and the trade-off values indicating the average additional travel minutes a person is willing to consider for reducing a lb. of GHG emissions are estimated from random parameter models. Results indicate that different trade-off values for male and female groups. Further, participants from high-income households are found to have higher trade-off values

  13. Postirradiation examination results for the Irradiation Effects Test IE-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, T.F.; Ploger, S.A.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1978-03-01

    The results are presented of the postirradiation examination of four pressurized water reactor type fuel rods which were tested in-pile under a fast power ramp and film boiling operation during Irradiation Effects (IE) Test 5. The major objectives of this test were to evaluate the effects of simulated fission products on fuel rod behavior during a fast power ramp, to determine the effects of high initial internal pressure on a fuel rod during film boiling, and to assess fuel rod property changes that occur during film boiling in a fuel rod with previously irradiated cladding. The overall condition of the rods and changes that occurred in fuel and cladding as a result of the power ramp and film boiling operation, as determined from the postirradiation examination, are reported and analyzed. Effects of the simulated fission products on fuel rod behavior during a power ramp are discussed. The effect of high internal pressure on rod behavior during film boiling is evaluated. Cladding temperatures are estimated at various axial and circumferential locations. Cladding embrittlement by oxidation is also assessed

  14. Irradiation effects test series, test IE-5. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croucher, D.W.; Yackle, T.R.; Allison, C.M.; Ploger, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Test IE-5, conducted in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, employed three 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods, fabricated from previously irradiated zircaloy-4 cladding and one similar rod fabricated from unirradiated cladding. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the influence of simulated fission products, cladding irradiation damage, and fuel rod internal pressure on pellet-cladding interaction during a power ramp and on fuel rod behavior during film boiling operation. The four rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, a power ramp to an average fuel rod peak power of 65 kW/m, and steady state operation for one hour at a coolant mass flux of 4880 kg/s-m 2 for each rod. After a flow reduction to 1800 kg/s-m 2 , film boiling occurred on one rod. Additional flow reductions to 970 kg/s-m 2 produced film boiling on the three remaining fuel rods. Maximum time in film boiling was 80s. The rod having the highest initial internal pressure (8.3 MPa) failed 10s after the onset of film boiling. A second rod failed about 90s after reactor shutdown. The report contains a description of the experiment, the test conduct, test results, and results from the preliminary postirradiation examination. Calculations using a transient fuel rod behavior code are compared with the test results

  15. Irradiation Effects Test Series: Test IE-2. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, C.M.; Croucher, D.W.; Ploger, S.A.; Mehner, A.S.

    1977-08-01

    The report describes the results of a test using four 0.97-m long PWR-type fuel rods with differences in diametral gap and cladding irradiation. The objective of this test was to provide information about the effects of these differences on fuel rod behavior during quasi-equilibrium and film boiling operation. The fuel rods were subjected to a series of preconditioning power cycles of less than 30 kW/m. Rod powers were then increased to 68 kW/m at a coolant mass flux of 4900 kg/s-m 2 . After one hour at 68 kW/m, a power-cooling-mismatch sequence was initiated by a flow reduction at constant power. At a flow of 2550 kg/s-m 2 , the onset of film boiling occurred on one rod, Rod IE-011. An additional flow reduction to 2245 kg/s-m 2 caused the onset of film boiling on the remaining three rods. Data are presented on the behavior of fuel rods during quasiequilibrium and during film boiling operation. The effects of initial gap size, cladding irradiation, rod power cycling, a rapid power increase, and sustained film boiling are discussed. These discussions are based on measured test data, preliminary postirradiation examination results, and comparisons of results with FRAP-T3 computer model calculations

  16. Using evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental strategies to increase access to healthy food and opportunities for physical activity among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shilpa; Kwon, Simona; Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Chung, Marianne; Ko Chin, Kathy; Rideout, Catlin; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-07-01

    Recent initiatives have focused on the dissemination of evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental (EBPSE) strategies to reduce health disparities. Targeted, community-level efforts are needed to supplement these approaches for comparable results among Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs).The STRIVE Project funded 15 Asian American and NHPI community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement culturally adapted strategies. Partners reached more than 1.4 million people at a cost of $2.04 per person. CBOs are well positioned to implement EBPSE strategies to reduce health disparities.

  17. Effect of feeding strategy on environmental impacts of pig fattening in different contexts of production: evaluation through life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, A N T R; Garcia-Launay, F; Brossard, L; Wilfart, A; Dourmad, J-Y

    2016-11-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used in many studies to evaluate the effect of feeding strategy on the environmental impact of pig production. However, because most studies have been conducted in European conditions, the question of possible interactions with the context of production is still under debate. The objective of this study was to evaluate these effects in 2 contrasted geographic contexts of production, South America (Brazil) and Europe (France). The LCA considered the process of pig fattening, including production and transport of feed ingredients and feed, raising of fattening pigs, and manure storage, transport, and spreading. Impacts were calculated at the farm gate, and the functional unit considered was 1 kg of BW gain over the fattening period. The performances of pigs were simulated for each scenario using the InraPorc population model (2,000 pigs per scenario considering between-animal variability). The LCA calculations were performed for each pig according to its own performance and excretion, and the results were subjected to variance analysis. The results indicate that for some impacts there are clear interactions between the effects of the feeding program, the origin of soybean, and the location of production. For climate change, interest in phase feeding and incorporation of crystalline AA (CAA) is limited and even counterproductive in Brazil with soybeans from the South (without deforestation), whereas they appear to be efficient strategies with soybeans from the Center West (with deforestation), especially in France. Rather similar effects, as those for climate change, were observed for cumulative energy demand. Conversely, potential eutrophication and acidification impacts were reduced by phase feeding and CAA addition in a rather similar way in all situations. Individual daily feeding, the only strategy that took into account between-animal variability, was the most effective approach for reducing the life cycle impact of pig

  18. How does a medium-sized enterprise shape an environmental strategy: a case study in two companies from Bogotá, Colombia Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Latorre Carrillo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg This research study is based on Mintzberg´s theories (emerging and deliberate strategies as well as on Strategy as Practice. These theories are contrasted with the study outcomes of a multiple descriptive case done in two PyMES which are part of an Environmental Management Program of the Local Environmental Office of Bogota. This Case Study involved a service company and a production company which applied participative observation and a semi- structure interview as methods used to collect data. The authors accompanied both companies in the process of designing a strategic environmental plan, collecting information which revealed that the applied strategies were deliberate, led by middle manage-ment and arose as an answer to pressures exerted by the most stakeholders for the company. The results of this study showed the applicability of these conceptual frameworks to Colombian contexts and represented an important support to the study of environmental strategies in such contexts.

  19. Renewable and sustainable bioenergies production from palm oil mill effluent (POME): win-win strategies toward better environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil industry is one of the leading agricultural industries in Malaysia with average crude palm oil production of more than 13 million tonne per year. However, production of such huge amount of crude palm oil has consequently resulted to even larger amount of palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is a highly polluting wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in which can caused severe pollution to the environment, typically pollution to water resources. On the other hand, POME was identified as a potential source to generate renewable bioenergies such as biomethane and biohydrogen through anaerobic digestion. In other words, a combination of wastewater treatment and renewable bioenergies production would be an added advantage to the palm oil industry. In line with the world's focus on sustainability concept, such strategy should be implemented immediately to ensure palm oil is produced in an environmental friendly and sustainable manner. This review aims to discuss various technologies to convert POME to biomethane and biohydrogen in a commercial scale. Furthermore, discussion on using POME to culture microalgae for biodiesel and bioethanol production was included in the present paper as a new remedy to utilize POME with a greater beneficial return. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmental dynamic, business strategy, and financial performance: An empirical study of Indonesian property and real estate industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Wahyudi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Firm’s strategic orientation involves synchronizing environmental dynamics, corporate strategy and capital structure in order to achieve firm performance targets. The co-alignment model used successfully in the hospitality industry might be used in a wider context as a framework in explaining these relationships simultaneously. Using the data of public firms in Indonesia during the period of 1996-2010, we found that co-alignment model can be implemented in property and real estate industry as well as in hospitality industry. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  1. Energy Efficiency in Building as a Basic Prerequisite for a Long Term Energy Strategies Realization, Environmental Protection and Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miscevic, Lj.

    2006-01-01

    Energy efficiency in buildings at the low-energy and 'passive house' standard levels is presently the basic prerequisite for considering and formulating long term strategies, which with the task of meeting energy needs and system maintenance respond to requests of environmental protection and improvements in the context of sustainable development. Orientation to sustainable development is integrated in the development strategies of Croatia. The application of renewable energy sources, in particular solar energy in passive and active systems in the architecture is permanently confirmed by conducting energy monitoring and growing number of domestic studies, projects and realizations. The long-time research project of the European Union Cost Efficient Passive Houses as European Standards (CEPHEUS) with scientific monitoring corroborated energy and economic efficiency of such architectural designs in Germany, France, Austria, and Switzerland. Thus, the 'passive house' is proposed as a standard of residential architecture, but also of the construction of other functional types of architecture in general. The accomplished energy efficiency and verified favorable profitability of investment developed new forms of incentives to low-energy and passive architecture and relevant changes in concepts of long term energy strategies in the European Union member states. In Austria the 1000th passive house was built, and the city of Frankfurt/M brought decision regarding financing building construction through the city budget at the 'passive house' level. The new Technical Regulation on energy savings and thermal protection in Croatia, which is effectively in force as of 1 July, is a long-awaited step towards energy efficiency. Although, according to this Regulation the tolerance in energy use for space heating goes, in worst case calculation, up to 89 kWh/m2 a year, any other more favorable calculation with obligation to calculate the share of solar radiation for buildings, opens

  2. Environmental report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-06-15

    As the electricity and natural gas transmission system operator in Denmark, Energinet.dk is obliged by the Danish Electricity Supply Act to prepare an annual environmental report for the purpose of creating an overview of the environmental conditions in the electricity sector. The environmental report also contributes to assessing the objectives implemented in Danish environmental and energy strategies. Environmental Report 2010 describes the most significant environmental impact of electricity and CHP production in Denmark and of the operation of the electricity and natural gas transmission systems. Environmental Report 2010 deals with the following five main topics: 1) A status of the environmental impact of the Danish power system in 2009. The status includes the most important key figures for electricity and CHP production, electricity exchange with neighbouring countries, and emissions of the substances subject to the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, ie carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). 2) The Environmental Impact Statement for electricity, which states the environmental impact of consuming one kWh of electricity. The statement accounts for a total of eight emissions to the air, seven residual products and eight fuel types. 3) Historical analysis of the environmental conditions in the electricity sector in the 1990-2020 period and a forecast of the future environmental impact of the electricity sector until 2020. An account is given of developments in electricity consumption, power generation, fuel consumption and emissions of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. 4) The environmental impact of transporting electricity and natural gas in the electricity and natural gas transmission systems and of storing natural gas in Energinet.dk's gas storage facility in Lille Torup. 5) Energinet.dk's own environmental activities. Here, some of Energinet.dk's other environmental activities, which are not

  3. The Role of Solidarity(-ies) in Rare Diseases Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascalzoni, Deborah; Petrini, Carlo; Taruscio, Domenica; Gainotti, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    reciprocity (not one sided). The context of solidarity(ies) provides a solid base for framing the research endeavor as collectively valuable, not only for possible results of the research, but as intrinsic valid societal practice. This paper tries to draw the lessons on solidarity that we can derive from the RD world where "solidarities" have been part of the game for long time and are declined on many different levels.

  4. The relationship between community nutritionists' use of policy, systems and environmental strategies to prevent obesity and its determinants depends on networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Angela H; Dickin, Katherine L; Constas, Mark A; Dollahite, Jamie S

    2017-08-01

    To apply the Theory of Planned Behaviour to examine the relationship between the constructs of background factors and beliefs towards using policy, systems and environmental (PSE) strategies and reported use of PSE strategies to prevent obesity by a group of professional nutrition educators. Cross-sectional study using self-reported survey. Cooperative Extension in New York, USA. Nutrition educators (n 58); survey response rate 100 %. Nutrition educators' reported use of PSE strategies to prevent obesity were positively associated with background factors of their community networking and number of staff they managed, their belief of other people's expectations of them to make PSE changes and the belief that their communities were ready to use PSE strategies; and negatively associated with their belief that individual-level factors contributed to obesity. The relationships among these variables were complicated and their use of PSE strategies occurred only when they utilized their professional networks at a moderately high level (above mean of 5·3 on a scale of 1-7), given that their community was also ready to use PSE strategies. Nutrition educators' use of PSE strategies depends on several internal and external factors. Community networking needs to be emphasized as one of the most significant factors contributing to nutrition educators' work in this area. Organizational and community support should be in place in order to facilitate nutrition educators' effective use of PSE strategies.

  5. A successful programmatic structure and strategies to attract and educate students in earth and environmental sciences: an example from the University of Delaware, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, Delphis

    2013-04-01

    The achievement of sustainable use of our natural world is one of the major issues confronting humankind today. Environmental issues are inherently complex and difficult to resolve. Successful resolution of our most pressing environmental problems, such as climate change and ocean acidification, will require well-trained earth and environmental scientists that think critically in a multi-dimensional framework at variable spatial and temporal scales. This begs the question as to how we can both attract and successfully educate students in such a way that will permit them to tackle the multitude of environmental problems currently facing society. This poster details one way to successfully attract and train students in an interdisciplinary environmental education framework by sharing: (1) some of the successful strategies and programmatic structure of the University of Delaware's undergraduate environmental programs that have grown over 60% in two years after a major programmatic revision; and (2) the current round of programmatic revisions that will complete the strategic planning process.* The interdisciplinary environmental education program at the University of Delaware has a strong programmatic core that provides students with the requisite quantitative training and field experience to solve complicated environmental issues. At the same time, the environmental program includes the social, political, and economic contexts of environmental issues. Together, these two parts of the core best equip students to mitigate environmental problems. Following a strategic planning effort, the University of Delaware is building upon past successes in training environmental scientists and managers by further reformulating its environmental programs to leverage the power of theme-based learning which complements the programmatic core in such a way to teach problem-solving skills. This poster details the multidimensional nature of the University of Delaware's environmental

  6. International experts' conference 'Promotion of environmental protection at municipal level - strategies and approaches for action' in preparation of the UN conference on environment and development (UNCED)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapelfeldt, U.; Klassen, I.

    1992-02-01

    This meeting took place in Berlin in February 1992 in the run-up to the Rio UNCED conference. The proceedings compile the schedule, the opening speeches and the papers contributed on different subjects by the working groups. A declaration ('Berlin Declaration') was passed to summarize some important statements and central targets: An environmentally compatible market economy is an essential prerequisite for a lasting ecologically acceptable development of the urban areas; the towns and cities are the natural allies of the corresponding environmental policies; urban development strategies must comprise all fields which are of environmental relevance; urban development and municipal pollution abatement are interdependent; there must be enough room for sufficiently autonomous decision-making and development at the local level to ensure, last but not least, an efficient municipal environmental management (orig./HP) [de

  7. A summary of the performance of exposure rate and dose rate instruments contained in instrument evaluation reports NRPB-IE1 to NRPB-IE13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Iles, W.J.

    1979-06-01

    The various radiations encountered in radiological protection cover a wide range of energies and radiation measurements have to be carried out under an equally broad spectrum of environmental conditions. This report is one of a series intended to give information on the performance characteristics of radiological protection instruments, to assist in the selection of appropriate instruments for a given purpose, to interpret the results obtained with such instruments, and, in particular, to know the likely sources and magnitude of errors that might be associated with measurements in the field. The radiation, electrical and environmental characteristics of radiation protection instruments are considered together with those aspects of the construction which make an instrument convenient for routine use. To provide consistent criteria for instrument performance, the range of tests performed on any particular class of instrument, the test methods and the criteria of acceptable performance are based broadly on the appropriate Recommendations of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The radiations in the tests are, in general, selected from the range of reference radiations for instrument calibration being drawn up by the International Standards Organisation. Normally, each report deals with the capabilities and limitations of one model of instrument and no direct comparison with other instruments intended for similar purposes is made, since the significance of particular performance characteristics largely depends on the radiations and environmental conditions in which the instrument is to be used. The results quoted here have all been obtained from tests on instruments in routine production, with the appropriate measurements being made by the NRPB. This report provides a concise summary of measurements of the more important performance characteristics of radiation protection dose rate or exposure rate survey instruments which have been assessed by NRPB as part

  8. Potential impact on air pollution from ambitious national CO2 emission abatement strategies in the Nordic countries – environmental links between the UNFCCC and the UNECE – CLRTAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Åström, Stefan; Tohka, Antti; Bak, Jesper; Lindblad, Maria; Arnell, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    This article presents results from a meta-study of Nordic low carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission scenarios. The focus of the study was to explore possible environmental impacts if selected Nordic low CO 2 emission scenarios were achieved by 2020. The impacts of concern were climate change, acidification, eutrophication and human health. Results from this study indicate that large scale reduction of CO 2 emissions by 2020 in a Nordic energy system requires large scale penetration of technical measures and structural changes. The environmental improvements achieved would most often facilitate achievement of air pollution targets as well as post-Kyoto targets for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. All scenarios do, however, not imply co-benefits between air pollution and CO 2 emission reductions and the net impact on climate change could be smaller than anticipated. A conclusion is that co-benefits and risks for trade-offs between air quality and climate change should be emphasised in the development of low-CO 2 energy and emission strategies. - Highlights: ► CO 2 abatement strategies differ in impact on environment, human health and climate. ► Bio fuel CO 2 strategies can imply smaller climate and environmental benefits. ► Nordic ‘clean’ electricity export can give environmental benefits if replacing coal.

  9. Approach and strategy for performing ecological risk assessments for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Office Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, G.W. II; Redfearn, A.; White, R.K.; Shaw, R.A.

    1992-07-01

    This document is intended to supplement exiting US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidance for ecological risk assessment at hazardous waste sites by providing guidance that is more specific and more tailored to US Department of Energy sites than the guidance available from the EPA. However, it is a conceptual strategy document and does not include specific guidance on data, assumptions, and models. That detailed guidance is under development and will be presented in subsequent documents. Ecological risk assessments are equal to human health risk assessments in regulatory importance and can use many of the same data and some of the same estimation methods. However, they also have peculiar data needs and methods. Ecological risk assessments begin with an initial scoping phase, termed hazard definition, that characterizes the sources, the potentially environment, and the assessment endpoints. In the subsequent measurement and estimation phase, in which data are obtained concerning source of the endpoint biota to the contaminants and the effects of those exposures, and assumptions and models are used to relate the data to the desired exposure and effects parameters. Finally, in an integration phase, termed risk characterization, the various exposure and effects estimates are combined to infer the existence, cause, magnitude, and extent of effects of contaminants on the ecological endpoints. This phase is much more complicated for ecological risk assessments than for human health assessments because more types of data are available. Ecological risk assessments estimate effects using laboratory toxicity test results, like human health assessments, but also use results of ambient toxicity tests and biological surveys

  10. Global environmental policy strategies. ''Environment and development'' in north-south relations. Strategien globaler Umweltpolitik. ''Umwelt und Entwicklung'' in den Nord-Sued-Beziehungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruckmeier, K

    1994-01-01

    Global environmental policy has hardly made headway after the United Nations World Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio in June 1992, despite there being no shortage of programmes, institutions, and actors. Obviously, formal structures for political action based on the system of institutions of the United Nations do not suffice. Global environmental policy strategies must reach further, overcoming system-immanent obstacles to sustainable development. This necessitates analyzing the causes of environmental destruction and making a critical evaluation of the relations between the societies of the North and South that received their imprint from development policies. Only after such a preliminary elucidation by interdisciplinary approaches in the light of political and ecological economy and human ecology does an empirical analysis of politically controlled processes in environmental and development policy make sense. The analysis points to strategies for this international political field that rely on non-governmental actors and social movements, and question the traditional European model of an environmental policy determined by government institutions. (orig./UA)

  11. The need for combining IEA and IE tools. The potential effects of a global ban on PVC on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, Rene; Van der Voet, Ester; Udo de Haes, Helias A.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decades the concepts of Integrated Environmental Assessment (IEA) and Industrial Ecology (IE), both claiming to provide analyses and solutions for sustainability issues, have been developed separately as they emerged in response to questions from different policy-fields. In both fields, specific tools are used to support national and international environmental policy. The focus of IEA and IE tools, however, is different. IEA tools focus on one or a limited number of specific environmental issues. They often model the chain environmental processes with high spatial (and temporal) resolution, but have a low resolution for the material structure of the economy and only partly take into account indirect effects that occur via physical and socio-economic linkages. IE tools take into account all environmental issues related to a specific substance or product. They have a high resolution for the material structure of the economy and take into account indirect effects that occur via physical linkages, however, their environmental modelling is very limited. Both IE and IEA tools have proven to be very useful and neither is superior to the other. However, a combination of both can provide additional information that can be used for more effective policy making. We use the case of a hypothetical world-wide ban on PVC to show that a measure that is not directly related to climate change could still have significant climate effects. This indirect effect is a result of the linkages of material flows in society. We show that IEA tools are not well suited to include these types of effects and that IE tools can fill this gap partially. What is really needed is a broader systems perspective that takes into account the full range of possible side-effects of environmental policy measures. (author)

  12. Agro forestry systems and food security among smallholder farmers of the Brazilian Amazon: A strategy for environmental global crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Dr. Santiago de Lucimar; Watanabe, Dr. Maria Aico

    2008-01-01

    The Amazon is known for its environmental importance for the climatic equilibrium, for its abundance and richness in biodiversity and its preservation is important to reduce global heating. Nevertheless, little research has analysed the possible positive role of the local farm population for environmental conservation. The paper investigates the possibility to conciliate the environmental conservation with the small farming expansion in the Amazon, to build agrobiodiversity, and at the same t...

  13. Strategies for the implementation of an environmental mining plan of the construction materials in Bogota. Phase 1 Diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Oviedo, Leopoldo; Parrado L, Guillermo; Cardenas, John Fernan

    1995-01-01

    The study contains the geologic aspects, miners and environmental of 10 areas selected in Bogota where construction materials exist, like they are sands, clays, and gravels, in each area a definition is made, the productive units are described, reserves, mining production and environmental impacts are given generated by the material exploitation; a prioritizing of potential areas is included to implement a miner-environmental plan of this industry in Bogota

  14. Many and small or large and few? A comparison of the environmental effects of different strategies for the development of hydropower plants.; Mange og smaa eller store og faa? En sammenligning av miljoevirkningene ved ulike strategier for utvikling av vannkraft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Tor Haakon; Sundt, Haakon; Ruud, Audun

    2012-11-01

    This study compared the cumulative environmental impact of 27 small hydro power plants to the environmental impact of an average of three large hydropower plants, which range from the small farms and the average of the major producing about as much energy. Based on the empirical basis used in this study are the environmental impacts of large hydropower fewer and less severe than the cumulative environmental impacts from the 27 small plants. The results are, however marginal in favor of big hydro power plants and suffers from uncertainties due to lack of precision in the raw data, limitations of the methodic of accumulating environmental effects of many small facilities and extensive use of discretion in the transition between the scientific description of the environmental impacts and impact classes (Statens Vegvesen, 2006). The input data in the study has primarily been published available environmental impact assessment (KU). The results must therefore be said to have limited power statement in order to draw general conclusions. The identified environmental effects are to some extent, different from the type and size, so that an individual valuation and political or administrative priorities will to a large extent determine the preferred strategy for the development of hydropower. From 2012 promoted the production stimulating action as a result of common certificate market with Sweden. Small hydro power plants has so far been a priority in Norway, but when Norway implements EU Water Framework Directive in all areas of precipitation, one should be aware of our findings, especially regarding the potential in expanding of existing hydropower plants. (auth)

  15. A Study on the Impact of Marketing Capability, Operations Capability, Environmental Capability and Diversification Strategy on the Performance of Hotel Industry in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, YUBO

    2009-01-01

    Hotel industry has been an increasingly significant service industry across the whole world. The performance measurement method is crucial for hotels’ operations. This study examines the impacts of marketing capability, operations capability, environmental capability and diversification strategy on the business performance of hotel industry in the UK. Based on the financial archival data in the database and information obtained in the firm websites from 2004 to 2007, the investigation is carr...

  16. Fundamental Dimensions of Environmental Risk : The Impact of Harsh versus Unpredictable Environments on the Evolution and Development of Life History Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J; Figueredo, Aurelio José; Brumbach, Barbara H; Schlomer, Gabriel L

    2009-06-01

    The current paper synthesizes theory and data from the field of life history (LH) evolution to advance a new developmental theory of variation in human LH strategies. The theory posits that clusters of correlated LH traits (e.g., timing of puberty, age at sexual debut and first birth, parental investment strategies) lie on a slow-to-fast continuum; that harshness (externally caused levels of morbidity-mortality) and unpredictability (spatial-temporal variation in harshness) are the most fundamental environmental influences on the evolution and development of LH strategies; and that these influences depend on population densities and related levels of intraspecific competition and resource scarcity, on age schedules of mortality, on the sensitivity of morbidity-mortality to the organism's resource-allocation decisions, and on the extent to which environmental fluctuations affect individuals versus populations over short versus long timescales. These interrelated factors operate at evolutionary and developmental levels and should be distinguished because they exert distinctive effects on LH traits and are hierarchically operative in terms of primacy of influence. Although converging lines of evidence support core assumptions of the theory, many questions remain unanswered. This review demonstrates the value of applying a multilevel evolutionary-developmental approach to the analysis of a central feature of human phenotypic variation: LH strategy.

  17. Sustainability strategies in industrial supply networks: an innovation approach concerning environmental and social aspects in the clothing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, H.W.M.; van Bommel, Henricus Wilhelmus Maria

    2016-01-01

    Many different theories are found to explain how industrial companies implement sustainability strategies in their supply networks. However, the question why companies in a similar position choose different strategies remains under discussed. It is this question the research of this study seeks to

  18. INTERIM REPORT, DEVELOP A COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT STRATEGY: PREPARE TO IMPLEMENT A COHORT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    IntroductionThe National Children's Study (NCS) is an ambitious undertaking: a 20-year prospective cohortstudy that will investigate the relationships between a broad range of environmental factors and the healthand well-being of children. Approximately 10...

  19. Value creation strategies in credence food productions. The case of organic farming in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascucci, S.; Capitanio, F.; Giudice, Del T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyse different strategies used by Italian organic farmers to create value from credence food production. More specifically, we consider the following strategies: participation in policy support programmes (i.e. rural development measures and agro-environmental schemes), direct

  20. The end of life treatment of second generation mobile phone networks: Strategies to reduce the environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharnhorst, Wolfram; Althaus, Hans-Joerg; Classen, Mischa; Jolliet, Olivier; Hilty, Lorenz M.

    2005-01-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out based on a detailed life cycle inventory for a typical GSM 900 mobile phone network and related End of Life (EOL) treatment infrastructure. The environmental relevance of the three life cycle phases: production, use and EOL treatment was analysed using IMPACT2002+. The environmentally preferable EOL treatment alternative was identified on the basis of six previously developed EOL treatment scenarios. The results indicate that the environmental impacts attributable to the use phase dominate the environmental impacts incurred over the entire life cycle of the network. The impacts of the production phase are primarily attributable to the energy intensive manufacturing of printed wiring boards (PWB). The EOL phase dominates the impacts on ecosystem quality. In particular the long-term emissions of heavy metals have critical effects. Detailed analysis of the EOL phase shows that recycling of network materials in general leads to a two fold reduction of environmental impacts: in the EOL phase itself as well as by means of the avoided primary production of materials recovered in the EOL phase. An increase in the material quality of the secondary precious and rare materials leads to a significant reduction in the impacts on human health

  1. Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport. Resource uses study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, R.; Crowley, J.; Moran, R.

    1992-04-01

    This report concerns the environmental impact of resource utilization in the transport sector. The first phase of the study involved a dissection of transport into its different modes, its operational components, and its existing patterns of resource usage. The second phase was an investigation of existing environmental impacts. Since in principle a significant environmental impact may occur anywhere along the extraction-to-disposal life cycle of a material, it was necessary to investigate a range of environmental phenomena upstream and downstream from the transport sector, as well as within the sector itself. In this development of a holistic perspective of resource usage, particular attention was paid to depletion, disposal, and re-cycling questions. The third phase involved the examination of possible innovations in transport technology. Of particular interest was the resource usage implications of these innovations, and their potential for ameliorating negative environmental impacts. In the final phase of the study, are addressed questions of the net costs and benefits of the various technologies, and of the most appropriate policy options for the Community

  2. Environmental assessment of the entire pork value chain in Catalonia - A strategy to work towards Circular Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Isabel; Aldea, Xavier; González-García, Sara; M Gasol, Carles; Moreira, María Teresa; Amores, Maria José; Marín, Desirée; Boschmonart-Rives, Jesús

    2017-07-01

    Pork industry in Catalonia plays a foremost and representative role in the Spanish pork sector. Beyond the economic benefits, conventional practices in the pork industry also imply a number of environmental impacts that need to be dealt with. In this context, the environmental performance of traditional linear pork chain in Catalonia was evaluated through a LCA approach. The outcomes of the analysis showed that both fodder production and transport activities were identified as the critical stages of the system. Accordingly, alternative schemes based on circular economy principles were proposed and potential environmental credits were estimated. Within this framework, comparative results highlighted the advantages of moving towards a closing loop production system, where resource efficiency and waste valorisation were prioritised over final disposal options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental stratification framework and water-quality monitoring design strategy for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Mauritania anticipates an increase in mining activities throughout the country and into the foreseeable future. Because mining-induced changes in the landscape are likely to affect their limited ground-water resources and sensitive aquatic ecosystems, a water-quality assessment program was designed for Mauritania that is based on a nationally consistent environmental stratification framework. The primary objectives of this program are to ensure that the environmental monitoring systems can quantify near real-time changes in surface-water chemistry at a local scale, and quantify intermediate- to long-term changes in groundwater and aquatic ecosystems over multiple scales.

  4. An Optimized IES Method and Its Inhibitory Effects and Mechanisms on Food Intake and Body Weight in Diet-Induced Obese Rats: IES for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xinyue; Yin, Jieyun; Foreman, Robert; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2017-12-01

    This paper aims to optimize stimulation parameters and durations for intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) and to explore the effects and mechanisms of chronic IES with optimized methodology in obesity rats. Sixteen diet-induced obese (DIO) rats were tested for food intake with four different sets of IES parameters each lasting 1 week. Then, another 12 DIO rats were used to test the effect of IES on food intake with different stimulation durations. Finally, 16 DIO rats were treated with IES or sham-IES for 4 weeks. Meal patterns, food intake, and body weight were observed. Mechanisms involving gastrointestinal motility, ghrelin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were studied. (1) Acute IES with different parameters showed different inhibitory effects on food intake, and the most effective parameters were 0.6 s on, 0.9 s off, 80 Hz, 2 ms, and 4 mA with which 26.3% decrease in food intake was noted (p fasting and postprandial plasma levels of GLP-1 but not ghrelin. Twelve-hour daily IES using optimized stimulation parameters reduces food intake and body weight in DIO rats by altering gastrointestinal motility and GLP-1. The IES methodology derived in this study may have a therapeutic potential for obesity.

  5. Strategies for Public Engagement on Environmental Matters: You Can Lead a Horse to Water, but Can You Make It Drink?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mmojieje, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    With no tangible evidence of widespread public engagement in the UK on matters relating to the environment, this article assesses the benefits of adopting the principles of key theoretical models on learning (e.g., Kolb's Experiential Model) in environmental campaigns. In addition, in order to facilitate the transition from environmental…

  6. Strategies for reconciling environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector: Analytic framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G.A.

    1995-06-01

    The project is motivated by recommendations that were made by industry in a number of different forums: the Industry Workshop of the White House Conference on Climate Change, and more recently, industry consultations for EPAct Section 131(c) and Section 160(b). These recommendations were related to reconciling conflicts in environmental goals, productivity improvements and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector.

  7. Conceptual and functional approach to the design of optimized strategies of intervention for environmental restoration after a serious nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, C.; Gutierrez, J.

    1997-01-01

    This work constitutes an approach to defining methodologies to deal with environmental recovery after an accident. This is a complex issue which has neither been conceptually nor functionally solved. This report summarizes the developments of the operating research projects of the Radiological Protection Programme for Intervention at CIEMAT

  8. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Environmental Exposure Studies: Lessons from the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Protection Agency’s Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) was a complex 3-year personal exposure study. The six geographically defined areas in the Detroit (Wayne County), Michigan, area used as study locations are ethnically diverse; the majority ...

  9. Strategies to reduce the environmental impact caused by the potential losses of N in soil amended with organic residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Lopez, G.; Ibanez-Burgos, A. M.; Colombas, M.; Negree, A.; Reolid, C.; Lobo, M. C.; Sastre-Conde, I.

    2009-01-01

    For many years, nitrogen mineral fertilization has been regarded as a most highly productive and profitable farming practice. The downside, however, is represented by the negative environmental repercussions of its use. A potential source of N is found in organic residue, which has increased dramatically due to human activity. For instance, organic debris generated in urban areas and resulting rom intensive livestock breeding. (Author)

  10. Overlapping and permeability: Research on the pattern hierarchy of communication space and design strategy based on environmental behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leilei, Sun; Liang, Zhang; Bing, Chen; Hong, Xi

    2017-11-01

    This thesis is to analyze the basic pattern hierarchy of communication space by using the theory of environmental psychology and behavior combined with relevant principles in architecture, to evaluate the design and improvement of communication space in specific meaning, and to bring new observation ideas and innovation in design methods to the system of space, environment and behavior.

  11. An environmental assessment strategy for the identification of pollution prevention opportunities in the southern Urals Region of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.A.; Ott, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The serious environmental problems of the South Urals Region of Russia have been broadly described in a report coauthored by Russian weapons scientists. The importance of taking the first steps to prevent further environmental damage and adverse public health effects has been recognized by the international scientific community. Scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have initiated a project to assist the Russians in their pollution prevention efforts. The specific objectives of this project are to: (1) conduct a pragmatic survey of the industrial and governmental pollution sources in a limited geographic region of the South Urals and (2) identify the priorities for pollution prevention and for food and water supply improvements at distribution points. The emphasis is on preventing adverse impacts to human health and improving industrial productivity. This project focuses on immediate pollution problems resulting from current operations and their solutions, not on long-term research related to the large-scale cleanup of legacy wastes. The project emphasizes near-term cost effective solutions to prevent pollution while longer term research aimed at contamination from past practices is pursued by other scientists. The project is being conducted in collaboration with environmental and physical scientists from institutes associated with the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences; government officials at the national, regional, and local levels; and non-governmental Russian environmental groups. A broad cross section of Russian technical, political, and environmental abilities and interests is mandatory. This cross section will ensure the technical quality, the political acceptability, and the popular credibility of the project results to the affected Russians in the South Urals. Progress on this project is presented in this paper

  12. Effect of Blended Learning Strategy on Achievement in Biology and Social and Environmental Attitude of Students at Secondary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Tara S.; Bindu, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Blended Learning is mostly understood as the use of resources which combine e-learning with other educational resources. In this study, a blended learning strategy was designed with a variety of factors addressed to create a meaningful learning environment facilitated by a variety of modes, methods and moments through a combination of Objectives…

  13. Effect of multiple-feedstock strategy on the economic and environmental performance of thermochemical ethanol production under extreme weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou, Nannan; Zhao, Fu

    2011-01-01

    Current US transportation sector mainly relies on liquid hydrocarbons derived from petroleum and about 60% of the petroleum consumed is from areas where supply may be disturbed by regional instability. This has led to serious concerns on energy security and global warming. To address these issues, numerous alternative energy carriers have been proposed. Among them, second generation biofuel is one of the most promising technologies. Gasification-based thermochemical conversion will bring flexibility to both feedstock and production sides of a plant, thus presents an attractive technical route to address both the energy security and global warming concerns. In this paper, thermochemical ethanol production using multiple-feedstock (corn stover, municipal solid waste, and wood chips) is simulated using Aspen Plus and compared with the single-feedstock scenario, in terms of economic performances, life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and survivability under extreme weather conditions. For a hypothetical facility in southwest Indiana it is found that multiple-feedstock strategy improves the net present value by 18% compared to single-feedstock strategy. This margin is increased to 57% when effects of extreme weather conditions on feedstock supply are considered. Moreover, multiple-feedstock fuel plant has no potential risk of bankruptcy during the payback period, while single-feedstock fuel plant has a 75% chance of bankruptcy. Although the multiple-feedstock strategy has 26% more GHG emission per liter of ethanol produced than the single-feedstock strategy, the trend is reversed if feedstock supply disruption is taken into account. Thus the idea of multiple-feedstock strategy is proposed to the future thermo chemical biofuel plants.

  14. Interactions between environmental factors and maternal-fetal genetic variations: strategies to elucidate risks of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Silvana; Bertoni, Bernardo; Sapiro, Rossana

    2016-07-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a complex disease in which medical, social, cultural, and hereditary factors contribute to the pathogenesis of this adverse event. Interactions between genes and environmental factors may complicate our understanding of the relative influence of both effects on PTB. To overcome this, we combined data obtained from a cohort of newborns and their mothers with multiplex analysis of inflammatory-related genes and several environmental risk factors of PTB to describe the environmental-genetic influence on PTB. The study aimed to investigate the association between maternal and fetal genetic variations in genes related to the inflammation pathway with PTB and to assess the interaction between environmental factors with these variations. We conducted a case-control study at the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center, Montevideo, Uruguay. The study included 143 mother-offspring dyads who delivered at preterm (gestational ageenvironmental variables. The genes analyzed were: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Interleukin 6 (IL6), Interleukin 1 beta (IL1B) and Interleukin 12 receptor beta (IL12RB). We detected a significant interaction between IL1B rs16944 polymorphism in maternal samples and IL6 rs1800795 polymorphism in newborns, emphasizing the role of the interaction of maternal and fetal genomes in PTB. In addition, smoke exposure and premature rupture of membranes (PROM) were significantly different between the premature group and controls. IL1B and IL6 polymorphisms in mothers were significantly associated with PTB when controlling for smoke exposure. TLR4 polymorphism and PROM were significantly associated with PTB when controlling for PROM, but only in the case of severe PTB. Interactions between maternal and fetal genomes may influence the timing of birth. By incorporating environmental data, we revealed genetic associations with PTB, a finding not found when we analyzed genetic data alone. Our results stress the importance of studying the effect of

  15. The environmental monitoring of Cultural Heritage through Low Cost strategies: The frescoes of the crypt of St. Francesco d'Assisi's, Irsina (Basilicata, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Maria; Gizzi, Fabrizio; Masini, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    One of the main tools of assessment and diagnosis used to define appropriate strategies for the preservation of cultural heritage is the environmental monitoring. To achieve an environmental monitoring are needed high costs of purchase and maintenance, high costs of instrumental and for the management of the plants and processing of results. These costs imply that the technologies for environmental monitoring are not as common but their use is limited to the study very famous monuments or sites. To extend the use and dissemination of such technologies to a greater number of monuments, through the project Pro_Cult (Advanced methodological approaches and technologies for Protection and Security of Cultural Heritage) a research aimed at testing low cost technologies has been performed. The aim of the research is to develop low cost monitoring systems, assessing their effectiveness in a comparative way with commercial high cost ones. To this aim an environmental monitoring system using the Arduino system was designed and developed. It is an electronics prototyping platform based on open-source hardware and software flexible and user friendly. This system is connected to sensors for the detection of environmental parameters of non high purchase cost but with respect to the medium potential detection sensors accurately. This low cost system was tested in the framework of a microclimate monitoring project of the crypt of St. Francis of Assisi in Irsina (Southern Italy) enriched by a precious cycle of medieval frescoes. The aim of this research was to compare two monitoring systems, the first, at low cost, using Arduino system, and the second, a standard commercial product for a full yearly cycle and assess the reliability and the results obtained by the two systems. This paper shows the results of the comparative analysis of an entire monitoring yearly cycle in relation to the problems of degradation affecting the paintings of medieval crypt [1]. The obtained results

  16. Operational strategy, economic and environmental performance of sludge treatment reed bed systems - based on 28 years of experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.; Larsen, Julie Dam

    2016-01-01

    Sludge treatment reed bed (STRB) systems have been used for dewatering and mineralisation of sludge in Europe since 1988. STRB systems provide substantial environmental, economic, and operational benefits compared to mechanical sludge dewatering solutions such as belt presses and centrifuges....... They require less energy, no chemicals, reduce the sludge volume and produce bio solids with dry solid contents up to 20-40% under Danish climate conditions, depending on the sludge quality. Experience has shown that sludge treated in STRBs represents a high quality product with a low content of pathogens...... compared to conventional mechanical dewatering devices, delivering an economic break-even of about 3-5 years. This paper provides an overview of the operation and maintenance costs and environmental benefits of a typical STRB based on the experiences gained from the operation of a large number of STRBs...

  17. Nanoscopic designs of radiological protection in environmental scale for the Fukushima nuclear accident: Strategy by dispersion, dissolution, and filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New kind of radiological protection concept is introduced. • The shielding concept is accompanied with the water spray system. • The solubility of radioactive material could be used for protection. • Practical method is suggested. • The system is variable by the random number quantities. - Abstract: The environmental defense system in the nuclear power plants (NPPs) is investigated in the aspect of the environmental scale incorporated with atmospheric and marine sectors. The object is to find the radiological protection protocol in the environmental scale which is different from the conventional three kinds of radiological protection principles. Conventional laboratory based principles are not applicable in the mass failure accident such as the case of Fukushima disaster. This newly introduced protocol has many useful applications for the nature treatment oriented methods where the atmospheric protection of dispersion and dissolution is performed first and the filtration of seawater would follow. The maximum and minimum values in fan velocity are about 7.5 m/s and 5.3 m/s respectively. For the spray system, the mole fractions by the water spray are shown where maximum and minimum values are 6.57 × 10 −17 and 8.84 × 10 −19 moles respectively. The maximum and minimum values of discharged values in filtration are 99.4 and 1.3 square velocity (m/s), respectively. The total and general radiological protection concept is suggested in the nanoscopic molecular scale performance.

  18. Productive, economic and environmental effects of optimised feeding strategies in small-scale dairy farms in the Highlands of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Velarde-Guillén

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since most dairy production in developing countries comes from small farms, there is scope to reduce their contribution to greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. In the highlands of Mexico, the limitations in these systems are high feeding costs. This paper assessed the production, economics and estimated methane emissions from traditional feeding strategies (TFS in 22 small-scale dairy farms compared to optimised feeding strategies (OFS evaluated through on-farm research in eight participating farms in the dry (DS and in the rainy (RS seasons. Results were analysed with a completely randomized design. There were no differences (P>0.05 in milk fat, body condition score (BCS or live weight between TFS and OFS, but there was higher (P

  19. Managing search strategies for open innovation : the role of environmental munificence as well as internal and external R&D

    OpenAIRE

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Firms compete increasingly in an open innovation environment. Search strategies for external knowledge become therefore crucial for firm success. Existing research differentiates between the breadth (diversity) and depth (intensity) with which firms pursue external knowledge source. A consensus exists that resource constrains force firms to balance both dimensions. However, relatively little is known on how managers can selectively strengthen one of these dimensions. We argue conceptually tha...

  20. Mum, why do you keep on growing? Impacts of environmental variability on optimal growth and reproduction allocation strategies of annual plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lara, Michel

    2006-05-01

    In their 1990 paper Optimal reproductive efforts and the timing of reproduction of annual plants in randomly varying environments, Amir and Cohen considered stochastic environments consisting of i.i.d. sequences in an optimal allocation discrete-time model. We suppose here that the sequence of environmental factors is more generally described by a Markov chain. Moreover, we discuss the connection between the time interval of the discrete-time dynamic model and the ability of the plant to rebuild completely its vegetative body (from reserves). We formulate a stochastic optimization problem covering the so-called linear and logarithmic fitness (corresponding to variation within and between years), which yields optimal strategies. For "linear maximizers'', we analyse how optimal strategies depend upon the environmental variability type: constant, random stationary, random i.i.d., random monotonous. We provide general patterns in terms of targets and thresholds, including both determinate and indeterminate growth. We also provide a partial result on the comparison between ;"linear maximizers'' and "log maximizers''. Numerical simulations are provided, allowing to give a hint at the effect of different mathematical assumptions.

  1. Investigating the Effect of Environmental Uncertainty on the Selection of Knowledge Management Strategies in the Field of Product (Case Study: Universities and Higher Educational Institutes in Khorasan-e-Razavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Bafandeh Zendeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of environmental uncertainty on the selection of knowledge management strategies in the domain of product. However we investigated the effect of environmental uncertainty on the selection of knowledge detection strategies and knowledge revenue by testing three hypotheses. The statistical universe included chancellors and assistants of universities of Khorasan-e-Razavi that 28 universities and 48 repliers were selected as the sample of study. This study with the view of quarry was sort in applied researches and with the view of method was sort in causal researches. Hypotheses were tested by using regression model and results showed that environmental uncertainty had positive impact on knowledge detection strategies and knowledge revenue in domain of product. Also results cleared the role of knowledge management strategies in the domain of product and prepared perspectives to chancellors of universities to improve their education and research

  2. Flash flooding: Toward an Interdisciplinary and Integrated Strategy for Disaster Reduction in a Global Environmental Change Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruin, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    How do people answer to heavy precipitation and flood warnings? How do they adapt their daily schedule and activity to the fast evolution of the environmental circumstances? More generally, how do social processes interact with physical ones? Such questions address the dynamical interactions between hydro-meteorological variables, human perception and representation of the environment, and actual individual and social behavioral responses. It also poses the question of scales and hierarchy issues through seamless interactions between smaller and larger scales. These questions are relevant for both social and physical scientists. They are more and more pertinently addressed in the Global Environmental Change perspective through the concepts of Coupled Human And Natural Systems (CHANS), resilience or panarchy developped in the context of interdisciplinary collaborations. Nevertheless those concepts are complex and not easy to handle, specially when facing with operational goals. One of the main difficulty to advance these integrated approaches is the access to empirical data informing the processes at various scales. In fact, if physical and social processes are well studied by distinct disciplines, they are rarely jointly explored within similar spatial and temporal resolutions. Such coupled observation and analysis poses methodological challenges, specially when dealing with responses to short-fuse and extreme weather events. In fact, if such coupled approach is quite common to study large scale phenomenon like global change (for instance using historical data on green house gaz emissions and the evolution of temperatures worldwide), it is rarer for studing smaller nested sets of scales of human-nature systems where finer resolution data are sparse. Another problem arise from the need to produce comparable analysis on different case studies where social, physical and even cultural contexts may be diverse. Generic and robust framework for data collection, modeling

  3. Analisis SWOT Dalam Menentukan Strategi Pemasaran Pada Rumah Makan Kamang Jaya Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Rukmini

    2011-01-01

    This study entitled "SWOT Analysis to determine marketing strategies in Medan Jaya Restaurant Kamang." This study aimed to determine the right marketing strategy through SWOT analysis as a tool used in Medan Jaya Restaurant Kamang. SWOT Analysis is a tool that can measure how the external environment ie Restaurant strengths and weaknesses and external environmental opportunities and threats Restaurants conditions, so as to determine marketing strategies Type of research using qualitative d...

  4. Addressing strategic environmental assessment of Mexico's transition towards renewable energy.

    OpenAIRE

    Díez Rodríguez, José José; Cremades Oliver, Lázaro Vicente; Ahumada Cervantes, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    The transition to environmentally sustainable societies entails a significant shift in the field of planning process strategy. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) applied to Policies, Plans and Programmes, i.e., planning tools that precede the Project in the decision-making process and surpass it in terms of spatial and subject scope and level of abstraction involved, is recognised internationally as an instrument which is strategic in nature, and is conceived as a flexible framework of ...

  5. Hittite huelpi- “Young, tender, fresh” and ie +Hulp-, +Hlup-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Furlan

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The following contribution offers a new etymology of the Hittite term huelpi- which can through  IE root +Huelep- be related to IE +Hulp-, +Hlup- »fox, wolf, cat«.The relation indicates that the old expression for naming offerings to the gods is hidden in the IE forms +Hulp-, +Hlup-.

  6. Strategies for achieving environmental policy integration at the landscape level. A framework illustrated with an analysis of landscape governance in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosten, van Cora; Uzamukunda, Assumpta; Runhaar, Hens

    2018-01-01

    Environmental Policy Integration (EPI) refers to the incorporation of environmental concerns into sectoral policies in order to reduce policy incoherence and achieve synergies to more effectively address environmental problems such as environmental degradation. Landscape governance can be considered

  7. Characterizing the Survey Strategy and Initial Orbit Determination Abilities of the NASA MCAT Telescope for Geosynchronous Orbital Debris Environmental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, J.; Barker, E.; Cowardin, H.; Buckalew, B.; Anz-Meador, P.; Lederer, S.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) recently commissioned the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) on Ascension Island with the primary goal of obtaining population statistics of the geosynchronous (GEO) orbital debris environment. To help facilitate this, studies have been conducted using MCAT’s known and projected capabilities to estimate the accuracy and timeliness in which it can survey the GEO environment, including collected weather data and the proposed observational data collection cadence. To optimize observing cadences and probability of detection, on-going work using a simulated GEO debris population sampled at various cadences are run through the Constrained Admissible Region Multi Hypotheses Filter (CAR-MHF). The orbits computed from the results are then compared to the simulated data to assess MCAT’s ability to determine accurately the orbits of debris at various sample rates. The goal of this work is to discriminate GEO and near-GEO objects from GEO transfer orbit objects that can appear as GEO objects in the environmental models due to the short arc observation and an assumed circular orbit. The specific methods and results are presented here.

  8. Materialism, Altruism, Environmental Values, Learning Strategies and Sustainable Claim on Purchase Intention of Energy Efficient Vehicle (EEV) - A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syakir Shukor, Muhamad; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Chin, Thoo Ai; Zakuan, Norhayati; Merlinda Muharam, Farrah

    2017-06-01

    One of the toughest challenges in social marketing is behaviour intervention. Previous research have developed various models and theories to simultaneously examine behaviour changes and their effects. Due to resources scarcity and global warming, automakers have come out with an innovative idea of Energy Efficient Vehicle (EEV) which has been a great improvement in the automotive industry. This invention targets for behavioral change or behavioral adoption for consumers to adjust their preferences from conventional vehicle to EEV. High market growth in automotive industry have encouraged social marketers, policymakers, governments and academics to propose suitable intervention approach in motivating preferences toward EEV. This study will explore the causal model of Environmental Responsible Behaviour (ERB) in measuring the purchase intention of EEV in Malaysia. In specific, this study focuses on two types of EEV - hybrid car and fuel efficient car. This study will hopefully add onto the body of knowledge for value orientation that influences green behaviour. From the practical perspective, this study may provide insights in assisting the stakeholders and automotive industry players on promoting the pro-behaviour toward EEV.

  9. Center for Environmental Information's Ninth International Conference on Global Energy Strategies : Living with Restricted Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The world is getting warmer. Among scientists concerned with global climate change this is the broad consensus. How fast and by how much, are questions which cannot be answered quantitatively, but the probability of rising temperatures must be faced in a prudent manner - there is enough certainty of change so that we must anticipate and prepare before irreparable damage is done to our world. Even if it isn't going to be as bad as some people think, the actions we propose will benefit the earth and give us a kind of insurance. The root of the change is population growth, and its attendant demand for energy. While the developed world expects to hold future emissions relatively steady, the developing countries, where population growth is most rampant, will expand the use of energy as they aspire to a better quality of life. H greater energy use is inevitable it behooves us to produce that energy in the least objectionable manner, and to produce it where the cost is lowest in dollars, GNP, and environmental chang...

  10. The early warning application role in facing the environmental crisis and disasters: "Preliminarily risk management strategy for the greater city of Cairo"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghoneem Yousef M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters are inevitable and it is almost impossible to fully recoup the damage caused by the disasters. But it is possible to minimize the potential risk by developing disaster early warning strategies, methods using the new technology applications which play a crucial role in efficient mitigation and management of disasters. This paper describes the importance of the remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS in evolving a suitable strategy for disaster, crises and risk management using these technologies. The main objective of this paper is to make a Preliminary risk management plan (it is a logical and systematic method of identifying, analyzing, treating and monitoring the risks involved in any activity or process. This process helps Administrations to focus on priorities and in decisions on deploying limited resources to deal with the highest risks using the Environmental risk map of the greater city of Cairo demonstrating the most high-risk administrative areas in the city, supported by field evidence and different sources of information. to reduce the loss of life and property and protect the Nation from all hazards, including natural disasters and other man-made disasters, by leading and supporting the Nation in a risk-based, comprehensive emergency management system of preparedness, protection, response, recovery, and mitigation. This study has shown that how can the early warning Applications can be useful in analyzing, Integrating and managing different datasets for predicting the environmental crises and disasters that may affect the urbanism inside the city and help in the preparation of the Risk management plan.

  11. Environmental management through sluice gated bed-dam: a revived strategy for the control of Anopheles fluviatilis breeding in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S.S.; Gunasekaran, K.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Integrated vector management (IVM) emphasizes sustainable eco-friendly methods and minimal use of chemicals. In this context, the present study highlights the environmental control of breeding of Anopheles fluviatilis, the primary malaria vector, through water management in a natural stream in Koraput district, Odisha, India. Methods: The District Rural Development Agency (DRDA), Koraput, constructed two bed-dams across streams, one in Barigaon and the other in Pipalapodar village. The bed-dam in the former village was fitted with two sluice gates whereas the bed dam constructed in the latter village was without the sluice gate. The sluice gates were opened once in a week on a fixed day to flush out the water from the dam. Anopheles immatures were sampled systematically in the streams using a dipper for density measurement and species composition. Results: There was a reduction of 84.9 per cent in the proportion of positive dips for Anopheles larvae/pupae and a reduction of 98.4 per cent in immature density (number/dip) of An. fluviatilis in the experimental downstream compared to the control following opening of the sluice gates. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findins showed that opening of sluice gates of the bed-dam regularly once in a week resulted in the control of vector breeding in the downstream due to the flushing effect of the water released with a high flow from the bed-dam that stagnated water in the upstream. The outcome of the study encourages upscaling this measure to other areas, wherever feasible. PMID:25297364

  12. Environmental and socio-economic sustainability appraisal of contaminated land remediation strategies: A case study at a mega-site in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yinan; Hou, Deyi; Zhang, Junli; O'Connor, David; Li, Guanghe; Gu, Qingbao; Li, Shupeng; Liu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Green and sustainable remediation (GSR) has become a global trend in the contaminated land remediation field. Growing numbers of countries have adopted GSR procedures published in regulatory and/or technical guidance. China is fast becoming one of the largest remediation markets in the world, and is beginning to engage with GSR. Among other efforts, a taskforce is currently developing the first Chinese technical standard on GSR. This paper presents the context positioning and development of a sustainable remediation assessment indicator set for China. This sustainability indicator set was formed based on existing sustainable remediation guidelines and literature. LCA was used to evaluate environmental impacts, and the results combined with social and economic appraisal via MCA. The indicator set was applied to a remediation 'mega-site' in China. The results showed that compared to excavation and landfill, an alternative treatment strategy of soil washing, thermal desorption and S/S brought about relatively less waste generation, better worker safety, and preferable local impacts, leading to higher scores in the environmental and social-economic domains. However, the social-economic scores were limited by a lack of public engagement. The results of the case study have shown that the indicator set is valid, with lessons learnt and suggestions for improvement discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy, economic and environmental (3E) analysis of waste-to-energy (WTE) strategies for municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Sie Ting; Ho, Wai Shin; Hashim, Haslenda; Lee, Chew Tin; Taib, Mohd Rozainee; Ho, Chin Siong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 3E impact of WTE derived from MSW were performed. • MSW treatment technologies significantly effects the economic and environmental benefits of WTE. • Different scenarios are conducted based on the waste projections and production. • Comprehensive discussion on the trade-off of both incineration and anaerobic digestion for MSWM. - Abstract: The utilisation of municipal solid waste (MSW) for energy production has been implemented globally for many decades. Malaysia, however, is still highly dependent on landfills for MSW management. Because of the concern for greenhouse gases (GHG) emission and the scarcity of land, Malaysia has an urgent need for a better waste management strategy. This study aims to evaluate the energy, economic and environmental (3E) impact of waste-to-energy (WTE) for municipal solid waste management. An existing landfill in Malaysia is selected as the case study for consideration to adopt the advanced WTE technologies including the landfill gas recovery system (LFGRS), incineration, anaerobic digestion (AD), and gasification. The study presented an interactive comparison of different WTE scenarios and followed by further discussion on waste incineration and AD as the two potential WTE options in Malaysia. The 3E assessment reveals incineration as the superior technology choice when the production of electricity and heat were considered; however, AD is found to be more favourable under the consideration of electricity production only

  14. The Hungarian Counter Improvised Explosive Device (C-IED) Strategy: Considering the Use of Military Working Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    language forming efforts. Special thanks for Dr. Rhoda Risner, my small group leader, for the guidance and support. Finally, thanks to my student...in the “no man’s land” but also in the trenches. The unburied dead bodies and the countless injures mixed with the muddy environment and provided...There are many war stories about canine heroes that carried messages for long periods with several injuries. The other effort was the fight against the

  15. The effects of higher-order questioning strategies on nonscience majors' achievement in an introductory environmental science course and their attitudes toward the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Grace Teresa

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the effect a higher-order questioning strategy (Bloom, 1956) had on undergraduate non-science majors' attitudes toward the environment and their achievement in an introductory environmental science course, EDS 1032, "Survey of Science 2: Life Science," which was offered during the Spring 2000 term. Students from both treatment and control groups (N = 63), which were determined using intact classes, participated in eight cooperative group activities based on the Biological Sciences Curriculum Studies (BSCS) 5E model (Bybee, 1993). The treatment group received a higher-order questioning method combined with the BSCS 5E model. The control group received a lower-order questioning method, combined with the BSCS 5E model. Two instruments were used to measure students' attitude and achievement changes. The Ecology Issue Attitude (EIA) survey (Schindler, 1995) and a comprehensive environmental science final exam. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (KLSI, 1985) was used to measure students' learning style type. After a 15-week treatment period, results were analyzed using MANCOVA. The overall MANCOVA model used to test the statistical difference between the collective influences of the independent variables on the three dependent variables simultaneously was found to be not significant at alpha = .05. This differs from findings of previous studies in which higher-order questioning techniques had a significant effect on student achievement (King 1989 & 1992; Blosser, 1991; Redfield and Rousseau, 1981; Gall 1970). At the risk of inflated Type I and Type II error rates, separate univariate analyses were performed. However, none of the research factors, when examined collectively or separately, made any significant contribution to explaining the variability in EIA attitude, EIA achievement, and comprehensive environmental science final examination scores. Nevertheless, anecdotal evidence from student's self

  16. Strategy making and power in environmental assessments. Lessons from the establishment of an out-of-town shopping centre in Västerås, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, Karolina; Storbjörk, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide deeper insights into how EA ineffectiveness is produced in land use planning practice. This is explored in a study of local development planning in the city of Västerås, Sweden. The case in question is the development of a large out-of-town shopping centre, propelled by the establishment of a new IKEA furniture store. The Healey (2007) framework of planning as strategy making is applied as an analytical framework, together with a focus on power-knowledge relations. In the analysis, we identify a range of mechanisms that produced ineffectiveness by limiting the role of environmental knowledge throughout the planning process. The specific mechanisms we identified were related to the overall consensus perspective in local development strategies and plans, a lack of concretisation and integration of various policies and strategies, a range of exclusion mechanisms and an overall focus on mitigation and benefits of the process in question. In practice, these mechanisms were closely intertwined. Our main conclusion is, consequently, that increased effectiveness of EA would require fundamental transformation of the norms, frameworks and routines that implicitly and explicitly guide land use planning in practice. - Highlights: ► We analyse how EA-ineffectiveness is produced in land use planning practice. ► Several mechanisms produce EA-ineffectiveness throughout the whole planning process. ► These mechanisms are often closely intertwined and mutually reinforcing each other. ► Enhancing EA-effectiveness requires a fundamental shift of the norms, frameworks and routines shaping planning practice.

  17. Strategy making and power in environmental assessments. Lessons from the establishment of an out-of-town shopping centre in Vaesteras, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksson, Karolina, E-mail: karolina.isaksson@vti.se [Mobility, Actors and Planning Processes (MAP), Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), 581 95 Linkoeping (Sweden); Storbjoerk, Sofie, E-mail: sofie.storbjork@liu.se [Department of Water and Environmental Studies (DWES) and Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research (CSPR), Linkoeping University, 581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    This paper seeks to provide deeper insights into how EA ineffectiveness is produced in land use planning practice. This is explored in a study of local development planning in the city of Vaesteras, Sweden. The case in question is the development of a large out-of-town shopping centre, propelled by the establishment of a new IKEA furniture store. The Healey (2007) framework of planning as strategy making is applied as an analytical framework, together with a focus on power-knowledge relations. In the analysis, we identify a range of mechanisms that produced ineffectiveness by limiting the role of environmental knowledge throughout the planning process. The specific mechanisms we identified were related to the overall consensus perspective in local development strategies and plans, a lack of concretisation and integration of various policies and strategies, a range of exclusion mechanisms and an overall focus on mitigation and benefits of the process in question. In practice, these mechanisms were closely intertwined. Our main conclusion is, consequently, that increased effectiveness of EA would require fundamental transformation of the norms, frameworks and routines that implicitly and explicitly guide land use planning in practice. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyse how EA-ineffectiveness is produced in land use planning practice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several mechanisms produce EA-ineffectiveness throughout the whole planning process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These mechanisms are often closely intertwined and mutually reinforcing each other. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhancing EA-effectiveness requires a fundamental shift of the norms, frameworks and routines shaping planning practice.

  18. Exploring economically and environmentally viable northeastern US dairy farm strategies for coping with rising corn grain prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghebremichael, L T; Veith, T L; Cerosaletti, P E; Dewing, D E; Rotz, C A

    2009-08-01

    the largest net profit were evaluated one at a time to better quantify their individual impacts, combinations of these strategies, such as no-till corn plus a minimum-till cover crop, are recommended whenever feasible.

  19. Environmental niche models for riverine desert fishes and their similarity according to phylogeny and functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, James E.; Whittier, Joanna B.; Paukert, Craig P.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental filtering and competitive exclusion are hypotheses frequently invoked in explaining species' environmental niches (i.e., geographic distributions). A key assumption in both hypotheses is that the functional niche (i.e., species traits) governs the environmental niche, but few studies have rigorously evaluated this assumption. Furthermore, phylogeny could be associated with these hypotheses if it is predictive of functional niche similarity via phylogenetic signal or convergent evolution, or of environmental niche similarity through phylogenetic attraction or repulsion. The objectives of this study were to investigate relationships between environmental niches, functional niches, and phylogenies of fishes of the Upper (UCRB) and Lower (LCRB) Colorado River Basins of southwestern North America. We predicted that functionally similar species would have similar environmental niches (i.e., environmental filtering) and that closely related species would be functionally similar (i.e., phylogenetic signal) and possess similar environmental niches (i.e., phylogenetic attraction). Environmental niches were quantified using environmental niche modeling, and functional similarity was determined using functional trait data. Nonnatives in the UCRB provided the only support for environmental filtering, which resulted from several warmwater nonnatives having dam number as a common predictor of their distributions, whereas several cool- and coldwater nonnatives shared mean annual air temperature as an important distributional predictor. Phylogenetic signal was supported for both natives and nonnatives in both basins. Lastly, phylogenetic attraction was only supported for native fishes in the LCRB and for nonnative fishes in the UCRB. Our results indicated that functional similarity was heavily influenced by evolutionary history, but that phylogenetic relationships and functional traits may not always predict the environmental distribution of species. However, the

  20. CSR STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    LAURENTIU BARANGA; ION STEGAROIU

    2011-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has got three components: economic responsibility of shareholders, corporate environmental responsibility, corporate responsibility of the society. Each component of the CSR has its own features, according to which adequate individual behaviour is established. Knowing these features is very important in CSR strategy development.

  1. A fusion protein of HCMV IE1 exon4 and IE2 exon5 stimulates potent cellular immunity in an MVA vaccine vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Zhou, W.; Srivastava, T.; La Rosa, C.; Mandarino, A.; Forman, S.J.; Zaia, J.A.; Britt, W.J.; Diamond, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    A therapeutic CMV vaccine incorporating an antigenic repertoire capable of eliciting a cellular immune response has yet to be successfully implemented for patients who already have acquired an infection. To address this problem, we have developed a vaccine candidate derived from modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) that expresses three immunodominant antigens (pp65, IE1, IE2) from CMV. The novelty of this vaccine is the fusion of two adjacent exons from the immediate-early region of CMV, their successful expression in MVA, and robust immunogenicity in both primary and memory response models. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of the viral vaccine in mouse models shows that it can stimulate primary immunity against all three antigens in both the CD4 + and CD8 + T cell subsets. Evaluation of human PBMC from healthy CMV-positive donors or patients within 6 months of receiving hematopoietic cell transplant shows robust stimulation of existing CMV-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cell subsets

  2. Arbitrage strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Kardaras, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    An arbitrage strategy allows a financial agent to make certain profit out of nothing, i.e., out of zero initial investment. This has to be disallowed on economic basis if the market is in equilibrium state, as opportunities for riskless profit would result in an instantaneous movement of prices of certain financial instruments. The principle of not allowing for arbitrage opportunities in financial markets has far-reaching consequences, most notably the option-pricing and hedging formulas in c...

  3. A novel interactive educational system in the operating room--the IE system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Takayuki; Numao, Noboru; Yoshida, Soichiro; Ishioka, Junichiro; Matsuoka, Yoh; Saito, Kazutaka; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori

    2016-02-02

    The shortage of surgeon is one of the serious problems in Japan. To solve the problem, various efforts have been undertaken to improve surgical education and training. However, appropriate teaching methods in the operating room have not been well established. The aim of this study is to assess the utility of a novel interactive educational (IE) system for surgical education on urologic surgeries in the operating room. A total of 20 Japanese medical students were educated on urologic surgery using the IE system in the operating room. The IE system consists of two parts. The first is three-dimensional (3D) magnified vision of the operative field using a 3D head-mounted display and a 3D endoscope. The second is interactive educative communication between medical students and surgeons using a small-sized wireless communication device. The satisfaction level with the IE system and the physical burden on medical students was examined via questionnaire. All students utilized the IE system in urologic surgery and responded to the survey. Most students were satisfied with the IE system. They also felt more welcomed by the surgeon when using the IE system than when not using it. No major unpleasant symptoms were observed but five students (25 %) experienced mild eye fatigue as a result of viewing the medical images. The IE system has the potential to motivate students to become interested in surgery and could be an efficient method of surgical education in the operating room.

  4. 41 CFR 301-11.102 - What is the applicable M&IE rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 24 hours or more, and you are traveling to a new TDY site or stopover point at midnight The M&IE rate applicable to the new TDY site or stopover point. Travel is 24 hours or more, and you are returning to your...&IE rate? 301-11.102 Section 301-11.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel...

  5. Characterization of Asian Corn Borer Resistance to Bt Toxin Cry1Ie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqin Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A strain of the Asian corn borer (ACB, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, has evolved >800-fold resistance to Cry1Ie (ACB-IeR after 49 generations of selection. The inheritance pattern of resistance to Cry1Ie in ACB-IeR strain and its cross-resistance to other Bt toxins were determined through bioassay by exposing neonates from genetic-crosses to toxins incorporated into the diet. The response of progenies from reciprocal F1 crosses were similar (LC50s: 76.07 vs. 74.32 μg/g, which suggested the resistance was autosomal. The effective dominance (h decreased as concentration of Cry1Ie increased. h was nearly recessive or incompletely recessive on Cry1Ie maize leaf tissue (h = 0.02, but nearly dominant or incompletely dominant (h = 0.98 on Cry1Ie maize silk. Bioassay of the backcross suggested that the resistance was controlled by more than one locus. In addition, the resistant strain did not perform cross-resistance to Cry1Ab (0.8-fold, Cry1Ac (0.8-fold, Cry1F (0.9-fold, and Cry1Ah (1.0-fold. The present study not only offers the manifestation for resistance management, but also recommends that Cry1Ie will be an appropriate candidate for expression with Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1F, or Cry1Ah for the development of Bt maize.

  6. Characterization of Asian Corn Borer Resistance to Bt Toxin Cry1Ie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yueqin; Yang, Jing; Quan, Yudong; Wang, Zhenying; Cai, Wanzhi; He, Kanglai

    2017-06-07

    A strain of the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), has evolved >800-fold resistance to Cry1Ie (ACB-IeR) after 49 generations of selection. The inheritance pattern of resistance to Cry1Ie in ACB-IeR strain and its cross-resistance to other Bt toxins were determined through bioassay by exposing neonates from genetic-crosses to toxins incorporated into the diet. The response of progenies from reciprocal F₁ crosses were similar (LC 50 s: 76.07 vs. 74.32 μg/g), which suggested the resistance was autosomal. The effective dominance ( h ) decreased as concentration of Cry1Ie increased. h was nearly recessive or incompletely recessive on Cry1Ie maize leaf tissue ( h = 0.02), but nearly dominant or incompletely dominant ( h = 0.98) on Cry1Ie maize silk. Bioassay of the backcross suggested that the resistance was controlled by more than one locus. In addition, the resistant strain did not perform cross-resistance to Cry1Ab (0.8-fold), Cry1Ac (0.8-fold), Cry1F (0.9-fold), and Cry1Ah (1.0-fold). The present study not only offers the manifestation for resistance management, but also recommends that Cry1Ie will be an appropriate candidate for expression with Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1F, or Cry1Ah for the development of Bt maize.

  7. Utilizing the Intercultural Effectiveness Scale (IES) to Enhance International Student Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Alicia; Rehal, Dalia Atef

    2017-01-01

    This paper highlights how one institution used the International Effectiveness Scale (IES) to support intercultural exploration and development for short-term undergraduate travel programs. Authors discuss utilization of the IES to explore students' intercultural development, how it can be applied to create an individualized action plan, and how…

  8. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Preliminary Determination: Quantitative Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Xie, YuLong; Hart, Reid; Goel, Supriya

    2014-03-01

    This report provides a preliminary quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would result in energy savings compared with buildings constructed to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010.

  9. Assessment of the environmental status in Hellenic coastal waters (Eastern Mediterranean: from the Water Framework Directive to the Marine Strategy Water Framework Directive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A  methodology is presented to assess the environmental status sensu the Marine Strategy Water Framework Directive (MSFD based on data obtained from the monitoring of water quality in the Hellenic coastal waters within the Water Framework Directive (WFD.   An adapted decision tree used for integrating the results of the WFD in the Basque country was applied. Modifications lie to the evaluation of the physicochemical status based on a eutrophication index developed for Eastern Mediterranean waters. Results on hydromorphological, physicochemical and biological elements are presented. The chemical status was evaluated based on measurements of heavy metals in water. The evaluation of the biological quality was based on the use of metrics developed for phytoplankton biomass, benthic macroinvertebrates and macroalgae updated to accommodate MSFD needs. Results on the integrative status of the water bodies were validated by correlating classification results with a pressure index and environmental indicators in water column and sediment. Following this decision tree the majority of stations expected to be at risk of achieving the good status were found in moderate status. Benthos was found to be the element with the closest agreement with the integrated final status having an increased weighting in the decision tree. The quality of benthos and in some  limited cases  the eutrophication index determined largely the final status. The highest disagreement with the integrative classification was produced by macroalgae. All indicators used correlated with water and sediment parameters but benthos correlated better with sediment factors while phytoplankton and eutrophication index with water column parameters.

  10. ZentyES : Gestión de la red de un IES con Zentyal

    OpenAIRE

    Bermejo Sánchez, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Solución para centralizar los servicios básicos (DNS, DHCP, FTP, web) e implementar los niveles de seguridad adecuados de la red de un IES donde se impartan ciclos formativos que necesiten aulas de informática. La documentación presentada permitirá que la solución implementada sirva como modelo a cualquier IES de características similares. Solució per centralitzar els serveis bàsics (DNS, DHCP, FTP, web) i implementar els nivells de seguretat adequats de la xarxa d'un IES on s'imparteixen ...

  11. New-onset Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED; metabolic and clinical correlates: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Selene Spina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the correlation between Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED, listed in the domain of Disruptive, Impulse-Control and Conduct Disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM 5, and metabolic alterations. A 64-years-old man with no previous history of major psychiatric disorders, presenting an onset of IED almost concomitant with the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia, is assessed upon a clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. Authors emphasize the influence of metabolic alterations and liver disease in the manifestation of impulsive aggression and violent behaviour, suggesting a multidisciplinary approach of those patients who present IED and concomitant metabolic alterations.

  12. Environmental Business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This book introduces business strategy to save the earth, which are foundation of system in the company, collection of disposable camera, resort which don't destroy environment, core strategy of item project, cutback of Freon gas, production of plastic which is degraded, export of pollution prevention technology, increasing waste and changing waste, rule on construction waste, responsibility of business and waste problems, recycling of aluminum can and responsibility on environmental problems.

  13. Preventing an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) Terror Campaign in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wehri, Matthew T

    2007-01-01

    .... This thesis will propose how to prevent a domestic IED terror campaign by utilizing the intelligence triggers indications and warnings and open source intelligence as well as placing increased...

  14. An accelerated hybrid TLM-IE method for the investigation of shielding effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fichtner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid numerical technique combining time-domain integral equations (TD-IE with the transmission line matrix (TLM method is presented for the efficient modeling of transient wave phenomena. This hybrid method allows the full-wave modeling of circuits in the time-domain as well as the electromagnetic coupling of remote TLM subdomains using integral equations (IE. By using the integral equations the space between the TLM subdomains is not discretized and consequently doesn't contribute to the computational effort. The cost for the evaluation of the time-domain integral equations (TD-IE is further reduced using a suitable plane-wave representation of the source terms. The hybrid TD-IE/TLM method is applied in the computation of the shielding effectiveness (SE of metallic enclosures.

  15. The Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Environments (IE 10): A Report

    OpenAIRE

    Callaghan, Vic; Egerton, Simon; Kameas, Achilles; Satoh, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    The 6th International Conference on Intelligent Environments (IE10) was held July 19-21 at the Sunway campus of Monash University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This article presents a report of the conference.

  16. “Virtual IED sensor” at an rf-biased electrode in low-pressure plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanova, M. A.; Zyryanov, S. M. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, SINP MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation); Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lopaev, D. V.; Rakhimov, A. T. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, SINP MSU, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    Energy distribution and the flux of the ions coming on a surface are considered as the key-parameters in anisotropic plasma etching. Since direct ion energy distribution (IED) measurements at the treated surface during plasma processing are often hardly possible, there is an opportunity for virtual ones. This work is devoted to the possibility of such indirect IED and ion flux measurements at an rf-biased electrode in low-pressure rf plasma by using a “virtual IED sensor” which represents “in-situ” IED calculations on the absolute scale in accordance with a plasma sheath model containing a set of measurable external parameters. The “virtual IED sensor” should also involve some external calibration procedure. Applicability and accuracy of the “virtual IED sensor” are validated for a dual-frequency reactive ion etching (RIE) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactor with a capacitively coupled rf-biased electrode. The validation is carried out for heavy (Ar) and light (H{sub 2}) gases under different discharge conditions (different ICP powers, rf-bias frequencies, and voltages). An EQP mass-spectrometer and an rf-compensated Langmuir probe (LP) are used to characterize plasma, while an rf-compensated retarded field energy analyzer (RFEA) is applied to measure IED and ion flux at the rf-biased electrode. Besides, the pulsed selfbias method is used as an external calibration procedure for ion flux estimating at the rf-biased electrode. It is shown that pulsed selfbias method allows calibrating the IED absolute scale quite accurately. It is also shown that the “virtual IED sensor” based on the simplest collisionless sheath model allows reproducing well enough the experimental IEDs at the pressures when the sheath thickness s is less than the ion mean free path λ{sub i} (s < λ{sub i}). At higher pressure (when s > λ{sub i}), the difference between calculated and experimental IEDs due to ion collisions in the sheath is observed in the low

  17. IEEE standard for qualifying class IE equipment for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    The Institute of Electrical and Electrical Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) standards for electrical equipment (Class IE) for nuclear power generating stations are given. The standards are to provide guidance for demonstrating and documenting the adequacy of electric equipment used in all Class IE and interface systems. Representative in containment design basis event conditions for the principal reactor types are included in the appendixes for guidance in enviromental simulation

  18. Multi-criteria evaluation of wastewater treatment plant control strategies under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Sin, Gürkan

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of activated sludge control strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) via mathematical modelling is a complex activity because several objectives; e.g. economic, environmental, technical and legal; must be taken into account at the same time, i.e. the evaluation of the alter...

  19. Can propulsion and fuel diversity for the bus fleet achieve the win–win strategy of energy conservation and environmental protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Renjie; Wu, Ye; Ke, Wenwei; Zhang, Shaojun; Zhou, Boya; Hao, Jiming

    2015-01-01

    coal-dominated regions; but, in the future, it can achieve substantially lower fossil energy use and CO 2 emissions with more penetration of clean electric energy. To reach the win–win strategy, a city’s initial reliance on diesel buses for the public fleet has to give way to a mixture of these new energy buses; and the fleet mix should be diversified over the region and modified over time to accommodate changes in these energy and environmental parameters

  20. Valence States Modulation Strategy for Picomole Level Assay of Hg2+ in Drinking and Environmental Water by Directional Self-Assembly of Gold Nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Lu, Linlin; Wang, Sufan; Xia, Yunsheng

    2017-06-23

    In this study, we present a valence states modulation strategy for picomole level assay of Hg 2+ using directional self-assembly of gold nanorods (AuNRs) as signal readout. Hg 2+ ions are first controllably reduced to Hg + ions by appropriate ascorbic acid, and the reduced Hg + ions react with the tips of the preadded AuNRs and form gold amalgam. Such Hg + decorated AuNRs then end-to-end self-assemble into one-dimensional architectures by the bridging effects of lysine based on the high affinity of NH 2 -Hg + interactions. Correspondingly, the AuNRs' longitudinal surface plasmon resonance is gradually reduced and a new broad band appears at 900-1100 nm region simultaneously. The resulting distinctly ratiometric signal output is not only favorable for Hg 2+ ions detection but competent for their quantification. Under optimal conditions, the linear range is 22.8 pM to 11.4 nM, and the detection limit is as low as 8.7 pM. Various transition/heavy metal ions, such as Pb 2+ , Ti 2+ , Co 2+ , Fe 3+ , Mn 2+ , Ba 2+ , Fe 2+ , Ni 2+ , Al 3+ , Cu 2+ , Ag + , and Au 3+ , do not interfere with the assay. Because of ultrahigh sensitivity and excellent selectivity, the proposed system can be employed for assaying ultratrace of Hg 2+ containing in drinking and commonly environmental water samples, which is difficult to be achieved by conventional colorimetric systems. These results indicate that the present platform possesses specific advantages and potential applications in the assay of ultratrace amounts of Hg 2+ ions.

  1. Strengthening Voices: How patoralist communities and local government are shaping strategies for adaptive environmental management and poverty reduction in Tanzania's drylands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jode, Helen de; Hesse, Ced

    2011-06-15

    Across Tanzania, climate change is being felt in the changing patterns and intensity of rainfall, and in the growing unpredictability of the seasons. The drylands are being increasingly affected, and there is an urgent need to strengthen institutional capacity and good governance for drylands planning. Pastoralism provides over 90% of the meat and milk products consumed nationally in Tanzania. The pastoralist production system successfully exploits and adapts to the disequilibrium in the dryland ecosystems, but pastoralist voices are frequently excluded from the decision-making and management of dryland resources. The marginalisation of pastoralists is resulting in falling production levels. Since 2007, IIED, the Kimmage Development Studies Centre and the Tanzania Natural Resource Forum have been undertaking a project with their partners with the specific goal of generating more informed and equitable discussion and debate on pastoralism. Using local government reform processes, the 'Strengthening Voices' project works at the community, local government and national levels - addressing the lack of knowledge and power imbalances within all three. The central pillar of the project is a training course on the economic and ecological processes at the heart of pastoral systems — clarifying the rationale that underpins livelihood strategies. National politicians, local district officials and community participants have all benefited from the training. At the end of its 1st three-year phase good progress has been made in designing and implementing tools and approaches that promote citizen access to decision-making. With their new evidence, training and advocacy skills, people are now better able to inform policy of the economic and environmental benefits of dryland livelihood systems. This booklet and accompanying DVD explain the background to the project, its achievements, and how it plans to build on its successes to roll out the project to other districts in Tanzania

  2. Biotransformation of isoeugenol to vanillin by Pseudomonas putida IE27 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mamoru; Okada, Yukiyoshi; Yoshida, Toyokazu; Nagasawa, Toru

    2007-01-01

    The ability to produce vanillin and/or vanillic acid from isoeugenol was screened using resting cells of various bacteria. The vanillin- and/or vanillic-acid-producing activities were observed in strains belonging to the genera Achromobacter, Aeromonas, Agrobacerium, Alcaligenes, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Rhodobacter, and Rhodococcus. Strain IE27, a soil isolate showing the highest vanillin-producing activity, was identified as Pseudomonas putida. We optimized the culture and reaction conditions for vanillin production from isoeugenol using P. putida IE27 cells. The vanillin-producing activity was induced by adding isoeugenol to the culture medium but not vanillin or eugenol. Under the optimized reaction conditions, P. putida IE27 cells produced 16.1 g/l vanillin from 150 mM isoeugenol, with a molar conversion yield of 71% at 20 degrees C after a 24-h incubation in the presence of 10% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide.

  3. La IED en galicia. situación actual y estrategias de futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Calvo, Agustín

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se trata de apuntar algunos de los posibles factores que pueden estar detrás de la escasa capacidad mostrada por la economía gallega para atraer a la inversión extranjera Directa (IED que se dirigió a España a lo largo del periodo 1993-2002; sugiriendo, además, una serie de medidas para contribuir a corregir ese problema, y reducir las posibles deslocalizaciones empresariales. Para ello se comparan las estructuras productivas y de la IED de España y Galicia, así como la diferencia entre la productividad parcial por trabajador y el coste por trabajador entre todas las CC.AA. españolas; ya que ésta es una de las principales variables que explica la distribución sectorial y regional de la IED en España en el periodo considerado.

  4. STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN BALAI PENELITIAN BIOTEKNOLOGI PERKEBUNAN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fauzanul Hakim Abdurrahim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to identify and review external and internal factors influencing Balai Penelitian Bioteknologi Perkebunan Indonesia (BPBPI in achieving its vision and mission, to set up alternative development strategies in BPBPI and to formulate priority strategies for development of BPBPI. Descriptive analysis method were used in this study is. The analysis tools being used in this study were environmental analysis, internal factor evaluation, external factor evaluation, internal external matrix (IE, strengths weaknesses opportunities threats (SWOT and combination of analytical hierarchy process (AHP and SWOT. Using IE Matrix, the company were indicated to be in the position of Quadrant V, which is ‘hold and maintain’ position with general strategy is market penetration and product development. Based on the results of SWOT analysis, were identified six alternative strategies that can be recommended in the development BPBPI is (1 Market penetration strategy through development new products and improved distribution network, (2 Finding an alternative sources of new organic raw materials and cheap as well has a lots availability, (3 Improvement on BPBPI’s products promotional strategy through road show to consumers in periodical, (4 Strategy optimization experimental farm through planting excellence seeds, (5 Conducting strategic research to generating unique products and has a high value selling as well broad market, (6 Improve welfare expert for the creation of conducive working atmosphere. Priority strategy with highest total efficiency values (18,15% obtained from AWOT were conducting strategic research to generating unique products and has a high value selling as well broad market.Keywords: development strategy, BPBPI, AWOT, SWOTABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menentukan faktor-faktor internal dan eksternal yang Memengaruhi BPBPI dalam mencapai visi dan misinya, menyusun alternatif strategi pengembangan di BPBPI

  5. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Determination of Energy Savings: Qualitative Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Richman, Eric E.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Winiarski, David W.

    2014-09-04

    This report provides a final qualitative analysis of all addenda to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2010 or 2010 edition) that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2013 or 2013 edition). All addenda in creating Standard 90.1-2013 were evaluated for their projected impact on energy efficiency. Each addendum was characterized as having a positive, neutral, or negative impact on overall building energy efficiency.

  6. Geochemistry of hot springs in the Ie Seu’um hydrothermal areas at Aceh Besar district, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idroes, R.; Yusuf, M.; Alatas, M.; Subhan; Lala, A.; Saiful; Suhendra, R.; Idroes, G. M.; Marwan

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia geothermal resources are the largest in the world, about 40 percent of the total geothermal resources worldwide with a potential energy of 28,617 MW. Geothermal energy is one of the renewable energy in the world that can be developed sustainably. This kind of energy is not only environmentally friendly but also highly prospective compared to fossil energy. One of the potential geothermal energy in Indonesia is Seulawah Agam geothermal field with some manifestation areas. The fluid type of Ie Seu’um manifestation was chloride (Cl-) obtained from the ternary diagram Cl--SO4 2--HCO3 -, using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, argentometry and acidimetry method. The reservoir range temperature was 188,7 ± 9,3°C calculated using geothermometer Na-K-Ca, Na-K Fournier and Na-K Giggenbach by applying Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy method. This data processing was carried out using liquid chemistry plotting spreadsheet version 3 powell geoscience Ltd.3 September 2012 by Powell & Cumming. The potential in the geothermal manifestation of Ie Seu’um was estimated about 50-100 MW (medium enthalpy).

  7. An Active Type I-E CRISPR-Cas System Identified in Streptomyces avermitilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Qiu

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas systems, the small RNA-dependent immune systems, are widely distributed in prokaryotes. However, only a small proportion of CRISPR-Cas systems have been identified to be active in bacteria. In this work, a naturally active type I-E CRISPR-Cas system was found in Streptomyces avermitilis. The system shares many common genetic features with the type I-E system of Escherichia coli, and meanwhile shows unique characteristics. It not only degrades plasmid DNA with target protospacers, but also acquires new spacers from the target plasmid DNA. The naive features of spacer acquisition in the type I-E system of S. avermitilis were investigated and a completely conserved PAM 5'-AAG-3' was identified. Spacer acquisition displayed differential strand bias upstream and downstream of the priming spacer, and irregular integrations of new spacers were observed. In addition, introduction of this system into host conferred phage resistance to some extent. This study will give new insights into adaptation mechanism of the type I-E systems in vivo, and meanwhile provide theoretical foundation for applying this system on the genetic modification of S. avermitilis.

  8. Discourse Surrounding the International Education Standards for Professional Accountants (IES): A Content Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Satoshi; Wilson, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The development and implementation of the International Education Standards (IES) for professional accountants is currently an important issue in accounting education and for educators interested in a shift toward international education standards more broadly. The purpose of this study is to investigate professional and research discourse…

  9. Stage IE nonHodgkin's lymphoma of the testis: a need for a brief aggressive chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, H.; Suc, E.; Pons, A.; Woodman, F.; Huguet-Rigal, F.; Caveriviere, P.; Carton, M.

    1989-01-01

    Primary nonHodgkin's lymphoma of the testis is a localized disease in 50 per cent of the cases. Clinical records and pathological material from 9 stage IE cancer patients treated at our institutions were reviewed. All but 1 patient had B cell type lymphomas of intermediate (6) or high (3) grade according to the Working Formulation. Mean survival was 49 months and actuarial survival was 74 per cent at 5 years. Chemotherapy differed with time and frequently was associated with subdiaphragmatic involved field and prophylactic contralateral testis radiotherapy. In view of the good prognosis of patients receiving doxorubicin-based chemotherapy and recent reports on low stage nonHodgkin's lymphoma we recommend an aggressive brief therapy for stage IE lymphoma of the testis after orchiectomy

  10. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Preliminary Determination: Qualitative Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Hart, Reid; Athalye, Rahul A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2014-03-01

    Section 304(b) of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to make a determination each time a revised version of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 is published with respect to whether the revised standard would improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings. When the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issues an affirmative determination on Standard 90.1, states are statutorily required to certify within two years that they have reviewed and updated the commercial provisions of their building energy code, with respect to energy efficiency, to meet or exceed the revised standard. This report provides a preliminary qualitative analysis of all addenda to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2010 or 2010 edition) that were included in ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 (referred to as Standard 90.1-2013 or 2013 edition).

  11. Product analysis illuminates the final steps of IES deletion in Tetrahymena thermophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, S V; Cox, M M

    2001-06-15

    DNA sequences (IES elements) eliminated from the developing macronucleus in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila are released as linear fragments, which have now been detected and isolated. A PCR-mediated examination of fragment end structures reveals three types of strand scission events, reflecting three steps in the deletion process. New evidence is provided for two steps proposed previously: an initiating double-stranded cleavage, and strand transfer to create a branched deletion intermediate. The fragment ends provide evidence for a previously uncharacterized third step: the branched DNA strand is cleaved at one of several defined sites located within 15-16 nucleotides of the IES boundary, liberating the deleted DNA in a linear form.

  12. A methodology aimed at fostering and sustaining the development processes of an IE-based industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corallo, Angelo; Errico, Fabrizio; de Maggio, Marco; Giangreco, Enza

    In the current competitive scenario, where business relationships are fundamental in building successful business models and inter/intra organizational business processes are progressively digitalized, an end-to-end methodology is required that is capable of guiding business networks through the Internetworked Enterprise (IE) paradigm: a new and innovative organizational model able to leverage Internet technologies to perform real-time coordination of intra and inter-firm activities, to create value by offering innovative and personalized products/services and reduce transaction costs. This chapter presents the TEKNE project Methodology of change that guides business networks, by means of a modular and flexible approach, towards the IE techno-organizational paradigm, taking into account the competitive environment of the network and how this environment influences its strategic, organizational and technological levels. Contingency, the business model, enterprise architecture and performance metrics are the key concepts that form the cornerstone of this methodological framework.

  13. IE Information Notice No. 85-17, Supplement 1: Possible sticking of ASCO solenoid valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    This notice is to inform recipients of the results of follow up investigations regarding the reasons for sticking of Automatic Switch Company (ASCO) solenoid valves used to shut main steam isolation valves (MSIVs) under accident conditions. GE has recommend that the licensee replace the potentially contaminated MSIV solenoid valves and institute a periodic examination and cleaning of the MSIV solenoid valves. Grand Gulf has replaced the eight MSIV HTX832320V dual solenoid valves with fully environmentally qualified ASCO Model NP 8323A20E dual solenoid valves. The environmentally qualified valve Model NP 8323A20E was included in a control sample placed in the test ovens with the solenoid valves that stuck at Grand Gulf. The environmentally qualified model did not stick under the test conditions that cause sticking in the other solenoid valves

  14. The application of NISA II FEM package in seismic qualification of small class IE electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fancev, T.; Saban, I.; Grgic, D.

    1995-01-01

    According to the IEEE standards 323/1974 and 344/1975, seismic qualification of class IE equipment is appropriate combination of test and analysis methods. Complex equipment and assemblies are usually tested through seismic testing. The analysis is recommended for simple equipment that can be easily modeled to correctly predict its response. This article deals with the application of NISA II FEM package in 3D FE modeling and mode shape calculations of small power low voltage electric motors. (author)

  15. Medicine against Cold War. Physicians in the anti-nuclear peace movement of the 1980ies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemper, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The book on physicians in the anti-nuclear peace movement of the 19080ies covers the following issues: (I) Frame of the subject: methodology, research fields and actors; (II) The social dimension of the physician's movement; (III) IPPNW (International physicians for the prevention of nuclear war) - a political idea is medicalized and organized, 1980 - 1984; (IV) Borderlines of the international peace idea during the Cold War - IPPNW 1980 - 1986.

  16. Assessment of current NRC/IE professional training program and recommendations for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartley, H.J.; Hagerup, J.E.; Harrison, O.J.; Heyer, F.H.K.; Kaas, I.W.; Schwartz, E.G.

    1978-05-01

    This document is the General Research Corporation (GRC) report on Task III: to assess the current NRC/IE professional training program and to provide recommendations for improvement. The major objectives of this task were to determine the overall effectiveness of the NRC/IE training program and to provide recommendations for improvements where appropriate. The research involved a review of course manuals and of student critiques, observation in the classroom and person to person interviews; it also included an evaluation of the assignment of instructors to the Career Management Branch. Findings addressed refresher training, retread training and initial training--with emphasis on the last of these. Conclusions are that: (1) The curriculum provides, in general, types and levels of training needed; (2) the mix of training methods used is correct; and (3) the training management is effective. However, the training facilities do not reflect a commitment to quality instruction nor is assignment as instructor to the Career Management Branch attractive to inspectors. Recommendations presented in the report are based upon the findings; all lie within the implementing authority of Headquarters NRC/IE

  17. Stage IE Primary Bone Lymphoma:Limb Salvage for Local Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodamorad Jamshidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Primary bone lymphoma or non-Hodgkin lymphoma of bone is a rare disease. There are only a few case series of stage IE of this condition in medical literature. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of survival   for stage IE after combined modality treatment, the rate of local recurrence, and the results of limb salvage in cases   of local recurrence.     Methods:   We collected data from 61 patients with histologically confirmed PBL treated at the Musculoskeletal   Oncology Department of our hospital from 2000 to 2010. Retrospective evaluation included demographics, symptoms, tumor locations, outcomes of surgical treatment for local recurrence and survival rates. Results:   All patients received Combined Modality Therapy. Overall,five year survival was 89% and five year disease free survival rate was 78%. Local recurrence occurred in 6 patients during follow up period, which was treated surgically     by wide excision and reconstruction. The mean follow-up for the local recurrence group was 36(24-54 months and mortality rate in this group was 17%. Conclusions:   Combined Modality Therapy for stage IE primary bone lymphomaresults in good survival rate. In case   of local recurrence, wide excision and reconstruction improves the outcomes.

  18. Noise and Vibration Monitoring for Premium Efficiency IE 3 Three-Phase Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NISTOR, C. G.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the original SV-100 platform that enables low-cost and very high accuracy determinations of noise and vibration levels. The aim of the proposed platform is to achieve an effective integration of the two topics of this analysis: vibrations and noises. To the best of our knowledge, no low price, dedicated compact platform with embedded measuring instruments exists. For proving the practical utility of the proposed platform, two induction motors of 7.5 kW and 11 kW, respectively, in single-layer winding, at 1000 rpm, with IE3 premium efficiency were analyzed. This analysis is required because, according to IEC60034-30 standard, the IE3 efficiency standard has become mandatory for induction motors of rated power greater than 7.5 kW. Therefore, in order to improve the motor operating efficiency, the power losses caused by noises and vibrations have to be reduced. Several variants of supply were studied, i.e., by the three-phase 50 Hz network and by a three-phase inverter at 40, 50 and 60 Hz, respectively. The experimental determinations of noises are presented comparatively, by using a Bruel&Kjaer sonometer and by using the new platform SV-100. The results are compared with the IEC60034 standard.

  19. Recommendations on nuclear and multimodality imaging in IE and CIED infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erba, Paola Anna; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Vilacosta, Isidre; Gaemperli, Oliver; Rouzet, Francois; Hacker, Marcus; Signore, Alberto; Slart, Riemer H J A; Habib, Gilbert

    2018-05-24

    In the latest update of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for the management of infective endocarditis (IE), imaging is positioned at the centre of the diagnostic work-up so that an early and accurate diagnosis can be reached. Besides echocardiography, contrast-enhanced CT (ce-CT), radiolabelled leucocyte (white blood cell, WBC) SPECT/CT and [ 18 F]FDG PET/CT are included as diagnostic tools in the diagnostic flow chart for IE. Following the clinical guidelines that provided a straightforward message on the role of multimodality imaging, we believe that it is highly relevant to produce specific recommendations on nuclear multimodality imaging in IE and cardiac implantable electronic device infections. In these procedural recommendations we therefore describe in detail the technical and practical aspects of WBC SPECT/CT and [ 18 F]FDG PET/CT, including ce-CT acquisition protocols. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of each procedure, specific pitfalls when interpreting images, and the most important results from the literature, and also provide recommendations on the appropriate use of multimodality imaging.

  20. Energy counts and materials matter in models for sustainable development. Dynamic lifecycle modelling as a tool for design and evalution of long-term environmental strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, Henry Coert

    1993-01-01

    ln this study I do not adopt one of these perspectives but I develop the perspective of the environmental physiologist instead. The environmental physiologist designs models that simulate the metabolism in the society and between the society and the environment. The four perspectives mentioned

  1. Physical Education Initial Teacher Educators' Expressions of Critical Pedagogy(ies): Coherency, Complexity or Confusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpot, Rod

    2016-01-01

    While an emphasis on social justice has emerged as a theme in initial teacher education (ITE) over the past decade, there is much debate about how to engage ITE students in foregrounding issues of equity and social justice in their own teaching. One strategy, the introduction of critical pedagogy in ITE, has been promoted in teacher education…

  2. Smokeless Propellants as Vehicle Borne IED Main Charges: An Initial Threat Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    explosives license or permit must submit a photograph and fingerprints to the ATF and undergo a background investigation. The law prohibits certain persons...container with four M 16 screws. A piece of canvas * is placed and pinched between the F of the containe~and the grate. The grate mesh measures 30 X 30 rom...lb) above, but instead of a grate and canvas , two boards of pine wood, each 12 mm thick being stacked on top of one another. as per (Ie) above, but

  3. CONSIDERAŢII PRIVIND IMPORTANŢA METODEI DE CALCULAŢIE A COSTULUI PE COMENZI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana MIHAILA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available În acest articol este prezentată o modalitate de organizare a contabilităţii de gestiune şi a calculaţiei costurilor prin metoda pe comenzi. Sunt tratate etapele de derulare a metodei de calculaţie a costului pe comenzi, respectiv rolul conta­bilului de gestiune în derularea şi implementarea acestei metode. Din punct de vedere teoretic şi aplicativ, sunt abordate etapele metodologice parcurse în contabilitatea de gestiune şi calculaţia costurilor.Concluziile formulate vizează organizarea contabilităţii de gestiune; entitatea trebuie să aplice cea mai eficientă metodă de calculaţie, ba chiar şi o combinaţie de metode de calculaţie – clasice şi moderne, în concordanţă cu parti­cularităţile tehnologiei şi organizării producţiei, precum şi cu cerinţele unei administrări eficiente. Totodată, sunt abor­date şi avantajele pe care le oferă metoda pe comenzi, de unde derivă şi importanţa acestui subiect. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF THE JOB-ORDER COSTING SYSTEM The authors present a method for the organization of the management accounting and job-order costing. Consideration has been given to the stages of the job-order costing system, as well as to the role of the accountant in the application and implementation of such method. The authors have adopted a theoretical and applicative approach in regard to the methodological stages covered by the management accounting and the costing method.The article ends with the authors' conclusions regarding the organization of the management accounting. In this respect, it outcomes that an entity is to apply the most efficient costing method and, moreover, a combination of classical and modern costing methods, in accordance with the specific features of the manufacturing process and production engineering, as well as the efficient management requirements. The authors have also shed light on the advantages offered by the job-order costing system, and the resulting

  4. Evaluation of ANSI/ASHRAE/USGBC/IES Standard 189.1-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, N.; Bonnema, E.; Field, K.; Torcellini, P.

    2010-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) evaluated ANSI/ASHRAE/USGBC/IES Standard 189.1-2009, 'The Standard for High-Performance Green Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings'. NREL performed this evaluation by examining the results of predictions for site energy use from a comprehensive set of EnergyPlus models. NREL has conducted an 'order-of-magnitude' analysis in this study to identify the likely overall impact of adopting Standard 189.1-2009 over ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007.

  5. Emergent strategies of electricity producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Woerd, F.; Lise, W.; Becker, G.

    2004-10-01

    The EU-funded research project EMELIE (Electricity Market Liberalisation In Europe) wants to provide a sound analysis of the economic and environmental impacts of the liberalisation process of the European electricity markets. The EMELIE model simulates various market scenarios. The companies in the EMELIE model are assumed to have a relatively simple strategy, i.e. profit maximisation, which is constrained by trade limitation, emission quota, and available production capacity for various technologies. The Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM) took the initiative to start a complementary line of research. At a more detailed level, we investigated business strategies from the perspective of the companies themselves: What is their dominant strategy in the process of liberalisation? Why do they behave like that? What will be the likely strategy of dominant companies in the years to come? And last but not least: how does this most likely strategy fit into the stylised EMELIE scenarios? In our analysis, we use theories about business behaviour, like the Portfolio Analysis of the Boston Consulting Group and Porter's Typology of Business Strategies. We also consider two theories that relate to company-authority interactions: Williamson's New Institutional Economics that compares market failures with government failures and Tinbergen's Theory of Economic Policy, that warns for exaggerated expectations of a single policy instrument, in this case market liberalisation. We observe that the liberalisation process has brought about a wave of mergers and acquisitions, resulting in concentrated markets. Concentration Standards of Competition Authorities decide on maximum concentration levels, not the market itself. The trend towards market concentration originates because dominant companies want to avoid price competition and consider strategic market behaviour in their best interest. These expansionist' companies prefer proven production technologies with low variable costs

  6. OPTIMIZAREA DETERMINĂRII CAPACITĂŢII DE INHIBIŢIE A APELOR NATURALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav BLONSCHI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available În lucrare sunt prezentate rezultatele studiului multianual ce ţin de optimizarea determinării capacităţii de inhibiţie, obţinute în urma prelucrării statistice a datelor empirice din perioada anilor 2008-2017. În rezultatul prelucrării statistice a datelor multianuale, a fost propusă valoarea medie a vitezei de decolorare a indicatorului PNDMA în apă distilată, care optimizează calcularea capacităţii de inhibiţie a apelor. OPTIMIZE DETERMINATION OF NATURAL WATER INHIBITION CAPACITYThis paper contain the results of multi-annual study on the optimization of inhibition capacity determination, obtained after statistical processing of empirical data from 2008-2017. Thereafter of statistical processing of multi-annual data, it was proposed the average value of fading speed of PNDMA indicator in distilled water, that optimize computation of the inhibition capacity of waters. 

  7. Reliability and validity of the Impact of Event Scale (IES): version for Brazilian burn victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria-Guanilo, Maria E; Dantas, Rosana A S; Farina, Jayme A; Alonso, Jordi; Rajmil, Luis; Rossi, Lídia A

    2011-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the internal reliability (internal consistency), construct validity, sensitivity and ceiling and floor effects of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Impact of Event Scale (IES). Methodological research design. The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the IES was applied to a group of 91 burned patients at three times: the first week after the burn injury (time one), between the fourth and the sixth months (time two) and between the ninth and the 12th months (time three). The internal consistency, construct validity (convergent and dimensionality), sensitivity and ceiling and floor effects were tested. Cronbach's alpha coefficients showed high internal consistency for the total scale (0·87) and for the domains intrusive thoughts (0·87) and avoidance responses (0·76). During the hospitalisation (time one), the scale showed low and positive correlations with pain measures immediately before (r=0·22; pnegative correlations with self-esteem (r=-0·52; plow and negative with the Bodily pain (r=-0·24; pimpact of the event in the group of patients under analysis. The Impact of Event Scale can be used in research and clinical practice to assess nursing interventions aimed at decreasing stress during rehabilitation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The Plant Genome Integrative Explorer Resource: PlantGenIE.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundell, David; Mannapperuma, Chanaka; Netotea, Sergiu; Delhomme, Nicolas; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Sjödin, Andreas; Van de Peer, Yves; Jansson, Stefan; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Street, Nathaniel R

    2015-12-01

    Accessing and exploring large-scale genomics data sets remains a significant challenge to researchers without specialist bioinformatics training. We present the integrated PlantGenIE.org platform for exploration of Populus, conifer and Arabidopsis genomics data, which includes expression networks and associated visualization tools. Standard features of a model organism database are provided, including genome browsers, gene list annotation, Blast homology searches and gene information pages. Community annotation updating is supported via integration of WebApollo. We have produced an RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) expression atlas for Populus tremula and have integrated these data within the expression tools. An updated version of the ComPlEx resource for performing comparative plant expression analyses of gene coexpression network conservation between species has also been integrated. The PlantGenIE.org platform provides intuitive access to large-scale and genome-wide genomics data from model forest tree species, facilitating both community contributions to annotation improvement and tools supporting use of the included data resources to inform biological insight. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. ABORDAREA PSIHOLINGVISTICĂ ŞI SOCIOLINGVISTICĂ A CONCEPTULUI EMOŢIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica LIFARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available În ultimul timp categoria conceptuală a emoţiilor este cercetată în contextul studiilor interdisciplinare şi al celor interculturale. Atât în domeniul psihologiei, cât şi în cel al lingvisticii savanţii se împart în mai multe şcoli, bunăoară: reprezentanţii teoriei despre universalitatea emoţiilor şi cei care accentuează impactul sociocultural al dezvoltării şi cul­ti­vării categoriilor conceptuale ale emoţiilor în cadrul unei etnii sau culturi.În articolul de faţă autorul pune în discuţie opiniile savanţilor antropologi şi lingvişti cu privire la modelarea concep­tului de emoţie în cadrul unei culturi şi posibilitatea de a analiza acest concept prin prisma ambelor teorii: atât a celei de universalitate a conceptului de emoţie, cât şi a teoriei despre individualitatea acestuia. THE PSYCHO-LINGUISTIC AND SOCIO-LINGUISTIC APPROACH TO THE CONCEPT OF EMOTION The conceptual category of emotions has recently more often been studied on the cross-cultural level. This type of research has been done among both psychologists and linguists who are further representing different schools or ideas, as for example the adherents of the theory of universal emotions and those that emphasize the socio-cultural impact of the development of the concept of emotion within a certain ethnic community or culture.The article under discussion offers the reader the ideas and points of view of researchers in the field of psychology, anthropology and linguistics concerning the concept of emotions within a certain culture and the possibility to analyse the given concept through the prism of both theories: that of the universality of emotions on the one hand and that of the cultural specificity of emotion on the other one.

  10. Governance Strategies for a Sustainable Digital World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Linkov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Digitalization is changing society by the increased connectivity and networking that digital technologies enable, such as enhancing communication, services, and trade. Increasingly, policymakers within various national governments and international organizations such as the United Nations (UN and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD are examining the original sustainability policy concepts applied within the Brundtland Report of 1987 through the lens of digitalization. While the growth of a digital economy may increase productivity and benefit local and global economies, digitalization also raises potential sustainability challenges pertaining to social (i.e., the benefits or costs imposed by disruptive digital technologies upon social networks and ways of life, including threats to economic sustainability and the rise of economic disparity and environmental wellbeing (i.e., natural resource stewardship and concern for future generations driven by the automation of information processing and delivery of services. Various perspectives have been raised regarding how the process of digitalization might be governed, and national governments remain at odds regarding a single best strategy to promote sustainable digitalization using the Brundtland concept to meet the development needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations (i.e., social and environmental well-being. This paper reviews three governance strategies that countries can use in conjunction with adaptive governance to respond to digitalization sustainability threats: (i a laissez-faire, industry-driven approach; (ii a precautionary and preemptive strategy on the part of government; and (iii a stewardship and “active surveillance” approach by government agencies that reduce the risks derived from digitalization while promoting private sector innovation. Regardless of a state’s digital governance response and how it is shaped by

  11. Efficient engineering of a bacteriophage genome using the type I-E CRISPR-Cas system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiro, Ruth; Shitrit, Dror; Qimron, Udi

    2014-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated (Cas) system has recently been used to engineer genomes of various organisms, but surprisingly, not those of bacteriophages (phages). Here we present a method to genetically engineer the Escherichia coli phage T7 using the type I-E CRISPR-Cas system. T7 phage genome is edited by homologous recombination with a DNA sequence flanked by sequences homologous to the desired location. Non-edited genomes are targeted by the CRISPR-Cas system, thus enabling isolation of the desired recombinant phages. This method broadens CRISPR Cas-based editing to phages and uses a CRISPR-Cas type other than type II. The method may be adjusted to genetically engineer any bacteriophage genome.

  12. Las teorias de la localizacion de la inversion extranjera directa (IED: una aproximacion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villarreal, C.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta obra es presentar una aproximación al estado actual del arte en el tema. En este sentido, se intentarán exponer los motivos que desencadenan que las diversas teorías relativas a la Inversión Extranjera Directa (IED no proporcionen una respuesta unánime sobre la localización del capital extranjero con fines productivos, enfatizando la ausencia de modelos cuantitativos para explicar los factores en la decisión de invertir en el extranjero. Se presentan los conceptos y definiciones fundamentales relacionados con el tema. Finalmente, ofrece una perspectiva sobre el quehacer en las investigaciones relacionadas al tema.

  13. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Determination of Energy Savings: Quantitative Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Wang, Weimin; Hart, Philip R.; Zhang, Jian; Goel, Supriya; Mendon, Vrushali V.

    2014-09-04

    This report provides a final quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would result in improved energy efficiency in commercial buildings. The final analysis considered each of the 110 addenda to Standard 90.1-2010 that were included in Standard 90.1-2013. PNNL reviewed all addenda included by ASHRAE in creating Standard 90.1-2013 from Standard 90.1-2010, and considered their combined impact on a suite of prototype building models across all U.S. climate zones. Most addenda were deemed to have little quantifiable impact on building efficiency for the purpose of DOE’s final determination. However, out of the 110 total addenda, 30 were identified as having a measureable and quantifiable impact.

  14. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2016 Performance Rating Method Reference Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Supriya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Eley, Charles [Eley and Associates, Hobe Sound, FL (United States)

    2017-09-29

    This document is intended to be a reference manual for the Appendix G Performance Rating Method (PRM) of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2016 (Standard 90.1-2016). The PRM can be used to demonstrate compliance with the standard and to rate the energy efficiency of commercial and high-rise residential buildings with designs that exceed the requirements of Standard 90.1. Use of the PRM for demonstrating compliance with Standard 90.1 is a new feature of the 2016 edition. The procedures and processes described in this manual are designed to provide consistency and accuracy by filling in gaps and providing additional details needed by users of the PRM.

  15. The Slavery in Circassia and the United States (1850–1860-ies years: General and Special

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhal Smigel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a comparative analysis of slavery in Circassia and in the territory of the slave South in the United States in 1850–1860-ies years in the context of the fight against the slave trade and slavery in the world. The article discusses the Russian-American general trends for the prohibition of slavery and the slave trade. Among the materials are Russian and foreign archival sources, documents of personal origin (memoirs, diaries of travelers as well as scientific research. The methodological basis of historical-comparative study are the principles of objectivity and historicism, suggesting an unbiased approach to the analysis of the studied problems, a critical attitude to the sources, making judgments as a result of the analysis of a set of facts, and displays the slave of phenomena in the development and the context of the historical situation. In conclusion, the authors note that slavery and the slave position in the United States and the Circassia had their differences in 1850–1860-ies. Such differences included the inability of the transition to the United States from the status of a slave in the state of the dependent peasant, which was the norm in Circassia. In the United States the slaves were brought from outside, while in Circassia the slavery occurred in the region, mainly by trapping. At the root of discrimination in the United States was the racial principle, in Circassia this is based on the religious principle. The position of slaves had their similarities. A slave was powerless property of his master, there were certain unwritten rules governing the relationship, slave owners were reluctant to bring slaves to the extreme and etc. The important similarity between the US and Circassia was the presence of their territories with a strong slave system, where slaves constituted more than 30 % of the population. In the US, it was the territory of the slave-holding South, and in Circassia – the slaveholding Ubykhia.

  16. Irradiation Effects Test Series: Test IE-3. Test results report. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, L. C.; Allison, C. M.; Croucher, D. W.; Ploger, S. A.

    1977-10-01

    The objectives of the test reported were to: (a) determine the behavior of irradiated fuel rods subjected to a rapid power increase during which the possibility of a pellet-cladding mechanical interaction failure is enhanced and (b) determine the behavior of these fuel rods during film boiling following this rapid power increase. Test IE-3 used four 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods fabricated from previously irradiated fuel. The fuel rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, followed by a power ramp to 69 kW/m at a coolant mass flux of 4920 kg/s-m/sup 2/. After a flow reduction to 2120 kg/s-m/sup 2/, film boiling occurred on the fuel rods. One rod failed approximately 45 seconds after the reactor was shut down as a result of cladding embrittlement due to extensive cladding oxidation. Data are presented on the behavior of these irradiated fuel rods during steady-state operation, the power ramp, and film boiling operation. The effects of a power ramp and power ramp rates on pellet-cladding interaction are discussed. Test data are compared with FRAP-T3 computer model calculations and data from a previous Irradiation Effects test in which four irradiated fuel rods of a similar design were tested. Test IE-3 results indicate that the irradiated state of the fuel rods did not significantly affect fuel rod behavior during normal, abnormal (power ramp of 20 kW/m per minute), and accident (film boiling) conditions.

  17. IE Information Notice No. 85-82: Diesel generator differential protection relay not seismically qualified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    Licensees of BWR and PWR nuclear generating stations have reported using a high-speed differential protection relay that has been declared by the manufacturer to be not seismically qualified for the service intended. The relay, GE Model 12CFD, which is being used for emergency diesel generator protection against electrical shorts and grounds at the generator output, has not been seismically qualified to operate in the de-energized state for this application. Generally, the relay operates in the de-energized position before EDG operation. However, it then operates in the energized position whenever the EDG provides an electrical output to essential Class IE components. The safety concern of this issue involves an inadvertent activation of the normally de-energized relay from a seismic event. Momentary activation of the relay, in the circuits examined, blocks the automatic start feature of the EDG during certain emergency plant conditions through operation of another relay in the system. The NRC review of the problems concluded that the relays should be seismically qualified in their energized and de-energized states to preclude their spurious activation during a seismic event. Additionally, review of GE's GER 3069 report, ''Relay Protection of Class IE Systems,'' shows that the 12CFD differential relays were successfully tested for 3.5 g in the energized modes and only 0.75 g in the de-energized mode. Review of GE's GER 3069 report also revealed that GE type IJD differential relays do meet seismic requirements in all modes of operation mentioned above and is the GE recommendation for replacement of the differential relay in question

  18. The EM technology development strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, C.W.; Barainca, M.; Kubo, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Office of Technology Development (TD) supports research and development of technologies that will lower cost, reduce risk, improve safety, and accelerate cleanup of the Nuclear Weapons Complex and provide solutions to currently untractable environmental problems. The TD strategic plan outlines Applied Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT and E) that will provide needed technology products to be used by Environmental Restoration and Waste Management operations (i.e., our customers). The TD strategic plan is derived from EM Goals, Objectives, and Strategy and is incorporated into DOE'S Five-Year Plan for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The TD strategic plan is developed based on integrating customer requirements, and is complemented by a top-down, bottom-up analysis of Site Specific Technology Needs and environmental problems. The execution of TD's strategic plan is implemented largely through Integrated Programs (IP) and Integrated Demonstrations (ID). IDs have proven to be a cost-effective method of managing technology development, testing and evaluation, and implementation of successful technology systems into the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs. The Savannah River ID for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Saturated Soils resulted in a 51 percent cost savings over stand-alone demonstrations, saving over $8 million. The IPs and IDs are selected based on customer needs, technical complexity, and complex-wide regulatory and compliance agreements. New technology systems are selected for incorporation into an IP or ID from offerings of the DOE laboratories, industry, and the universities. A major TD initiative was announced in August 1991, with the release of a Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) requesting industry and universities to propose innovative new technologies to clean up the Weapons Complex. (author)

  19. Environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  20. Processuel strategi i organisationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gylling, Martin

    2014-01-01

    on process theory and strategy, which in these years aims to move focus away from the dominance of designed strategy. I.e. an approach to practice understood as methodological individualism and pragmatic rationality (Chia & Holt 2009; Steyaert 2007; Stacey 2011; Hjorth 2012). Through recent poststructuralist...... currents in the field of processual strategy thinking and organisational entrepreneurship, for example Chia & Holt’s creation philosophical research in strategy without design and Steyaert’s (2007) thinking on the concept of entrepreneuring; the process theoretical thinking of entrepreneurship...

  1. Strategy of administration of the environmental education to mitigate the inadequate handling of residuals in the community Raúl Maqueira in Consolación del Sur, Pinar del Rio province, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Marina Lezcano Gil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The concern for the environment has been present in the humanity for all the generations and the current environmental problems constitute one of the biggest political, economic and social concerns, depending its solution of the own human existence. It was presented in the community Raúl Maqueira of the municipality Consolación del Sur an unfavorable environmental situation regarding to the handling of residuals, to those which, according to the preliminary diagnosis that was carried out, it was not given the appropriate treatment, for the lack of knowledge, convocation and cohesion among the factors. Under this context a process of administration of the environmental education was promoted in the community that propitiated the cognitive development on the handling of residuals, the integration of the different efforts in the attainment of the strategic objectives and to elevate the protagonism of the social actors by means of the participative practices. In the diagnosis of the current state of the selected community the necessity of elaborating a Strategy of administration of the environmental education was evidenced to mitigate the inadequate handling of residuals in the community and its application, raise levels of communication, commitment, participation and integration of its members as a contribution to local development. This research is validated by the experience in the framework of the community; the process ensured the solution of the problem through transformative results.

  2. Engine fuel trends in the 90ies. Kraftstoff-Trends in den 90er Jahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, J.

    1990-06-01

    The operating behaviour of internal combustion engines is greatly dependent from the properties and compositions of the fuels. Increasing demands made on engine technology for improved cost-effectiveness, service life and pollutivity will result in greater demands on the vehicle fuel quality. A number of papers whose contents are briefly reported by the author, deal with today's requirements of the automative industry on vehicle fuels (table: characteristics, requirements, limits, comments) and with the prospects of alternative fuels. Another paper discussed the influence of the fuel on particulate emission by diesel engines. Another paper presented the calculation of physical fuel data from the carburettor substance analysis and its significance, the environmentally relevant effects of fuel additives in enginer, and optimized additive systems to meet greater quality demands on otto-engine fuels. (HWJ).

  3. Extraction and clean-up strategies for the analysis of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in environmental and human matrices – review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, S.P.J.; de Boer, J.

    2007-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) research has resulted in a wide range of analytical methodologies to determine the human and environmental exposure to PFASs. This paper reviews the currently applied techniques for sample pre-treatment, extraction and

  4. Assessment of environmental issues using SUPER-OLADE/BID for comparing alternative electricity system expansion strategies. A case study for Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, R [Bogota (Colombia); Angel, E [Interconexion Electrica S.A., Medellin (Colombia); Gomez, D; Leon, O L [Empresa de Energia de Bogota, Bogota (Colombia)

    1996-06-01

    SUPER is a modular package for electricity generation expansion studies. It includes an environmental impacts module (EIM), originally developed by Interconexion Electrica S.A., the operator of the Colombian Power Pool, and adapted for use by utilities with a large hydro component. The paper describes the EIM and illustrates its application to a recent study. (author). 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  5. IE Information No. 87-08: Degraded motor leads in Limitorque dc motor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    On May 6, 1986 the NRC received from Portland General Electric Company a 10 CFR 21 report concerning a motor failure which occurred at its Trojan Nuclear Power Plant. The failure involved shorting of the motor leads inside a Limitorque motor operator connected to an auxiliary feedwater flow control valve. Upon inspection it was determined that the failure was the result of insulation degradation of the motor leads that had allowed two leads to short together. Recently, the NRC has also learned of a failure at the Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant in which the steam supply valve for the auxiliary feedwater turbine failed to operate after a Limitorque motor operator experienced a similar motor lead short circuit. The Trojan and the Turkey Point Limitorque operators were found to contain motors manufactured with Nomex-Kapton insulated leads. On January 12--14, 1987, the NRC conducted an inspection at Peerless-Winsmith, Inc., manufacturer of dc motors for Limitorque Co. During this inspection it was determined that the failed Nomex-Kapton leads were different than the leads which were fitted to the motors, tested, and documented in Limitorque Qualification Report B-0009 for dc motor operators. The leads attached to the tested motors were insulated with Nomex plus an epoxy impregnated braided fiberglass sleeve. The NRC knows of no analysis or testing that has been performed to show the Nomex-Kapton leads are acceptable for use in an application requiring environmental qualification. Further, it should be noted that the failures cited above occurred under normal operating conditions, not under the harsh conditions which could occur in areas where environmental qualification is required

  6. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 Performance Rating Method Reference Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Supriya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This document is intended to be a reference manual for the Appendix G Performance Rating Method (PRM) of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1- 2010 (Standard 90.1-2010).The PRM is used for rating the energy efficiency of commercial and high-rise residential buildings with designs that exceed the requirements of Standard 90.1. The procedures and processes described in this manual are designed to provide consistency and accuracy by filling in gaps and providing additional details needed by users of the PRM. It should be noted that this document is created independently from ASHRAE and SSPC 90.1 and is not sanctioned nor approved by either of those entities . Potential users of this manual include energy modelers, software developers and implementers of “beyond code” energy programs. Energy modelers using ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for beyond code programs can use this document as a reference manual for interpreting requirements of the Performance Rating method. Software developers, developing tools for automated creation of the baseline model can use this reference manual as a guideline for developing the rules for the baseline model.

  7. Irradiation effects test series, test IE-5. Test results report. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croucher, D. W.; Yackle, T. R.; Allison, C. M.; Ploger, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    Test IE-5, conducted in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, employed three 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods, fabricated from previously irradiated zircaloy-4 cladding and one similar rod fabricated from unirradiated cladding. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the influence of simulated fission products, cladding irradiation damage, and fuel rod internal pressure on pellet-cladding interaction during a power ramp and on fuel rod behavior during film boiling operation. The four rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, a power ramp to an average fuel rod peak power of 65 kW/m, and steady state operation for one hour at a coolant mass flux of 4880 kg/s-m/sup 2/ for each rod. After a flow reduction to 1800 kg/s-m/sup 2/, film boiling occurred on one rod. Additional flow reductions to 970 kg/s-m/sup 2/ produced film boiling on the three remaining fuel rods. Maximum time in film boiling was 80s. The rod having the highest initial internal pressure (8.3 MPa) failed 10s after the onset of film boiling. A second rod failed about 90s after reactor shutdown. The report contains a description of the experiment, the test conduct, test results, and results from the preliminary postirradiation examination. Calculations using a transient fuel rod behavior code are compared with the test results.

  8. Overview of nuclear safety activities performed by JRC-IE on Gen IV fast reactor concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsige-Tamirat, H.; Ammirabile, L.; D' Agata, E.; Fuetterer, M.; Ranguelova, V. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, Westerduinweg 3, 1755LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    The European Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan recognizes the need to develop new energy technologies, in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and secure energy supply in Europe. Besides renewable energy and improved energy efficiency, a new generation of nuclear power plants and innovative nuclear power applications can play a significant role to achieve this goal. The JRC Institute for Energy 'Safety of Future Nuclear Reactors' (SFNR) Unit is engaged in experimental research, numerical simulation and modelling, scientific, feasibility and engineering studies on innovative nuclear reactor systems. This also represents a significant EURATOM contribution to the Generation IV International Forum. Its activities deal with, among others, the performance assessment of innovative fuels and materials, development of new reactor core concepts and safety solutions, and knowledge management and preservation. Special attention is given to fast reactor concepts, namely the sodium (SFR) and lead (LFR) cooled reactors. Recognizing the maturity of the SFR technology, the European Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) considers a prototype SFR to be built as a next-step towards the deployment of a first-of-a-kind Gen IV SFR. This paper gives an overview of current research preformed at JRC-IE with emphasis on the work performed in the Collaborative Project on European Sodium Fast Reactor (CP-ESFR) within the European Commission's Seventh Framework Program. (authors)

  9. Overview of nuclear safety activities performed by JRC-IE on Gen IV fast reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsige-Tamirat, H.; Ammirabile, L.; D'Agata, E.; Fuetterer, M.; Ranguelova, V.

    2010-01-01

    The European Strategic Energy Technology (SET) Plan recognizes the need to develop new energy technologies, in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and secure energy supply in Europe. Besides renewable energy and improved energy efficiency, a new generation of nuclear power plants and innovative nuclear power applications can play a significant role to achieve this goal. The JRC Institute for Energy 'Safety of Future Nuclear Reactors' (SFNR) Unit is engaged in experimental research, numerical simulation and modelling, scientific, feasibility and engineering studies on innovative nuclear reactor systems. This also represents a significant EURATOM contribution to the Generation IV International Forum. Its activities deal with, among others, the performance assessment of innovative fuels and materials, development of new reactor core concepts and safety solutions, and knowledge management and preservation. Special attention is given to fast reactor concepts, namely the sodium (SFR) and lead (LFR) cooled reactors. Recognizing the maturity of the SFR technology, the European Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) considers a prototype SFR to be built as a next-step towards the deployment of a first-of-a-kind Gen IV SFR. This paper gives an overview of current research preformed at JRC-IE with emphasis on the work performed in the Collaborative Project on European Sodium Fast Reactor (CP-ESFR) within the European Commission's Seventh Framework Program. (authors)

  10. Removal of 137-Cs from Dissolved Hanford Tank Saltcake by Treatment with IE-911

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office plans to accelerate the cleanup of the Hanford Site. Testing new technology for the accelerated cleanup will require dissolved saltcake from single-shell tanks. However, the 137Cs will need to be removed from the saltcake to alleviate radiation hazards. A saltcake composite constructed from archived samples from Hanford Site single-shell tanks 241-S-101, 241-S-109, 241-S-110, 241-S-111, 241-U-106, and 241-U-109 was dissolved in water, adjusted to 5 M Na, and transferred from the 222-S Laboratory to the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL). At the RPL, the approximately 5.5 liters of solution was passed through a 0.2-micron polyethersulfone filter, collected, and homogenized. The filtered solution then was passed through an ion exchange column containing approximately 150 mL IONSIV(reg s ign) IE-911, an engineered form of crystalline silicotitanate available from UOP, at approximately 200 mL/hour in a continuous operation until all of the feed solution had been run through the column. An analysis of the 137Cs concentrations in the initial feed solution and combined column effluent indicates that > 99.999 percent of the Cs in the feed solution was removed by this operation

  11. Inland Waterway Environmental Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshnyak, Valery; Sokolov, Sergey; Nyrkov, Anatoliy; Budnik, Vlad

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the results of development of the main components of the environmental safety when operating vessels on inland waterways, which include strategy selection ensuring the environmental safety of vessels, the selection and justification of a complex of environmental technical means, activities to ensure operation of vessels taking into account the environmental technical means. Measures to ensure environmental safety are developed on the basis of the principles aimed at ensuring environmental safety of vessels. They include the development of strategies for the use of environmental protection equipment, which are determined by the conditions for wastewater treatment of purified sewage and oily bilge water as well as technical characteristics of the vessels, the introduction of the process of the out-of-the-vessel processing of ship pollution as a technology for their movement. This must take into account the operating conditions of vessels on different sections of waterways. An algorithm of actions aimed at ensuring ecological safety of operated vessels is proposed.

  12. Content of redox-active compounds (ie, antioxidants) in foods consumed in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Bente L; Carlsen, Monica H; Phillips, Katherine M; Bøhn, Siv K; Holte, Kari; Jacobs, David R; Blomhoff, Rune

    2006-07-01

    Supplements containing ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, or beta-carotene do not protect against oxidative stress-related diseases in most randomized intervention trials. We suggest that other redox-active phytochemicals may be more effective and that a combination of different redox-active compounds (ie, antioxidants or reductants) may be needed for proper protection against oxidative damage. We aimed to generate a ranked food table with values for total content of redox-active compounds to test this alternative antioxidant hypothesis. An assay that measures the total concentration of redox-active compounds above a certain cutoff reduction potential was used to analyze 1113 food samples obtained from the US Department of Agriculture National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program. Large variations in the content of antioxidants were observed in different foods and food categories. The food groups spices and herbs, nuts and seeds, berries, and fruit and vegetables all contained foods with very high antioxidant contents. Most food categories also contained products almost devoid of antioxidants. Of the 50 food products highest in antioxidant concentrations, 13 were spices, 8 were in the fruit and vegetables category, 5 were berries, 5 were chocolate-based, 5 were breakfast cereals, and 4 were nuts or seeds. On the basis of typical serving sizes, blackberries, walnuts, strawberries, artichokes, cranberries, brewed coffee, raspberries, pecans, blueberries, ground cloves, grape juice, and unsweetened baking chocolate were at the top of the ranked list. This ranked antioxidant food table provides a useful tool for investigations into the possible health benefit of dietary antioxidants.

  13. The Impact of Stress on the Life History Strategies of African American Adolescents: Cognitions, Genetic Moderation, and the Role of Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Frederick X.; Roberts, Megan E.; Gerrard, Meg; Li, Zhigang; Beach, Steven R. H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Philibert, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of 3 different sources of stress--environmental, familial (e.g., low parental investment), and interpersonal (i.e., racial discrimination)--on the life history strategies (LHS) and associated cognitions of African American adolescents were examined over an 11-year period (5 waves, from age 10.5 to 21.5). Analyses indicated that each one…

  14. Divergence in strategies for coping with winter embolism among co-occurring temperate tree species: the role of positive xylem pressure, wood type and tree stature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cun-Yang Niu; Frederick C. Meinzer; Guang-You. Hao

    2017-01-01

    1. In temperate ecosystems, freeze-thaw events are an important environmental stress that can induce severe xylem embolism (i.e. clogging of conduits by air bubbles) in overwintering organs of trees. However, no comparative studies of different adaptive strategies among sympatric tree species for coping with winter embolism have examined the potential role of the...

  15. Use of an integrated biomarker-based strategy to evaluate physiological stress responses induced by environmental concentrations of caffeine in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capolupo, Marco; Valbonesi, Paola; Kiwan, Alisar; Buratti, Sara; Franzellitti, Silvia; Fabbri, Elena

    2016-09-01

    The occurrence of caffeine (CF), a biologically active drug, has widely been documented in coastal waters, and whether its environmental concentrations do represent a threat for marine organisms is unclear. The present study aimed at assessing sub-lethal effects induced by a 7-day exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of CF (5, 50 and 500ng/L) in the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. CF in water and mussel tissues, and a battery of biomarkers, including lysosomal parameters of general stress, oxidative stress responses and endpoints of neurological and genetic damages, were evaluated and tested for significance vs controls (pemerging contaminants in marine invertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Examining the Effect of Company’s Size and Resources on the Relationship between Stakeholders’ Pressure and Environmental Strategies in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Rafi Yaacob; Mohd Nor Hakimin Yusoff

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important commodity exports for Malaysia. This industry contributes billions of ringgit to the country. In terms on number of employment half a million people involved in the industry. Due to its contribution, oil palm is known as a golden crop of Malaysia. Over the last four decades more and more plantation areas have been developed in the country. But nevertheless, the disproportionate expansion of this monoculture crops contributes to environmental degradations ...

  17. Establishment of a sensitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for detection of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ie toxin based nanobody from a phage display library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chongxin; Liu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Cunzheng; Zhang, Xiao; Zhong, Jianfeng; Liu, Yuan; Hu, Xiaodan; Lin, Manman; Liu, Xianjin

    2017-02-01

    Cry1Ie toxin was an insect-resistant protein used in genetically modified crops (GMC). In this study, a large human VH gene nanobodies phage displayed library was employed to select anti-Cry1Ie toxin antibody by affinity panning. After 5 rounds of panning, total 12 positive monoclonal phage particles were obtained. One of the identified positive phage nanobody was expressed in E.coli BL21 and the purified protein was indicated as a molecular mass of approximately 20 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Then a sensitive indirect competitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (IC-TRFIA) was established for detection of Cry1Ie toxin by the purified protein. The working range of detection for Cry1Ie toxin standards in the IC-TRFIA were 0.08-6.44 ng mL -1 and the medium inhibition of control (IC 50 ) was 0.73 ng mL -1 . It showed a weak cross-reactivity with Cry1Ab toxin (at 5.6%), but did not recognize Cry1B, Cry1C, Cry1F, and Cry2A toxins (were <0.1%). The average recoveries of Cry1Ie toxin from respectively spiked in rice, corn and soil samples were in the range of 83.5%-96.6% and with a coefficient of variation (CV) among 2.0%-8.6%. These results showed the IC-TRFIA was promising for detection of Cry1Ie toxin in agricultural and environmental samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. JRC/IE support activities to PHARE nuclear safety programmes. Dissemination of PHARE project results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranguelova, V.; Pla, P.; Rieg, C.; Bieth, M.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear safety in Europe is one of European Union's primary concerns, therefore the European Union decided to take a prominent role to help the New Independent States and countries of Central and Eastern Europe to ensure the safety of their nuclear reactors. The European Union TACIS and PHARE programmes in nuclear safety have been undertaken since 1990. The European Commission's Directorate General External Relations (EC DG RELEX) and, Directorate General Europe Aid Co-operation Office (EC DG AIDCO), are responsible for programming and management of implementation of TACIS projects. Directorate General Enlargement (EC DG ELARG) is responsible for programming PHARE programmes, but implementation of most projects has been decentralised since 1999 budget year to the Beneficiary countries. DG ELARG acts as backstopping for the relevant EC Delegations. In these activities, the TSSTP Unit at the JRC/IE in Petten, The Netherlands, is a technical and scientific adviser of DG RELEX and DG AIDCO and provides support to DG ELARG for very specific technical issues. Several PHARE projects aiming at improving nuclear safety have been successfully implemented for a number of plants from Central and Eastern Europe. In some cases major safety issues have been addressed by means of multi-country projects and results have been disseminated to the rest of the nuclear community. Although a lot of information has been exchanged at a bilateral level, further effort is needed to collect the project results in a systematic way and make them available by means of the internet. At present the TSSTP Unit is implementing two projects for dissemination of PHARE project results. This activity will take a better advantage of today's communication technologies and ensure the management of the acquired knowledge through preservation and user-friendly access and retrieval of the project results. The paper provides an outline of the TSSTP Unit relevant knowledge preservation initiative, a description

  19. SU-G-IeP3-14: Updating Tools for Radiographic Technique Charts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz-Flannigan, A; Lucas, J; Buchanan, K; Schueler, B [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Manual technique selection in radiography is needed for imaging situations where there is difficulty in proper positioning for AEC, prosthesis, for non-bucky imaging, or for guiding image repeats. Basic information about how to provide consistent image signal and contrast for various kV and tissue thickness is needed to create manual technique charts, and relevant for physicists involved in technique chart optimization. Guidance on technique combinations and rules-of-thumb to provide consistent image signal still in use today are based on measurements with optical density of screen-film combinations and older generation x-ray systems. Tools such as a kV-scale chart can be useful to know how to modify mAs when kV is changed in order to maintain consistent image receptor signal level. We evaluate these tools for modern equipment for use in optimizing proper size scaled techniques. Methods: We used a water phantom to measure calibrated signal change for CR and DR (with grid) for various beam energies. Tube current values were calculated that would yield a consistent image signal response. Data was fit to provide sufficient granularity of detail to compose technique-scale chart. Tissue thickness approximated equivalence to 80% of water depth. Results: We created updated technique-scale charts, providing mAs and kV combinations to achieve consistent signal for CR and DR for various tissue equivalent thicknesses. We show how this information can be used to create properly scaled size-based manual technique charts. Conclusion: Relative scaling of mAs and kV for constant signal (i.e. the shape of the curve) appears substantially similar between film-screen and CR/DR. This supports the notion that image receptor related differences are minor factors for relative (not absolute) changes in mAs with varying kV. However, as demonstrated creation of these difficult to find detailed technique-scales are useful tools for manual chart optimization.

  20. KOMPONEN WEB DATA ANALYZER PADA IE STUDI KASUS: AKSES WEB TERFAVORIT LABORATORIUM IBS TEKNIK INFORMATIKA - ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlis Heru Murti

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Perkembangan dunia internet baik dari segi teknologi maupun jumlah pengguna yang mengakses kian lama semakin bertambah. Hal ini juga berdampak dengan munculnya berbagai situs internet yang menawarkan berbagai hal serta tujuan yang berbeda. Untuk mengakses situs-situs tersebut diperlukan suatu alat yang disebut browser. Salah satu browser yang paling terkenal dan banyak digunakan saat ini adalah Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE. Kalau diperhatikan sebenarnya browser Internet Explorer telah menyediakan fitur khusus bernama Favorites (dapat diakses melalui menu atau toolbar untuk mencatat dan mengorganisasi web-web yang menjadi favorit user. Tetapi fitur Favorites ini kurang fleksibel karena pemasukan data maupun pengorganisasiannya masih bersifat manual oleh user. Untuk itu perlu diimplementasikan perangkat lunak dengan fitur Favorites yang bersifat otomatis dan dinamis sehingga untuk periode waktu maupun lokasi akses workstation tertentu bisa memiliki informasi favorit website yang berbeda-beda. Sebagai solusi yang dapat digunakan adalah dengan memanfaatkan teknologi rekayasa perangkat lunak yaitu pembuatan komponen yang melekat pada browser Internet Explorer atau lebih dikenal dengan istilah plugin Internet

  1. Environmental communication in business relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgaard, Jette Egelund

    in the way, in which a company organise, communicate and learn in order to succeed in business. The ambition level regarding environmental improvements in each strategy can differ. The three strategies are not mutually exclusive; on the contrary, they supplement and support each other. Empirical data...... is collected by means of environmental reports, qualitative questionnaires, and a case study at Grundfos A/S in Denmark. These data will be discussed in relation to the three strategies of environmental communication. Different trends in environmental communication practise are found, and on this basis......, recommendations are made in order to improve environmental communication in business relations....

  2. Mutational analysis of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immediate early protein (IE62) subdomains and their importance in viral replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Mohamed I., E-mail: mkhalil2@stanford.edu [Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology & Immunology, Stan ford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Department of Molecular Biology, National Research Centre, El-Buhouth St., Cairo (Egypt); Che, Xibing; Sung, Phillip; Sommer, Marvin H. [Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology & Immunology, Stan ford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Hay, John [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Science, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States); Arvin, Ann M. [Departments of Pediatrics and Microbiology & Immunology, Stan ford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    VZV IE62 is an essential, immediate-early, tegument protein and consists of five domains. We generated recombinant viruses carrying mutations in the first three IE62 domains and tested their influence on VZV replication kinetics. The mutations in domain I did not affect replication kinetics while domain II mutations, disrupting the DNA binding and dimerization domain (DBD), were lethal for VZV replication. Mutations in domain III of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) and the two phosphorylation sites S686A/S722A resulted in slower growth in early and late infection respectively and were associated with IE62 accumulation in the cytoplasm and nucleus respectively. This study mapped the functional domains of IE62 in context of viral infection, indicating that DNA binding and dimerization domain is essential for VZV replication. In addition, the correct localization of IE62, whether nuclear or cytoplasmic, at different points in the viral life cycle, is important for normal progression of VZV replication. - Highlights: • Mutation of IE62 domain I did not affect VZV replication in melanoma cells. • IE62 domain II and III are important for VZV replication in melanoma cells. • Mutations of IE62 domain II (DBD) were lethal for virus replication. • Mutations of IE62 NLS and phosphorylation sites inhibited VZV replication. • NLS and S686A/S722A mutations altered localization of IE62 during early and late infection.

  3. Mutational analysis of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) immediate early protein (IE62) subdomains and their importance in viral replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Mohamed I.; Che, Xibing; Sung, Phillip; Sommer, Marvin H.; Hay, John; Arvin, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    VZV IE62 is an essential, immediate-early, tegument protein and consists of five domains. We generated recombinant viruses carrying mutations in the first three IE62 domains and tested their influence on VZV replication kinetics. The mutations in domain I did not affect replication kinetics while domain II mutations, disrupting the DNA binding and dimerization domain (DBD), were lethal for VZV replication. Mutations in domain III of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) and the two phosphorylation sites S686A/S722A resulted in slower growth in early and late infection respectively and were associated with IE62 accumulation in the cytoplasm and nucleus respectively. This study mapped the functional domains of IE62 in context of viral infection, indicating that DNA binding and dimerization domain is essential for VZV replication. In addition, the correct localization of IE62, whether nuclear or cytoplasmic, at different points in the viral life cycle, is important for normal progression of VZV replication. - Highlights: • Mutation of IE62 domain I did not affect VZV replication in melanoma cells. • IE62 domain II and III are important for VZV replication in melanoma cells. • Mutations of IE62 domain II (DBD) were lethal for virus replication. • Mutations of IE62 NLS and phosphorylation sites inhibited VZV replication. • NLS and S686A/S722A mutations altered localization of IE62 during early and late infection.

  4. Emotion regulation strategies in Patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Lisette; van't Wout, Mascha; Aleman, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients might experience difficulties in applying two widely used emotion regulation strategies, reappraisal and suppression. We investigated the relationships among emotion regulation strategies, alexithymia (i.e. inability to identify and verbalize feelings) and the role of

  5. Planejamento e gestão estratégica nas IES comunitárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gissele Prette Heil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Diante da complexidade da Gestão Universitária no âmbito Estadual e Nacional, destaca-se a importância de um Planejamento Estratégico bem elaborado, exequível e cujo desdobramento em ações, permite aos gestores atuarem em consonância com as exigências que se apresentam cotidianamente. O artigo tem como objetivo geral analisar como ocorre o processo de gestão estratégica nas Instituições Comunitárias do Sistema ACAFE.  Os objetivos específicos foram divididos em quatro etapas, a primeira aborda a Estratégia, com o objetivo analisar o processo de estratégia organizacional, a segunda o Pensamento Estratégico com o intuito de  identificar se possui indicadores da existência de pensamento estratégico, junto aos gestores, a terceira etapa destacará o  Planejamento Estratégico,  identificando se há e como é elaborado e a quarta etapa, considerando as etapas anteriores abordamos as ações decorrentes da possível existência dos requisitos anteriores, bem como, se dá a formulação e implantação de ações e como são efetuados o monitoramento e o controle das estratégias. Entende-se que o tema abordado é de grande relevância, pois as Instituições Comunitárias de Ensino – ICES, possuem características genéricas e específicas o que acaba na maioria das vezes tornando o processo estratégico muito complexo, difícil e pouco efetivo. Cada vez mais as Instituições de Ensino Superior – IES, precisam formular suas estratégias adequando-as para atender as demandas latentes, desenvolvendo um processo de inteligência competitiva, permitindo lidar de modo mais eficaz com a concorrência, destacando o diferencial competitivo e atributos de valor percebidos pela comunidade onde está inserida. É de singular importância buscar a diferenciação, o destaque, a projeção necessária nos tempos atuais, para que possam sobreviver e crescer. Utilizou-se para a presente investigação o método de pesquisa explorat

  6. Corporate environmental management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    With increasing population and economic growth and related demand for energy and natural resources as well, pollution, waste production and environmental sustainability have become issues of uttermost importance. For quite some time self-regulation, i.e. voluntary implementation of environmental......: how does industry respond to the environmental challenge? The paper concludes that despite the apparent attractiveness of self-regulation in industry, voluntary options tend not to be widely adopted thus pointing to a continued strong need for an effective regulation of industry’s environmental...

  7. Radiological assessment of past, present and potential sources to environmental contamination in the Southern Urals and strategies for remedial measures (SUCON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarkrog, A. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Simmonds, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Christensen, G. [Institute of Energy Technology (Norway); Salbu, B. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway (Norway)

    2000-12-01

    This report summarises work done on the SUCON Project during 1996-1999 (European Commission Contract No. FI4C-CT95-0001). The project has focused on three major objectives: 1) An assessment of the radiological consequences of the contamination of the South Urals and the Ob river system from the production of plutonium at 'Mayak', 2) The development of models to calculate doses to individuals and populations in the South Urals using environmental data, and 3) The intercomparison, harmonisation and standardisation of techniques used in dose reconstruction and specification of good practice in particular with regard to remedial measures. (au)

  8. Radiological assessment of past, present and potential sources to environmental contamination in the Southern Urals and strategies for remedial measures (SUCON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarkrog, A.; Simmonds, J.; Strand, P.; Christensen, G.; Salbu, B.

    2000-12-01

    This report summarises work done on the SUCON Project during 1996-1999 (European Commission Contract No. FI4C-CT95-0001). The project has focused on three major objectives: 1) An assessment of the radiological consequences of the contamination of the South Urals and the Ob river system from the production of plutonium at 'Mayak', 2) The development of models to calculate doses to individuals and populations in the South Urals using environmental data, and 3) The intercomparison, harmonisation and standardisation of techniques used in dose reconstruction and specification of good practice in particular with regard to remedial measures. (au)

  9. Xeml Lab: a tool that supports the design of experiments at a graphical interface and generates computer-readable metadata files, which capture information about genotypes, growth conditions, environmental perturbations and sampling strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Jan; Poorter, Hendrik; Usadel, Björn; Bläsing, Oliver E; Finck, Alex; Tardieu, Francois; Atkin, Owen K; Pons, Thijs; Stitt, Mark; Gibon, Yves

    2009-09-01

    Data mining depends on the ability to access machine-readable metadata that describe genotypes, environmental conditions, and sampling times and strategy. This article presents Xeml Lab. The Xeml Interactive Designer provides an interactive graphical interface at which complex experiments can be designed, and concomitantly generates machine-readable metadata files. It uses a new eXtensible Mark-up Language (XML)-derived dialect termed XEML. Xeml Lab includes a new ontology for environmental conditions, called Xeml Environment Ontology. However, to provide versatility, it is designed to be generic and also accepts other commonly used ontology formats, including OBO and OWL. A review summarizing important environmental conditions that need to be controlled, monitored and captured as metadata is posted in a Wiki (http://www.codeplex.com/XeO) to promote community discussion. The usefulness of Xeml Lab is illustrated by two meta-analyses of a large set of experiments that were performed with Arabidopsis thaliana during 5 years. The first reveals sources of noise that affect measurements of metabolite levels and enzyme activities. The second shows that Arabidopsis maintains remarkably stable levels of sugars and amino acids across a wide range of photoperiod treatments, and that adjustment of starch turnover and the leaf protein content contribute to this metabolic homeostasis.

  10. Baculovirus IE2 Stimulates the Expression of Heat Shock Proteins in Insect and Mammalian Cells to Facilitate Its Proper Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Hsuan; Wei, Sung-Chan; Lo, Huei-Ru; Chao, Yu-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Baculoviruses have gained popularity as pest control agents and for protein production in insect systems. These viruses are also becoming popular for gene expression, tissue engineering and gene therapy in mammalian systems. Baculovirus infection triggers a heat shock response, and this response is crucial for its successful infection of host insect cells. However, the viral protein(s) or factor(s) that trigger this response are not yet clear. Previously, we revealed that IE2-an early gene product of the baculovirus-could form unique nuclear bodies for the strong trans-activation of various promoters in mammalian cells. Here, we purified IE2 nuclear bodies from Vero E6 cells and investigated the associated proteins by using mass spectrometry. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) were found to be one of the major IE2-associated proteins. Our experiments show that HSPs are greatly induced by IE2 and are crucial for the trans-activation function of IE2. Interestingly, blocking both heat shock protein expression and the proteasome pathway preserved the IE2 protein and its nuclear body structure, and revived its function. These observations reveal that HSPs do not function directly to assist the formation of the nuclear body structure, but may rather protect IE2 from proteasome degradation. Aside from functional studies in mammalian cells, we also show that HSPs were stimulated and required to determine IE2 protein levels, in insect cells infected with baculovirus. Upon inhibiting the expression of heat shock proteins, baculovirus IE2 was substantially suppressed, resulting in a significantly suppressed viral titer. Thus, we demonstrate a unique feature in that IE2 can function in both insect and non-host mammalian cells to stimulate HSPs, which may be associated with IE2 stabilization and lead to the protection of the its strong gene activation function in mammalian cells. On the other hand, during viral infection in insect cells, IE2 could also strongly stimulate HSPs and

  11. Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for alternative strategies for the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 1: Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This PEIS assesses the potential impacts of alternative management of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The alternatives analyzed in the PEIS include no action, long-term storage as UF 6 , long-term storage as uranium oxide, use as uranium oxide, use as uranium metal, and disposal. The preferred alternative for the long-term management of depleted UF 6 is to use the entire inventory of material

  12. Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for alternative strategies for the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This PEIS assesses the potential impacts of alternative management of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The alternatives analyzed in the PEIS include no action, long-term storage as UF 6 , long-term storage as uranium oxide, use as uranium oxide, use as uranium metal, and disposal. The preferred alternative for the long-term management of depleted UF 6 is to use the entire inventory of material. This volume contains the appendices to volume I

  13. The business of environmental conservation: how nature has become a new strategy of capitalist accumulation in the Andean lake area of Los Ríos, in southern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    De Matheus e Silva, Luis Fernando; Zunino, Hugo Marcelo; Huiliñir Curío, Viviana

    2018-01-01

    Today, “nature” has turned into the target of a new strategy of capitalistic accumulation and in many locations the meaning that ascribed to places has shifted, taken advantages of unique ecological and landscape characteristics. This is the case of the Andean lake region of Los Ríos, in southern Chile. At the end of the 19th century, this place was joined to the national economy by means of the forestry industry. Nevertheless, from the decade of 1990, depending on the conditions generated by...

  14. Environmental policy between repair and prevention. An introduction, with reference to the Federal Republic of Germany in the international context. Umweltpolitik zwischen Reparatur und Vorbeugung. Eine Einfuehrung am Beispiel Bundesrepublik im internationalen Kontext

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaeser, B

    1989-01-01

    With reference to the Federal Republic of Germany, the author first of all describes the origin and development of a national environmental policy and its instruments. Subsequently, selected problem fields (air, water, soil, waste, chemicals) are dealt with in greater detail. Basic facts and issues of 'transfrontier environmental pollution' of an 'external policy for the environment', and of environmental policy in developing countries form the objects of the following chapters. At last the 'consequences for environmental strategies in industrialized and developing countries' are discussed. The author pleads for greater emphasis to be placed on ecological ethics and calls for a more preventively oriented, i.e. prospective and anticipatory, environmental policy. (orig.).

  15. Feasibility study of the IE-SASW method for nondestructive evaluation of containment building structures in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.S. E-mail: dskim@kaist.ac.kr; Kim, H.W. E-mail: hwk@kaist.ac.kr; Seo, W.S.; Choi, K.C.; Woo, S.K

    2003-02-01

    The IE-SASW method, a combination of impact-echo (IE) acoustics with spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW), is proposed as a newly developed nondestructive testing method in concrete structures. This feasibility study examines the IE technique and uses elastic P-wave velocity data as measured from the SASW method on concrete members in nuclear power plant containment structures. It was shown that both the thickness of the concrete specimens used in this study and the depth of the introduced defects (i.e. voids) could be identified by the IE-SASW method. In contrast, the reinforced steel bar itself could not be identified by the IE-SASW method. Additionally, GPR (ground penetrating radar) techniques were used to examine the same specimens in order to establish some level of performance and reliability to compare with the performance of the IE-SASW method. The GPR method provides an objective and reliable image corresponding to the reinforced steel bars. The experimental studies show that it is more feasible to use the IE-SASW method rather than GPR to detect voids that were positioned beneath the steel reinforcing bars in the concrete specimens.

  16. Direct interaction of TFIIB and the IE protein of equine herpesvirus 1 is required for maximal trans-activation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Randy A.; Jang, Hyung K.; Kim, Seong K.; O'Callaghan, Dennis J.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, we reported that the immediate-early (IE) protein of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) associates with transcription factor TFIIB [J. Virol. 75 (2001), 10219]. In the current study, the IE protein purified as a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein was shown to interact directly with purified TFIIB in GST-pulldown assays. A panel of TFIIB mutants employed in protein-binding assays revealed that residues 125 to 174 within the first direct repeat of TFIIB mediate its interaction with the IE protein. This interaction is physiologically relevant as transient transfection assays demonstrated that (1) exogenous native TFIIB did not perturb IE protein function, and (2) ectopic expression of a TFIIB mutant that lacked the IE protein interactive domain significantly diminished the ability of the IE protein to trans-activate EHV-1 promoters. These results suggest that an interaction of the IE protein with TFIIB is an important aspect of the regulatory role of the IE protein in the trans-activation of EHV-1 promoters

  17. 76 FR 52313 - Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e., Axes & Adzes, Bars & Wedges, Hammers & Sledges, and Picks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-803] Heavy Forged Hand Tools (i.e... Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: As a result of the determinations by the Department of Commerce... on heavy forged hand tools (i.e., [[Page 52314

  18. Developing a Global Model of Accounting Education and Examining IES Compliance in Australia, Japan, and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watty, Kim; Sugahara, Satoshi; Abayadeera, Nadana; Perera, Luckmika

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of International Education Standards (IES) signals a clear move by the International Accounting Education Standards Board (IAESB) to ensure high quality standards in professional accounting education at a global level. This study investigated how IES are perceived and valued by member bodies and academics in three counties:…

  19. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for alternative strategies for the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This PEIS assesses the potential impacts of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky, Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The alternatives analyzed in the PEIS include no action, long-term storage as UF 6 , long-term storage as uranium oxide, use as uranium oxide, use as uranium metal, and disposal. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin conversion of the depleted UF 6 inventory as soon as possible, either to uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible

  20. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for alternative strategies for the long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 1: Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This PEIS assesses the potential impacts of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky, Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The alternatives analyzed in the PEIS include no action, long-term storage as UF 6 , long-term storage as uranium oxide, use as uranium oxide, use as uranium metal, and disposal. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin conversion of the depleted UF 6 inventory as soon as possible, either to uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible